Sample records for child unwanted

  1. The unwanted pregnancy. (United States)

    Diggory, P


    Unwanted pregnancy is a measure of contraceptive failure - either method failure, motivation failure, or contraceptive inaccessibility. Unwanted pregnancies can end in criminal abortion, therapeutic abortion, forced marriage, or illegitimate birth. Figures for these occurrences in Great Britain in 1969 are cited. The figures make no allowance for unsuccessful attempts at self-abortion and unwanted but accepted pregnancies within marriage. It is estimated that approximately 1/4 of all British and American women married more than 10 years have at least 1 unwanted child. Contraception must be provided by the British National Health Service.

  2. Unwanted by whom? (United States)

    Bar-yam, N B


    Unwanted pregnancies bother various groups in the US. Many pregnant teenagers want to be pregnant, even though the pregnancies are often not planned. A childbirth educator in Boston, Massachusetts, wonders who considers adolescent pregnancies as unwanted, the young mothers or the middle class, white, well-educated, and well-meaning adults. Adolescents want babies for the same reasons adults want babies. The difference is that adolescents do not have the same personal, financial, and community resources as adults. A child cannot rob teenagers of a future they do not have; a child provides some joy and hope. These teenagers tend not to see a better life in their future. Education can generate a vision of the future and provide a path out of poverty. Yet, educational opportunities are not always available or inviting. Teenagers need childcare, financial support, and supportive role models or mentors. Many people erroneously believe that poor women have children to be on welfare or to receive subsidized food. Yet, public assistance does no hand out enough money to sustain a family. Besides, it is unpleasant. Some states are starting to deal with the broader problems linked to poverty and lack of education. For example, the welfare system in Florida requires young women to be in high school, to prepare for the GED, or to undergo technical training. If they fail to comply, they lose benefits. Role models and financial, practical, and emotional support allow teen fathers to stay close to their children, to earn a living, and to be responsible. Poverty, immigration, transience, substance abuse, and distance from family result in insufficient support and poor parenting models for teenage mothers. They still are developing physically and emotionally. Teenage mothers need the same support, encouragement, and assistance that adult mothers need. Freedom of choice, education, and responsibility will result in healthier teen mothers and children.

  3. Women’s experiences of unwanted pregnancy

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    Foroughossadat Mortazavi


    Full Text Available Background: Despite expanded coverage of family planning in Iran, unwanted pregnancy is a common problem. The aim of this study was to explore women’s experiences of unwanted pregnancy in Shahroud public health centers.Methods: Purposive Sampling was conducted by means of focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews and by a semi-constructed questionnaire in this qualitative research. Five (FGDs with 23 women in third trimester in pregnancy and 4 in-depth interviews with women with history of induced abortion were done. The method of Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Results of the study can be divided into 4 categories: causes of naming pregnancy as an unwanted pregnancy, causes of unwanted pregnancy; husband, family and relatives’ reaction to unwanted pregnancy and the process of acceptance of unwanted pregnancy. Not planning for pregnancy due to physical, emotional and financial non-readiness for pregnancy and believe in two child policy were the main causes of naming pregnancy as unwanted by women. Process of adapting to pregnancy included not accepting pregnancy, trying abortion, accepting fetus and finally negative emotions towards past thoughts about abortion. Fathers and mothers had important roles in acceptance and continuation of pregnancy.Conclusion: Women with unwanted pregnancy face emotional and psychological problems. Health care providers need to support couples to combat this critical period.

  4. Social and religious dimensions of unwanted pregnancy: an Islamic perspective. (United States)

    Kasule, O H


    The concept of 'unwanted pregnancy' is a recent in human history and is associated with social stresses of modern life. The purposes of the law, maqasid al shari'at, and its principles, qawa'id a shari'at, focus on preventing 'unwanted pregnancy', protecting the rights of the fetus and infant, and mitigating the adverse effects of 'unwanted pregnancy' by social measures. 'Unwanted pregnancy' is associated with general social determinants (hedonistic life styles, sexual transgression, addiction to drugs, fear of poverty, and low female status) and specific antecedent causes (sexual crimes, egoistic greed, maternal/fetal disease, and gender discrimination). It is prevented by sexual hygiene, marriage, contraception, deterring sexual crimes, and raising the status of women. The adverse sequelae of 'unwanted pregnancy' (feticide, infanticide, or child abuse and neglect) can be prevented by defending the basic human right of the fetus and infant to life, promoting social institutions for child welfare (nuclear family, extended family, foster care, and open adoption). Closed adoption is forbidden by Law but care in a foster home is allowed and is encouraged if the nuclear and extended families are unwilling or are unable to care for children. Abortion at any stage of pregnancy is a crime against humanity. It is not a solution to the problem but is part of the problem. It will encourage more 'unwanted pregnancies'.

  5. Treatments for unwanted facial hair. (United States)

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal.

  6. Removal of unwanted facial hair. (United States)

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M


    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options.

  7. Unwanted childbearing and household food insecurity in the United States. (United States)

    Patel, Shivani A; Surkan, Pamela J


    Household food insecurity is a population health concern disproportionately affecting families with children in the United States. Unwanted childbearing may place unanticipated strain on families to meet basic needs, heightening the risk for household food insecurity. We investigated the association between mother's and father's report of unwanted childbearing and exposure to household food insecurity among children residing in two-parent households in the United States. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort, a nationally representative cohort of US children (n ∼ 6150), were used to estimate the odds of household food insecurity when children were aged 9 months and 2 years, separately, based on parental report of unwanted childbearing. The majority of children were reported as wanted by both parents (74.4%). Of the sample, report of unwanted childbearing by father-only was 20.0%, mother-only was 3.4% and joint mother and father was 2.2%. Household food insecurity was higher when children were 9 months compared with 2 years. In adjusted models accounting for confounders, children born to mothers and fathers who jointly reported unwanted childbearing were at higher odds of exposure to household food insecurity at 9 months [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.97, 5.57] and 2 years (AOR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.12, 5.68). In two-parent households, we found that children raised by parents reporting unwanted childbearing were more likely to be exposed to food insecurity and potentially related stressors. Further studies that prospectively measure wantedness before the child's birth will aid in confirming the direction of this association.

  8. 47 CFR 95.635 - Unwanted radiation. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unwanted radiation. 95.635 Section 95.635 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.635 Unwanted radiation. (a) In addition to...

  9. Analysis on reasons of unwanted pregnancy by women of child-bearing age and its strategies%育龄妇女非意愿妊娠原因分析与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王代权; 刘长艳; 向琼; 马代慈


    This paper makes relative questionnaire from cluster sampling of induced abortion from Jan. 2011 to May 2013 as well as looking up medical records to analyze reasons of un-wanted pregnancy. Among 1 360 cases of unwanted pregnancy,21.62 % are unmarried, 78.38%are married;age distribution ranges between 20~39(73.82%);pregnant time distri-bution is between the second and third pregnancy(57.87%);44.34%is due to contraceptive failure,55.66%is due to no contraceptive use;IUD accounts for 10.51%of choice of contra-ceptive measures,use of condoms is 10.51%,contraceptive is 8.24%,external use is 6.62%, other mean is 8.46%. The main reasons of unwanted pregnancy are due to taking chances with no contraceptive use or no contraceptive use after removal of IUD;98.90%of interviewed sub-jects know contraceptive knowledge,15.37%know emergency contraception,18.38%know the necessity of contraception measures for nursing mothers. Married people get information of the contraception knowledge mainly from medical workers,family planning cadres,publicity materials. More farmers and migrant workers are willing to get free services than urban resi-dents,government employees,commercial service personnel and other migrants.%采取整群抽样调查方法,对2011年1月-2013年5月在秭归县、夷陵区计划生育服务站因非意愿妊娠而实行人工终止妊娠对象,通过查阅病历资料和调查问卷,了解非意愿性妊娠原因及相关因素。1360例非意愿妊娠中,未婚为21.62%,已婚为78.38%;人群分布在20~39年龄段(73.82%);孕次分布主要在孕2~孕3的对象为57.87%;非意愿妊娠中避孕措施失败者为44.34%,无措施者为55.66%。避孕措施因素宫内节育器为10.51%,避孕套为10.51%,避孕药为8.24%,外用为6.62%,其他为8.46%。存在侥幸心理和取出宫内节育器(IUD)后续措施没能跟进是无措施者导致非意愿妊娠的主要原因。避孕知识知晓率为98.90%,对紧

  10. Excessive or unwanted hair in women (United States)

    ... present) 17-hydroxyprogesterone blood test ACTH stimulation test Treatment Hirsutism is generally a long-term problem. There are many ways to remove or treat unwanted hair. Some treatment effects last longer than others. Medicines. Drugs such ...

  11. An overview of unwanted female hair. (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, U


    Unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important but often overlooked issue, with over 40% of women experiencing some degree of UFH. In the female population a wide spectrum of unwanted hair concerns is represented - from biologically normal but undesirable to excessive unwanted hair with an underlying pathology. While women may seek to manage unwanted hair across their bodies, UFH is a particular concern, due to its negative impact on perceived femininity. There may not always be a direct correlation between degree of severity diagnosed objectively by the physician and level of concern and impact upon the patient. This review discusses the spectrum of facial hair experience and outlines the clinical approach to unwanted hair management including UFH. It highlights the importance of a treatment regimen which should respond to the causation factors and needs of the individual. This will lead to a holistic treatment approach including evaluation of the implementation of emotional coping strategies and on-going support, lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions (to address underlying pathologies) and the use of cosmetic hair removal methods as either a stand-alone or adjunct treatment as appropriate to the individual.

  12. Laser tattoo removal, precautions, and unwanted effects. (United States)

    Eklund, Yvonne; Rubin, Agneta Troilius


    Laser tattoo removal uses the physical properties of photoselective thermolysis in order to remove tattoo pigment. The technique has gradually improved over the years with the development of Q-switched lasers, with overall good results and a relatively low degree of adverse effects. However, lasers cannot always erase the unwanted tattoo completely, and there are still risks of unwanted effects such as scarring, pigment changes, ink darkening, and potential aggravation of latent skin conditions. This chapter will discuss the precautions that have to be taken and what pitfalls to avoid before starting the procedure of laser tattoo removal.

  13. Factors Affecting Unwanted Pregnancies in Urban Areas of Kohgiloyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province in 2008

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    Z Tabeshfar


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Unwanted pregnancies and its complications are one of the most important global problems related to mothers. The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting unwanted pregnancies in urban areas of the Kohgiloyeh and Boyer Ahmad province. Materials & Methods: In this case – control study conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2008 ,350 women were chosen as the case group, and 700 women as the control group. During the study, data collection forms were completed by each group. Subsequently, the collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 by using the logistic regression, univariate, and multivariate analysis. Results: According to the results of univariate analysis, the variables husband’s education in primary school , age of the last child under one, uncertain prevention methods and receiving means of prevention from the private sector revealed that significant differences existed between the two groups (P Value<0/05. Finally, the multivariate analysis beetwen husband education variables, age of the last child , prevention methods, and receiving a contraceptive device, a significant correlation was observed with unwanted pregnancy(P Value<0/05. Conclusion: Results of this study determined that three variables (contraceptive method, the place of obtaining means, and level of her husband education are the most important variables which affect the chance of increasing of unwanted pregnancy in users of contraceptive methods.

  14. Unwanted facial hair: affects, effects and solutions. (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, U; Gieler, U; Hoffmann, R; Lavery, S; Shapiro, J


    The following is a review of a satellite symposium held at the EHRS Meeting in June 2006. U.B.P. reminded the audience that unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important issue; over 40% of the women in the general population have some degree of UFH, and its psychological and psychosocial impact should not be underestimated. The treatment of UFH involves many different disciplines, and the symposium offered the latest thinking in different aspects of the disorder. S.L. outlined the current concepts surrounding polycystic ovarian syndrome, and U.G. addressed the psychological aspects of UFH. J.S. described the current treatment options for UFH, followed by U.B.P.'s evidence-based therapy review. Finally, R.H. reviewed the latest trial results with Trichoscan, a method being investigated for assessing UFH removal.


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    Full Text Available Introduction: Approximately one third of all the reported pregnancies in Iran and one fourth of them in the Sistan and Baluchistan province are unwanted. Finding its causes can help to detect problem solving ways. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and reasons of unwanted pregnancies. 560 women in 1999 who had referred to health and medical centers of Zahedan completed a questionnaire with interviews. Results: The result showed that 145 cases (25.6% had unwanted pregnancies in ghose 415,3% and 565 were unwanted from the viewpoint of mother, father and both, respectively. 80% of them were used contraceptive of which 56% out of them was misused. They said, having enough children and short birth spacing were reasons that they interpreted their pregnancies as unwanted. They mentioned that essential causes of not using of contraceptives were breast-feeding and supposing that they could not become pregnant. 31% of them attempted to abortion. Prevalence of unwanted pregnancies had not related to religion and nationality. A higher rate of unwanted pregnancies was seen among illiterate women, their illiterate husband, higher age and having more children. Discussion: It can be concluded that women during breast-feeding and before menopause because of not using and misusing of contraceptive are subject to high risk of unwanted pregnancies. They must be considered as educational goal groups in consultations of health centers.

  16. Estimation of the workload added on the health system due to unwanted pregnancies and Children born of these pregnancies in kohgiloyeh Boyrahmad province 2010-2011

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    zebaneh Tabeshfar


    Results: An overall 350 unwanted pregnancy cases were identified. Assuming the same unwanted pregnancies in the first half and the second year of 2009 total of 21,140 times the equivalent of 3696 hours of extra work visit were added to the labor working primary health care centers in the city. Conclusion: Unwanted pregnancies resulting in increased staff workload of health centers, and if not provided with sufficient manpower, it may lead to the reduction of maternal and child health care qualities of these centers.

  17. Unwanted pregnancy--medical and ethical dimensions. (United States)

    Ravindran, J


    Globally, abortion mortality accounts for approximately 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high maternal mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Unplanned and unwanted pregnancies constitute a serious public health responsibility. While fertility has declined by half in developing countries, the motivation to control and space births has risen faster than the rate of contraceptive use. Preventing maternal mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. A range of positive steps has been taken to reduce deaths and morbidity from abortion in a growing number of countries over the past 15 years. Making abortion legal is an essential prerequisite in making it safe. In this respect, changing the law does matter and assertions to the contrary are ill conceived and unsupported in practice. Although, in many countries, trends towards safer abortion have often occurred prior to or in the absence of changes in the law, legal changes need to take place if safety is to be sustained for all women. Religious laws may also require attention when legal change is being contemplated. There are three main ways of approaching this problem: liberalizing the existing law within the penal or criminal code; partially or fully legalizing abortion through a positive law or a court ruling; and decriminalising abortion by taking it out of the law. Women's health groups and other advocates, parliamentarians and health professionals, can work together to support the right of women not to die from unsafe abortions and to ensure they receive treatment for complications. Committed doctors can make a difference by providing treatment for abortion complications, interpreting the law in a liberal way and providing safe services where these are

  18. Effects of unwanted feedback on synchronized chaotic optical communications. (United States)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Ma, Dong


    The effects of unwanted external optical feedback on synchronized chaotic optical communication systems are studied numerically. We consider an open-loop configuration consisting of a transmitter laser with double external optical feedbacks and a receiver laser with optical injection from the transmitter laser. First, including the effects of unwanted optical feedback, the synchronization performances of both the complete synchronization and the generalized synchronization are examined. Then the encoding and decoding performances of the generalized synchronization and the effects of the introduced feedback are investigated, respectively. Finally, we study the control of the unwanted feedback on the dynamics of the transmitter laser and briefly discuss the system security when the transmitter laser is driven to operate in a steady state or periodic oscillation state by the additional feedback.

  19. Unwanted reflections during slit lamp assisted binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (United States)

    Sheehan, Matthew; Goncharov, Alexander


    Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy is a routine ophthalmic examination procedure. Two different apparatus setups are commonly employed; the head/spectacle mounted designs of Schepens and slit lamp assisted ophthalmoscopy, both typically performed through a fundus lens of high positive power. It can be difficult for clinicians to avoid unwanted back reflections primarily emanating from the fundus lens and the pre-corneal tear film, particularly when initially learning the skills required to perform the examination. In this investigation the illumination system of a slit lamp was modified to include a variety of obscuration designs optically conjugate to surfaces responsible for creating unwanted reflections. The modified apparatus was then used to perform binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy on an artificial eye and on real eyes. Clinicians used questionnaires to score the appearance of reflections. The mean scores were similar across all trials, including the control unmodified trial, indicating general consensus that the modified illumination system provided no substantial effect on the perception of these unwanted reflections.

  20. Associations between Blocking, Monitoring, and Filtering Software on the Home Computer and Youth-Reported Unwanted Exposure to Sexual Material Online (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Wolak, Janis


    Objective: To examine the relationship between the use of preventive software on the home computer and unwanted exposure to sexual material online. Methods: The Youth Internet Safety Survey-2 was a national, RDD telephone survey conducted in March-June 2005. Eight hundred households (one caregiver and one child between the ages of 10 and 17 years)…

  1. A risky boundary : Unwanted sexual behaviour among youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Paula de; Burrie, Ingrid; Wel, Frits van


    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongs young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: ‘‘verbal’’, ‘‘non-verbal/intimidating’’ and ‘‘physically violent’’. A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of

  2. Causes and consequences of unwanted pregnancy from Asian women's perspectives. (United States)

    Kabir, S M


    Shortcomings of contraceptives and of family planning delivery systems are major reasons for unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Third World countries. Family planning and health programs should provide empathetic counseling for contraceptive choices and pregnancy termination, adjust management systems and procedures to facilitate women's access to services and information, and offer comprehensive services to meet their multiple reproductive health needs.

  3. Breaking up is hard to do: unwanted pursuit behaviors following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J; Palarea, R E; Cohen, J; Rohling, M L


    This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of unwanted pursuit behaviors among college students. Participants (n = 282) had experienced the termination of a meaningful romantic relationship. Two questionnaires were administered. One assessed unwanted pursuit behaviors that were perpetrated by individuals who had not initiated the relationship breakup (breakup sufferers; n = 120); the other assessed individuals who had initiated the relationship breakup (relationship dissolvers; n = 162). Results indicated that most breakup sufferers had engaged in at least one act of unwanted pursuit (i.e., unwanted phone calls, unwanted in-person conversations) after the breakup. Breakup sufferers were more likely than relationship dissolvers to perceive a positive impact from their unwanted pursuit behavior. Partner-specific attachment experiences and love styles emerged as significant predictors of unwanted pursuit behavior perpetration, according to both victims and perpetrators of unwanted pursuit. However, only victims of unwanted pursuit revealed an association between levels of relationship violence and unwanted pursuit behavior perpetration. Victims also reported that their unwanted pursuit was related to a lack of friendship between themselves and their expartners. In contrast, there was a positive association between feelings of friendship and unwanted pursuit for perpetrators. The implications of these findings and their application to the stalking literature are discussed.

  4. Contraceptive practice, unwanted pregnancies and induced abortion in Southwest Nigeria. (United States)

    Omideyi, Adekunbi Kehinde; Akinyemi, Akanni Ibukun; Aina, Olabisi Idowu; Adeyemi, Adebanjo Babalola; Fadeyibi, Opeyemi Abiola; Bamiwuye, Samson Olusina; Akinbami, Catherine Abiola; Anazodo, Amechi


    Despite widespread awareness of and access to modern contraception, high rates of unwanted pregnancies and abortions still persist in many parts of the world, even where abortion is legally restricted. This article explores perspectives on contraception and abortion, contraceptive decision-making within relationships, and the management of unplanned pregnancies. It presents findings from an exploratory qualitative study based on 17 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions conducted in 2 locations in Nigeria in 2006. The results suggest that couples do not practice contraception consistently because of perceived side effects and partner objections. Abortion is usually resorted to because pregnancy was unwanted due to incomplete educational attainment, economic hardship, immaturity, close pregnancy interval, and social stigma. Males usually have greater influence in contraceptive-decision making than females. Though induced abortion is negatively viewed in the community, it is still common, and women usually patronise quacks to obtain such services. An abortion experience can change future views and decisions towards contraception. Family planning interventions should include access to and availability of adequate family planning information. Educational campaigns should target males since they play an important role in contraceptive decision-making.

  5. Correlates of Unwanted Births in Bangladesh: A Study through Path Analysis (United States)

    Singh, Brijesh P.


    Background Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh. Methods The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births. Results The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women’s age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births. Conclusion Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at

  6. Proposed Measures to Protect Temporary Roofs from Unwanted Heat Gains

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    Omar S. Asfour


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the uncompleted multi-storey residential buildings located in hot climates. This construction pattern is common in the case of incremental housing, where additional floors are added to the building as housing needs grow. Top roofs in these buildings are usually left without thermal insulation until the rest of upper floors are erected. This causes higher thermal discomfort in the top flats compared to the lower ones. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate thermal effect of some proposed temporary measures that are intended to protect these roofs from unwanted heat gains until the rest of storeys are constructed. This has been carried out using thermal modelling to find out the effect of these measures on the amount of heat transfer through the roof in both summer and winter times. The analysis showed that it is possible to achieve competent thermal protection of the top roof compared to the layered thermal insulation using simple, cost-effective, and reversible measures. Among the examined measures, covering the roof with white foldable sheets and the use of pergolas have been found to be the most effective measures. In both cases, a reduction of 38% in conductive heat transfer through the top roof in summer was observed compared to the unprotected modelling case.

  7. Unwanted Sexual Activity among Peers during Early and Middle Adolescence: Incidence and Risk Factors. (United States)

    Small, Stephen A.; Kerns, Donell


    Assessed incidence and risk factors of unwanted sexual activity initiated by peers for 1,149 adolescent females. Twenty percent of sample reported some type of unwanted sexual contact in past year. Over one-third of this group reported having been forced to have sexual intercourse. Boyfriends were most commonly reported perpetrators followed by…

  8. A Comparison between Unwanted Sexual Behavior by Teachers and by Peers. (United States)

    Timmerman, Greetje


    Explored differences and similarities between sexual harassment of students by teachers and by peers for a sample of 2,808 Dutch secondary school students in 22 schools. Eighteen percent reported unwanted sexual behavior at school in the last 12 months (72% girls; 28% boys). Sexual harassment by teachers was more upsetting than unwanted sexual…

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: When Unwanted Thoughts or Irresistable Actions Take Over (United States)

    ... treated? Finding Help Reprints For More Information Share Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: When Unwanted Thoughts or Irresistible Actions Take Over ... things you enjoy? If so, you may have obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The good news is that, with treatment, ...

  10. Standardizing terms, definitions and concepts for describing and interpreting unwanted immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rup, B; Pallardy, M; Sikkema, D


    Biopharmaceuticals (BPs) represent a rapidly growing class of approved and investigational drug therapies that is contributing significantly to advancing treatment in multiple disease areas, including inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, genetic deficiencies and cancer. Unfortunately, unwanted...

  11. Sentinel events predicting later unwanted sex among girls: A national survey in Haiti, 2012. (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A; Marcelin, Louis H; Cela, Toni; Mercy, James A; Lea, Veronica; Kress, Howard; Hillis, Susan D


    Sexual violence against children is a significant global public health problem, yet limited studies exist from low-resource settings. In Haiti we conducted the country's first, nationally representative survey focused on childhood violence to help inform the development of a national action plan for violence against children. The Haiti Violence Against Children Survey was a household-level, multistage, cluster survey among youth age 13-24. In this analysis we sought to determine whether sexual violence sentinel events (unwanted sexual touching or unwanted attempted sex) were predictive of later unwanted, completed, penetrative sex in Haiti. We also sought to explore characteristics of sentinel events and help-seeking behavior among Haitian children. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between sentinel events and later unwanted, completed, penetrative sex. Overall, 1,457 females reported on experiences of sexual violence occurring in childhood (before age 18). A sentinel event occurred in 40.4% of females who experienced subsequent unwanted completed sex. Females experiencing a sentinel event were approximately two and a half times more likely to experience later unwanted completed sex (adjusted odds ratio=2.40, p=.004) compared to individuals who did not experience a sentinel event. The mean lag time from first sentinel event to first unwanted completed sex was 2.3 years. Only half (54.6%) of children experiencing a sentinel event told someone about their experience of sexual violence. Among children, sentinel events occur frequently before later acts of completed unwanted sex and may represent a useful point of intervention. Reporting of sexual violence by children in Haiti is low and can be improved to better act on sentinel events.

  12. Unwanted Pregnancy and Its Risk Factors Among Pregnant Women in Tehran, Iran

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    Nourollahpour Shiadeh


    Full Text Available Background Unwanted pregnancies remain a main public health problem worldwide. In Iran, comparative studies on the risk factors of unwanted pregnancies and their effects on maternal health are rare. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the risk factors of unwanted pregnancies and their impact on maternal behavior during pregnancy. Patients and Methods This case-control study was carried out on 240 pregnant women who referred to the healthcare centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science for receiving routine prenatal care. Of the 240 women, 120 had unwanted pregnancies (case and 120 had wanted pregnancies (control. Data collection was performed using a researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests, Fisher’s exact tests, t-tests, Mann Whitney U tests, odds ratios, and logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to women with wanted pregnancies, those with unwanted pregnancies were more employed (23.3% vs. 12.5%, P = 0.006, had lower education levels (P = 0.016, had lower incomes (P = 0.009, had more children (1.30 ± 1.08 vs. 0.53 ± 0.67, P = 0.001, and had more traditional marriages (15% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002. Also, women with unwanted pregnancies had significantly lower tendencies to do prenatal care (P = 0.002, had a higher tendency to abortion (P = 0.001, had higher previous abortion attempts (P = 0.001, and had higher levels of unhealthy behaviors (P = 0.017 compared to those with wanted pregnancies. Conclusions Lower education and socioeconomic status, longer marriage duration, being employed, and unwilling of spouse were among the risk factors of unwanted pregnancies. These women are at high risk for unhealthy behaviors and have a higher tendency to abortion that consequently threatens their health.

  13. Investigating social consequences of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Malawi: the role of stigma. (United States)

    Levandowski, Brooke A; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Kachale, Fannie; Awah, Paschal; Kangaude, Godfrey; Mhango, Chisale


    Malawian women in all sectors of society are suffering from social implications of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion. Unwanted pregnancies occur among women who have limited access to family planning and safe abortion. A legally restrictive setting for safe abortion services leads many women to unsafe abortion, which has consequences for them and their families. In-depth interviews were conducted with 485 Malawian stakeholders belonging to different political and social structures. Interviewees identified the impact of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion to be the greatest on young women. Premarital and extramarital pregnancies were highly stigmatized; stigma directly related to abortion was also found. Community-level discussions need to focus on reduction of stigma.

  14. A comparison between unwanted sexual behavior by teachers and by peers in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.C.


    This study explores differences and similarities between sexual harassment of students by teachers and by peers. Respondents were adolescents in 22 secondary schools, randomly selected in 2 regions in the Netherlands. Of the 2808 students 512 (18%) reported unwanted sexual experiences at school in t

  15. Adolescents' psychological health and experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, G


    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated inc

  16. Women's Responses to Unwanted Sexual Advances: The Role of Alcohol and Inhibition Conflict (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette


    In this study we investigated how alcohol consumption affects women's responses to unwanted sexual advances in a hypothetical dating situation. Sixty female social drinkers participated in a 2 times 2 between-subjects experiment, which examined the effects of moderate alcohol intoxication and relationship characteristics on behavioral responses to…

  17. Professional care for unwanted same-sex attraction: What does the research say? (United States)

    Sutton, Philip M


    In recent years, national and international medical and mental-health associations typically have emphasized the potential harmfulness of professional care for unwanted same-sex attraction (SSA or homosexuality) and behavior. State legislatures in the US and legislative bodies in other countries either have passed or are considering passing laws which would penalize professionals who provide professional care for unwanted SSA-to minors and/or adults-including the loss of the license to practice. This paper was written as a response to the present situation in the UK. The paper reviews the universal ethics of all medical and mental-health professionals to avoid harm and do good (non-maleficence/non-malfeasance and beneficence); discusses the documented potential for harm when using every mental-health treatment for every presenting problem; clarifies steps taken by the Alliance for Therapeutic Choice and Scientific Integrity (Alliance), its clinical and research divisions, the National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality Institute (NARTH Institute) and its international division, the International Federation for Therapeutic Choice (IFTC), to promote ethical professional care for unwanted SSA; clarifies the injustice and presumed ideological biases of the medical and mental-health associations' warning about the potential for harm for psychotherapy only for unwanted SSA and not all psychotherapy approaches; and documents that the research purporting to show this harmfulness, in the research authors own words, does not do so. Recommendations to promote scientific integrity in the conduct and reporting of relevant research are offered. Lay Summary: There has been a lot of controversy about the potential harmfulness of professional care for unwanted same-sex attraction and behavior (SSA or homosexuality). This paper reviews the ethics of all medical and mental health professionals to avoid harm and do good; discusses the known potential for harm when

  18. Unwanted Tattoos (United States)

    ... Lines and Forehead Furrows Hair Loss Hyperpigmentation Melasma Sagging Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins ... Lines and Forehead Furrows Hair Loss Hyperpigmentation Melasma Sagging Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins ...

  19. Methylphenidate-induced erections in a prepubertal child.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D


    Methylphenidate is a medication used routinely in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We report a case of a prepubertal child who developed unwanted erections after commencing a response-adjusted dosing regimen of sustained release methylphenidate. Despite priapism being a rare adverse reaction associated with methylphenidate, physicians and parents need to be aware as it can have significant long-term complications.

  20. Endothelial cell effects of cytotoxics: balance between desired and unwanted effects. (United States)

    de Vos, F Y F L; Willemse, P H B; de Vries, E G E; Gietema, J A


    Since Folkman defined angiogenesis more than 25 years ago as the most important process in tumour growth and metastasis, specific anti-angiogenic agents have been developed. One obvious route to block this process was until recently overlooked, however. Tumour endothelial cells are different from normal endothelial cells and may respond differently to conventional cytotoxics. Chemotherapeutic-induced vascular toxicity has been observed in various clinical studies and seems to be based on endothelial cell damage as seen in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) models with protracted low-dose cytostatic exposure. Translated into the clinical setting, such "metronomically" administered chemotherapy could lead to anti-angiogenesis enhancing anti-tumour efficacy of cytostatic drugs. This paper reviews the desired anti-tumour endothelial activity versus the unwanted general vascular toxicity of cytostatic drugs. Several ways to enhance the anti-tumour activity and to circumvent the unwanted vascular toxicity of these "accidental" anti-angiogenic drugs will be discussed.

  1. Abortion and Crime: Unwanted Children and Out-of-Wedlock Births



    Abortion may prevent the birth of ''unwanted'' children, who would have relatively small investments in human capital and a higher probability of crime. On the other hand, some research suggests that legalizing abortion increases out-of-wedlock births and single parent families, which implies the opposite impact on investments in human capital and thus crime. The question is: what is the net impact? We find evidence that legalizing abortion increased murder rates by around about 0.5 to 7 perc...

  2. Unwanted Sexual Attention in Licensed Venues: Considering LGBTIQ Young Adults’ Experiences and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Fileborn


    Full Text Available Sexual violence within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ communities remains largely under-researched and under-theorised. Yet, emerging research suggests that sexual violence is a significant issue within the LGBTIQ communities. Additionally, the occurrence of sexual violence and unwanted sexual attention within specific social and cultural contexts is, for the most part, insufficiently examined. This article draws on research exploring young LGBTIQ adults’ perceptions and experiences of unwanted sexual attention in licensed venues. Firstly, I consider the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of ‘unwanted sexual attention’ as a category of analysis. I then move on to consider participants’ use of licensed venues, the particular significance of pubs and clubs to LGBTIQ young people, and their perceptions and experiences of unwanted sexual attention. Finally, I discuss the implications of these findings for theoretical and conceptual understandings of unwanted sexual attention and sexual violence. En general, se ha investigado y teorizado muy poco sobre la violencia sexual dentro de las comunidades de lesbianas, gays, bisexuales, transgénero / transexuales, intersex y queer (LGBTIQ. Sin embargo, investigaciones recientes sugieren que la violencia sexual es un problema importante en estas comunidades. Además, la incidencia de la violencia sexual y atención sexual no deseada dentro de contextos sociales y culturales específicos no está, en su mayor parte, suficientemente examinada. Este artículo se basa en la investigación de la percepción y experiencias de atención sexual no deseada en locales con licencia para vender alcohol. En primer lugar, se tienen en cuenta los fundamentos teóricos y conceptuales de “atención sexual no deseada” como una categoría de análisis. A continuación, se considera el uso de locales con licencia por parte de los participantes, el significado

  3. A demographic survey of unwanted horses in Ireland 2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leadon DP


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Irish Horse Industry expanded during the Celtic Tiger boom years, then contracted in the current economic recession. High value horses were traditionally controlled through sale at public auction, private sales and sales to dealers; these are now also being reduced by decreases in production (> 40%, and increases in retirement, re-homing, euthanasia and disposal through Category 2 plants and abattoirs. The absence or banning of horse abattoirs has been shown to have very significant welfare social and economic consequences in the USA. This study described the currently available data on the demographics of unwanted horses in Ireland from 2005 to 2010. Results The majority of horses euthanised by practicing veterinarians are destroyed on medical grounds but the number euthanised at the request of welfare groups and the state, as well as welfare related calls and the number of horses involved in these calls and subsequent visits is increasing reflecting the increasing involvement of the veterinary profession in equine welfare. Welfare groups have limited resources and do not have a tradition of recording data, but they too have reported increasing calls, visits and numbers of horses per visit. Welfare groups provide significant service to equine welfare and the community. Local Authorities report similar trends. Over 300 horses were found dead or required immediate or subsequent euthanasia following welfare group and local authority visits in 2010, which is of national concern. The majority of local authority interfaces with unwanted horses are with urban (60% rather than rural (40% horses. Mortality figures are poor indicators of non-fatal neglect. More horses were admitted into the care of local authorities than welfare groups, reflecting significant state and taxpayer investment in the control of low value horses. Category 2 plants and abattoirs represent a significant state investment in licensing and control in the

  4. Selection bias in the link between child wantedness and child survival: theory and data from Matlab, Bangladesh. (United States)

    Bishai, David; Razzaque, Abdur; Christiansen, Susan; Mustafa, A H M Golam; Hindin, Michelle


    We examine the potential effects of selection bias on the association between unwanted births and child mortality from 7,942 women from Matlab, Bangladesh who declared birth intentions in 1990 prior to conceiving pregnancies. We explore and test two opposing reasons for bias in the distribution of observed births. First, some women who report not wanting more children could face starvation or frailty; and if these women are infecund, the remaining unwanted births would appear more healthy. Second, some women who report not wanting more children could have social privileges in acquiring medical services, abortion, and contraceptives; and if these women avoid births, the remaining unwanted births would appear less healthy. We find (1) no overall effect of unwantedness on child survival in rural Bangladesh in the 1990s, (2) no evidence that biological processes are spuriously making the birth cohort look more healthy, and (3) some evidence that higher schooling for women who avoid unwanted births is biasing the observed sample to make unwanted births look less healthy. Efforts to understand the effect of unwantedness in data sets that do not control for complex patterns of selective birth may be misleading and require more cautious interpretation.

  5. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes. (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan


    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  6. False allegation of child abduction. (United States)

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E


    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality.

  7. Scaling up postabortion contraceptive service--results from a study conducted among women having unwanted pregnancies in urban and rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose


    Tanzania and 42% in rural Tanzania stated that their pregnancy was unwanted. Contraceptive acceptance among women with unwanted pregnancies was high; 93% in urban Tanzania and 71% in rural Tanzania left with a contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of women with unwanted pregnancies in urban...... and rural Tanzania underlines the need of scaling up postabortion contraceptive service....

  8. Unwanted horses: The role of nonprofit equine rescue and sanctuary organizations. (United States)

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L; Kass, P H


    Closure of US equine slaughter facilities in 2007 along with the concomitant economic recession have contributed to a sharp increase in the number of unwanted horses throughout the United States, with estimates totaling 100,000 horses per year. The objective of the study was to obtain comprehensive data regarding nonprofit organizations caring for unwanted horses, along with the characteristics and outcome of horses relinquished to these organizations. Nonprofit organizations that accept relinquished equines were contacted to participate in a 90-question survey. Responding organizations (144 of 326 eligible) in 37 states provided information on 280 cases representative of the 7,990 horses relinquished between 2007 and 2009. Data collected characterized these organizations as being in existence for 6 yr, financially supported through donations and personal funds, dedicated to the care of only 10 to 20 horses on a property of just over 30 acres, and reliant on volunteers for help. Funding was the greatest challenge to continued operation of nonprofit equine organizations, with maintenance costs for the care of a relinquished horse averaging $3,648 per year. Financial hardship, physical inability, or lack of time to care for the horses by owners were the most common reasons for relinquishment, followed by seizure through law enforcement agencies for alleged neglect or abuse. Relinquished horses consisted of mostly light horse breeds (79.3%), with Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses as the most represented breeds. The age of relinquished horses ranged from 3 d to 42 yr old (12.4 ± 0.5 yr). About one-half of the horses entered in the survey were considered unhealthy due to illness, injury, lameness, or poor body condition. For every 4 horses relinquished to a nonprofit organization, only 3 horses were adopted or sold between 2006 and 2009, and many organizations had refused to accept additional horses for lack of resources. The estimated maximum capacity for the 326

  9. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels. (United States)

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L


    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences.

  10. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation. (United States)

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra


    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity.

  11. The prevalence of unwanted and unlawful sexual experiences reported by Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Bøving Larsen, Helmer


    AIM: To obtain current data about child sexual abuse in Denmark and to assess abused children's own perception of early sexual experiences, which are unlawful according to the Danish Penal Code. METHODS: Multimedia computer-based self-administered questionnaires (CASI) were completed by a national...... representative sample of 15-16-y-olds. Child sexual abuse was defined according to the penal code and measured by questions defining specific sexual activities, the relationship between the older person and the child, and the youth's own perception of the incident. RESULTS: Among 5829 respondents, 11% reported...... unlawful sexual experiences, 7% of boys and 16% of girls. Only 1% of boys and 4% of girls felt that they "definitely" or "maybe" had been sexually abused. CONCLUSION: A relatively high percentage of Danish adolescents have early, unlawful sexual experiences. However, young people's own perception of sexual...

  12. Deployment Family Stress: Child Neglect and Maltreatment in U.S. Army Families (United States)


    g use during pregnancy 1 2 3 38. other or unspecified medical neglect 1 2 3 FTP Dental = 304 details: 1 2 3 39. failure to receive routine...Children unplanned /unwanted 1. Yes 2. No C 171. Child medical problems 1. Yes 2. No p.5 VIII. 172. Children difficult or exceptional 1. Yes 2...218. Special needs child 219. Developmental challenges 220. Pregnancy 221. Stressful life events 222. History of abuse and/or injury ,223

  13. Scoliosis surgery - child (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  14. 40 CFR 262.206 - Labeling and management standards for containers of unwanted material in the laboratory. (United States)


    ... Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.206 Labeling and management standards... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling and management standards for containers of unwanted material in the laboratory. 262.206 Section 262.206 Protection of...

  15. The Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Unwanted Sexual Contact among Boys and Girls Living in Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.


    Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…

  16. Solution to avoid unwanted trips for PV systems connected to LV network facing voltage sags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thi Minh, Chau; Tran-Quoc, Tuan; Kieny, Christophe [IDEA, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Bacha, Seddik [Grenoble Electric Engineering Laboratory, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Cabanac, Philippe; Grenard, Sebastien [Electricite de France, Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Goulielmakis, David [Schneider Electric, Grenoble (France). Projects and Engineering Center


    Most of photovoltaic (PV) systems connected to low voltage (LV) distribution networks have a single-phase connection. The analysis of the behavior of these single-phase connection. The analysis of the behavior of these single-phase PV inverters facing voltage sags caused by short circuits is of major concern. These behaviors depend on fault types, fault location, types of grid architecture, grid protection systems (with or without auto-recloser system) and PV protection types. Therefore, the first investigation of this work is to study comprehensively the behaviors of PV systems connected to real LV networks facing voltage sags in different scenarios by taking into account the real network protection. Furthermore, future power systems with a large share of PV systems connected could be severely affected if several of the PV systems are tripping at the same instant. From these results of simulation, unwanted trip cases, due to the disconnection protection of PV systems are identified. Finally, a simple efficient solution by using the voltage-time characteristic for PV system is proposed. The validation by simulations shows the efficiency of the proposed solution. (orig.)

  17. How did you know that about me? Protecting users against unwanted inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Motahari


    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of social computing applications is transforming our world. It has changed the way we routinely communicate and navigate our environment and enabled political revolutions. However, despite these applications’ ability to support social action, their use puts individual privacy at considerable risk. This is in large part due to the fact that the public sharing of personal information through social computing applications enables potentially unwanted inferences about users’ identity, location, or other related personal information. This paper provides a systematic overview of the social inference problem. It highlights the public’s and research community’s general lack of awareness of the problem and associated risks to user privacy. A social inference risk prediction framework is presented and associated empirical studies that attest to its validity. This framework is then used to outline the major research and practical challenges that need to be addressed if we are to deploy effective social inference protection systems. Challenges examined include how to address the computational complexity of social inference risk modeling and designing user interfaces that inform users about social inference opportunities.

  18. Neuroticism explains unwanted variance in Implicit Association Tests of personality: Possible evidence for an affective valence confound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eFleischhauer


    Full Text Available Meta-analytic data highlight the value of the Implicit Association Test (IAT as an indirect measure of personality. Based on evidence suggesting that confounding factors such as cognitive abilities contribute to the IAT effect, this study provides a first investigation of whether basic personality traits explain unwanted variance in the IAT. In a gender-balanced sample of 204 volunteers, the Big-Five dimensions were assessed via self-report, peer-report, and IAT. By means of structural equation modeling, latent Big-Five personality factors (based on self- and peer-report were estimated and their predictive value for unwanted variance in the IAT was examined. In a first analysis, unwanted variance was defined in the sense of method-specific variance which may result from differences in task demands between the two IAT block conditions and which can be mirrored by the absolute size of the IAT effects. In a second analysis, unwanted variance was examined in a broader sense defined as those systematic variance components in the raw IAT scores that are not explained by the latent implicit personality factors. In contrast to the absolute IAT scores, this also considers biases associated with the direction of IAT effects (i.e., whether they are positive or negative in sign, biases that might result, for example, from the IAT’s stimulus or category features. None of the explicit Big-Five factors was predictive for method-specific variance in the IATs (first analysis. However, when considering unwanted variance that goes beyond pure method-specific variance (second analysis, a substantial effect of neuroticism occurred that may have been driven by the affective valence of IAT attribute categories and the facilitated processing of negative stimuli, typically associated with neuroticism. The findings thus point to the necessity of using attribute category labels and stimuli of similar affective valence in personality IATs to avoid confounding due to

  19. Child Development (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  20. Approaches to Mitigate the Unwanted Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins during Drug Development. (United States)

    Salazar-Fontana, Laura I; Desai, Dharmesh D; Khan, Tarik A; Pillutla, Renuka C; Prior, Sandra; Ramakrishnan, Radha; Schneider, Jennifer; Joseph, Alexandra


    All biotherapeutics have the potential to induce an immune response. This immunological response is complex and, in addition to antibody formation, involves T cell activation and innate immune responses that could contribute to adverse effects. Integrated immunogenicity data analysis is crucial to understanding the possible clinical consequences of anti-drug antibody (ADA) responses. Because patient- and product-related factors can influence the immunogenicity of a therapeutic protein, a risk-based approach is recommended and followed by most drug developers to provide insight over the potential harm of unwanted ADA responses. This paper examines mitigation strategies currently implemented and novel under investigation approaches used by drug developers. The review describes immunomodulatory regimens used in the clinic to mitigate deleterious ADA responses to replacement therapies for deficiency syndromes, such as hemophilia A and B, and high risk classical infantile Pompe patients (e.g., cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, rituximab); novel in silico and in vitro prediction tools used to select candidates based on their immunogenicity potential (e.g., anti-CD52 antibody primary sequence and IFN beta-1a formulation); in vitro generation of tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to reduce ADA responses to factor VIII and IX in murine models of hemophilia; and selection of novel delivery systems to reduce in vivo ADA responses to highly immunogenic biotherapeutics (e.g., asparaginase). We conclude that mitigation strategies should be considered early in development for biotherapeutics based on our knowledge of existing clinical data for biotherapeutics and the immune response involved in the generation of these ADAs.

  1. Child Care and Child Nutrition (United States)

    Karolak, Eric


    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  2. Sources of and Remedies for Removing Unwanted Reflections in Millimeter Wave Images of Complex SOFI-Covered Space Shuttle Structures (United States)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, Frank L.


    In the recent years, continuous-wave near-field and lens-focused millimeter wave imaging systems have been effectively used to demonstrate their utility for producing high-resolution images of metallic structures covered with spay on foam insulation (SOFI) such as the Space Shuttle external fuel tank. However, for some specific structures a certain interference -pattern may be superimposed on the produced images. There are methods by which the influence of this unwanted interference can be reduced, such as the incorporation of an incidence .angle and the proper use of signal polarization. This paper presents the basics of this problem and describes the use of the methods for reducing this unwanted influence through specific examples.

  3. Class III obesity and unwanted pregnancy among women with live births in New York City, 2004-2007. (United States)

    Garbers, Samantha; Chiasson, Mary Ann


    Obesity is associated with numerous adverse health effects for pregnant women and their newborns. Unintended pregnancy is associated with suboptimal prenatal health behaviors and adverse birth outcomes. While research has suggested a link between obesity and unintended pregnancy, the evidence has been contradictory. Research has not focused on women at the highest level of obesity, Class III (body mass index ≥40). Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data for 4,161 women in New York City with a live birth from 2004 to 2007 and complete data on pregnancy intention, height, and weight were examined. The primary outcome, having a live birth that resulted from an unwanted pregnancy (not wanted at that time or at any time in the future), was compared across 6 groups of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic factors and stressors during pregnancy were conducted. The proportion of women reporting their pregnancy was unwanted increased with increasing BMI level to a high of 24 % among women with Class III obesity. After adjustment for confounding sociodemographic factors, women classified as Class III obese were significantly more likely than women with normal BMI to report an unwanted pregnancy [AOR = 2.81 (95 % CI: 1.41-5.60)]; this relationship held after adjusting for stressors during pregnancy. No significant association was found for women of other BMI groups. Previous analyses may have masked a relationship between BMI and unwanted pregnancy among women with Class III obesity. Further research exploring underlying mechanisms which are amenable to intervention is of critical public health importance.

  4. More Power, Less Sympathy. The Response of IGOs in Western Europe to Unwanted Migration during Economic Crises Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irial Glynn


    Full Text Available This article chronicles the influence of intergovernmental organisations (IGOs over unwanted migration in Western Europe since the 1930s. It pays particular attention to what occurred during times of economic crisis, especially the Great Depression in the 1930s, the recession-hit 1970s and early 1980s, and the current global financial difficulties. The IGOs under consideration are the League of Nations during the 1930s and the European Commission from the 1970s onwards. The European Commission’s ability to influence West European states’ policies on unwanted migration has grown considerably since the League of Nations’ unsuccessful attempts in the 1930s, especially in the lead-up to the current economic crisis. This increase in power has been offset, however, by a decrease in the European Commission’s sympathy as Brussels increasingly regards unwanted migration as a security and justice issue rather than as a social and cultural one in a move that bears close resemblance to the stance of West European states.

  5. Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Subsequent Pregnancy, Child-Birth and Abortion: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Adolescents (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy; Mastekaasa, Arne


    Research on teenage pregnancy and abortion has primarily focused on socio-economic disadvantage. However, a few studies suggest that risk of unwanted pregnancy is related to conduct disorder symptoms. We examined the relationship between level of conduct disorder symptoms at age 15 and subsequent pregnancy, child-birth and abortion. A…

  6. Safe abortion for HIV-positive women with unwanted pregnancy: a reproductive right. (United States)

    de Bruyn, Maria


    About 2.5 million women who become pregnant each year worldwide are HIV-positive. UNAIDS recommends that HIV-positive women should be able to control their fertility and to prevent HIV transmission perinatally if they decide to have children. Yet a literature review on these matters found that termination of pregnancy for HIV-positive women receives very little attention. This paper describes the difficulties faced by HIV-positive women in obtaining safe, legal, affordable abortion services. It shows that voluntary HIV counselling and testing for women seeking induced abortions and post-abortion care may not be provided. HIV-positive women want to avoid pregnancy for the same reasons as other women, but they also do not want to infect their partners through unprotected sex, worry about effects of pregnancy and childbirth on their own health, or about infecting a child and the child's future care. Little research has been done on whether HIV-positive women have a greater risk of morbidity following unsafe abortions than HIV-negative women, but evidence suggests they might. Studies in Zimbabwe and Thailand show that when information and access to legal pregnancy termination are lacking, HIV-positive women may be prevented from terminating a pregnancy. The paper concludes that it is essential for women living with HIV/AIDS to be able to exercise their right to decide whether and when to have children.

  7. "Come on Baby. You Know I Love You": African American Women's Experiences of Communication with Male Partners and Disclosure in the Context of Unwanted Sex. (United States)

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K


    We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women.

  8. "You just don't report that kind of stuff": investigating teens' ambivalence toward peer-perpetrated, unwanted sexual incidents. (United States)

    Weiss, Karen G


    An investigation of narratives from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) finds that one in three teenagers--12-18 years old--who experience an unwanted sexual incident perpetrated by another teen trivialize their incidents as minor, unimportant, or normal kid stuff. This study contextualizes these responses within a framework of ambivalence that highlights separately teens' ambiguity of definitions, or uncertainty that incidents perpetrated by other teens (especially dating partners and schoolmates) are "real" crimes or offenses worth reporting, and adaptive indifference, a more tactical response to conflicting norms and allegiances that discourage teens from reporting their peers' sexual misconduct to authorities. The context and consequences of teens' ambivalence are discussed.


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  10. Prevent Child Abuse America (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  11. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  12. Unwanted pregnancy: it's existing solutions from the perspective of young adults in Bangkok and the Abortion Law. (United States)

    Prajayyothin, P; Dhamprapha, R


    727 students of 15 to 24 years old in Bangkok were randomly selected to study their opinion towards existing solutions for unwanted pregnancy and the conformity or controversy of their suggested solutions to Thai Abortion Law. The SPSS/PC package program was used for data analysis. The results show that more than 80 percent of the youth in this study do not prefer the abortion method, despite it's being vastly used as a mean of solving the problem and that the abortion must be done under the Thai Criminal Law section 305 (1) and (2). Otherwise, it might be reasonable for some critical medical conditions such as high risk pregnancy or anti HIV+ve. Hence, it is confirmed that the youth opinion towards abortion agree with the law almost completely except for the aspects of the baby's health and genetic diseases. With regard to better solutions of unwanted pregnancy, Thai young adults strongly recommend resolutions of allowing progress of pregnancy on the basis of kindliness and understanding of human-being in crisis with warm support from within and outside the families. Besides, strengthening of virtue of Thai culture along with sufficient sex education for young generation are also needed.

  13. Design of superconducting multi-pole miniaturized filters with quasi-spiral resonators for decreasing unwanted cross couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, S., E-mail: [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Harada, Y. [Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8568 (Japan); Saito, A.; Lee, J.H.; Kato, T.; Uno, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Yoshizawa, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5, Ueda, Morioka, Iwate, 020-8551 (Japan); Ohshima, S. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)


    We designed a 5-GHz miniaturized 8-pole bandpass filter (BPF) using superconducting microstrip quasi-spiral resonators (QSRs) for international mobile telecommunication (IMT)-advanced receiving applications. We used the QSRs with line width and spacing equal to 10 mum for further miniaturization, and investigated a relationship between the structure of the QSR and the unloaded quality factor (Q{sub u}). The Q{sub u} of the optimized QSR of approximately 25,000 was obtained. It was difficult to design a BPF using miniaturized QSRs with high Q{sub u} because of strong cross couplings between QSRs. The lambda{sub g}/8-line inserted inverters were effective in decreasing the unwanted cross couplings. Using these QSR and the lambda{sub g}/8-line inserted inverters, 8-pole cascaded quadruplet (CQ) BPF was designed. We found that it was possible to design a miniaturized BPF with high Q{sub u}.

  14. The legal aspects of the termination of unwanted pregnancies and the risks faced by the medical doctor: a UK perspective. (United States)

    Gibson, C


    Historical perspective of terminations of unwanted pregnancies in the UK. Moral and ethical considerations imposed by established church's teachings becoming increasingly in conflict with the wishes and expectations of a more secular society. Recognition that illegal abortion was, as a matter of fact available, at great risk to vulnerable girls and women. Eventually public demand and a radical and reforming government led to the current Statutory Framework. Statutory provisions: Offences against the Person Act 1861, Sections 58 and 59; Infant Life Preservation Act 1929 Section 1. Recognition of the limited flexibility allowed by the law in the original restrictive statutory framework. The direction to the jury in July 1938 by Macnaghten J in the case of R. v. Bourne [1939] 1 KB 687, where an eminent obstetrician was acquitted after carrying out an abortion on a young rape victim. Then the modern statutory provisions: Abortion Act 1967, amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The statutory framework provides for healthcare professionals not to have to take part in terminations if they have a conscientious objection to doing so. While there are still fierce challenges from moral pressure groups when any changes in the detail of the law are proposed--such as reducing the maximum gestation period for a lawful termination--as a whole society seems to have accepted the current law. Issues affecting doctors who consider and provide terminations; current medico-legal problems relating to wanted pregnancies that have been lost by reason of clinical negligence, and unwanted children that have been born by reason of clinical negligence.

  15. Foundations of Child Psychiatry. (United States)

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  16. The role of poor sleep in the relation between workplace bullying/unwanted sexual attention and long‑term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Lange, Theis


    Purpose While exposure to bullying and unwanted sexual attention was previously found to increase the risk of sickness absence, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Poor sleep can be a consequence of stressful exposures and a cause of poor health, and poor sleep is also a determinant...... contributing with 15,040 2-year observation periods. Workplace bullying, unwanted sexual attention, disturbed sleep, and difficulties awakening were measured at three time points, and participants were followed in registers to measure the occurrence of LTSA, defined as ≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence...... during the subsequent 2 years. Results The odds of LTSA were significantly increased by workplace bullying (OR 1.77; 95 % CI 1.50–2.12) and unwanted sexual attention (OR 1.55; 95 % CI 1.06–2.29). Together, disturbed sleep and difficulties awakening mediated 12.8 % (95 % CI 8.1–19.8) of the association...

  17. The role of poor sleep in the relation between workplace bullying/unwanted sexual attention and long‑term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Lange, Theis;


    Purpose While exposure to bullying and unwanted sexual attention was previously found to increase the risk of sickness absence, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Poor sleep can be a consequence of stressful exposures and a cause of poor health, and poor sleep is also a determinant...... of insufficient recovery. Therefore, the present study investigated whether poor sleep mediates and/or moderates the association between bullying and unwanted sexual attention, on the one hand, and long-term sickness absence (LTSA), on the other hand. Methods We used questionnaire data from 7650 individuals...... contributing with 15,040 2-year observation periods. Workplace bullying, unwanted sexual attention, disturbed sleep, and difficulties awakening were measured at three time points, and participants were followed in registers to measure the occurrence of LTSA, defined as ≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence...

  18. Office of Child Care (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  19. High prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions among HIV-infected women from Western India : need to emphasize dual method use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Janssen, Fanny


    This study examines the prevalence, reasons, and predictors of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions among ever married HIV-infected women attending a care facility in Maharashtra, Western India, and discusses its programmatic and policy implications. Retrospectively collected data of pregnanci

  20. Risk factors for unplanned and unwanted teenage pregnancies occurring over two years of follow-up among a cohort of young South African women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Christofides


    Full Text Available Background: Although teenage pregnancies in South Africa have declined, the short and longer term health and social consequences are a potential public health concern. This longitudinal study aimed to describe the range of risk and protective factors for incident unwanted and unplanned pregnancies occurring over 2 years of follow-up among a cohort of adolescent women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. It also investigated the relationship between gender inequality and gender-based violence and subsequent unplanned and unwanted pregnancies among the cohort. Objective: Teenage girls, aged 15–18 years (n=19, who were volunteer participants in a cluster randomized controlled trial and who had data from at least one follow-up were included in this analysis. To assess risk and protective factors for incident unwanted or unplanned pregnancies, we constructed multivariate polytomous regression models adjusting for sampling clusters as latent variables. Covariates included age, having a pregnancy prior to baseline, education, time between interviews, study intervention arm, contraceptive use, experience of intimate partner violence, belief that the teenage girl and her boyfriend are mutual main partners, and socioeconomic status. Results: Overall, 174 pregnancies occurred over the 2-year follow-up period. Beliefs about relationship control were not associated with unwanted and unplanned pregnancies, nor were experiences of forced first sex or coerced sex under the age of 15. Hormonal contraception was protective against unplanned pregnancies (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.21–0.79; however, using condoms was not protective. Physical abuse (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.05–2.72 was a risk factor for, and having a pregnancy prior to baseline was protective against an unwanted pregnancy (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.07–0.80. Higher socioeconomic status was protective for both unplanned and unwanted pregnancies (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.58–0.83 and OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.64–0.96. Believing

  1. Knowledge and attitude of young people regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso (United States)

    Come Yélian Adohinzin, Clétus; Meda, Nicolas; Anicet Ouédraogo, Georges; Gaston Belem, Adrien Marie; Sombié, Issiaka; Berthé, Abdramane; Bakwin Kandala, Ngianga; Damienne Avimadjenon, Georgette; Fond-Harmant, Laurence


    Introduction: Despite health education efforts, young people are still faced with major health problems. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy among young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods: Based on two-level sampling, representing 94,947 households in the Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from September 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of young people. Results: The interviewees had a poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and contraception Very few young people (9%) had complete knowledge about the modes of transmission and 5% had no knowledge. Persistent misperceptions about the effectiveness of condoms (25%) and contraception (32%) did not prevent some young people from using them (79% used condoms and 46% used contraceptives). Knowledge and attitudes of young people regarding HIV and contraception varied according to age, sex, education level and type of parental supervision. Conclusion: A significant proportion of young people still has incomplete knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraception. Actions designed to reinforce the knowledge of young people are of paramount importance. The capacities of parents and healthcare providers also need to be reinforced to improve the quality of relationship with young people.


    CERN Multimedia

    Denise Heagerty


    Unsolicited email, commonly known as SPAM, is a growing problem across the Internet at large. You are recommended to delete it. If the email looks suspicious, do not even open it (from Outlook you can delete email using the right button of your mouse to select the message and then selecting delete). Viruses are often hidden inside attachments, so do not open attachments in unsolicited email. SPAM and virus emails can be disguised to trick you into reading the email and/or performing an action. Here are examples of some techniques to help you recognise them: fake email addresses: emails can appear to be from people you know or even from yourself. Your own email address can appear in emails which you did not send, resulting in non-delivery messages or unexpected replies. Fake addresses may be used to send viruses. If the email looks suspicious then delete it and do not open the attachments. If you are unsure then check with the sender first. enticing subjects: the email subject uses words to make you curious...

  3. Engineering a segmented dual-reservoir polyurethane intravaginal ring for simultaneous prevention of HIV transmission and unwanted pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin T Clark

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS pandemic and its impact on women prompt the investigation of prevention strategies to interrupt sexual transmission of HIV. Long-acting drug delivery systems that simultaneously protect womenfrom sexual transmission of HIV and unwanted pregnancy could be important tools in combating the pandemic. We describe the design, in silico, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a dual-reservoir intravaginal ring that delivers the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir and the contraceptive levonorgestrel for 90 days. Two polyether urethanes with two different hard segment volume fractions were used to make coaxial extruded reservoir segments with a 100 µm thick rate controlling membrane and a diameter of 5.5 mm that contain 1.3 wt% levonorgestrel. A new mechanistic diffusion model accurately described the levonorgestrel burst release in early time points and pseudo-steady state behavior at later time points. As previously described, tenofovir was formulated as a glycerol paste and filled into a hydrophilic polyurethane, hollow tube reservoir that was melt-sealed by induction welding. These tenofovir-eluting segments and 2 cm long coaxially extruded levonorgestrel eluting segments were joined by induction welding to form rings that released an average of 7.5 mg tenofovir and 21 µg levonorgestrel per day in vitro for 90 days. Levonorgestrel segments placed intravaginally in rabbits resulted in sustained, dose-dependent levels of levonorgestrel in plasma and cervical tissue for 90 days. Polyurethane caps placed between segments successfully prevented diffusion of levonorgestrel into the tenofovir-releasing segment during storage.Hydrated rings endured between 152 N and 354 N tensile load before failure during uniaxial extension testing. In summary, this system represents a significant advance in vaginal drug delivery technology, and is the first in a new class of long-acting multipurpose prevention drug delivery systems.

  4. Removal of unwanted variation reveals novel patterns of gene expression linked to sleep homeostasis in murine cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Gerstner


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Why we sleep is still one of the most perplexing mysteries in biology. Strong evidence indicates that sleep is necessary for normal brain function and that sleep need is a tightly regulated process. Surprisingly, molecular mechanisms that determine sleep need are incompletely described. Moreover, very little is known about transcriptional changes that specifically accompany the accumulation and discharge of sleep need. Several studies have characterized differential gene expression changes following sleep deprivation. Much less is known, however, about changes in gene expression during the compensatory response to sleep deprivation (i.e. recovery sleep. Results In this study we present a comprehensive analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery sleep on gene expression in the mouse cortex. We used a non-traditional analytical method for normalization of genome-wide gene expression data, Removal of Unwanted Variation (RUV. RUV improves detection of differential gene expression following sleep deprivation. We also show that RUV normalization is crucial to the discovery of differentially expressed genes associated with recovery sleep. Our analysis indicates that the majority of transcripts upregulated by sleep deprivation require 6 h of recovery sleep to return to baseline levels, while the majority of downregulated transcripts return to baseline levels within 1–3 h. We also find that transcripts that change rapidly during recovery (i.e. within 3 h do so on average with a time constant that is similar to the time constant for the discharge of sleep need. Conclusions We demonstrate that proper data normalization is essential to identify changes in gene expression that are specifically linked to sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. Our results provide the first evidence that recovery sleep is comprised of two waves of transcriptional regulation that occur at different times and affect functionally

  5. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  6. Heterogeneity of trans-callosal structural connectivity and effects on resting state subnetwork integrity may underlie both wanted and unwanted effects of therapeutic corpus callostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Neal Taylor


    Conclusion: Consideration of the selective vulnerability of resting state sub-networks, and of between-individual variability in connectivity patterns, sheds new light on the occurrence of both wanted and unwanted effects of callosotomy. We propose that beneficial effects (seizure reduction relate to disruption of the default mode network, with unwanted “disconnection syndrome” effects due to disruption particularly of the somatomotor and frontoparietal RSNs. Our results may also explain why disconnection syndromes primary reflect lateralised sensory-motor problems (e.g. of limb movement rather than midline function (e.g. tongue movement. Marked between-subject variation in callosal connectivity may underlie the poor predictability of effects of callosotomy. High resolution structural connectivity studies of this nature may be useful in pre-surgical planning of therapeutic callosotomy for intractable epilepsy.

  7. PreciseMail anti-spam gateway allows users more control over spam definitions; unwanted email is eliminated with no false positives

    CERN Multimedia

    ten Bruggencate, J


    "PreciseMail Anti-Spam Gateway uses a combination of proven heuristic (rules-based) and artificial intelligence technologies that eliminates unwanted spam e-mail at an Internet gateway without filtering critical e-mail messages. Its highly effective filtering engine identifies spam and allows multiple levels of tuning and customization to meet each user's personal e-mail spam filtering requirements" (1 page).

  8. FPG Child Development Institute (United States)

    ... Early Childhood Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero ... Children with Disabilities October 12, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North ...

  9. Well-child visits (United States)

    ... who has questions about issues such as feeding, circumcision , and general child health issues. After the baby ... deep tendon reflexes as the child gets older Neonatal jaundice -- first few visits only Palpation Percussion Standard ...

  10. Cholesterol and Your Child (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  11. Child abuse - physical (United States)

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  12. Child Dental Health (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  13. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Pfeifer, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Schaefer, W.R., E-mail: [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)


    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17β-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ► We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ► 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak

  14. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia. (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S


    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  15. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal


    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  16. Child poverty and changes in child poverty. (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles


    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  17. Your Child's Immunizations (United States)

    ... the number of shots a child receives. The Vaccines Your Child Needs The following vaccinations and schedules are recommended ... are developed. Your doctor will determine the best vaccinations and schedule for your child. Recommended vaccinations: Chickenpox (varicella) vaccine Diphtheria, tetanus, and ...

  18. Supporting Each Child's Spirit (United States)

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Buchanan, Teresa


    In using developmentally appropriate practices, teachers should intentionally address all aspects of a child's being, the spiritual along with the physical and the cognitive. Because spirituality is a vital part of human nature, a whole-child teaching approach must include the part of the child some call spirituality. Many have attempted to…

  19. Child Care Services Handbook. (United States)

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  20. [Autism and child protection]. (United States)

    Coron, Guillaume


    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  1. [Adolescent pregnancy: the drama of the child-mothers]. (United States)

    Monterosa Castro, A


    According to the 1990 Demographic and Health Survey, 21% of fertile-aged women in Colombia are adolescents aged 15-19. Research throughout the world has revealed that young people are initiating their sexual lives at ever earlier ages, due to earlier sexual maturation, constant erotic stimuli, and a mistaken understanding of sexuality. A Colombian survey showed that 49% of males and 11% of females had sex by age 18. Earlier sexual activity is leading to increased incidence of unwanted pregnancy. 78 of each 1000 adolescents become mothers each year. Among adolescents aged 16-18 with positive pregnancy tests at the Profamilia Adolescent Clinic in Bogota, 80% did not use contraception and 85% did not with to be pregnant. Unwanted adolescent pregnancy is usually traumatic, with implications for all areas of life. None of the options open to an adolescent with an undesired pregnancy is desirable. Keeping the baby exposes the mother to ostracism and rejection by the family, expulsion from school, and societal rejection. Forced marriages almost always end in separation. Adoption leads to frustration and feelings of guilt in the future. Abortion in Colombia is illegal and exposes the women to emotional and physical trauma and to risk of death or injury. The unwanted child is at risk of mistreatment, abandonment, or rejection. A demographic survey by Profamilia showed that 25% of Colombian women are mothers by age 19. 62% of uneducated adolescents are mothers by this age. Low educational level is associated with early pregnancy and limited economic opportunity. Adolescents are at higher risk of pregnancy complications due to physiological immaturity, stress, poor adaptability to pregnancy, and inadequate prenatal care. Adolescent pregnancy should be prevented. The prevention should be achieved through integrated sex education beginning at the first contact of the child with the world outside the family. The child should learn basic concepts of self-esteem, values, and

  2. [Maintenance responsibility for a child resulting from an unsuccessful sterilization, no damage]. (United States)


    Plaintiff, needing surgery for uterine prolapse, had total ligation performed at the same time. Full informed consent was granted by plaintiff and husband. 2 years later, pregnancy resulted in the cesarean birth of twins (round ligament instead of fallopian tube had been ligated). Plaintiff sued for support of the twins by the party responsible for the failed sterilization, plus for all expenses (not already paid for by insurance) engendered in connection with the initial operation. District Court allowed the suit, defendant appealed with partial result. Plaintiff was denied relief of child support. The legal principles underlying the High Court's decision evolve from the following Court decision. In charging the parents with support requirements of an unwanted legitimate child no damage can be seen in the sense of Paragraph 249ff of the Civil Code; at least, no possibility exists in the currently valid legal regulation and the consequent special family legal elaboration of the parent-child relationship, to shift such a support claim as compensation to a 3rd party who has negligently caused the unwanted child. The parent-child relationship is further elaborated from various court decisions. A person's birth and existence do not represent damage in themselves. A person's dignity is inviolate and every state authority is obligated to respect and protect this. Support obligation of parents towards their children does not represent liable damage. The intrinsic dignity of the child cannot be separated from its support expenses; it denies the integrity of the child as a person. Parents' obligations towards the child are not only material expenditures. Child's obligations are inherent in the parent-child relationship; he is obligated to support his parents in later life. Rights, obligations, and other values are inextricably intertwined, to separate material values from this interrelationship is wrong and unnatural. The "risk" of sexual relations cannot be shifted to

  3. Child Labor - Moral Choice


    Lagasse, Caitlin


    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  4. From child to child: children as communicators. (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J


    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  5. Unintended Childbearing and Child Growth in Northern Malawi. (United States)

    Baschieri, Angela; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Floyd, Sian; Dube, Albert; Molesworth, Anna; Chihana, Menard; Glynn, Judith R; Crampin, Amelia C; French, Neil; Cleland, John


    Objective The study aims to assess whether unintended children experience slower growth than intended children. Methods We analysed longitudinal data linked to the Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance Site collected over three rounds between 2008 and 2011 on women's fertility intentions and anthropometric data of children. Using the prospective information on fertility intention we assessed whether unintended children are more likely to be stunted than intended children. We applied Propensity Score Matching technique to control for endogenous factors affecting both the probability that a family has an unwanted birth and a child with poor health outcomes. Results We found that 24 % of children from unwanted pregnancies were stunted compared with 18 % of mistimed pregnancies and 17 % of those from wanted pregnancies. However, these differences in probability of children being stunted, though in the expected direction, were not significant either for large or small families, after controlling for age. The number of children in the household was associated with stunting and boys were substantially more likely to be stunted than girls. Conclusion We found no significance difference in probability of being stunted by mother's fertility intention.

  6. An examination of the problem of unwanted population growth in Africa and the existing facilities for training family planning personnel. (United States)

    Kumekpor, M L; Kumekpor, T


    Population planning is as important as economic planning and should be applied both at the national and personal levels. Population control and socioeconomic development are intrinsic to each other. Proverty, illiteracy, political instability, and social retardation are found in the countries with high birth rates. Most African nations tend to think of the population in terms of density rather than growth potential. Family planning programs should be accorded the same priority as maternal-child health, but African countries are often not equipped financially or professionally to support family planning workers under the same conditions as other medical personnel could be accomplished locally rather than overseas, thus saving about $204,000 in the East African Region and $213,000 in the West African Region. The success of the trainees' program will depend on the degree to whichf amily planning programs are integrated with other medical services; insight into traditiona l sexual patterns, and tact and skill of personnel.

  7. An analysis of adolescent suicide attempts: the expendable child. (United States)

    Woznica, J G; Shapiro, J R


    Assessed the concept of the "expendable child" syndrome proposed by Sabbath (1969) as a contributing factor in adolescent suicide attempts. It was hypothesized that suicidal adolescents would be rated higher on a measure of "expendability" than would a psychiatric control group of adolescents with no known history of suicide attempts or ideation. Forty adolescents, ages 13-24, who had been seen in psychotherapy at a teen-age health clinic, were rated by their psychotherapists on suicidality and a 12-item scale of expendability (a sense of being unwanted and/or a burden on the family). As predicted, suicidal adolescents received significantly higher ratings on the expendability measure than nonsuicidal adolescents. Results support the concept that feeling expendable is a characteristic of suicidal adolescents. Implications for prevention and treatment of adolescent suicidality are discussed.

  8. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer


    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  9. "Boys will be boys" and other gendered accounts: an exploration of victims' excuses and justifications for unwanted sexual contact and coercion. (United States)

    Weiss, Karen G


    An examination of 944 victim narratives from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) finds that one in five women who reveal an incident of sexual victimization to the NCVS excuse or justify their situations, largely by drawing on social vocabularies that suggest male sexual aggression is natural, normal within dating relationships, or the victim's fault. The study's findings substantiate the influence that rape myths and gender stereotypes have on victims' perceptions of their own unwanted sexual situations and demonstrate the ways in which cultural language delimits victims' recognition of sexual victimization as crime and inhibits reporting to the police.

  10. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe


    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  11. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño


    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  12. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events. (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per


    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from

  13. Causes and intervention of unwanted pregnancy of unmarried adolescents%未婚青少年非意愿妊娠原因及干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To analyze the related factors of unwanted pregnancy of unmarried adolescents, and then to seek intervention to reduce unwanted pregnancy. Methods A survey was made among 380 unmarried pregnant adolescents accepting abortion in our center firom June 2008 to December 2009 and the data were analyzed. Results Among unwanted pregnant adolescents 73.42% didn't take any contraceptive measures. Various causes for nonuse of contraception included unprepared sex intercourse ( 40.86% ), idea of trusting to luck ( 35.13% ) and lack of awareness of contraception ( 15.41% ). Adolescents whose first sexual intercourse happening before 18 years old counted up to 14.74%, and the adolescents who were 18 and 19 years old when first sexual intercourse happened counted up to 38.42%. 34.21% of adolescents had more than one pregnancy histroyy. The differences in unwanted pregnant causes, pregnancy prior to the current pregnancy, ways to obtain contraceptive knowledge and methods among different groups were significant (X2= 14.02,24.51,10.36, all P < 0.01 ). Conclusion The knowledge of reproductive health information and contraception obtained by adolescents is poor,and their self-awareness of prevention and protection is weak. Active participating in educating and guiding adolescents in reproductive and contraceptive information by media, schools, families and medical health care organizations is critical to reduce unwanted pregnancy.%目的 对青少年未婚非意愿妊娠的相关因素进行分析,寻求降低未婚青少年非意愿妊娠的干预措施.方法 选择2008年6月-2009年12月来枣庄市市中区妇幼保健院行人工流产术的未婚青少年380例进行问卷调查,并对有关数据进行分析.结果 非意愿妊娠未婚青少年中有73.42%未采取任何避孕措施,未避孕原因40.86%无心理准备,35.13%存有侥幸心理,15.41%不知如何避孕.初次性生活年龄18岁以下者占14.74%,18-19岁者占38.42%.34.21%

  14. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981-2663 (301) ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...

  15. Talking to Your Child's Doctor (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Talking to Your Child's Doctor KidsHealth > For Parents > Talking to Your Child's Doctor ... an important role in your child's health? The Doctor-Patient Relationship Today, doctors are pressured to see ...

  16. Child neglect and psychological abuse (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Review Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  17. Child Wellness and Happiness (United States)

    Rettew, David C.


    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  18. The Child Welfare Cartel (United States)

    Stoesz, David


    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  19. Child Psychology Experiences Program. (United States)

    Walla Walla Coll., WA.

    Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

  20. Child Poverty & Public Policy. (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  1. Divorce Child Custody Disputes. (United States)

    Houlgate, Laurence D.


    Examines ethical issues in making policy decisions regarding divorce child custody disputes. Suggests dilemma occurs when legislator must decide between discretionary standard promoting best interest of child and nondiscretionary arbitrary assignment of custody. Advocates normative analysis of various types of dispute-settling processes and…

  2. Child prostitution in Thailand. (United States)

    Lau, Carmen


    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  3. Child Development Associate. Child Growth and Development. (United States)

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is to help the CDA intern understand the factors and principles which affect the total growth and development of children. Early sections of the module stipulate the module's competency-based objectives, define terms, and suggest procedures by which…

  4. Child maltreatment in India. (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot


    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  5. Standardizing terms, definitions and concepts for describing and interpreting unwanted immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals: recommendations of the Innovative Medicines Initiative ABIRISK consortium. (United States)

    Rup, B; Pallardy, M; Sikkema, D; Albert, T; Allez, M; Broet, P; Carini, C; Creeke, P; Davidson, J; De Vries, N; Finco, D; Fogdell-Hahn, A; Havrdova, E; Hincelin-Mery, A; C Holland, M; H Jensen, P E; Jury, E C; Kirby, H; Kramer, D; Lacroix-Desmazes, S; Legrand, J; Maggi, E; Maillère, B; Mariette, X; Mauri, C; Mikol, V; Mulleman, D; Oldenburg, J; Paintaud, G; R Pedersen, C; Ruperto, N; Seitz, R; Spindeldreher, S; Deisenhammer, F


    Biopharmaceuticals (BPs) represent a rapidly growing class of approved and investigational drug therapies that is contributing significantly to advancing treatment in multiple disease areas, including inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, genetic deficiencies and cancer. Unfortunately, unwanted immunogenic responses to BPs, in particular those affecting clinical safety or efficacy, remain among the most common negative effects associated with this important class of drugs. To manage and reduce risk of unwanted immunogenicity, diverse communities of clinicians, pharmaceutical industry and academic scientists are involved in: interpretation and management of clinical and biological outcomes of BP immunogenicity, improvement of methods for describing, predicting and mitigating immunogenicity risk and elucidation of underlying causes. Collaboration and alignment of efforts across these communities is made difficult due to lack of agreement on concepts, practices and standardized terms and definitions related to immunogenicity. The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI;, ABIRISK consortium [Anti-Biopharmaceutical (BP) Immunization Prediction and Clinical Relevance to Reduce the Risk;] was formed by leading clinicians, academic scientists and EFPIA (European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations) members to elucidate underlying causes, improve methods for immunogenicity prediction and mitigation and establish common definitions around terms and concepts related to immunogenicity. These efforts are expected to facilitate broader collaborations and lead to new guidelines for managing immunogenicity. To support alignment, an overview of concepts behind the set of key terms and definitions adopted to date by ABIRISK is provided herein along with a link to access and download the ABIRISK terms and definitions and provide comments (

  6. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rozental

    Full Text Available Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from

  7. Child Behavior Disorders (United States)

    ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening themselves, other people or pets Damaging or destroying property Lying or stealing Not ...

  8. Your child's first vaccines (United States)

    ... multi.html . CDC review information for Multi Pediatric Vaccines: Your Child's First Vaccines: What you need to know (VIS): ... baby. 2. Some children should not get certain vaccines Most children can safely get all of these vaccines. But ...

  9. My Child Is Stealing (United States)

    ... there's often little sympathy for repeat offenders. Further punishment , particularly physical punishment, is not necessary and could make a child ... They should also know that stealing is a crime and can lead to consequences far worse than ...

  10. Asthma - child - discharge (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  11. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. Such treatment can help reduce the ... Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Teen Suicide ...

  12. My Child Is Stealing (United States)

    ... around. And there's often little sympathy for repeat offenders. Further punishment , particularly physical punishment, is not necessary and could make a child or teen angry and more likely to engage in even ...

  13. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation (United States)

    ... as feelings of betrayal, powerlessness, worthlessness and low self-esteem. It is impossible to calculate how many times a child's pornographic image may be possessed and distributed online. Each and ...

  14. CDC Child Growth Charts (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  15. Toilet Teaching Your Child (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... when traveling, around the birth of a sibling , changing from the crib to the bed, moving to ...

  16. Weaning Your Child (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... cup, or maybe even just a cuddle. Try changing your daily routine so that you're otherwise ...

  17. Music in child care


    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos


    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  18. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti


    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  19. A longitudinal study of child mental health and problem behaviours at 14 years of age following unplanned pregnancy. (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Najman, Jake Moses; Khatun, Mohsina; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Bor, William; Clavarino, Alexandra


    A substantial minority of children are born as a consequence of an unplanned pregnancy. Yet little is known about the impact of unplanned/unwanted pregnancy (UP) on long-term health outcomes for children. This study aimed to examine the association between UP and child mental health and behavioural problems at 14 years, and whether this association is confounded or mediated by other variables. Data were from a pre-birth prospective study that included 4765 mothers and their children (48.4% female and 51.6% male) followed up from pregnancy to 14 years of the child's age in Brisbane, Australia. Child anxiety/depression, aggression, delinquency, attention problems, withdrawal problems, somatic complaints, social problems, thought problems, internalizing, externalizing and total problems were measured using the Achenbach's Youth Self Report at 14 years. Child smoking and alcohol consumption were self-reported at 14 years. UP was prospectively assessed at the first antenatal visit of pregnancy. UP as reported by mothers at first antenatal visit predicted elevated levels of problem behaviours and increased substance use in children at 14 years. The impact of UP on child mental health and problem behaviours is partly due to the confounding effect of other variables, such as maternal socio-demographic status, mental health and substance use during pregnancy. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanism of association between UP and child aggression and early alcohol consumption at 14 years.

  20. The Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein abbasnezhadriyabi


    Full Text Available While a large number of children are losing their lives due to poverty, malnutrition, contagious diseases and war, we are witnessing hundreds of children death by reason of misbehaving. Today, "child abuse" as a social-cultural phenomenon which shows crisis in a society, has a growing process in our country. The goal of this research was to investigate the base factors of child abuse that according to the results are consist as follows, poverty, unemployment, addiction, large families, single-parent, Considering the increase of factors such as poverty, addiction, unemployment, divorce, temporary marriage, street children and other effective factors, the hypothesis based on growth of child abuse was proved in Iran.

  1. Meet the good child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Malene; Grønhøj, Alice


    to be appropriate child and parental behavior. The study takes a practice theoretical perspective, building on previous research on family consumption, and draws empirically on 35 interviews with 5–6 year-olds and 13 family interviews. Findings show that the children recognize the position of ‘the good child......’ and most often prefer to take on this position, which is confirmed by their parents. The children can describe how ‘the good child’—in their eyes—should behave. They prefer consensus and not being embarrassing or embarrassed. The study concludes that the children are strongly immersed in social norms...... and family practices, and that the Danish national/cultural context probably reinforces these children as independent consumers, who are well aware of the requirements of the consumer role. Childing practices are a standard with know-how and rules that these children argue they live by—at least most...

  2. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare. (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean


    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  3. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.


    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  4. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.


    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  5. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old) (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... All parents and those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they ...

  6. Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Nakamura, Shota; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi


    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a promising method for analysing polar gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosols due to its ability to obtain spectral fingerprints of rotational transition and immunity to aerosol scattering. In this article, dynamic THz spectroscopy of acetonitrile (CH3CN) gas was performed in the presence of smoke under the atmospheric pressure using a fibre-based, asynchronous-optical-sampling THz time-domain spectrometer. To match THz spectral signatures of gas molecules at atmospheric pressure, the spectral resolution was optimized to 1 GHz with a measurement rate of 1 Hz. The spectral overlapping of closely packed absorption lines significantly boosted the detection limit to 200 ppm when considering all the spectral contributions of the numerous absorption lines from 0.2 THz to 1 THz. Temporal changes of the CH3CN gas concentration were monitored under the smoky condition at the atmospheric pressure during volatilization of CH3CN droplets and the following diffusion of the volatilized CH3CN gas without the influence of scattering or absorption by the smoke. This system will be a powerful tool for real-time monitoring of target gases in practical applications of gas analysis in the atmospheric pressure, such as combustion processes or fire accident.

  7. The Feasibility of Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Untargeted Detection of Protein Adulteration in Yogurt: Removing Unwanted Variations in Pure Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu


    Full Text Available Untargeted detection of protein adulteration in Chinese yogurt was performed using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics class modelling techniques. sixty yogurt samples were prepared with pure and fresh milk from local market, and 197 adulterated yogurt samples were prepared by blending the pure yogurt objects with different levels of edible gelatin, industrial gelatin, and soy protein powder, which have been frequently used for yogurt adulteration. A recently proposed one-class partial least squares (OCPLS model was used to model the NIR spectra of pure yogurt objects and analyze those of future objects. To improve the raw spectra, orthogonal projection (OP of raw spectra onto the spectrum of pure water and standard normal variate (SNV transformation were used to remove unwanted spectral variations. The best model was obtained with OP preprocessing with sensitivity of 0.900 and specificity of 0.949. Moreover, adulterations of yogurt with 1% (w/w edible gelatin, 2% (w/w industrial gelatin, and 2% (w/w soy protein powder can be safely detected by the proposed method. This study demonstrates the potential of combining NIR spectroscopy and OCPLS as an untargeted detection tool for protein adulteration in yogurt.

  8. Early initiation of sexual activity: a risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, and unwanted pregnancy among university students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravari Shahrzad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.

  9. Induction of a Tumor-Metastasis-Receptive Microenvironment as an Unwanted Side Effect After Radio/Chemotherapy and In Vitro and In Vivo Assays to Study this Phenomenon. (United States)

    Schneider, Gabriela; Sellers, Zachariah Payne; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z


    Besides surgical removal of tumor tissue, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the most important and efficient treatment modalities employed to treat therapy-susceptible malignancies. The main aim of this treatment-to destroy tumor cells-is unfortunately usually associated with toxicity to nontumor cells and different degrees of tissue and organ damage. In damaged tissues several chemoattractants are upregulated and released that may attract tumor cells. Moreover, highly migratory radio/chemotherapy treatment may endow cells with several properties of cancer stem cells which survive and respond to these chemoattractants upregulated in collateral tissues. Based on this, one of the unwanted and underappreciated side effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy is the creation of a metastasis-receptive microenvironment in bones as well as in other organs of the body. Herein we describe methods and assays that can be employed to study migratory properties of cancer cells in in vitro (chemotaxis) and in vivo (seeding efficiency assay) conditions in response to the induction of pro-metastatic microenvironments in various organs and tissues.

  10. From the "Unwanted babies" event on Ethics and Ethical Restraint%从"弃婴"事件谈职业操守与节制伦理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荫众; 高朋


    "Unwanted babies" incident in addition to directly reflect the absence of hospital management and loopholes, the act of disposal from the staff should be reduced to an even higher level of people's professional ethics, in particular the behavior of repeatedly breaking the bottom line will lead to medical ethics bottom line of ethics of social chaos and collapse.So the bottom line of ethics of the medical profession - not to harm the principle of self-discipline of medical workers is the basic requirement for the ethical standards of self-restraint.%"弃婴"事件除了直接反映医院管理的缺位和漏洞外,从工作人员处置行径的更深层次上还要归结为当事人的职业道德问题.医疗行业的底线伦理--不伤害原则,既是医务工作者自律精神的基本要求,也是节制自我的伦理标准.

  11. Child Labor in America's History (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold


    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  12. When Your Child Has Tinnitus (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You When Your Child Has Tinnitus When Your Child Has Tinnitus Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... and public relations staff at . Tinnitus is a condition where the patient hears a ...

  13. Vaginal itching and discharge - child (United States)

    ... vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... To prevent and treat vaginal irritation, your child should: Avoid colored or perfumed toilet tissue and bubble bath. Use plain, unscented soap. Limit bath time to 15 minutes or less. Ask ...

  14. Parent and Child Living Centers. (United States)

    Pushaw, David R.


    Parent and child living centers offer a program to improve parenting skills with areas of learning including child growth and development, family management, home care and repair, and personal growth and development. (MM)

  15. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises (United States)

    ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

  16. Unwanted parenthood: Romanticism and Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag


    Full Text Available Over the Romantic reception of Kant, the author attempts to show a relationship between the Romanticism and the Enlightenment. First part of the paper reconstructs the social conditions that created the strange path of transformation of parts of Kant’s teachings in the romantic motifs. The second part follows the theoretical precomposition of Kant’s thought in Fichte and expressly deviation from it in Novalis and Schlegel. Third section presents the key moments of the Romantic critique of the Enlightenment mind, and fourth its ambiguous pracital-political effects. In conclusion, it is suggested that Romanticism tested and testified the transcending of limits of the very freedom for which Kant believed that man becomes worthy of only if it is used in a lawful and purposeful manner.

  17. Searching for unwanted drug interactions


    Ognjenović, Dejan


    Interakcije zdravil so prepletanja učinkov zdravil, ki lahko povzročijo želene ali škodljive učinke na pacientu. V nalogi smo z orodjem strojnega učenja iskali interakcije zdravil, ki lahko na zdravje bolnikov vplivajo negativno. Naš pristop k reševanju problema temelji na dveh algoritmih strojnega učenja. Pri tem smo upoštevali hierarhiji zdravil in bolezni ter bazo LexiComp. Algoritem posplošenih povezovalnih pravil poskuša s pomočjo hierarhij poiskati pravila, ki poleg osnovnih el...

  18. Searching for unwanted drug interactions


    Ognjenović, Dejan


    Drug interactions are interweaving effects between two or more drugs that can have desirable or harmful effects on patients health. In this thesis we for searched harmful drug interactions. Our approach is based on two machine learning algorithms for association rule mining. We use two given hierarchies, one for drugs (ATC), the other for diseases (ICD), and one proprietary interaction database LexiComp. A generalized association rule algorithm tries to find rules that contain basic ...



    Laura Negredo; Óscar Herrero


    Downloading, exchanging and producing child pornography is a criminal behaviour of growing relevance. The cruel exploitation of minors and its link with child sexual abuse raise great social and academic concern. The current paper approaches the nature of the phenomenon, the characteristics of the materials labelled as “child pornography”, the psychological traits of the users and the existing treatment programs

  20. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities. (United States)

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…


    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.


  2. Social Structure and Child Poverty (United States)

    Ferriss, Abbott L.


    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  3. Treatment for Child Abusers (United States)

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.


    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  4. Child Nutrition Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Child Nutrition Program invites all students to participate in the school breakfast and lunch program at school. Our goal is to improve the health and education of students by providing nutritious meals that promote food choices for a healthy diet. Failure to eat balanced meals increases the risk of illness including obesity ,

  5. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter


    child mortality but the same morbidity pattern as in other Western societies was found. Negative health behaviour is frequent in schoolchildren. The influence of rapid cultural changes, and familial and societal factors related to social ill health, together with socioeconomic inequity, are of major...

  6. Measuring Child Rhythm (United States)

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar


    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and has a…

  7. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant...

  8. The Child as Craftsman (United States)

    Feldman, David H.


    Perhaps the most important implication of the metaphor is to suggest that it may well be the main purpose of education to provide conditions under which each child will identify and find satisfaction through a chosen field or fields of work. (Author)

  9. Who Is This Child? (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.


    An Idaho education dean recounts a moving encounter with a fatherless first-grader while visiting his grandson in Eugene, Oregon. Envisioning a deadbeat dad and a burned-out mother, he pondered the statistical odds of this child graduating from college. However, the girl's warm welcome from her teacher helped revise his hopes about the little…

  10. Child Care Aware (United States)

    ... a stream of our activity across multiple social networks by visiting the Child Care Aware® of America Social Dashboard. Visit Our Social Dashboard Follow and Engage ... Care Aware of America Home Newsroom Contact Us Log In Register Back About ...

  11. The Gifted Dyslexic Child (United States)

    Eide, Brock; Eide, Fernette


    A major reason why dyslexia is likely to be missed or mislabeled in an intellectually gifted child is the lack of a specific, clearly recognized definition to enable diagnosis of dyslexia. It's crucial that adults working with gifted students understand that average or even above reading comprehension does not by itself guarantee that a gifted…

  12. The Child Whisperer (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.


    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  13. Child Indicators: Dental Health. (United States)

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy


    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  14. Child Care Centres. (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…

  15. Internet and child pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Çağlar


    Full Text Available Nowadays, internet use and access is becoming increasingly common as a great entertainment, communication and educational resource for children as well as for adults. Internet is a perfect environment for children, for exploring the world, learning and having fun. However, access to illegal sites that contain violence and sexuality, and contact dangerous people are among the particular risks for children using the internet. It is a known fact that, internet and developing technology make the production and distribution of child pornography cheaper and easier. There has been consensus on the need of creating a plan and increasing the awareness in the community for the fight against child pornography. Because of the increasing internet use and the risk for children mentioned, nurses got new responsibilities. Nurses have to inform society, especially families and children, about safe internet use. In this review, legal regulations about the fight against child pornography on the internet, the reasons that lay the ground for child pornography and their negative effects on children has been addressed.

  16. Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Merikanto


    Full Text Available A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12% were caused by child battering and 13 (7% by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent and often substance dependence (31%. None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child’s behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent’s life, the child may be in danger.

  17. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment. (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J


    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  18. Global Threats to Child Safety. (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E


    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children.

  19. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič


    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  20. Embarazo no deseado en adolescentes, y utilización de métodos anticonceptivos posparto Unwanted adolescent pregnancy and post-partum utilization of contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Núñez-Urquiza


    potencial de cobertura aún no alcanzado entre el grupo de adolescentes, especialmente entre las que viven en áreas suburbanas y entre las no derechohabientes de la seguridad social. Asimismo, sugiere la necesidad de insistir en la promoción de la utilización de métodos anticonceptivos posparto en este grupo considerado de alto riesgo reproductivo. Además, se evidencia la necesidad de investigar sobre métodos de educación sexual y reproductiva que puedan introducirse en el sistema escolar desde el nivel primario.OBJECTIVE: To describe the proportion of unwanted pregnancies among all pregnant adolescents, its association with sociodemographic characteristics, and the use of post-partum contraceptive methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 women between 13 and 19 years of age, in two semi-urban municipalities of the State of Morelos, Mexico, interviewed between 1992 and 1994. Women were interviewed at home, six to twelve weeks after their delivery date. Women were asked whether they had wanted their last pregnancy, and about knowledge and use of contraceptive methods after delivery. RESULTS: Adolescent pregnancies accounted for 17% of all births registered in these two municipalities. Among all adolescent mother 22.73% reported that their pregnancy had not been wanted. A positive association was found between the lack of access to health services provided by public medical insurance systems (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado ISSSTE and unwanted pregnancy (adjusted OR=3.03, 95% CI (1.31, 7. An association was also found between living in an urban community (adjusted OR=2.16, 95% CI (1.08, 4.33 and an unwanted pregnancy. Among all adolescent mothers, 91.3% were familiar with "the pill" as a contraceptive method; 84.72% knew about the IUD, and 63.68% knew about the condom. However, only 35% of them were actually using an effective contraceptive

  1. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.


    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  2. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben


    . Three hundred seventy-four have since left the study, leaving 2500 active families. The non-participants act as controls contributing data through local registries. Biological material, questionnaires, and registry data were compiled. Anthropometric data and other physical data were collected. RESULTS...... provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data......., the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012...

  3. Child Health in Portugal. (United States)

    Bandeira, Teresa; Ferreira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Inês


    Portugal has experienced rapid decline of neonatal and infant mortality in the last century, similar to that of other western European states. The joint venture of pediatricians and obstetricians with adequate top-down government commissions for maternal and child health for the decision making by health administrators and a well-defined schedule of preventive and managerial measures in the community and in hospitals are the most likely explanations for this success. Another achievement of child health care services is the registry for special diseases. Education of health care workers plays a fundamental role in improving health statistics. Portugal has a reasonable number of doctors, nurses, and health technicians per capita. Quality assurance monitoring systems and implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines with digital records, including international coding, are essential steps to improve health care systems.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Shanxi Province child labor scandal has shocked China to its core. Over 1,000 children were forced into illegal labor by morally bankrupt brick kiln businesses, throwing a depressing shroud over China’s rapid development. Uncovering these tales of abduction, death and the physical and mental abuse endured by these children has been a proud moment for China’s press. Several hundred of the kiln slave children have now been reunited with their families. Kiln owners, contractors and accomplices are being brought to justice or hunted down, some even charged with murder.However, in all this gloom some good has surfaced.Public and government attention is now focused on erasing child labor once and for all and for better protecting workers’ rights, hopefully ridding China of such disgraces in the future.

  5. Navy Child Care, 1980. (United States)


    months to 2 1/2 years) full-time. ............. 23.8 Preschool (2 1/2 to 5 years) such as Montessori or other nursery school developmental program...had beyond High School. *Naval Air Station, Miramar One Associate degree, five BA/ES, three Montessori Certified, three enrolled in Montessori training...comes in many forms. The child-care center at Naval Station, Adak, burned in November 1979 (Nida, 1980). Fortunately, there was no loss of life or

  6. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne


    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases....... The obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic...

  7. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing. (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D


    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  8. Child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Hymel, K P; Jenny, C


    Multiple obstacles can hinder the medical evaluation of suspected child sexual abuse in pediatric primary care. The need for diagnostic accuracy is high. Knowledge of sexual abuse risk factors, an understanding of the victimization process, and awareness of the varied clinical presentations of sexual abuse can be of assistance. Open-ended questioning of the suspected victim is the most critical component of the evaluation. Skillful medical interviewing requires time, training, patience, and practice. Pediatricians lacking any of these four requirements should defer interviewing in sexual abuse cases to other professionals. Abnormal physical findings from sexual abuse are uncommon. Colposcopy has assisted pediatricians greatly in reaching consensus regarding diagnostic physical findings. Cases of acute sexual assault require familiarity with the forensic rape examination, STD screening and prophylaxis, and pregnancy prevention. Victimization from sexual abuse continues long after the abusive acts end, often requiring long-term therapeutic intervention. An emerging standard of care for medical evaluations of suspected child sexual abuse recognizes the requirement for patience and compassion while retaining objectivity. The pediatrician's primary concern must be for the child's physical and emotional well-being.

  9. Girl child and social change. (United States)

    Seth, P


    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristuta Alina Mihaela


    Full Text Available Obesity represents a world health problem, confronted by both adults and children, caused by the invasion of unhealthy foods, but also by a lack of information regarding the long term negative effects of an unbalanced diet.The aim of this research is to prove the beneficial role the correctly and constantly performed therapeutic physical exercise plays in the prevention of child obesity, but also in the fight with unwanted weight, starting from knowing the children's growth and development particularities, the obesity incidence among them, and the long term negative effects this disease has on their health.This research tries to confirm whether by applying therapeutic physical exercises in children, one can see their positive effects on obesity, and whether by applying a well-structured physical exercise program, organized and applied with regularity, one can obtain a drop in the obese children's weight.The means, methods, and procedures that are encompassed in a well structured and individualized program, then applying it perseveringly, correctly, and continuously, lead to the diminishing and correcting of the existing symptoms, preventing the installment of other complications.After applying the prophylactic physiotherapy programs, we can improve the somatoscopic aspect of the individual, the proportionality becomes harmonious, and the body's ability to adapt to the effort is improved.

  11. Effect of calf purchase and other herd-level risk factors on mortality, unwanted early slaughter, and use of antimicrobial group treatments in Swiss veal calf operations. (United States)

    Lava, M; Pardon, B; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Keckeis, K; Deprez, P; Steiner, A; Meylan, M


    The objective of this survey was to determine herd level risk factors for mortality, unwanted early slaughter, and metaphylactic application of antimicrobial group therapy in Swiss veal calves in 2013. A questionnaire regarding farm structure, farm management, mortality and antimicrobial use was sent to all farmers registered in a Swiss label program setting requirements for improved animal welfare and sustainability. Risk factors were determined by multivariable logistic regression. A total of 619 veal producers returned a useable questionnaire (response rate=28.5%), of which 40.9% only fattened their own calves (group O), 56.9% their own calves and additional purchased calves (group O&P), and 2.3% only purchased calves for fattening (group P). A total number of 19,077 calves entered the fattening units in 2013, of which 21.7%, 66.7%, and 11.6% belonged to groups O, O&P, and P, respectively. Mortality was 0% in 322 herds (52.0%), between 0% and 3% in 47 herds (7.6%), and ≥3% in 250 herds (40.4%). Significant risk factors for mortality were purchasing calves, herd size, higher incidence of BRD, and access to an outside pen. Metaphylaxis was used on 13.4% of the farms (7.9% only upon arrival, 4.4% only later in the fattening period, 1.1% upon arrival and later), in 3.2% of the herds of group O, 17.9% of those in group O&P, and 92.9% of those of group P. Application of metaphylaxis upon arrival was positively associated with purchase (OR=8.9) and herd size (OR=1.2 per 10 calves). Metaphylaxis later in the production cycle was positively associated with group size (OR=2.9) and risk of respiratory disease (OR=1.2 per 10% higher risk) and negatively with the use of individual antimicrobial treatment (OR=0.3). In many countries, purchase and a large herd size are inherently connected to veal production. The Swiss situation with large commercial but also smaller herds with little or no purchase of calves made it possible to investigate the effect of these factors on

  12. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  13. Child neglect: assessment and intervention. (United States)

    Hornor, Gail


    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  14. Child health in Colombia. (United States)

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I


    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children.

  15. Advocacy and child neglect. (United States)

    Krugman, Scott D


    Pediatricians have a unique opportunity to intervene in the lives of children to identify and to prevent neglect. While it remains important to care for individual patients affected by neglect, the ecological model of child neglect requires intervention at the parent, family, community, and societal levels. Pediatricians can improve the outcomes for children by advocating for policies and interventions at each level. Effective advocacy principally requires the willingness to tackle broader issues beyond individual clinical care. Working with local, state, and national organizations, pediatricians can contribute a unified voice to promote evidence-based policies and programs that improve the well-being of children.

  16. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series. (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  17. Questions to ask your child's doctor (United States)

    ... families who are coping with this type of cancer? My child's life after treatment: Will my child grow normally? ... able to have children as an adult? Will cancer treatment put my child at risk for health problems later in life? ...

  18. Child abuse by drowning. (United States)

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E


    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  19. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin


    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown that there ......Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  20. Child Shona noun prefixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R Sibanda


    Full Text Available This article falls under the broad area of child language acquisition and it aims to present an analysis of the acquisition of Shona noun class prefixes. The data collection procedures involved fortnightly observation and audio-recording of the spontaneous speech of three children who were acquiring Shona as a mother tongue. The results of this investigation confirm findings from earlier studies and show that noun class prefixes are acquired in three partially overlapping stages. In the first stage, nouns are produced without class prefixes and as time progresses, in the second stage, they are produced with them but in the form of an onsetless vowel. In the third stage, nouns are produced with full and phonologically appropriate class prefixes. The empirical and theoretical findings of this investigation are expected to broaden and deepen our knowledge of morphology and the phonology-morphology interface in the context of child language acquisition. As there are few descriptive and theoretical studies on the acquisition of Shona, this research recommends more studies on this subject.

  1. Child Labor in the Global Economy


    Edmonds, Eric V.; Nina Pavcnik


    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  2. Early Child Care in Switzerland (United States)

    Luscher, Kurt K.; And Others


    This monograph provides a comprehensive description of the multiple, diverse, and complex systems of child care in Switzerland today. The following topics are discussed: prevailing conceptions of the child-rearing process, the relationship between family and society, socialization, training of personnel, information dissemination, mass media and…

  3. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux" (United States)

    Stoesz, David


    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  4. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Klaauw (Bas); L. Wang (Lihong)


    textabstractThis paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated

  5. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist. (United States)

    Fern, Tami L.


    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  6. Personal Affairs: Child Development Services (United States)


    with AEI, appendix G. d. Air deodorizing machines should be installed in child activity rooms/modules serving nontoilet–trained children and all child...Plant Listing Non–Toxic Listing Abella, Abyssinian Sword Lily, African Daisy, African Palm, African Violet, Air Fern, Airplane Plant, Aluminum Plant

  7. Multidimensional child deprivation in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefzadeh Faal Daghati, Sepideh; Mideros-Mora, Andrés; De Neubourg, Chris; Minujin, Alberto; Nandy, Shailen


    The chapter analyses children's multidimensional deprivation in Iran in 2009 and explores inequalities in different regions. The study focused on outcome indicators, with the level of analysis focusing on the individual child as well as the household. A child rights approach is applied to define dim

  8. Child Development: An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Dickerson, LaVerne Thornton, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on recent publications dealing with factors that influence child growth and development, rather than the developmental processes themselves. Topics include: general sources on child development; physical and perceptual-motor development; cognitive development; social and personality development; and play.…

  9. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa


    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  10. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa


    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  11. Is My Child's Appetite Normal? (United States)

    ... child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in their preschool years. That is why your child may have a smaller appetite now. That is normal. If he or she is not hungry or does not finish a meal, relax. Take the food away. Your child probably is eating enough if ...

  12. [The place of the child]. (United States)

    Molenat, F


    A child's self-construction and access to his identity depend on the conditions of affective security in which he is raised and his genealogical references, the founders of his own place in society. The quality of the professional care at the different stages of the birth process is confirmed as a major variable in the parents' sense of security, followed by the child's. The drift toward the illusion of a right to a child is tempered by the attention that can be contributed by all healthcare providers who come into contact with couples when they request artificial procreation: recognition of their request, but also of their suffering, so as to separate the child's place from parental projections that may be poorly adjusted to the child's needs.

  13. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala


    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  14. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007. (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita


    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of increasing the age of marriage among women in Pakistan. Efforts to eliminate girl child marriage by strict law enforcement, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women can help eliminate girl child marriage in Pakistan.

  15. A child with narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvério Macedo


    Full Text Available Introduction: Narcolepsy is a chronic disease characterized by sleep attacks, excessive daytime sleepiness and nocturnal sleep fragmentation. It can be associated cataplexy and other disturbance of REM sleep (sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations and hypnopompic. Case report: A 10-year old boy was referred to Pedopsychiatry because of behavioural disturbance, irritability, sleepiness and distraction, being interpreted as an “ill-mannered child.” After clinical evaluation and comprehensive laboratory studies we concluded that he presented narcolepsy with cataplexy. Discussion/conclusion: Patients with narcolepsy face several problems due to the disease which, if left untreated or ineffectively treated, cause embarrassing or distressing symptoms, affecting their quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to this problem since it is a rare condition and therefore seldom not recognized by the general public or even by health professionals.

  16. Foster Care and Child Health. (United States)

    McDavid, Lolita M


    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care.

  17. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza


    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  18. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender


    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  19. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate


    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  20. Helping Your Child Deal with Death (United States)

    ... to tell you. Grandma died today." Pause to give your child a moment to take in your words. Listen and comfort. Every child ... being together helps people start to feel better." Give your child a role. ... if they want to take part, and how. Help your child remember the ...

  1. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior. (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others


    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  2. An Update on the CHILDES/BIB (formerly ISU/CHILDES) Database. (United States)

    Higginson, Roy


    Describes the CHILDES/BIB electronic bibliographic database, its contents, and its relationship to the CHILDES database. CHILDES is a depository of child language corpora and is the publisher of CHAT (a transcription manual) and CLAN (an electronic package for child language research). (GLR)

  3. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Eligibility for Services § 98.20 A child's eligibility for child...

  4. Trends in child mortality in India. (United States)

    Behl, A S


    To assess Indias recent trends in child mortality rates and disparities and identify ways to reduce child mortality and wealth-related health disparities, we analyzed three years of data from Indias National Family Health Survey related to child mortality. Nationally, declines in average child mortality were statistically significant, but declines in inequality were not. Urban areas had lower child mortality rates than rural areas but higher inequalities. Interstate differences in child mortality rates were significant, with rates in the highest-mortality states four to six times higher than in the lowest-mortality states. However, child mortality in most states declined.

  5. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  6. Your child and the flu (United States)

    ... children 6 months or older should receive the vaccine. Children under 9 years will need a second flu ... severe or life-threatening flu infection. WILL THE VACCINE HARM MY CHILD? A small amount of mercury (called thimerosal) is ...

  7. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most recently...

  8. Genetics of Stiff Child Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available A Chinese boy with a DYT1 gene mutation presented with muscle stiffness, painful muscle spasms, myoclonus, and dystonia, compatible with stiff child syndrome, and is reported from Queen Mary Hospital, the University of Hong Kong.

  9. Allergy Relief for Your Child (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... and run the air conditioner. back to top Allergy Medicines For most children, symptoms may be controlled ...

  10. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling


    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  11. FastStats: Child Health (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  12. Treatment of the Hyperactive Child (United States)

    Wunderlich, Ray C.


    Described individually are the following forms of medical treatment for the hyperactive child: stimulants, tranquilizers, megavitamins, corticosteroids, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, food elimination, air filtration, allergic desensitization, perceptual motor training, and behavioral counseling. (DB)

  13. Evaluation of the enuretic child. (United States)

    Rushton, H G


    Nocturnal enuresis is a symptom of environmental, physical, and psychosocial factors. In addition to a physical examination, the initial workup of the enuretic child should include a careful voiding, psychosocial, and family history. Studies have shown that the parents of enuretic children often have a history of enuresis. An increased incidence of enuresis has also been demonstrated in children from large families and lower socioeconomic groups. Daytime voiding symptoms (e.g., frequency, urgency, or enuresis) suggest the possibility of underlying voiding dysfunction. A complete urinalysis and urine culture also should be performed to exclude urinary infection and certain metabolic or nephrologic disorders. Finally, it is important that the treating physician understand the attitudes of both the child and the family concerning enuresis. Parents who feel that the child is at fault need to be educated and reassured. A careful, complete evaluation will allow the physician to tailor treatment to the individual child and family.

  14. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems (United States)

    ... page: // Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  15. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Carbohydrates, Sugar, ... a 1-ounce equivalent. previous continue Sizing Up Sugar Foods that are high in added sugar (soda, ...

  16. Strength Training and Your Child (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength ... help prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using ...

  17. Preparing Your Child for Surgery (United States)

    ... a teen might be afraid of losing control, missing out on events, being embarrassed or humiliated in ... in the future. Explaining What Will Happen Find books, appropriate to your child's level of understanding, about ...

  18. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? (United States)

    ... Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article to a friend by ... a pediatric ophthalmologist. Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Glaucoma What to watch for in children under the ...

  19. Strength Training and Your Child (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength Training ... prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using free ...

  20. Child poverty can be reduced. (United States)

    Plotnick, R D


    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  1. The Child Rights System in Romanian Legislation




    Child rights are a set of international conventions which define the conditions for the normal development of a child. In Romania, child rights are now the subject of a specific law, law nr. 272/2004 on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of the Child, which is in accordance with the international conventions. All children have their own rights - whether at home with their natural parents, in foster families, child care institutions or at school. Parents and families, the professional ...

  2. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi


    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  3. Robotics in child neurosurgery. (United States)

    Giorgi, C; Sala, R; Riva, D; Cossu, A; Eisenberg, H


    We felt there was a need for a new device with "minimal invasive" tracking hardware, to be used in image-guided neurosurgery, and the system we designed to fill this need is now presented. It combines precision of movement, stability and self-positioning capabilities together with optically tracked registration and procedural control within the structure of a surgical microscope. The results are reduced setup time and minimal "distraction" from the procedure itself, factors of special relevance in child neurosurgery. The system is composed of a six-axis industrial robot suitable for use in the operating room, carrying a surgical microscope. Three progressive scan-synchronized infrared cameras mounted around the lenses of the scope are used to register the patient's position and track surgical instruments with reference to the registered space. Orientation of the microscope during surgery is obtained with a six-axis joystick used as a microscope handle. The system has been clinically used in 14 cases, and it has proven itself to be reliable, providing the expected performance advantages. The implementation of a tracked ultrasound or endoscope intraoperative imaging source is also described.

  4. Child custody evaluations. (United States)

    Bernet, William


    Because divorce is so common, it is important for our society to find ways to minimize the psychological trauma that is experienced by children of divorced parents. Ideally, divorcing parents would not fight so much over the children, in front of the children, and through the children. When disputes do arise regarding custody, visitation, and parenting plans, mental health professionals can assist the judges who make the final decisions by performing competent custody evaluations. These evaluations should be conducted in a systematic manner, should consider several critical factors in an unbiased manner, and should result in recommendations that promote the best interests of the children. In most cases, the goal is for each child to have strong, healthy relationships with both parents. After conducting an evaluation, it is usually possible to make recommendations regarding custody, parenting arrangements, and forms of counseling and therapy that should be helpful to the family members. It is important to communicate these recommendations in an articulate manner, whether verbally or in the written report.

  5. [Child abuse in the family]. (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes


    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  6. The child anxiety impact scale: examining parent- and child-reported impairment in child anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Langley, Audra K; Falk, Avital; Peris, Tara; Wiley, Joshua F; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda; Birmaher, Boris; March, John; Albano, Ann Marie; Piacentini, John


    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of both the Child and Parent version of the Child Anxiety Impact Scale (CAIS) using data obtained from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (Walkup et al., 2008 ). The CAIS child and parent versions measure anxiety-related functional impairment in school, social, and family domains. Participants were 488 children ages 7 to 17 (M age = 10.7, SD = 2.8 years) enrolled as part of the CAMS study across 6 sites and their primary parent or caregiver. Families participated in a structured diagnostic interview and then completed the CAIS along with other measures. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the a priori three-factor structure (school, social, and home/family) for the CAIS parent- and CAIS child-report was a reasonable fit, with a comparative fit index of .88 and root mean square error of approximation of .05. Internal consistency was very good for total score and subscales of both versions of the scale (Cronbach's α = .70-.90). The CAIS total scores demonstrated good construct validity, showing predicted significant correlations with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing Scale, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) Total Scores, the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. In addition, CAIS Social and School subscales were significantly related to similar subscales on the CBCL, SCARED, and MASC. The results provide support that the CAIS is a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of the impact of anxiety on child and adolescent functioning.

  7. Trends in Child Poverty in Sweden: Parental and Child Reports. (United States)

    Mood, Carina; Jonsson, Jan O

    We use several family-based indicators of household poverty as well as child-reported economic resources and problems to unravel child poverty trends in Sweden. Our results show that absolute (bread-line) household income poverty, as well as economic deprivation, increased with the recession 1991-96, then reduced and has remained largely unchanged since 2006. Relative income poverty has however increased since the mid-1990s. When we measure child poverty by young people's own reports, we find few trends between 2000 and 2011. The material conditions appear to have improved and relative poverty has changed very little if at all, contrasting the development of household relative poverty. This contradictory pattern may be a consequence of poor parents distributing relatively more of the household income to their children in times of economic duress, but future studies should scrutinze potentially delayed negative consequences as poor children are lagging behind their non-poor peers. Our methodological conclusion is that although parental and child reports are partly substitutable, they are also complementary, and the simultaneous reporting of different measures is crucial to get a full understanding of trends in child poverty.

  8. Predictors of mother–child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families



    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent–child interaction and a secure parent–child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent–child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills ...

  9. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave. (United States)

    Walker, J R


    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  10. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A


    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  11. [Domestic accident or child abuse?]. (United States)

    Rupp, Wolf-Rüdiger; Faller-Marquardt, Maria; Henke, Peter


    While playing, a 33/4-year-old girl was hiding in a tumble dryer, which had been running before and started the drying process with rotation of the drum again after the girl had climbed into the machine and shut the door. The child suffered multiple haematomas, especially on the back and the lower arms, as well as second-degree burns on body regions not covered by the clothing. The injury pattern was consistent with the properties of the appliance, and the initial suspicion that the child had been physically abused could not be maintained.

  12. Child Psychotherapy, Child Analysis, and Medication: A Flexible, Integrative Approach. (United States)

    Whitman, Laura


    For children with moderate to severe emotional or behavioral problems, the current approach in child psychiatry is to make an assessment for the use of both psychotherapy and medication. This paper describes integration of antidepressants and stimulants with psychoanalytically oriented techniques.

  13. Defining Child Neglect Based on Child Protective Services Data (United States)

    Dubowitz, H.; Pitts, S.C.; Litrownik, A.J.; Cox, C.E.; Runyan, D.; Black, M.M.


    Objectives:: To compare neglect defined by Child Protective Services official codes with neglect defined by a review of CPS narrative data, and to examine the validity of the different neglect measures using children's functioning at age 8 years. Methods:: Data are from 740 children participating in a consortium of longitudinal studies on child…

  14. Emergency Child Aid. Child Health and Safety Series (Module VI). (United States)

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…

  15. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders. (United States)

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael


    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences.

  16. ``Battered child`` syndrome; Das ``Battered-Child``-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, K.; Merk, J.; Sokiranski, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie


    Synonyms for the `battered child` syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as `child abuse`, or `non-accidental injury`. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Als Synonym fuer das `Battered-Child`-Syndrom (BCS) stehen die Begriffe der koerperlichen-/physikalischen-Kindesmisshandlung, im angelsaechsischen Sprachraum die Begriffe `Child Abuse` und `Nonaccidental Injury`. Vom Syndrom abzugrenzen sind die seelische Misshandlung, die seelische und koerperliche Vernachlaessigung, und der sexuelle Missbrauch. Kombinationsformen sind nicht selten. Bei der Diagnostik des Syndroms spielt die Radiologie eine entscheidende Rolle. So hilft der Einsatz adaequater Untersuchungsmethoden, den Tatbestand der Misshandlung zu identifizieren und zu dokumentieren, aber auch einen Verdacht zu widerlegen. (orig./AJ)

  17. I Am Your Child. Quality Child Care: Making the Right Choice for You and Your Child. [Videotape]. (United States)

    I Am Your Child Foundation, Beverly Hills, CA.

    Finding the right child care is often challenging for parents, but it is one of the most important decisions a parent will ever make. This videotape is intended to help parents with the process of evaluating child care options. The 30-minute video is presented in seven parts. Part 1, "Choosing Child Care," discusses why quality child…

  18. Parents Who Have a Child with Cancer (United States)

    ... respond Sometimes people will stare, mistake your child's gender, or ask personal questions. Talk with your child ... what other parents said helped: Keep lines of communication open Talk about how you each deal best ...

  19. Planning for Your Child's Surgery (Osteogenesis Imperfecta) (United States)

    ... Blue Jeans for Better Bones Calendar Online Store Planning for Your Child's Surgery: What Parents Need to ... but the entire family as well. Before Surgery: Planning Become well informed. Taking care of your child ...

  20. Macrotheories: child physical punishment, injury and abuse. (United States)

    Cousins, Judy


    This is the first paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment and the continuum between physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. The papers will explore macro and microtheoretical perspectives, examine their influence on child discipline and child physical abuse and propose a framework to guide and inform professional practice in the field of child physical maltreatment Paper one introduces the reader to the political context of child physical discipline and analyses current definitions. The extent of punishment and injuries sustained is explored and the relationship between macrotheoretical perspectives examined. The paper concludes by highlighting the continuum between child physical punishment and child physical abuse.

  1. Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Nutrition URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child (United States)

    ... to your child, you may refer to your religious, spiritual, and cultural beliefs about death. You might ... The foremost — and perhaps trickiest — task for worried parents is to treat a sick child as normally ...

  3. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (United States)

    ... members of AACAP. Be CAPtivated - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a Career AACAP's Current Award Opportunities More... ... More... Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement ...

  4. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child (United States)

    ... this page: // Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has epilepsy. Children with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  5. Choking - adult or child over 1 year (United States)

    Abdominal thrusts - adult or child over 1 year; Heimlich maneuver - adult or child over 1 year: Choking - back ... back blows, or both. To perform abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver): Stand behind the person and wrap your arms ...

  6. Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives (United States)

    ... page: Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives Extreme stress may ... 300 middle-aged U.S. adults, female survivors of child abuse were more likely to die over the next ...

  7. Grieving the Loss of a Child (United States)

    ... spent months or even years caring for a child with cancer. Differences in grieving can cause relationship difficulties at ... confidant, and a life-long friend. When your child developed cancer, you were likely completely focused on the needs ...

  8. When your child's treatment stops working (United States)

    ... OK when your child dies and will take care of the people and animals your child loves. Alternative Names End of life care - children; Palliative care - children; Advance care planning - children ...

  9. Helping Your Child Deal with Peer Pressure (United States)

    ... child know how you feel about stealing, cheating, bullying, and more. When a child knows something is ... However, excessive shedding can result in balding. This type of…April 2017September editorial staff AboutAdvertise ...

  10. Inhalant Abuse: Is Your Child at Risk? (United States)

    ... can be valuable as well. With help, your child can end inhalant abuse and learn how to make healthy choices for a lifetime. References Baydala L. Inhalant abuse. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2010;15:443. Results from the 2013 ...

  11. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. The battered child syndrome; Die nicht unfallbedingte Verletzung (battered child)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorantin, E.; Lindbichler, F. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria). Abt. fuer Kinderradiologie


    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.) [German] Die Aufdeckung einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt eine grosse Herausforderung fuer alle in der Kinderbetreuung taetigen Berufsgruppen dar. Der Radiologie kommt eine besondere Rolle zu, da sie einerseits durch die Erkennung typischer Verletzungsmuster einen Verdacht bestaetigen, als auch bei ''Zufallsbefunden'' die moeglicherweise fatalen Folgen fuer die betroffenen Kinder verhindern kann. Der typische Verletzungsmechanismus im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt das sog. ''shakin baby syndrome'' dar. Dabei wird der Thorax mit beiden Haenden umfasst und das Kind geschuettelt. Durch dieses repetitive Akzelerations-Dezelerationstrauma entstehen typische Verletzungen mit paravertebralen Rippenfrakturen, ZNS- sowie Retinablutungen. Anschliessend wird das Kind weggeworfen mit entsprechend weiteren Verletzungen. Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, einen Ueberblick ueber die Radiologie der wichtigsten Verletzungen und deren Abklaerung im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung zu geben sowie die Demonstration der Befunde

  13. Efficacy of Child-Focused and Parent-Focused Interventions in a Child Anxiety Prevention Study (United States)

    Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol


    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or…

  14. Child-Mother and Child-Father Play Interaction Patterns with Preschoolers (United States)

    John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy


    The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…

  15. Professional Knowledge of Child Support Staff: Evidence from the New Jersey Child Support Training Program (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Blake, Allison; Edwards, Richard L.; Liu, Chieh-Wen; Nolan, Robert B.; Rusen, Barbara; Thompson, Dina


    Child support enforcement (CSE) has experienced dramatic changes in the last decade; however, it is not clear whether child support staff is fully aware of the development. Using data from the New Jersey child support training program (n = 530), this article aims to evaluate the professional knowledge of child support staff. The results show that…

  16. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien


    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  17. 38 CFR 10.42 - Claim of child other than legitimate child. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim of child other than legitimate child. 10.42 Section 10.42 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.42 Claim of child other than legitimate child....

  18. Multiple Child Care Arrangements and Child Well Being: Early Care Experiences in Australia (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Chen, Jen-Hao


    Nearly one quarter of Australian children under the age of 5 experience multiple non-parental child care arrangements. Research focused on the relationship between multiple child care arrangements and child socioemotional development is limited, particularly in Australia. Evidence from the United States and Europe has linked multiple child care…

  19. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey (United States)

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.


    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  20. Child Labor, Crop Shocks, and Credit Constraints


    Kathleen Beegle; Rajeev Dehejia; Roberta Gatti


    This paper examines the relationship between household income shocks and child labor. In particular, we investigate the extent to which transitory income shocks lead to increases in child labor and whether household access to credit mitigates the effects of these shocks. Using panel data from a survey in Tanzania, we find that both relationships are significant. Our results suggest that credit constraints play a role in explaining child labor and consequently that child labor is inefficient, ...



    Suci Wulansari


    Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF) results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope...

  2. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet


    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  3. Talking with Your Child about Cancer. (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet was written to help parents decide what to tell their child who has cancer. It recommends that parents tell their child the truth about his disease to prevent him from feeling guilty and to increase his cooperation with treatment. A gentle, open, and honest approach is suggested. Sections discuss who should tell the child and when the…

  4. Predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy


    Izabel Cristina Paez; Maria Lucia Tiellet Nunes; Vânia Naomi Hirakata


    Introduction: This empirical study was based on the analysis of the results of a study about dropout predictors among in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The objectives were to characterize the sample of children discharged from psychoanalytic psychotherapy, examine the association between sociodemographic/ clinical variables and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy discharge, and determine predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Method: This quantitative, descriptive a...

  5. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency. (United States)

    Schor, Nina F


    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  6. The Social Context of Child Maltreatment. (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana


    Discusses family factors associated with child abuse from an ecological perspective. Identifies economic and cultural generative factors of child abuse. Explores special circumstances affecting occurrence of child maltreatment. Examines dimensions of responsiveness, demandingness, and parental authority patterns in their application to abusive…

  7. A Positive Stigma for Child Labor? (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb


    We introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) towards child labor that is common in some developing countries. We then illustrate our positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child- and household-level characteristics, we use two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous…

  8. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya (United States)

    Moyi, Peter


    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  9. Shared Heritage: An Intergenerational Child Care Program. (United States)

    Hawkeye Area Community Action Program, Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This report describes ways in which older persons may become involved in the field of home child care. It is intended to provide (1) detailed information on an intergenerational child care (IGCC) program; (2) general information relating to intergenerational contacts and home child care; and (3) "how-to" information for agencies planning…

  10. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri


    The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .

  11. 38 CFR 3.57 - Child. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child. 3.57 Section 3.57..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.57 Child. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of this section, the term child of the veteran means an...

  12. Explaining Variation in Child Labor Statistics


    Dillon, Andrew; Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Serneels, Pieter


    Child labor statistics are critical for assessing the extent and nature of child labor activities in developing countries. In practice, widespread variation exists in how child labor is measured. Questionnaire modules vary across countries and within countries over time along several dimensions, including respondent type and the structure of the questionnaire. Little is known about the eff...

  13. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006


    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  14. Article Omission across Child Languages (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Gavarro, Anna; de Lange, Joke; Caprin, Claudia


    Article omission is known to be a feature of early grammar, although it does not affect all child languages to the same extent. In this article we analyze the production of articles by 12 children, 4 speakers of Catalan, 4 speakers of Italian, and 4 speakers of Dutch. We consider the results in the light of (i) the adult input the children are…

  15. Sonya Hartnett's "Thursday's Child": Readings (United States)

    Armstrong, Judith; Rudd, David


    Sonya Hartnett's "Thursday's Child" was published in Australia by Penguin Books in 2000. Editions are available in the UK (Walker Books, 2002), the USA (Candlewick, 2002), as well as in Canada, Germany, Italy, Norway, and Denmark. In 2002, the book was awarded the "Guardian's" Children's Fiction Prize in the UK. Like Harper,…

  16. Sonya Hartnett's "Thursday's Child": Readings (United States)

    Armstrong, Judith; Rudd, David


    Sonya Hartnett's "Thursday's Child" was published in Australia by Penguin Books in 2000. Editions are available in the UK (Walker Books, 2002), the USA (Candlewick, 2002), as well as in Canada, Germany, Italy, Norway, and Denmark. In 2002, the book was awarded the "Guardian's" Children's Fiction Prize in the UK. Like Harper, the narrator of the…

  17. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp. (United States)

    Durall, John K.


    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  18. Maternal and Child Health Bureau (United States)

    ... Health Topics Programs & Initiatives Funding Opportunities Data, Research & Epidemiology About MCHB Maternal and Child Health Bureau  News & Announcements HHS Awards more than $742,000 to Health Centers in American Samoa and the Virgin Islands to Fight Zika (6/23/16) Approved on June 6, 2016 -- ...

  19. Hyperactivity: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    Containing 27 references on hyperactivity selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts", the bibliography cites research reports, conference papers, journal articles, texts, and program guides. Each entry provides bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts of the documents. The…

  20. Autism: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings, the bibliography contains 47 items of research reports, conference papers, journal articles, texts, and program guides selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts". Each entry on autism provides bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and…

  1. Selected Nanny Child Care Bibliography. (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn W., Comp.; Williams, Owen E., Comp.

    This bibliography on nanny child care contains approximately 180 references to material about nannies, mother's helpers, au pairs, and governesses. The bibliography is organized by the categories of newspaper articles, journal articles, newsletter articles, books, and audiovisual materials. The items are drawn primarily from U.S. sources, but some…

  2. Helping Your Child to Read. (United States)

    Foust, Betty Jean

    This booklet provides suggestions for parents in helping their children to learn how to read. The first section provides 34 suggestions and activities for parents to use with preschool children, such as reciting nursery rhymes, reading aloud, respecting the child's mood, and playing listening games. The second section offers 25 suggestions and…

  3. Definition of a Dependent Child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department


    The Department of Human Resources wishes to remind members of the personnel that, under the provisions of § 6 of Administrative Circular No. 5 “Dependent child”, in the case of a child over 18 years of age the status of dependent child comes to an end once a course of studies is completed. Consequently, the payment of the dependent child allowance and the child's membership of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme terminate with effect from the last day of the month in which the course of study concerned ends. In this connection, members of the personnel are reminded that children who are no longer dependent according to the Staff Rules and Regulations and who are less than 26 years of age can nevertheless opt for membership of the normal health insurance under the terms and conditions laid down in the CERN Health Insurance Rules. The Department of Human Resources also wishes to remind members of the personnel that, pursuant to Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, a member of the personnel is requ...

  4. Adult Consequences of Child Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Reef (Joni)


    textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem a

  5. Subcutaneous phycomycosis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad P


    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phycomycosis is a rare entity. We hereby report a case of subcutaneous phycomycosis on the chestwall in a one and a half year old child. Excision of the lesion was followed by a recurrence. Oral potassium iodide completely cured the disease.

  6. Talking to Your Child's Doctor (United States)

    ... a Better Relationship en español Cómo conversar con el médico de su hijo Your child's doctor can ... don't be afraid to give the doctor feedback about your office visit experience, such as whether ...

  7. Your Child's Development: 9 Months (United States)

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Baby's Growth: 9 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 9 Months Your Child's Checkup: 9 Months Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Contact ...

  8. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  9. [Child and family in China]. (United States)

    Witte, A


    In 1949, China's population numbered 540 million, which has doubled by 1994. Since the 1960s, the growth rate has been halved to 1.2% a year as a result of family planning and administrative measures. In 1981, the marriage law was released that abolished arranged marriage by the parents, and stressed the equality of the sexes, the legitimate rights of women and children, and monogamy. Family planning and the concept of the one-child family was also endorsed with strong controls on second births and the prohibition of third births. The means were late marriage (the combined age of the couple should reach 50 years), contractual birth allotments from the danwei, state quotas, and one-child certificates facilitating the acquisition of an apartment. Other measures were legal abortion and contraception (sterilization, oral contraceptives, and gossypol for men). In 1982, among the Chinese aged over 15, the majority were married with 0.59% divorced. An average of 20 million children are born in China annually. Children are cared for in day care centers or kindergartens as well as by grandparents. The former are located in factories, companies, and schools and are cost-free for employees. Other day care centers and kindergartens are run by committees in cities and villages supported by the state. The Confucian concept of raising children commands respect for the old and love of the children, who also fall under the attention of the danwei, a traditional community force. This principle subjects individualism to the group. The mother-child contact is reinforced by carrying the child on the back especially in rural areas. The one-child family promoted by the state has the drawbacks of overblown egotism and deficient socialization. In the cities 95% of first grade pupils are single children.

  10. Missed opportunities in child healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jonker


    Full Text Available Background: Various policies in health, such as Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses, were introduced to enhance integrated service delivery in child healthcare. During clinical practice the researcher observed that integrated services may not be rendered.Objectives: This article describes the experiences of mothers that utilised comprehensive child health services in the Cape Metropolitan area of South Africa. Services included treatment for diseases; preventative interventions such as immunisation; and promotive interventions, such as improvement in nutrition and promotion of breastfeeding.Method: A qualitative, descriptive phenomenological approach was applied to explore the experiences and perceptions of mothers and/or carers utilising child healthcare services. Thirty percent of the clinics were selected purposively from the total population. A convenience purposive non-probability sampling method was applied to select 17 mothers who met the criteria and gave written consent. Interviews were conducted and recorded digitally using an interview guide. The data analysis was done using Tesch’s eight step model.Results: Findings of the study indicated varied experiences. Not all mothers received information about the Road to Health book or card. According to the mothers, integrated child healthcare services were not practised. The consequences were missed opportunities in immunisation, provision of vitamin A, absence of growth monitoring, feeding assessment and provision of nutritional advice.Conclusion: There is a need for simple interventions such as oral rehydration, early recognition and treatment of diseases, immunisation, growth monitoring and appropriate nutrition advice. These services were not offered diligently. Such interventions could contribute to reducing the incidence of child morbidity and mortality.

  11. Child human trafficking victims: challenges for the child welfare system. (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Berger Cardoso, Jodi


    Since the passing of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in 2000 and its reauthorization by President George Bush in 2008, federal, state and community efforts in identifying and providing services for victims of human trafficking have significantly improved. However, most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards adults rather than children. Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population. This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations.

  12. Forensic odontology, part 5. Child abuse issues. (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J


    Child abuse, child maltreatment, non-accidental injury and child homicide: all terms that are hard to believe exist in the 21st civilised century, but non-accidental injury of children is a major problem, crossing all socioeconomic, ethnic and educational groups, and is happening all over the world. Available statistics on child abuse and deaths related to abuse are frightening, and as many cases are not reported, actual numbers are likely to be much higher. This paper aims to increase understanding of child abuse issues and encourage the dental team to be alert to the possibility of abuse, recognise the physical injuries and make referrals to the appropriate agency if necessary. In child abuse cases physical injuries to the head and facial area are common while other types of abuse are less visible but are damaging to a vulnerable child in other ways. Keeping children safe is a shared responsibility and a top priority for all of us.

  13. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families. (United States)

    De Falco, Simona; Emer, Alessandra; Martini, Laura; Rigo, Paola; Pruner, Sonia; Venuti, Paola


    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  14. The "child size medicines" concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Okeng, Jasper Ogwal; Mbonye, Anthony


    causes of morbidity and mortality among children in Uganda- diseases that were also emphasized in the MMCS campaign. Asthma and epilepsy were included as conditions that require long term care. Schistomiasis was included as a neglected tropical disease. Content analysis was used to assess evidence...... solid dosage formulations like dispersible tablets, pellets and granules- indicating limited adherence to MMCS recommendations. Some of the medicines recommended in the clinical guidelines as first line treatment for malaria and pneumonia among children were not evidence-based. Conclusion The Ugandan...... health policy documents reflected limited adherence to the MMCS recommendations. This and failure to use evidence based medicines may result into treatment failure and or death. A revision of the current policies and guidelines to better reflect ‘child size’, child appropriate and evidence based...

  15. Drugs used in child maltreatment. (United States)


    Between 2000 and 2008, the American Association of Poison Control Centers recorded 1439 cases in which drugs or alcohol were used to mistreat children under 7 years of age, representing an average of 160 reports per year. Median age was 2 years, and 57% of victims were boys. The substances included psychotropic drugs, analgesics, cold remedies, alcohol, and illicit drugs. 18 children died, while 32 children experienced life-threatening effects or residual disability. It is not clear whether these results can be extrapolated to the French population. In France, a yearly survey of the Centres for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) identified 162 cases of "chemical submission", 3 of which involved children. In practice, it is often difficult to recognise when a child is being maltreated, especially when medications, illicit drugs or alcohol are used. Taking into consideration the known adverse effect profile of a drug may provide a clue, help to limit harms to the child and allow appropriate management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Dave


    Full Text Available In today’s society, electronic media are thoroughly integrated into the fabric of life, with television, movies, videos, music, video games, and computers, central to both work and play. While these media outlets can provide education and entertainment to children, many researches are concerned with the negative impact electronic media is having on children. Media is used as a third parent or servant. Lot of aspects are important related to media exposure and child behavior. Media exposure affects the neurodevelopment, nutrition and health and academic achievements of the child. Parent education plays an important role in the behavior modification of the children. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 87-89

  17. Substance abuse and child maltreatment. (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn


    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  18. The girl child and law. (United States)

    Jain, A


    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  19. What do child psychotherapists know?




    In the decades after the death of Freud in 1939, the psychoanalytic tradition in Britain was substantially shaped by child analysis. Melanie Klein’s discoveries emerged from psychoanalytic practice with children, which was based on ‘play technique’. Some of Donald Winnicott’s most important ideas were developed through work with children, and through study of the relationships between mothers and babies. In this book chapter Professor Rustin argues that the theoretical advances of the 1940s a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Amancio do Silva


    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to issues related to social representations of children through the lens of the adult world; we recommend that fosters the child's opportunity to be author and co-author (protagonist in the production of children's literature and is known to be beyond their textual production considering that all production of children in school (painting, scribbling, drawings, sketches of letters and various signs is recognized as children's literature. 

  1. Migration, transfers and child labor


    Dimova, Ralitza; Epstein, Gil S; Gang, Ira N.


    We examine agricultural child labor in the context of emigration, transfers, and the ability to hire outside labor. We start by developing a theoretical background based on Basu and Van, (1998), Basu, (1999, 2000) and Epstein and Kahana (2008) and show how hiring labor from outside the household and transfers to the household might induce a reduction in children's working hours. Analysis using Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data on the Kagera region in Tanzania lend support to the...

  2. Child Poverty: Definition and Measurement. (United States)

    Short, Kathleen S


    This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs.

  3. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis


    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  4. Evolutionary perspective in child growth. (United States)

    Hochberg, Ze'ev


    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child's growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.

  5. Community interaction and child maltreatment. (United States)

    Kim, Bomi; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn


    The way in which parents interact with their environment may have implications for their likelihood of abuse and neglect. This study examines the parent-environment relationship through community involvement and perception, using social disorganization theory. We hypothesize mothers who participate in their communities and have positive perceptions of them may be less likely to maltreat their children because of the potential protective capacity of neighborhood supports. Using information from the 5 year Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n=2991), the mother's self-reported acts of psychological and physical maltreatment and neglect are measured. A mother's community involvement index is the number of community activities a mother was involved in, and community perception is measured by two five-item Likert scales assessing perception of community collective efficacy. We analyze the relationship between community variables and each of mother's maltreatment behaviors as well as the interaction between community factors using a series of nested logistic regressions. Higher levels of community involvement are associated with lower levels of psychological aggression. More positive perception of community social control is associated with lower levels of physical assault. A moderation effect of community perception suggests that a mother's perception of her community changes the relationship between community involvement and psychological child abuse. The results provide important policy and empirical implications to build positive and supportive communities as a protective factor in child maltreatment. Getting parents involved in their communities can improve the environment in which children and families develop, and decrease the likelihood that maltreatment will occur.

  6. [Music therapy and child care]. (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Min; Sung, Huei-Chuan


    Music therapy was shown many years ago to have positive effects in various age groups of patients in the Western world. Music can produce physiological and psychological effects, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety, improvements in the immune system, decreases in cortisol levels, the reduction of stress and the promotion of well-being. Music therapy is an inexpensive and effective intervention for nurses to apply to patients. The application of such therapy to children, however, is different from that to adults due to their limited cognitive and language development. In Taiwan, nurses' knowledge of music therapy is limited, and it is rarely used in child care. This article introduces music therapy and its effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, handicapped children, and children receiving surgery. Music therapy is often used as an assisted intervention for patient care in clinical settings. Health care professionals can perform some of the music therapy activities for patients appropriately even if they have not been trained in music. This article aims to improve nurses' knowledge of music therapy and to provide a useful reference for those involved in child care.

  7. The Nutrition Transition and Indicators of Child Malnutrition


    Kimenju, Simon C.; Qaim, Matin


    We analyze how the nutrition transition affects child malnutrition in developing countries. It is often assumed that the nutrition transition affects child weight but not child growth, which could be one reason why child underweight decreases faster than child stunting. But these effects have hardly been analyzed empirically. Our cross-country panel regressions show that the nutrition transition reduces child underweight, while no consistent effect on child overweight is found. Against common...

  8. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi


    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  9. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation. (United States)

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O


    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH.

  10. Maternal ratings of child health and child obesity, variations by mother's race/ethnicity and nativity. (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E


    We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.

  11. Addicted to the Holocaust – Bernice Eisenstein’s Ways of Coping with Troublesome Memories in I Was a Child of Holocaust Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drewniak Dagmara


    Full Text Available In her I Was a Child of Holocaust Survivors published in Canada in 2006, Bernice Eistenstein undertakes an attempt to cope with the inherited memories of the Holocaust. As a child of the Holocaust survivors, she tries to deal with the trauma her parents kept experiencing years after WWII had finished. Eisenstein became infected with the suffering and felt it inescapable. Eisenstein’s text, which is one of the first Jewish-Canadian graphic memoirs, appears to represent the voice of the children of Holocaust survivors not only owing to its verbal dimension, but also due to the drawings incorporated into the text. Therefore, the text becomes a combination of a memoir, a family story, a philosophical treatise and a comic strip, which all prove unique and enrich the discussion on the Holocaust in literature. For these reasons, the aim of this article is to analyze the ways in which Eisenstein deals with her postmemory, to use Marianne Hirsch’s term (1997 [2002], as well as her addiction to the Holocaust memories. As a result of this addiction, the legacy of her postmemory is both unwanted and desired and constitutes Bernice Eisenstein’s identity as the eponymous child of Holocaust survivors.

  12. Polygyny, reproductive success and child health in rural Ethiopia: why marry a married man? (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Mace, Ruth


    This study examines the reproductive success of men and women in rural Ethiopia as a function of their marital status, specifically by comparing polygamously and monogamously married individuals. In line with predictions from evolutionary theory, polygamy is beneficial to male reproductive success (i.e. producing larger numbers of surviving offspring). The success of polygamously married females depends on wife rank: the first wives of polygamous husbands do better than monogamously married women and much better than second or third wives. These effects are mirrored in child nutritional status: the children of second and third wives have lower weight for height. Due to potential, largely unmeasurable differences in marriageability (quality) between individuals, it was not possible to support a model of either resource-holding polygyny combined with female choice or female coercion into unwanted marriages. First wives of polygamously married men marry at a younger age and attract a higher brideprice, suggesting that both the males and females in the marriage are likely to be of higher quality (due to wealth, family status or some other factor such as beauty). Unions that end up monogamous are likely to be between slightly lower quality individuals; and second and third wives, who marry at the oldest ages and attract the lowest brideprice, may be 'making the best of a bad job'. The relatively long gap between first and second marriages may mean that first wives of highly marriageable males can enjoy considerable reproductive success before their husbands marry again.

  13. Parental and child health beliefs and behavior. (United States)

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M


    Personal interviews concerning health beliefs and behaviors were conducted with a parent and child in each of 250 households. Index scores were constructed for parental and child health beliefs, and these scores were entered, along with demographic variables, in a series of multiple regression analyses predicting child health beliefs and behaviors. The age of the child was the variable most highly associated with three of four child health behaviors and four of six child health beliefs. The children's snacking between meals and cigarette smoking were related to several parental behaviors and, to a lesser extent, parental health beliefs. The children's health beliefs were less predictable than were their health behaviors, and the observed significant relationships were with parental health beliefs and demographics. The implications for the design of health education programs are discussed.

  14. Development of Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Fakunmoju


    Full Text Available This article presents reliability and validity analyses of the Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale (PCMS. The scale comprised 34 items that measure abusive behaviors related to emotional/psychological abuse (10 items, sexual abuse (6 items, child neglect (6 items, child labor (7 items, and physical abuse (5 items. Analysis was based on a convenience sample of 317 participants in Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation was used to determine construct validity of its five-factor structure (subscales. The overall internal consistency of the PCMS was .95; subscales of Emotional/Psychological Abuse (.93 and Sexual Abuse (.91 were high, whereas those of Child Neglect (.89, Child Labor (.86, and Physical Abuse (.84 were good. Cutoff scores were computed categorizing scores into low/weak, medium/moderate, and high/strong perceptions of child maltreatment. Strengths and limitations as well as practical applications and implications of the scale for research were discussed.

  15. 变压器励磁涌流致保护误动及其策略探讨%Unwanted Operation of Protection Caused by Transformer Excitation Inrush Current and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奕衡; 罗定镒


    For transformer differential protection, one of the important issue is the research on excitation inrush current and fault, as it is significant to transformer differential protection. Combining with project cases, this paper discussed the unwanted operation of protection caused by excitation inrush current Through analyzing harmonic data and wave form, it studied how to get setting valve related to excitation inrush current to serve as a reference for the peer.%对于变压器的差动保护,一个重要的问题就是对其励磁涌流及故障的深入研究,因为其对变压器差动保护效果有着十分重要的影响.本文结合工程实例探讨了励磁涌流导致的变压器误动作现象,通过对有关谐波数据及波形的分析,研究如何获得与励磁涌流相关的整定值,可供同行人员参考.

  16. A 4-month, open-label study evaluating the efficacy of eflornithine 11.5% cream in the treatment of unwanted facial hair in women using TrichoScan. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rolf


    Eflornithine 11.5% cream is an effective treatment for unwanted facial hair (UFH) in women with the effect on facial hair growth starting to be seen from 1 month after treatment initiation. TrichoScan is a validated method of assessing hair length, thickness, density, and growth rate using contact skin microscopy. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of eflornithine cream in women with UFH, as assessed by TrichoScan. In this open-label, single-centre study, 25 women (aged 25-63 years) applied eflornithine 11.5% cream to the upper lip twice daily for 4 months. Hair density, mean and cumulative hair length, mean hair thickness and hair growth rate were assessed at baseline and Month 1, 2 and 4 using TrichoScan. Eflornithine cream significantly decreased hair density from baseline to Month 1 (- 11.4 hairs/cm2, p = 0.014), Month 2 (- 16.5 hairs/cm2, p = 0.013) and Month 4 (- 12.05 hairs/cm2, p = 0.05). In addition, cumulative hair length decreased from baseline to Month 1 (- 7.104 mm, p = 0.001), Month 2 (- 10.054 mm, p hair growth rate. Mean hair thickness did not change significantly. Eflornithine 11.5% cream is an effective treatment for UFH in women with the effect on facial hair growth starting to be seen from 1 month after treatment initiation.

  17. Counting Child Domestic Servants in Latin America


    Levison, Deborah; Langer, Anna


    This paper summarizes trends in the use of child domestic servants in six Latin American countries using IPUMS-International census samples for 1960 to 2000. Child domestics are among the most vulnerable of child workers, and the most invisible. They may be treated kindly and allowed to attend school, or they may be secluded in their employers’ home, overworked, verbally abused, beaten, and unable to leave or report their difficulties to kin. Estimates and imputations are based on labor force...

  18. Definition, Measuring and Prevalence of Child Neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    group, although at least four per cent of all children under one year of age, is subjected to child abuse and neglect. In her study, Else Christensen has attempted to estimate the extent of the problem among children under the age of one year. Furthermose, she has made a theoetical and practical...... clarification of the concept child abuse and neglect. Excatly which signs is the health nurse to observe in order to employ the serious term child abuse and neglect?...

  19. Poverty experience, race, and child health.


    Malat, Jennifer; Oh, Hyun Joo; Hamilton, Mary Ann


    OBJECTIVES: Studies that examine children's poverty and health at one point in time do not account for some children experiencing poverty briefly and others living in poverty for much of their lives. The objective of this study was to determine how duration of poverty and child race are related to child health. METHODS: To assess these relationships, we analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement. Ordinary least squares regression was used to est...

  20. 20 CFR 725.219 - Duration of entitlement; child. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 725.219... of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning... month in which any one of the following events first occurs: (1) The child dies; (2) The child...

  1. Child Involvement in Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Violent Families


    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria


    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and i...

  2. 75 FR 32145 - Safeguarding Child Support Information (United States)


    ... fiscal instability of several large private child support collection agencies; and (3) the Department's... rights (including, when authorized under the State plan, any official of a political subdivision);...

  3. Mothers, domestic violence, and child protection. (United States)

    Douglas, Heather; Walsh, Tamara


    This article explores the relationship between understandings of domestic violence and the child protection response drawing on material gathered in focus groups with workers who support mothers dealing with both domestic violence and child protection issues. The interviewees expressed concern that the dynamics of domestic violence are often misunderstood and inappropriately responded to by child protection workers. This article critically examines the interviewees' concerns and concludes that to properly protect children, it is crucial that child protection workers have a clear understanding of the dynamics of and issues related to domestic violence.

  4. Child Protection Centers and Forensic Medicine Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kafadar


    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO anyone under the age of 18 is determined as %u201Cchild%u201D. Child abuse is described by Henry Kempe in 1962. Nowadays, neglect definition and prevention for children are most important.Child maltreatment is defined as harmful behaviors on physical, emotional, mental, or sexual health of child. There are two ways of maltreatment; abuse and neglect according to the forensic medicine approach. The aim of this study is to discuss Child Protection Center, the center service delivery and forensic medicine approach.

  5. Teacher Behavior Unwanted According to Student's Perceptions (United States)

    Yildirim, Isa; Akan, Durdagi; Yalçin, Sinan


    This study was conducted in the aim of revealing the misbehaviors of the teachers according to the perceptions of the students. In the study, semi-structured interview was done with 8th grade 45 students, 20 males and 25 females, from three secondary school determined through purposive sampling. The interviews were analyzed with content analysis,…

  6. Eliminating unwanted electrons in EBIS devices (United States)

    Hershcovitch, Ady I.


    In electron beam ion sources, step-wise ionization to high charge states is accomplished by magnetically confined electron beam. Electron space charge and high voltage electrodes confine the ions. The relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) ion source Debye length meets requirements for instabilities with free source of energy to grow. Electrons stripped from ions provide energy for a variety of microinstabilities to grow. Possible solution is to remove these electrons from the trap to a drift tube biased to higher voltage than the other tubes between the gate and the collector. If needed, a split drift tube for bleeding these electrons to ground is added.

  7. Trying to make an unwanted facility palatable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.


    Finding suitable accommodations for the temporary storage and permanent disposal of this: nation`s low- and high-level radioactive waste is proving an ever more difficult task in this era of volatile technology and science debate over the merits of the nuclear fuel cycle. Local constituencies become deeply immersed in the complex debate whether the site is chosen through a technical site selection process or is a voluntary entry. Rural communities with candidate sites need to initially shift their focus away from this, often acrimonious, debate; instead, the first discussion priority for such rural communities should be to develop a dynamic vision of their own economic and environmental future. The second discussion priority should be to determine if the array of accompanying incentives and benefits hosting this facility would afford the community the opportunity for vision fulfillment. If so, total focus should, then, be given to understanding and resolving to the satisfaction of the constituents issues related to nuclear technology, isolation of radioactive materials, management of risk, storage and disposal facility need, perceived and actual risk, oversight and power sharing authority, engineered safety barriers, and public trust.

  8. Unwanted effects due to cosmetics - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnuch, A.


    Cosmetics are a heterogeneous group of products, consisting of products abundantly used as shampoos or cleansing agents on the one hand, and of products not so frequently used as those applied for decorative purposes such as nail cosmetics. Due to a differing frequency of use and due to differing (c

  9. Thalidomide induced xerosis: an unwanted reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Kamath


    Full Text Available A 59-year-old male exhibited anemia for evaluation. Endoscopy was diagnostic of gastric antral vascular ectasia. He was given a trial of thalidomide after informing about the adverse effects. After starting thalidomide at 100 mg/day, his hemoglobin (Hb improved. Post 1 month of therapy his Hb normalized, but he developed xerosis. He was given symptomatic treatment, but did not improve. Thalidomide was suspected to cause xerosis, it was discontinued for a month and post-discontinuation of drug he is symptom free for past 8 months. This paper reports a rare case of thalidomide induced xerosis with dermatological and neurological involvement. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(4.000: 732-735

  10. 45 CFR 650.9 - Unwanted inventions. (United States)


    ... inventor to be dedicated to the public through publication in scientific and engineering journals or as a... encouraging the awardee and inventor to promptly make all research results available to the scientific and... ascertaining that the inventor also does not want to patent, send a copy of the invention disclosure to...

  11. Child pornography: a hidden dimension of child abuse. (United States)

    Pierce, R L


    In the decade of the 70s, much was learned about abused and neglected children and their families. Public outcry demanded action at the state, regional and national level hoping that the effort would generate more effective methods of identification, intervention and treatment. Consequently, researchers and theoreticians initiated efforts that were aimed at providing a better understanding of why some parents abuse or neglect their children while others do not. In spite of all the energy and time, one form of child abuse continues to flourish relatively unnoticed--child pornography, or as it is more commonly known in the trade, "kiddie" or "chicken" porn. Because of the dearth of information about the subject, this paper addresses five key issues: Who are the children who become the young stars of pornographic films? How many children are estimated to be involved in this activity? What are the presumed effects of such involvement on children? Legal issues related to the control of the pornographic industry; and What is the challenge to social work and other helping professionals?

  12. Iowa Child Care Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010


    This paper presents a profile of Iowa's Child Care Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile is divided into the following categories: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family Child Care Programs;…

  13. The Impact of Child Care Subsidy Use on Child Care Quality (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne


    In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the…

  14. Preferred child body size and parental underestimation of child weight in Mexican-American families (United States)

    Objective: To determine whether parents who prefer a heavier child would underestimate their child's weight more than those who prefer a leaner child. Methods: Participants were Mexican-American families (312 mothers, 173 fathers, and 312 children ages 8-10) who were interviewed and had height and w...

  15. Efficacy of child-focused and parent-focused interventions in a child anxiety prevention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Bögels, S.M.; Voncken, J.M.


    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a par

  16. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families (United States)

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.


    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  17. Authoritarian Child Rearing, Parental Locus of Control, and the Child's Behavior Style. (United States)

    Janssens, Jan M. A. M.


    Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…

  18. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Application to Maltreating Parent-Child Dyads (United States)

    Timmer, S.G.; Urquiza, A.J.; Zebell, N.M.; McGrath, J.M.


    Objective:: Parent-Child Interaction Training (PCIT), which uses a social learning framework, is a dyadic intervention that is designed to alter specific patterns of interaction found in parent-child relationships. Previous research suggests that maladaptive and high-risk characteristics found in maltreating parent-child dyads may be responsive to…

  19. 76 FR 61289 - Public Hearing on Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor... (United States)


    ... Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Public Hearing on Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY: Wage and Hour... public hearing on its Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), Child Labor Regulations, Orders...

  20. 77 FR 31549 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil... (United States)


    ... Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION... opportunity to submit written comments on its proposal to amend its ] child labor regulations which...

  1. Child Labor and Health: Quantifying the Global Health Impacts of Child Labor. (United States)

    Graitcer, Philip L.; Lerer, Leonard B.

    Child labor remains one of the most controversial challenges at the end of the 20th century. Approximately 250 million children in developing countries work either full- or part-time. Child labor is not confined to less-developed countries, as economic transitions bring shifts in the prevalence and nature of child labor. Throughout the world,…

  2. 76 FR 67104 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil... (United States)


    ... Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION... comments for an additional 30 days on the proposed revisions to the child labor regulations published...

  3. Children's Cortisol and the Quality of Teacher-Child Relationships in Child Care (United States)

    Lisonbee, Jared A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Payne, Amie Lapp; Granger, Douglas A.


    Teacher-child relationships were examined as predictors of cortisol change in preschool children. Saliva for assays was collected from one hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds (101 boys) in the mornings and afternoons on 2 days at child care, and before and after a series of challenging tasks and a teacher-child interaction session outside the…

  4. Societal Factors Impacting Child Welfare: Validating the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Zeitlin, Wendy; Augsberger, Astraea; McGowan, Brenda G.; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.


    Objective: This research examines the psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (PCWS). This instrument is designed to assess child welfare workers' understanding of how society views their role and their work. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to analyze data on 538 child welfare workers. Results:…

  5. Healthy Smile for Your Young Child: Tips to Keep Your Child Healthy (United States)

    ... and gums is important. Brush your child’s teeth, give your child healthy foods, and take your child to the dentist. If you take ... 7 or 8, you should brush her teeth. Give your child a healthy start! Here are tips to ... gums healthy. Take Care of Your Child’s Mouth m Brush your ...

  6. Detection of child abuse by Dutch preventive child-healthcare doctors and nurses : Has it changed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; de Meer, G.; Wiefferink, C.H.; Crone, M.R.


    Abstract Objective Child maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect) is a major cause of child morbidity and death. It is a principal topic in community child-healthcare services yet little is known about the actual detection of suspected cases. We examined trends in this detection, as well as the charac

  7. A Child with Intestinal Basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmand


    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are not common in children, especially in immunocompetent ones. In this case report we describe a child who was presented with abdominal pain and mass, bloody diarrhea and fever. He was treated for amebiasis, but due to treatment failure and deterioration of his condition, he underwent a laparatomy. Histologic examination of the excised bowel in the second look revealed Basidiobolomycosis, a fungus belonging to the order Entomophthorales. The signs, symptoms, treatment and diagnosis of the present case indicate that fungal infections must be considered not only in immunocompromised patients with abdominal pain and mass, but also in apparently immunocompetent ones.

  8. Child abuse: Sivas (Turkey sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezer Ayan


    Full Text Available Subject of this study is family violence among primary school students. The purpose is to determine to what level socio-cultural, economical, psychological and communicative characteristics of the family affect the experience of violent acts on the child.Method: Universe of the study consists of second phase (junior high students of grades VI, VII, and VIII in 70 primary schools in the city center of Sivas. When creating the sample, schools were divided into three groups as low, middle and high according to the socio-economical and cultural levels of the neighborhoods they were located in, and total fifteen schools were selected, three from each area, with characteristics suitable to represent the respective areas. Number of students included in the sample from these schools is 655. Study data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of items directed at determining the socio-demographic characteristics of the students, structures of families, quality of family relationships and presence or absence family violence against the child and relations and factors that might create the potential for violence.Findings: Proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their mothers was found as 54%, and proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their fathers was found as 46%. According to results of the regression analysis performed separately for mothers and fathers with the purpose of finding the variables with the greatest effect on being treated with violence of children by their parents and the level of effect of these variables, it was found that the variables influencing with statistically significant levels students’ experiences of violence from their mothers were educational status of the mother, presence of violence between mother and father and mode of treatment of the mother against the child, respectively.According to the results of the logistic regression

  9. Change Trajectories for Parent-Child Interaction Sequences during Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Child Physical Abuse (United States)

    Hakman, Melissa; Chaffin, Mark; Funderburk, Beverly; Silovsky, Jane F.


    Objective: Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) has been found to reduce future child abuse reports among physically abusive parents. Reductions in observed negative parenting behaviors mediated this benefit. The current study examined session-by-session interaction sequences in order to identify when during treatment these changes occur and…

  10. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence (United States)

    Sinanan, Allison N.


    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  11. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan. (United States)

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma


    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not.

  12. [Child's subjectivity in postmodern times]. (United States)

    Lejarraga, Horacio


    From mid ´50s onwards, we witness a change of paradigm in the Western world: the expression of a historical shift from modernity to postmodernity. This new era includes a strong influence of the media on the population, a change from a lineal sense of time to a virtual, punctual one, and a flooding of overwhelming amount of information, mostly irrelevant, broadcasted in a de-contextualized, synchronic, fragmented and senseless fashion. This new age is characterized, above all, by the destitution of the State, the meta- institution source of legitimacy of all modern institutions: citizenship, factory, and mainly, School, an essential determinant this last one in the construction process of child subjectivity. Having lost its modeling power, the School loses its modern meaning, becoming thus a mere physical space in which pupils meet, but where general, transcendent rules, norms and values cannot be built, as in fact happened in modern times. According to Corea and Lewkowicz, school becomes an empty shed in which rules have to be built all the time, and become valid only for a particular occasion. These changes necessarily influence child subjectivity, the way they feel, they behave, and they "live" in contemporary society. Pediatricians have to be aware and try to understand these changes, so that we can help children, and, in doing so, to build a better world for them.

  13. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression. (United States)

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J


    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  14. Marital transitions. A child's perspective. (United States)

    Hetherington, E M; Stanley-Hagan, M; Anderson, E R


    Despite a recent leveling off of the divorce rate, almost half of the children born in the last decade will experience the divorce of their parents, and most of these children will also experience the remarriage of their parents. Most children initially experience their parents' marital rearrangements as stressful; however, children's responses to their parents marital transitions are diverse. Whereas some exhibit remarkable resiliency and in the long term may actually be enhanced by coping with these transitions, others suffer sustained developmental delays or disruptions. Others appear to adapt well in the early stages of family reorganizations but show delayed effects that emerge at a later time, especially in adolescence. The long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se. In recent years, researchers have begun to move away from the view that single-parent and remarried families are atypical or pathogenic families and are focusing on the diversity of children's responses and to the factors that facilitate or disrupt the development and adjustment of children experiencing their parents' marital transitions.

  15. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj


    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  16. Evolutionary Perspective in Child Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze’ev Hochberg


    Full Text Available Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child’s growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.

  17. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review. (United States)

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F


    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  18. Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program. Final rule. (United States)


    This final rule makes regulatory changes to the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) based on the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2014. These changes strengthen requirements to protect the health and safety of children in child care; help parents make informed consumer choices and access information to support child development; provide equal access to stable, high-quality child care for low-income children; and enhance the quality of child care and the early childhood workforce.

  19. Narrative Structure and Emotional References in Parent-Child Reminiscing: Associations with Child Gender, Temperament, and the Quality of Parent-Child Interactions (United States)

    Bost, Kelly K.; Choi, Eunsil; Wong, Maria S.


    The present research examined child gender, temperament, and the quality of parent-child interactions as predictors of narrative style and references to emotion during mother-child and father-child reminiscing. Although models predicting parents' narrative styles were non-significant, results revealed significant interactions between parental…

  20. Helping Your Child Deal with Death (United States)

    ... 2-Year-Old Helping Your Child Deal With Death KidsHealth > For Parents > Helping Your Child Deal With Death Print A A A en español Cómo ayudar ... has lost a loved one: When talking about death, use simple, clear words. To break the news ...

  1. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (United States)

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd


    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…

  2. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience. (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A


    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward.

  3. When Your Child Needs a Cast (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old When Your Child Needs a Cast KidsHealth > For Parents > When Your Child Needs a Cast Print A A A What's in ... A cast wraps around the broken area and needs to be removed by a doctor when the ...

  4. 77 FR 11625 - Child Restraint Systems (United States)


    ... they protect the children for whom the restraint is recommended, as advertised. Our increasing the cut... Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 571 and 572 Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy; Final Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 38 / Monday, February...

  5. Rights of the Child in Senegal. (United States)

    Lacroix, Anne-Laurence; Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Senegal. Part 1 of the report, "Preliminary Observations," discusses Senegal's ratification of the…

  6. Undergraduate Child Psychiatry Teaching in Melbourne, Australia (United States)

    Gough, Jenny K.; McCallum, Zoe; Bevan, Catherine; Vance, Alasdair


    Objective: The teaching of child psychiatry in Australian medical schools is under review: the content, the placement of the field within medical curricula, and the appropriate teaching and learning methods are all contested. The authors developed a 1-day program in the 9-week child and adolescent health course conducted in the final two semesters…

  7. Divorce, Single Parenting, and Child Development. (United States)

    Crossman, Sharyn M.; Adams, Gerald R.


    Investigated whether a preschool intervention program for children from single-parent households could be effective in establishing the conditions appropriate for allowing the child to recover from the harmful consequences of divorce and limited adult-child interaction. (Author/DB)

  8. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Alexander, Randell A.


    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  9. Locating Child Protection in Preservice Teacher Education (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Laskey, Louise; McInnes, Elspeth; Farrell, Ann; Mathews, Ben; Briggs, Freda


    A recent report delivered by the Australian Centerer for Child Protection has highlighted the need for empirical evidence of effective pedagogies for supporting teaching and learning of child protection content in Australian teacher education programs (Arnold & Mai-Taddeo, 2007). This paper advances this call by presenting case study accounts of…

  10. Child Labor and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia (United States)

    Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Sparrow, Robert


    We examine the effects of trade liberalization on child work in Indonesia, identifying geographical differences in the effects of trade policy through district level exposure to reduction in import tariff barriers, from 1993 to 2002. The results suggest that increased exposure to trade liberalization is associated with a decrease in child work…

  11. JING Qicheng wins award for child development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Together with two US psychologists, Prof. JING Qicheng from the CAS Institute of Psychology (IP) has been honored with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Child Development in 2007 by the US-based Society for Research in Child Development(SRCD).

  12. Child Second Language Acquisition of Syntax. (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Usha


    Reviews recent research in universal grammar-based child second language acquisition (SLA) research, arguing that child SLA studies can better explore the role of biological factors in language acquisition and strengthen the links between SLA and linguistic theory. (129 references) (MDM)

  13. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry


    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  14. 38 CFR 3.210 - Child's relationship. (United States)


    ... contrary, to show that the child was a member of the veteran's household at the date of the veteran's death... spouse or from any public or private welfare organization which furnished services or assistance to..., and evidence that the child is a member of the veteran's household or was a member of the...

  15. 34 CFR 300.111 - Child find. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child find. 300.111 Section 300.111 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.111 Child find. (a) General. (1) The State...

  16. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf


    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social polic

  17. Child Rights Information Network Newsletter, 1997. (United States)

    Purbrick, Becky, Ed.


    These three newsletter issues communicate activities of the Child Rights Information Network (CRIN) and report on information resources and worldwide activities concerning children and child rights. The January 1997 issue profiles CRIN members in Costa Rica, Tanzania, Germany, and Switzerland; and provides updates on the activities of projects…

  18. 75 FR 71521 - National Child's Day, 2010 (United States)


    ... United States of America A Proclamation On National Child's Day, we celebrate America's children and... is helping lead our effort to end the epidemic of childhood obesity within a generation by... the promise within each child. Our children will soon stand at the helm of America and steer...

  19. Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Parents > Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... their ability to do well at things Why Self-Esteem Matters When children feel good about themselves, it ...

  20. 77 FR 895 - Tribal Child Welfare (United States)


    ... 45 CFR Parts 1355 and 1356 Tribal Child Welfare; Interim Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77... Welfare AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF), Administration for Children and... submitted via email to . Please include ``Tribal Child Welfare'' in the subject...

  1. The Child's Status in the Democratic State (United States)

    Schrag, Francis


    Examines and questions the child and universal adult suffrage, justifying the child's exclusion, establishing criteria for voter competence, evaluating the competence of children, and chronological age as a criterion. Journal available from Sage Publications, Inc., 275 South Beverly Drive, Beverly Hills, California 90212. (ND)

  2. Teaching Your Child Self-Control (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Teaching Your Child Self-Control KidsHealth > For Parents > Teaching Your Child Self-Control ... success later in life. Helping Kids Learn Self-Control By learning self-control, kids can make appropriate ...

  3. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports (United States)

    Hartill, Mike


    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  4. Rights of the Child in Algeria. (United States)

    Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Algeria. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes legislative and institutional efforts made by Algeria since…

  5. Take Care of Your Child's Teeth (United States)

    ... Previous section Use Fluoride 5 of 7 sections Take Action: Foods and Drinks Give your child healthy foods. Healthy foods include vegetables, ... to tooth decay. To help prevent tooth decay: Give your kids only tap water to drink between meals. Serve milk or juice with a meal instead of between ... 6 of 7 sections Take Action: Dental Checkups Take your child to the ...

  6. Keeping Your Child Healthy During Cancer Remission (United States)

    ... including:The date of diagnosis.The type of cancer your child was treated for.Pathology reports that describe the ... contributed by: editorial staff Tags: Adolescent, Cancer in Children, child Kids and Teens January 2017 Copyright © American Academy ...

  7. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics (United States)

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco


    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  8. The Effect of Marriage on Child Poverty. (United States)

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.; Fagan, Patrick F.

    This report examines what share of the current level of child poverty in the United States can be attributed to the growth of single parenthood since the 1960s, focusing on what the child poverty rate would be today if single parent families had remained at the levels that existed before the beginning of the war on poverty. Researchers simulated…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Wulansari


    Full Text Available Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope to be able to do an early diagnose, prevention, and right therapy to minimize the negative impacts that can happen. Raising competencies of health care providers and building more hospitals that can be an integrated crisis centre in child abuse is a must. The government has built some policies to prevent children from child abuse, that has to be socialized, implemented an evaluated. It is hoped that Health Department has to make a continued and integrated systems and make a standard procedures for all of health care providers to prevent and provide the right therapy for the victim of child abuse. Key words: Child Abuse, growth and development, policies

  10. 38 CFR 21.3040 - Eligibility; child. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility; child. 21.3040 Section 21.3040 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED.... Chapter 35 Eligibility and Entitlement § 21.3040 Eligibility; child. (a) Commencement. A program...

  11. Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature (United States)

    ... hijo You've probably experienced waking in the middle of the night to find your child flushed, hot, and sweaty. Your little one's forehead ... by a doctor, never give aspirin to a child due to its association with Reye syndrome , a rare but potentially fatal disease.) If you ...

  12. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.M.


    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency departm

  13. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.


    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  14. Meeting the Needs of Unaccompanied Child Refugees (United States)

    Pierce, Sarah


    Unaccompanied child migrants have been entering the United States for years, but the recent spike in their arrivals has made the issue more pressing. Though the unaccompanied child population has been characterized as temporary in nature, it is likely that a large number of these children will live in the United States for a long period, perhaps…

  15. Children's Rights and Child Custody Proceedings. (United States)

    Pearson, Jessica; And Others


    Analyzed 160 contested child custody cases to explore the role of children and determine the extent to which judges use discretionary powers. Results suggested children rarely provide any direct input into divorce/custody proceedings, questioning whether judges fulfill their duty to determine the child's best interests in such cases. (JAC)

  16. Trauma-Informed Forensic Child Maltreatment Investigations (United States)

    Pence, Donna M.


    Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…

  17. Indian Child Welfare Act Proceedings. Final rule. (United States)


    This final rule adds a new subpart to the Department of the Interior's (Department) regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), to improve ICWA implementation. The final rule addresses requirements for State courts in ensuring implementation of ICWA in Indian child-welfare proceedings and requirements for States to maintain records under ICWA.

  18. Insatiable insecurity: maternal obesity as a risk factor for mother-child attachment and child weight. (United States)

    Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai


    Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Kaynak Malatyali


    Full Text Available ‘Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways. In addition, there are some factors which contribute the problem including legal gaps, education level of the family and the daughter, economical conditions, stereotypes, traditional practices and sexism level. Finally, it is suggested that the reasons for the problem of ‘child brides’ are multi-dimensional and therefore it requires a similar approach.

  20. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eDe Falco


    Full Text Available Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  1. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants. (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang


    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.

  2. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhang


    Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.

  3. Diagnosis Deafness in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Taghavi


    Full Text Available It is difficult for clinicians to make parents aware of any disease or permanent handicap of their children.It is crucial to have vivid picture of the reactions to such crisis in order to manage severe psychological effects of the mentioned situations such as depression and unhappiness. Confronting the situation parents have diverse feelings regarding the pregnancy period, birth time and handicap diagnosis and these are the factors that shape the parent’s upcoming reactions. Common feedbacks to the crisis are refusing the problem, keeping their child away from society, the emotions that provoke disappointment, asking about the reasons for hearing loss, referring to religion, condemning the physician, feeling sin and changing doctor frequently. When parent accept the situation and that hearing could not recurrent and understanding the natural reasons back on their child’s handicap, they can manage the situation constructively.

  4. Gender difference in child mortality. (United States)

    Ahmed, F A


    1976 census data and data on births to 8788 ever married women from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey were analyzed to determine if son preference was responsible for higher mortality among girls than among boys and what factors were associated with this higher mortality. During 0-3 years, boys were more likely to die than females. For example, the overall male-female sex ratio for the 1st year was 118:100. At ages 5, 10, 15, and 2 0, however, girls were more likely to die. The sex rations for these years were 98, 95, 93, and 91. In fact, the excess mortality among illiterate mothers accounted for most of the overall excess mortality. As mother's educational level rose, the excess mortality of girls fell, so that by university level boys experienced excess mortality (130, 111, 112, 105). Less educated mothers breast fed sons longer and waited more months after birth of a son to have another child indicating son preference, but these factors did not necessarily contribute to excess mortality. The major cause of female excess mortality in Egypt was that boys received favored treatment of digestive and respiratory illnesses as indicated by accessibility to a pharmacy (p.01). Norms/traditions and religion played a significant role in excess mortality. The effect of norms/traditions was greater than religion, however. Mother's current and past employment strongly contributed to reducing girls' mortality levels (p.01). These results indicated that Egypt should strive to increase the educational level of females and work opportunities for women to reduce female child mortality. Further, it should work to improve women's status which in turn will reduce norms/traditions that encourage son preference and higher mortality level for girls.

  5. Child deaths in South Africa: Lessons from the child death review pilot. (United States)

    Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Coetzee, David; Scott, Chris; Brijmohun, Yasheen


    South Africa (SA) has not met the child mortality target for the Millennium Development Goals, despite having invested substantially in programmes and policies to achieve these targets. The scale-up of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes reduced HIV transmission from mother to child, but this has not been sustained owing to limitations in community-based child health services. Child mortality has declined, but has now plateaued. Children continue to die from preventable and treatable causes of death. Current data sources are incomplete, and do not provide information on deaths occurring out of health facilities. The child death review (CDR) pilot explores the pattern of child deaths and informs prevention strategies to improve child survival in SA. In this editorial we draw on the conclusions of the CDR pilot, where multiagency teams were established to investigate non-natural and unexpected deaths referred to two mortuary sites in order to strengthen child health and protection response systems and to prevent child deaths.

  6. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators. (United States)

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R; Ginsburg, Golda S


    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention.

  7. Does the gender of parent or child matter in child maltreatment in China? (United States)

    Cui, Naixue; Xue, Jia; Connolly, Cynthia A; Liu, Jianghong


    Child maltreatment is a public health problem worldwide, and China is no exception. However, the pattern of child maltreatment remains unknown, including whether the gender of children and their parents has an impact on the occurrence of maltreatment. This study aims at examining the rates and frequency of child maltreatment, including physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect perpetrated by mothers and fathers. We also test whether the interaction between parents' gender and their child's gender affects the occurrence of child maltreatment in China. 997 children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study participated in the present study and reported their maltreatment experience perpetrated by their mothers and fathers using the questionnaire, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC_CA). Generalized linear model analyses show that boys were more likely than girls to report physical abuse, and, in particular, boys were more likely than girls to be physically abused by their fathers. On the other hand, mothers were more likely than fathers to exhibit psychological aggression and use corporal punishment for both boys and girls. There was no difference based on the child's or parent's gender in the occurrence of neglect. The findings present empirical evidence that enhances the understanding of the pattern of child maltreatment in China, provide implications for social workers and health professionals to identify children at risk of child maltreatment, and shed light on future research studies.

  8. Child to child: an approach to the health education of primary school-age children. (United States)

    Webb, J K


    Child to Child is an approach to health education of the primary school-age child. In developing countries, infants and young children spend much of their lives in the care of an older brother or sister. Morley, a paediatrician, saw the potential of teaching these older children to provide better care for their siblings. Working with colleagues in education, Child to Child was launched in 1978, the International Year of the Child. Teaching material was prepared covering developmental needs, nutrition, common illnesses and aspects of the environment; a book was published describing an activity-oriented teaching method. This material was distributed to developing countries world-wide, with encouragement to use the material and ideas freely, adapting, translating, or innovating as found useful. Child to Child is now in use in 60 or more countries, and in at least 15 languages. It is being used by agencies like the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO, and OXFAM as a way of reinforcing community education in the search for 'Health for All by 2000'. A world-wide review of Child to Child is in hand. Information from this will help to provide firm guidelines on implementation in the different contexts where its value has already been established.

  9. Household food insecurity and child health. (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A


    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses. (United States)

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul


    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed.

  11. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri


    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  12. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review (United States)

    Ramazani, Nahid


    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483

  13. Child protection: a 50-year perspective. (United States)

    Skellern, Catherine Yvette


    It has been 50 years since Kempe et al. published 'The Battered Child Syndrome', describing harm from inflicted injury mechanisms derived from parents and care givers. Since then, there has emerged a rapidly expanding literature on paediatric forensic medicine and child protection, which has offered new insights into injury mechanisms, informed us of the sequelae of abuse and neglect, aided diagnosis and guided clinical practice in the treatment and management of children who become involved in the child protection system. Through the scrutiny of government inquiries and at times uncomfortable media exposure, there have been improvements in child protection and forensic practices resulting in recognition of need for specialised forensic training, improved funding, development of resources and development of professional standards that support accountable, objective, safe and robust practice. From the perspective of an Australian child protection paediatrician, this paper chronicles some of the most significant and at times controversial research in the last 50 years in child protection that have played a key role in shaping our current understanding of child abuse and neglect.

  14. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar


    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

  15. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar


    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 389-394

  16. Research in child and adolescent telemental health. (United States)

    Myers, Kathleen M; Palmer, Nancy B; Geyer, John R


    Over the past decade telepsychiatry, and more broadly telemental health (TMH), services with children and adolescents have been implemented with diverse populations in many geographic areas across the United States. The feasibility and acceptability of child and adolescent TMH have been well demonstrated, but little research exists on the efficacy and effectiveness of TMH in improving the mental health care and outcomes for underserved youth. This article summarizes the state of research in child and adolescent telemental health TMH and examines studies in other areas of telemedicine that may inspire and guide child and adolescent telepsychiatrists to collect data on the process and outcomes of their own work.

  17. Raising a gender non-conforming child. (United States)

    Wisnowski, Deborah L


    This article overviews the challenges parents face raising gender non-conforming children. The author is the mother of a fifteen year old gender non-conforming (GNC) child and co-founder of Stepping Stones Support Group which organizes support programs for families of GNC. The article discusses social challenges, educational challenges and internal conflicts the author has experienced while raising her child. The author also discusses the process of founding Stepping Stones and the importance having support has played in her and her child's life.

  18. The child accident repeater: a review. (United States)

    Jones, J G


    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  19. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan


    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  20. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt


    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  1. Health consequences of child marriage in Africa. (United States)

    Nour, Nawal M


    Despite international agreements and national laws, marriage of girls Child marriage is a human rights violation that prevents girls from obtaining an education, enjoying optimal health, bonding with others their own age, maturing, and ultimately choosing their own life partners. Child marriage is driven by poverty and has many effects on girls' health: increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, cervical cancer, malaria, death during childbirth, and obstetric fistulas. Girls' offspring are at increased risk for premature birth and death as neonates, infants, or children. To stop child marriage, policies and programs must educate communities, raise awareness, engage local and religious leaders, involve parents, and empower girls through education and employment.

  2. Maternal Attachment Status, Mother-Child Emotion Talk, Emotion Understanding, and Child Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant


    Full Text Available Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months. The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems.

  3. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand (United States)



    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  4. Stuttering and the Bilingual Child--New Ways to Help (United States)

    Childhood Education, 2004


    What should parents of a child who stutters do if their child speaks more than one language? Research shows that a child's language skills can affect his or her fluency, according to the nonprofit Stuttering Foundation of America. However, it has not been proven that speaking two languages in the home since birth causes stuttering. If the child is…

  5. Lesbian couple create a child who is deaf like them. (United States)

    Spriggs, M


    A deaf lesbian couple who sought a sperm donor with a family history of deafness in order to have a child they hoped would be deaf have attracted a lot of criticism. They have been criticised for deliberately creating a deaf child, for denying their child a hearing aid, and for raising the child in a homosexual household.

  6. Globalization, Child Welfare Policy, and the Economics of Social Uplift. (United States)

    Casella, Ronnie


    Explores both the development of child welfare in the United States and the impact of international declarations of human and child rights from a global perspective, focusing on: child welfare and the visiting teacher profession in the United States; research on the well-being of children; child welfare policy in an international context; the…

  7. Civil Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse. (United States)

    Lehto, Neil J.


    The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…

  8. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2014 Report (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; Fraga, Lynette; McCready, Michelle


    Eleven million children younger than age five are in some form of child care in the United States. The "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2014 Report" summarizes the cost of child care across the country, examines the importance of child care as a workforce support and as an early learning program, and explores the effect of high…

  9. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report (United States)

    Fraga, Lynette; Dobbins, Dionne; McCready, Michelle


    Eleven million children younger than age five are in some form of child care in the United States. The "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report" summarizes the cost of child care across the country, examines the importance of child care as a workforce support and as an early learning program, and explores the effect of high…

  10. Poverty and Child Placement: A New/Old Idea. (United States)

    Gustavsson, Nora S.; MacEachron, Ann E.


    Examines historical precedents for removing poor children from their families, reviews relevant experiences of Native Americans, and analyzes child placement through the lens of poverty. The role of the federal government in child protection is examined by comparing the Indian Child Welfare Act and the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act.…

  11. 33 CFR 55.9 - Child development centers. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child development centers. 55.9... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.9 Child development centers. (a) The Commandant may make child development services available at child development centers located at Coast Guard installations. (b) Regular...

  12. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.


    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  13. 22 CFR 96.36 - Prohibition on child buying. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition on child buying. 96.36 Section 96... Accreditation and Approval Ethical Practices and Responsibilities § 96.36 Prohibition on child buying. (a) The... indirectly, to a child's parent(s), other individual(s), or an entity as payment for the child or as...

  14. 20 CFR 725.221 - Determination of dependency; child. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; child. 725.221... Determination of dependency; child. For the purposes of determining whether a child was dependent upon a... the eligibility of a child who is under a disability as defined in section 223(d) of the...

  15. 42 CFR 457.310 - Targeted low-income child. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Targeted low-income child. 457.310 Section 457.310... Requirements: Eligibility, Screening, Applications, and Enrollment § 457.310 Targeted low-income child. (a) Definition. A targeted low-income child is a child who meets the standards set forth below and...

  16. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.


    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  17. 45 CFR 1304.24 - Child mental health. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental health... concerns about their child's mental health; (ii) Sharing staff observations of their child and...

  18. Poverty Transitions among Families Supporting a Child with Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Shahtahmasebi, Said; Lancaster, Gillian; Berridge, Damon


    Background: Little is known about child disability and dynamic aspects of poverty. Method: Analysis of data collected over a 12-month period for families (a) supporting a child with intellectual disability (n = 370), (b) supporting a child with other disability (n = 1,418), and (c) supporting a child with no disability (n = 7,215). Results: When…

  19. State Child Care Policies for Limited English Proficient Families (United States)

    Firgens, Emily; Matthews, Hannah


    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), the largest source of federal funding for child care assistance available to states, provides low-income families with help paying for child care. Studies have shown that low-income LEP (limited English proficient), as well as immigrant families, are less likely to receive child care assistance.…

  20. Real Parents, Real Children: Parenting the Adopted Child. (United States)

    van Gulden, Holly; Bartels-Rabb, Lisa M.

    Parenting an adopted child is, for the most part, the same as parenting any other child, but is different in some unique and critical ways related to the child's separation from birth parents and genetic roots. Understanding how a child interprets, understands, and feels about adoption, and why, can help the parent guide the adopted child…

  1. Child Care and Development Block Grant Participation in 2012 (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon


    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…

  2. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol


    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  3. “旧衣零抛弃”项目的发展与意义%Development and Signiifcance of the “Zero Waste of Unwanted Clothes” Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    China’s “Zero Waste of Unwanted Clothes” Action is a public welfare activity jointly sponsored by the Ministry of Civil Affairs, China Women’s Development Foundation, China National Textile and Apparel Council, etc. in 2014, which calls for Chinese garment brands to recycle and reuse discarded clothes. It promotes the concepts of love charity, environmental public interest, making the best use of everything and circular economy, etc. In the promotion process, innovative operation and management ideas were adopted, and the program was carried out in a healthy, controllable, standard and sustainable way and accepted by all social circles and it has become a program with certain social influence.%中国“旧衣零抛弃”品牌公益回收行动是由中国民政部、中华全国妇联妇基会、中国纺织工业联合会等在2014年全国低碳日期间联合提出的一项专门针对废旧纺织品回收与再利用的行动项目。行动本身倡导了爱心公益、环保公益、物尽其用和循环经济的理念,在推广过程中结合了专业、创新的运作管理思路,坚持健康、可控、规范和可持续的工作目标。现阶段项目本身得到了社会各界的认可,也在多地陆续被引入,逐渐在社会中成为极具影响力的项目,且在未来有望成为我国在废旧纺织品循环利用方面的一个社会普及项目。

  4. Identification of Child Maltreatment in Iranian Children with the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale


    Esmaeili, DZ; Vaezzadeh, N; MR Esmaeili; Hosseini, SH; Kaheni, S; Esmaeili, H.; Z. Shahhosseini


    Background: Child abuse and neglect is a worldwide problem and varies across many sociodemographic characteristics. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of different types of child maltreatment in Iranian kids according to the reports of their caregivers. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 562 mothers with the last child aged between 1 and 12 years were recruited based on purposeful sampling method in one pediatric referent Mazandaran province, Iran. Chil...

  5. The Impact of Child Health and Family Inputs on Child Cognitive Develop-ment


    Robert Kaestner; Hope Corman


    In this paper we extensively analyze the impact of child health and other family characteristics on the cognitive achievement of children between the ages of five and nine. We estimate both cross sectional and fixed effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Several of our results challenge the conclusions found in the existing literature. First, we find only a weak relationship between several measures of child health and child cognitive development. Second, we...

  6. Child involvement in interparental conflict and child adjustment problems: a longitudinal study of violent families. (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria


    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents' conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children's involvement in their parents' conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children's involvement in their parents' conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families.

  7. On the Child's Own Initiative: Parents Communicate with Their Dying Child About Death. (United States)

    Jalmsell, Li; Kontio, Taru; Stein, Maria; Henter, Jan-Inge; Kreicbergs, Ulrika


    Open and honest communication has been identified as an important factor in providing good palliative care. However, there is no easy solution to if, when, and how parents and a dying child should communicate about death. This article reports how bereaved parents communicated about death with their child, dying from a malignancy. Communication was often initiated by the child and included communication through narratives such as fairy tales and movies and talking more directly about death itself. Parents also reported that their child prepared for death by giving instructions about his or her grave or funeral and giving away toys.

  8. Helping Your Child: Tips for Parents (United States)

    ... in a healthy range for their age and gender. If your provider tells you that your child ... . [ Top ] ...

  9. Child Support Enforcement and Welfare Caseloads (United States)

    Chein-Chung Huang; Garfinkel, Irwin; Waldfogel, Jane


    Annual state panel data from 1980 to 1999 was examined to understand the effects of child support enforcement (CSE). However, in recent years, it has been found that the CSE among current and former welfare families are dramatically improved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilka GALEVSKA


    Full Text Available Mental retardation is a complex individual and social problem. According to WHO, around 1-3 % of world population are mentally retarded people and the percentage between school children is around 2 %.The development of a mentally retarded child depends on factors related to the disability itself, all the limitations and characteristics which results from that. But, physical, psychical, educational and social development of a mentally retarded child, also, depend on other conditions, such as the family and the wider environment, their reactions, attitudes, awareness and sensitivity for special needs of the child, as well as their preparedness and possibilities to respond.At the same time, it is necessary that the mentally retarded child is detected and diagnosed in time, as well as the early start of an adequate treatment.

  11. Protect Your Child from Rotavirus Disease (United States)

    ... will be protected from severe rotavirus disease. Most vaccinated children will not get sick from rotavirus at all. ... does not cover vaccines for your child, the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program may be able to help. This ...

  12. Protect Your Child against Hib Disease (United States)

    ... at 2 and 4 months old. With both vaccines, children need one booster shot when they are 12 ... child has received all scheduled doses of Hib vaccine. All children should get the full series of Hib shots ...

  13. Online Child Safety Law, Technology and Governance

    CERN Document Server

    Savirimuthu, Dr Joseph


    This work explores the growing convergence between youth culture and digital communication technologies and the corresponding challenges posed to policymakers, examining the current governance debate on online child safety.

  14. Weaving child psychoanalysis: Past, present, and future. (United States)

    Brinich, Paul M


    Using the metaphor of a fabric woven from many threads, this paper describes nine of the many conceptual strands that have contributed to the development of child psychoanalysis over its first century. It notes the unfortunate isolation (sometimes self-imposed) of child analysis from related fields (including adult analysis) and argues that we must recognize both the strengths and weaknesses of our psychoanalytic tools if we are to collaborate with and profit from the work of nonanalytic colleagues. It closes with the suggestion that the continued weaving of child analysis will require the creation of new looms, structures that are able to support a new generation of child analysts and the continued elaboration of the field.

  15. How Does Your Child Hear and Talk? (United States)

    ... More Than One Language Adult Speech and Language Child Speech and Language Swallowing and Feeding Self-Help Groups Find a Professional Advertising Disclaimer Advertise with us About Us The American ...

  16. Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000844.htm Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis To use the sharing features on this page, ... games. References American Cancer Society. Children Diagnosed With Cancer: Dealing With Diagnosis (Ways to improve coping). Updated October 9, 2014. ...

  17. When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant (United States)

    ... several other diagnostic tests, which may include: an echocardiogram , a test in which sound waves are used ... the operating room, your child will be given anesthesia to sleep through the surgery and won't ...

  18. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (United States)

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

  19. Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness (United States)

    ... Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...

  20. Drawings by Child Victims of Incest. (United States)

    Yates, Alayne; And Others


    Child victims of incest were judged to have more poorly developed impulse controls, a defensive structure which emphasizes repression, and were significantly more variable in the degree to which they expressed sexual features in the drawings. (Author/CL)

  1. Treatment of Child Victims of Incest. (United States)

    Boatman, Bonny; And Others


    Reviews three treatment methods (individual, group, and family therapy) used over a five-year period for child incest victims. Presents common themes, issues, and pitfalls that arose during therapy. Stresses potential benefits of psychotherapy to this population. (Author)

  2. Maternal phobic anxiety and child anxiety. (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Layne, Ann E; Egan, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Lara P


    The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother-child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic anxiety on the Brief Symptom Inventory were significantly associated with higher levels of separation anxiety in children. After controlling for clinician rating of SAD severity, maternal phobic anxiety emerged as a significant predictor of maternal ratings of child separation anxiety, accounting for 19% of the variance. Phobic mothers endorsed levels of separation anxiety in their children that exceeded levels endorsed by clinicians, suggesting maternal overreporting.

  3. Helping Your Child through a Divorce (United States)

    ... burden on a child. Screaming, fighting, arguing, or violence can make kids feel worried and afraid. Parents ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  4. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? (United States)

    ... Year-Old Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  5. Preparation a Child for Surgery and Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili


    Full Text Available Hospitalization and medical experiences can be confusing and stressful for children, teens and their families. It is very common for young people and their families to have many questions when they are scheduled for surgery or hospitalization. When children are given opportunities to cope successfully with medical experiences, they may see themselves as more capable, more in control, and more reassured. This success often leads to a more positive sense of self, as well as a healthier regard for medical procedures in general. Also, previous medical experiences can affect how the child will react to hospitalization. It is important to maintain a normal routine and activities, such as playing and schooling. Family and friend’s child should be encouraged to visit the child patient. The best way to prepare the child for hospitalization is to prepare ourselves by understanding what will occur.

  6. Parental responses to child support obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Wüst, Miriam

    We leverage non-linearities in Danish child support guidelines together with rich administrative data to provide causal estimates of parental behavioral responses to child support obligations. We estimate that among families with formal child support agreements, a 1, 000 DKK ($183) increase...... find that larger obligations are associated with higher new-partner fertility among both parents. The maternal fertility response is consistent with a positive income-fertility relationship, while the paternal fertility response may reflect increased demand for new offspring as a result of reduced...... contact with existing children. Finally, we find evidence that some fathers reduce their labor supply to avoid facing higher support obligations. Our findings suggest that government efforts to increase child investments through mandates on parents can be complicated by their behavioral responses to them....

  7. Taking Your Child to a Therapist (United States)

    ... Your Child Through a Divorce Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress About Teen Suicide Talking About Your ... Do People Get Depressed? Anxiety Disorders Fears and Phobias Cutting Contact Us Print Resources Send to a ...

  8. What about My Child and Rheumatic Fever? (United States)

    ... Cardiovascular Conditions What About My Child and Rheumatic Fever? Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory reaction that can occur after ... strep throat infections don’t lead to rheumatic fever. When they do, the time between the strep ...

  9. When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant (United States)

    ... live as they did before developing kidney failure. Different Types of Kidney Transplants There are two kinds of ... So it's vital for parents to communicate the importance of taking all medicines as directed. Be there for your child to ...

  10. Poverty's Impact on A Child's Mental Health (United States)

    ... page: Poverty's Impact on a Child's Mental Health Poor kids ... Jan. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Growing up in poverty exposes children to greater levels of stress, which ...

  11. Your Child's Development: 1 Year (12 Months) (United States)

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 12 Months Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Growth ...

  12. A Profile Approach to Child Care Quality, Quantity, and Type of Setting: Parent Selection of Infant Child Care Arrangements (United States)

    Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Kim, Se-Kang


    Building on prior variable-oriented research which demonstrates the independence of the associations of child care quality, quantity, and type of setting with family factors and child outcomes, the current study identifies four profiles of child care dimensions from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Profiles accounted for…

  13. Relations between Parenting and Child Behavior: Exploring the Child's Personality and Parental Self-Efficacy as Third Variables (United States)

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle; Browne, Dillon T.


    The present study explores the bidirectional associations between parental behavior and child externalizing behavior in the context of two intervening variables: child's personality as a moderator of the effect of parental behavior on later child behavior; and parental self-efficacy as a mediator of the effect of child behavior on later parental…

  14. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (United States)

    Buck, Trevor


    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  15. Child Labor in Ghana: A multidimensional analysis


    Sam, Victoria Nyarkoah


    Child labor is a threatening evil. It is particularly dangerous because it involves the sacrifice of a child’s future welfare in exchange for immediate benefit; it is a difficult phenomenon to combat because it involves questions of power within the households. This study attempts to comprehensively investigate various dimensions of child labor in Ghana and show whether its ban will be beneficial to the country.

  16. How Macroeconomic Instability Lowers Child Survival



    The reduction of child mortality is one of the most universally accepted millennium goals. However, a significant debate came out on the means of reaching it and on its realism with regard to the situation of most of the least developed countries. The recommendations made for the achievement of this are mainly medical ones. However, without underestimating the importance of these measures, in particular vaccinations, it seems increasingly obvious that the rate of reduction of child mortality ...

  17. Harry Potter and the Susceptible Child Audience


    Andersen, Kara Lynn


    Kara Lynn Andersen, in her paper "Harry Potter and the Susceptible Child Audience," argues for a rethinking of assumptions of child audiences as passive readers and viewers through an analysis of the Harry Potter phenomenon. Andersen argues that instead of categorizing children as passive and homogenous subjects of analysis, they should instead be incorporated as participants in the discourse about children's books and films. Although frequently figured as especially susceptible to the affect...

  18. Ketamine Induced Seizures in an Autistic Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali S Verma


    Full Text Available An autistic child of eight years age, with attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome presented for tooth extraction under general anaesthesia. Ketamine was used for induction and the child developed seizures following its administration. Seizures were controlled, extraction done and post-operative period was uneventful. Ketamine was suspected to have caused seizures though safe use of Ketamine has been reported in autistic patient.

  19. Reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In developing countries,mother-to-child trans mission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)is responsible for 5 to 10 percen t o f all new HIV infections.Most children born to HIV-positive mothers are not HIV positive,but one quarter to one third are.The following instert looks at the p o ssibilities for reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission,and discusses some of the questions that are still unanswered.

  20. Unilateral Pulmonary Hypoplasia in a Child. (United States)

    Dewan, G


    Pulmonary hypoplasia is an uncommon congenital anomaly. A case reported in a six year old male child from Bangladesh who presented with chronic dry cough, episodic fever and occasional haemoptysis causing confusion with tuberculosis. X-ray suggested lung collapse. Final diagnosis reached by combined bronchoscopy, computed tomogram scan of chest and pulmonary angiogram. In a child with complete radiological lung collapse possibility of pulmonary hypoplasia should be kept in mind.