WorldWideScience

Sample records for child studies

  1. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  2. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  3. Efficacy of Child-Focused and Parent-Focused Interventions in a Child Anxiety Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or…

  4. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  5. Child Involvement in Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Violent Families

    OpenAIRE

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and i...

  6. Efficacy of child-focused and parent-focused interventions in a child anxiety prevention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Bögels, S.M.; Voncken, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a par

  7. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…

  8. Early Canadian Child Study: From Baldwin and Tracy to Blatz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mary J.

    A brief overview of the history of the scientific study of the child in Canada is provided in this paper. Discussion begins with an account of the scholarly interests and activities of James Mark Baldwin, who brought modern psychology to Canada, and Frederic Tracy, who objected to child-centered approaches to child rearing. The remainder of the…

  9. Child involvement in interparental conflict and child adjustment problems: a longitudinal study of violent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents' conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children's involvement in their parents' conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children's involvement in their parents' conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families.

  10. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  11. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD. PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES, VOLUME 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EISSLER, RUTH S., ED.; AND OTHERS

    TWENTY ARTICLES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME, THE 22ND IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES. PAPERS ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THERAPY INTERPRET LOSING AND BEING LOST, OBSTACLES TO PSYCHOANALYTIC CURE, AND AFFECT CONTROL. ASPECTS OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY CONSIDERED ARE FREUD'S CONCEPT OF PRIMAL REPRESSION, CONCEPTS OF STRUCTURE AND…

  12. Child cyclist injuries: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, C J; Pollard, C W

    1986-02-01

    A prospective study of pedalcycle accident morbidity and mortality was carried out from February to mid-November 1983 because of the high frequency of child cyclist injuries that were occurring on the relatively flat Redcliffe Peninsula. These injuries were apparently associated with the large number of young children who use a bicycle as their main mode of transport to and from school. The schools were surveyed for the extent of bicycle use and cyclists were surveyed for the amount of protective clothing that was worn while involved in cycling. It was found that a disturbingly large number of young children made regular bicycle trips on public roads with the minimal use of safety helmets or any other form of protective clothing. Nearly 40% of on-road accidents involved children of less than 12 years of age, and over 10% of these involved children of six years of age or less. No child in our series of on-road accidents was, at the time of injury, wearing a safety helmet or any other form of protective clothing. No bicycle accidents occurred on the exclusive cycle track of approximately 1 km in length on the Peninsula.

  13. Parents' child-directed communication and child language development: a longitudinal study with Italian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-09-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1 ; 3 and 1 ; 9. The characteristics of the maternal and paternal child-directed language (characteristics of communicative functions and lexicon as reported in psycholinguistic norms for Italian language) were coded during free play. Child language development was assessed during free play and at ages 2 ; 6 and 3 ; 0 using the Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (2 ; 6) and the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) (3 ; 0). Data analysis indicated differences between mothers and fathers in the quantitative characteristics of communicative functions and language, such as the mean length of utterances (MLU), and the number of tokens and types. Mothers also produced the more frequent nouns in the child lexicon. There emerged a relation between the characteristics of parental child-directed language and child language development.

  14. In-vehicle vibration study of child safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, J; Gallo, S

    2003-12-15

    This paper reports experimental measurements of the in-vehicle vibrational behaviour of stage 0&1 child safety seats. Road tests were performed for eight combinations of child, child seat and automobile. Four accelerometers were installed in the vehicles and orientated to measure as closely as possible in the vertical direction; two were attached to the floor and two located at the human interfaces. An SAE pad was placed under the ischial tuberosities of the driver at the seat cushion and a child pad, designed for the purpose of this study, was placed under the child. Four test runs were made over a pave' (cobblestone) surface for the driver's seat and four for the child seat at both 20 km h(-1) and 40 km h(-1). Power spectral densities were determined for all measurement points and acceleration transmissibility functions (ATFs) were estimated from the floor of the vehicle to the human interfaces. The system composed of automobile seat, child seat and child was found to transmit greater vibration than the system composed of automobile seat and driver. The ensemble mean transmissibility in the frequency range from 1 to 60 Hz was found to be 77% for the child seats systems as opposed to 61% for the driver's seats. The acceleration transmissibility for the child seat system was found to be higher than that of the driver's seat at most frequencies above 10 Hz for all eight systems tested. The measured ATFs suggest that the principal whole-body vibration resonance of the children occurred at a mean frequency of 8.5, rather than the 3.5 to 5.0 Hz typically found in the case of seated adults. It can be concluded that current belt-fastened child seats are less effective than the vehicle primary seating systems in attenuating vibrational disturbances. The results also suggest the potential inability of evaluating child comfort by means of existing whole-body vibration standards.

  15. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Volume XXIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Ruth S., Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-seven papers treat aspects of the psychoanalytic study of the child. Problems of psychopathology and therapy considered are the fantasy of the phallic woman, the use of child analysis, the background of perversions, variables in the production of neurotic disturbances, treatment of narcissistic personality disorders, and problems of the…

  16. Maryland Child Care Choices Study: Changes in Child Care Arrangements of Young Children in Maryland. Publication #2014-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Caroline; Davis, Elizabeth E.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this series is to summarize key findings and implications from the Maryland Child Care Choices study, a longitudinal survey of parents who were applying for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in 2011. Families in the Maryland Child Care Choices study had at least one child age six or younger and lived in one of the…

  17. Child Language Attrition: A Longitudinal Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Machiko

    2000-01-01

    Examines the second stage of natural second language attrition in the first language environment observed in a Japanese male returnee child. The subject spent 7 years in the United States, was 8-years-old when he returned, and was highly proficient in English. The second stage is characterized by a period of change in syntax and morphology,…

  18. Child maltreatment and educational attainment in young adulthood: results from the Ontario Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note

  19. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues.

  20. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  1. Child Abuse in the Family: An Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shojaeizadeh

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of child abuse in the world is 47 per 1000. According to the Child Protective Service agency (CPS more than 3 million children were abused in the USA in 1998. There was 1.7% increase in comparison with 1996. The prevalence of child abuse in the USA is 15 per 1000. A crosssectional study was conducted in order to determine the frequency, and influential factors on child abuse among families in Tehran. A sample of 420 students was selected from secondary school girls in Tehran in 1999. A questionnaire was used for data collection, and the collected data were analysed through statistical tests such as X2 and other forms of descriptive tests. The findings of research showed that in terms of abnormal (unexpectedly bad behaviour, 28% of the sample were faced quarrelsome and bitted by their fathers. The mothers' reactions for similar behaviour were more or less the same: 34.9% quarrelsome and 7% bitting. Child abuse, physically and emotionally, has had significant relation with socioeconomic status of families as well as having interaction with mentally ill or addicted person(s among families. Mothers' employment, religious beliefs, and parents' educational attainments also demonstrated significant relations with child abuse. A statistically significant relationship has also been found between mothers' employment, addicted or mentally ill person among family members, and doubtful child sexual abuse.To prevent child abuse the following actions should be taken: Education of parents about children rights and how to treat their children. Establishment of centers to protect the children at risk. Education of young couples to take more reponsibility of having children.

  2. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction.

  3. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children.

  4. A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

  5. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse: A Case Study in Community Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Henry, James

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of a collaborative approach to the case management of child sexual abuse. Data from 323 criminal court files found a sex offense confession rate of 64 percent and plea rate of 70 percent. Fifteen cases went to trial and in six the offender was convicted. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  7. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.

  8. Child Disability: A Study of Three Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Barbara

    This qualitative study used questionnaires, interviews, and observations to assess what having children with disabilities means to three families. The disabilities include severe mental retardation and seizure disorder, Down syndrome, and neurofibromatosis. Interview data were categorized into the following five areas: the children,…

  9. Child-Invented Health Education Games: A Case Study for Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The study's goal was to demonstrate the ability of an 8-year-old child to create educational games for the topic of dengue fever control. A naturalistic descriptive case study method was employed. The child had two dengue fever educational game creation activities. The study demonstrated that a child could develop functional games related to…

  10. Controlled outcome studies of child clinical hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Barbara; Gava, Nicoletta

    2013-09-01

    Background Hypnosis is defined as "as an interaction in which the hypnotist uses suggested scenarios ("suggestions") to encourage a person's focus of attention to shift towards inner experiences". Aim of the work The focus of this review is to summarize the findings of controlled outcome studies investigating the potential of clinical hypnosis in pediatric populations. We will examine the following themes: anesthesia, acute and chronic pain, chemotherapy-related distress, along with other specific medical issues. Results Hypnosis is an effective method to reduce pain and anxiety before, during and after the administration of anesthetics, during local dental treatments, invasive medical procedures and in burn children. Hypnosis can be successfully used to manage recurrent headaches, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chemotherapy-related distress. Hypnosis has an important role in managing symptoms and improving the quality of life of children suffering from asthma and cystic fibrosis and in facilitating the treatment of insomnia in school-age children. Finally, hypnosis can be effectively used for the treatment of some habitual disorders such as nocturnal enuresis and dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema Conclusions Clinical hypnosis seems to be a useful, cheap and side-effects free tool to manage fear, pain and several kinds of stressful experiences in pediatric populations. Children who receive self-hypnosis trainings achieve significantly greater improvements in their physical health, quality of life, and self-esteem.

  11. Phonological acquisition of a Korean child: An acoustic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sun-Ah

    2005-09-01

    Studies on child phonology suggest that there exist phonological universals in the timing of phonological events and the ordering of phonological categories, but the acquisition of speech sounds is influenced by the language-specific aspects of the ambient language such as phonetics, phonology, and the frequency of the sound in child-directed speech. This study investigates a Korean child's phonological acquisition based on tape recordings of longitudinal data (from 2 months to 2 years, recorded in 1- to 2-week intervals). Special attention is given to the change in prosody and the acquisition of the Korean three-way manner contrast (fortis, aspirated, lenis). It is known that Korean fortis and aspirated obstruents trigger high pitch at vowel onset while lenis obstruents trigger low pitch [Jun (1993), (1998)]. Preliminary results suggest that fortis obstruents are acquired first, followed by aspirated, and then lenis. The segmental properties (e.g., voice onset time, breathy phonation) appropriate for the lenis category were acquired later than the pitch. In addition, unlike the universal tendencies, velar and labial consonants were acquired earlier than alveolar consonants. Factors affecting the order of acquisition, including frequency effect and perceptual salience, will be discussed.

  12. Discourses of Education, Protection, and Child Labor: Case Studies of Benin, Namibia and Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses discontinuities between local, national and international discourse in the fields of education, protection of children, and child labor, using Benin, Namibia and Swaziland as case studies. In Benin, child abuse and child labor are related to poverty, whereas in Namibia and Swaziland they are also interrelated with HIV/AIDS.…

  13. Child Labor in Pakistan: A Study of the Lahore Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mian Aftab

    1991-01-01

    Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)

  14. An Agent-Based Model for Studying Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard W.

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors and interconnections across the social ecology. This makes it possible to experiment how different factors and prevention strategies can affect the rate of child maltreatment. We present the background of this work and give an overview of the agent-based model and show some simulation results.

  15. Scoping the impact of the national child measurement programme feedback on the child obesity pathway: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falconer Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Child Measurement Programme was established to measure the height and weight of children at primary school in England and provides parents with feedback about their child’s weight status. In this study we will evaluate the impact of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback on parental risk perceptions of overweight, lifestyle behaviour and health service use. Methods The study will be a prospective cohort study of parents of children enrolled in the National Child Measurement Programme and key service providers from 5 primary care trusts (administrative bodies responsible for providing primary and secondary care services. We will conduct baseline questionnaires, followed by provision of weight feedback and 3 follow up questionnaires over the course of a year. Questionnaires will measure change in parental risk perception of overweight, health behaviours and health service use. Qualitative interviews will be used to identify barriers and facilitators to change. This study will produce preliminary data on National Health Service costs associated with weight feedback and determine which feedback approach (letter and letter plus telephone is more effective. Discussion This study will provide the first large scale evaluation of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback. Findings from this evaluation will inform future planning of the National Child Measurement Programme.

  16. The treatment of severe child aggression (TOSCA study: Design challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer Cristan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone to the effect of the first (stimulant. We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic. Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual

  17. Shedding Further Light on the Effects of Various Types and Quality of Early Child Care on Infant-Mother Attachment Relationship: The Haifa Study of Early Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, Abraham; Koren-Karie, Nina; Gini, Motti; Ziv, Yair; Joels, Tirtsa

    2002-01-01

    The Haifa Study of Early Child Care examined the unique contribution of various child-care-related correlates to infant-mother attachment. Findings indicated that, after controlling for other potential contributing variables (including mother characteristics, mother-child interaction, and mother- father relationship), center care adversely…

  18. Attitudes of Parents Toward Child-Rearing: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Celik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the investigation of parents’, living in rural areas or urban areas and with children 5-6 years of age, difference in their attitudes towards children according to demographic characteristics and living conditions, rural and urban areas. The study group of the research includes 200 parents who have 5-6 years old children taking pre-school education. 100 of them live in rural areas and 100 of them live in the city center. Instruments of study are Personal Information Form and PARI (Family Life and Child-Rearing Attitude Scale. Independent samples t-test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis were used for data analysis. According to findings, mothers are more over-protective, more democratic and less disciplined than fathers. Parents living urban areas are more over-protective, more democratic and less disciplined than parents living rural areas. Moreover, parents living in extended families are more disciplined, less over-protective and less democratic egalitarian in terms of attitudes than parents live in nucleus families. As a result, educational status, gender, family type and location are predictors for parents’ child-rearing attitude. However, the variables of age and number of children do not contribute to the total variance significantly.

  19. Medical social work practice in child protection in China: A multiple case study in Shanghai hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Hämäläinen, Juha; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2017-01-24

    With the rapid development of the child welfare system in China over recent years, medical social work has been increasingly involved in providing child protection services in several hospitals in Shanghai. Focusing on five cases in this paper, the exploratory study aims to present a critical overview of current practices and effects of medical social work for child protection, based on a critical analysis of the multidimensional role of social work practitioners engaged in the provision of child protection services as well as potential challenges. Implications and suggestions for future improvements of China's child protection system are also discussed.

  20. Case Study: Investigating the Impact of the Child Development Associate Credentialing Process on Child Care Provider Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate what impact the child development associate (CDA) credential has on the performance of childcare providers in the 6 CDA competency areas. Each participant was interviewed using 9 open-ended questions regarding their experience. Over the past few years, a number of studies have examined the effects…

  1. Mother and child T cell receptor repertoires: deep profiling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V Putintseva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between maternal and child immunity has been actively studied in the context of complications during pregnancy, autoimmune diseases, and haploidentical transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC and solid organs. Here, we have for the first time used high-throughput Illumina HiSeq sequencing to perform deep quantitative profiling of T-cell receptor (TCR repertoires for peripheral blood samples of three mothers and their six children. Advanced technology allowed accurate identification of 5х105–2х106 TCR beta clonotypes per individual. We performed comparative analysis of these TCR repertoires with the aim of revealing characteristic features that distinguish related mother-child pairs, such as relative TRBV segment usage frequency and relative overlap of TCR beta CDR3 repertoires. We show that thymic selection essentially and similarly shapes the initial output of the TCR recombination machinery in both related and unrelated pairs, with minor effect from inherited differences. The achieved depth of TCR profiling also allowed us to test the hypothesis that mature T cells transferred across the placenta during pregnancy can expand and persist as functional microchimeric clones in their new host, using characteristic TCR beta CDR3 variants as clonal identifiers.

  2. Symptom Trajectories Among Child Survivors of Maltreatment: Findings from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Dean; Armour, Cherie

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have investigated the longitudinal trajectory of depression and anxiety related symptomatology among child victims of maltreatment or among those at risk for maltreatment. The current study examined latent class trajectories of anxiety/depression symptoms in a sample of 1354 (n = 657 boys, n = 697 girls) victimized or at risk children using data collected from the Longtitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Four trajectory groups were identified labeled low-stable, moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing. This study also sought to investigate predictors of group membership. Relative to the low-stable group, membership in the three more pathological groups (i.e., moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing) was predicted by a greater number of maltreatment allegations, more visits to a primary care physician for psychological issues, less perceived support by primary maternal caregiver, and lower rated popularity of the child. Implications for early identification of child maltreatment victims in primary health care settings was discussed.

  3. Child Poverty and Child Rights Meet Active Citizenship: A New Zealand and Sweden Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael; Salonen, Tapio

    2011-01-01

    Children's rights and active citizenship have been significant policy emphases and developments in recent years but the relationship between the two has not been actively explored in relation to the implications for child poverty. Recent policy developments in New Zealand and Sweden are drawn on here to explore this relationship. The article…

  4. Study Of Social Problems And Correlates Of Child Labourers In Slums Of Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambadekar Nitin N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the social and work related problems of child labourers? Objectives:1.To study social problems of child labourers. 2. To study some work related problems of child labourers. 3. To study some factors associated with child labourers. Study design: cross sectional study with comparison group. Setting: shivankarnagar & Hasanbagh slums under field practice area of PSM deptt., Govt. Medical College, Nagapur. Participants: 223 child labourers and 223 randomly selected controls from same area aged upto 15 years, sex matched and group matched for age. Results: Prevalence of child labourers in study areas was 21.3%, 43(19.3 females and 180 (80.7% males. Lower socio-economic status, large family size(>6, parental illiteracy and single parenthood were significantly associated with child labour. They were working in varied occupations â€" majority (32.7% being in garage and workshops. Inadequate family income (74.4% and parental compulsion (20.6% were the common reasons cited by child labourers for their jobs â€" school drop â€" outs 173(78.3%, bad habits 56(25.1%, prolonged working hours (mean-8.5+4.5, no holidays and rest hours, inadequate daily wages, verbal (29% & physical abuse (2.7% were the common problems of child labourers, observed in the present study.

  5. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  6. Biliteracy and Bilingual Development in a Second-Generation Korean Child: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Yeonsun Ellie; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Through case study methodology, this study examined how a second-generation bilingual child developed his two languages and associated literacies, the role of the parents' and child's goals as well as the family's daily effort to attain those goals, and the influences of environmental, social, and cultural factors. Based on sociocultural…

  7. Quality of Child Care Using the Environment Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis of International Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…

  8. Child maltreatment in numbers : a multimethod study of year prevalence rates and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    How often does child maltreatment occur in the Netherlands and which factors increase the risk of child maltreatment? In this thesis we describe the findings of two epidemiological studies aimed at answering these questions. First, in the Netherlands’ Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and

  9. Intervention in child nutrition : evaluation studies in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this monograph three major types of intervention in child nutrition are examined: nutrition education, food supplementation and nutrition rehabilitation. Detailed evaluations were carried out, between 1976 and 1979, of programmes in Central Kenya operating under different ecological circumstances

  10. Assessment in child protection : A comparative study Norway - England

    OpenAIRE

    Samsonsen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the phenomenon of assessment in child protection by comparing two different assessment practices, the Norwegian and the English. Additional aims have been to generate knowledge by interpreting findings from the perspectives of professionals and parents who have experienced assessment, and to contribute to identify central aspects of the use of professional judgement in child protection assessments. The guiding research ques...

  11. Child Care Quality and Children's Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Development: An Australian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialamas, Angela; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that high-quality non-parental child care can contribute to children's learning, development and successful transition to school. Research examining the quality of child care and the effect on children's development is not well documented outside the USA. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to…

  12. Preschoolers' Aggression and Parent-Child Conflict: A Multiinformant and Multimethod Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Bishop, Christa M.

    2008-01-01

    This multiinformant and multimethod study (N = 47) investigated the link between the parent-child relationship system and the display of physical and relational aggression with peers at school during early childhood. Children (mean age = 43.54 months, SD = 8.02) were observed (80 min/child) during free play, and parents and teachers were asked to…

  13. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  14. Effects of Child Maltreatment and Inherited Liability on Antisocial Development: An Official Records Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Presnall, Ned; Drake, Brett; Fox, Louis; Bierut, Laura; Reich, Wendy; Kane, Phyllis; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evidence is steadily accumulating that a preventable environmental hazard, child maltreatment, exerts causal influences on the development of long-standing patterns of antisocial behavior in humans. The relationship between child maltreatment and antisocial outcome, however, has never previously been tested in a large-scale study in…

  15. A STUDY OF HOW A CHILD LEARNS CONCEPTS ABOUT CHARACTERISTICS OF LIQUID MATERIALS. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGELMANN, SIEGFRIED; GALLAGHER, JAMES J.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO EXPLORE THE PIAGET CONCEPT OF CONSERVATION WITH REGARD TO THE CHILD'S CONCEPT OF THE PROPERTY OF LIQUIDS. AN INVESTIGATOR-CONSTRUCTED CONSERVATION INVENTORY WAS GIVEN TO 45 KINDERGARTEN AND FIRST GRADE PUPILS SELECTED FROM THE PRAIRIE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, URBANA, ILLINOIS, TO PROVIDE AN INDEX OF THE CHILD'S…

  16. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  17. Vitamin D intake in mid-pregnancy and child allergic disease - a prospective study in 44,825 Danish mother-child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne Heyckendorff M.; Jensen, Camilla Bjørn;

    2013-01-01

    Past studies suggest that maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may protect against child wheeze but studies on asthma are limited. Our objective was to examine the relation between intake of vitamin D in mid-pregnancy and child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years....

  18. First parent-child meetings in international adoptions: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Harf

    Full Text Available International adoptions involve approximately 30,000 children worldwide each year. Nearly all of the adoptive parents travel to the child's country of birth to meet them and bring them home. The objective of this study is to analyze the adoptive parents' account of their first meetings with their child. The study includes 46 parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on these first parent-child meetings. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from the analysis of the interviews were: the scene when the child is entrusted to the parents, the discovery of the child's body, and the first parent-child interaction. Within these three principal themes, several subthemes dealt with difficult experiences: moments of solitude and anxiety, shocking images of the children's living conditions, lack of preparation and of information about the child, poor health, parental reactions of rejection, worry about the child's body, aggressive reactions by the child, worry about the child's reactions, and contrast with the expected interaction. Thirty-two interviews included at least one of these subthemes. At the structural level of the discourse; the characteristics of 33 interviews are those described in the literature as significantly more frequent in traumatized than in non-traumatized subjects. These results raise questions about the consequences of difficult, possibly traumatic experiences, at the moment of meeting the child, and they underline the need for work on preparation and prevention before the parents leave on their journey.

  19. Associations of Child Temperament with Child Overweight and Breakfast Habits: A Population Study in Five-Year-Olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Steen Skogheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations of child temperament with overweight/obesity and breakfast habits. Participants were 17,409 five-year-olds whose mothers partake in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and completed a questionnaire at the child’s 5th birthday. Temperament was assessed as externalizing, internalizing and sociable temperament. Breakfast habits differentiated between “every day”, “4 to 6 times a week”, and “0 to 3 times a week”. The child’s weight status was determined by Body Mass Index-percentiles and categorized as normal weight versus overweight/obese. Children with externalizing temperament had higher odds of being overweight and higher odds of not eating breakfast daily. Children high in internalizing temperament had higher odds of not eating breakfast daily, but not of being overweight. Children with average scores of sociability were more prone to being overweight but had normal breakfast habits. All results were adjusted for key confounders. That five-year-olds high in externalizing temperament had a higher risk to be overweight adds important information to the literature. The association of externalizing temperament with child breakfast habits so early in life is intriguing, as parents mostly control eating patterns in children that young. Mechanisms mediating this association should be explored.

  20. A Child With Learning Disability:A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Sedaie

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This case can be placed in a neurologic classification. The patient is a child with learning disability in school activities. He was first referred to an audiological clinic because of a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD. His mother has noticed several hearing problems and this led us to the evaluations for his central auditory processing disorder. He has problems in hearing speech in noise and speech processing and need his friends repeat words during communication. no vestibular disorder was noticed nor any localization problem. The child has a good progress in school and only suffered problems in reading tasks. Intelligence quotient(IQ was also normal.

  1. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  2. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, Volume XXIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Ruth S.; And Others

    Articles on psychoanalytic theory concern libidinal object constancy and mental representation, the unrememberable and unforgettable (repression), and the motive, meaning, and causality of anthropomorphism. Discussions of normal and pathological development include the following: levels of verbal communication in the schizophrenic child, a review…

  3. Child dental fear and general emotional problems: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Krikken; J.M. ten Cate; J.S.J. Veerkamp

    2010-01-01

    AIM: This was to investigate the relation between general emotional and behavioural problems of the child and dental anxiety and dental behavioural management problems. BACKGROUND: Dental treatment involves many potentially unpleasant stimuli, which all may lead to the development of dental anxiety

  4. Measures for Studying Poverty in Family and Child Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Deng, Shiying; Nair, Rajni L.; Lockhart Burrell, Ginger

    2005-01-01

    Most family scholars take the concept of poverty for granted. The variety of ways people have chosen to define and measure this concept, however, often makes it difficult to interpret or compare research results. We review and critique the ways that poverty has been measured in the family and child literatures as well as the measures that have…

  5. Academic Achievement Despite Child Maltreatment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol; Renner, Lynette M.; Hua, Lei; Zhang, Ying J.; Whitney, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Although researchers have concluded that child maltreatment has a negative effect on children's learning and academic achievement, not all children are negatively affected by maltreatment, and some children seem to succeed academically despite being maltreated. Drawing on risk and resilience theory, we examined a broad range of potential…

  6. The Role of Oral Language Interactions in English Literacy Learning: A Case Study of a First Grade Korean Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangok

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative case study of a Korean first grade child. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of a first grade Korean child's oral language interactions with teachers, parents, peers, and community members and to examine how a child's oral language impacts his literacy learning in English. The data were…

  7. Study of Social Problems and Working Conditions of Child Labourers in Rural Area of Wardha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimbarte Sanjay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Children under fourteen constitute around 3.6% of the total labour force in India. The objective of the present study was to study the socio-economic determinants and to assess the working conditionsof child labourer in the small town Seloo area in Wardha district. The child labourers were interviewed in their work places using a predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire. Data was collected andanalyzed using epi_info 6.04d. A total of 150 child labourers participated in the study. The male/ female ratio was 1:1.77. Child labour was most prevalent (80% among 11-13 year age group.Child labour increases with decreasing parental socio-economic status. A little less than half (46.7% of the child labourers had to work for more than 6 hours a day. Average duration of work as 6.1days per week. There is need to protect children from child labour specially girl children. It is advocated that reduction in family size is condusive to promote economic empowerment/education.

  8. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A quilitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, M.W.A.; Ruiter, C. de; Ory, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abu

  9. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  10. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  11. A study to assess and measure the breaches in the child rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chaudhary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children signify eternal optimism in the human being and provide potential for the development. Every nation whether developed or developing, links its future with the status of child. An understanding of the physical, social and behavioral factors is conducive to assess the current situation and vulnerability of any child. To ensure the utmost level of health and safety of a child, we need to have an insight of the violation of child rights. We conducted this study to assess and measure the breaches in child rights. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 children between 10 to 18 years of age in one of the field practice areas of Community Medicine department, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Results: More than 90% of the children were born in the hospital settings, fully vaccinated and living with their parents. Of these, 60% of the children reported to have some kind of illness in the past one year, and majority of them approached healthcare facility for that the treatment. Of these, 26% of them had low birth weight (LBW and 68% had body mass index (BMI <18.5. About 93% of the children were enrolled in either government or private school and out of them, 54% complained of the burden of either homework or tuition. Of these, 6.5% children were school dropouts and all of them were girls; 4% of them were child labors. Conclusion: The study indicated positive findings in the areas of child survival, development and to some extent, in the domain of right to participation, though there were poor environmental conditions and recreational activities. Prevalence of malnutrition and child labor was also high. Study results highlighted the need for adequate services in these areas.

  12. Predictors of child-to-parent aggression: A 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-05-01

    Although we rarely hear about it, children sometimes aggress against their parents. This is a difficult topic to study because abused parents and abusive children are both reluctant to admit the occurrence of child-to-parent aggression. There are very few research studies on this topic, and even fewer theoretical explanations of why it occurs. We predicted that exposure to violence in the home (e.g., parents aggressing against each other) and ineffective parenting (i.e., parenting that is overly permissive or lacks warmth) influences cognitive schemas of how children perceive themselves and the world around them (i.e., whether aggression is normal, whether they develop grandiose self-views, and whether they feel disconnected and rejected), which, in turn, predicts child-to-parent aggression. In a 3-year longitudinal study of 591 adolescents and their parents, we found that exposure to violence in Year 1 predicted child-to-parent aggression in Year 3. In addition, parenting characterized by lack of warmth in Year 1 was related to narcissistic and entitled self-views and disconnection and rejection schemas in Year 2, which, in turn, predicted child-to-mother and child-to-father aggression in Year 3. Gender comparisons indicated that narcissism predicted child-to-parent aggression only in boys and that exposure to violence was a stronger predictor of child-to-father violence in boys. This longitudinal study increases our understanding of the understudied but important topic of child-to-parent aggression, and will hopefully stimulate future research.

  13. A national study on the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Inger W; Nieuwendam, Josta; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L; Graafsma, Tobi L G

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname has never been subjected to a reliable assessment. The only data available include rough estimates of a range of internationally comparable indicators extrapolated from child protection and police corps statistics for offenses against children. This study aimed to provide a reliable estimate of the prevalence of all forms of child maltreatment in Suriname. One thousand three hundred and ninety-one (1,391) adolescents and young adults of different ethnicities completed a questionnaire about child maltreatment. The study sample, obtained by random probability sampling, consisted of students (ages 12 through 22) from five districts in Suriname. A significant proportion of Surinamese children experienced maltreatment. In total, 86.8% of adolescents and 95.8% of young adults reported having been exposed to at least one form of child maltreatment during their lives. Among the adolescents, 57.1% were exposed to child maltreatment in the past year. When the definition of the National Incidence Study was applied, 58.2% of adolescents and 68.8% of young adults had been exposed to at least one form of maltreatment. Among adolescents, 36.8% reported having experienced at least one form of maltreatment in the past year. The results indicate the (extremely) high lifetime and year prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname. The serious and often lifelong consequences of such maltreatment indicate that a national approach to child abuse and neglect, including the development of a national strategic plan, a national surveillance system and changes to the state's programmatic and policy response, is urgently needed.

  14. Development of a prediction model for child maltreatment recurrence in Japan: A historical cohort study using data from a Child Guidance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Hiroyuki; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Musumari, Patou Masika; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    To develop a prediction model for the first recurrence of child maltreatment within the first year after the initial report, we carried out a historical cohort study using administrative data from 716 incident cases of child maltreatment (physical abuse, psychological abuse, or neglect) not receiving support services, reported between April 1, 1996 through March 31, 2011 to Shiga Central Child Guidance Center, Japan. In total, 23 items related to characteristics of the child, the maltreatment, the offender, household, and other related factors were selected as predictive variables and analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model for association with first recurrence of maltreatment. According to the stepwise selection procedure six factors were identified that include 9-13year age of child (AOR=3.43/95%CI=1.52-7.72), maltreatment during childhood (AOR=2.56/95%CI=1.31-4.99), household financial instability or poverty (AOR=1.64/95%CI=1.10-2.45), absence of someone in the community who could watch over the child (AOR=1.68/95%CI=1.16-2.44), and the organization as the referral source (AOR=2.21/95%CI=1.24-3.93). Using these six predictors, we generated a linear prediction model with a sensitivity and specificity of 45.2% and 82.4%, respectively. The model may be useful to assess the risk of further maltreatment and help the child and family welfare administrations to develop preventive strategies for recurrence.

  15. Incidences of new prescribing by British child and adolescent psychiatrists: a prospective study over 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew F

    2004-03-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of child psychiatric disorder. This study reports on the systematic prospective collection of instances of new prescribing by child and adolescent mental health services serving a population of approximately four million people in North West England. Diagnostic and demographic information regarding new prescribing by child and adolescent mental health services within Greater Manchester and Lancashire was systematically collected prospectively over two 6-month periods between 2000 and 2002. Within the 12 months studied, there were 845 instances of a drug being newly prescribed to a child or adolescent in the treatment of a psychiatric disorder. In total, 48 different drugs were prescribed for 25 different diagnoses. The eight most commonly prescribed drugs were methylphenidate, methylphenidate/placebo trial, paroxetine, fluoxetine, risperidone, imipramine, dexamphetamine and melatonin, accounting for 73% of all prescribing. There was marked variation between services in the amount of prescribing with significant correlation between prescription of stimulants and prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. Prescription of medications in the treatment of child psychiatric disorder has become a significant part of child and adolescent mental health practice. However, the evidence base underpinning this usage remains limited, and further high quality therapeutic clinical trials are urgently needed.

  16. Who Gets Protection? A National Study of Multiple Victimization and Child Protection Among Taiwanese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Feng, Joyce Yen; Feng, Jui-Ying; Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Huang, Soar Ching-Yu; Hwa, Hsiao-Lin

    2016-10-05

    This study aims to examine the prevalence of multiple types of child victimization and the effects of multiple types of victimization on children's mental health and behavior in Taiwan. The study also examines the child-protection rate and its correlates among children experiencing various types of victimization. This study collected data with a self-report questionnaire from a national proportionately stratified sample of 6,233 fourth-grade students covering every city and county in Taiwan in 2014. After calculating the 1-year prevalence of child victimization, the study found that bullying was the most prevalent (71%), followed by physical neglect (66%), psychological violence (43%), inter-parental violence (28%), community violence (22%), physical abuse (21%), and sexual violence (9%). As the number of victimization types increased, children were more likely to report greater posttraumatic symptoms, psychiatric symptoms, suicide ideation, self-harm thoughts, and violent behaviors. Gender, neonatal status, parental marital status, and other family risks were significantly associated with elevated incidences of the victimization types. Only 20.6% of the children who had experienced all seven types of victimization had received child protective services. A child was more likely to receive child protective services if he or she had experienced sexual violence, community violence, inter-parental violence exposure, higher family risks, higher suicidal ideation, or living in a single-parent or separated family. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the cumulative effects and the harmful effects that children's experience of multiple types of victimization can have on the children's mental health and behavior. The present findings also raise alarms regarding the severity of under-serving in child-victimization cases. These results underscore the importance of assessing, identifying, and helping children with multiple victimization experiences.

  17. Mothers' perceptions of the influences on their child feeding practices - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-10-01

    Children's diets are important determinants of their health, but typically do not meet recommendations. Parents' feeding practices, such as pressure or restriction, are important influences on child diets, but reasons why parents use particular feeding practices, and malleability of such practices, are not well understood. This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of influences on their feeding practices, and assess whether an intervention promoting recommended feeding practices was perceived as influential. The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program was a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 families aiming to improve child diets. Following the trial, when children were two years old, 81 intervention arm mothers were invited to participate in qualitative interviews, and 26 accepted (32%). Thematic analysis of interview transcripts used a tabular thematic framework. Eight major themes were identified regarding perceived influences on child feeding practices. Broadly these encompassed: practical considerations, family setting, formal information sources, parents' own upbringing, learning from friends and family, learning from child and experiences, and parents' beliefs about food and feeding. Additionally, the Melbourne InFANT Program was perceived by most respondents as influential. In particular, many mothers reported being previously unaware of some recommended feeding practices, and that learning and adopting those practices made child feeding easier. These findings suggest that a variety of influences impact mothers' child feeding practices. Health practitioners should consider these factors in providing feeding advice to parents, and researchers should consider these factors in planning interventions.

  18. Child discipline in Qatar and Palestine: A comparative study of ICAST-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeeb, Nehal; Halileh, Samia; Alyafei, Khalid A; Ghandour, Rula; Dargham, Soha; Giacaman, Rita; Kamal, Madeeha; Imseeh, Sawsan; Korayem, Mona; Nasr, Shiraz; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Tawfik, Hassan; Lynch, Margaret A; Mian, Marcellina

    2016-11-01

    To compare the nature and determinants of child discipline in Qatar and Palestine among young adults through retrospective survey to develop legislation, policies and interventions for effective prevention of child maltreatment, and educational materials to promote positive discipline among parents and caregivers. Cross-sectional random household surveys were conducted in each country (Qataris N=697, Palestinians N=2064) using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective (ICAST-R) for young adults (18-24 years), to investigate child discipline methods into the maltreatment range. Qatari young adults were more educated (pdiscipline they received in childhood was not reasonable and not justified compared to Palestinian participants. The more advantaged Qatari population was less likely to experience disciplinary methods that experts developing the ICAST-R defined as abuse compared to Palestinians where the higher incidence of child abuse could be attributed to lower economic advantage, lower level of education and greater exposure to violence. Suggestions are made for future studies in Qatar and Palestine to develop survey methodology with a more culturally appropriate level of intrusion, such as indirect yet meaningful child maltreatment questions.

  19. Patterns of maternal feeding and child eating associated with eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    OpenAIRE

    Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of eating disorders on maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors is not well understood. In the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa),we compared self-reported feeding behavior in mothers with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and no eating disorders (No ED) as well as child eating behaviors and psychological symptoms. The sample was comprised of 13 006 women and their children from a prospective populati...

  20. Only-child and non-only-child exhibit differences in creativity and agreeableness: evidence from behavioral and anatomical structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Hou, Xin; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Yadan; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-03-08

    Different family composition and size inevitably make only-children different from non-only-children. Previous studies have focused on the differences in behaviors, such as cognitive function and personality traits, between the only-child and the non-only-child. However, there are few studies that have focused on the topic of whether different family environments influence children's brain structural development and whether behavior differentially has its neural basis between only-child and non-only-child status. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the differences in cognition (e.g., intelligence and creativity) and personality and the anatomical structural differences of gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) between only-children and non-only-children. The behavioral results revealed that only-children exhibited higher flexibility scores (a dimension of creativity) and lower agreeableness scores (a dimension of personality traits) than non-only-children. Most importantly, the GMV results revealed that there were significant differences in the GMV between only-children and non-only-children that occurred mainly in the brain regions of the supramarginal gyrus, which was positively correlated with flexibility scores; the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which was positively correlated with agreeableness scores; and the parahippocampal gyrus. These findings may suggest that family environment (i.e., only-child vs. non-only-child), may play important roles in the development of the behavior and brain structure of individuals.

  1. [Breast feeding and child care: a case study of 2 rural areas of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil-Romo, S E; Rueda-Arróniz, F; Díez-Urdanivia-Coria, S

    1993-01-01

    The present research is included in the fields of public health, social sciences and gender studies. Its objective is to provide insight into the nursing behaviour of two groups of mothers, their domestic and extra-domestic child care arrangements and their attitudes towards breast-feeding. Thirty-five mothers were selected in Malinalco, Mexico, and 35 in the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca. Each mother had at least two children and one of them under three years of age. The study was exploratory in its initial phase, subsequently cross-sectional, comparative and prospective. It constitutes a foundation for longitudinal case studies. A pre-coded questionnaire, including the following issues, was administered: family composition; maternal schooling; maternal employment; nursing behaviour with the last child; child care and attitudes towards breast-feeding. The main information regarding 33 mothers in Malinalco and 31 in Oaxaca revealed that in both areas mothers decided how to feed their children during the first days; during the first month, 55 per cent of mothers in Malinalco breast-fed their child, while approximately 90 per cent did so in Oaxaca. The majority of women worked outside home and resorted to extra-domestic arrangements for child care. No relation was found between the feeding method chosen with the last child and maternal employment. About 90 per cent of women in both areas were "happy" to have been born females and breast-feeding was considered a "must". Seventy five per cent of mothers would not allow other women to breast feed their child, even though they were aware that maternal milk is the best.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Cohort Profile: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-04-01

    The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children's health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002-03, and 2007-08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center.

  3. The French-Farsi Simultaneous Early Bilingualism in an Iranian Child--Study on the Regularity of the Presence of the Minority Language in the First Lexical Productions of a Bilingual Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Sahar; Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Safa, Parivash; Letafati, Roya

    2017-01-01

    In a simultaneous bilingual education, there are many factors that can affect its success, primarily the age of the child and socio-cognitive elements. This phenomenon can be initially studied in the first lexical productions of either language in a child. The present study focuses on the early lexical developments of a child, who lives in the…

  4. Decision making in child protection: An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals' child welfare attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; López, Mónica; Devaney, John; Spratt, Trevor; Koopmans, Carien; Knorth, Erik J; Witteman, Cilia L M; Del Valle, Jorge F; Hayes, David

    2015-11-01

    Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study presents the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) and uses it to examine the relationships between three independent domains: case characteristic (mother's wish with regard to removal), practitioner characteristic (child welfare attitudes), and protective system context (four countries: Israel, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland and Spain); and three dependent factors: substantiation of maltreatment, risk assessment, and intervention recommendation. The sample consisted of 828 practitioners from four countries. Participants were presented with a vignette of a case of alleged child maltreatment and were asked to determine whether maltreatment was substantiated, assess risk and recommend an intervention using structured instruments. Participants' child welfare attitudes were assessed. The case characteristic of mother's wish with regard to removal had no impact on judgments and decisions. In contrast, practitioners' child welfare attitudes were associated with substantiation, risk assessments and recommendations. There were significant country differences on most measures. The findings support most of the predictions derived from the JUDPIC model. The significant differences between practitioners from different countries underscore the importance of context in child protection decision making. Training should enhance practitioners' awareness of the impact that their attitudes and the context in which they are embedded have on their judgments and decisions.

  5. Epidemiologic Studies in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Review of Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Burak Dursun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood psychiatric disorders are estimated to influence about 9 to 21% of relevant age group and interest in this disorders are increasing all over the world. The growing need to child and adolescent mental health leads the task of establishing proposals and policies in this field to become a priority for governments. The first step of such proposals should be determination of prevalence of child and adolescent mental disorders in that country. However, several major methodological problems make it hard to provide accurate prevalence estimates from epidemiological studies. Most common problems are within the fields of sampling, case definition, case ascertainment and data analyses. Such issues increases the costs of studies and hinder to reach large sample sizes. To minimize these problems, investigators have to be careful on choosing the appropriate methodology and diagnostic tools in their studies. Although there are many interviews and questionnaires for screening and diagnosing in child and adolescent psychiatry, only a few of them are suitable for epidemiological research. In parallel with the improvement in all fields of child and adolescent mental health in our country, some of the major screening and diagnosing tools used in prevalence studies in literature have already been translated and validated in Turkish. Most important of this tools for screening purposes are Child Behavior Checklist and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and for diagnosing purposes are Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and Development and Well-Being Assessment. The aims of this article are to review the methodological problems of epidemiologic studies in child and adolescent psychiatry and to briefly discuss suitable diagnostic tools for extended sampled epidemiologic studies in our country.

  6. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies.

  7. Child- and family impacts of infants’ oral conditions in Tanzania and Uganda– a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumo Ray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood dental caries impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. This study set out to assess the psychometric properties of an oral health related quality of life, OHRQoL, measure, based on items emanating from the Child-and Family impact sections of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS, in Kiswahili and Luganda speaking communities. It was hypothesized that the Child- and Family impact scores would discriminate between children with and without clinically defined dental problems and reported good and bad oral health. Method Kiswahili and Luganda versions of the Child- and Family impact scores were derived through translation in pilot studies. Totals of 1221 and 816 child/caretaker pairs attending health care facilities in Manyara, Tanzania and Kampala, Uganda, were recruited into the study. After caretakers completed the interview, their children underwent oral clinical examination. Results Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha was > 0.80 with respect to the Child impact score and 0.79 regarding the Family impact score. Multiple variable logistic- and Poisson regression analyses revealed that the Kiswahili and Luganda versions of the Child- and Family impact score associated in the expected direction with child’s oral diseases as with their reported health and oral health status. In Manyara, multiple logistic regression revealed that the ORs of reporting Child impacts were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.4 and 2.2 (1.3-3.4 among caretakers who confirmed linear hypoplasia and teething symptoms, respectively. In Kampala, the ORs for reporting Child impacts were 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-3.9, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5, 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.3 and 2.7 (95% CI 1.3-5.8 among those who confirmed teeth present, hypoplasia, teething symptoms and tooth bud extractions, respectively. The odds ratios for reporting Family impacts were 2.7 (95% CI 1.5-4.7, 1.5 (95% CI 1.1- 2.1 and 4.6 (95% CI 2.0-10.7 if

  8. Harmonic cues for speech segmentation: a cross-linguistic corpus study on child-directed speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketrez, F Nihan

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies on the role of vowel harmony in word segmentation are based on artificial languages where harmonic cues reliably signal word boundaries. In this corpus study run on the data available at CHILDES, we investigated whether natural languages provide a learner with reliable segmentation cues similar to the ones created artificially. We observed that in harmonic languages (child-directed speech to thirty-five Turkish and three Hungarian children), but not in non-harmonic ones (child-directed speech to one Farsi and four Polish children), harmonic vowel sequences are more likely to appear within words, and non-harmonic ones mostly appear across word boundaries, suggesting that natural harmonic languages provide a learner with regular cues that could potentially be used for word segmentation along with other cues.

  9. Complex Syntax Acquisition: A Longitudinal Case Study of a Child with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuele, Melanie C.; Dykes, Julianna C.

    2005-01-01

    Although there is extensive documentation of the morphological limitations of children with specific language impairment (SLI), few studies have reported on complex syntax acquisition in children with SLI. This case study examined the development of complex syntax in a child with SLI between 3 and 7 years. Twelve conversational samples were…

  10. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  11. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  12. Predictors of Child-to-Parent Aggression: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Bushman, Brad J.

    2015-01-01

    Although we rarely hear about it, children sometimes aggress against their parents. This is a difficult topic to study because abused parents and abusive children are both reluctant to admit the occurrence of child-to-parent aggression. There are very few research studies on this topic, and even fewer theoretical explanations of why it occurs. We…

  13. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  14. Communicating with child patients in pediatric oncology consultations : a vignette study on child patients', parents', and survivors' communication preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Tates, Kiek; van Dulmen, Sandra; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Kamps, Willem A.; Beishuizen, A.; Bensing, Jozien M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the preferences of children with cancer, their parents, and survivors of childhood cancer regarding medical communication with child patients and variables associated with these preferences. Methods: Preferences regarding health-care provider empathy in consultations, and c

  15. Communicating with child patients in pediatric oncology consultations: a vignette study on child patients', parents', and survivors' communication preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Tates, K.; Dulmen, S. van; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Kamps, W.A.; Beishuizen, A.; Bensing, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the preferences of children with cancer, their parents, and survivors of childhood cancer regarding medical communication with child patients and variables associated with these preferences. METHODS: Preferences regarding health-care provider empathy in consultations, and c

  16. Communicating with child patients in pediatric oncology consultations: a vignette study on child patients', parents', and survivors' communication preferences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Tates, K.; Dulmen, S. van; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Kamps, W.A.; Beishuizen, A.; Bensing, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the preferences of children with cancer, their parents, and survivors of childhood cancer regarding medical communication with child patients and variables associated with these preferences. Methods: Preferences regarding health-care provider empathy in consultations, and c

  17. Association of Maternal and Child Health Center (Posyandu) Availability with Child Weight Status in Indonesia: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Helen; Liao, Chu-Yung; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2016-03-07

    Little is known about the childhood obesity prevention and treatment practices of Maternal and Child Health services (Posyandu) in Indonesia or in other countries. The present study aims to assess the association of the availability of Posyandu with overweight and obesity in children of different household wealth levels. This was a secondary analysis of data collected in the 2013 Riskesdas (or Basic Health Research) survey, a cross-sectional study, representative population-based data. Height and weight, the availability of Posyandu, and basic characteristics of the study population were collected from parents with children aged 0 to 5 years (n = 63,237). Non-availability of Posyandu significantly raised the odds of being obese (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.21) and did not show a significant relationship in the odds for overweight (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.93-1.07). This relationship persisted after a full adjustment (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25 and OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.96-1.13, respectively). There was effect modification by household wealth, which was stronger for obese children. The availability of Posyandu has a protective association with childhood obesity in Indonesia. Posyandu services are well placed to play an important role in obesity prevention and treatment in early life.

  18. Association of Maternal and Child Health Center (Posyandu Availability with Child Weight Status in Indonesia: A National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Andriani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the childhood obesity prevention and treatment practices of Maternal and Child Health services (Posyandu in Indonesia or in other countries. The present study aims to assess the association of the availability of Posyandu with overweight and obesity in children of different household wealth levels. This was a secondary analysis of data collected in the 2013 Riskesdas (or Basic Health Research survey, a cross-sectional study, representative population-based data. Height and weight, the availability of Posyandu, and basic characteristics of the study population were collected from parents with children aged 0 to 5 years (n = 63,237. Non-availability of Posyandu significantly raised the odds of being obese (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06–1.21 and did not show a significant relationship in the odds for overweight (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.93–1.07. This relationship persisted after a full adjustment (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25 and OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.96–1.13, respectively. There was effect modification by household wealth, which was stronger for obese children. The availability of Posyandu has a protective association with childhood obesity in Indonesia. Posyandu services are well placed to play an important role in obesity prevention and treatment in early life.

  19. Corporal punishment, maternal warmth, and child adjustment: a longitudinal study in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors.

  20. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care. PMID:26487147

  1. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care.Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated.Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development.Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.

  2. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy assessment in a child and adolescent mental health setting: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Cécile; Midgley, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Undertaking assessment is a significant component of a Child Psychotherapist's work within Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), yet as an activity it has been relatively neglected in the research literature. This study made use of a small-scale, qualitative design to explore the nature and function of psychoanalytic assessment work within a single CAMHS team. After an initial audit of child psychotherapy assessment work, indepth interviews with 5 Child and Adolescent Psychotherapists, exploring the nature of assessment work, were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Results suggested that assessment is a major part of the Child Psychotherapist's work, although there are different types of assessment done in different contexts. Among the participants there was a certain shared understanding of the psychoanalytic approach to assessment, although with significant differences in regard to process, technique (e.g. use of interpretation, the role of countertransference) and the reporting of assessments. The analysis also suggested tensions between the role of the assessor as an 'expert' and as a 'therapist'.

  3. Connecting a sociology of childhood perspective with the study of child health, illness and wellbeing: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Geraldine; Lowe, Pam; Olin Lauritzen, Sonja

    2015-02-01

    In the last decades we have seen a growing interest in research into children's own experiences and understandings of health and illness. This development, we would argue, is much stimulated by the sociology of childhood which has drawn our attention to how children as a social group are placed and perceived within the structure of society, and within inter-generational relations, as well as how children are social agents and co-constructors of their social world. Drawing on this tradition, we here address some cross-cutting themes that we think are important to further the study of child health: situating children within health policy, drawing attention to practices around children's health and well-being and a focus on children as health actors. The paper contributes to a critical analysis of child health policy and notions of child health and normality, pointing to theoretical and empirical research potential for the sociology of children's health and illness.

  4. An Epidemiological Study of Child Marriages in a Rural Community of Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Context: India has the maximum number of child marriages (CMs; < 18 years) because of the size of its population, and in 47% of all marriages the bride is a child. Children who are married at young age are exposed to multiple risks pertaining to their physical, mental, and social health. Aims: (i) To estimate the prevalence of CM in rural population. (ii) To study the determinants and health effects of CM. (iii) To assess the awareness among the married women regarding the health implications...

  5. Factors associated with parental recognition of a child's overweight status - a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikkonen Kaisu M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the association between a child's lifestyle factors and their parent's ability to recognise the overweight status of their offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with a parent's ability to recognise their own offspring's overweight status. Methods 125 overweight children out of all 1,278 school beginners in Northern Finland were enrolled. Weight and height were measured in health care clinics. Overweight status was defined by BMI according to internationally accepted criteria. A questionnaire to be filled in by parents was delivered by the school nurses. The parents were asked to evaluate their offspring's weight status. The child's eating habits and physical activity patterns were also enquired about. Factor groups of food and physical activity habits were formed by factor analysis. Binary logistic regression was performed using all variables associated with recognition of overweight status in univariate analyses. The significant risk factors in the final model are reported using odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Fifty-seven percent (69/120 of the parents of the overweight children considered their child as normal weight. Child's BMI was positively associated with parental recognition of overweight (OR 3.59, CI 1.8 to 7.0. Overweight boys were less likely to be recognised than overweight girls (OR 0.14, CI 0.033 to 0.58. Child's healthy diet (OR 0.22, CI 0.091 to 0.54 and high physical activity (OR 0.29, CI 0.11 to 0.79 were inversely related to parental recognition of overweight status. Conclusions Child's healthy eating habits and physical activity are inversely related to parental recognition of their offspring's overweight. These should be taken into account when planning prevention and treatment strategies for childhood obesity.

  6. Sociodemographic Predictors of Genital Mutilation (Circumcision) of the Girl Child in Nigeria: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Donatus Ignatius Chidiebere Osuorah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Female circumcision is regarded as mutilation of the external genitalia of women and the girl child. It is entrenched in the cultures of many communities in developing countries particularly in Africa. It has long been recognized internationally as a violation of the right of the woman and the girl child. Material and methods: This study tried to determine the socio-demographic factors that predict circumcision of the girl child. Multivariate logistic regression was used to det...

  7. Training a Parent in Wheelchair Skills to Improve Her Child's Wheelchair Skills: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, R. Lee; Smith, Cher; Billard, Jessica L.; Irving, Jenny D. H.; Pitts, Janice E.; White, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that training a parent in wheelchair-user and caregiver wheelchair skills would improve the child's wheelchair skills. We studied an 11-year-old girl with spina bifida and her mother. The mother received 4 training sessions averaging 42.5 minutes per session, over a period of 3 weeks. The total pre-training and, 4 weeks…

  8. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  9. A Case Study Using Child-Centered Play Therapy Approach to Treat Enuresis and Encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy-Casey, Maria

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates an alternative method (nondirective child-centered therapy) in treating enuresis and encopresis resulting from emotional disturbances. Examines various etiologies and approaches to treating these conditions. Provides a case study example. Claims that professionals must differentiate between primary and secondary occurrences of these…

  10. Children of former child soldiers and never-conscripted civilians: a preliminary intergenerational study in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; de Jong, J.; O'Hara, R.; Koopman, C.

    2013-01-01

    Studies around the world show that former child soldiers (FCSs) have mental health strengths and limitations, and highlight the important role of families and communities in reintegration to society. However, there are limited data that examine the mental health risks and protective factors of the o

  11. Do child's psychosocial functioning, and parent and family characteristics predict early alcohol use? The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Given the negative consequences of early alcohol use for health and social functioning, it is essential to detect children at risk of early drinking. The aim of this study is to determine predictors of early alcohol use that can easily be detected in Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). ME

  12. Social Conformity and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Child-Friendly Take on a Classic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafai, Abdul-Fattah; Verrier, Diarmuid; Reidy, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps surprisingly, given the importance of conformity as a theoretical construct in social psychology and the profound implications autism has for social function, little research has been done on whether autism is associated with the propensity to conform to a social majority. This study is a modern, child-friendly implementation of the…

  13. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  14. Echolalia versus Inclusion: A Case Study of a Child Who Is Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoniou-Sideri, Athina; Karayianni, Panagiota

    2000-01-01

    A case study of a Greek child (age 5) with visual impairment and echolalia is presented to illustrate the symptoms of echolalia in inclusive settings, the forms that echolalia can take, and how echolalia is differentiated from the kinds of speech repetitions observed in conditions of normal language acquisition. (Contains references.) (CR)

  15. Phase III Program Study Report. Evaluation of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynell; and Others

    Fourth in a series of Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP) evaluation reports, this document is devoted to the program study component, designed to illustrate CFRP operations across the country and to establish a descriptive context for statistical and analytic findings. Chapter 1 describes the process of building a network of linkages with…

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task: An Italian Multicentre Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Del Giudice, Marco; Fossati, Andrea; Manaresi, Francesca; Perinetti, Barbara Actis; Colle, Livia; Veglia, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a multicentre study of the psychometric properties of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task in a sample of 230 Italian children aged 4 to 8 years. The task's internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were investigated; in addition, multiple discriminant analysis was used to explore the contribution of individual…

  17. Mortality in parents after death of a child in Denmark: A nationwide follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of parental bereavement on physical health. We investigated whether the death of a child increased mortality in parents. METHODS: We undertook a follow-up study based on national registers. From 1980 to 1996, we enrolled 21062 parents in Denmark who ha...

  18. A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Parents of a Child or Children Diagnosed with Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the lived experiences of 12 parents who have a child or children diagnosed with deafness, and the meaning these parents have made of their experiences. The researcher conducted individual, semi-structured interviews and analyzed the data in accordance with the practices of phenomenological research. Thirty-seven…

  19. Developing a Framework for Monitoring Child Poverty: Results from a Study in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 Save the Children UK carried out a study of child poverty in Uganda, as part of the on-going Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Programme. Using participants from all regions of the country, the researchers asked children about their perceptions of poverty and anti-poverty strategies, as well as questioning adult key informants about…

  20. Parenting and Child Health: A Study of Low-Income Hispanic and African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievar, M. Angela; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini

    2011-01-01

    Children in low-income and ethnic minority families are more likely to be in poor health, which may impact physical and economic well-being in adulthood. This study explored how maternal depression and parenting efficacy were associated with child health outcomes in a sample of minority low-income families (N = 311). Results demonstrate that…

  1. The psychosocial impact of child domestic work: a study from India and the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesketh, T.M.; Gamlin, J.; Ong, M.; Camacho, A.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of domestic employment on the well-being of child domestic workers (CDWs) in India and the Philippines. A questionnaire was administered to 700 CDWs and 700 school-attending controls in the two countries. In India, 36% of CDWs started work before age 1

  2. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  3. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  4. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  5. Developmental Effects of Exposures to Environmental Factors: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polanska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure—cord blood lead level, for mercury—maternal hair mercury level, for ETS—cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH—1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects and 24 months (198 subjects children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development (β = −2.6; P=0.02 and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive (β = −0.2; P=0.05 and motor functions (β = −0.5; P=0.01 were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance (β = −6.2; P=0.06. The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  6. A social work study on parents’ income and personal characteristics and child abuse: A case study of city of Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is one of the most important issues in any society and any action to detect influencing factors could help take possible actions on its prevention. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the impact of family income, occupation, size, age, education and drug addiction on growth of child abuse. The study uses a sample of 450 female students who were enrolled on guided schools in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study chooses 5 classes and in each school and 10 students are randomly selected. A questionnaire is designed and distributed among the sample people, which is categorized in four groups of physical, sexual, emotional and neglect child abuse. The results are analyzed using different tests including Pearson correlation test, Chi-Square, etc. to test different hypotheses. The results of our survey indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between different family characteristics including age, occupation, family size, educational background, and drug-addiction and child abuse. However, our survey does not provide any evidence to believe there is any relationship between home status and child abuse risk.

  7. Does child gender moderate the relationship between interparental conflict and child outcomes? Findings from the Danish Longitudinal Study of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Baviskar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that child gender moderates the relationship between interparental conflict (IPC, conceptualized as a normative phenomenon, and child outcomes was evaluated using Danish mother data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC, which follows a nationally representative sample of children born in September-October 1995. IPC was assessed at age seven using a five-item scale measuring frequency of quarrels between parents on topics common to daily family life. Child outcomes were evaluated at age eleven using three indicators of internalizing (emotional problems, somatic symptoms, psychological symptoms and two indicators of externalizing symptoms (conduct problems and hyperactivity. OLS regression analyses indicated, overall, that the longitudinal association between IPC and the chosen outcomes was weak and child gender weakly moderated the association between IPC and child outcomes. Specifically, gender differences were limited only to conduct problems after controlling for the child’s psycho-social adjustment and health characteristics, mother’s depressive symptoms and disciplinary behaviour and parents’ socio-economic status at age 7. Furthermore, contrary to expectations derived from the male vulnerability and differential reactivity models, the IPC-conduct problems association was stronger among girls than among boys. In general, IPC predicted a number of outcomes among girls but did not predict any among boys. These findings suggest that it is important in both academic and professional work to consider that the impact of IPC on boys and girls may vary depending on the nature of the conflict and the type of families affected by it. Furthermore, while IPC may not have a direct impact over time, its effects may continue to be felt through other elements of the family system, such as the parent-child relationship.

  8. Context matters: A community-based study of urban minority parents’ views on child health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolar, Cassandra L.; Hernandez, Natalie; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; McAllister, Calvin; Ferguson, Aneeqah S.; Rollins, Latrice; Wrenn, Glenda; Okafor, Martha; Collins, David; Clem, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Among children, there are substantial ethno-racial minority disparities across a broad range of health-related behaviors, experiences, and outcomes. Addressing these disparities is important, as childhood and adolescence establish health trajectories that extend throughout life. Methods The current study employed a community-based participatory research approach to gain community insight on child health priorities and to frame an intervention aimed at improving the health of minority children. Eight focus groups were conducted among seventy-five African American parents in a Southeastern city. The current study was guided by an ecological theoretical framework. Results Although the focus of this investigation was on community identification of child health priorities, participants cited, as root determinants, contextual factors, which included lack of healthy food options, lack of spaces for physical activity, and community violence. These co-occurring factors were related to limited engagement in outdoor activities and physical activity, increased obesity, and poor mental health and coping. Poor parenting was cited as the most substantial barrier to improving child health outcomes, and quality parenting was identified as the most important issue to address for community programs focused on promoting the health and success of children. For improving health outcomes for children in their neighborhoods, establishment of positive social capital and constructive activities were also cited. Conclusions These results reinforce social determinants of health as influences on child health outcomes and describe how community engagement can address potential solutions through interventions that resonate with program participants. PMID:27275021

  9. Reports of Child Abuse in India from Scientific Journals and Newspapers - An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini PR

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic and sexual maltreatment meted out to a person below the age of eighteen and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. A total of 33,098 cases of crimes against children were reported in India during 2011 as compared to 26,694 cases during 2010, suggesting a recent increase of 24 percent. Objectives: To explore the contents of the published articles/reports on child abuse in India from scientific journals and newspapers identifying areas and gaps for further research and program development. Material and Methods: Published articles in scientific journals during the years 2007-2012 with free access and online versions of English newspapers (2007-2012 in India were searched using the search engines such as ‘PubMed’ and ‘Google’. The key words used were ‘child abuse in (on, about India. First two researchers independently reviewed the content of articles/newspaper reports and decided the categories emerging from the articles and reports. Later on, the quantification of these categories was done by identifying the number of times it was reported in the reports. Results: The nature and extent of reporting child abuse in scientific journal is different from that of newspapers. In Journals, our search provided us with 9 articles, of which prevalence studies were predominant (4 followed by case reports (3 and Knowledge, Attitude, Practice studies (2. The studies were mostly conducted in the hospital setting. We obtained 38 reports from newspapers. Child abuse was found more among girls. Among type of abuse, sexual abuse was more common (84.2%. About 52.6% of the abusers were members known to the victim. The maximum cases were reported from West India especially in Goa, followed by South region. Most reports reported legal action on accused. Little was reported on what happened to a victim, indicators of abuse and settings of the abuse. The motives and consequences of the abuses were

  10. Mother’s perceptions of child mental health problems and services: A cross sectional study from Lahore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Ashraf, Sania; Shoukat, Rabia; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of mothers regarding child mental health problems, its causes, preferred treatment options, and to determine whom they would consult, if their child had a psychiatric illness. Methods: Following informed consent, a questionnaire covering perceptions regarding various aspects of child mental illness was used for data collection from mothers. They were asked to identify the symptoms and behaviours they considered psychopathological in children, which treatments they would prefer, where they would turn for help with a mentally ill child, and their understanding of the causes of child psychiatric disorders in addition to ways to increase awareness of child psychiatric issues in the society. Results: Ninety one mothers participated in the study. They equally perceived emotional, behavioural and cognitive symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, economic difficulties, social adversity and possession by evil spirits. A substantial proportion preferred medication, recitation of Holy Quran and psychotherapy as the preferred treatment options. Overall, mothers preferred consulting health professionals than religious scholars and faith healers. They were keen for steps to increase mental health awareness within their society. Conclusion: Despite different cultural perspective, mothers exhibit good understanding of symptoms of child mental health issues and appear open to various services and treatment options. Understanding parental perceptions and expectations from child psychiatric services are crucial in increasing families’ engagement in treatment. PMID:27375732

  11. Enhanced Plasticity in Spoken Language Acquisition for Child Learners: Evidence from Phonetic Training Studies in Child and Adult Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria; Ylinen, Sari

    2013-01-01

    Speech sounds that contain multiple phonetic cues are often difficult for foreign-language learners, especially if certain cues are weighted differently in the foreign and native languages. Greek adult and child speakers of English were studied to determine the effect of native language on second-language (L2) cue weighting and, in particular, to…

  12. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  13. Verbal Interaction Project: Mother-Child Home Program. Family Cognitive Profile Study. Final Report to the Foundation for Child Development, September, 1972-September, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis; Phillips, Juliet R.

    This report examines the Family Cognitive Profile Study which provided for the collection and analysis of data regarding the IQ gains of children enrolled in the Mother Child Home Program (MCHP). The existence of siblings among the subjects of the MCHP was noted by the Verbal Interaction Project (VIP), the research organization responsible for…

  14. Decision making in child protection : An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals’ child welfare attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; López, Mónica; Devaney, John; Spratt, Trevor; Koopmans, Carien; Knorth, Erik J.; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Del Valle, Jorge F.; Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study utilizes the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) to examine the relationships between three independent factors: case charac

  15. Decision making in child protection: An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals' child welfare attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benbenishty, R.; Davidson-Arad, B.; López, M.; Devaney, J.; Spratt, T.; Koopmans, C.; Knorth, E.J.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Del Valle, J.F.; Hayes, D.

    2015-01-01

    Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study presents the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) and uses it to examine the relationships between three independent domains: case chara

  16. Danish parents' experiences when their newborn or critically ill child is transferred to the PICU - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Danish parents' experiences when their newborn or small child was critically ill. Thirteen parents were interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The child's transfer to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) meant either help...

  17. The Relationship between Parenting Stress, Parental Intelligence and Child Behavior Problems in a Study of Korean Preschool Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Yoon

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…

  18. Inhibiting Factors in the Prevention of Overweight in Infants: An Explorative Qualitative Study among Child Healthcare Practitioners in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dera de Bie, Eveliene; Jansen, Maria; Gerver, Willem Jan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore inhibiting factors in the prevention of overweight in infants younger than one year, among practitioners working for municipal child healthcare organisations in the Netherlands. Twelve in-depth interviews with child healthcare physicians and nurses were conducted. All interviews were tape-recorded, after which…

  19. Third Grade Effects of the Mother-Child Home Program. Developmental Continuity Consortium Follow-Up Study. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    This followup study of the effects of the Mother-Child Home Program developed by the Verbal Interaction Project (VIP) measures the school performance of nine groups of 162 third grade children from low income families. The program of 92 home sessions spaced over two school years focused on the mother and child as a socially interactive dyad, and…

  20. Incidence of Hospitalization Due to Child Maltreatment in Taiwan, 1996-2007: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wan-Lin; Huang, Yu-Tung; Feng, Jui-Ying; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known regarding the epidemiology of child maltreatment in Asian countries. This study aimed to examine the incidence of hospitalization coded as due to child maltreatment in Taiwan. Methods: We used inpatient claims data of the National Health Insurance for the years 1996 through 2007 for estimation. Hospitalization of…

  1. Ethnic differences in help-seeking behaviour following child sexual abuse: a multi-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien M; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Western societies, groups from a minority ethnic background are under-represented in formal mental health care. However, it is unknown if the minority ethnic victims of child sexual abuse differ from majority ethnic victims regarding their help-seeking behaviours. This study used a multi-method design to investigate the prevalence of (in) formal help-seeking after child sexual abuse and the influence of attitudes towards gender roles and sexuality on help-seeking among the Dutch minority ethnic and majority ethnic victims. We also examined differences in reasons not to seek help. Quantitative survey data on help-seeking patterns among 1496 child sexual abuse victims were collected. Four qualitative focus groups were conducted with professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse and minority ethnic groups to explore help-seeking behaviour. No significant differences between ethnicity emerged in help-seeking rates. However, respondents with more liberal gender attitudes were more likely to disclose than conservative respondents. Additionally, an interaction effect was observed between ethnicity and gender attitudes, indicating that, contrary to the main effect, young people of Moroccan and Turkish heritage with more liberal gender attitudes were less likely to disclose abuse. Reasons for not seeking help differed among groups. Focus group members emphasised mistrust towards counsellors and perceptions that inhibit minority ethnic youth from seeking help.

  2. Social Studies for the Visually Impaired Child. MAVIS Sourcebook 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Laurel R.

    Suggestions are made in this sourcebook for adapting teaching strategies and curriculum materials in social studies to accomodate the needs of the visually impaired (VI) student. It is presented in eight chapters. Chapter one explains why elementary grade social studies, with its emphasis on visual media, presents difficulties for VI children.…

  3. Long-term economic consequences of child maltreatment: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Frederick W; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; Cuijpers, Pim; Beekman, Aartjan; Evers, Silvia; Smit, Filip

    2016-12-01

    Child maltreatment is prognostically associated with long-term detrimental consequences for mental health. These consequences are reflected in higher costs due to health service utilization and productivity losses in adulthood. An above-average sense of mastery can have protective effects in the pathogenesis of mental disorders and thus potentially cushion adverse impacts of maltreatment. This should be reflected in lower costs in individuals with a history of child maltreatment and a high sense of mastery. The aims of the study were to prognostically estimate the excess costs of health service uptake and productivity losses in adults with a history of child maltreatment and to evaluate how mastery may act as an effect modifier. Data were used on 5618 individuals participating in the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). We focussed on measures of child maltreatment (emotional neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse) and economic costs owing to health-care uptake and productivity losses when people with a history of abuse have grown into adulthood. We evaluated how mastery acted as an effect modifier. Estimates were adjusted for demographics and parental psychopathology. Post-stratification weights were used to account for initial non-response and dropout. Due to the non-normal distribution of the costs data, sample errors, 95 % confidence intervals, and p values were calculated using non-parametric bootstrapping (1000 replications). Exposure to child maltreatment occurs frequently (6.9-24.8 %) and is associated with substantial excess costs in adulthood. To illustrate, adjusted annual excess costs attributable to emotional neglect are €1,360 (95 % CI: 615-215) per adult. Mastery showed a significant effect on these figures: annual costs were €1,608 in those with a low sense of mastery, but only €474 in those with a firmer sense of mastery. Child maltreatment has profound mental health consequences and is associated with

  4. Perceived security, self-representation, and dyadic child-parent and child-peer play interactions : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to increase our understanding and knowledge of the relation between children's two social worlds, that of parents and that of peers. This dissertation contains a number of articles reporting on the relation between perceived security, self-representation, and dyadic child-

  5. A qualitative study of beliefs about food relating to child nutrition in the Lower Jimi Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeble, Jessica; Keeble, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A previous study that we carried out confirmed that malnutrition is a problem amongst the young child population in the Lower Jimi Valley. This study begins to explore the cultural and traditional food beliefs in order to target the interventions of health services in reducing childhood malnutrition. The study was undertaken during maternal and child health clinics conducted on a foot patrol from Koinambe Health Centre in the villages of Kompiai, Komengwai, Kupeng, Injim and Kwiama. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with small groups of women to uncover beliefs regarding nutrition and feeding during pregnancy, infancy and childhood. This study has highlighted practices that nutritionally disadvantage young children. The four most significant are late weaning, restriction of foods, infrequency of feeding and the low priority given to children during meal times. It is suggested that it is the use, control and distribution of food, rather than its shortage, that contribute most significantly to the problem of childhood malnutrition in this area.

  6. Comparison of caries and oral hygiene status of child laborers and school children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchal Gangwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child labor is recognized as a global health problem and child laborers are exposed to unique living, working conditions and face such events in life, which are not usually faced by other children. Research on its health impact and oral health impact has been very limited and inconsistent. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare dental caries and oral hygiene status of child laborers and school children of Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 child laborers by snowball sampling technique and 400 school children by random sampling technique were included in the study. A specially designed pretested proforma was used to collect data related to the sociodemographic profile, adverse habits and frequency of dental visits. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S were used. Results: The mean age of child laborers and school children was 13.07 ± 1.3 and 13.03 ± 1.5. The majority of child laborers (82.8% had no mouth rinsing habit. Tobacco-related habits were found among 37.8% of child laborers. Most of the child laborers (91% never visited dentists. The mean DMFT was 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.9 ± 1.6 for child laborers and school children, respectively, (P < 0.05. The mean OHI-S score was 2.3 ± 0.70 and 2.1 ± 0.9 in child laborers and school children, respectively, (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the child laborers have poorer oral health status with respect to dental caries and oral hygiene compared to school children.

  7. Organochlorine Pesticides and Male Genital Anomalies in the Child Health and Development Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Shiau, Rita; Petreas, Myrto; Weintraub, June M; Farhang, Lili; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    Increasing rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in human populations may be caused by exogenous environmental agents. We conducted a case–control study of serum levels of p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its major metabolite, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and cryptorchidism and hypospadias in the Child Health and Development Study, a longitudinal cohort of pregnancies that occurred between 1959 and 1967, a period when DDT was produced and used in the United Sta...

  8. The LIFE child study: a life course approach to disease and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quante Mirja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profound knowledge about child growth, development, health, and disease in contemporary children and adolescents is still rare. Epidemiological studies together with new powerful research technologies present exciting opportunities to the elucidation of risk factor-outcome associations with potentially major consequences for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Aim To conduct a unique prospective longitudinal cohort study in order to assess how environmental, metabolic and genetic factors affect growth, development and health from fetal life to adulthood. Methods The ‘Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE Child Study’ focuses on two main research objectives: (1 monitoring of normal growth, development and health; (2 non-communicable diseases such as childhood obesity and its co-morbidities, atopy and mental health problems. Detailed assessments will be conducted alongside long-term storage of biological samples in 2,000 pregnant women and more than 10,000 children and their families. Results Close coordination and engagement of a multidisciplinary team in the LIFE Child study successfully established procedures and systems for balancing many competing study and ethical needs. Full participant recruitment and complete data collection started in July 2011. Early data indicate a high acceptance rate of the study program, successful recruitment strategies and the establishment of a representative cohort for the population of Leipzig. A series of subprojects are ongoing, and analyses and publications are on their way. Discussion This paper addresses key elements in the design and implementation of the new prospective longitudinal cohort study LIFE Child. Given the recognized need for long-term data on adverse effects on health and protective factors, our study data collection should provide magnificent opportunities to examine complex interactions that govern the emergence of non-communicable diseases.

  9. Child and Adolescent Abuse and Subsequent Victimization: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Cindy L.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Loh, Catherine; Weiland, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the possible reciprocal relationship between victimization experiences and psychological functioning by assessing abuse experiences in childhood, adolescence, and during a 2-month follow-up period. Method: At the beginning of the study (Time 1), abuse histories, trauma and depressive symptoms, and interpersonal…

  10. Singaporean Mothers' Perception of Their Three-year-old Child's Weight Status: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuck Seng Cheng

    Full Text Available Inaccurate parental perception of their child's weight status is commonly reported in Western countries. It is unclear whether similar misperception exists in Asian populations. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of Singaporean mothers to accurately describe their three-year-old child's weight status verbally and visually.At three years post-delivery, weight and height of the children were measured. Body mass index (BMI was calculated and converted into actual weight status using International Obesity Task Force criteria. The mothers were blinded to their child's measurements and asked to verbally and visually describe what they perceived was their child's actual weight status. Agreement between actual and described weight status was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistic (κ.Of 1237 recruited participants, 66.4% (n = 821 with complete data on mothers' verbal and visual perceptions and children's anthropometric measurements were analysed. Nearly thirty percent of the mothers were unable to describe their child's weight status accurately. In verbal description, 17.9% under-estimated and 11.8% over-estimated their child's weight status. In visual description, 10.4% under-estimated and 19.6% over-estimated their child's weight status. Many mothers of underweight children over-estimated (verbal 51.6%; visual 88.8%, and many mothers of overweight and obese children under-estimated (verbal 82.6%; visual 73.9%, their child's weight status. In contrast, significantly fewer mothers of normal-weight children were inaccurate (verbal 16.8%; visual 8.8%. Birth order (p<0.001, maternal (p = 0.004 and child's weight status (p<0.001 were associated with consistently inaccurate verbal and visual descriptions.Singaporean mothers, especially those of underweight and overweight children, may not be able to perceive their young child's weight status accurately. To facilitate prevention of childhood obesity, educating parents and caregivers about their child

  11. Child health and the environment: the INMA Spanish Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Ramón, Rosa; Ballester, Ferran; Grimalt, Joan; Marco, Alfredo; Olea, Nicolás; Posada, Manuel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

    2006-09-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Environment and Childhood]) is a population-based cohort study in different Spanish cities, that focuses on prenatal environmental exposures and growth, development and health from early fetal life until childhood. The study focuses on five primary areas of research: (1) growth and physical development; (2) behavioural and cognitive development; (3) asthma and allergies; (4) sexual and reproductive development; and (5) environmental exposure pathways. The general aims of the project are: (1) to describe the degree of individual prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants, and the internal dose of chemicals during pregnancy, at birth and during childhood in Spain; (2) to evaluate the impact of the exposure to different contaminants on fetal and infant growth, health and development; (3) to evaluate the role of diet on fetal and infant growth, health and development; and (4) to evaluate the interaction between persistent pollutants, nutrients and genetic determinants on fetal and infant growth, health and development. Extensive assessments will be carried out on 3100 pregnant women and children. Data will be collected by physical examinations, questionnaires, interviews, ultrasound and biological samples. Pregnant women are being assessed at 12, 20 and 32 weeks of gestation to collect information about environmental exposures and fetal growth. The children will be followed until the age of 4 years.

  12. Cancer incidence in parents who lost a child: a nationwide study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Johansen, Christoffer; Hansen, Dorthe;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been debated whether psychological stress causes cancer, but the scientific evidence remains contradictory. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the death of a child is related to cancer risk in bereaved parents. METHODS: The authors undertook a follow-up study...... based on national registers. All 21,062 parents who lost a child from 1980 to 1996 were recruited for the exposed cohort together with 293,745 randomly selected, unexposed parents. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the relative risk of cancer incidence up to 18 years after....../immune-related malignancies (ICD7 codes 155, 171, 191, 200-202, and 204), lymphatic/hematopoietic malignancies (ICD7 codes 200-205), and hormone related malignancies (ICD7 codes 170, 172, 175, and 177). RESULTS: The authors observed a slightly increased overall cancer risk in bereaved mothers (relative risk [RR], 1.18; 95...

  13. Examining the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Child Maltreatment Using Data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Rachael; Fallon, Barbara; Van Wert, Melissa; Filippelli, Joanne

    2017-02-08

    There is strong evidence that poverty and economic disadvantage are associated with child maltreatment; however, research in this area is underdeveloped in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic hardship and maltreatment for families and children identified to the Ontario child protection system for a maltreatment concern. Secondary analyses of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013) were conducted. The OIS-2013 examines the incidence of reported maltreatment and the characteristics of children and families investigated by child welfare authorities in Ontario in 2013. Descriptive and bivariate chi-square analyses were conducted in addition to a logistic regression predicting the substantiation of maltreatment. In 9% of investigations, the household had run out of money for food, housing, and/or utilities in the past 6 months. Children in these households were more likely to have developmental concerns, academic difficulties, and caregivers with mental health concerns and substance use issues. Controlling for key clinical and case characteristics, children living in families facing economic hardship were almost 2 times more likely to be involved in a substantiated maltreatment investigation (OR = 1.91, p < 0.001). The implications in regard to future research and promoting resilience are discussed.

  14. Examining the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Child Maltreatment Using Data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Lefebvre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that poverty and economic disadvantage are associated with child maltreatment; however, research in this area is underdeveloped in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic hardship and maltreatment for families and children identified to the Ontario child protection system for a maltreatment concern. Secondary analyses of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013 were conducted. The OIS-2013 examines the incidence of reported maltreatment and the characteristics of children and families investigated by child welfare authorities in Ontario in 2013. Descriptive and bivariate chi-square analyses were conducted in addition to a logistic regression predicting the substantiation of maltreatment. In 9% of investigations, the household had run out of money for food, housing, and/or utilities in the past 6 months. Children in these households were more likely to have developmental concerns, academic difficulties, and caregivers with mental health concerns and substance use issues. Controlling for key clinical and case characteristics, children living in families facing economic hardship were almost 2 times more likely to be involved in a substantiated maltreatment investigation (OR = 1.91, p < 0.001. The implications in regard to future research and promoting resilience are discussed.

  15. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that the handling of heavy loads during pregnancy is associated with impaired fetal growth. We examined the association between quantity and frequency of maternal occupational lifting and the child's size at birth, measured by weight, length, ponderal index, small......, however, be interpreted with caution due to limited statistical power, and we suggest that future studies include detailed, individual information on job functions and ergonomic routines of lifting procedures....

  16. SIMPLIFICATION IN CHILD LANGUAGE IN BAHASA INDONESIA: A CASE STUDY ON FILIP

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    Julia Eka Rini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at giving examples of characteristics of simplification in Bahasa Indonesia and proving that child language has a pattern and that there is a process in learning. Since this is a case study, it might not be enough to say that simplification is universal for all children of any mother tongues, but at least there is a proof that such patterns of simplification also occur in Bahasa Indonesia.

  17. A study of maternal and child health issues among migratory construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj Pandit

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available According to recent census 2011, the total population of India is 1.21 billion. In 2001, 309 million persons were migrants based on place of last residence, which constitute about 30% of the population. The female and children are considered associated migrant in India. They are more vulnerable to health and social issues. The present study was conducted to assess the various aspects of Maternl and child healrh (MCH issues among migratory families.

  18. Sibling Differences in Parent-Child Conflict and Risky Behavior: A 3-Wave Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    To better understand why siblings growing up in the same family are often as different as unrelated individuals, this study explored the role of differential experiences with parents in the development of sibling differences. Cross-lagged models tested directions of effect by examining whether differential parent-child conflict predicted sibling differences in risky behavior over time, or vice versa. Participants were mothers, fathers, and the two eldest adolescent siblings (mean ages at Time...

  19. Studies in Child Language and Multilingualism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 345.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Virginia, Ed.; White, Sheila J., Ed.

    This compilation contains the following research reports on child language: (1) "Nouns: Love 'Em or Leave 'Em" by Dianne Horgan; (2) "Logic in Early Child Language" by Roy D. Pea; and (3) "Theories of the Child's Acquisition of Syntax: A Look at Rare Events and at Necessary, Catalytic, and Irrelevant Components of Mother-Child Conversation" by…

  20. Data Surveillance in Child Protection Systems Development: An Indonesian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, Neil; Stark, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Successful implementation of child protection program interventions and child and family welfare services is contingent upon the availability and use of good quality information, as emphasized by the recent Convention on the Rights of the Child's General Comment 13. Yet, the role of information within child protection is not well…

  1. Swedish Child Health Care nurses conceptions of overweight in children: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isma Gabriella E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Registered Sick Children’s Nurses and District Nurses employed at Child Health Care centres are in a position to help prevent childhood overweight and obesity. Prevention of this challenging public health threat could be improved through having a better understanding of how this group of nurses perceives childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the conceptions of childhood overweight, including obesity, among nurses working in Child Health Care. Method A qualitative study using a phenomenographic approach, based on open-ended interviews with 18 Child Health Care nurses (CHC-nurses strategically selected from 17 Child Health Care Centres in the southern part of Sweden. Results Four categories of description emerged from the data: Perception of childhood overweight changes, Overweight in younger children a neglected concern, Overweight a delicate issue and Importance of family lifestyle. The participating CHC-nurses conceived overweight in children, primarily obesity in children to be an extensive and serious problem which affects children, families and the surrounding society. Overweight in children was further perceived as a consequence of their parent’s lifestyle and their awareness of the problem, which was considered by the CHC-nurses as a sensitive and a provoking issue. It was also perceived that overweight in children is not taken seriously during the pre-school period and that concerns regarding overweight in younger children were mainly about the appearance and not the health of the child. The CHC-nurses perceived that the proportion of overweight children has increased, which Swedish society and the CHC-nurses have adapted to. This adaptation makes it difficult for CHC-nurses to define those children who are overweight. Conclusion CHC-nurses provide a comprehensive and complex picture of childhood overweight, which includes several difficulties dealing with this issue. Attention to CHC

  2. Child feces disposal practices in rural Orissa: a cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Majorin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An estimated 2.5 billion people worldwide lack access to improved sanitation facilities. While large-scale programs in some countries have increased latrine coverage, they sometimes fail to ensure optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child feces, a significant source of exposure to fecal pathogens. We undertook a cross-sectional study to explore fecal disposal practices among children in rural Orissa, India in villages where the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign had been implemented at least three years prior to the study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted surveys with heads of 136 households with 145 children under 5 years of age in 20 villages. We describe defecation and feces disposal practices and explore associations between safe disposal and risk factors. Respondents reported that children commonly defecated on the ground, either inside the household (57.5% for pre-ambulatory children or around the compound (55.2% for ambulatory children. Twenty percent of pre-ambulatory children used potties and nappies; the same percentage of ambulatory children defecated in a latrine. While 78.6% of study children came from 106 households with a latrine, less than a quarter (22.8% reported using them for disposal of child feces. Most child feces were deposited with other household waste, both for pre-ambulatory (67.5% and ambulatory (58.1% children. After restricting the analysis to households owning a latrine, the use of a nappy or potty was associated with safe disposal of feces (OR 6.72, 95%CI 1.02-44.38 though due to small sample size the regression could not adjust for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In the area surveyed, the Total Sanitation Campaign has not led to high levels of safe disposal of child feces. Further research is needed to identify the actual scope of this potential gap in programming, the health risk presented and interventions to minimize any adverse effect.

  3. Continuing education on child development for primary healthcare professionals: a prospective before-and-after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Consuêlo Melo Figueiras

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Children's developmental disorders are often identified late by healthcare professionals working in primary care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a continuing education program on child development, on the knowledge and practices of these professionals.DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective single-cohort study (before-and-after study, conducted in the city of Belém, Pará , Brazil.METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-one professionals working in primary healthcare (82.2% participated in a continuing education program on child development and were assessed before and after implementation of the program through tests on their knowledge of child development, consisting of 19 questions for physicians and 14 for nurses, and questionnaires on their professional practices.RESULTS: One to three years after the program, the mean number of correct answers in the tests had increased from 11.5 to 14.3 among physicians in the Healthy Family Program (Programa Família Saudável, PFS; 13.0 to 14.3 among physicians in Municipal Health Units (Unidades Municipais de Saúde, UMS; 8.3 to 10.0 among PFS nurses; and 7.8 to 9.4 among UMS nurses. In interviews with mothers attended by these professionals before the program, only 21.7% reported that they were asked about their children's development, 24.7% reported that the professional asked about or observed their children's development and 11.1% received advice on how to stimulate them. After the program, these percentages increased to 34.5%, 54.2% and 30.3%, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Professionals who participated in the program showed improved performance regarding child development knowledge and practices.

  4. Probability, plausibility, and adequacy evaluations of the Oriente Study demonstrate that supplementation improved child growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-02-01

    This article presents evidence that the high-nutrient supplement in the Oriente study (Atole) improved child growth. The evidence is presented at 4 levels. There was a causal effect of the intervention on child length, as assessed by probability analyses of the randomized, controlled trial (P < 0.05). The plausibility analyses, which included an examination of wasting, showed that the nutritional impact was due to the Atole, especially in those who were <3 y old and who suffered from diarrhea. The adequacy analyses revealed excellent biological efficacy of the Atole at the individual level. At the level of the whole population, the efficacy of impact was much less, because many children did not participate fully in the supplementation program. The external validity of the biological impact is likely to be good for populations with similar diets and medical care.

  5. Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Alcohol Abuse - Findings from Adverse Childhood Experience Study in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Filov; Marija Raleva; Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska; Dinesh Sethi; Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska; Kadri Hazdi Hamza; Ana Poprizova

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between of the problem of alcohol abuse and child maltreatment.  METHOD: The ACE study was administered by the University Clinic of Psychiatry, Department for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The ACE study used a representative sample of students in year four of secondary school (aged 18 and above) and first- and second-year university students. The sample consisted of 664 secondary school students (258 males and 406 female...

  6. Association of maternal age with child health: A Japanese longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children’s health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554). We estimated risks of unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 and 66 months according to maternal age, controlling for the following potential confounders: parental education; maternal parity, smoking status, and employment status; household income; paternal age, and sex of the child. We also included the following as potential mediators: preterm births and birthweight. We observed a decreasing trend in the risks of children’s unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 months according to maternal age in both cohorts. In the 2001 cohort, compared to mothers 40.0 years, respectively, controlling for confounders. Our findings were in line with previous findings from population-based studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Canada suggesting that older maternal age may be beneficial for early child health. PMID:28234951

  7. Stakeholders views on why child overweight and obesity is rising in Lagos, Nigeria: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeteju A Adedini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: According to the World Health Organization, the number of obese children would increase to 70 million by 2025 if no intervention is made. An increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children in Lagos State, Nigeria has been established, but specific factors promoting its prevalence are unknown. The aim of this study was to elicit the views of stakeholders on the perceived causes for the rise in child overweight and obesity. Methods: Five focus group discussions were conducted with different groups of stakeholders involved in child care, namely: Parents, teachers, and healthcare givers. Participants were recruited using a purposive sampling method; a structured question guide was employed for the discussion sessions. The discussions were recorded, collated, and analyzed using grounded theory to extract themes. Results: Six themes emerged as factors responsible for the rise, of which civilization and lifestyle imbalance of the populace emerged as the prominent cause. Of the fifty respondents, 76% of respondents identified parents (particularly young mothers as major contributors to the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children of Lagos State; and 52.3% of the participants reported that a direct relationship exists between income class of parent and weight of a child resident in Lagos. Conclusion: Civilization and lifestyle imbalance, insecurity and congestion, low level of public awareness, inadequate educative and enlightenment programs, myths and societal perception were factors identified to responsible for the rise in the prevalence of child obesity in Lagos, Nigeria. Preventive strategies to control the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children residing in Lagos State should be considered for further studies.

  8. Review of studies on child language abroad%国外儿童语言研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁文慧

    2011-01-01

    国外儿童语言研究源于儿童心理研究,历经了心理学、语言学双重取向的研究和儿童语言研究的独立学科等过程。期间的研究成果丰富,揭示了儿童语言词汇、语法、语义、语用习得和发展的特点。%Studies on child language abroad originated from child psychological study, going through double - oriented objects of psychological and linguistic study, abundant research achievements involve in the fields and an independent discipline of child language study. The of lexis, grammar, semantics, pragmatics, revealing the specialties and features of child language acquisition and development.

  9. A curriculum based on social learning theory emphasizing fruit exposure and positive parent child-feeding strategies: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Laura Siem; Falciglia, Grace; Davis, Angela M; Couch, Sarah C

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a nutrition intervention program to enhance children's knowledge, preference, and intake of whole fruit and to decrease parents' use of controlling child-feeding behaviors. Subjects were fifth- and sixth-grade students (children aged 10-12 years) from Cincinnati, Ohio. Nine parent-child pairs completed the study. Seventeen parent-child pairs who expressed interest but were unable to attend more than one session served as controls. Based on the Social Learning Theory, the curriculum combined child-focused interactive lessons and skill-building activities with parent-focused lessons on child-feeding strategies to increase the fruit intake of children. Change in children's knowledge, preference, and intake of fruit and parents' use of controlling child-feeding strategies were measured in a pretest/posttest manner using validated questionnaires. There was a significant increase in knowledge scores and fruit intake by children in the experimental vs the control group. Fruit preference scores were similar between groups. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in use of controlling child-feeding strategies by parents in the intervention vs the control group.

  10. Community relations and child-led microfinance: a case study of caregiving children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Rampant levels of AIDS and poverty have made many children in sub-Saharan Africa the primary caregivers of their ageing or ailing guardians. This paper reports on a social action fund initiative that brought caregiving children together to set-up and run income generating activities as a group with the aim of strengthening their coping capabilities. To further our understanding of child-led microfinance activities, this paper explores how intra-community relations can both facilitate and undermine child-led activities, and how these activities in turn can further strengthen some intra-community relations. Twenty-one children (aged 12-17) and six guardians participated in this study. Data included draw-and-write compositions (n=21), essays (n=16), workshop notes and proposals (n=8) and in-depth interviews (n=16). A thematic analysis revealed that the children actively drew on the expertise and involvement of some guardians in the project as well as on each other, developing supportive peer relations that helped strengthen their coping capabilities. However, the children's disenfranchised position in the community meant that some adults took advantage of the child-led activities for their own personal gain. Some children also showed a lack of commitment to collective work, undermining the morale of their more active peers. Nevertheless, both guardians and the children themselves began to look at caregiving children differently as their engagement in the project began to earn them respect from the community - changing guardian/child relations. The paper concludes that microfinance interventions targeting children and young people must consider children's relationships with each other and with adults as key determinants of Project success.

  11. Cohort Profile Update: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Per; Birke, Charlotte; Vejrup, Kristine; Haugan, Anita; Alsaker, Elin; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Handal, Marte; Haugen, Margaretha; Høiseth, Gudrun; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Paltiel, Liv; Schreuder, Patricia; Tambs, Kristian; Vold, Line; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2016-04-01

    This is an update of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) cohort profile which was published in 2006. Pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination were initially invited. The first child was born in October 1999 and the last in July 2009. The participation rate was 41%. The cohort includes more than 114 000 children, 95 000 mothers and 75 000 fathers. About 1900 pairs of twins have been born. There are approximately 16 400 women who participate with more than one pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from both parents during pregnancy and from mothers and children (umbilical cord) after birth. Samples of DNA, RNA, whole blood, plasma and urine are stored in a biobank. During pregnancy, the mother responded to three questionnaires and the father to one. After birth, questionnaires were sent out when the child was 6 months, 18 months and 3 years old. Several sub-projects have selected participants for in-depth clinical assessment and exposure measures. The purpose of this update is to explain and describe new additions to the data collection, including questionnaires at 5, 7, 8 and 13 years as well as linkages to health registries, and to point to some findings and new areas of research. Further information can be found at [www.fhi.no/moba-en]. Researchers interested in collaboration and access to the data can complete an electronic application available on the MoBa website above.

  12. Association between child-care and acute diarrhea: a study in Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of the type of child-care on the occurrence of acute diarrhea with special emphasis on the effect of children grouping during care. METHODS: From October 1998 to January 1999 292 children, aged 24 to 36 months, recruited using a previously assembled cohort of newborns, were evaluated. Information on the type of care and occurrence of diarrhea in the previous year was obtained from parents by telephone interview. The X² and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare proportions and quantitative variables, respectively. The risk of diarrhea was estimated through the calculation of incident odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI, crude and adjusted by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Using as reference category children cared individually at home, the adjusted ORs for diarrhea occurrence were 3.18, 95% CI [1.49, 6.77] for children cared in group at home, 2.28, 95% CI [0.92, 5.67] for children cared in group in day-care homes and 2.54, 95% CI [1.21, 5.33] for children cared in day-care centers. Children that changed from any other type of child-care setting to child-care centers in the year preceding the study showed a risk even higher (OR 7.65, 95% CI [3.25, 18.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Group care increases the risk of acute diarrhea whatsoever the specific setting.

  13. phenomenon of child abuse based on studies of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kasznia-Kocot

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon of child abuse is considered to be voluntary or involuntary action of an adult which has a detrimental effect on child’s health and/or his psychophysical development. The concept of child abuse syndrome includes physical, mental and emotional maltreatment and negligence of physical, medical and emotional needs and also rape and sexual abuse. The authors conducted a questionnaire survey in order to assess children mistreatment by parents, caretakers and school environment. Studies included 228 high school students aged 14– 16 out of which 44,3% were girls and 55,7% were boys. 84% of the children were brought up by full families, 13% by mothers only, and 3% by fathers only. The most common form of mistreatment of children was physical violence (20,3%, psychological violence (12,1% and negligence (6,5%. Violence in the form of bad touch was experienced by 7,9% of girls and 0,8% of boys. High school students often suffered emotional violence from peers (22,9%, siblings (5,2% and teachers (4,8%. Results of the surveys were discussed paying attention to sociological context and legal conditions. The need for cooperation between many organizations and sectors of public life was highlighted to prevent the phenomenon of child abuse.

  14. Quantifying bias in randomized controlled trials in child health: a meta-epidemiological study.

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    Lisa Hartling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify bias related to specific methodological characteristics in child-relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs. DESIGN: Meta-epidemiological study. DATA SOURCES: We identified systematic reviews containing a meta-analysis with 10-40 RCTs that were relevant to child health in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently assessed RCTs using items in the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and other study factors. We used meta-epidemiological methods to assess for differences in effect estimates between studies classified as high/unclear vs. low risk of bias. RESULTS: We included 287 RCTs from 17 meta-analyses. The proportion of studies at high/unclear risk of bias was: 79% sequence generation, 83% allocation concealment, 67% blinding of participants, 47% blinding of outcome assessment, 49% incomplete outcome data, 32% selective outcome reporting, 44% other sources of bias, 97% overall risk of bias, 56% funding, 35% baseline imbalance, 13% blocked randomization in unblinded trials, and 1% early stopping for benefit. We found no significant differences in effect estimates for studies that were high/unclear vs. low risk of bias for any of the risk of bias domains, overall risk of bias, or other study factors. CONCLUSIONS: We found no differences in effect estimates between studies based on risk of bias. A potential explanation is the number of trials included, in particular the small number of studies with low risk of bias. Until further evidence is available, reviewers should not exclude RCTs from systematic reviews and meta-analyses based solely on risk of bias particularly in the area of child health.

  15. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who w...

  16. Parental Self-Efficacy As a Determining Factor in Healthy Mother-Child Interaction: A Pilot Study in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abarashi, Zohreh; Tahmassian, Karineh; Mazaheri, Mohammad Ali; Panaghi, Leili; Mansoori, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parental self-efficacy is associated with increasing mental health in children. There is a paucity of research in Iran on the role of parental self-efficacy in increasing mental health status of children. In this preliminary study, we studied the effectiveness of the World Health Organization international child development program (2002) for children aged 3 years and younger in increasing positive interaction between child and mother as an important component of mental health. Met...

  17. Maternal-child nutrition practices and pediatric overweight/obesity in the United States and Chile: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Pawloski, Lisa R; Jaimovich, Sonia P; Campos, Maria C

    2012-10-01

    Childhood overweight/obesity is now epidemic in both developed countries and those undergoing economic transition. This study compared maternal and school-age child nutrition practices and body mass index in the United States and in Chile. Children (125 in the United States, 121 in Chile) and their mothers (116 in the United States, 101 in Chile) participated. Findings indicated that child nutrition practices were comparable, but mothers in the U.S. group demonstrated fewer healthy nutrition practices on behalf of their children. Significant associations were found between maternal and child nutrition practices. Substantially more children in the U.S. sample were overweight/obese. Implications for practice are presented.

  18. Determining child maltreatment incidence in Saudi Arabia using the ICAST-CH: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eissa, Majid A; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Qayad, Mohammed; Saleheen, Hassan; Runyan, Desmond; Almuneef, Maha

    2015-04-01

    Studies in other countries, including countries with mandated reporting by professionals and a long history of recognition of the problem, have found child abuse to be seriously under reported. This population-based pilot study was conducted to determine the magnitude of adolescents' exposure to CAN at home, and to identify ethical and methodological challenges to conducting a survey on a culturally sensitive subject. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Kharj city in 2011-2012. Through a stratified multistage cluster random sampling of schools, a sample of adolescents (15-18 years) were identified and invited to participate. The ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child: Home version (ICAST-CH) was used for data collection. The previous year's incidence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to violence were assessed. A total of 2,043 students participated in the study (mean age, 16.6 years; 58%, female). The incidence of psychological abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, neglect, and sexual abuse were 74.9%, 57.5%, 50.7%, 50.2%, and 14.0%, respectively. Female participants were at higher risk for psychological and physical abuse, exposure to violence, and neglect, but not for sexual abuse. The rates and gender distribution of CAN at home differ from findings of health-based records. Our results are comparable to other regional population-based studies. Thus, population-based data are necessary to inform and guide professionals and decision makers for prevention policies and resource allocation. Insights to ethical and methodological challenges surrounding the sensitive nature of this type of study are discussed.

  19. Evocative gene-environment correlation in the mother-child relationship: a twin study of interpersonal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Klump, Kelly L; Burt, S Alexandra

    2013-02-01

    The behavior genetic literature suggests that genetically influenced characteristics of the child elicit specific behaviors from the parent. However, little is known about the processes by which genetically influenced child characteristics evoke parental responses. Interpersonal theory provides a useful framework for identifying reciprocal behavioral processes between children and mothers. The theory posits that, at any given moment, interpersonal behavior varies along the orthogonal dimensions of warmth and control and that the interpersonal behavior of one individual tends to elicit corresponding or contrasting behavior from the other (i.e., warmth elicits warmth, whereas control elicits submission). The current study thus examined these dimensions of interpersonal behavior as they relate to the parent-child relationship in 546 twin families. A computer joystick was used to rate videos of mother-child interactions in real time, yielding information on mother and child levels of warmth and control throughout the interaction. Analyses indicated that maternal control, but not maternal warmth, was influenced by evocative gene-environment correlational processes, such that genetic influences on maternal control and child control were largely overlapping. Moreover, these common genetic influences were present both cross-sectionally and over the course of the interaction. Such findings not only confirm the presence of evocative gene-environment correlational processes in the mother-child relationship but also illuminate at least one of the specific interpersonal behaviors that underlie this evocative process.

  20. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  1. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11

  2. 22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... performed that includes information about the child's identity, adoptability, background, social environment... result in the termination of the legal relationship between the child and his or her family of origin;...

  3. Prevalence of child sexual abuse: a comparison among 4 Italian epidemiological studies

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    Beatrice Castelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although many epidemiological studies defining child sexual abuse prevalence rates in many countries of the world are now available, Italy presents a lack of data regarding this specific issue. Only recently some attempts to define the epidemiology of this public health problem have been tried. Between 2003 and 2010, the Department of Public Health at University of Milan was in charge of one of the more important study of this kind in Italy, involving almost 3000 students aged 18 attending secondary schools in the City of Milan who filled out an anonymous questionnaire aiming at detecting their previous experiences of sexual victimization during childhood and adolescence. After this first edition, the study was replicated among students attending secondary schools in the city of Varese, in the area of Piedmont and in Basilicata (area of Lauria, using the same investigational model and questionnaire. This paper presents the main data collected through four different epidemiological studies using the same methodology and survey tool. Considering at least one of the five different forms of child sexual abuse surveyed (being exposed to pornography, being touched on private parts, being forced to masturbate an older person, being forced to perform oral sex, or being penetrated, the prevalence rate among our samples ranges between a minimum of 12.5% (Varese and a maximum of 34.1% (Lauria. In Lauria the research reveals a higher prevalence rate of child sexual abuse, especially among the male population, for all typologies of abuse but being touched in their private parts. In all other geographical areas and for all typologies of abuse, there is always a higher prevalence among girls, with the only exception of abuse such as being exposed to pornographic materials.

  4. Predictive value of clinical risk indicators in child development: final results of a study based on psychoanalytic theory

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Machado Kupfer; Alfredo Nestor Jerusalinsky; Leda Mariza Fischer Bernardino; Daniele Wanderley; Paulina Schmidtbauer Barbosa Rocha; Silvia Eugenia Molina; Léa Martins Sales; Regina Stellin; M. Eugênia Pesaro; Rogerio Lerner

    2010-01-01

    We present the final results of a study using the IRDI (Clinical Risk Indicators in Child Development). Based on a psychoanalytic approach, 31 risk signs for child development were constructed and applied to 726 children between the ages of 0 and 18 months. One sub-sample was evaluated at the age of three. The results showed a predictive capacity of IRDIs to indicate developmental problems; 15 indicators for the IRDI were also highlighted that predict psychic risk for the constitution of the ...

  5. Comparative Study of Child Assessment Practices in English and Korean Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Kwi-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Child assessment practices in English and Korean preschools were compared by analysing data from interviews with educators, examples of child assessment, and official documents from each country. Child assessment in England was systematically implemented and characterised by several methodological and procedural strengths, whereas assessment in…

  6. Studies in Child Language and Multilingualism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 345.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Virginia, Ed.; White, Sheila J., Ed.

    This compilation contains the following research reports on child language: (1) "Nouns: Love 'Em or Leave 'Em" by Dianne Horgan; (2) "Logic in Early Child Language" by Roy D. Pea; and (3) "Theories of the Child's Acquisition of Syntax: A Look at Rare Events and at Necessary, Catalytic, and Irrelevant Components of…

  7. Systematic Touch Exploration as a Screening Procedure for Child Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Sandra K.; Arrowood, Alice A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a systematic touch exploration format for screening child abuse. The technique involves simple drawings with child participation that review forms of touching in a child's life and screens for physical and emotional abuse as well. Comparisons between screening outcomes and completed case conclusions indicate a bias toward underreporting…

  8. Conversations with Vovo: A Case Study of Child Second Language Acquisition and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Peter J.

    1995-01-01

    Examines a series of naturally-occurring phone calls between a young child and his grandmother in the child's second language (L2), Portuguese. Notes that during the calls the child's L2 appears to increase in complexity, but is subsequently abandoned. Argues that this abandonment requires an examination of the language's role in the larger…

  9. Asthma in seven year old children: a report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, M R; Jones, D T; Silva, P A; Simpson, A; Williams, S M

    1982-08-11

    The prevalence of asthma between birth and seven years was determined by questionnaire in 875 children as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study. From the combinations of asthma and/or wheezing reported in association with bronchitis, hayfever, eczema and allergies, a diagnosis of certain or probable asthma was made in 12.6 percent of these children. A further 22.6 percent admitted to wheezing, but a diagnosis of asthma could not be made with any certainty. Bronchitis was reported frequently, usually associated with wheezing. Children with more obvious asthma showed a male preponderance and significant differences in body build and school attendance compared with asymptomatic children.

  10. Quality of the parent-child interaction in young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: study protocol

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    Aanstoot Henk-Jan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM parents have full responsibility for the diabetes-management of their child (e.g. blood glucose monitoring, and administering insulin. Behavioral tasks in childhood, such as developing autonomy, and oppositional behavior (e.g. refusing food may interfere with the diabetes-management to achieve an optimal blood glucose control. Furthermore, higher blood glucose levels are related to more behavioral problems. So parents might need to negotiate with their child on the diabetes-management to avoid this direct negative effect. This interference, the negotiations, and the parent's responsibility for diabetes may negatively affect the quality of parent-child interaction. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about the quality of interaction between parents and young children with T1DM, and the possible impact this may have on glycemic control and psychosocial functioning of the child. While widely used global parent-child interaction observational methods are available, there is a need for an observational tool specifically tailored to the interaction patterns of parents and children with T1DM. The main aim of this study is to construct a disease-specific observational method to assess diabetes-specific parent-child interaction. Additional aim is to explore whether the quality of parent-child interactions is associated with the glycemic control, and psychosocial functioning (resilience, behavioral problems, and quality of life. Methods/Design First, we will examine which situations are most suitable for observing diabetes-specific interactions. Then, these situations will be video-taped in a pilot study (N = 15. Observed behaviors are described into rating scales, with each scale describing characteristics of parent-child interactional behaviors. Next, we apply the observational tool on a larger scale for further evaluation of the instrument (N = 120. The parents are asked

  11. Social behaviour in pre-school children: a child-centred follow-up study

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    Maša Vidmar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a study with 3-year-olds and examines relative contribution of children's age of entry to pre-school (1 and 3 years, their personality type (resilient, average, willful and maternal parenting style (optimal, less-than-optimal to the development of individual differences in social behavior. Employing The Family Environment Questionnaire (Zupančič, Podlesek, & Kavčič, 2004, 2 internally replicable parenting styles were identified with maternal and paternal self-report data sets. The styles differed mainly by authoritative parenting and stimulation, and appeared structurally similar between the spouses. Parental agreement on individual style membership significantly exceeded chance levels, but was relatively low. Therefore further analyses considered maternal parenting style only. The mothers also filled in The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003 and the teachers (concurrently and one year later filled in The Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation scales (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Child personality type membership was based on classifications derived in a previous study. Relatively, the personality type exerted the strongest and the most consistent effects on child social behavior in pre-school. Social functioning of the resilient and the willful children was somewhat more efficient in comparison to their counterparts with the average profile, even though the latter showed the most improvement in these domains between ages 3 and 4. With the willful children only, less-than-optimal parenting had an adverse effect on the development of externalizing behavior, while the development of social adjustment was negatively affected by the children's late entry to pre-school.

  12. Multidisciplinary integrated Parent and Child Centres in Amsterdam: a qualitative study

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    Vincent Busch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In several countries centres for the integrated delivery of services to the parent and child have been established. In the Netherlands family health care service centres, called Parent and Child Centres (PCCs involve multidisciplinary teams. Here doctors, nurses, midwives, maternity help professionals and educationists are integrated into multidisciplinary teams in neighbourhood-based centres. To date there has been little research on the implementation of service delivery in these centres.Study Design: A SWOT analysis was performed by use of triangulation data; this took place by integrating all relevant published documents on the origin and organization of the PCCs and the results from interviews with PCC experts and with PCC professionals (N=91. Structured interviews were performed with PCC-professionals (health care professionals (N=67 and PCC managers N=12 and PCC-experts (N=12 in Amsterdam and qualitatively analysed thematically. The interview themes were based on a pre-set list of codes, derived from a prior documentation study and a focus group with PCC experts. Results: Perceived advantages of PCCs were more continuity of care, shorter communication lines, low-threshold contact between professionals and promising future perspectives. Perceived challenges included the absence of uniform multidisciplinary guidelines, delays in communication with hospitals and midwives, inappropriate accommodation for effective professional integration, differing expectations regarding the PCC-manager role among PCC-partners and the danger of professionals' needs dominating clients' needs.Conclusions: Professionals perceive PCCs as a promising development in the integration of services. Remaining challenges involved improvements at the managerial and organizational level. Quantitative research into the improvements in quality of care and child health is recommended.

  13. Multidisciplinary integrated Parent and Child Centres in Amsterdam: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Busch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In several countries centres for the integrated delivery of services to the parent and child have been established. In the Netherlands family health care service centres, called Parent and Child Centres (PCCs involve multidisciplinary teams. Here doctors, nurses, midwives, maternity help professionals and educationists are integrated into multidisciplinary teams in neighbourhood-based centres. To date there has been little research on the implementation of service delivery in these centres. Study Design: A SWOT analysis was performed by use of triangulation data; this took place by integrating all relevant published documents on the origin and organization of the PCCs and the results from interviews with PCC experts and with PCC professionals (N=91. Structured interviews were performed with PCC-professionals (health care professionals (N=67 and PCC managers N=12 and PCC-experts (N=12 in Amsterdam and qualitatively analysed thematically. The interview themes were based on a pre-set list of codes, derived from a prior documentation study and a focus group with PCC experts.  Results: Perceived advantages of PCCs were more continuity of care, shorter communication lines, low-threshold contact between professionals and promising future perspectives. Perceived challenges included the absence of uniform multidisciplinary guidelines, delays in communication with hospitals and midwives, inappropriate accommodation for effective professional integration, differing expectations regarding the PCC-manager role among PCC-partners and the danger of professionals' needs dominating clients' needs. Conclusions: Professionals perceive PCCs as a promising development in the integration of services. Remaining challenges involved improvements at the managerial and organizational level. Quantitative research into the improvements in quality of care and child health is recommended.

  14. An epidemiological study of child marriages in a rural community of Gujarat

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    Yogita P Pandya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India has the maximum number of child marriages (CMs; < 18 years because of the size of its population, and in 47% of all marriages the bride is a child. Children who are married at young age are exposed to multiple risks pertaining to their physical, mental, and social health. Aims: (i To estimate the prevalence of CM in rural population. (ii To study the determinants and health effects of CM. (iii To assess the awareness among the married women regarding the health implications of CM. Settings and Design: Community-based cross-sectional study conducted in Ardi village of Anand district. Materials and Methods: All the married women of the village were surveyed to find out the prevalence of CM. For collection of other relevant information, only those women having a married life of less than 10years were interviewed using semicoded and pretested questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 software. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions, ratios, χ2 test, and Fisher′s exact test. Results: The prevalence of CM was found to be 71.5%. Caste and spouse′s education were revealed as important determinants for CM. CM was found to be significantly associated with mother′s age at birth of first child, delayed antenatal care (ANC, spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, low birth weight (LBW, health problems in new born baby, faulty feeding practices, lack of knowledge regarding family welfare methods, and health implications of CM. Conclusion: Exceptionally high prevalence of CM in rural community and its serious health consequences warrant stricter enforcement of legislation, better educational opportunities for girls, and easy access to quality health services.

  15. Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study of Factors Associated with the Healthfulness of Parental Responses to Child Food Purchasing Requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, Eric E; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Romo-Palafox, Maria J; McInnis, Katie A; Briley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between various factors (e.g., sociodemographic, child, and parental factors) and the healthfulness of parental responses to child in-store food purchasing requests. Additionally, a secondary objective is to describe "resist strategies" used by parents to respond to child food-purchasing requests and their efficacy in avoiding conflict. Methods Parent-child dyads (children aged 2-6 years) completed an audio-/visual-recoded food shopping trip at their usual grocery store and time. Recordings of trips were coded for behavioral and environmental factors. Parental healthful response rate (i.e., percent of responses that were healthful) was the primary outcome variable. A healthful response occurred when a parent yielded to a healthful child request, or resisted a non-healthful request. Parents also completed a questionnaire. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess the relationship between the main outcome variable and sociodemographic, child, and parent factors. Results Parents (n = 39) responded healthfully to 62.9 % (±26.7 %) of child food purchasing requests. Low- and middle-income parents, and black and white parents, had significantly higher healthful response rates compared to high-income parents (p = 0.03) and Hispanic/Indian-descent parents (p = 0.02), respectively. Using the "ignore" strategy proved an effective resist strategy in this study, leading to no parent-child conflicts. Conclusions Programming that seeks to improve the healthfulness of food purchasing in families with young children should address unhealthful response behaviors in Hispanic/Indian-descent parents and high-income parents; although, the needs of these groups are different. Further research is needed to confirm and expand on these findings.

  16. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate.

  17. A longitudinal study of child mental health and problem behaviours at 14 years of age following unplanned pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Najman, Jake Moses; Khatun, Mohsina; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Bor, William; Clavarino, Alexandra

    2011-01-30

    A substantial minority of children are born as a consequence of an unplanned pregnancy. Yet little is known about the impact of unplanned/unwanted pregnancy (UP) on long-term health outcomes for children. This study aimed to examine the association between UP and child mental health and behavioural problems at 14 years, and whether this association is confounded or mediated by other variables. Data were from a pre-birth prospective study that included 4765 mothers and their children (48.4% female and 51.6% male) followed up from pregnancy to 14 years of the child's age in Brisbane, Australia. Child anxiety/depression, aggression, delinquency, attention problems, withdrawal problems, somatic complaints, social problems, thought problems, internalizing, externalizing and total problems were measured using the Achenbach's Youth Self Report at 14 years. Child smoking and alcohol consumption were self-reported at 14 years. UP was prospectively assessed at the first antenatal visit of pregnancy. UP as reported by mothers at first antenatal visit predicted elevated levels of problem behaviours and increased substance use in children at 14 years. The impact of UP on child mental health and problem behaviours is partly due to the confounding effect of other variables, such as maternal socio-demographic status, mental health and substance use during pregnancy. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanism of association between UP and child aggression and early alcohol consumption at 14 years.

  18. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  19. Social conformity and autism spectrum disorder: a child-friendly take on a classic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafai, Abdul-Fattah; Verrier, Diarmuid; Reidy, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Perhaps surprisingly, given the importance of conformity as a theoretical construct in social psychology and the profound implications autism has for social function, little research has been done on whether autism is associated with the propensity to conform to a social majority. This study is a modern, child-friendly implementation of the classic Asch conformity studies. The performance of 15 children with autism was compared to that of 15 typically developing children on a line judgement task. Children were matched for age, gender and numeracy and literacy ability. In each trial, the child had to say which of three lines a comparison line matched in length. On some trials, children were misled as to what most people thought the answer was. Children with autism were much less likely to conform in the misleading condition than typically developing children. This finding was replicated using a continuous measure of autism traits, the Autism Quotient questionnaire, which showed that autism traits negatively correlated with likelihood to conform in the typically developing group. This study demonstrates the resistance of children with autism to social pressure.

  20. Impact of type of child growth intervention program on caregivers' child feeding knowledge and practices: a comparative study in Ga West Municipality, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbozo, Faith; Colecraft, Esi; Ellahi, Basma

    2016-07-01

    Community-based growth promotion (CBGP) delivered by community volunteers aims at enhancing the traditional growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) program delivered by community health nurses through the promotion of optimum infant and young child feeding (IYCF) leading to improved child growth. This study compared IYCF knowledge and practices among caregiver-child pairs (0-24 months) receiving child welfare services from CBGP (n = 124) and GMP (n = 108) programs. Semistructured questionnaires were used to interview caregivers on IYCF knowledge/practices and validated food frequency questionnaire used to record infants' food intakes. Group differences were determined using Chi-square and independent samples t-tests (P < 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]). Mean IYCF knowledge scores were similar (CBGP: 10.84 ± 1.69 vs. GMP: 10.23 ± 1.38, P = 0.062). However, more CBGP caregivers (17%) were highly knowledgeable than their GMP counterparts (5%) (P = 0.011). Early breastfeeding initiation (CBGP: 54% vs. GMP: 28%, P < 0.0001), exclusive breastfeeding (CBGP: 73% vs. GMP: 56%, P = 0.001), and timely complementary feeding (CBGP: 72% vs. GMP: 49%, P = 0.014) were reportedly higher among CBGP caregivers. Underweight was 11% (CBGP: 8% vs. GMP: 14%, P = 0.154). Mean dietary diversity scores (10 food groups) were similar (CBGP: 4.49 ± 1.89 vs. GMP: 3.87 ± 1.89, P = 0.057) but more CBGP caregivers (77%) achieved minimum dietary diversity than their GMP counterparts (61%) (P = 0.035). Few caregivers achieved minimum meal frequency (CBGP: 31% vs. GMP: 29%, P = 0.486) and minimum acceptable diet (CBGP: 23% vs. GMP: 21%, P = 0.464) indicators. Number of children under 5 years owned by caregiver (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.405; 95% CI: 1.13-78.53, P = 0.038), her educational level (AOR: 0.112; 95% CI: 0.02-0.90, P = 0.040), and IYCF knowledge (AOR: 0.140; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79, P = 0.026) significantly predicted optimum child feeding

  1. Teacher-Child Interaction Training: A Pilot Study With Random Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie A; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Miller, Samantha P; Areizaga, Margaret J; Gold, Dylann C; Sanchez, Amanda L; Rothschild, Sara A; Hirsch, Emily; Gudiño, Omar G

    2015-07-01

    Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), adapted from Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is a classroom-based program designed to provide teachers with behavior management skills that foster positive teacher-student relationships and to improve student behavior by creating a more constructive classroom environment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate TCIT in more classrooms than previously reported in the literature, with older children than previously reported, using random assignment of classrooms to TCIT or to a no-TCIT control condition and conducting all but two sessions within the classroom to enhance feasibility. Participants included 11 kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers and their 118 students from three urban, public schools in Manhattan, with five classrooms randomly assigned to receive TCIT and six to the no-TCIT control condition. Observations of teacher skill acquisition were conducted before, during, and after TCIT for all 11 teachers, and teacher reports of student behavior were obtained at these same time points. Teacher satisfaction with TCIT was assessed following training. Results suggested that after receiving TCIT, teachers increased rates of positive attention to students' appropriate behavior, decreased rates of negative attention to misbehavior, reported significantly less distress related to student disruptive behavior, and reported high satisfaction with the training program. Our study supports the growing evidence-base suggesting that TCIT is a promising approach for training teachers in positive behavior management strategies and for improving student disruptive behavior in the classroom.

  2. Modeling environmental influences on child growth in the MAL-ED cohort study: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephanie A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Miller, Mark A; Caulfield, Laura E; Checkley, William

    2014-11-01

    Although genetics, maternal undernutrition and low birth weight status certainly play a role in child growth, dietary insufficiency and infectious diseases are key risk factors for linear growth faltering during early childhood. A primary goal of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is to identify specific risk factors associated with growth faltering during the first 2 years of life; however, growth in early childhood is challenging to characterize because growth may be inherently nonlinear with age. In this manuscript, we describe some methods for analyzing longitudinal growth to evaluate both short- and long-term associations between risk factors and growth trajectories over the first 2 years of life across 8 resource-limited settings using harmonized protocols. We expect there will be enough variability within and between sites in the prevalence of risk factors and burden of linear growth faltering to allow us to distinguish some of the key pathways to linear growth faltering in the MAL-ED study.

  3. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments: Child Diet and the School Nutrition Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L

    2015-10-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children.

  4. Parents' assessment of parent-child interaction interventions – a longitudinal study in 101 families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engström Ingemar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to describe families with small children who participated in parent-child interaction interventions at four centres in Sweden, and to examine long term and short term changes regarding the parents' experience of parental stress, parental attachment patterns, the parents' mental health and life satisfaction, the parents' social support and the children's problems. Methods In this longitudinal study a consecutive sample of 101 families (94 mothers and 54 fathers with 118 children (median age 3 years was assessed, using self-reports, at the outset of the treatment (T1, six months later (T2 and 18 months after the beginning of treatment (T3. Analysis of the observed differences was carried out using Wilcoxon's Signed-Rank test and Cohen's d. Results The results from commencement of treatment showed that the parents had considerable problems in all areas examined. At the outset of treatment (T1 the mothers showed a higher level of problem load than the fathers on almost all scales. In the families where the children's problems have also been measured (children from the age of four it appeared that they had problems of a nature and degree otherwise found in psychiatric populations. We found a clear general trend towards a positive development from T1 to T2 and this development was also reinforced from T2 to T3. Aggression in the child was one of the most common causes for contact. There were few undesired or unplanned interruptions of the treatment, and the attrition from the study was low. Conclusion This study has shown that it is possible to reach mothers as well as fathers with parenting problems and to create an intervention program with very low dropout levels – which is of special importance for families with small children displaying aggressive behaviour. The parents taking part in this study showed clear improvement trends after six months and this development was reinforced a year later. This

  5. Managing Scoliosis in a Young Child with Rett Syndrome: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Lotan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a genetic disorder primarily affecting females. One of its most disabling features is the severe and rapid progression of scoliosis. So far, only surgical intervention has succeeded in reversing the development of scoliosis in Rett syndrome.The present study describes a new management approach implemented with a girl with Rett syndrome. The core of the management regime was intensive: asymmetrical activation of trunk muscles through equilibrium reactions. The X-rays accompanying the article (evaluated by four experienced orthopedic surgeons blinded to the intervention process suggested that the intervention was successful in reversing the progress of the scoliosis for the above-mentioned child. Discontinuation of treatment led to severe and rapid deterioration of the spinal curve.Due to the fact that this was a case study, generalization is limited, but we suggest further investigation and studies with this method.

  6. Father-child transmission of school adjustment: a prospective intergenerational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Capaldi, Deborah; Kerr, David C R; Fisher, Philip A

    2013-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of school adjustment was explored in a sample of 213 children and their fathers. The fathers were participants in a longitudinal study that began when they were in the 4th grade, and their children have been assessed at the ages of 21 months and 3, 5, and 7 years. Two components of school adjustment were measured: academic achievement and peer relations. Results show that the fathers' academic achievement and peer relations were directly related to the same factors in their offspring even when the fathers' educational attainment, and both the fathers' and the children's general cognitive abilities were included in the models. When potential mechanisms of intergenerational transmission were examined, father's age at the birth of the child, income, and educational expectations for the child were links in the transmission of academic achievement from one generation to the next. For peer relations across generations, income, inconsistent parenting, and educational expectations were links in transmission. Implications of these findings are considered, including the possibility that interventions to improve school adjustment in one generation might have significant and long-reaching effects for the next.

  7. Sibling differences in parent-child conflict and risky behavior: a three-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M

    2012-08-01

    To better understand why siblings growing up in the same family are often as different as unrelated individuals, this study explored the role of differential experiences with parents in the development of sibling differences. Cross-lagged models tested directions of effect by examining whether differential parent-child conflict predicted sibling differences in risky behavior over time, or vice versa. Participants were mothers, fathers, and the 2 eldest adolescent siblings (mean ages at Time 1 = 15.12 and 12.58 years) from 355 European American, working- and middle-class families. On 3 occasions over a 2-year period, mothers and fathers reported on their conflict with each of the 2 siblings, and siblings reported on their own risky behavior. Results revealed that, controlling for sibling age differences and average levels of conflict and risky behavior at Time 1, youths who had more conflict with their mothers and fathers in relation to their siblings subsequently engaged in relatively more risky behavior. Also, youths who engaged in more risky behavior in relation to their siblings experienced relatively more conflict with their fathers, but not mothers, at later time points. Findings highlight the importance of examining both family dynamics and child characteristics in understanding sibling differentiation, and illuminate potential differences in parenting processes involving mothers versus fathers.

  8. Pre-eclampsia research in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Magnus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy disorder of unknown origin. In Norway, pre-eclampsia is reported in 3 to 4 per cent of registered births. At present, November 2014, a series of investigations into the etiology of preeclampsia have been published internationally from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and several studies are ongoing. The intention of this paper is to give a short summary of what has been accomplished, and to discuss future avenues of research concerning causes, mechanisms and consequences of pre-eclampsia. The papers that have been published up to now include seven that concern life-styles (physical activity, tobacco and diet, six that include prior pregnancies, infection, gestational weight gain, toxicants and tryptophan metabolism, and two studies concerning issues of selection and validity. Major findings are that tobacco smoking is only associated with reduced risk of pre-eclampsia when it occurs in the last trimester; that processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with increased risk while vegetables, vitamin D and probiotics are associated with reduced risk; and that prior induced abortions have the same risk-reducing effect as a prior pregnancy. For future studies, we suggest that better use should be made of the family structure built into MoBa. This includes better use of the discordant pregnancy design. A series of ongoing genetic studies, partly in international consortia, will hopefully open new etiological insights. The indications that pre-eclampsia is related to cardiovascular disease and other complex disorders should be further investigated through systematic follow-up of pre-eclamptic women and controls. Finally, MoBa is eminently suited to study the influences that pre-eclampsia can have on the growing child.

  9. The Analyst's Act and the Child's Desire: A Retrospective Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Annie G

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, I lay out a blueprint for a child analysis, stipulating the terms and ethics of the Lacanian field of psychoanalysis, the position of the analyst in that field, and the invitation to the child to discover a space for desire in the work of play. Drawing on the grounding work of Freud, Lacan, Dolto, Lefort, Mannoni, and Mathelin, I describe the mainsprings of the psychoanalytic clinic with the child. I then offer a child case and its trajectory from the development of a phobia to a symptom, and show how the primal scene fantasy and its articulation can open a space for desire in a child's play. What is particular to this work of playing is the emergence of signifiers that chain across generations, and move into new metaphors that foreground the Real of the child's experience and desire.

  10. Diurnal Cortisol Secretion at Home and in Child Care: A Prospective Study of 2-Year-Old Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel; Meaney, Michael; Kramer, Michael; Cote, Sylvana M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that children may experience disrupted cortisol secretion in child care. The extent to which this is a transient or long-term disruption is not known, as most studies have relied on cross-sectional designs, and age-heterogeneous small sample sizes. This study aims to (a) compare cortisol secretion measured at…

  11. The Relation between Severity of Autism and Caregiver-Child Interaction: a Study in the Context of Relationship Development Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Jessica A; Tarver, Laura; Beurkens, Nicole; Hobson, R Peter

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relations between severity of children's autism and qualities of parent-child interaction. We studied these variables at two points of time in children receiving a treatment that has a focus on social engagement, Relationship Development Intervention (RDI; Gutstein 2009). Participants were 18 parent-child dyads where the child (16 boys, 2 girls) had a diagnosis of autism and was between the ages of 2 and 12 years. The severity of the children's autism was assessed at baseline and later in treatment using the autism severity metric of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Gotham et al. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 693-705 2009). Although the ADOS was designed as a diagnostic measure, ADOS calibrated severity scores (CSS) are increasingly used as one index of change (e.g., Locke et al. Autism, 18, 370-375 2014). Videotapes of parent-child interaction at baseline and later in treatment were rated by independent coders, for a) overall qualities of interpersonal relatedness using the Dyadic Coding Scales (DCS; Humber and Moss The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75, 128-141 2005), and b) second-by-second parent-child Co-Regulation and Intersubjective Engagement (processes targeted by the treatment approach of RDI). Severity of autism was correlated with lower quality of parent-child interaction. Ratings on each of these variables changed over the course of treatment, and there was evidence that improvement was specifically related to the quality of parent-child interaction at baseline.

  12. Maternal Stress and Mother-Child Interaction Style Amon the Mothers of Cerebral Palsy Children – A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Rani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between parenting stress and mother-child interaction style among the mothers of cerebral palsy children. Methods: The study was conducted in Samvedna Trust for handicapped in the Allahabad city. A purposive sample of 38 children with cerebral palsy within the age group of 5- 12 years was selected. Parenting stress was measured by using Parenting Stress Index Short-Forem (Abidin, 1995 Mother-child interactions were videotaped for 7 minutes during an unstructured play and was rated on three dimensions of responsiveness, affect and directive-ness, which are the subscales of the Maternal Behavior Rating Scale (MBRS, Mahoney 1992. Qualitative analysis was used to study the relationship. Each mother-child dyad was observed separately for the quality of interactions demonstrated in relation to mothers’ stress level in each dyad. Results: The findings from this qualitative analysis suggested that the mothers who were experiencing a high stress level were found to be less effective during interaction. This means that mothers were less responsive to their child‘s behavior and actions; exhibited less warmth, enjoyment and approval of the child during interaction; and more controlling than the mothers who were not under much stress. Conclusion: Strong association between parenting stress and interaction style suggests the need for the therapists to develop and implement interventions to enhance the quality of mother-child interaction along with other rehabilitation services provided to these children with cerebral palsy.

  13. Impact of the Jamaican birth cohort study on maternal, child and adolescent health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M

    2010-01-01

    The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success.

  14. Assessing Child Maltreatment in Children Born to Mothers Who Used Methamphetamine during Pregnancy at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharoros, Nontima; Chulakadabba, Sudsabuy; Na Manorom, Nattawadee; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon

    2014-01-01

    Studies on maltreatment of children born to methamphetamine abusing mothers are lacking. This cross-sectional study examined child maltreatment among children born at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, to mothers who used methamphetamines during pregnancy. During the study period between July 2011 and January 2012, 34 caretakers of these children were interviewed using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parent Version (ICAST-P) to assess their disciplinary actions. The associations between child's and caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were analyzed. More than 90% of caretakers were female with age ranging from 18 to 35 years and about 60% were biological mothers. The children's age ranged from 1 to 9 years. Disciplinary acts and child rearing practices that were considered to be child maltreatment behaviors were reported as follows: psychological discipline 82.4%, physical discipline 79.4%, and neglect 29.4%. No associations between the child's or the caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were found. In conclusion, child maltreatment behaviors were frequent in caretakers of children born to mothers who used methamphetamine during pregnancy. Supervision on child rearing and careful monitoring are needed for this population.

  15. Stress and epilepsy: a population-based cohort study of epilepsy in parents who lost a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2007-01-01

    was compared with the risk among parents who had not lost a child. RESULTS: The adjusted relative risk (RR) of epilepsy in parents who had lost a child was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.21-1.86). The RR was modified by time since bereavement and was 2.46 (95% CI: 1.49-4.07) in mothers and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.09-3.36) in fathers......OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study described here was to study the risk for epilepsy in parents exposed to severe stress caused by loss of a child. METHODS: The risk of being diagnosed with epilepsy (Danish National Hospital Register) in a cohort of parents who had lost a child under the age of 18...... within the first 3 years of loss of a child, and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.53-2.88) in mothers and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.41-1.06) in fathers 4 to 18 years after loss. CONCLUSIONS: Stress was associated with a moderately increased risk of being diagnosed with epilepsy. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  16. Postpyloric enteral nutrition in the critically ill child with shock: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustinza Amaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tolerance to enteral nutrition in the critically ill child with shock has not been studied. The purpose of the study was to analyze the characteristics of enteral nutrition and its tolerance in the critically ill child with shock and to compare this with non-shocked patients. Methods A prospective, observational study was performed including critically ill children with shock who received postpyloric enteral nutrition (PEN. The type of nutrition used, its duration, tolerance, and gastrointestinal complications were assessed. The 65 children with shock who received PEN were compared with 461 non-shocked critically ill children who received PEN. Results Sixty-five critically ill children with shock, aged between 21 days and 22 years, received PEN. 75.4% of patients with shock received PEN exclusively. The mean duration of the PEN was 25.2 days and the maximum calorie intake was 79.4 kcal/kg/day. Twenty patients with shock (30.7% presented gastrointestinal complications, 10 (15.4% abdominal distension and/or excessive gastric residue, 13 (20% diarrhoea, 1 necrotising enterocolitis, and 1 duodenal perforation due to the postpyloric tube. The frequency of gastrointestinal complications was significantly higher than in the other 461 critically ill children (9.1%. PEN was suspended due to gastrointestinal complications in 6 patients with shock (9.2%. There were 18 deaths among the patients with shock and PEN (27.7%. In only one patient was the death related to complications of the nutrition. Conclusion Although most critically ill children with shock can tolerate postpyloric enteral nutrition, the incidence of gastrointestinal complications is higher in this group of patients than in other critically ill children.

  17. Children Exposed to Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence: A Study of Co-Occurrence among Hong Kong Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the co-occurrence of child maltreatment and intimate partner violence (IPV) and examined the association between them. Method: The cross-sectional study recruited a population-based sample of 1,094 children aged 12-17 years in Hong Kong. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from the children. The…

  18. Common Challenges in the Study of Continuity of Child Care Subsidy Participation. Methodological Brief OPRE 2012-55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth E.; Grobe, Deana; Weber, Roberta B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss several key challenges encountered when conducting a study of the continuity of participation in the child care subsidy program. While many of these issues are familiar to those who have studied participation dynamics in other assistance programs, and to those familiar with survival analysis, we describe these challenges…

  19. Relationship between child sleep disturbances and maternal sleep, mood, and parenting stress: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Mindell, Jodi A

    2007-03-01

    Although sleep disturbances in children are common, little is known about the relationship between children's sleep disruptions and maternal sleep and daytime functioning. Forty-seven mothers completed measures of sleep, depression, parenting stress, fatigue, and sleepiness. Significant differences in maternal mood and parenting stress were found between mothers of children with and without significant sleep disturbances. Regression analyses showed that the quality of the children's sleep significantly predicted the quality of maternal sleep. In addition, maternal sleep quality was a significant predictor of maternal mood, stress, and fatigue. Results from this pilot study support the need for future research examining the relationship between child sleep disturbances and maternal daytime functioning, and they highlight the importance of screening for and treating pediatric sleep disruptions.

  20. Exploring the Dialectical Space: A Brief History of The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Abrams, currently the longest serving editor of The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, offers his views of emerging models and themes in the understanding of children, which has characterized The PSOC since its inception in 1945. In his view, the first of its published papers, Hartmann and Kris's "The Genetic Approach in Psychoanalysis," set the stage for examining innovative ways to view the growth of the mind in general and the psychological development of children in particular. In his judgment, many of its published papers have highlighted expectable dispositional discontinuities as well as recognizable continuities interacting with a varying and sometimes unexpected set of environment circumstances. That interaction occurs within a dialectical space that contributes its own unique influences. This investigative trend, scattered throughout its nearly seventy-year history, may reflect the recognition for the need for a different foundational theory for our discipline or perhaps a new paradigm altogether.

  1. Study on Child Abuse in Children and Adolescents in the Province of Buenos Aires:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuenya, Lucas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to provide a current description of the child and teenager maltreatment phenomenon in the Buenos Aires Province. The sample was composed by 5341 cases of children and teenagers from 0 to 20 years old, whose were treated in 2010 for having been victims of maltreatment. Physical maltreatment was the most frequent one. The girls presented major proportion of sexual abuse, whereas boys registered major proportions of negligence, physical maltreatment and desertion situation. An increase of the sexual abuse frequency in teenagers from 12 years was observed. As a whole, the information demonstrates that sex and age of victims are differentially associated with different types of maltreatment, and these are pertinent variables to have into account by future investigations, and prevention and protection organisms.

  2. Treatment of Danish Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse—A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ask Elklit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes in psychological and social domains associated with treatment in survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: Participants from four centers were assessed at baseline and were followed up after six and 12 months. The battery covered posttraumatic and general distress symptoms, attachment, coping styles, self-worth, and social support. Results: The estimated prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD was 78% at baseline; this rate declined to 40% after one year. There were no differences in outcome measures across the different centers or between the individual and group treatments. Half of the PTSD variation at 12 months was explained by four factors: education, avoidance attachment, emotional coping, and social support. Conclusion: The findings in this study indicated a substantial reduction in mental health problems in survivors following 12 months of treatment and identified personality and social factors important for recovery.

  3. Better Kid Care Program Improves the Quality of Child Care: Results from an Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Carol S.; Riley, David A.; Wehmeier, Jenny M.

    2011-01-01

    More high quality child care is needed in the United States. This article evaluates the Better Kid Care (BKC) program produced by Pennsylvania State University Extension. Child care staff in Wisconsin were interviewed about changes they had made in their early childhood programs following participation in the BKC program. Findings show that 2…

  4. Children and Parent Participation in Child Protection Conferences: A Study in One English Local Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Kerry; Diaz, Clive; Wright, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The overall purpose of a child protection conference is to safeguard children. The conferences are multi-agency meetings that aim to ensure children's safety, promote children's health and development, and identify when a child is at continuing risk of significant harm. Law and policies in the United Kingdom highlight that parents and children…

  5. Multidisciplinary integrated Parent and Child Centres in Amsterdam: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, Vincent; Van Stel, Henk François; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; Melhuish, Edward; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus

    2013-01-01

    Background: In several countries centres for the integrated delivery of services to the parent and child have been established. In the Netherlands family health care service centres, called Parent and Child Centres (PCCs) involve multidisciplinary teams. Here doctors, nurses, midwives, maternity hel

  6. Child Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Social Capital in Greece: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…

  7. Teacher-Child Relationships in Turkish and United States Schools: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazkurk, Derya; Kesner, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Recent educational research utilising Bowlby's attachment theory has focused on children's interpersonal relationships with their teachers. Research in this area has indicated that the security of the teacher-child relationship influences children's development in many of the same ways as secure parent-child attachments. The purpose of this study…

  8. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  9. A Study on the Child-Rearing Pattern of American Family in Lizzie Mc-Guire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林清燕

    2015-01-01

    Development of globalization makes family education play a more important role in global competition. The child-rear-ing pattern is the reflection of family education. Therefore, the paper will research child-rearing pattern of American family in Lizzie McGuire.

  10. Transactions between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence from a Prospective Adoption Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months…

  11. Agreement on Child Maltreatment Decisions: A Nonrandomized Study on the Effects of Structured Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, C.; van Yperen, T. A.; ten Berge, I. J.; de Kwaadsteniet, L.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Practitioners investigating cases of suspected child maltreatment often disagree whether a child is subject to or at risk of abuse or neglect in the family and, if so, what to do about such abuse or neglect. Structured decision-making is considered to be a solution to the problem of subjective judgments and decisions. Objective: This…

  12. Children with New Onset Seizures: A Prospective Study of Parent Variables, Child Behavior Problems, and Seizure Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joan K.; Haber, Linda C.; Dunn, David W.; Shore, Cheryl P.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Perkins, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Parent variables (stigma, mood, unmet needs for information and support, and worry) are associated with behavioral difficulties in children with seizures, however, it is not known how this relationship is influenced by additional seizures. This study followed children (ages 4 – 14 years) and their parents over a 24-month period (with data collected at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months) and investigated the effect of an additional seizure on the relationship between parenting variables and child behavior difficulties. Methods The sample was parents of 196 children (104 girls and 92 boys) with a first seizure within the past 6 weeks. Child mean age at baseline was 8 years, 3 months (SD 3 years). Data were analyzed using t-tests, chi-square tests, and repeated measures analyses of covariance. Results Relationships between parent variables, additional seizures, and child behavior problems were consistent across time. Several associations between parent variables and child behavior problems were stronger in the additional seizure group than in the no additional seizures group. Conclusions Findings suggest that interventions that assist families to respond constructively to the reactions of others regarding their child's seizure condition and to address their needs for information and support could help families of children with continuing seizures to have an improved quality of life. PMID:26520879

  13. Parental influences on child physical activity and screen viewing time: a population based study

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    Wolfenden Luke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents can influence their children's physical activity participation and screen time.This study examined the relative significance of perceived parental barriers and self-efficacy in relation to children's physical activity participation and screen time viewing. The associations between these factors and the behaviours were analysed. Methods Cross-sectional population survey in New South Wales, Australia of parents of pre-school (N = 764, younger (Kindergarten, Grades 2 and 4; N = 1557 and older children (Grades 6, 8 and 10; N = 1665. Parents reported barriers and self-efficacy to influence their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours in a range of circumstances. Differences were examined by child's sex and age group, household income, maternal education and location of residence. The duration of physical activity and screen viewing was measured by parental report for pre-school and younger children and self-report for older children. Associations between parental factors and children's organised, non-organised and total activity and screen time were analysed. Results Cost, lack of opportunities for participation and transport problems were the barriers most often reported, particularly by low income parents and those in rural areas. The number of barriers was inversely related to children's time spent in organised activity, but not their non-organised activity. Higher parental self-efficacy was positively associated with organised physical activity in the younger and older children's groups and the non-organised activity of older children. School-age children (younger and older groups were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines when parents reported ≥4 barriers (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.25-11.34 and OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.71-8.11 respectively. Low parental self-efficacy was also associated with the likelihood of children exceeding screen time guidelines for each age group (pre-school OR 0.62, 95% CI 0

  14. Development of directives in child language: A case study of Czech

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    Chejnová Pavla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the longitudinal development of directives in first-language acquisition is described, and examples of the development of directive speech acts in one Czech child from the ages of 2.8 to 4.1 are included. The results show that the child acquires communicative strategies gradually and that he usually prefers one concrete strategy initially, which is later replaced by a new strategy corresponding with the acquisition of morphological categories. The child’s grammatical development is divided into two stages: the stage of protomorphology, when the child acquires basic morphological categories, and the stage of morphology proper / modular morphology, when the child uses a variety of grammatical means. In the stage of morphology proper, pragmatic factors become more influential as the child is no longer limited by a lack of grammatical competence.

  15. Discriminative ability of the generic and condition-specific Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP by the Limpopo-Arusha School Health (LASH Project: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masalu Joyce R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generic and condition-specific (CS oral-health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL instruments assess the impacts of general oral conditions and specific oral diseases. Focusing schoolchildren from Arusha and Dar es Salaam, in Tanzania, this study compared the discriminative ability of the generic Child OIDP with respect to dental caries and periodontal problems across the study sites. Secondly, the discriminative ability of the generic-and the CS Child OIDP attributed to dental caries, periodontal problems and malocclusion was compared with respect to various oral conditions as part of a construct validation. Methods In Arusha, 1077 school children (mean age 14.9 years, range 12-17 years and 1601 school children in Dar es Salaam (mean age 13.0 years, range 12-14 years underwent oral clinical examinations and completed the Kiswahili version of the generic and CS Child-OIDP inventories. The discriminative ability was assessed as differences in overall mean and prevalence scores between groups, corresponding effect sizes and odd ratios, OR. Results The differences in the prevalence scores and the overall mean generic Child-OIDP scores were significant between the groups with (DMFT > 0 and without (DMFT = 0 caries experience and with (simplified oral hygiene index [OHI-S] > 1 and without periodontal problems (OHI-S ≤ 1 in Arusha and Dar es Salaam. In Dar es Salaam, differences in the generic and CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without dental caries, differences in the generic Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without periodontal problems, and differences in the CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between malocclusion groups. The adjusted OR for the association between dental caries and the CS Child-OIDP score attributed to dental caries was 5.4. The adjusted OR for the association between malocclusion and CS Child-OIDP attributed to malocclusion varied from 8.8 to 2

  16. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  17. The effect of sexual priming cues on emotional recognition in nonviolent child sexual abusers: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Caroline J; Watson, Derrick G; Gannon, Theresa A; Beech, Anthony R

    2009-06-01

    This article describes a study that used a computer-based task to investigate the emotional recognition skills of child sexual abusers. The experiment consisted of two phases (prime and probe) and measured both response time and error rates to facial expressions. The priming phase of the experiment consisted of the presentation of short phrases via computer of either sexual or neutral content. The probe phase of the experiment consisted of the presentation of adult facial expressions depicting either the emotion fear or surprise. Results showed child sexual abusers to be slightly less accurate overall. Furthermore, contrary to prediction, the effect of sexual priming appeared to make child sexual abusers actually better at recognizing fearful faces (p = .055). This result is discussed in relation to current victim empathy theory and treatment implications for sexual offenders.

  18. Maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and toddler behavior problems: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Ystrom, Eivind; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S; Torgersen, Leila

    2014-10-01

    Maternal risk drinking may be a risk factor for child behavior problems even if the mother has discontinued this behavior. Whether pre-pregnancy risk drinking is an independent predictor of child behavior problems, or whether a potential effect may be explained by maternal alcohol use during and after pregnancy or other adverse maternal characteristics, is not known. Employing data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), longitudinal associations between maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and behavior problems in toddlers aged 18 and 36 months were examined. Included in the study was mothers answering MoBa questionnaires when the child was 18 (N = 56,682) and 36 months (N = 46,756), and who had responded to questions regarding pre-pregnancy risk drinking at gestation week 17/18, using the screening instrument T-ACE. Toddler behavior problems were measured with items from Child Behavior Checklist. Associations were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression, controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use, as well as other relevant covariates. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking was associated with child behavior problems at 18 and 36 months, even after controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use. Maternal ADHD and anxiety and depression were the only covariates that had any substantial impact on the associations. When all covariates were included in the model, the associations were weak for internalizing behavior problems and non-significant for externalizing behavior problems. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking may predict early development of behavior problems in the offspring. This increased risk may be due to other adverse maternal characteristics associated with risk drinking, in particular co-occurring maternal psychopathology.

  19. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  20. Early Pragmatic Differentiation in Japanese and German: A Case Study of a Developing Trilingual Child in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibun, Yukari; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    While acquisition of more than one language from birth is a relatively common phenomenon, whether children under two years of age use their languages in a differentiated manner has not yet been established. The current study investigates the pragmatic differentiation of a child who lives in Australia and was acquiring two minority languages,…

  1. Foreign language learning as a complex dynamic process: A microgenetic case study of a Chinese child's English learning trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; van der Steen, Steffie; Cox, Ralf; de Bot, Kees

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on one child's (male, 3 years old) learning behaviors in an English as a Foreign Language classroom, and explores the coordination and developmental patterns of his nonverbal (gestures and body language) and verbal (verbal repetition and verbal responses) learning behaviors

  2. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSousa, Diogo Araujo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahao; Isolan, Luciano Rassier; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional community-based study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) to the diagnosis of anxiety disorders (AD). Participants were 119 students aged 9-18. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by a psychiatrist throughout a structural clinical…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Child Maltreatment on Later Outcomes among High-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Katherine A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study longitudinally examines the effects of child maltreatment, parenting, and disadvantaged neighborhood on victimization, delinquency, and well-being via running away and school engagement among a sample of 360 high-risk adolescents. Results of a path analysis revealed that parenting was associated with school engagement, running…

  4. Integral Education for the Integral Child: A Qualitative Study of One Contemporary Experiment in Integral Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barket, Ann-Terese

    2012-01-01

    A growing interest among educators, families, and students to personalize education and nurture the development of whole child has led to a new movement in elementary education: integral education. This qualitative study reported on the work of one school in that movement, the Integral Elementary School in La Jolla, California, to illuminate what…

  5. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  6. Effects of Religious Involvement on Parent-child Communication Regarding Schooling: A Study of Black Youth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of Black teens are becoming religiously involved. This undoubtedly intersects with another trend in Black communities, the changing structure of the Black family. Research has shown that school-related dialogue between parent and child is an important factor in educational outcomes. This study set out to determine if there might…

  7. An Exploratory Case Study of Young Children's Interactive Play Behaviours with a Non-English Speaking Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah; Son, Won In; Meadows, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study is an examination of preschool-age English speaking children's interactive play behaviours with a non-English speaking child (NEC). The play types of a NEC were reported using the Parten's categories of solitary, parallel and interactive play. In addition, English-speaking children's interactive play with a NEC were reported in this…

  8. Child Study and Consultation Services in the Hawaii State Department of Education: A Summary and Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu.

    The role of assessment teams in establishing a psychoeducational clinic in Hawaii is reviewed, along with the need for child study and consultation services. The objectives of such services are listed and the program is explained. Role descriptions of the multidisciplinary team are provided, including the roles of the team coordinator, visiting…

  9. Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Subsequent Pregnancy, Child-Birth and Abortion: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Research on teenage pregnancy and abortion has primarily focused on socio-economic disadvantage. However, a few studies suggest that risk of unwanted pregnancy is related to conduct disorder symptoms. We examined the relationship between level of conduct disorder symptoms at age 15 and subsequent pregnancy, child-birth and abortion. A…

  10. Can i have a second child? dilemmas of mothers of children with pervasive developmental disorder: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omiya Tomoko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD has an uncertain etiology, no method of treatment, and results in communication deficiencies and other behavioral problems. As the reported recurrence risk is 5%-10% and there are no methods of either prevention or prenatal testing, mothers of PDD children may face unique challenges when contemplating second pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to explore the mothers' lived experiences of second child-related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD. Methods The participants for this study were restricted to mothers living within the greater Tokyo metropolitan area who had given birth to a first child with PDD within the past 18 years. The ten participants were encouraged to describe their experiences of second-child related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD on the basis of semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was performed by using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA, which is concerned with understanding what the participant thinks or believes about the topic under discussion. Results We identified two superordinate themes. The first was balancing hopes and fears, in which hope was the potential joy to be gained by the birth of a new child without PDD and fears were characterized as uncertainty of PDD and perception of recurrence risk, burden on later-born children, and negative effects on a child with PDD. The second superordinate theme was assessing the manageability of the situation, which was affected by factors as diverse as severity of PDD, relationship between mother and father, and social support and acceptance for PDD. Our 10 participants suffered from extreme psychological conflict, and lack of social support and acceptance for PDD created numerous practical difficulties in having second children. Conclusions Our participants faced various difficulties when considering second pregnancies after the birth of children with PDD in

  11. Parents’ views on child physical activity and their implications for physical activity parenting interventions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentley Georgina F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing healthy physical activity (PA behaviours in early childhood is important for future PA behaviours. Parents play a central role in young children’s PA. However, there is currently little research on parenting interventions to increase child PA. This study was formative work to inform the content of a pilot randomised-controlled trial. Methods In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 32 parents of 6 to 8 year old children residing in two areas that varied in their socio-economic characteristics, in Bristol, UK. Data were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Results Most parents described their child as being active or very active and indicated that they did not perceive a need for an increase in their child’s PA. Parents used a variety of visual cues to make this judgement, the most common being that they perceived their child as having lots of energy or that they did not view them as overweight. Parents reported environmental factors such as monetary cost, time constraints, lack of activity provision and poor weather as the main barriers to their child’s PA. Parental support and child’s enjoyment of PA appeared to be important facilitators to children participating in PA. Conclusion Improving parents’ knowledge of the PA recommendations for children, and increasing their awareness of the benefits of PA beyond weight status may be an important first step for a parenting PA intervention. Although parents commonly perceive environmental factors as the main barriers to their child’s PA, parental concern about low levels of child PA, their capacity to support behaviour change, child motivation, self confidence and independence may be key areas to address within an intervention to increase child PA. Effective methods of helping parents address the latter have been developed in the context of generic parenting programmes.

  12. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  13. Child Wellness and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  14. 福禄培尔幼儿体育观研究%A study of Froebel's child physical education view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贵; 苏永骏

    2015-01-01

    The authors studied Froebel's child physical education view. Capitalist industrialized production needing to enhance workers’ physical makings, cultural makings and production skills through education (physical educa-tion) is the historical background for the formation of Froebel’s child physical education view, Fichte’s and Schel-ling’s philosophical thoughts as well as Rousseau’s and Pestalozzi’s naturalist physical education thoughts are the theoretical origins of Froebel's child physical education view, unique education practice and experience are subjec-tive conditions for the formation of Froebel's child physical education view. These subjective and objective condi-tions built a foundation for the formation of Froebel's child physical education view. The main contains of Froebel's child physical education view include building a child physical activity system that bases its center on life, valuing parent’s care about and guidance for child physical activities, and the education principle of physical education fol-lowing children’s nature. Froebel's child physical education view has diversified inspirations to current child physi-cal education: advocating turning child physical education into a part of life or a game; building a cooperative and interactive home relationship in physical education activities; respecting child physical and mental development patterns when arranging physical education activities.%资本主义工业化生产需要通过教育(体育)提高工人的身体素质、文化素质和生产技能是福禄培尔幼儿体育观形成的时代背景,费希特和谢林哲学思想以及卢梭和裴斯泰洛齐自然主义体育思想是福禄培尔幼儿体育观的理论来源,独特的教育经历与体验是福禄培尔幼儿体育观形成的主观条件。福禄培尔幼儿体育观主要内容包括构建以生活为中心的幼儿体育活动体系,重视父母对幼儿体育活动的关心与指导,体育遵

  15. Do Effects of Early Child Care Extend to Age 15 Years? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret; Steinberg, Laurence; Vandergrift, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4 1/2 years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with…

  16. The relation between child feeding problems as measured by parental report and mealtime behavior observation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Marijn; Bruinsma, Eke; Hauser, M Paulina

    2016-04-01

    Because feeding problems have clear negative consequences for both child and caretakers, early diagnosis and intervention are important. Parent-report questionnaires can contribute to early identification, because they are efficient and typically offer a 'holistic' perspective of the child's eating in different contexts. In this pilot study, we aim to explore the concurrent validity of a short screening instrument (the SEP, which is the Dutch MCH-FS) in one of its target populations (a group of premature children) by comparing the total score with the observed behavior of the child and caretaker during a regular home meal. 28 toddlers (aged 9-18 months) and their caretakers participated in the study. Video-observations of the meals were coded for categories of eating behavior and parent-child interaction. The results show that the total SEP-score correlates with food refusal, feeding efficiency, and self-feeding, but not with negative affect and parental instructions. This confirms that the SEP has a certain degree of concurrent validity in the sense that its total score is associated with specific 'benchmark' feeding behaviors: food refusal, feeding efficiency and autonomy. Future studies with larger samples are needed to generalize the findings from this pilot to a broader context.

  17. Pancreatic cancer risk after loss of a child: a register-based study in Sweden during 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaqi; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Fall, Katja; Ye, Weimin; Fang, Fang

    2013-08-15

    The potential role of psychological stress in pancreatic cancer has rarely been investigated in epidemiologic studies. During 1991-2009, we conducted a nested case-control study based on Swedish national population and health registers to investigate whether severe psychological stress induced by the death of a child was associated with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer. The study included 16,522 cases and 82,107 controls who were matched to the cases on sex and year of birth. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, loss of a child was associated with an odds ratio of 1.09 for pancreatic cancer (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.17). The risk elevation was mainly seen during the first 5 years after the loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.45) and for loss of a child due to suicide (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.46). The association was statistically significant among women but not among men, and it appeared stronger for early-onset pancreatic cancer. Persons with a history of psychiatric illness had the greatest risk increase after child loss (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.76). Although other explanations are possible, our findings provide some evidence that psychological stress may be associated with pancreatic cancer.

  18. Fourth National Incidende Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-4)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NIS–4 data were collected to provide updated estimates of the incidence of child abuse and neglect in the United States and measure changes in incidence from the...

  19. Child Maltreatment and Disaster Prevention: Qualitative Study of Community Agency Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Self-Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Child maltreatment (CM is a significant public health problem that increases following natural disasters. Ecological approaches have been used to study these complex phenomena, and the current research fits within this perspective by conducting qualitative interviews with disaster response and family-serving community agencies. The purpose of the study was to identify whether or not community agencies identified CM as an issue that is relevant for disaster planning and response and their perspectives on risk and protective factors for CM risk following disaster. Methods: Agencies (n=16 from 2 geographical areas participated - one that recently experienced a natural disaster (Louisiana (LA, n=7 and one that had not (Georgia (GA, n=9. Agency representatives completed semi-structured telephone interviews (n=16 and follow up in person focus groups (n=14. Theory-driven, thematic analyses were completed. Results: Results suggested that community agencies agree that post-disaster environments increase the risk for CM and that CM prevention has a role in disaster response planning. Risk and protective factors were identified according to Bronfenbrenner’ s ecological framework. Conclusion: Study results support the need to include CM prevention efforts within disaster planning and provide guidance for future research to inform such efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:402-408

  20. From child to child: children as communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J

    1993-01-01

    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  1. Transactions Between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence From a Prospective Adoption Study

    OpenAIRE

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Daniel S Shaw; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months predicted reduced levels of observed structured parenting (i.e., less directive parenting with fewer commands and requests) in adoptive mothers at age 27 ...

  2. A systems relations model for Tier 2 early intervention child mental health services with schools: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Marc; Gardner-Elahi, Catherine; Day, Crispin

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, policy initiatives have aimed at the provision of more comprehensive Child and Adolescent Mental Health care. These presented a series of new challenges in organising and delivering Tier 2 child mental health services, particularly in schools. This exploratory study aimed to examine and clarify the service model underpinning a Tier 2 child mental health service offering school-based mental health work. Using semi-structured interviews, clinician descriptions of operational experiences were gathered. These were analysed using grounded theory methods. Analysis was validated by respondents at two stages. A pathway for casework emerged that included a systemic consultative function, as part of an overall three-function service model, which required: (1) activity as a member of the multi-agency system; (2) activity to improve the system working around a particular child; and (3) activity to universally develop a Tier 1 workforce confident in supporting children at risk of or experiencing mental health problems. The study challenged the perception of such a service serving solely a Tier 2 function, the requisite workforce to deliver the service model, and could give service providers a rationale for negotiating service models that include an explicit focus on improving the children's environments.

  3. Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet risk has been recognised as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child’s online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Methods Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Detailed Mortality Database, 2010 or the latest year if not available) of 24 European countries. Correlations were found using quasi-Poisson regression. Countries’ prevalence rates of psychiatric problems (European Social Survey Round 3 and 6, 2006 and 2012) were used to test for possible spuriousness. Results This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death. A 1 percent rise in the prevalence of cyberbullying translated into a 28% increase in risk of unnatural child death (95% CI: 2%-57%). No evidence was found to substantiate confounding effect of the national prevalence of depressive symptoms or traditional bullying. Conclusions Explanations are given for the findings. We conclude that intervention programs designed to serve as precautionary measures for risk minimisation should be considered. PMID:25079144

  4. The Value of HRV Analysis and Multiple Correlations for Study of Child Virus Myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋安齐; 牛小麟; 杜颖; 郭润梅

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the value of HRV analysis and multiple correlations for study of child virus myocarditis. Methods HRV analysis was performed on 41 myocarditis and 40 normal children. The HRV changes in waking and sleeping time were observed as well. Multiple correlation and regression were carried out with the depth of STT depression as dependent variable and all HRV time and frequency domain indexes including those in waking and sleeping time as independent variables.Results HRV abnormality was found in virus myocarditis children .Their HRV indexes were decreased no matter waking time or sleeping time and the differences between waking and sleeping time were much less than those in the controls. In multiple correlation and regression analysis, the ST depression correlated with VLF, LFN, LF. Conclusions HRV abnormalities existed in children with virus myocarditis which indicates the sympathetic tense were increased ermanently. The ST depression correlates with VLF,LFN, LF. HRV analysis is helpful with the study and its diagnosis of utonomic function in children with virus myocarditis.

  5. HAZARDOUS CHILD LABOR & PSYCHO-PHYSICAL AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES: A STUDY IN SYLHET CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nashir Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children of developing countries, by and large, have been working in different kinds of economic activities either on territorial (urban/rural distribution or on sectoral (formal / informal and / or organized / unorganized allocation basis. They used to work in manufacturing plants, small factories, metal and construction works. The inductive study is based on social survey aiming at unveiling the physical and mental discomforts of children involved in hazardous formal and/or informal economic sectors. Decisive examination of both primary and secondary data was made for in-depth analysis. Around 90% children under survey were suffering from different psycho-physical diseases while above half of them availed Medicaid and care from locally self-trained physicians who possessed no recognized knowledge of medical care. In addition, child workers are less-paid than those of adults. The study concluded that working at an early age causes problems of health and safety; and thereby get impeded their intellectual development and natural growth which causes severe negative consequences on economic potentials.

  6. Is the Secure Base Phenomenon Evident Here, There, and Anywhere? A Cross-Cultural Study of Child Behavior and Experts' Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, German; Lu, Ting; Trumbell, Jill; Kaloustian, Garene; Trudel, Marcel; Plata, Sandra J.; Peña, Paola P.; Perez, Jennifer; Tereno, Susana; Dugravier, Romain; Coppola, Gabrielle; Constantini, Alessandro; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Nóblega, Magaly; Haya, Ines M.; Pedraglio, Claudia; Verissimo, Manuela; Santos, Antonio J.; Monteiro, Ligia; Lay, Keng-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary rationale offered by Bowlby implies that secure base relationships are common in child-caregiver dyads and thus, child secure behavior observable across diverse social contexts and cultures. This study offers a test of the universality hypothesis. Trained observers in nine countries used the Attachment Q-set to describe the…

  7. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  8. The Use of "Circle of Friends" Strategy to Improve Social Interactions and Social Acceptance: A Case Study of a Child with Asperger's Syndrome and Other Associated Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The study outlined here was an attempt to examine the use of "Circle of Friends" as a single intervention approach in addressing the issue of inappropriate social interactions in a child with Asperger Syndrome. The child selected was in a mainstream setting, as the main feature of a circle of friends is peers supporting peers. The child…

  9. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  10. Children of Treatment-Seeking Depressed Mothers: A Comparison with the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) Child Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Lisa A.; Hernandez, Mariely; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Blier, Pierre; Flament, Martine F.; Poh, Ernest; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of current psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents (collectively called children) of mothers entering treatment for depression; to examine maternal predictors of child psychopathology among children of depressed mothers; and to determine consistency of findings with a similar child study ancillary…

  11. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Children Born Premature: A Case Study and Illustration of Vagal Tone as a Physiological Measure of Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Vohr, Betty R.; Hinckley, Matthew; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature have not been reported in the literature. This single-case study describes Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with a 23-month-old child born at 29 weeks gestation weighing 1,020 grams, who presented with significant externalizing behavior…

  12. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Hodges, Eric A; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L; Zipkin, Elana C; Bentley, Margaret E; Ward, Dianne S; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders.

  13. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Mousumi; Singh, Darrel; Massod, Shahid S; Nganba, Khundrakpam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans (MS) in mother-child pairs and to evaluate the correlation in the levels of salivary MS of working and nonworking mothers with that of their children and their associations with other related factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 100 mother-child pairs residing in New Multan Nagar Colony, New Delhi, India. A total of 50 children with their mothers were included in the working group and another 50 were included in the nonworking group. A questionnaire regarding the feeding habits, oral hygiene habits, daily intake of sugars of the children along with their weaning time was carried out. All mothers and children were clinically examined for recording decayed, extracted, and filled teeth (deft)/decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), and whole unstimulated saliva was collected and cultured for MS in the laboratory. The data were collected and subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square, Spearman’s correlation, and logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of salivary MS in the children was 69%. A statistically significant correlation was found between the oral levels of MS in nonworking and working mother-child pairs. Regression analysis showed that those children who feed by bottle for more than 12 months, have daily sweet intake, have sugars in feeding bottle and have higher defts were more likely to have mutans score of 1 or 2. Conclusion The mother, working or nonworking, being the primary care provider is the major source of transmission of MS to their child irrespective of the amount of time spent with them. How to cite this article Sharma P, Goswami M, Singh D, Massod SS, Nganba K. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):342-348. PMID:28127167

  14. Parental height and child growth from birth to 2 years in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cutberto; Borghi, Elaine; Onyango, Adelheid W; de Onis, Mercedes

    2013-09-01

    Linear growth from birth to 2 years of children enrolled in the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study was similar despite substantial parental height differences among the six study sites. Within-site variability in child length attributable to parental height was estimated by repeated measures analysis of variance using generalized linear models. This approach was also used to examine relationships among selected traits (e.g. breastfeeding duration and child morbidity) and linear growth between 6 and 24 months of age. Differences in intergenerational adult heights were evaluated within sites by comparing mid-parental heights (average of the mother's and father's heights) to the children's predicted adult height. Mid-parental height consistently accounted for greater proportions of observed variability in attained child length than did either paternal or maternal height alone. The proportion of variability explained by mid-parental height ranged from 11% in Ghana to 21% in India. The average proportion of between-child variability accounted for by mid-parental height was 16% and the analogous within-child estimate was 6%. In the Norwegian and US samples, no significant differences were observed between mid-parental and children's predicted adult heights. For the other sites, predicted adult heights exceeded mid-parental heights by 6.2-7.8 cm. To the extent that adult height is predicted by height at age 2 years, these results support the expectation that significant community-wide advances in stature are attainable within one generation when care and nutrition approximate international recommendations, notwithstanding adverse conditions likely experienced by the previous generation.

  15. Parental exposure to mass violence and child mental health: the First Responder and WTC Evacuee Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, Christina W; Duarte, Cristiane S; Wu, Ping; Doan, Thao; Singh, Navya; Mandell, Donald J; Bin, Fan; Teichman, Yona; Teichman, Meir; Wicks, Judith; Musa, George; Cohen, Patricia

    2009-06-01

    Children's reactions after being exposed to mass violence may be influenced by a spectrum of factors. Relatively unexplored is the extent to which family exposure to mass violence may affect child mental health, even when these children have not been directly exposed. In a representative sample of NYC public school children assessed 6 months after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC), seemingly elevated rates of psychopathology were recorded among children of WTC evacuees. Children of NYC First Responders (police officers, EMTs, and fire fighters) displayed a complex pattern of response to the WTC attack. Overall, the findings from this previous study support putative transmission of trauma to children whose parents were exposed to the WTC attack. The "Children of First Responder and WTC Evacuee Study"-a two-site longitudinal study-is currently underway in the United States (New York City) and in Israel (Tel Aviv area) in an effort to understand the impact of different patterns of mass violence. The NYC sample permits us to examine the impact of a rare instance of mass violence (e.g., WTC attack), while the Israeli sample provides information about repeated and frequent exposure to mass violence brought about by acts of terrorism. In addition, children's exposure to mass violence is considered in the context of their exposure to other potentially traumatic events. This study aims to improve our general understanding of the impact of mass violence on children, especially the psychological effects on children whose parents' work experiences are by nature stressful. Knowledge generated by this study has implications for guiding efforts to meet the needs of children who have, directly or through a family member, been subjected to rare or infrequent mass violent event as well as to children whose exposure to mass violence is part of daily life.

  16. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents.

  17. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Eric V.; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  18. Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H

    2016-05-01

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986-2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, β = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development.

  19. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  20. Organochlorine Pesticides and Male Genital Anomalies in the Child Health and Development Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Shiau, Rita; Petreas, Myrto; Weintraub, June M.; Farhang, Lili; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    Increasing rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in human populations may be caused by exogenous environmental agents. We conducted a case–control study of serum levels of p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its major metabolite, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and cryptorchidism and hypospadias in the Child Health and Development Study, a longitudinal cohort of pregnancies that occurred between 1959 and 1967, a period when DDT was produced and used in the United States. Serum was available from the mothers of 75 male children born with cryptorchidism, 66 with hypospadias, and 4 with both conditions. We randomly selected 283 controls from the cohort of women whose male babies were born without either of these conditions. Overall, we observed no statistically significant relationships or trends between outcomes and serum measures. After adjusting for maternal race, triglyceride level, and cholesterol level, compared with boys whose mothers had serum DDE levels < 27.0 ng/mL, boys whose mothers had serum DDE levels ≥61.0 ng/mL had odds ratios of 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.51–3.48] for cryptorchidism and 1.18 (95% CI, 0.46–3.02) for hypospadias. For DDT, compared with boys whose mothers had serum DDT levels < 10.0 ng/mL, boys whose mothers had serum DDT levels ≥20.0 ng/mL had adjusted odds ratios of 1.01 (95% CI, 0.44–2.28) for cryptorchidism and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.33–1.89) for hypospadias. This study does not support an association of DDT or DDE and hypospadias or cryptorchidism. PMID:15687061

  1. Air pollution and child mortality: a time-series study in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, G M; Miraglia, S G; Kishi, H S; Saldiva, P H; Singer, J M

    2001-06-01

    Although most available evidence relating air pollution and mortality was obtained for adults, pollution has been also associated with increased mortality in children, but in a significantly smaller number of studies. This study was designed to evaluate the association between child mortality and air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 to 1997. Daily records of mortality due to respiratory diseases for children under 5 years of age were obtained from the municipal mortality information improvement program. Daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), inhalable particulate matter less than 10 microm in diameter (PM(10)), and ozone were obtained from the state air pollution controlling agency. Information on minimum daily temperature and on relative humidity were obtained from the Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics of the University of São Paulo. Statistical analysis was performed through generalized additive models considering a Poisson response distribution and a log link. Explanatory variables were time, temperature, humidity, and pollutant concentrations. The loess smoother was applied to time (in order to model seasonality) and temperature. Significant associations between mortality and concentrations of CO, SO(2), and PM(10) were detected. The coefficients (and standard errors) of these three pollutants were 0.0306 (0.0076), 0.0055 (0.0016), and 0.0014 (0.0006), respectively. The observed associations were dose dependent and quite evident after a short period of exposure (2 days). According to the proposed model and considering the mean of the pollutant concentration during the period of the study, the estimated proportions of respiratory deaths attributed to CO, SO(2), and PM(10), when considered individually, are around 15, 13, and 7%, respectively.

  2. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  3. A review of studies of parent-child communication about sexuality and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhwezi WW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parent-child sexuality communication has been identified as a protective factor for adolescent sexual and reproductive health, including HIV infection. The available literature on this topic in sub-Saharan Africa is increasing; however a systematic review of studies has not been conducted. This article reviews the literature in the area of parental or caregiver and child communication about sexuality and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. A review of peer reviewed literature published between 1980 and April 2011 was conducted. Communication process studies investigating the frequency, content, style, tone of discussions, preferences, as well as associations with and barriers to sexuality communication are reviewed. In addition, studies which examine behavioral associations with parent-child sexuality communication, and intervention studies to improve parent-child sexuality communication are examined. The findings from process studies suggest wide variation in terms of frequency of discussions, with a range of socio-demographic and other factors associated with sexuality communication. Overall, findings demonstrate that discussions tend to be authoritarian and uni-directional, characterized by vague warnings rather than direct, open discussion. Moreover, parents and young people report a number of barriers to open dialogue, including lack of knowledge and skills, as well as cultural norms and taboos. Findings are less clear when it comes to associations between parental communication and adolescent sexual activity and contraception use. However, nascent indications from intervention research suggest positive findings with increases in frequency and comfort of discussions, among other outcomes. Gaps in the research are identified and discussed with implications for future studies.

  4. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  5. Inequality in child mortality across different states of India: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Partha; Dhar, Arpita

    2013-12-01

    The burden of social inequality falls disproportionately on child health and survival. This inequality raises the question of how wide this gap is, or what its relation is with the level of child mortality. Whether these disparities are increasing or declining with the development and how they differ from region to region or from state to state within the country needs to be looked into. As a measure of inequality and to compare the disparities between different states of India, concentration curves and indices are constructed from infant and under five mortality data classified under different quintiles of wealth index from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) data of India. Inequality measures indicate that inequality in child mortality is more concentrated in the comparatively developed states than the poorer states in India.

  6. What gets dad involved? A longitudinal study of change in parental child caregiving involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J; Repetti, Rena L

    2004-03-01

    Predictors of change in fathers' and mothers' perceptions of child caregiving involvement were examined. Middle-class 2-parent families (131 mothers and 98 fathers) with a target school-age child participated. Fathers and mothers completed annual questionnaires for 3 consecutive years. Latent growth curve modeling suggested that fathers were likely to increase their relative contribution to child caregiving over the course of 3 years when they had a greater proportion of male children in the family and when life events-particularly changes in employment and financial status-were experienced by the family. Although mothers were responsible for more of the caregiving, their relative level of involvement tended to decrease when there were no young children in the family. Two-parent families may adapt to varying family contexts and life circumstances by shifting caregiving roles and responsibilities over the course of years.

  7. Interconception Care for Mothers During Well-Child Visits With Family Physicians: An IMPLICIT Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosener, Stephanie E.; Barr, Wendy B.; Frayne, Daniel J.; Barash, Joshua H.; Gross, Megan E.; Bennett, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Interconception care (ICC) is recommended to improve birth outcomes by targeting maternal risk factors, but little is known about its implementation. We evaluated the frequency and nature of ICC delivered to mothers at well-child visits and maternal receptivity to these practices. METHODS We surveyed a convenience sample of mothers accompanying their child to well-child visits at family medicine academic practices in the IMPLICIT (Interventions to Minimize Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants Through Continuous Improvement Techniques) Network. Health history, behaviors, and the frequency of the child’s physician addressing maternal depression, tobacco use, family planning, and folic acid supplementation were assessed, along with maternal receptivity to advice. RESULTS Three-quarters of the 658 respondents shared a medical home with their child. Overall, 17% of respondents reported a previous preterm birth, 19% reported a history of depression, 25% were smoking, 26% were not using contraception, and 58% were not taking folic acid. Regarding advice, 80% of mothers who smoked were counseled to quit, 59% reported depression screening, 71% discussed contraception, and 44% discussed folic acid. Screening for depression and family planning was more likely when the mother and child shared a medical home (P .05). CONCLUSIONS Family physicians provide key elements of ICC at well-child visits, and mothers are highly receptive to advice from their child’s physician even if they receive primary care elsewhere. Routine integration of ICC at these visits may provide an opportunity to reduce maternal risk factors for adverse subsequent birth outcomes. PMID:27401423

  8. Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Merikanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12% were caused by child battering and 13 (7% by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent and often substance dependence (31%. None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child’s behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent’s life, the child may be in danger.

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study on Child Rearing Practices in Rural Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish Cacodcar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the traditional child rearing practices among rural Goan mothers and the various socio demographic factors influencing these practices. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 307 rural mothers with children < 2 years in two rural areas under rural health and training centre Mandur located 16 kilometres from Panaji Goa, through house to house visits and oral interviews. Analysis of collected data was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version. Chi-square test was applied in addition to proportions and percentages. Results: Rooming in was practiced by majority (86% of the mothers within 24 hours of birth. 46.25% of the mothers fed colustrum to their newborns while 73.62 % of the mothers breastfed within 24 hours. 37.59% of the mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for the first six months. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 11.015 th months. 90% of the women was educated 12 standard and above breastfed their babies up to 12 months. Bottle feeding was common (75%. Cereal based diet was the commonest complementary feeding administered by 23% of the mothers. Commonest traditional practices followed included oil massage (97.72% and use of amulets/talisman (97.72% in the study population. Conclusion: Beneficial infant feeding practices such as early initiation of breastfeeding and feeding of colustrum among rural Goan mothers was low despite accessible antenatal care and health care services. However, though some of the traditional children rearing practices followed such as oil massage, delivery at parents' home were as per the recommended norms, some of the beliefs/practices such as kajal application, bathing the newborn immediately after birth, need to be replaced by sound and scientific methods.

  10. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psaki Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27 was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42% was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%. In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008. A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17. Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder, child abuse history, birth weight, and gestational age: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Julia S.; Low, Lisa Kane; Sperlich, Mickey; Ronis, David L.; Liberzon, Israel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which prenatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with lower birth weight and shorter gestation, and to explore the effects of childhood maltreatment as the antecedent trauma exposure. Design Prospective three-cohort study Setting Ann Arbor and Detroit, Michigan, United States Sample 839 diverse nulliparas in PTSD-positive (n=255), trauma-exposed, resilient (n=307), and non-exposed to trauma (n=277) cohorts Methods Standardised telephone interview prior to 28 weeks to ascertain trauma history, PTSD, depression, substance use, mental health treatment history, and sociodemographics, with chart abstraction to obtain chronic condition history, antepartum complications, and prenatal care data, as well as outcomes. Main outcome measures Infant birth weight and gestational age per delivery record. Results Women with PTSD during pregnancy had a mean birth weight 283 grams less than trauma-exposed, resilient women and 221 grams less than non-exposed women (F(3, 835) = 5.4, p = .001). PTSD was also associated with shorter gestation in multivariate models that took childhood abuse history into account. Stratified models indicated that PTSD subsequent to child abuse trauma exposure was most strongly associated with adverse outcomes. PTSD was a stronger predictor than African American race of shorter gestation and a nearly equal predictor of birth weight. Prenatal care was not associated with better outcomes among women abused in childhood. Conclusions Abuse-related PTSD may be an additional or alternative explanation for adverse perinatal outcomes associated with low socioeconomic status and African American race in the United States. Biological and interventions research is warranted along with replication studies in other nations. PMID:21790957

  12. Knowledge and child care practices regarding childhood diarrhoea- A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Choube

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrhea still continues to be a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality and holds the second rank (after pneumonia for mortality in children < 5 years of age. The majority of these deaths can be avoided by timely intervention. The knowledge of caretakers about the severity of diarrheal illness ultimately affects the choice for childcare practices and influences the type of therapies received.  Objectives: To assess the various aspect of maternal knowledge about diarrhea in under-five age children. To determine the child care practices of mothers during diarrheal episodes.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from February to May 2014. 5 villages were selected by systematic random sampling method in rural field training area of medical college. A self-designed and pre-tested structured questionnaire was used as study tool which covers different aspect of knowledge and childcare practices by mothers/caretakers regarding diarrhea. Overall responses of participants were scored as good, average and poor for assessment of knowledge and practice.  Results: Total 972 mother/caretakers were interviewed. Most of the mothers/caretakers (62.1% were in favor of giving of breast milk as preferred oral fluid during diarrheal episode. Nearly one fourth of mothers/caretakers (26.1% identify symptoms and signs of "dehydration" and the need for consultation. During diarrheal episodes less amount of food and fluid was given by 49.9% and 20.4% mothers/caretaker respectively. The higher level educated and employed mothers had better practices (P < 0.001 Conclusion: The study showed that knowledge and childcare practices for diarrhea still remains a great challenge among the rural population. This could be only deals with improvement in female literacy and to develop and implement diarrhea related educational interventions for mothers/caretakers.

  13. Telling a modest story: accounts of men's upward mobility from the National Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Andrew; Savage, Mike; Bühlmann, Felix

    2011-09-01

    While the pattern of social mobility in postwar Britain has been extensively studied, revealing considerable upward mobility, much less is known about the subjective dimension to mobility. In this article, we employ a new sample of in-depth interviews with 50-year old men from the National Child Development Study to examine in detail the link between objective mobility patterns and the way the upwardly mobile narrate their life trajectories. In contrast to the mobility ideology suggested by the Oxford mobility survey of the early 1970s, in which the upwardly mobile recognized and internalized their success as a project of the self, we report how members of this later generation of men with highly successful careers prefer instead to articulate 'modest' life stories. By treating the career as a narrative device, we are able to show how the disavowal of the dominant, linear hierarchical career model by these men allows them to tell particular and distinctive stories which establish their individuality and personhood, while, paradoxically, recognizing the cultural power of the dominant model. In particular, we highlight the use of 'linear contingent' narratives by these men, in which specific events, especially those connected with occupational and geographical transitions, are deployed as contingent thresholds to mark out key shifts and passages in their lives. We then compare their accounts with those of immobile and downwardly men, who instead deploy 'ghostly' stories, preoccupied by the past, or defensive accounts, displaying unease with their failure to live up to the expectations of the linear career model. Having shown that men's accounts of mobility are suffused with an awareness of their need to establish their own individuality through repudiating the social trope of the instrumental careerist, we conclude that the links between career identities and objective mobility patterns are not straightforward and need careful unravelling.

  14. Eating disorders, pregnancy, and the postpartum period:Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunna J. Watson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and largesample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 eating disorder studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating.

  15. Individual, Family, and Culture Level Contributions to Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: A Longitudinal Study in Nine Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,432 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between...

  16. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  17. Evaluation of remineralizing potential of commercially available child formula dentifrices: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Jagdish Gujarathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the remineralizing potential of commercially available low fluoride child formula dentifrice on primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Total 30 primary teeth were placed in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial carious lesions of approximately 100 μm depth, and then cut longitudinally into 30 sections of 100-150 μm thickness and randomly assigned to three groups. Sections were treated with dentifrices containing Colgate ® (anti tooth decay 500 ppm NaF, Cheerio gel ® 458 ppm MFP and Vicco ® non-fluoridated dentifrice. Lesions were evaluated using polarized light microscopy. Results: Colgate ® (anti tooth decay 500 ppm NaF sections exhibited a statistically significant decrease in lesion depth (P < 0.05, paired t-test, whereas those in Cheerio gel ® 458 ppm MFP showed a decrease in lesion depth but was not statistically significant. Vicco ® non-fluoridated dentifrice showed increase in lesion depth. Statistics: A paired t-test is used to evaluate pre- and post-treatment lesion depth measurements, and Newman-Keuls multiple post hoc procedures was carried out to compare pair-wise difference of pre- and post-treatment lesion depth. Conclusion: The Colgate ® (anti tooth decay 500 ppm NaF dentifrice and Cheerio gel ® 458 ppm MFP demonstrated remineralization of carious lesions by virtue of decrease in lesion depth, whereas Vicco ® non-fluoridated dentifrice showed increase in lesion depth.

  18. Green Space and Child Weight Status: Does Outcome Measurement Matter? Evidence from an Australian Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taren Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether neighbourhood green space is beneficially associated with (i waist circumference (WC and (ii waist-to-height ratio (WtHR across childhood. Methods. Gender-stratified multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between green space and objective measures of weight status in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative source of data on 4,423 children aged 6 y to 13 y. WC and WtHR were measured objectively. Percentage green space within the local area of residence was calculated. Effect modification by age was explored, adjusting for socioeconomic confounding. Results. Compared to peers with 0–5% green space locally, boys and girls with >40% green space tended to have lower WC (βboys  −1.15, 95% CI −2.44, 0.14; βgirls  −0.21, 95% CI −1.47, 1.05 and WtHR (βboys  −0.82, 95% CI −1.65, 0.01; βgirls  −0.32, 95% CI −1.13, 0.49. Associations among boys were contingent upon age (p  valuesage∗green  space40% green space at 73.85 cm and 45.75% compared to those with 0–5% green space at 75.18 cm and 46.62%, respectively. Conclusions. Greener neighbourhoods appear beneficial to alternative child weight status measures, particularly among boys.

  19. Systematically Identifying Relevant Research: Case Study on Child Protection Social Workers' Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…

  20. Ghosts of No Child Left Behind. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 361

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carris, Joanne M.

    2011-01-01

    "Ghosts of No Child Left Behind" politically situates curriculum within a historically and critically informed context, to understand the structural forces that have contributed to the creation of a population of adolescents who read below a third grade level. The book then proposes a reconceptualization of literacy curriculum within a…

  1. Monitoring Progress in Child Poverty Reduction: Methodological Insights and Illustration to the Case Study of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Important steps have been taken at international summits to set up goals and targets to improve the wellbeing of children worldwide. Now the world also has more and better data to monitor progress. This paper presents a new approach to monitoring progress in child poverty reduction based on the Alkire and Foster adjusted headcount ratio and an…

  2. Implementation of Child Death Review in the Netherlands: results of a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, Sandra; Hilhorst, Michaëla I.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Need, Ariana

    2016-01-01

    Background Child mortality in the Netherlands declined gradually in the past decades. In total 1130 children and youth aged 0 to 19 years died in 2014 (i.e. 29.4 per 100,000 live births). A better understanding of the background and the circumstances surrounding the death of children as well as the

  3. A Follow-Up Study of Behavior Problems Associated with Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was completed by parents of 93 prepubertal children evaluated for sexual abuse and 80 nonabused children. Sexually abused children had significantly more behavior problems, including depression, aggression, sleep and somatic complaints, hyperactivity, and sexual problems. At four-month follow-up, children with…

  4. Externalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: A Longitudinal Study on the Role of Child and Parental Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, A.A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    According to recent theories, both person characteristics and environmental characteristics have to be taken into account in order to understand individual development. In line with these theories, the present thesis focused on the ways in which child characteristics and parental characteristics int

  5. The Sociological Study of Attitude to Child bearing and it’s some related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Kalantari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractChild bearing is one of the most vital elements in Demography science, which has absorbed manyattentions in social fields. In according to the importance of population transition in the 4 recent decades, aswell as social and economic impacts on Child bearing, this survey is supposed to consider the relationbetween religious tendency, social beliefs, social cooperation and economic advantages with the rate oftendency to Child bearing with each of their effect on this case, which can be done by the usage of Veber,Esterlin, Fazio and Durkheim theories.The method is a survey. In order to gather data “Questionnaire" has been used. The statistical populationcontains married youth in Tabriz, being chosen by Random Sampling and with the use of "Cochran" formula386 people are selected. For descriptive analysis, SPSS software and for the multi structural variablesanalysis, LISREL is used.Totally, result indicates that used independent variable could explain 22%. of dependant variable variance.Also result showed there are reverse effect of social participation and increasingly effect of ReligiousTendency on the rate of tendency to child bearing.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study of the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Eric; McGough, James; Loo, Sandra; Doyle, Alysa E.; Wozniak, Janet; Wilens, Timothy E.; Smalley, Susan; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A potentially useful tool for understanding the distribution and determinants of emotional dysregulation in children is a Child Behavior Checklist profile, comprising the Attention Problems, Anxious/Depressed, and Aggressive Behavior clinical subscales (CBCL-DP). The CBCL-DP indexes a heritable trait that increases susceptibility for…

  7. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  8. Implementation of Child Death Review in the Netherlands: results of a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, S.; Hilhorst, M.I.; Hoir, M.P. L; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Need, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Child mortality in the Netherlands declined gradually in the past decades. In total 1130 children and youth aged 0 to 19 years died in 2014 (i.e. 29.4 per 100,000 live births). A better understanding of the background and the circumstances surrounding the death of children as well as the

  9. Child rearing styles, dental anxiety and disruptive behaviour: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.B.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This was to explore the relation between children's dental anxiety, their behaviour during treatment and their parent's rearing style. Also the parents' preparation of the child for dental treatment was related to behaviour and parental rearing style. Methods: The parents of 100 children, refer

  10. [Change settings for visual analyzer of child users of mobile communication: longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorseva, N I; Grigor'ev, Iu G; Gorbunova, N V

    2014-01-01

    The paper represents theresults of longitudinal monitoring of the changes in the parameters of simple visual-motor reaction, the visual acuity and the rate of the visual discrimination in the child users of mobile communication, which indicate the multivariability of the possible effects of radiation from mobile phones on the auditory system of children.

  11. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  12. Ghosts of No Child Left Behind. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 361

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carris, Joanne M.

    2011-01-01

    "Ghosts of No Child Left Behind" politically situates curriculum within a historically and critically informed context, to understand the structural forces that have contributed to the creation of a population of adolescents who read below a third grade level. The book then proposes a reconceptualization of literacy curriculum within a critical…

  13. Fathers' Experiences after Their Child Has Been Diagnosed with Down Syndrome: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    Expectant parents often unknowingly assume that they will give birth to a healthy child without complications. The postnatal diagnosis of a disability such as Down syndrome is often a stressful, unexpected, and surprising event (Gilmore & Cuskelly, 2012; Shur, Marion, & Gross, 2006). Down syndrome is the most common birth defect diagnosed…

  14. Child Maltreatment History among Newlywed Couples: A Longitudinal Study of Marital Outcomes and Mediating Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLillo, David; Peugh, James; Walsh, Kate; Panuzio, Jillian; Trask, Emily; Evans, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Participants included 202 newlywed couples who reported retrospectively about child maltreatment experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect) and whose marital functioning was assessed 3 times over a 2-year period. Decreased marital satisfaction at T1 was predicted by childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse,…

  15. Fertility treatment and child intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-01-01

    Cohort. METHODS: The children were tested with a neuropsychological battery at age five. In addition to tests of intelligence, attention and executive functions, the follow up included extensive information on important covariates. The analyses were conducted using multiple linear regression and adjusted......OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of fertility treatment and subfertility with offspring intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark 2003-2008. POPULATION: A cohort of 1782 children sampled from the Danish National Birth...... for parental educational level, maternal intelligence, age, parity, body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy and child gender, child age, and examiner. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children...

  16. Homes for the migrants: the pueblos jovenes of Lima--a study of socioeconomic determinants of child malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, P; Sanjur, D

    1986-12-01

    The family ecology of 68 preschool children attending a health care center in a pueblo joven (low-income peripheral settlement) of Lima, Perú, was investigated to determine its bearing on their nutritional status. Some of the variables studied included family income, income available to mothers, household composition, migratory history of mothers, child feeding practices and housing conditions. Nutritional status of the children was assessed through anthropometric and dietary means. Results indicated that chronic malnutrition was widespread. Breast-feeding was common, but the weaning diets had little diversity and low-caloric value. The family diet relied heavily on soups and starchy foodstuffs, and children participated fully in the family meals by the age of two. Child growth was negatively correlated with the number of preschool children and birth order, and positively correlated with income spent on water. In its turn, the children's diet was positively correlated with the income available to the mothers and the income spent on food.

  17. [Doctor's recommendations concerning the education of the problem child: a study of mental hygiene handbooks, 1939-1947].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ana Laura Godinho

    2013-03-01

    The article presents the initial findings of a study on guidelines for the education of the problem child, as found in handbooks on children's hygiene written by Brazilian physicians. These books, whose target audience comprised the mothers and teachers who were in charge of educating these children, sought to explain the origin of the most common behavioral problems and offered instructions on how to overcome these difficulties, which jeopardized the child's development and also its adjustment to family and school. A preliminary analysis of two manuals approached from the perspective of the theoretical framework of Foucault and other authors on governmentality suggests that the books in question endeavored first and foremost to orient adults to make good use of power in their relations with children.

  18. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in children exposed prenatally to maternal dental amalgam: the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gene E; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M W; Myers, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg⁰)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg⁰ from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age.

  19. Occupational activity during pregnancy based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polańska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Poland conditions related to or aggravated by the pregnancy, childbirth or the puerperium are one of the most common causes of sickness absence. The aim of the study was to analyze the occupational activity pattern during pregnancy and to evaluate the determinants of pregnancy-related temporary work disability confirmed by medical certificate. Materials and Methods: The presented analysis is based on data collected under the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. The study population consisted of 954 women who reported occupational activity during pregnancy. All women participating in the study were interviewed 3 times during pregnancy. Detail information on occupational activity during pregnancy and occupational stress, based on the Subjective Work Characteristics Questionnaire, was collected from all women. Results: The pregnant women had been issued medical certificate of temporary work disability because of conditions related to or aggravated by the pregnancy, childbirth or by the puerperium at 16 week of gestation on average and did not continue their activities until the end of pregnancy. The statistically significant determinants of receiving such medical certificate in the first trimester of pregnancy (≤ 12 weeks of pregnancy comprised poor health condition and complications during pregnancy (OR = 1.4; p = 0.01, lower education (OR = 2.4; p < 0.001, socio-economic status (OR = 9.6; p = 0.03, use of public transport to commute to work (OR = 2.7; p < 0.001, a longer work commute (OR = 1.4; p = 0.008 and a higher level of occupational stress (OR = 3.0; p < 0.01. Waitresses, nurses and saleswomen received medical certificate of temporary work disability in the first trimester of pregnancy more frequently than office workers (OR = 4.2; p = 0.005; OR = 3.3; p = 0.02; OR = 2.3; p < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions: It is crucial to develop the model of cooperation between occupational medicine physicians and gynecologists and a

  20. Music in child care

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2007-01-01

    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  1. An assessment of maternal, newborn and child health implementation studies in Nigeria: implications for evidence informed policymaking and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The introduction of implementation science into maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH research has facilitated better methods to improve uptake of research findings into practices. With increase in implementation research related to MNCH world-wide, stronger scientific evidence are now available and have improved MNCH policies in many countries including Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to review MNCH implementation studies undertaken in Nigeria in order to understand the extent the evidence generated informed better policy. Methods: This study was a systematic review. A MEDLINE Entrez PubMed search was performed in August 2015 and implementation studies that investigated MNCH in Nigeria from 1966 to 2015 in relation to health policy were sought. Search key words included Nigeria, health policy,maternal, newborn, and child health. Only policy relevant studies that were implementation or intervention research which generated evidence to improve MNCH in Nigeria were eligible and were selected. Results: A total of 18 relevant studies that fulfilled the study inclusion criteria were identified out of 471 studies found. These studies generated high quality policy relevance evidence relating to task shifting, breastfeeding practices, maternal nutrition, childhood immunization, kangaroo mother care (KMC, prevention of maternal to child transmission of HIV, etc. These indicated significant improvements in maternal health outcomes in localities and health facilities where the studies were undertaken. Conclusion: There is a dire need for more implementation research related to MNCH in low income settings because the priority for improved MNCH outcome is not so much the development of new technologies but solving implementation issues, such as how to scale up and evaluate interventions within complex health systems.

  2. A simple clinical coding strategy to improve recording of child maltreatment concerns: an audit study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Peter McGovern

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Recording concerns about child maltreatment, including minor concerns, is recommended by the General Medical Council (GMC and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE but there is evidence of substantial under-recording.Aim To determine whether a simple coding strategy improved recording of maltreatment-related concerns in electronic primary care records.Design and Setting Clinical audit of rates of maltreatment-related coding before January 2010–December 2011 and after January–December 2012 implementation of a simple coding strategy in 11 English family practices. The strategy included encouraging general practitioners to use, always and as a minimum, the Read code ‘Child is cause for concern’. A total of 25,106 children aged 0–18 years were registered with these practices. We also undertook a qualitative service evaluation to investigate barriers to recording.Method Outcomes were recording of 1 any maltreatment-related codes, 2 child protection proceedings and 3 child was a cause for concern.Results We found increased recording of any maltreatment-related code (rate ratio 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.6, child protection procedures (RR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.6 and cause for concern (RR 2.5; 95% CI 1.8–3.4 after implementation of the coding strategy. Clinicians cited the simplicity of the coding strategy as the most important factor assisting implementation.Conclusion This simple coding strategy improved clinician’s recording of maltreatment-related concerns in a small sample of practices with some ‘buy-in’. Further research should investigate how recording can best support the doctor–patient relationshipHow this fits in Recording concerns about child maltreatment, including minor concerns, is recommended by the General Medical Council (GMC and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE, but there is evidence of substantial underrecording. We describe a simple clinical coding

  3. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS: rationale, design, and methods

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    Waslick Bruce D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS, a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT, sertraline (SRT, and their combination (COMB against pill placebo (PBO for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and social phobia (SoP in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT and pharmacologic (SSRI treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results

  4. Family environment and child development

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    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  5. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  6. Study on the Vulnerable Child Syndrome%脆弱儿童综合症研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新学; 晏菲

    2011-01-01

    Vulnerable child syndrome(VCS) refers to the parents ignorance of the actual health conditions of children identified increased risk of child death and the resulting behavioral problems in children. The major risk factors which influence the development of this disease have been listed, but its V8riability has not yet detailed. The view from Calkins to analyze the state of development in vulnerable child syndrome, its variability can be implemented detailed and pre-intervention can be taken. Recognizing the risk role that parents overly sensitive to the development of vulnerable child syndrome, the general treatment of collective intervention will take measures to prevent and reduce the behavior disorder sequelae.%脆弱儿童综合症是指父母不管儿童实际健康状况而认定孩子死亡风险增加以及由此导致的儿童的行为问题.影响该病症发展的主要因素很多,但其可变性仍未详述.从Calkins的观点来分析脆弱儿童综合症的发展状况,可以详解其可变性及实行预先干预治疗.认识到父母的过度敏感对脆弱儿童综合症发展的危险后,一般应采取集体干预的治疗措施来预防和减轻行为障碍的后遗症.

  7. Treatment of Danish Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse—A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ask Elklit

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes in psychological and social domains associated with treatment in survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: Participants from four centers were assessed at baseline and were followed up after six and 12 months. The battery covered posttraumatic and general distress symptoms, attachment, coping styles, self-worth, and social support. Results: The estimated prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was 78% at baseline; this rate declined to 40% after...

  8. Using psychodrama to relieve social barriers in an autistic child: A case study and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Li; Dangyang Wang; Ziqiu Guo; Kun Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review and update the evidence for the effect of psychodrama for children with autism, and evaluate the effect of psychodrama on an autistic child with severe social barriers, using the theory of mind and psychodrama methodology as the analytical frameworks. Methods: A 5 year-old boy, the research object, was diagnosed as severe autism using behavior observation and autism screening tools, with an DSM-Ⅵcriteria. Autism symptom severity was usually measured by Childhood Autism...

  9. Paths from mother-child and father-child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: a longitudinal study from infancy to age 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W

    2015-05-01

    Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children's SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children's SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N = 81), as a moderator of the links between parent-child socialization history and children's externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers' power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems.

  10. Estimating the inbreeding depression on cognitive behavior: a population based study of child cohort.

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    Mohd Fareed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive ability tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ scores and later mental health problems. Very few epidemiologic studies have been done to demonstrate the relationship between familial inbreeding and modest cognitive impairments in children. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the effect of inbreeding on children's cognitive behavior in comparison with non-inbred children. METHODOLOGY: A cohort of 408 children (6 to 15 years of age was selected from inbred and non-inbred families of five Muslim populations of Jammu region. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC was used to measure the verbal IQ (VIQ, performance IQ (PIQ and full scale IQ (FSIQ. Family pedigrees were drawn to access the family history and children's inbred status in terms of coefficient of inbreeding (F. RESULTS: We found significant decline in child cognitive abilities due to inbreeding and high frequency of mental retardation among offspring from inbred families. The mean differences (95% C.I. were reported for the VIQ, being -22.00 (-24.82, -19.17, PIQ -26.92 (-29.96, -23.87 and FSIQ -24.47 (-27.35,-21.59 for inbred as compared to non-inbred children (p<0.001 [corrected].The higher risk of being mentally retarded was found to be more obvious among inbred categories corresponding to the degree of inbreeding and the same accounts least for non-inbred children (p<0.0001. We observed an increase in the difference in mean values for VIQ, PIQ and FSIQ with the increase of inbreeding coefficient and these were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. The regression analysis showed a fitness decline (depression for VIQ (R2 = 0.436, PIQ (R2 = 0.468 and FSIQ (R2 = 0.464 with increasing inbreeding coefficients (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive assessment provides the evidence for inbreeding depression on cognitive abilities among children.

  11. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  12. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  13. Music in child care

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    Maria Polikandrioti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  14. Do maternal perceptions of child eating and feeding help to explain the disconnect between reported and observed feeding practices?: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi J; Skouteris, Helen; Hetherington, Marion M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Campbell, Karen J; Cox, Rachael

    2017-02-08

    Research demonstrates a mismatch between reported and observed maternal feeding practices. This mismatch may be explained by maternal cognitions, attitudes, and motivations relating to dyadic parent-child feeding interactions. These complex constructs may not be apparent during observations nor evidenced in self-report questionnaire. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to gain a more nuanced and contextualized understanding of (a) maternal perceptions of children's food intake control; (b) how parent-child mealtime interactions influence maternal feeding practices; and (c) ways in which mothers may promote healthy child eating and weight outcomes. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 23 mothers (M = 38.4 ± 3.7 years of age) of preschool-aged children (M = 3.8 ± 0.6 years of age, 19 were normal weight, 14 were girls), who had previously completed child feeding questionnaire and participated in two home-based mealtime observations, 12 months apart. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and themes extracted to create the database. Four major themes emerged: (a) Maternal confidence in children's ability to regulate food intake is variable; (b) Implementing strategies for nurturing healthy relationships with food beyond the dining table; (c) Fostering positive mealtime interactions is valued above the content of what children eat; and (d) Situation-specific practices and inconsistencies. Findings indicate that maternal feeding practices are shaped by both parent and child influences, and child feeding is mostly guided by controlling the family food environment, rather than by directly pressuring or restricting their child's eating. Results also highlighted the need for research to consider both parent and child influences on child feeding.

  15. Perceptions And Actions Of Healthcare Professionals Regarding The Mother-child Relationship With Premature Babies In An Intermediate Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury C.; Parpinelli M.A.; Makuch M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mother-child interaction after delivery may be hampered when the newborn baby is hospitalized. The objective of the study was to understand perceptions and actions of healthcare professionals (HCPs), working in an intermediate neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), regarding mother-child relationship of hospitalized premature babies in the first weeks after delivery and the professionals' support for the development of this relationship within an NICU environment. The psychoanal...

  16. Child abuse and neglect: Relations to adolescent binge drinking in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika M.; Heeren, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent binge drinking. Given that many victimized children have been maltreated in multiple ways, we examine the effects of co-occurrence of multiple types of maltreatment on adolescent binge drinking. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 12,748). Adolescent binge drinking was defined as five or ...

  17. Effect of dietary factors in pregnancy on risk of pregnancy complications: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Nilsen, Roy M; Magnus, Per; Alexander, Jan; Haugen, Margareta

    2011-12-01

    There has been a thrilling development , as well as profound changes, in our understanding of the effect of fetal nutrition on the development and health of the child. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is an ongoing nationwide population-based pregnancy cohort study that between 1999 and 2008 recruited 90,723 women with 106,981 pregnancies and 108,487 children. The objective of MoBa is to test specific etiologic hypotheses by estimating the association between exposures and diseases with a special focus on disorders that may originate in early life. An important aspect in this regard is maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy. Nutritional factors have long been considered to be important determinants of maternal and fetal health, and dietary information is currently being collected in a number of pregnancy cohorts in Europe and the United States. Thus far, pregnancy complications studied in MoBa are preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth; and the aim of this article is to report results of recently published studies of dietary factors in relation to these outcomes. Numerous studies are planned using MoBa data, and the aim is to add to the knowledge of the interplay between dietary factors, nonnutrients, and toxic dietary substances and epigenetic modulation on fetal development and health later in life.

  18. How Do Early Childhood Education Teachers Perceive Their Expertise? A Qualitative Study of Child Care Providers in Lapland, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Iiris; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to child care. Well-educated staff consists of all-round experts who work in versatile contexts with various children in a multi-professional collaboration. This staff is one of the strengths of the Finnish child care system. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early…

  19. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  20. EL MALTRATO INFANTIL EN LA PRÁCTICA DOCENTE: ESTUDIO DE UN CASO CHILD ABUSE IN THE TEACHING PRACTICE: CASE STUDY

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    JAVIER SUÁREZ GONZÁLEZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a topic of particular interest in the national and international context because the citizens of different countries know about the impact this phenomenon within the society and future generations and organizations like the ICBF (Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar, (in Colombia, UNESCO and the ONU (in around the world have drawn attention to the fact that institutions such as families and schools have become partners in practice of child abuse. This article presents the results about a research that focused on classroom practice and teacher to describe whether through speech, actions and interactions (teacherstudent had evidence of child abuse. This suggested a qualitative research, whose design was a single case study. The subject of study was a preschool teacher at a school of social stratum medium Burjassot town in the province of Valencia - Spain. Among the results of the study are the following: the discourse and interaction are within the categories of teaching practice show a particular degree of child abuse. Child abuse in the classroom is not a practice intended by the teacher, but rather factors such as number of students, teaching little accompaniment (class observation and the aid of a practitioner or consultant, among others, mean that child abuse may be evident in the teaching practice.

  1. Variations in the relationship between maternal depression, maternal sensitivity, and child attachment by race/ethnicity and nativity: findings from a nationally representative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhihuan Jennifer; Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J; Zhang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to examine the relationship between maternal depression, maternal sensitivity, and child attachment, specifically among Hispanic and Asian American mothers and their young children, and to explore the role of cultural variation and nativity in the associations between these variables. Data used in this study were collected from biological mothers on two occasions, when their children were approximately 9 and 24 months of age. Trained observers completed a direct assessment of child attachment security and an observational measure of maternal sensitivity, data on maternal depression was obtained via maternal report. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to predict odds of child insecure attachment. The risk of child insecure attachment associated with chronic maternal depression was found to be much higher for Hispanic mothers than for Asians. In contrast, mothers' foreign-born status was a stronger risk factor than depression for insecure child attachment among Asian Americans. Maternal sensitivity significantly reduced the odds of Asian American children being insecurely attached by more than half. Among the full sample of mothers, which included U.S.-born non-Hispanic White mothers and U.S.-born non-Hispanic Black mothers, decreased maternal sensitivity mediated the association between chronic depression and child insecure attachment. However, this mediation was not found in stratified analyses of Hispanic and Asian mothers. Finally, mothers' nativity did not influence the extent to which maternal depression or sensitivity was associated with child attachment. These findings suggest that the associations between maternal depression, sensitivity, and child attachment are culturally specific, and that mothers' immigrant status may be a risk factor in some racial/ethnic groups but protective in others.

  2. Child-care and feeding practices of urban middle class working and non-working Indonesian mothers: a qualitative study of the socio-economic and cultural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2012-07-01

    The double-burden problem of malnutrition in many developing countries is occurring against a backdrop of complex changes in the socio-economic and cultural environment. One such change is the increasing rate of female employment, a change that has attracted researchers to explore the possible relationships between maternal employment and child nutritional status. The present study employs a qualitative approach to explore the socio-economic and cultural environments that may influence child-care practices in families of working and non-working mothers with children of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver. It was conducted in Depok, a satellite city of Jakarta, Indonesia, and was designed as a case study involving 26 middle class families. The children were categorized as underweight, normal weight and obese, and caregivers were grouped as family and domestic paid caregivers. Twenty-six mothers and 18 caregivers were interviewed. Data were analysed by the constant comparative approach. The study identified five emerging themes, consisting of reason for working and not working, support for mother and caregivers, decision maker on child food, maternal self-confidence and access to resources. It confirmed that mothers and caregivers need support and adequate resources to perform child-care practices regardless of the child nutritional and maternal working status. Further research is required into how Indonesian mothers across a range of socio-economic strata can have increased options for quality child-care arrangements and support with child feeding. Additionally, this paper discussed the importance of enhanced dissemination of health information addressing both child underweight and obesity problems.

  3. Manipulation Study on Spleen-stomach Deficiency Type of Child Anorexia Treated by Tuina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yun-hua; GUI Cheng-hu; CUI Yi-jun

    2005-01-01

    By summarizing and observing the clinical treatment of spleen-stomach type of child anorexia by tuina, the author found that the following manipulation had a main effect:kneading Banmen, rubbing the abdomen, kneading Zhongwan(CV 12), pinching the spine and kneading Zusanli(ST 36).%通过总结推拿对小儿厌食症脾胃虚弱型的临床治疗,以及作者在临床治疗中的观察,起主要作用的手法有揉板门、摩腹、揉中脘、捏脊、揉足三里.

  4. CyberChild - A simulation test-bed for consciousness studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotterill, Rodney M J

    2003-01-01

    . The simulated nervous system includes just two senses - hearing and touch - and it drives a set of muscles that serve vocalisation, feeding and bladder control. These functions were chosen because of their relevance to the earliest stages of human life, and the simulation has been given the name Cyber...... of CyberChild behaviour and from the monitoring of its ability to ontogenetically acquire novel reflexes. The author has suggested that this ability is the crucial evolutionary advantage of possessing consciousness. The project is still in its very early stages, and although no suggestion of consciousness...

  5. Parental Rheumatoid Arthritis, Child Mortality and Case Fatality A Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have reported increased long term morbidity in children of parents with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we assess child mortality and case fatality in the same cohort. METHODS: All singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2008 were identified through linkage of Danish National...... did the risk of death below the ages of 5 years, 3 years, or 1 year. Below the age of 5 years, 6,106 children of parents with RA were diagnosed with respiratory diseases and 3,320 with infectious diseases. Case fatalities in children with these diseases were not significantly higher than those...

  6. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  7. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.

  8. Opportunities for prevention and intervention with young children: lessons from the Canadian incidence study of reported child abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallon Barbara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most effective way to provide support to caregivers with infants in order to promote good health, social, emotional and developmental outcomes is the subject of numerous debates in the literature. In Canada, each province adopts a different approach which range from universal to targeted programs. Nonetheless, each year a group of vulnerable infants is identified to the child welfare system with concerns about their well-being and safety. This study examines maltreatment-related investigations in Canada involving children under the age of one year to identify which factors determine service provision at the conclusion of the investigation. Methods A secondary analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect CIS-2008 (PHAC, 2010 dataset was conducted. Multivariate analyses were conducted to understand the profile of investigations involving infants (n=1,203 and which predictors were significant in the decision to transfer a case to ongoing services at the conclusion of the investigation. Logistic Regression and Classification and Regression Trees (CART were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome and predictors. Results The results suggest that there are three main sources that refer infants to the Canadian child welfare system: hospital, police, and non-professionals. Infant maltreatment-related investigations involve young caregivers who struggle with poverty, single-parenthood, drug/solvent and alcohol abuse, mental health issues, lack of social supports, and intimate partner violence. Across the three referral sources, primary caregiver risk factors are the strongest predictor of the decision to transfer a case to ongoing services. Conclusions Multivariate analyses indicate that the presence of infant concerns does not predict ongoing service provision, except when the infant is identified with positive toxicology at birth. The opportunity for early intervention and the

  9. Inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health in Vietnam: a retrospective study of survey data for 1997–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelson Henrik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vietnam has achieved considerable success in economic development, poverty reduction, and health over a relatively short period of time. However, there is concern that inequalities in health outcomes and intervention coverage are widening. This study explores if inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition changed over time in Vietnam in 1997–2006, and if inequalities were different depending on the type of stratifying variable used to measure inequalities and on the type of outcome studied. Methods Using data from four nationally representative household surveys conducted in 1997–2006, we study inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition outcomes and intervention coverage by computing concentration indices by living standards, maternal education, ethnicity, region, urban/rural residence, and sex of child. Results Inequalities in maternal, newborn and child health persisted in 1997–2006. Inequalities were largest by living standards, but not trivial by the other stratifying variables. Inequalities in health outcomes generally increased over time, while inequalities in intervention coverage generally declined. The most equitably distributed interventions were family planning, exclusive breastfeeding, and immunizations. The most inequitably distributed interventions were those requiring multiple service contacts, such as four or more antenatal care visits, and those requiring significant support from the health system, such as skilled birth attendance. Conclusions Three main policy implications emerge. First, persistent inequalities suggest the need to address financial and other access barriers, for example by subsidizing health care for the poor and ethnic minorities and by support from other sectors, for example in strengthening transportation networks. This should be complemented by careful monitoring and evaluation of current program design and

  10. Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Gupta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM, launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective: To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design: A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005–2012 and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to

  11. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  12. Child abuse and neglect as seen in General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur--a two year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, M S; George, R; Kassim, K; Begum, M; Cherian, M P; Tajudin, A K; Chandran, V; Anan, A; Reddy, R; Singh, J

    1989-06-01

    Eighty-six children diagnosed as child abuse and/or neglect were admitted to the Paediatric wards of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur during 1985 and 1986. Of these cases, 62 were of physical abuse, six of sexual abuse, one case of both physical and sexual abuse and 17 of neglect. There were 25 boys and 61 girls. Thirty-four of these children were Malays, 16 Chinese, 26 Indians, three mixed and seven illegal immigrants. Twenty-one were below the age of one year, 24 from one to four years, 25 from five to nine years and 16 were ten years and above. The abusers were mainly close members of the family. Of these children, 24 were sent back to their parents and 11 to their relatives home. Twenty-seven were taken into care by the Ministry of Social Welfare and the remaining seven children who were illegal immigrants, were deported with their parents. Only one child was successfully fostered. Eleven children were taken away from the hospital by their parents or guardians without the knowledge of the health staff. There were five deaths in the series.

  13. Childhood Anxiety Trajectories and Adolescent Disordered Eating: Findings from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Von Holle, Ann; Watson, Hunna; Gottfredson, Nisha; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present paper was to examine whether childhood anxiety trajectories predict eating psychopathology. We predicted that girls with trajectories of increasing anxiety across childhood would have significantly greater risk of disordered eating in adolescence in comparison to girls with stable or decreasing trajectories of anxiety over childhood. Method Data were collected as part of the prospective longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=450 girls). Childhood anxiety was assessed yearly (54 months through 6th grade) via maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist. Disordered eating behaviors were assessed at age 15 via adolescent self-report on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). We conducted latent growth mixture modeling to define girls’ childhood anxiety trajectories. Maternal sensitivity, maternal postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and child temperament were included as predictors of trajectory membership. Results The best fitting model included three trajectories of childhood anxiety, the low-decreasing class (22.9% of girls), the high-increasing class (35.4%), and the high-decreasing class (41.6%). Mothers with more symptoms of depression and separation anxiety had girls who were significantly more likely to belong to the high-increasing anxiety trajectory. There were no significant differences in adolescent disordered eating for girls across the three childhood anxiety trajectories. Conclusions Childhood anxiety, as captured by maternal report, may not be the most robust predictor of adolescent disordered eating and may be of limited utility for prevention programs that aim to identify children in the community at greatest risk for disordered eating. PMID:24938214

  14. An IBCLC in the Maternity Ward of a Mother and Child Hospital: A Pre- and Post-Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Chiurco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Published evidence on the impact of the integration of International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs for breastfeeding promotion is growing, but still relatively limited. Our study aims at evaluating the effects of adding an IBCLC for breastfeeding support in a mother and child hospital environment. We conducted a prospective study in the maternity ward of our maternal and child health Institute, recruiting 402 mothers of healthy term newborns soon after birth. The 18-month intervention of the IBCLC (Phase II was preceded (Phase I by data collection on breastfeeding rates and factors related to breastfeeding, both at hospital discharge and two weeks later. Data collection was replicated just before the end of the intervention (Phase III. In Phase III, a significantly higher percentage of mothers: (a received help to breastfeed, and also received correct information on breastfeeding and community support, (b started breastfeeding within two hours from delivery, (c reported a good experience with the hospital staff. Moreover, the frequency of sore and/or cracked nipples was significantly lower in Phase III. However, no difference was found in exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge or at two weeks after birth.

  15. Factors that influence vaccination decision-making by parents who visit an anthroposophical child welfare center: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Irene A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Paulussen, Theo G W; Mollema, Liesbeth; Kok, Gerjo; de Melker, Hester E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, parents have become more disparaging towards childhood vaccination. One group that is critical about the National Immunization Program (NIP) and participates less comprises parents with an anthroposophical worldview. Despite the fact that various studies have identified anthroposophists as critical parents with lower vaccination coverage, no research has been done to explore the beliefs underlying their childhood vaccination decision-making. We conducted a qualitative study using three focus groups (n = 16) of parents who visit an anthroposophical child welfare center. Our findings show that participants did not refuse all vaccinations within the Dutch NIP, but mostly refused the Mumps, Measles, and Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Vaccination decisions are influenced by participants' lifestyle, perception of health, beliefs about childhood diseases, perceptions about the risks of diseases, perceptions about vaccine effectiveness and vaccine components, and trust in institutions. Parents indicated that they felt a need for more information. Sufficient references should be provided to sources containing more information about childhood vaccination, especially about the effectiveness of vaccines and vaccine components and the risks, such as possible side effects and benefits of vaccination. This may satisfy parents' information needs and enable them to make a sufficiently informed choice whether or not to vaccinate their child.

  16. LInking EDCs in maternal Nutrition to Child health (LINC study) – protocol for prospective cohort to study early life exposure to environmental chemicals and child health

    OpenAIRE

    de Cock, Marijke; Quaak, Ilona; Sugeng, Eva J.; Legler, Juliette; van de Bor, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Background The presence of chemicals in the environment is ubiquitous. Human biomonitoring studies have shown that various chemicals can be detected in the majority of the population, including pregnant women. These compounds may pass the placenta, and reach the fetus. This early life exposure in particular may be detrimental as some chemicals may disrupt the endocrine system, which is involved in various processes during development. The LINC study is a prospective birth cohort designed to s...

  17. Child-Mother and Child-Father Play Interaction Patterns with Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…

  18. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  19. Child sexual abuse in Madurai, India: a literary review and empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthiga, R K Jaishree; Ravikumar, Roopa

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to explore the cultural and patriarchal relevance of child sexual abuse in a conservative town in India, with a special interest in understanding the current problems experienced by teenage girls in India. A questionnaire was distributed to 100 respondents who belonged to Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Thiruparangundram, Madurai. The questionnaire was developed with special reference to the female protagonist, Lily in Jaishree Misra's Secrets and Lies. The resulting article also includes an e-interview with Jaishree Misra. The researchers hypothesize that change can be envisioned when the social conscience is awakened to cruel events that happen in the Indian population. Change regarding social events must go even further to allow children to blossom and experience the joys of childhood.

  20. Child Sex Ratio and It’s Socio-Demographic Correlates: A Cross Sectional Study in an Urban Area of Eastern Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta K Shewte, Smita P Andurkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex ratio is an important social indicator to measure the extent of prevailing equity between males and females in a society. Objective: The Objective of the study was to find Child Sex Ratio (CSR in the urban area of Aurangabad, Maharashtra and socio?demographic factors affecting it. Methods: The present study is community based cross sectional study which involved house to house interview of mothers of 0-6 year children from urban area of Aurangabad. Information regarding all children born in last 6 years, their date of birth, birth order and demographic informa-tion of family was noted. Results: Overall child sex ratio of study area was 853. The highest child sex ratio was obtained for (CSR 1255 Muslim religion, (CSR 2667 when father studies up-to primary school, (CSR1778 when mother was illiterate and (CSR 1000 for class V and III socio-economic status. Least CSR 605 was obtained when the families have all females in previous birth order. Conclusion: This part of country or Maharashtra has lower CSR than national average. There are demographic factors like socio-economic status, education status of parents, religion and previous birth order, which influence CSR. There is less girl child insubsequent birth order, especially when the previous born child is female.

  1. Self-reported dietary supplement use is confirmed by biological markers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Hagve, Tor-Arne;

    2007-01-01

    Background/ Aims: A food frequency questionnaire ( FFQ) and a database for dietary supplements were developed for use in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study ( MoBa). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between reported use and biomarkers in supplement and nonsuppl......Background/ Aims: A food frequency questionnaire ( FFQ) and a database for dietary supplements were developed for use in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study ( MoBa). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between reported use and biomarkers in supplement...

  2. Maternal alcohol consumption in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa – Research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. DeRoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa is a valuable resource for the study of the effects of maternal alcohol consumption. MoBa’s strengths include a population-based sample of over 107,000 pregnancies, concurrent and retrospective assessment of maternal prenatal and postnatal alcohol consumption, and prospective follow-up for pregnancy and child outcomes. Direct questions were asked on the frequency, dose and timing of maternal alcohol consumption. Screening tools including the T-ACE and partial Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index were used to identify women at risk for drinking during pregnancy. Comprehensive information on potential confounders was collected including maternal medical history, reproductive history, smoking, and other substance use. The detailed alcohol data allow the differentiation between non-binge and binge-level drinking, important for studying different thresholds of exposure. The availability of maternal and infant DNA enables the study of genetic differences in alcohol metabolism. Besides conventional analyses, sibship studies of differentially exposed siblings can be conducted among the offspring of over 15,000 women who participated in the study for more than one pregnancy. Although there are low levels of social disadvantage in Norway (poverty increases the risk of harms from prenatal drinking, binge drinking is a common pattern of consumption and previous studies found that drinking alcohol during pregnancy is not uncommon. Here, I provide a brief review of prenatal alcohol literature and measurement issues, describe MoBa alcohol variables, and discuss how MoBa can contribute to maternal alcohol research within the context of Norway.

  3. Maternal mind-mindedness during infancy, general parenting sensitivity and observed child feeding behavior: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness, or the tendency to view the child as a mental agent, has been shown to predict sensitive and responsive parenting behavior. As yet the role of mind-mindedness has not been explored in the context of feeding interactions. This study evaluates the relations between maternal mind-mindedness at 6 months of infant age and subsequently observed maternal sensitivity and feeding behaviors with children at age 1 year. Maternal mind-mindedness was greater in mothers who had breast-fed compared to formula-fed. Controlling for breast-feeding, mind-mindedness at 6 months was correlated with observations of more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors at 1 year of age. Mind-mindedness was also associated with greater general maternal sensitivity in play and this general parenting sensitivity mediated the effect of mind-mindedness on more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors. Interventions to promote maternal tendency to consider their child's mental states may encourage more adaptive parental feeding behaviors.

  4. Individual, family, and culture level contributions to child physical abuse and neglect: A longitudinal study in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Peña Alampay, Liane

    2015-11-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,418 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers' and fathers' reports of corporal punishment and children's reports of their parents' neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment and children's perceptions of their parents' neglect were predicted by parents' belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents' perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents' progressive parenting attitudes, parents' endorsement of aggression, parents' education, children's externalizing problems, and children's internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect.

  5. Suicide of a close family member through the eyes of a child: A narrative case study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Debra; Peters, Kath; Murphy, Gillian

    2015-12-01

    A narrative case study approach was used to collect a storied account from Joseph about his recollections and experience of the completed suicide of a family member with whom he lived with at 13 years of age. Data are presented longitudinally to capture Joseph's perceptions and recollections of events leading up to, surrounding and following the suicide. Findings reveal that, as a child Joseph felt strong responsibility to keep his uncle safe and maintain his uncle's life; and perceived a lack of support for himself and his family throughout the events. Today as a young man, Joseph remains profoundly affected by this suicide and the events surrounding it, and experiences flashbacks and intrusive thoughts, though his distress remains largely invisible to others. It is important that the acute and longer term needs of children affected by suicidality and suicide are recognised. We argue that increased awareness on the part of health professionals about the ongoing grief and distress surrounding suicide survivorship can create opportunities for opportunistic assessment and review of child survivor welfare.

  6. National study of an early parenting intervention: implementation differences on parent and child outcomes: parenting program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Jan M; Berthelsen, Donna; Williams, Kate E; Abad, Vicky

    2010-12-01

    Sing & Grow is a 10-week group music therapy intervention to promote positive parenting and child development for marginalized parents of birth to 3-year-old children. This paper examined whether changes from pre to post intervention varied according to implementation site, when the intervention was taken to scale nationally. Outcomes for 850 participants were compared for the site where the program was first established against three new locations; one site where implementation processes were more favorable relative to the other two sites. Overall, the findings provided only limited support for differential outcomes by site of implementation. Participants showed significant improvements in parent-reported parenting and child outcomes from pre to post that were similar across all sites. For clinician-reported outcomes, improvements over time were generally greater in the original site and the well-supported site compared to the sites where there were more implementation difficulties. These differences were partly accounted for by differences in the characteristics of participants receiving programs in different sites and differences in the clinicians' ratings of program quality and the levels of support and training provided. However, confounding by the source of measurement requires cautious interpretation of clinician data. This study further highlights the potential for music therapy as an early parenting intervention, and the need for more rigorous evaluations in this field.

  7. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  8. Treatment of child anxiety: an exploratory study of the role of maternal anxiety and behaviours in treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; Willetts, Lucy; Murray, Lynne; Singhal, Meghna; Cooper, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common among parents of anxious children and have been found to impede child treatment outcomes, yet it is unclear whether it is parental anxiety that needs to be targeted in therapy or associated parental behaviours. Twenty-two children (6-12 years) with a current anxiety disorder and their mothers received cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) for child anxiety. In addition, of the 12 mothers who met criteria for a current anxiety disorder, 6 received CBT for their own disorder. Assessments were made of the mother-child interaction. The main findings were: (1) children did less well from treatment where their mothers had a current anxiety disorder; (2) treatment of maternal anxiety disorder did not improve child treatment outcome; and (3) maternal overinvolvement and expression of fear was associated with child treatment outcome. The results suggest that in the context of maternal anxiety disorder, child treatment outcome may be improved by specifically targeting parenting behaviours.

  9. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  10. Flip flops, dress clothes, and no coat: clothing barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers identified from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saelens Brian E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-quarters of 3-6 year-old children in the U.S. spend time in childcare; many spend most of their waking hours in these settings. Daily physical activity offers numerous health benefits, but activity levels vary widely across centers. This study was undertaken to explore reasons why physical activity levels may vary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize an unexpected finding that child-care providers cited was a key barrier to children's physical activity. Methods Nine focus groups with 49 child-care providers (55% black from 34 centers (including inner-city, suburban, Head Start and Montessori were conducted in Cincinnati, OH. Three independent raters analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Several techniques were used to increase credibility of findings, including interviews with 13 caregivers. Results Two major themes about clothing were: 1 children's clothing was a barrier to children's physical activity in child-care, and 2 clothing choices were a significant source of conflict between parents and child-care providers. Inappropriate clothing items included: no coat/hat/gloves in the wintertime, flip flops or sandals, dress/expensive clothes, jewelry, and clothes that were either too loose or too tight. Child-care providers explained that unless there were enough extra coats at the center, a single child without a coat could prevent the entire class from going outside. Caregivers suggested several reasons why parents may dress their child inappropriately, including forgetfulness, a rushed morning routine, limited income to buy clothes, a child's preference for a favorite item, and parents not understanding the importance of outdoor play. Several child-care providers favored specific policies prohibiting inappropriate clothing, as many reported limited success with verbal or written reminders to bring appropriate clothing. Conclusion Inappropriate clothing may be an important barrier to children's physical

  11. Mental health and substance abuse services to parents of children involved with child welfare: a study of racial and ethnic differences for American Indian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Anne M; Orton, Heather D; Barth, Richard P; Webb, Mary Bruce; Burns, Barbara J; Wood, Patricia A; Spicer, Paul

    2007-03-01

    American Indian (AI) parents of children involved with child welfare were compared to White, Black and Hispanic parents on mental health and substance abuse problems and access to treatment. Data came from the National Study of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of children aged 0-14 years involved with child welfare. Weighted statistics provided population estimates, and multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of caregivers receiving mental health or substance abuse services. There were significant disparities in the likelihood of receiving mental health, but not substance abuse, services. Unmet need for mental health and substance abuse treatment characterized all parents in this study. AI parents fared the worst in obtaining mental health treatment. Parents of children at home and of older children were less likely to access mental health or substance abuse treatment.

  12. One Laptop per Child and its Implications for the Process of Written Language Learning: A Case Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Oliveira Kist

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study on the reading and writing practices of six year old children engaged in the daily use of digital technology, conducted in a public school in Porto Alegre (RS/Brazil and made possible by the One Laptop per Child (OLPC project. Its aim was to investigate the practices carried out by students and the possibilities and conditions under which the computer can become a tool that enables them to enter the “literate world”. The students’ practices were examined based on three units of analysis: practices proposed by a teacher, spontaneous practices and representative cases. These practices were categorized into three areas: literacy, fluency of written language and technological fluency. The research began with a theoretical proposal that had to be modified as a result of the study, and emphasizes the importance of pedagogical proposals for children in the initial process of written language learning.

  13. Increased household financial strain, the Great Recession and child health—findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Catherine; Pearce, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence associating financial strain (FS) with poor health but most of this research has been cross-sectional and adult-focused. During the ‘Great Recession’ many UK households experienced increased FS. The primary aim of this study was to determine the impact of increased FS on child health. Methods We analysed the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of children born in the UK between 2000 and 2002. Surveys at 7 years (T1, 2008) and 11 years (T2, 2012) spanned the ‘Great Recession’. Three measures of increased FS were defined; ‘became income poor’ (self-reported household income dropped below the ‘poverty line’ between T1 and T2); ‘developed difficulty managing’ (parental report of being ‘financially comfortable’ at T1 and finding it ‘difficult to manage’ at T2); ‘felt worse off’ (parental report of feeling financially ‘worse off’ at T2 compared with T1). Poisson regression was used to estimate risk ratios (RR), adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% CIs for six child health outcomes: measured overweight/obesity, problematic behaviour as scored by parents and teachers, and parental reports of fair/poor general health, long-standing illness and bedwetting at T2 (N=13 112). In subanalyses we limited our sample to those who were above the poverty line at T2. Results Compared with those who were not financially strained at both time points, children in households which experienced increased FS were at an increased risk of all unhealthy outcomes examined. In most cases, these increased risks persisted after adjustment for confounding and when limiting the sample to those above the poverty line. Conclusions FS is associated with a range of new or continued poor child health outcomes. During times of widespread economic hardship, such as the ‘Great Recession’, measures should be taken to buffer children and their families from the impact of FS, and these should not be limited to

  14. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  15. Child labour in low- and middle-income countries and its consequences for mental health: a systematic literature review of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Sarah; Hodes, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, large numbers of children are involved in work. Whilst studies have shown that child labour may be harmful to children's physical health, little is known about child labour's effects on mental health. It is important to understand the relationship between work and mental health problems during childhood, and identify possible risk factors for poorer mental health. A systematic literature review was conducted. Published papers in any language that compared the mental health of children (mental health outcomes in seven studies. More significant associations were found between child labour and internalising problems than externalising problems. The burden of poor mental health as a result of child labour is significant given the numbers of children in work. Risk factors for poorer mental health were involvement in domestic labour, younger age, and greater intensity of work, which could be due to the potential of child labour to cause isolation, low self-esteem, and perception of an external locus of control. The risk factors suggested by this review will have implications for policy makers. Additional research is needed in low-income countries, risk factors and also into the potential psychological benefits of low levels of work.

  16. Looking Back--and Forward--at The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinich, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    The following (quite personal and idiosyncratic) review of The PSOC's first volume, published in 1945, highlights some aspects of then-current psychoanalytic thinking that have passed--or failed--the test of time. Two abstractions rise from the particulars of the volume's twenty-five chapters. First, those authors who respected the position of the founding editors--that is, that child psychoanalysis was both independent from related fields and, at the same time, dependent upon them--tend to have fared better than those who allowed their psychoanalytic theories(and sometimes personal rancor) to cloud their views of the facts on the ground. Second, many of the contributions in this first volume integrated an intrapsychic perspective with an environmental or social one. This gave the work of these authors a kind of vitality that is lost when psychoanalytic theory is used to promote adaptation and social conformity. Perhaps it is worth recalling Freud's (1900) opening to The Interpretation of Dreams: "Flectere si nequeo Superos, Acheronta movebo" (If I cannot move the heavens, I shall shake the nether regions). Freud and The PSOC's founding editors knew very well how disturbing psychoanalysis could be to the Superos, the established order. The revolutionary potential of Freud's analysis of the human condition attracted some remarkable people to the field, most of whom believed that intrapsychic and social changes are intimately related to each other. We would do well to emulate their example; only such an integration will keep psychoanalysis alive in the twenty-first century.

  17. Fertility Timing of Unmarried and Married Mothers: Evidence on Variation Across U.S. Cities from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marah A; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we examine the determinants of fertility timing of unmarried and married mothers using a rich new birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, drawn from 20 medium and large U.S. cities. We find considerable variation in the time to next birth among comparable mothers who live in different cities. Some of this variation is explained by variation in labor markets, housing costs and availability, and welfare policies. City variation is particularly important for unmarried women who already have two or more children, whose fertility is more sensitive to these contextual variables than is the fertility of married women, or unmarried women with just one child.

  18. Perception and Lexicon Labeling Ability on a Child with Language Delay Diagnosed As Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Psycholinguistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the semantics acquisition of a child with language delay diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder (ASD. The research problem is on how the child acquired the ability to comprehend meaning. It aims at answering the questions on how the child identified lexical meanings and how he labeled targeted lexicons of his first language. The approach employed in this research is descriptive qualitative to get adequate explanation on a specific language phenomenon, namely semantics acquisition. Its design is case study with the type neo-ethnographic. As the data collection method, it uses participant observation of longitudinal study considering that the research subject has familial relation with the researcher. The data analysis shows that the semantic acquisition of the research subject has complexity in vocabulary enrichment. The research subject often performs echolalic speech when he is asked to identify or label certain object given. The typical idiosyncratic speech is shown by the unique feature of limited syllable and prosody. In general, his ability to identify lexical meanings is far exceeding his ability to label objects. He also has sensitivity to perceive the non-verbal symbol performed by the people he knows well. The use of verbal language supported by non-verbal language facilitates his perception. He finds it difficult to comprehend the lexicons having similar sound as he assumes that one lexicon represents one object which typically belongs to concrete object. In addition, the ability of the research subject in labeling objects cannot be developed easily because of his difficulty in expressing ideas through words. To pronounce the words correctly, he shows high anxiety by lowering down his speech. In selecting the lexicon he also finds it hard to use pronoun, to label homonyms and to apply both polysemy and hyponym. Accordingly, he tends to communicate only to fulfill his needs by asking things, asking the

  19. Meet the good child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Malene; Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    to be appropriate child and parental behavior. The study takes a practice theoretical perspective, building on previous research on family consumption, and draws empirically on 35 interviews with 5–6 year-olds and 13 family interviews. Findings show that the children recognize the position of ‘the good child......’ and most often prefer to take on this position, which is confirmed by their parents. The children can describe how ‘the good child’—in their eyes—should behave. They prefer consensus and not being embarrassing or embarrassed. The study concludes that the children are strongly immersed in social norms...... and family practices, and that the Danish national/cultural context probably reinforces these children as independent consumers, who are well aware of the requirements of the consumer role. Childing practices are a standard with know-how and rules that these children argue they live by—at least most...

  20. Predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Izabel Cristina Paez; Maria Lucia Tiellet Nunes; Vânia Naomi Hirakata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This empirical study was based on the analysis of the results of a study about dropout predictors among in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The objectives were to characterize the sample of children discharged from psychoanalytic psychotherapy, examine the association between sociodemographic/ clinical variables and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy discharge, and determine predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Method: This quantitative, descriptive a...

  1. Digital Game Violence and Direct Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Roles of Sex, Age, and Parent-Child Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…

  2. Palliative care in the home: a case study of secondary histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Karabová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the medical, psychological, and social challenges encountered during home-based, family-centred palliative care of a 3-year-old female with secondary histiocytic sarcoma diagnosed during treatment for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Histiocytic sarcoma is an exceedingly rare cancer in adults, but even less frequent and highly aggressive when presenting as a secondary cancer in children. Comprehensive, multidisciplinary paediatric hospice care services are not widely available across Slovakia,thus limiting the number of patients and families offered such highly specialized end-of-life care. This case study illustrates the primary benefits for the child and family of such a program as well as the impact on the medical and nursing professionals working in the fi eld of paediatric haematology-oncology.

  3. ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools Retrospective Version (ICAST-R): Delphi Study and Field Testing in Seven Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Andreva-Miller, Inna; Choo, Wan Yuen; Dunne, Simon K.; Gerbaka, Bernard; Isaeva, Oksana; Jain, Dipty; Kasim, Mohd Sham; Macfarlane, Bonnie; Mamyrova, Nurgul; Ramirez, Clemencia; Volkova, Elena; Youssef, Randa

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To gain consensus among an ethnically and linguistically diverse group of international child protection experts on the structure and content of a new survey tool for retrospective measurement of child abuse, and to determine the performance of the instrument through an international field trial with young adults. Methods: The…

  4. Evocative gene–environment correlation in the mother–child relationship: A twin study of interpersonal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Kelly L. Klump; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The behavior genetic literature suggests that genetically influenced characteristics of the child elicit specific behaviors from the parent. However, little is known about the processes by which genetically influenced child characteristics evoke parental responses. Interpersonal theory provides a useful framework for identifying reciprocal behavioral processes between children and mothers. The theory posits that, at any given moment, interpersonal behavior varies along the orthogonal dimensio...

  5. Child Versus Family Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Clinically Anxious Youth : An Efficacy and Partial Effectiveness Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodden, Denise H. M.; Bogels, Susan M.; Nauta, Maaike H.; De Haan, Else; Ringrose, Jaap; Appelboom, Carla; Brinkman, Andries G.; Appelboom-Geerts, Karen C. M. M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy and partial effectiveness of child-focused versus family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for clinically anxious youths was evaluated, in particular in relation to parental anxiety disorders and child's age. Method: Clinically referred children with anxiety disorder

  6. Child versus Family Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Clinically Anxious Youth: An Efficacy and Partial Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Denise H. M.; Bogels, Susan M.; Nauta, Maaike H.; De Hann, Else; Ringrose, Jaap; Appelboom, Carla; Brinkman, Andries G.; Appelboom-Geerts, Karen C. M. M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Child-focused and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for 128 children with clinical anxiety disorders and their parents were compared in terms of efficacy and partial effectiveness. Results indicate that 53% of the children under the child CBT became free of anxiety disorders at posttreamtent compared to only 28% under family CBT.…

  7. The relation between child feeding problems as measured by parental report and mealtime behavior observation : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Marijn; Bruinsma, Eke; Hauser, M. Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Because feeding problems have clear negative consequences for both child and caretakers, early diagnosis and intervention are important. Parent-report questionnaires can contribute to early identification, because they are efficient and typically offer a 'holistic' perspective of the child's eating

  8. A Study of Child Care Professionals' Salaries, Benefits, and Working Conditions: Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community Child Care Council of Sonoma County, Santa Rosa, CA.

    Surveys were made of the salaries, benefits, and working conditions of child care professionals in Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma Counties. The centers sampled operated under a variety of auspices. Centers included nonprofit (without subsidized child care spaces), proprietary, public, and subsidized organizations. The survey instrument…

  9. Identifying and Evaluating Teachers' Knowledge in Relation to Child Abuse and Neglect: A Qualitative Study with Australian Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…

  10. The Use of Anatomical Dolls as a Demonstration Aid in Child Sexual Abuse Interviews: A Study of Forensic Interviewers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavka, Heather R.; Olinger, Sara D.; Lashley, Jodi L.

    2010-01-01

    Given that most cases of child sexual abuse lack external corroborating evidence, children's verbal accounts of their experiences are of paramount importance to investigators. Forensic interviewers are charged with interviewing child victims and oftentimes use anatomical dolls. Yet, research on dolls has not caught up to practice in the field.…

  11. Child Versus Family Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Clinically Anxious Youth: An Efficacy and Partial Effectiveness Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodden, D.H.M.; Bögels, S.M.; Nauta, M.H.; Haan, E. de; Ringrose, J.; Appelboom, C.; Brinkman, A.G.; Appelboom-Geerts, K.C.M.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy and partial effectiveness of child-focused versus family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for clinically anxious youths was evaluated, in particular in relation to parental anxiety disorders and child's age. Method: Clinically referred children with anxiety disorder

  12. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Tami L.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  13. Multidimensional child deprivation in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefzadeh Faal Daghati, Sepideh; Mideros-Mora, Andrés; De Neubourg, Chris; Minujin, Alberto; Nandy, Shailen

    2012-01-01

    The chapter analyses children's multidimensional deprivation in Iran in 2009 and explores inequalities in different regions. The study focused on outcome indicators, with the level of analysis focusing on the individual child as well as the household. A child rights approach is applied to define dim

  14. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joreintje D Mackenbach

    Full Text Available Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.

  15. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Ringoot, Ank P; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Jansen, Pauline W; Tiemeier, Henning W

    2014-01-01

    Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.

  16. A STUDY TO ASSESS THE CHILD LABOUR PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY IN A POPULATION WORKING IN THE VEGETABLE AND FRUIT MARKETS OF HYDERABAD, A.P. DURING 2012-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintamala Koteswaramma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Every child is a supremely important asset of the nation because future welfare of nation and society is entirely determined on how its children grow and develop. But child labour is the one which deprives the children all means. The markets are those who employ the children without any facilities. So far study was conducted to know the problems of these child labourers. METHODS & MATERIALS The present study was an analytical study done during 2012-2013, among the working children at vegetable and fruit markets of Greater Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh with sample size of 200 from such major markets of 12. Selection of markets and study subjects were done by simple random sampling method. And data was gathered with pre-designed and pilot tested tool by conducting a medical camp in a weekday, in the market premises after taking the permission from the market yard chairman and consent of the child or parent to participate in the study. We gave medical treatment and also made suitable referrals if required. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Present study shows the child labour prevalence rate as 22.79%. And it was high among male children. Gender discrimination was seen in school dropout rate and never attending school rate, which are the significant causes in female child to become a labourer. Scheduled caste, Scheduled tribes and Muslim children are more prone to child labour. Poverty was the leading cause of child labour in both the age groups (96.1% followed by illiteracy, ignorance and bad habits of the parent(s. RECOMMENDATIONS Strict implementation of the child trafficking and child labour prevention act by labour department along with external agencies’ supervision in urgent need. Along child welfare, family and female education and empowerment activities, below poverty line families’ income generation schemes can reduce child labour.

  17. Study protocol of a parent-focused child feeding and dietary intake intervention: the feeding healthy food to kids randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncanson Kerith

    2012-07-01

    . Discussion This paper will add to existing research examining child feeding practices and dietary intake of young children, by specifically focusing on the efficacy of an RCT that has the potential to be implemented at a population level. The correlation of the RCT outcomes with parents’ perceptions about child feeding practices and children’s dietary intake of their children in a subsequent qualitative study will further contribute to this emerging area of research. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trials Registration Number: ACTRN12609000356268

  18. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O'Bleness, Jessica J

    2014-02-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of their impact. We examined the early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children's affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in the Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and the Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in the Family Study and maternal responsiveness in the Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps wherein children believed they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationships moderated the future developmental trajectory: diminished tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in the Family Study indicated that the links between diminished tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by stronger discipline pressure from parents. By indirectly influencing future developmental sequelae, early relationships may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes.

  19. A questionnaire study on attitudes toward birth and child-rearing of university students in Japan, China, and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liling; Kato, Yutaka; Shishido, Keisuke; Doi, Hideko; Jin, Haeng mi; Wang, Jin gang; Ikezawa, Junko; Awaya, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the attitudes of young Japanese, Chinese, and South Koreans toward birth and child-rearing. The survey targeted four-year university students (n=1,668) who responded to an anonymous survey using self-report questionnaires between December 2012 and April 2013. The collection rates were 72.5%, 94.7%, and 96.5% for the Japanese, Chinese, and South Korean students, respectively. Correlations among the respondents' attributes, medical and scientific literacy levels, and views of preferred qualities of children were analyzed using chi-square test, supplemented by residual analysis (significance level set at p<0.05). Participants were asked whether they were willing to use the following methods for obtaining preferred qualities in their children:(1) choosing a spouse (43.2%, 72.6%, and 85.1% of the Japanese, Chinese, and South Koreans, respectively, agreed);(2) using a sperm bank (cryobank) (5.8%, 60.1%, and 81.7% of the Japanese, Chines, and South Koreans, respectively, agreed);and (3) using an egg cell bank (ova bank or cryobank) (5.3%, 47.2%, and 70.3% of the Japanese, Chinese, and South Koreans, respectively, agreed). The proportion of affirmative responses (indicating "eugenic inclination") to these statements was significantly higher among the Chinese and South Korean participants than their Japanese counterparts (p<0.001). Significant differences were also found in the attitudes of the 3 groups toward methods for obtaining the preferred qualities for their children:prenatal diagnosis, pre-implantation diagnosis, the environment during pregnancy, and child-rearing.

  20. Multidisciplinary prospective study of mother-to-child chikungunya virus infections on the island of La Reunion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gérardin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An outbreak of chikungunya virus affected over one-third of the population of La Réunion Island between March 2005 and December 2006. In June 2005, we identified the first case of mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission at the Groupe Hospitalier Sud-Réunion level-3 maternity department. The goal of this prospective study was to characterize the epidemiological, clinical, biological, and radiological features and outcomes of all the cases of vertically transmitted chikungunya infections recorded at our institution during this outbreak. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Over 22 mo, 7,504 women delivered 7,629 viable neonates; 678 (9.0% of these parturient women were infected (positive RT-PCR or IgM serology during antepartum, and 61 (0.8% in pre- or intrapartum. With the exception of three early fetal deaths, vertical transmission was exclusively observed in near-term deliveries (median duration of gestation: 38 wk, range 35-40 wk in the context of intrapartum viremia (19 cases of vertical transmission out of 39 women with intrapartum viremia, prevalence rate 0.25%, vertical transmission rate 48.7%. Cesarean section had no protective effect on transmission. All infected neonates were asymptomatic at birth, and median onset of neonatal disease was 4 d (range 3-7 d. Pain, prostration, and fever were present in 100% of cases and thrombocytopenia in 89%. Severe illness was observed in ten cases (52.6% and mainly consisted of encephalopathy (n = 9; 90%. These nine children had pathologic MRI findings (brain swelling, n = 9; cerebral hemorrhages, n = 2, and four evolved towards persistent disabilities. CONCLUSIONS: Mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission is frequent in the context of intrapartum maternal viremia, and often leads to severe neonatal infection. Chikungunya represents a substantial risk for neonates born to viremic parturients that should be taken into account by clinicians and public health authorities in the event of a

  1. Behavioral counseling to prevent childhood obesity – study protocol of a pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustila Taina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The control group was recruited among families who visited the same clinics one year earlier. Eligibility criteria was mother at risk for gestational diabetes: body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2, macrosomic newborn in any previous pregnancy, immediate family history of diabetes and/or age ≥ 40 years. All maternity clinics in town involved in recruitment. The gestational intervention consisted of individual counseling on diet and physical activity by a public health nurse, and of two group counseling sessions. Intervention continues until offspring’s age of five years. An option to participate a group counseling at child’s age 1 to 2 years was offered. The intervention includes advice on healthy diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleeping pattern. The main outcome measure is offspring BMI z-score and its changes by the age of six years. Discussion Early childhood is a critical time period for prevention of obesity. Pragmatic trials targeting this period are necessary in order to find effective obesity prevention programs feasible in normal health care practice. Trial registration Clinical Trials gov NCT00970710

  2. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  3. Patterns of brain activation when mothers view their own child and dog: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke E Stoeckel

    Full Text Available Neural substrates underlying the human-pet relationship are largely unknown. We examined fMRI brain activation patterns as mothers viewed images of their own child and dog and an unfamiliar child and dog. There was a common network of brain regions involved in emotion, reward, affiliation, visual processing and social cognition when mothers viewed images of both their child and dog. Viewing images of their child resulted in brain activity in the midbrain (ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra involved in reward/affiliation, while a more posterior cortical brain activation pattern involving fusiform gyrus (visual processing of faces and social cognition characterized a mother's response to her dog. Mothers also rated images of their child and dog as eliciting similar levels of excitement (arousal and pleasantness (valence, although the difference in the own vs. unfamiliar child comparison was larger than the own vs. unfamiliar dog comparison for arousal. Valence ratings of their dog were also positively correlated with ratings of the attachment to their dog. Although there are similarities in the perceived emotional experience and brain function associated with the mother-child and mother-dog bond, there are also key differences that may reflect variance in the evolutionary course and function of these relationships.

  4. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  5. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  6. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .

  7. Predicting Family Poverty and Other Disadvantaged Conditions for Child Rearing from Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

    2011-01-01

    This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…

  8. Child Behavior Check List 1 1/2-5 as a Tool to Identify Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narzisi, Antonio; Calderoni, Sara; Maestro, Sandra; Calugi, Simona; Mottes, Emanuela; Muratori, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Tools to identify toddlers with autism in clinical settings have been recently developed. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the Child Behavior Check List 1 1/2-5 (CBCL 1 1/2-5) in the detection of toddlers subsequently diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), ages 18-36 months. The CBCL of 47 children with ASD were…

  9. Prognosis and Continuity of Child Mental Health Problems from Preschool to Primary School: Results of a Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Muller, Jorg M.; Furniss, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    In a four-year longitudinal study, changes in and continuity of behavioral and emotional problems were examined in 814 subjects from kindergarten to primary school. Mental health problems were assessed by means of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The distribution of the CBCL broadband groups revealed a high level of continuity of internalizing…

  10. What do parents need to enhance participation of their school-aged child with a physical disability? A cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piskur, B; Beurskens, AJHM; Jongmans, MJ; Ketelaar, M; Smeets, RJEM

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim was to provide an overview of the number, domains and priority of needs as expressed by parents in supporting participation of their school-aged child with a physical disability. Additionally, this study investigated whether the number of needs within each domain is related to the

  11. Syllabus Outline on Child Care for Day Care Teachers at Family Life Teacher Training Centre in Somalia. African Studies in Curriculum Development and Evaluation No. 103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mumina M.

    Five day care centers in Mogadiscio, the capital city of Somalia, were studied to (1) identify problems encountered in teaching a course in child care; (2) observe teaching methods and assess their effectiveness; (3) ascertain reasons for the lack of preservice training for day care teachers; and (4) develop a new syllabus for a course in child…

  12. What do parents need to enhance participation of their school-aged child with a physical disability? : A cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piškur, B; Beurskens, A J H M; Jongmans, M J; Ketelaar, M; Smeets, R J E M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to provide an overview of the number, domains and priority of needs as expressed by parents in supporting participation of their school-aged child with a physical disability. Additionally, this study investigated whether the number of needs within each domain is related to th

  13. Evander Childs High School, Cooperative Work-Study Program for Bilingual Students. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1982-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Jose Luis; Sica, Michael

    In its first year, the Cooperative Work-Study Program for Bilingual Students offered full and partial programs of bilingual instruction and career exploration, as well as supportive services, to 160 students at Evander Childs High School, Bronx, New York. Full program students spoke Spanish at home and in the community; partial program…

  14. Child Development Instructors' and Undergraduates' Perspectives and Experiences in Online Education through Second Culture Acquisition and Cognitive Load Lenses: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quong, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The educational landscape of higher education is shifting to include more online education courses. This shift has produced successes and struggles for instructors and undergraduates. The purpose of this study was to explore child development instructors' and undergraduates' perspectives and experiences in online education through the…

  15. A Comparative Study of the Child Bereavement and Loss Responses and Needs of Schools in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Anne; Holland, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of schools' responses to child bereavement in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland. In order to gain an insight and compare how schools in both geographical areas respond to and manage bereavement, the questionnaire "Loss in schools" was selected as an appropriate tool. It…

  16. How a Young Child Learns How to Take Part in Mealtimes in a Japanese Day-Care Center: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This research is a longitudinal, ethnographic study that focuses on mealtimes with one boy from 9 to 78 months of age in a day-care center in Japan. It looks at routine interactions between a child, his nursery teachers, and the environment, which is a shared and mutually available communicative space between participants in collaboration. The aim…

  17. "Tengo Que Habla Español. Yo No Entiendo Ingles!": A Qualitative Case Study on a Bilingual Child with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Roberti, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Language differences in children with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) often lead professionals to believe that children with ASC cannot or should not become bilingual, thus advising parents with a child with ASC raised in a bilingual household to adhere to English only. Emerging studies, however, attest that children with ASC can become…

  18. Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse--A Qualitative Interview Study with Representatives of the Socio-Legal System in Urban Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisanga, Felix; Mbwambo, Jessie; Hogan, Norah; Nystrom, Lennarth; Emmelin, Maria; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews, this study explored perceptions and experiences of key players handling child sexual offense cases in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The informants included public police investigators, magistrates, legal workers, and social workers working with nongovernmental organizations. The interviews were recorded, transcribed…

  19. Child mortality from solid-fuel use in India: a nationally-representative case-control study - article no. 491

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassani, D.G.; Jha, P.; Dhingra, N.; Kumar, R. [St. Michaels Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-08-17

    Most households in low and middle income countries, including in India, use solid fuels (coal/coke/lignite, firewood, dung, and crop residue) for cooking and heating. Such fuels increase child mortality, chiefly from acute respiratory infection. There are, however, few direct estimates of the impact of solid fuel on child mortality in India. Methods: We compared household solid fuel use in 1998 between 6790 child deaths, from all causes, in the previous year and 609 601 living children living in 1.1 million nationally-representative homes in India. Analyses were stratified by child's gender, age (neonatal, post-neonatal, 1-4 years) and colder versus warmer states. We also examined the association of solid fuel to non-fatal pneumonias. Solid fuel use was very common (87% in households with child deaths and 77% in households with living children). After adjustment for demographic factors and living conditions, solid-fuel use significantly increase child deaths at ages 1-4 (prevalence ratio (PR) boys: 1.30, 95%CI 1.08-1.56; girls: 1.33, 95%CI 1.12-1.58). More girls than boys died from exposure to solid fuels. Solid fuel use was also associated with non-fatal pneumonia (boys: PR 1.54 95%CI 1.01-2.35; girls: PR 1.94 95%CI 1.13-3.33). Child mortality risks, from all causes, due to solid fuel exposure were lower than previously, but as exposure was common solid, fuel caused 6% of all deaths at ages 0-4, 20% of deaths at ages 1-4 or 128 000 child deaths in India in 2004. Solid fuel use has declined only modestly in the last decade. Aside from reducing exposure, complementary strategies such as immunization and treatment could also reduce child mortality from acute respiratory infections.

  20. Child Care Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…

  1. A multi-disciplinary education process related to the discharging of children from hospital when the child has been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallström Inger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes is one of the most frequently diagnosed long-term endocrine disorders found in children and the incidences of this diseased is still increasing. In Sweden the routines are, according to national guidelines, when the child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, the child and its family remains at the hospital for about two weeks. There is limited knowledge about how a diabetes team handles a child and its family from admission to discharge, therefore the purpose of this study was to seek a deeper understanding of how the diabetes team's parent/child education process works, from admission to discharge, among families with a child newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Methods Qualitative data collection was used. Four focus-group interviews, with a sample of three diabetes teams from different paediatric hospitals in the south western part of Sweden, were conducted and the data recorded on tape and then analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The results indicate that achieving a status of self-care on the part of the patient is the goal of the diabetes education programme. Part of the programme is aimed at guiding the child and its parents towards self-help through the means of providing them with knowledge of the disease and its treatment to enable the whole family to understand the need for cooperation in the process. To do this requires an understanding, by the diabetes team, of the individualities of the family in order to gain an overall picture. Conclusion The results of this study show that the diabetes education programme is specifically designed for each family using the internationally recommended clinical practice guidelines with its specific aims and objectives. Achieving the families' willingness to assist in the self-care of the child care is the goal of the parent education process. To achieve this, the paediatric diabetes specialist nurse and the diabetes

  2. Childhood caries as influenced by maternal and child characteristics in pre-school children of Kerala-an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Retnakumari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The most common chronic disease of childhood is early childhood caries which is five times more prevalent than asthma and seven times higher than that of allergic rhinitis. Most children do not receive dental care until they are three years old, yet by the time more than thirty percent of children from lower socioeconomic groups already have caries. To determine the prevalence and severity of early childhood caries among pre-school children, to describe the child characteristics associated with the development of early childhood caries and to find the association of early childhood caries and maternal risk factors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out among children attending the immunization clinic of Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, Medical College, Trivandrum and children attending the randomly selected Anganwadies and Day care centres in Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala, wherein there are migrants from all over the State. A total of 350 children aged 12-36 months and their mothers were studied. The mother was first interviewed by a structured questionnaire; then the child′s and mothers clinical examination was carried out covering caries experience and oral hygiene status. Results: Among 350 children studied the prevalence of dental caries in this study population was found to be 50.6 %( 177. Statistically significant associations were found between the severity of decay and the child′s age(P<0.001, female gender(P<0.05,low socioeconomic status (P<0.05, feeding frequency (P<0.05, type of feeding(P<0.01, fell asleep with nipple in mouth (P<0.05, duration of breast feeding(P<0.001, consumption of cariogenic type of snacks(P<0.01, age of commencement of tooth brushing(P<0.05, brushing frequency(P<0.05, oral hygiene status of child(P<0.001, DMFS scores of mothers (P<0.001, and oral hygiene status of mother (P<0.001.

  3. Maternal fatty acid intake and fetal growth: evidence for an association in overweight women. The 'EDEN mother-child' cohort (study of pre- and early postnatal determinants of the child's development and health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillet, Peggy; Forhan, Anne; De Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Thiébaugeorges, Olivier; Goua, Valérie; Magnin, Guillaume; Schweitzer, Michel; Kaminski, Monique; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies suggest a benefit of seafood and n-3 fatty acid intake on fetal growth and infant development. The objective was to study the association between fatty acid intake and fetal growth in pregnant French women. Pregnant women included in the EDEN mother-child cohort study completed FFQ on their usual diet: (1) in the year before pregnancy and (2) during the last 3 months of pregnancy (n 1439). Conversion into nutrient intakes was performed using data on portion size and a French food composition table. Associations between maternal fatty acid intakes and several neonatal anthropometric measurements were studied using linear regressions adjusted for centre, mother's age, smoking habits, height, parity, gestational age and newborn's sex. Due to significant interaction, analyses were stratified according to maternal pre-pregnancy overweight status. Neither total lipid nor SFA, MUFA or PUFA intake was significantly associated with newborn size. In overweight women only (n 366), a high pre-pregnancy n-3 fatty acid intake (% PUFA) was positively associated with the newborn's birth weight (P=0.01), head, arm and wrist circumferences and sum of skinfolds (Pwomen. Follow-up of the children may help determine whether this has beneficial consequences for the child's health and development.

  4. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Simona; Emer, Alessandra; Martini, Laura; Rigo, Paola; Pruner, Sonia; Venuti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  5. Foundations of Child Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  6. Child abuse and neglect: relations to adolescent binge drinking in the national longitudinal study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent binge drinking. Given that many victimized children have been maltreated in multiple ways, we examine the effects of co-occurrence of multiple types of maltreatment on adolescent binge drinking. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=12,748). Adolescent binge drinking was defined as five or more drinks in a row at least 2-3 times per month in the past year. Among those reporting any maltreatment, 12.4% reported binge drinking compared to 9.9% among those reporting no maltreatment. Logistic regression models found that child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for adolescent binge drinking controlling for parental alcoholism. In particular, all types of or combinations of types of maltreatment were strongly associated with adolescent binge drinking, controlling for age, gender, race, parental alcoholism and monitoring. Research examining the effect of childhood maltreatment on later alcohol abuse needs to recognize the clustering effects of multiple types of childhood maltreatment on alcohol problems.

  7. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C

    2015-08-01

    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category-property, person, and society-provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed.

  8. Perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and validated preeclampsia among nulliparous women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Anne P; Engel, Stephanie M; Richardson, David B; Baird, Donna D; Haug, Line S; Stuebe, Alison M; Klungsøyr, Kari; Harmon, Quaker; Becher, Georg; Thomsen, Cathrine; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Eggesbø, Merete; Hoppin, Jane A; Travlos, Gregory S; Wilson, Ralph E; Trogstad, Lill I; Magnus, Per; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2014-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and human exposure to these substances may be related to preeclampsia, a common pregnancy complication. Previous studies have found serum concentrations of PFAS to be positively associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia in a population with high levels of exposure to perfluorooctanoate. Whether this association exists among pregnant women with background levels of PFAS exposure is unknown. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, we carried out a study of nulliparous pregnant women enrolled in 2003-2007 (466 cases, 510 noncases) to estimate associations between PFAS concentrations and an independently validated diagnosis of preeclampsia. We measured levels of 9 PFAS in maternal plasma extracted midpregnancy; statistical analyses were restricted to 7 PFAS that were quantifiable in more than 50% of samples. In proportional hazards models adjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), educational level, and smoking status, we observed no strongly positive associations between PFAS levels and preeclampsia. We found an inverse association between preeclampsia and the highest quartile of perfluoroundecanoic acid concentration relative to the lowest quartile (hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.81). Overall, our findings do not support an increased risk of preeclampsia among nulliparous Norwegian women with background levels of PFAS exposure.

  9. Faster Transition to the Second Child in late 20th Century Finland: A Study of Birth Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg, Venla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Birth intervals are known to influence child and parental health and wellbeing, yet studies on the recent development of birth intervals in contemporary developed societies are scarce. We used individual-level representative register data from Finland (N=26,120; 54% women to study the first interbirth interval of singleton births in cohorts born in 1955, 1960, 1965, 1970, and 1975. In women, the average interbirth interval has shortened by 7.8 months and in men by 6.2 months between the cohorts of 1955 and 1975. A higher age at first birth was associated with shorter birth intervals (in women, b = -1.68, p<.001; in men, b = -1.77, p<.001 months per year. Educational level moderated the effect of age at first on the first birth interval in both sexes. Due to rising ages at first birth in developed societies and the manifold ramifications of shorter birth intervals, this topic deserves more scholarly attention and studies from other countries.

  10. Exposure to cows is not associated with diarrhoea or impaired child growth in rural Odisha, India: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W-P; Boisson, S; Routray, P; Bell, M; Cameron, M; Torondel, B; Clasen, T

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to animal livestock has been linked to zoonotic transmission, especially of gastrointestinal pathogens. Exposure to animals may contribute to chronic asymptomatic intestinal infection, environmental enteropathy and child under-nutrition in low-income settings. We conducted a cohort study to explore the effect of exposure to cows on growth and endemic diarrhoea in children aged <5 years in a rural, low-income setting in the Indian state of Odisha. The study enrolled 1992 households with 2739 children. Height measurements were available for 824 children. Exposure to cows was measured as (1) the presence of a cowshed within or outside the compound, (2) the number of cows owned by a household, and (3) the number of cowsheds located within 50 m of a household. In a sub-study of 518 households, fly traps were used to count the number of synanthropic flies that may act as vectors for gastrointestinal pathogens. We found no evidence that environmental exposure to cows contributes to growth deficiency in children in rural India, neither directly by affecting growth, nor indirectly by increasing the risk of diarrhoea. We found no strong evidence that the presence of a cowshed increased the number synanthropic flies in households.

  11. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and language delay at three years of age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population.

  12. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronfani

    Full Text Available The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES, home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months.The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III. Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale, with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables.Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found.Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development.

  13. The relationship between intimate partner violence and maternal practices to correct child behavior: a study on women in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarne Jansson; Stephen Lawoko; Koustuv Dalal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: This paper scrutinizes the association between maternal practices to correct child behavior and the mothers' exposure to and attitudes towards intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods: Nationally representative data comprising 14 016 married women were retrieved from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey, 2005. Data on practices used to correct child behavior, exposure to IPV, attitudes towards IPV were our primary interest. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test ...

  14. When resources get sparse: a longitudinal, qualitative study of emotions, coping and resource-creation when parenting a young child with severe disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Andersen, John Sahl; Skov, Liselotte

    2011-03-01

    Parents who realize that their newborn child is severely disabled often experience severe physical and emotional stress. Parental well-being is essential for the care-taking of the child. It is yet not known why some cope well and others do not. The aim of this study was to explore how parents coped with parenting a disabled child and how they maintained their energy and personal resources. We explored parents' experiences, coping and resources over a two-year period after their child was diagnosed with a severely disabling condition using a qualitative, longitudinal approach. Findings were interpreted in a theoretical framework of Lazarus and Folkman's studies on coping and Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, as well as theories of positive illusions and benefit finding during severe adversity. We found that parents continually created and sustained their personal resources through positive cognitive reappraisals of their circumstances, the consequences of those circumstances and their coping possibilities. Nine main coping strategies were identified constituting transformative pathways in resource-creation. A theory of resource-creation is proposed as an addition to the current understanding of coping and the role of positive emotions. Coping and resources were found to be closely interrelated and portals of intervention are discussed.

  15. A prospective-longitudinal study on the association of anxiety disorders prior to pregnancy and pregnancy- and child-related fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Julia; Asselmann, Eva; Einsle, Franziska; Strehle, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relation between anxiety disorders prior to pregnancy and specific pregnancy- and child-related fears during pregnancy and after delivery. 306 expectant mothers were interviewed regarding anxiety (and depressive) disorders prior to pregnancy and pregnancy- and child-related fears (e.g. fear of labor pain, fear of infant injury) using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V). Pregnancy- and child-related fears were particularly pronounced in women with multiple anxiety disorders and women with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy. Further analyses revealed associations between particular anxiety disorders and specific pregnancy- and child-related fears. Results remained stable when considering potential confounders such as maternal age, education, marital status, parity, prior abortion and preterm delivery or low birth weight. Our study suggests that especially women with multiple anxiety and/or comorbid depressive disorders may benefit from early targeted interventions to prevent an escalation of anxiety and fears over the peripartum period.

  16. Design of the FRESH study: A randomized controlled trial of a parent-only and parent-child family-based treatment for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Braden, Abby; Douglas, Jennifer M; Rhee, Kyung E; Strong, David; Rock, Cheryl L; Wilfley, Denise E; Epstein, Leonard; Crow, Scott

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 1 out of 3 children in the United States is overweight or obese. Family-based treatment (FBT) is considered the gold-standard treatment for childhood obesity, but FBT is both staff and cost intensive. Therefore, we developed the FRESH (Family, Responsibility, Education, Support, & Health) study to evaluate the effectiveness of intervening with parents, without child involvement, to facilitate and improve the child's weight status. Targeting parents directly in the treatment of childhood obesity could be a promising approach that is developmentally appropriate for grade-school age children, highly scalable, and may be more cost effective to administer. The current paper describes the FRESH study which was designed to compare the effectiveness of parent-based therapy for pediatric obesity (PBT) to a parent and child (FBT) program for childhood obesity. We assessed weight, diet, physical activity, and parenting, as well as cost-effectiveness, at baseline, post-treatment, and at 6- and 18-month follow-ups. Currently, all participants have been recruited and completed assessment visits, and the initial stages of data analysis are underway. Ultimately, by evaluating a PBT model, we hope to optimize available child obesity treatments and improve their translation into clinical settings.

  17. Relationships between academic performance, SES school type and perceptual-motor skills in first grade South African learners: NW-CHILD study

    OpenAIRE

    Pienaar, A.E.; Barhorst, R.; Twisk, J. W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Perceptual-motor skills contribute to a variety of basic learning skills associated with normal academic success. This study aimed to determine the relationship between academic performance and perceptual-motor skills in first grade South African learners and whether low SES (socio-economic status) school type plays a role in such a relationship. Methods This cross-sectional study of the baseline measurements of the NW-CHILD longitudinal study included a stratified rando...

  18. A Profile Approach to Child Care Quality, Quantity, and Type of Setting: Parent Selection of Infant Child Care Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Kim, Se-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Building on prior variable-oriented research which demonstrates the independence of the associations of child care quality, quantity, and type of setting with family factors and child outcomes, the current study identifies four profiles of child care dimensions from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Profiles accounted for…

  19. Response inhibition deficits in externalizing child psychiatric disorders: An ERP-study with the Stop-task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hartmut

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that impaired motor response inhibition may be common to several externalizing child psychiatric disorders, although it has been proposed to be the core-deficit in AD/HD. Since similar overt behaviour may be accompanied by different covert brain activity, the aim of this study was to investigate both brain-electric-activity and performance measures in three groups of children with externalizing child psychiatric disorders and a group of normal controls. Methods A Stop-task was used to measure specific aspects of response inhibition in 10 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD, 8 children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD, 11 children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD and 11 normal controls. All children were between 8 and 14 years old. Event-related potentials and behavioural responses were recorded. An initial go-signal related microstate, a subsequent Stop-signal related N200, and performance measures were analyzed using ANCOVA with age as covariate. Results Groups did not differ in accuracy or reaction time to the Go-stimuli. However, all clinical groups displayed reduced map strength in a microstate related to initial processing of the Go-stimulus compared to normal controls, whereas topography did not differ. Concerning motor response inhibition, the AD/HD-only and the ODD/CD-only groups displayed slower Stop-signal reaction times (SSRT and Stop-failure reaction time compared to normal controls. In children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD, Stop-failure reaction-time was longer than in controls, but their SSRT was not slowed. Moreover, SSRT in AD/HD+ODD/CD was faster than in AD/HD-only or ODD/CD-only. The AD/HD-only and ODD/CD-only groups displayed reduced Stop-N200 mean amplitude over right-frontal electrodes. This effect reached only a trend for comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD. Conclusion Following similar attenuations in initial processing of the Go

  20. [Human resources management in a mother and child department: a research study on new nursing and obstetric staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferrazza, Silvia; Papalia, Monica; Rossi, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    To put "human resources" in the first place in a working context is an ambitious target. The basic idea is the give more value to the human and professional contribution of each individual in order to create an alliance between an organization and the people who work in it. In this context, the nursing coordinator plays a key role in inserting new staff. In this delicate phase, the expectations of new staff may or may not be fulfilled. The aim of the present study is to examine the possible difficulties that may occur during this phase. The study included 175 new staff and 175 nurses, obstetricians and pediatric nurses already at work for a total of 350. Research instruments consisted of two anonymous ad hoc questionnaires, the first issued to new staff at the Mother and Child Department, the second to staff already working in the same department. Results showed a lack of sensitivity towards new staff and a lack of dedicated procedures to help them during this delicate phase which is fundamental for their future career. Key words: newly assumed staff, work insertion, nurses.

  1. Mu rhythm suppression reflects mother-child face-to-face interactions: a pilot study with simultaneous MEG recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki; Ikeda, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Furutani, Naoki; Hayashi, Norio; Minabe, Yoshio; Hirata, Masayuki; Asada, Minoru; Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous face-to-face interactions between mothers and their children play crucial roles in the development of social minds; however, these inter-brain dynamics are still unclear. In this pilot study, we measured MEG mu suppression during face-to-face spontaneous non-linguistic interactions between mothers and their children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the MEG hyperscanning system (i.e., simultaneous recording). The results demonstrated significant correlations between the index of mu suppression (IMS) in the right precentral area and the traits (or severity) of ASD in 13 mothers and 8 children (MEG data from 5 of the children could not be obtained due to motion noise). In addition, higher IMS values (i.e., strong mu suppression) in mothers were associated with higher IMS values in their children. To evaluate the behavioral contingency between mothers and their children, we calculated cross correlations between the magnitude of the mother and child head-motion during MEG recordings. As a result, in mothers whose head motions tended to follow her child’s head motion, the magnitudes of mu suppression in the mother’s precentral area were large. Further studies with larger sample sizes, including typically developing children, are necessary to generalize this result to typical interactions between mothers and their children. PMID:27721481

  2. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  3. Choline status and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Kobrosly, Roni W; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Thurston, Sally W; Wallace, Julie M W; Ueland, Per M; Myers, Gary J

    2013-07-28

    Choline is an essential nutrient that is found in many food sources and plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system. Animal studies have shown that choline status pre- and postnatally can have long-lasting effects on attention and memory; however, effects in human subjects have not been well studied. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of free choline and its related metabolites in children and their neurodevelopment in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study, an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the development of children born to mothers with high fish consumption during pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of free choline, betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), methionine and homocysteine and specific measures of neurodevelopment were measured in 210 children aged 5 years. The children's plasma free choline concentration (9·17 (sd 2·09) μmol/l) was moderately, but significantly, correlated with betaine (r 0·24; P= 0·0006), DMG (r 0·15; P= 0·03), methionine (r 0·24; P= 0·0005) and homocysteine (r 0·19; P= 0·006) concentrations. Adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that betaine concentrations were positively associated with Preschool Language Scale – total language scores (β = 0·066; P= 0·04), but no other associations were evident. We found no indication that free choline concentration or its metabolites, within the normal physiological range, are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age. As there is considerable animal evidence suggesting that choline status during development is associated with cognitive outcome, the issue deserves further study in other cohorts.

  4. Parent and Child Agreement for Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychopathology in a Prospective Study of Children and Adolescents Exposed to Single-Event Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…

  5. Integrating a family-focused approach into child obesity prevention: Rationale and design for the My Parenting SOS study randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Marci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 20% of US children ages 2-5 yrs are classified as overweight or obese. Parents greatly influence the behaviors their children adopt, including those which impact weight (e.g., diet and physical activity. Unfortunately, parents often fail to recognize the risk for excess weight gain in young children, and may not be motivated to modify behavior. Research is needed to explore intervention strategies that engage families with young children and motivate parents to adopt behaviors that will foster healthy weight development. Methods This study tests the efficacy of the 35-week My Parenting SOS intervention. The intervention consists of 12 sessions: initial sessions focus on general parenting skills (stress management, effective parenting styles, child behavior management, coparenting, and time management and later sessions apply these skills to promote healthier eating and physical activity habits. The primary outcome is change in child percent body fat. Secondary measures assess parent and child dietary intake (three 24-hr recalls and physical activity (accelerometry, general parenting style and practices, nutrition- and activity-related parenting practices, and parent motivation to adopt healthier practices. Discussion Testing of these new approaches contributes to our understanding of how general and weight-specific parenting practices influence child weight, and whether or not they can be changed to promote healthy weight trajectories. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00998348

  6. Nutrition and Its Effects on the Hyperkinetic Child's Behavior and Learning: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Roberta L.

    This case study reviews the literature related to diet, behavior and learning and describes procedures and results of a change in the diet of an adolescent girl who had an extensive history of problems at home and at school. Studies of nutritional deficiency, nutritional imbalance, allergies, and synthetic food additives are briefly overviewed.…

  7. Effects of a 3-year intervention: The Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Dencker, Magnus;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study assessed short and long term effects of a 3-year controlled school-based physical activity (PA) intervention on fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. METHODS: The study involved 18 schools (10 intervention...

  8. The placenta and neurologic and psychiatric outcomes in the child: study design matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K B; Blair, E

    2011-09-01

    Much information exists about functions of the human placenta and about potential mechanisms by which the placenta may influence human health or disease, including developmental disorders of brain. Recent studies indicate a high frequency of placental pathology in infants with developmental brain disorders, or with risk factors for such disorders. However, most clinical studies of the association of placental features with adverse neurologic or psychiatric outcome have substantial methodologic limitations. We discuss issues of study design as they relate to studies of the placenta and human brain disorders. In addition to the need for further consensus on procedures and terminology for placental evaluation, there are a number of special features that make clinical studies of the association of placental features with neurologic and psychiatric disorders especially difficult: most such disorders are not diagnosed until months or years after the majority of placentas have been discarded; these disorders are individually uncommon, so that prospective studies - needed to provide denominator data to enable estimation of risks - will require very large sample sizes; the administrative structures required to relate features of the placenta with clinical outcome will be complicated and costly. We offer some suggestions concerning study design in the face of these practical difficulties. Systematic and methodologically rigorous exploration of the role of the placenta in human developmental brain disorders has scarcely begun. A new generation of studies, difficult but potentially enormously rewarding, will be needed for clinical investigations of the placenta and fetal brain development.

  9. Has Elementary Social Studies Instruction Become Collateral Damage of the No Child Left Behind Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babini, Kathleen Callanan

    2013-01-01

    Public schools stress the need for students to become informed and engaged citizens, however social studies instruction is becoming marginalized in many elementary schools today, the very area where they learn citizenship and about the world around them. This study seeks to: understand the reason for the loss of instructional time for social…

  10. THE NATURE OF USING VIRTUAL WORLDS BY A CHILD AS A LEARNING PLATFORM: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet BAYTAK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of new technologies is found inevitable and children interests toward online platforms and virtual worlds are rapidly growing. In addition, there is a consensus that use of technology for primary or secondary school education is effective for achievement and motivation. In research and practice there are many educational implementations of technology in classrooms that were found useful.Similar to most qualitative studies, the purpose of this study also cannot be narrowed down to a single sentence but the overarching aim of the study is to explore the nature of using virtual worlds as a learning platform during. The theoretical background of this study is rooted from the constructivism and constructionism learning approaches. Consisted with its theoretical framework, this study has followed a qualitative case study research method to explore the nature of the construct. The case is a bounded system that is narrowed to a single case (Merriam, 1988; Stake, 1995; Yin, 2003. There are various types of data collected within this system. Based on the data collected and the research-suggested case study data analysis approaches, the following themes were emerged; realty, learning by discovering, learning by design, scaffolding and chunking information, and real life desires.After using Whyville virtual platform, the aim of this study was expected to start new discussion on young children using more complex virtual worlds such as Second Life. Thus, the results of this study could be guidance for transmission process of children toward Second Life type of virtual worlds. Even though a further discussion may need about the nature of using the virtual worlds, the primary findings of these case studies suggest some practical implications for children’s education.

  11. Maternal Coping Strategies in Response to a Child's Chronic and Oncological Disease: a Cross-Cultural Study in Italy and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perricone, Giovanna; Guerra, Marina Prista; Cruz, Orlanda; Polizzi, Concetta; Lima, Lígia; Morales, Maria Regina; de Lemos, Marina Serra; Fontana, Valentina

    2013-06-13

    A child's oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the child's wellbeing and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a child's severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The study investigates differences and cross-cultural elements among the coping strategies used by Italian and Portuguese mothers of children with oncological or chronic disease. Two groups of mothers took part: 59 Italian mothers (average age 37.7 years; SD=4.5) and 36 Portuguese mothers (average age 39.3 years; SD=4.6). The tool used was the Italian and the Portuguese versions of the COPE inventory that measures five coping strategies: Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Positive Aptitude, Religious Faith and Humor, Active Coping. There were statistically significant differences between Portuguese and Italian mothers regarding Social Support (F(3, 94)=6.32, P=0.014, ɳ(2)=0.065), Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=20.06, P=0.001, ɳ(2)=0.18, higher values for Portuguese mothers) and Avoidance Coping (F(3, 94)=3.30, P=0.06, ɳ(2)=0.035, higher values for Italian mothers). Regarding child's disease, the only statistically significant difference was in Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=7.49, P=0.007, ɳ(2)=0.076, higher values for mothers of children with chronic disease). The findings of specific cultural transversalities provide the basis for reflection on important factors emerging on the relationship between physicians and parents. In fact, mothers' coping abilities may allow health workers involved in a child's care not only to understand how parents face a distressful event, but also to provide them with professional support.

  12. Do parent-child acculturation gaps affect early adolescent Latino alcohol use? A study of the probability and extent of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ronald B; Roblyer, Martha Zapata; Merten, Michael J; Shreffler, Karina M; Schwerdtfeger, Kami L

    2013-01-24

    The literature has been mixed regarding how parent-child relationships are affected by the acculturation process and how this process relates to alcohol use among Latino youth. The mixed results may be due to, at least, two factors: First, staggered migration in which one or both parents arrive to the new country and then send for the children may lead to faster acculturation in parents than in children for some families. Second, acculturation may have different effects depending on which aspects of alcohol use are being examined. This study addresses the first factor by testing for a curvilinear trend in the acculturation-alcohol use relationship and the second by modeling past year alcohol use as a zero inflated negative binomial distribution. Additionally, this study examined the unique and mediation effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancies (gap), mother involvement in children's schooling, father involvement in children's schooling, and effective parenting on youth alcohol use during the last 12 months, measured as the probability of using and the extent of use. Direct paths from parent-child acculturation discrepancy to alcohol use, and mediated paths through mother involvement, father involvement, and effective parenting were also tested. Only father involvement fully mediated the path from parent-child acculturation discrepancies to the probability of alcohol use. None of the variables examined mediated the path from parent-child acculturation discrepancies to the extent of alcohol use. Effective parenting was unrelated to acculturation discrepancies; however, it maintained a significant direct effect on the probability of youth alcohol use and the extent of use after controlling for mother and father involvement. Implications for prevention strategies are discussed.

  13. IL5RA polymorphisms, smoking and eczema in Japanese women: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Arakawa, M

    2015-02-01

    The present case-control study examined the relationship between IL5RA SNPs and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases and control subjects were selected from pregnant women who participated in the baseline survey of the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study, which is an ongoing prebirth cohort study. Cases comprised 188 women with eczema in the previous 12 months as defined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), regardless of the presence of a doctor's diagnosis of atopic eczema. Control subjects comprised 1130 women without eczema as defined according to the ISAAC criteria who also had not been diagnosed with atopic eczema by a doctor. Compared with the AA genotype of IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the AT genotype, but not the TT genotype, was significantly associated with a decreased risk of eczema. The ATTAGA haplotype and the GTAGCA haplotype of rs17882210, rs3804797, rs334809, rs9831572, rs6771148 and rs17881144 were significantly associated with an increased risk of eczema. In contrast, the GCTGCA haplotype was significantly related to a decreased risk of eczema. Multiplicative interactions between IL5RA SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and smoking with respect to eczema were marginally significant (P = 0.07 and 0.07, respectively). This is the first study to show significant associations between IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the ATTAGA haplotype, the GTAGCA haplotype, and the GCTGCA haplotype and eczema. Smoking may modify the relationships between SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and eczema.

  14. Vowel Development in an Emergent Mandarin-English Bilingual Child: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Fox, Robert A.; Jacewicz, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal case study documents the emergence of bilingualism in a young monolingual Mandarin boy on the basis of an acoustic analysis of his vowel productions recorded via a picture-naming task over 20 months following his enrollment in an all-English (L2) preschool at the age of 3;7. The study examined (1) his initial L2 vowel space, (2)…

  15. The Effects of Structured Musical Activity Sessions on the Development of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige Rose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study sought to discover the effects of structured music activity sessions on eye contact and communication skills of Hunter; a six year old, high functioning child with autism. The research design consisted of two baseline observations in music class, six biweekly home activity sessions concurrent with three weekly music class observations, and two final music class observations. Activity sessions lasted approximately thirty minutes, and consisted of seven different activities, which were designed to increase joint attention through verbal, emotional, and social communication skills, as well as eye contact. Sessions were video recorded, and data analysis showed that Hunter’s eye contact increased from 76% in the first session to a high of 91% by the fifth activity session. Eye contact during the dedicated discussion activities increased from 21% in the first session to 46% by the sixth session. Observations and parent/teacher questionnaires revealed that he demonstrated higher levels of social functioning and both emotional and musical expression (including improvisation following activity sessions. Hunter transferred verbal communication, facial gestures and social cues from his sessions to music classes. In his concert following the fifth session, Hunter made contextually appropriate verbal improvisations and improved singing and movement synchronisation with the music

  16. Political or dental power in private and public service provision: a study of municipal expenditures for child dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Bech, Mickael; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2012-07-01

    Both professionals and politicians may affect expenditures for highly professional services provided in the public and private sector. We investigated Danish publicly financed child dental care with a special focus on the influence of politicians and dentists on the expenditure level. By studying spatial patterns in expenditure levels across municipalities, we are able to test the influences of these two main actors and the networks through which learning is achieved. Four hypotheses on the existence of different spatial spillover effects are tested. The empirical analysis is based on annual data from 1996 to 2001 for 226 Danish municipalities, thus allowing for the control for heterogeneity between municipalities and for intra-municipal correlations across time. The results point to differences in expenditures between municipalities with privately and publicly produced dental care. Furthermore, dentists appear to be the most important actors for the spatial spillover effects, and these effects are especially strong for municipalities situated in the same county that use private dental clinics. There is no evidence of political spatial spillover effects between municipalities.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of stability and change in maternal depression: evidence from the Fragile Families And Child Wellbeing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Turney

    Full Text Available Children of depressed mothers have impaired cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes from infancy through adulthood, and are especially at risk when maternal depression persists over multiple years. But there are several important limitations to our current descriptive knowledge about maternal depression, especially depression among unmarried mothers. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a recent cohort of children born in urban areas to mostly unmarried parents (N = 4,366, was used to examine the prevalence and correlates of maternal depression when children were about 1, 3, 5, and 9 years old. Results show that, at any given survey wave, between 16% and 21% of mothers reported depression. Nearly two-fifths (38% of mothers reported depression at least once during the eight-year period, and 7% reported persistent depression (depression at three or four of the four survey waves. Employment status, relationship status, and fathers' depression were among the sociodemographic characteristics most robustly associated with both stability and change in maternal depression. Given the important social consequences of maternal depression, not least of which is impaired wellbeing among children of depressed mothers, prevention and treatment of maternal depression should be an imperative for researchers, clinicians, and policymakers alike.

  18. Preventing Child Behavior Problems in the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study: Results from Preschool to Secondary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lösel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.

  19. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  20. State Child Care Policies for Limited English Proficient Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firgens, Emily; Matthews, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), the largest source of federal funding for child care assistance available to states, provides low-income families with help paying for child care. Studies have shown that low-income LEP (limited English proficient), as well as immigrant families, are less likely to receive child care assistance.…

  1. Effect of geographical access to health facilities on child mortality in rural Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemisrach B Okwaraji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been few studies that have examined associations between access to health care and child health outcomes in remote populations most in need of health services. This study assessed the effect of travel time and distance to health facilities on mortality in children under five years in a remote area of rural north-western Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study involved a randomly selected cross sectional survey of 2,058 households. Data were collected during home visits to all resident women of reproductive age (15-49 years. A geographic information system (GIS was used to map all households and the only health centre in the district. The analysis was restricted to 2,206 rural children who were under the age of five years during the five years before the survey. Data were analysed using random effects Poisson regression. 90.4% (1,996/2,206 of children lived more than 1.5 hours walk from the health centre. Children who lived ≥1.5 hrs from the health centre had a two to three fold greater risk of death than children who lived <1.5 hours from the health centre (children with travel time 1.5-<2.5 hrs adjusted relative risk [adjRR] 2.3[0.95-5.6], travel time 2.5-<3.5 hrs adjRR 3.1[1.3-7.4] and travel time 3.5-<6.5 hrs adjRR 2.5[1.1-6.2]. CONCLUSION: Distance to a health centre had a marked influence on under five mortality in a poor, rural, remote area of Ethiopia. This study provides important information for policy makers on the likely impact of new health centres and their most effective location in remote areas.

  2. The relationship between intimate partner violence and maternal practices to correct child behavior: a study on women in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Jansson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper scrutinizes the association between maternal practices to correct child behavior and the mothers’ exposure to and attitudes towards intimate partner violence (IPV. Methods: Nationally representative data comprising 14 016 married women were retrieved from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey, 2005. Data on practices used to correct child behavior, exposure to IPV, attitudes towards IPV were our primary interest. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: The majority of the mothers reported use of violent methods, like shouting (90.6%, striking (69.1% and slapping (39.3% to correct child behavior. Seven percent of the mothers used only the explanation option. Exposure to physical IPV and tolerant attitudes towards IPV were associated with an augmented risk of using violent methods (shouting, striking or slapping to correct child behavior. On the other hand non-tolerant attitudes towards IPV were associated with increased likelihood of sole use of the explanation method. Conclusions: We thus recommend the implementation of local parental education programs focusing on communicative skills to reduce IPV and related child abuse.

  3. The relationship between intimate partner violence and maternal practices to correct child behavior: a study on women in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Koustuv; Lawoko, Stephen; Jansson, Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: This paper scrutinizes the association between maternal practices to correct child behavior and the mothers' exposure to and attitudes towards intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods: Nationally representative data comprising 14 016 married women were retrieved from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey, 2005. Data on practices used to correct child behavior, exposure to IPV, attitudes towards IPV were our primary interest. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: The majority of the mothers reported use of violent methods, like shouting (90.6%), striking (69.1%) and slapping (39.3%) to correct child behavior. Seven percent of the mothers used only the explanation option. Exposure to physical IPV and tolerant attitudes towards IPV were associated with an augmented risk of using violent methods (shouting, striking or slapping) to correct child behavior. On the other hand non-tolerant attitudes towards IPV were associated with increased likelihood of sole use of the explanation method. Conclusions: We thus recommend the implementation of local parental education programs focusing on communicative skills to reduce IPV and related child abuse. PMID:21483195

  4. International Child Welfare: Guidelines for Educators and a Case Study from Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tasha R.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines challenges and opportunities educators and students face while attempting to develop a global perspective in social work. It discusses the need for more international focus in the classroom and increased field placements in non-Western countries. Exercises using an in-depth case study of the historic and current dynamics of…

  5. [Somatic screening in child and adolescent psychiatry: a descriptive pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.B; Vermeulen, K.; Deurzen, P.A. van; Tomesen, E.M.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Buitelaar, J.; Staal, W.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Somatic disorders occur more often in psychiatric patients than in the general population. Somatic symptoms can cause or increase psychiatric symptoms. Psychiatric symptoms and their treatment can have an effect on the physical state of the patient. A pilot study involving an adult outpa

  6. Parenting a Child with a Cochlear Implant: A Critical Incident Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to describe and categorize the attributes that parents of young children with cochlear implants (CIs) consider as facilitating their parental coping experience. I interviewed 15 hearing mothers and 13 hearing fathers (including 12 married couples) whose children had CIs, using the critical incident technique that asked parents to…

  7. Emerging Musicality during the Pre-School Years: A Case Study of One Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of communication in early infancy and childhood have highlighted the significance of rhythm, sound and music for emotional and social development. There is, however, little detailed empirical data on the emergence of naturalistic music-related behaviour by children in the early years. The aim of this work is to examine instances of…

  8. Branding and a child's brain: an fMRI study of neural responses to logos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Amanda S; Bruce, Jared M; Black, William R; Lepping, Rebecca J; Henry, Janice M; Cherry, Joseph Bradley C; Martin, Laura E; Papa, Vlad B; Davis, Ann M; Brooks, William M; Savage, Cary R

    2014-01-01

    Branding and advertising have a powerful effect on both familiarity and preference for products, yet no neuroimaging studies have examined neural response to logos in children. Food advertising is particularly pervasive and effective in manipulating choices in children. The purpose of this study was to examine how healthy children's brains respond to common food and other logos. A pilot validation study was first conducted with 32 children to select the most culturally familiar logos, and to match food and non-food logos on valence and intensity. A new sample of 17 healthy weight children were then scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Food logos compared to baseline were associated with increased activation in orbitofrontal cortex and inferior prefrontal cortex. Compared to non-food logos, food logos elicited increased activation in posterior cingulate cortex. Results confirmed that food logos activate some brain regions in children known to be associated with motivation. This marks the first study in children to examine brain responses to culturally familiar logos. Considering the pervasiveness of advertising, research should further investigate how children respond at the neural level to marketing.

  9. Parental perception of child's weight status and subsequent BMIz change: The KOALA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, S.M.P.L.; Gubbels, J.S.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Vries, N.K. de; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents often fail to correctly perceive their children's weight status, but no studies have examined the association between parental weight status perception and longitudinal BMIz change (BMI standardized to a reference population) at various ages. We investigated whether parents are a

  10. The parent-child relationship and adolescent alcohol use : a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association betwee

  11. A Qualitative Study of Decision Making by First Time Parents for Their Child's Prekindergarten Year Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Timothy David

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to gain a better understanding of how participants made decisions regarding placement for their first-born children for the prekindergarten year. The purpose of this research, to explore participants' decision-making process, was guided by the following research question: "How do parents make decisions to select placements…

  12. A Case Study of a Child with Dyslexia and Spatial-Temporal Gifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Eileen E.; Ness, Maryann; Smith, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This case study details the history and K-5 school experience of a boy with dyslexia and spatial-temporal gifts. It describes assessment, evaluation, and identification procedures; the learning specialist's interventions and program; the critical role of the parent; and the services provided by the gifted program. Specific interventions are…

  13. Respiratory infections in infants : Interaction of parental allergy, child care, and siblings - The PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, LP; Smit, HA; Heijnen, MLA; Wijga, A; van Strien, RT; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; Brunekreef, B; de Jongste, JC; Neijens, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the association between contacts with other children and the development of respiratory infections in the first year of life in children with or without genetic predisposition for allergy. Methods. Children (n = 4146) who participate in a prospective birth cohort study (Pre

  14. A prospective study of parents' compliance with their child's prescribed analgesia following tonsillectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lennon, Paul

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a prospective study to assess how well parents ensured that their children received their prescribed analgesia following tonsillectomy. Our study was based on 69 cases of tonsillectomy that were carried out at our tertiary pediatric care center. Postoperatively, all patients were prescribed paracetamol (acetaminophen) on the basis of their weight; the standard pediatric dosage of this agent at the time of our study was 60 mg\\/kg\\/day. The parents were telephoned 2 weeks postoperatively to assess their compliance with this regimen. Of the original 69 patients who had been recruited, 66 completed the study-35 girls and 31 boys, aged 2 to 15 years (mean: 7.0; median 5.5). According to the parents, only 15 children (22.7%) received our recommended 60-mg\\/kg\\/day dosage and were thus determined to be fully compliant. Overall, parents reported a wide variation in the amount of drug administered, ranging from 12.5 to 111.0 mg\\/kg\\/day (mean: 44.8), indicating that parents often underdose their children. We recommend that more emphasis be placed on weight-directed, parent-provided analgesia during the post-tonsillectomy period.

  15. Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards: An Embedded Child and Family Study of Conditional Cash Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela; Aber, J. Lawrence; Wolf, Sharon; Berg, Juliette

    2011-01-01

    This study builds on and informs ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006) by focusing on the contextual processes by which individual developmental trajectories can be altered. Ecological theory posits that children are embedded in a nested and interactive set of interrelated contexts beginning with the micro-system (the most…

  16. An immersive virtual peer for studying social influences on child cyclists' road-crossing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sabarish V; Grechkin, Timofey Y; Chihak, Benjamin; Ziemer, Christine; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our work is to develop a programmatically controlled peer to bicycle with a human subject for the purpose of studying how social interactions influence road-crossing behavior. The peer is controlled through a combination of reactive controllers that determine the gross motion of the virtual bicycle, action-based controllers that animate the virtual bicyclist and generate verbal behaviors, and a keyboard interface that allows an experimenter to initiate the virtual bicyclist's actions during the course of an experiment. The virtual bicyclist's repertoire of behaviors includes road following, riding alongside the human rider, stopping at intersections, and crossing intersections through specified gaps in traffic. The virtual cyclist engages the human subject through gaze, gesture, and verbal interactions. We describe the structure of the behavior code and report the results of a study examining how 10- and 12-year-old children interact with a peer cyclist that makes either risky or safe choices in selecting gaps in traffic. Results of our study revealed that children who rode with a risky peer were more likely to cross intermediate-sized gaps than children who rode with a safe peer. In addition, children were significantly less likely to stop at the last six intersections after the experience of riding with the risky than the safe peer during the first six intersections. The results of the study and children's reactions to the virtual peer indicate that our virtual peer framework is a promising platform for future behavioral studies of peer influences on children's bicycle riding behavior.

  17. Relations between Parenting and Child Behavior: Exploring the Child's Personality and Parental Self-Efficacy as Third Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle; Browne, Dillon T.

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the bidirectional associations between parental behavior and child externalizing behavior in the context of two intervening variables: child's personality as a moderator of the effect of parental behavior on later child behavior; and parental self-efficacy as a mediator of the effect of child behavior on later parental…

  18. SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ASHAS WITH RESPECT TO COMPREHENSIVE CHILD SURVIVAL PROGRAMME: A STUDY FROM CHIRAIGAON BLOCK OF DISTRICT VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archisman Mohapatra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What proportions of the ASHAs are performing according to the training they have received under the Comprehensive Child Survival Programme (CCSP? Objective: To analyze the ASHAs’ practice with respect to CCSP in related situations. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Study location: Chiraigaon Community Development Block, Varanasi Material and method: 173 out of the total 240 ASHAs (~72% in the selected Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were randomly selected and interviewed using a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire pertinent to CCSP. Only the first response was recorded. Results: All the ASHAs interviewed claimed that the CCSP training has helped them perform better in the community. Ninety-eight percent of the ASHAs knew that a new born weighing >2.5 kgs at birth is considered to be normal. Only ~ 63% (109 of the ASHAs were found to be home-visiting such newborns as per the CCSP recommendation. The percentage was found to be just 43% for the properly scheduled home visits of LBW newborns. The difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001. Almost 80% ASHAs estimated that their average home visit spans for at least 30 minutes. Just about a third of the interviewees suggested that a baby should be bathed only after the first 6 days while one-third said that they advise massaging for the newborn only after the first week. ASHAs rarely used a thermometer to assess the baby’s temperature. Around 56% were confident about using a thermometer. Nearly 90% participants claimed of explaining about Kangaroo Mother Care to the parturient and/or family. Majority of the ASHAs (92% emphasized upon non-discontinuation of breast feeding for the baby during diarrhoeal episodes. However, only 44% revisited such babies. Conclusion: In most cases it is well evident that CCSP training has been taken up well by the ASHAs. The training may be refreshed.

  19. The MTR 2756A>G polymorphism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio; Bosco, Paolo; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Migheli, Francesca; Barone, Concetta; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Romano, Corrado; Migliore, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    Methionine synthase (MTR) is required for the conversion of homocysteine (hcy) to methionine in the one-carbon metabolic pathway. Previous studies investigating a common MTR 2756A>G polymorphism as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS) are conflicting and limited by small case-control cohorts, and its contribution to circulating hcy levels is still debated. We performed a large case-control study and a meta-analysis of the literature to further address the role of MTR 2756A>G as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with DS. 286 mothers of a DS child (MDS) and 305 control mothers of Italian origin were included in the case-control study. Genotyping was performed by means of PCR/RFLP technique. Data on circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 were available for 189 MDS and 194 control mothers. The meta analysis of previous and present data involved a total of 8 studies (1,171 MDS and 1,402 control mothers). Both the case-control study and the meta-analysis showed no association of MTR 2756A>G with the maternal risk of birth of a child with DS (OR = 1.15; 95 % CI 0.85-1.55, and OR = 1.08; 95 % CI 0.93-1.25, respectively), even after stratification of the overall data available for the meta-analysis into ethnic groups. No association of the studied polymorphism with circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 was observed. Present data do not support a role for MTR 2756A>G as independent maternal risk factor for a DS birth.

  20. Breastfeeding and atopic eczema in Japanese infants: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Ohya, Yukihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies associated with breastfeeding have provided conflicting results about whether it is preventive or a risk factor for atopic eczema in children. The current prospective study investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of atopic eczema in Japan. A birth cohort of 763 infants was followed. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between 2 and 9 months postpartum collected information on potential confounding factors and atopic eczema status. Data on breastfeeding and symptoms of atopic eczema were obtained from questionnaires in the third survey from 16 to 24 months postpartum. The following variables were a priori selected as potential confounders: maternal age, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, indoor domestic pets (cats, dogs, birds, or hamsters), family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, baby's older siblings, household smoking in the same room as the infant, and time of delivery before the third survey. In the third survey, 142 infants (18.6%) were revealed to have developed atopic eczema based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. In an overall analysis, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding was significantly related to the risk of atopic eczema. After excluding 64 infants identified with suspected atopic eczema in the second survey, both exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months or more and partial breastfeeding for 6 months or more were independently associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema only among infants with no parental history of allergic disorders [multivariate odds ratios were 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.55) and 3.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-12.36), respectively]. The authors found that, overall, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding had a strong impact on the risk of atopic eczema. However, a parental

  1. Developing non-native vowel representations: a study on child second language acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what stage 9‐12‐year‐old Dutch‐speaking children have reached in the development of their L2 lexicon, focusing on its phonological specificity. Two experiments were carried out with a group of Dutch‐speaking children and adults learning English. In a first task, listeners were asked to judge Dutch words which were presented with either the target Dutch vowel or with an English vowel synthetically inserted. The second experiment was a mirror of the first, i.e. with English ...

  2. Iowa Child Care Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Iowa's Child Care Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile is divided into the following categories: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family Child Care Programs;…

  3. The mixed health messages of Millsberry: a critical study of online child-targeted food advergaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Deborah M

    2011-06-01

    This paper offers a critical study of the contradictions of Millsberry.com, a General Mills (GM) advergaming website used to market GM's breakfast cereal brands to children. The paper takes a critical semiotic approach to argue that Millsberry.com sends players contradictory messages about health by simultaneously promoting nutritional wellness and consumption of high-sugar cereals, essentially conflating the two. Players on Millsberry.com create a virtual self (a Buddy) who lives in the fictional town of Millsberry, and a Buddy's health is tracked over time as players make nutritional choices for the Buddy. Health on Millsberry equates to eating from multiple food groups (nutritional balance) and eating only until full (caloric moderation). Yet both of these health messages are essentially undermined by play on the site. Nutritional balance is undermined by both the excessive promotion of high-sugar cereals and the differences between depictions of branded and unbranded foods. Caloric moderation is contradicted by digital advergames that operate on a logic of maximal consumption, by narratives of branded spokescharacters' endless appetites for cereal, and by giveaways of "free" boxes of virtual cereal that can be eaten by the Buddy in a single bite. The study concludes that such mixed messages about nutritional health are highly problematic, particularly given the alarming increase in diet and weight-related diseases among children.

  4. Maternal and Child Health of Internally Displaced Persons in Ukraine: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Nidzvetska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the conflict that started in spring 2014 in Eastern Ukraine, a total of 1.75 million internally displaced persons (IDPs fled the area and have been registered in government-controlled areas of the country. This paper explores perceived health, barriers to access to healthcare, caring practices, food security, and overall financial situation of mothers and young children displaced by the conflict in Ukraine. This is a qualitative study, which collected data through semi-structured in-depth interviews with nine IDP mothers via Skype and Viber with a convenience sample of participants selected through snowball technique. Contrary to the expectations, the perceived physical health of mothers and their children was found not to be affected by conflict and displacement, while psychological distress was often reported. A weak healthcare system, Ukraine’s proneness to informal payments, and heavy bureaucracy to register as an IDP were reported in our study. A precarious social safety net to IDP mothers in Ukraine, poor dietary diversity, and a generalized rupture of vaccine stocks, with halted or delayed vaccinations in children were identified. Increasing social allowances and their timely delivery to IDP mothers might be the most efficient policy measure to improve health and nutrition security. Reestablishment and sustainability of vaccine stocks in Ukraine is urgent to avoid the risks of a public health crisis. Offering psychological support for IDP mothers is recommended.

  5. Maternal ratings of child health and child obesity, variations by mother's race/ethnicity and nativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.

  6. Respiratory symptoms among waste-picking child laborers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Romero, Danilo A; Oudin, Anna; Strömberg, Ulf; Karlsson, Jan-Eric; Welinder, Hans; Sequeira, Gustavo; Blanco, Luís; Jiménez, Mario; Sánchez, Félix; Albin, María

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates respiratory symptoms, lung function, and exposure to airborne particles among waste-picking children. We enrolled 103 waste-picking children at a dump in Managua, Nicaragua and 103 children who do not pick waste. Exposure to airborne particles was assessed by area sampling. Health data were obtained from a questionnaire, clinical examination, and spirometry. Exposure effects were evaluated with multivariate regression analysis. Exposure to particles exceeded national and international standards. Wheezing among children was related to exposure status, with waste-picking children who are both "never highly exposed" and "ever highly exposed" having greater prevalence of wheezing compared to the children who do not pick waste. FEV1 among "ever highly exposed" waste-picking children with wheeze was 13% lower than non-waste-picking children with wheeze. Exposure to small particles was unacceptably high and associated with wheeze and decreased lung function.

  7. The study of the mother-child binomium: description and general results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Laurenti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the characteristics of women during pregnancy/immediate postpartum cycles and the product of their pregnancy.METHOD: Data collection was conducted for a period of three months in 2011, in six maternity hospitals in the State of São Paulo. The data were obtained in an interview with the women after the end of the pregnancy and collected from hospital records. The sample included 7,058 women hospitalized for abortion or childbirth in five hospitals from SUS (Unified Health System and from only one hospital for private health insurance patients and their 6,602 conceptuses (live births and stillborns. Statistical analysis was based on χ2 tests, with a significance level of α = 5%.RESULTS: It was observed that 6,530 women gave birth and 528 showed interruption of pregnancy. Regarding age, 1,448 were teenagers (20.5%. There were no deaths during hospitalization and 99.8% of women received a medical discharge. Maternal morbidity in the current pregnancy was analyzed, showing urinary tract infection, anemia and excessive vomiting as the main problems. The rate of cesarean sections accounted for 31.1% and complications in childbirth and postpartum were shown, respectively, by 834 (12.8% and 265 (4.1% women. The characteristics of the conceptuses were also studied: gestation length (9.3% of preterm among live births, and 68% among the stillborn; birth weight (underweight in 8.2% among live births, and 66% among the stillborn and morbidity, measured by congenital anomalies and other diseases; these diseases were responsible for ICU stay, transfers to better-equipped hospitals (10 cases and 37 deaths. Thirteen live births were still hospitalized at the end of the investigation.

  8. Household smoking and dental caries in schoolchildren: the Ryukyus Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Satoshi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe is perhaps one of the most important toxic exposures in childhood. However, epidemiological studies on the relation between SHSe and dental caries are limited and have yielded inconsistent results. The present cross-sectional study examined the potential association between SHSe at home and the prevalence of dental caries in children. Methods Subjects were 20,703 schoolchildren aged 6 to 15 years in Okinawa, Japan. Information on SHSe at home and potential confounding factors was obtained through questionnaires. Data on dental caries were obtained from school records. Children were classified as having decayed and/or filled teeth (DFT if a dentist diagnosed these conditions. Additionally, we analyzed decayed teeth (DT and filled teeth (FT separately. Adjustment was made for sex, age, region of residence, toothbrushing frequency, use of fluoride, sugar intake, and paternal and maternal educational level. Results The prevalence of DFT was 82.0%. Compared with never smoking in the household, former and current household smoking were independently associated with an increased prevalence of DFT (adjusted prevalence ratios [95% confidence intervals] for former household smoking and current light and heavy household smoking were 1.03 [1.00-1.05], 1.04 [1.02-1.05], and 1.04 [1.03-1.06], respectively; when analyzed separately there was an increased prevalence of DT (adjusted prevalence ratios [95% confidence intervals] for former household smoking and current light and heavy household smoking were 1.06 [1.02-1.11], 1.10 [1.06-1.13], and 1.10 [1.07-1.14], respectively but not FT. A statistically significant dose-response relationship between cumulative smoking in the household and the prevalence of DFT and DT (P for trend Conclusion Our findings suggested that household smoking might be associated with an increased prevalence of dental caries in children.

  9. Psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: risk factors and associations with birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja Koen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal–fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition. Objective: We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and their association with adverse birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a South African birth cohort study. Methods: Pregnant women were recruited from two clinics in a peri-urban community outside Cape Town. Trauma exposure and PTSD were assessed using diagnostic interviews; validated self-report questionnaires measured other psychosocial characteristics. Gestational age at delivery was calculated and birth outcomes were assessed by trained staff. Multiple logistic regression explored risk factors for trauma and PTSD; associations with birth outcomes were investigated using linear regression. Potential confounders included study site, socioeconomic status (SES, and depression. Results: A total of 544 mother–infant dyads were included. Lifetime trauma was reported in approximately two-thirds of mothers, with about a third exposed to past-year intimate partner violence (IPV. The prevalence of current/lifetime PTSD was 19%. In multiple logistic regression, recent life stressors were significantly associated with lifetime trauma, when controlling for SES, study site, and recent IPV. Childhood trauma and recent stressors were significantly associated with PTSD, controlling for SES and study site. While no association was observed between maternal PTSD and birth outcomes, maternal trauma was significantly associated with a 0.3 unit reduction (95% CI: 0.1; 0.5 in infant head-circumference-for-age z-scores (HCAZ scores at birth in crude analysis, which remained significant when adjusted for study site and recent stressors in a multivariate regression model. Conclusions: In this exploratory study

  10. A bidirectional relationship between depression and the autoimmune disorders – New perspectives from the National Child Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Maughan, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background Depression and the autoimmune disorders are comorbid—the two classes of disorders overlap in the same individuals at a higher frequency than chance. The immune system may influence the pathological processes underlying depression; understanding the origins of this comorbidity may contribute to dissecting the mechanisms underlying these disorders. Method We used population cohort data from the 1958 British birth cohort study (the National Child Development Study) to investigate the ages at onset of depression and 23 autoimmune disorders. We used self-report data to ascertain life-time history of depression, autoimmune disorders and their ages at onset. We modelled the effect of depression onset on subsequent autoimmune disorder onset, and vice versa, and incorporated polygenic risk scores for depression and autoimmune disorder risk. Results In our analytic sample of 8174 individuals, 315 reported ever being diagnosed with an autoimmune disorder (3.9%), 1499 reported ever experiencing depression (18.3%). There was significant comorbidity between depression and the autoimmune disorders (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.27–2.15). Autoimmune disorder onset associated with increased subsequent hazard of depression onset (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.11–1.74, P = 0.0037), independently of depression genetic risk. Finally, depression increased subsequent hazard of autoimmune disorder onset (HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.09–1.80, P = 0.0095), independently of autoimmune disorder genetic risk. Discussion Our results point to a bidirectional relationship between depression and the autoimmune disorders. This suggests that shared risk factors may contribute to this relationship, including both common environmental exposures that increase baseline inflammation levels, and shared genetic factors. PMID:28264010

  11. The development and evaluation of the Australian child and adolescent recommended food score: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Skye

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet quality tools have been developed to assess the adequacy of dietary patterns for predicting future morbidity and mortality. This study describes the development and evaluation of a brief food-based diet quality index for use with children at the individual or population level. The Australian Child and Adolescent Recommended Food Score (ACARFS was developed to reflect adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia and modelled on the approach of the US Recommended Food Score. Methods The ACARFS has eight sub-scales and is scored from zero to 73. The diet quality score was evaluated by assessing correlation (Spearman’s correlations and agreement (weighted κ statistics between ACARFS scores and nutrient intakes, derived from a food frequency questionnaire in 691 children (mean age 11.0, SD 1.1 in New South Wales, Australia. Nutrient intakes for ACARFS quartiles were compared with the relevant Australian nutrient reference values. Results ACARFS showed slight to substantial agreement (κ 0.13-0.64 with nutrient intakes, with statistically significant moderate to strong positive correlations with all vitamins, minerals and energy intake (r = 0.42-0.70. ACARFS was not related to BMI.Participants who scored less than the median ACARFS were more likely to have sub-optimal intakes of fibre, folic acid and calcium. Conclusion ACARFS demonstrated sufficient accuracy for use in future studies evaluating diet quality. Future research on its utility in targeting improvements in the nutritional quality of usual eating habits of children and adolescents is warranted.

  12. Can facial proportions taken from images be of use for ageing in cases of suspected child pornography? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Obertová, Zuzana; Ratnayake, Melanie; Marasciuolo, Laura; Tutkuviene, J; Poppa, Pasquale; Gibelli, Daniele; Gabriel, Peter; Ritz-Timme, S

    2012-01-01

    The age of the victim plays a crucial role for the legal implications concerning pornography. Judges therefore often call on forensic experts to verify the age of individuals depicted on photographs or videos. However, there is no scientifically established protocol available for forensic practice in such cases. The conventional methods such as the evaluation of secondary sexual characteristics provide unsatisfactory results particularly when the legally relevant ages for child pornography (i.e. 14 and 18 years) are concerned. To overcome these limits, a European research group has explored the applicability of facial proportions as an age indicator on images. In this pilot study, standardized facial images of 353 females and 20 males from four age groups (6, 10, 14 and 18 years) were randomly selected for the metric analysis from a large data set including German, Italian and Lithuanian subjects. In this sample, several indices extracted from the frontal and lateral photographs were closely correlated to their respective indices taken from the living individuals. Furthermore, age-related changes were identified for indices taken from the photographs. The discriminant analysis showed that for the pooled sample, 60.3% of the cases were correctly classified into the respective age group. The percentage of correctly classified cases increased in the respective country samples as follows: 69.9% for Germany, 69.4% for Lithuania and 80.5% for Italy. The present study suggests that the metric assessment of the face may be used for age estimation on images. Nonetheless, more work needs to be done in order to verify the reliability of these findings on a large sample.

  13. Quail egg safety and trade on beaches of Salvador (BA: a study from a child labor perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permínio Oliveira Vidal Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the trade and microbiological quality of boiled quail eggs on the waterfront of Salvador , Bahia, Brazil, from the child labor perspective. METHODS: This cross-sectional study administered semi-structured questionnaires to 40 underage vendors and performed the microbiological assessment of 40 quail egg samples as follows: mesophilic aerobic microorganism count, coagulase-positive staphylococcus count, estimation of the most probable number of total and thermotolerant coliforms/Escherichia coli, and testing for Salmonella spp.. The results were compared with the standards provided by the Resolution RDC nº 12/2001, National Sanitary Surveillance Agency. RESULTS: The vendors were mostly female (57.5% students (95.0% aged 8 to 17 years. The most common reason for working was supplementation of the family income (57.5%. The mean gross income was R$38.31/day. Most of them presented inadequate personal hygiene but they recognized that foods could cause diseases. Many (47.5% vendors reported washing their hands up to twice daily. Mean mesophilic aerobic microorganism and coagulase-positive staphylococcus counts were 2.43 and 2.01 log colony-forming unit/g, respectively, and the estimated thermotolerant coliform contamination was 0.98 log most probable number/g. Escherichia coli was found in 15.0% of the samples and none contained Salmonella spp. Most (55.0% samples were noncompliant with the legislation. CONCLUSION: The results evidenced the presence of minors selling quail eggs on beaches of Salvador and suggest risk to consumers' health because of the detected contamination and vendors' ignorance of principles of hygiene.

  14. A comparison of three infant skinfold reference standards: Tanner-Whitehouse, Cambridge Infant Growth Study, and WHO Child Growth Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M

    2015-10-01

    As researchers increasingly focus on early infancy as a critical period of development, there is a greater need for methodological tools that can address all aspects of infant growth. Infant skinfold measures, in particular, are measurements in need of reliable reference standards that encompass all ages of infants and provide an accurate assessment of the relative fatness of a population. This report evaluates three published reference standards for infant skinfold measurements: Tanner-Whitehouse, Cambridge Infant Growth Study, and the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards. To assess these standards, triceps skinfolds from a population of rural Kenyan infants (n = 250) and triceps skinfolds and subscapular skinfolds from infants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 (NHANES; n = 1197) were calculated as z-scores from the lambda-mu-sigma curves provided by each reference population. The Tanner-Whitehouse standards represented both the Kenyan and US populations as lean, while the Cambridge standards represented both populations as overfat. The distribution of z-scores based on the WHO standards fell in the middle, but excluded infants from both populations who were below the age of 3 months. Based on these results, the WHO reference standard is the best skinfold reference standard for infants over the age of 3 months. For populations with infants of all ages, the Tanner-Whitehouse standards are recommended, despite representing both study populations as underfat. Ideally, the WHO will extend their reference standard to include infants between the ages of 0 and 3 months.

  15. When resources get sparse: a longitudinal, qualitative study of emotions, coping and resource-creation when parenting a young child with severe disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Andersen, John Sahl; Skov, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Parents who realize that their newborn child is severely disabled often experience severe physical and emotional stress. Parental well-being is essential for the care-taking of the child. It is yet not known why some cope well and others do not. The aim of this study was to explore how parents...... interpreted in a theoretical framework of Lazarus and Folkman's studies on coping and Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, as well as theories of positive illusions and benefit finding during severe adversity. We found that parents continually created and sustained their personal...... to the current understanding of coping and the role of positive emotions. Coping and resources were found to be closely interrelated and portals of intervention are discussed....

  16. Child-to-Parent Violence: An Exploratory Study of the Roles of Family Violence and Parental Discipline Through the Stories Told by Spanish Children and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; del Hoyo-Bilbao, Joana; de Arroyabe, Elena López

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the role of exposure to family violence and parental discipline in the development of child-to-parent violence (CPV). A qualitative in-depth interview design was used. Fifteen adolescents (10 boys) who have perpetrated CPV (Mage=16 years; SDage=1.33 years) and their parents or foster parents took part in the study. Individually, they answered questions about exposure to violence and parenting practices. Results suggest that adolescents were frequently direct victims and also witnesses of violence. Furthermore, emotional neglect in the parent-child relationship was frequent and families were characterized by rules that are not consistently implemented. Different forms of violence seem to coexist in these families, and CPV should also be a target in the interventions.

  17. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  18. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    . Three hundred seventy-four have since left the study, leaving 2500 active families. The non-participants act as controls contributing data through local registries. Biological material, questionnaires, and registry data were compiled. Anthropometric data and other physical data were collected. RESULTS...... provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data......., the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012...

  19. Primed neutrophil infiltrations into multiple organs in child physical abuse cases: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahito; Nakamae, Takuma; Higo, Eri; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Ogata, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly induces a massive primed neutrophil infiltration into the lung and liver through chemotaxis by interleukin (IL)-8, similar to cases of traumatic or hemorrhagic shock. Here, we used immunohistochemical analyses to investigate this infiltration in cases of physically abused children. In addition, we examined the expression of neutrophil elastase (NE) as the inflammatory mediator and α1-antitrypsin (AAT) as the elastase inhibitor. The number of neutrophils in the abuse cases was increased significantly in the heart, lung, liver, and kidney, compared with that of control cases. IL-8-positive cells and NE-positive cells in all organs of abuse cases were significantly greater than those in control cases. Large quantities of oxidized AAT, which fails to inactivate NE and results in tissue damage, was detected in the liver of abuse cases. Neutrophil infiltration showed positive correlation with the degree of systemic accumulation of non-fatal injuries caused by repetitive abusive behavior. Although further investigation using more autopsy samples is necessary, results of our preliminary study indicate that massive neutrophil infiltration induced by IL-8 in multiple organs is a new complementary diagnostic indicator of physical abuse in children. Moreover, the demonstration of NE-positive cells and oxidized AAT provides firm evidence of tissue damage.

  20. Pathology of chronic hepatitis C in children. Child Liver Study Group of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, M; Fujisawa, T; Shiraki, K; Tanaka, T; Fujisawa, T; Kimura, A; Shimamatsu, K; Nakashima, E; Kojiro, M; Koike, M; Tazawa, Y; Abukawa, D; Okaniwa, M; Takita, H; Matsui, A; Hayashi, T; Etou, T; Terasawa, S; Sugiyama, K; Tajiri, H; Yoden, A; Kajiwara, Y; Sata, M; Uchimura, Y

    1997-09-01

    Limited information is available regarding the histology of hepatitis C virus infection in children. The aim of this study was to determine the histological pattern of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in children, and liver biopsy specimens from 109 pediatric patients with CHC were examined. Each biopsy specimen was evaluated based on a numerical scoring system for the stage of fibrosis (1-4), the grade of portal/periportal necroinflammation (0-4), the grade of lobular necroinflammation (0-4), and their sum (final grade). The histological lesions considered to be characteristic of chronic hepatitis were also evaluated. None of the children had liver cirrhosis, and 105 cases (97%) were stage 1 or 2. Only 4 children were stage 3. Two of these 4 cases showed hemosiderosis. A significant correlation was observed between the staging score and the final grade in the pediatric patients (r = .59; P < .0001). The histological characteristics of adult CHC, such as lymphoid aggregate, bile duct injury, and fatty changes, were also observed in the children. In conclusion, the majority of children with CHC presented with mild fibrosis, but a few showed CHC with lobular distortion and hemosiderosis. Frequent blood transfusion may aggravate hepatic lesions in pediatric CHC.