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Sample records for child skeletal fluorosis

  1. Child Skeletal Fluorosis from Indoor Burning of Coal in Southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives. We assess the prevalence and pathogenic stage of skeletal fluorosis among children and adolescents residing in a severe coal-burning endemic fluorosis area of southwest China. Methods. We used a cross-sectional design. A total of 1,616 students aged between 7 and 16 years in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China in late 2004 were selected via a cluster sampling of all 9-year compulsory education schools to complete the study questionnaire. Any student lived in a household that burned coal, used an open-burning stove, or baked foodstuffs over a coal stove was deemed high-risk for skeletal fluorosis. About 23% (370) of students (188 boys, 182 girls) were identified as high-risk and further examined by X-ray. Results. One-third of the 370 high-risk participants were diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis. Overall prevalence of child skeletal fluorosis due to indoor burning of coal was 7.5%. Children aged 12 16 years were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis than children aged 7 11 years (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17 2.90; P = .0082). Four types of skeletal fluorosis were identified: constrictive (60.7%), raritas (15.6%), mixed (16.4%), and soft (7.4%). Most diagnosed cases (91%) were mild or moderate in severity. In addition, about 97% of 370 high-risk children were identified with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis was highly correlated with skeletal fluorosis in this study. Conclusions. Skeletal fluorosis among children may contribute to poor health and reduced productivity when they reach adulthood. Further efforts to reduce fluoride exposure among children in southwestern of China where coal is burned indoors are desperately needed.

  2. Reversibility of skeletal fluorosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Grandjean, P; Thomsen, G

    1983-01-01

    At two x ray examinations in 1957 and 1967, 17 cases of skeletal fluorosis were identified among long term cryolite workers in Copenhagen. In 1982 four of these patients were alive, eight to 15 years after exposure had ended. Radiographs were obtained, and the urinary fluoride excretion was measured. A similar picture emerged in all four cases: extensive fading of the sclerosis of trabecular bone in ribs, vertebral bodies, and pelvis, whereas cortical bone thickening and calcification of musc...

  3. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

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    Reddy D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  4. Skeletal fluorosis in immobilized extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, J B

    1975-11-01

    The effect of immobilization on skeletal fluorosis was studied in growing rabbits. One hind leg was immobilized by an external fixation device extending below the wrist joint and above the knee joint, the extremity being in a straight position after severance of the sciatic nerve. The animals, aged 7 weeks at the beginning of the experiment, were given 10 mg of fluoride per kg body weight and day during 12 weeks. In the tibiae, development of the skeletal fluorosis was more irregular than that observed in previous studies of normally active animals, being most excessive in the mobile bone. The immobilization effect was most profound in the femora as the cortical thickness and the femur score were significantly higher than those in the mobile femora. It was suggested that an altered muscular activity was the reason for the observed changes. PMID:1189918

  5. Thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum caused by skeletal fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenbao; Kong, Linghua; Zhao, Heyuan; Dong, Ronghua; Li, Jianjiang; Jia, Zhanhua; Ji, Ning; Deng, Shucai; Sun, Zhiming; Zhou, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) caused by skeletal fluorosis is rare. Only six patients had been reported in the English literature. This study reports findings from the first clinical series of this disease. This was a retrospective study of patients with thoracic OLF due to skeletal fluorosis who underwent surgical management at the authors’ hospital between 1993 and 2003. Diagnosis of skeletal fluorosis was made based on the epidemic history, clinical symptoms, radiographi...

  6. Skeletal fluorosis: roentgenological and histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed radiological and morphometrical studies have been reported in 100 patients of proven endemic skeletal fluorosis all of whom were symptomatic. Though the radiological features such as osteopetrosis, periosteal bone formation, osteophytosis and calcification of the interosseous membrane and ligaments remain the mainstay in the diagnosis of skeletal fluorosis, in increasing instances radiological findings have been variable and uncommon suggesting the presence of other metabolic bone disease. Morphometrical measurements of the iliac crest biopsies revealed osteoclastic resorption of the trabecular bone, increased numbers of resorption lacunae, periosteocytic osteolysis and increased osteoid covered surfaces. The calcification front had a normal distribution except in four patients with associated osteomalacia. Findings were similar in children suffering from endemic fluorosis. These studies suggest that the stabilizing effect of fluoride on bone due to the conversion of hydroxyapatite to fluorapatite produces a compensatory hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands. Thus, the possibility of a beneficial effect of fluoride in osteoporosis has been challenged in the light of this parathyroid compensation

  7. A comparative study of skeletal fluorosis among adults in two study areas of Bangarpet taluk, Kolar

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    M N Shruthi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skeletal fluorosis is a crippling disease resulting from excessive exposure to high fluoride from different sources. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis in Bangarpet taluk of Kolar, to compare various epidemiological factors influencing the occurrence of skeletal fluorosis among the two groups with differential water fluoride levels, and to estimate fluoride levels in all the sources of drinking water in study areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adults of three randomly selected villages of Bangarpet taluk, Thimmasandra, Batavarahalli, with high (>1.5 mg/L and Maddinayakanahalli with normal (<1.0 mg/L fluoride levels. A house-to-house survey was conducted by administering a semi-structured questionnaire. Skeletal fluorosis was assessed by three simple physical tests in the field followed by radiological confirmation among the positives. Fluoride levels of drinking water sources were estimated by the ion-electrode method. Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests were used as tests of association. Results: The prevalence of skeletal fluorosis at field level in both high and normal fluoride groups was 5.0%. Water fluoride levels in Thimmasandra, Batavarahalli, and Maddinayakanahalli were 4.13 mg/L, 2.59 mg/L, and 0.61 mg/L, respectively. Among the subjects with skeletal fluorosis, a significant difference was observed between socioeconomic status and prevalence of skeletal fluorosis in both high and normal fluoride groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Skeletal fluorosis is a threat among elderly in Bangarpet taluk, Kolar district.

  8. A STUDY ON SPIROMETRIC EVALUATION OF LUNG VOLUME RESTRICTION IN PREDIAGNOSED CASES OF SKELETAL FLUOROSIS

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    Abhijit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis is an important public health problem in India. Skeletal changes and mottled enamel may result when drinking water contains excess fluoride. Due to involvement of ribcage skeletal fluorosis causes restrictive lung disease causing reduction in vital capacity. This cross sectional observational study has been done on 55 pre diagnosed patients of skeletal fluorosis, they have been classified according to MMRC dyspnea grading & lung volume has been measured. Among 55 patients, 43 patients (78.18% have shortness of breath, it also has been seen that 13.95% patients have MMRC grade 4 dyspnea, i.e. too breathless to leave the home & 21.81% of cases have FVC < 34% of predicted, i.e. very severe lung volume restriction.

  9. Assessment of skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluoridated areas of Vidharbha Region, India: A survey

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    Rawlani Sudhir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in patients living at endemic fluoridated areas and also the morphological changes in red blood cells (R.B.C.′s. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Vidharbha region of Maharashtra, India. An ethical clearance was obtained from the concerned authorities. Fifty families were screened and 204 subjects who had dental/skeletal fluorosis were included in the study. The aims and objectives were explained to the study subjects of the village and biochemical, hematological and radiological assessment was done. The main source of drinking water in this area was tube well. The concentrations of fluoride in two different areas of same village were 4 and 4.5 ppm. Results: Prevalence of skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis in male patients was 56.87% (116 and in female patients (88 it was 43.13%. RBC count in male patients was 5.03 ± 0.49 while in female patients it was 4.70 ± 0.47. With significant difference between male and female patients, P value was 0.003. Hb% in male patients was 12.44 ± 1.76 and in female patients it was 11.31± 1.34, showing significant difference between male and female patients P value 0.038. Alkaline phosphate level in male patients was 289.68 ± 149.09 and in female patients it was 276.68 ± 164.97. ESR count in male patients was found 11.41 ± 8.75 and in female patients it was 13.29 ±7.37. Radiological finding of fluorosis patients shows thickening of inner and outer tables of skull bone in 83.92% of patients and only 7.84% of the patients were suffering from barrowing of long bone.

  10. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

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    Aweke Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F in drinking water (~5 mg F/L. The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60 and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220. Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  11. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed. PMID:27472351

  12. Fluorosis... causing paraplegia... mutilating life...

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    Ahsan, Tasnim; Jabeen, Rakhshanda; Hashim, Saba; Bano, Zeenat; Ghafoor, Subheen

    2016-02-01

    Fluorosis is thought to be rare in Pakistan but endemic in various parts of the world, especially in India and China. In Pakistan only a few cases have been reported from Thar, Sibbi and Manga Mandi, with probability of fluorosis on MRI findings, supported by high drinking waterfluoride content. Neurological manifestations of skeletal fluorosis may vary from radiculo-myelopathy to neuropathy. A case of 26 years old female from Thul, Sindh, who presented with paraplegia, is reported here. Her MRI showed extensive classical degenerative changes throughout the spine, consistent with fluorosis, leading to cord compression at multiple levels. No such case with confirmed fluorosis has been previously reported from Pakistan. PMID:26819172

  13. Investigation on prevalent condition of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis after Water-improvement Projects in the endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City%青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后氟斑牙及氟骨症患病调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜玲; 周进才

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后氟斑牙及氟骨症患病情况,以评价其改水防治效果.方法 采用流行病学抽样调查的方法,对青铜峡市2006年已改水的高氟重病区叶盛镇叶盛5队,高氟轻病区大坝镇新桥5队(原高桥4队),未改水的大坝镇滑石沟5队共670名儿童和1 400名25岁以上成人分别进行了氟斑牙和氟骨症的调查.结果 改水与未改水地区儿童氟斑牙患病率差异有统计学意义(x2=9.954,P<0.05);改水与未改水地区氟骨症患病率差异有统计学意义(x2=13.098,P<0.05);改水后水氟浓度为0.24~0.32 mg/L.结论 青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区经改水降氟后,饮用水符合卫生要求,但氟斑牙及氟骨症尚存在一定程度的流行,还未达到完全控制.%OBJECTIVE The survey is conducted to evaluate the result of water-improvement project aimed in eliminating the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City.METHODS By applying epidemiological sample survey method,some 670 children and 1 400 adults (> 25 years) had been examined in dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in Yesheng 5th team of Yesheng Township,where endemic fluorosis was seriously prevailed and had become water-improvement area in 2006; in Xinqiao 5th team Daba Township,endemic fluorosis mild prevailed; and Huashigou 5th team in Daba Township was not included in water-improvement area.RESULTS There was an evident difference in the dental fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the places without sater-improvement projects (x2 =9.954,P< 0.05).There was an evident difference in skeletal fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the places without water-improvement projects areas (x2 =13.098,P< 0.05).Since the drinking water improvement,the fluoride content in drinking water was 0.24-0.32 mg/L.CONCLUSION After water-improvement projects in the endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City

  14. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoride content as biomarkers of excess fluoride exposure in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death, Clare; Coulson, Graeme; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Morris, William K; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2015-11-15

    Particulate and gaseous fluoride emissions contaminate vegetation near fluoride-emitting industries, potentially impacting herbivorous wildlife in neighboring areas. Dental fluorosis has been associated with consumption of fluoride-contaminated foliage by juvenile livestock and wildlife in Europe and North America. For the first time, we explored the epidemiology and comparative pathology of dental fluorosis in Australian marsupials residing near an aluminium smelter. Six species (Macropus giganteus, Macropus rufogriseus, Wallabia bicolor, Phascolarctos cinereus, Trichosurus vulpecula, Pseudocheirus peregrinus) demonstrated significantly higher bone fluoride levels in the high (n=161 individuals), compared to the low (n=67 individuals), fluoride areas (p<0.001). Necropsy examinations of all six species from the high-fluoride area near the smelter revealed dental lesions considered characteristic of dental fluorosis in eutherian mammals. Within the high-fluoride area, 67% of individuals across the six species showed dental enamel lesions, compared to 3% in the low-fluoride areas. Molars that erupted before weaning were significantly less likely to display pathological lesions than those developing later, and molars in the posterior portion of the dental arcade were more severely fluorotic than anterior molars in all six species. The severity of dental lesions was positively associated with increasing bone fluoride levels in all species, revealing a potential biomarker of excess fluoride exposure. PMID:26188404

  15. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of thei...

  16. Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

  17. Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offiah, Amaka [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Perez-Rossello, Jeanette Mercedes; Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

  18. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  19. Follow-up skeletal survey use by child abuse pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nancy S; Lewis, Terri; Eddleman, Sonja; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal survey is frequently used to identify occult fractures in young children with concern for physical abuse. Because skeletal survey is relatively insensitive for some abusive fractures, a follow-up skeletal survey (FUSS) may be undertaken at least 10-14 days after the initial skeletal survey to improve sensitivity for healing fractures. This was a prospectively planned secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study of 2,890 children who underwent subspecialty evaluation for suspected child physical abuse at 1 of 19 centers. Our objective was to determine variability between sites in rates of FUSS recommendation, completion and fracture identification among the 2,049 participants who had an initial SS. Among children with an initial skeletal survey, the rate of FUSS recommendation for sites ranged from 20% to 97%; the rate of FUSS completion ranged from 10% to 100%. Among sites completing at least 10 FUSS, rates of new fracture identification ranged from 8% to 28%. Among completed FUSS, new fractures were more likely to be identified in younger children, children with higher initial level of concern for abuse, and those with a fracture or cutaneous injury identified in the initial evaluation. The current variability in FUSS utilization is not explained by variability in occult fracture prevalence. Specific guidelines for FUSS utilization are needed. PMID:26342432

  20. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner.

  1. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

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    Zhipeng Fan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  2. Chronic Fluoride Toxicity: Dental Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    DenBesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2–3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enam...

  3. Clinical treatment effect of acetaminophen on endemic skeletal fluorosis%对乙酰氨基酚治疗地方性氟骨症的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长青; 张海涛; 王成海; 韩昌; 张晓东; 王献斌; 乔校; 王中海; 杨德民

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察对乙酰氨基酚治疗地方性氟骨症临床效果,为氟骨症治疗提供有效药物.方法 分为1期和2期进行临床效果观察.1期临床观察46例患者,2期临床观察812名患者.治疗药品为市售非处方药对乙酰氨基酚片(Paracetamol Tablets),每片0.5g,饭后口服,1次1片,1日3次,连服5d,停药2d后继续服用,疗程为1个月.观察治疗前颈、腰、四肢大关节休息痛症状和治疗后变化,及治疗前后关节活动受限和肢体功能障碍体征变化.按照卫生部“新药临床研究指导原则”中的标准,对所观察指标进行总体疗效判定.从治疗开始,观察并记录患者服药物后症状减轻或体征出现改善的起始时间、不良反应及对药物的耐受性.结果 1期临床疗效结果显示,对乙酰氨基酚的总有效率为84.8%(39/46),无效率为15.2% (7/46).其中轻度患者全部有效(100%,26/26),中度患者有效率为66.7%(12/18);重度患者2人,有效1人.2期临床总有效率为81.0%(658/812),无效率为19.0%(154/812).在治疗的812名患者中,轻度患者有效率占53.2%(432/812),中度患者占24.0%(195/812),重度患者有效率占3.8%(31/812).这些患者的耐受性评分为3,即无不良反应.服药3d后,患者可感关节疼痛减轻,服药7d后多数患者关节疼痛症状明显减轻.结论 对乙酰氨基酚片可以缓解地方性氟骨症的关节疼痛症状,使疼痛症状减轻或消失,也可以缓解或减轻患者的关节活动受限改变,对轻度患者临床表现改善的作用更明显,副作用小,耐受性好.%Objective To observe clinical treatment effect of acetaminophen on endemic skeletal fluorosis,so as to find operative medicine for treatment of endemic skeletal fluorosis.Methods The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of observation period,46 patients were observed in the first phase and 812 patients were observed in the second phase.Paracetamol Tablets (OTC) was used as

  4. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications

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    Madhuri S Kurdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease.

  5. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdi, Madhuri S

    2016-03-01

    Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease. PMID:27053777

  6. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Mary P.; Kao, Simon C. [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  7. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  8. Retrospective review to determine the utility of follow-up skeletal surveys in child abuse evaluations when the initial skeletal survey is normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachelmeyer Andrea

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The AAP recommends that a follow-up skeletal survey be obtained for all children Methods A retrospective review of radiology records from September 1, 1998 - January 31, 2007 was conducted. Suspected victims of child abuse who were Results Forty-seven children had a negative initial skeletal survey and were included for analysis. The mean age was 6.9 months (SD 5.7; the mean number of days between skeletal surveys was 18.7 (SD 10.1 Four children (8.5% had signs of healing bone trauma on a follow-up skeletal survey. Three of these children (75% had healing rib fractures and one child had a healing proximal humerus fracture. The findings on the follow-up skeletal survey yielded forensically important information in all 4 cases and strengthened the diagnosis of non-accidental trauma. Conclusion 8.5 percent of children with negative initial skeletal surveys had forensically important findings on follow-up skeletal survey that increased the certainty of the diagnosis of non-accidental trauma. A follow-up skeletal survey can be useful even when the initial skeletal survey is negative.

  9. Guidelines for skeletal surveys in Suspected Child Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo

    Purpose/Objective Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in the demands for low noise. The consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if the images are not adequate....... If head trauma or fractures are overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. If no abuse has taken place, and the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, it may result in prolonged hospitalization of an innocent family....... In many cases supplement images or a complete reexamination of the child were needed in order to state a second opinion, resulting in unnecessary excess radiation dose. Materials and methods A literature review was performed and the results were discussed at an initial meeting at Odense University...

  10. Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Alison M; Dunstan, Frank; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Mann, Mala; Rolfe, Kim; Datta, Shalini; Thomas, D Phillip; Sibert, Jonathan R; Maguire, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types. Design Systematic review. Data sources All language literature search of Medline, Medline in Process, Embase, Assia, Caredata, Child Data, CINAHL, ISI Proceedings, Sciences Citation, Social Science Citation Index, SIGLE, Scopus, TRIP, and Socia...

  11. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... dentist or hygienist to see. Because most infant formulas contain low levels of fluoride, regularly mixing powdered ...

  12. Mitigation of Fluorosis - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Khairnar, Mahesh R.; Arun S Dodamani; Jadhav, Harish C.; Naik, Rahul G.; Manjiri A. Deshmukh

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is required for normal development and growth of the body. It is found in plentiful quantity in environment and fluoride content in drinking water is largest contributor to the daily fluoride intake. The behaviour of fluoride ions in the human organism can be regarded as that of “double-edged sword”. Fluoride is beneficial in small amounts but toxic in large amounts. Excessive consumption of fluorides in various forms leads to development of fluorosis. Fluorosis is major health probl...

  13. Endemic Fluorosis &Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia in J&K State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Gupta, M.Kjyoti, Shashi Kant

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of endemic fluorosis in J&K State andcause of non-ulcer dyspepsia. A total of 1,61790 individuals in the age range of 5 to 70 years werestudied. In district, Doda 90% of the population studied were suffering from dental fluorosis, 12%were having skeletal deformities as well as bony pains and 60% ofthe population above the age of25 years were suffering from dyspepsia. In other districts only 26% of the population studied werehaving dental fluorosis, 7% had skeletal deformities and 42% were suffering from dyspepsia. Thenuoride content in water of different sources ranged from 1.153 to 27.216 PPM.Two hundred patients suffering from dental and skeletal fluorosis, having severe symptoms ofupper gastrioilllcstinal tract like retrosternal burning distention ofabdomen, pain epigastrium, soureructations and excessive flatulence or constipation were studied alongwith 10 control normalsubjects. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy studies showcd that 82 patients had mild to moderateantritis and pyloritis, 35 had multiple erosions in stomach, 36 had duodenitis and 47 had normalstudy. Histopathological examination of biopsies of stomach and jejunum revealed non-specificchanges but scanning electron microscopic examination showed scanty microvilli or bald epitheliumof the nlucosa, surface abrasions, desquamated epithelium and classical cracked clay appearance.This study concludes that fluorosis is in endemic form in J&K State and non-ulcer dyspepsia'is very common in these patients because of drinking of highly fluoridated waler.

  14. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez

    2000-06-01

    estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition of a San Luis Potosi children population, and its association to fluoride concentration in drinking water and urine. An additional objective was, to develop, validate, and test a specific index for dental fluorosis in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May 1997, to January 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. Study subjects were 100 children aged 3-6 years, selected at random from three kindergartens in three risk areas of San Luis Potosi. The specific index of dental fluorosis for primary dentition (Dental Fluorosis for Primary Dentition Index-DFPDI was validated by estimating fluoride concentrations in enamel of teeth with and without dental fluorosis. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the association between fluoride concentrations in drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis; the association between risk area and dental fluorosis was assessed with the Mantel-Haenszel chi² test. RESULTS: . The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was 78%; primary molars were most affected in both maxillae and the predominant color was a non-glossy white appearance. We found a strong direct correlation (r=0.93 between fluoride concentrations in primary teeth and the DFPDI. Associations were found between fluoride concentrations of drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis (Kruskal-Wallis p=0.00001, and between risk area and dental fluorosis (Mantel-Haenszel chi² p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: DFPDI allowed adequate identification and grading of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. It is important to detect the initial toxic effects of fluoride exposure to predict dental fluorosis in permanent dentition and skeletal fluorosis.

  15. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience.

  16. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in association with different water fluoride levels in Mysore district, Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Shibu Thomas Sebastian; Rino Roopak Soman; S. Sunitha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fluoride intake at optimal level decreases the incidence of dental caries. However, excessive intake, especially during developmental stages can cause adverse effects such as dental and skeletal fluorosis. Aim: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary school children born and raised in three villages of Mysore District. The three selected villages have different water fluoride concentrations. Materials and Methods: Three villages namely, Nerale (w...

  17. Reversal of dental fluorosis: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaval N Mehta; Shah, Jigna

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical reversal of dental fluorosis with various combinations of calcium, vitamin D3, and ascorbic acid, along with changes in levels of certain biochemical parameters concerned with dental fluorosis. The role of fluoride level of drinking water in the etiology of dental fluorosis and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in both dentitions and teeth were also assessed. Materials and Methods: A total number of 50 patients with clinical features of ...

  18. Modifying Role of GSTP1 Polymorphism on the Association between Tea Fluoride Exposure and the Brick-Tea Type Fluorosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Wu

    Full Text Available Brick tea type fluorosis is a public health concern in the north-west area of China. The association between SNPs of genes influencing bone mass and fluorosis has attracted attention, but the association of SNPs with the risk of brick-tea type of fluorosis has not been reported.To investigate the modifying roles of GSTP1 rs1695 polymorphisms on this association.A cross-sectional study was conducted. Brick-tea water was tested by the standard of GB1996-2005 (China. Urinary fluoride was tested by the standard of WS/T 89-2006 (China. Skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed by X-ray, the part we scheduled was forearm, shank, and pelvic, then diagnosed the skeletal fluorosis by the standard of WS/192-2008 (China. Gene polymorphism was tested by Sequenom MassARRAY system.The prevalence rate in different ethnical participants was different: Tibetan individuals had the highest prevalence rate of skeletal fluorosis. There were significant differences in genotype frequencies of GSTP1 Rs1695 among different ethnical participants (p<0.001: Tibetan, Mongolian and Han subjects with homozygous wild type (GSTP1-AA genotype were numerically higher than Kazakh and Russian subjects (p<0.001. Compared to Tibetan participants who carried homozygous A allele of GSTP1 Rs1695, Tibetan participants who carried G allele had a significantly decreased risk of skeletal fluorosis (OR = 0.558 [95% CI, 0.326-0.955]. For Kazakh participants, a decreased risk of skeletal fluorosis among carriers of the G allele was limited to non high-loaded fluoride status (OR = 0. 166 [95% CI, 0.035-0.780] vs. OR = 1.478 [95% CI, 0.866-2.552] in participants with high-loaded fluoride status. Neither SNP-IF nor SNP-age for GSTP1 Rs1695 was observed.The prevalence rate of the brick tea type fluorosis might have ethnic difference. For Tibetan individuals, who had the highest prevalence rate, G allele of GSTP1 Rs1695 might be a protective factor for brick tea type skeletal fluorosis.

  19. Relationships between daily total fluoride intake and dental fluorosis and dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanyong Xiang; Minghao Zhou; Ming Wu; Xinya Zhou; Li Lin; Jiuning Huang; Youxing Liang

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationships between the dally total intake of fluoride,dental fluorosis and dental caries.Methods:An epidemiological method was used to investigate the daily total intake of fluoride,dental fluorosis,and dental caries among 236 and 290 children aged 8-13 years in a severe endemic area and in a non-fluorosis control area,respectively.The children were divided into eight subgroups according to each child's estimated dally total intake of fluoride.The prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in each group was calculated.Results:As expected,elevated levels of fluoride intake were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dental fluorosis and an increasing amount of more severe defect dental fhiorosis.When the dally total F intake was 2.78 rag/child/day,the prevalence of dental fluorosis was nearly 100%,with the prevalence of defect dental fluorosis increasing with increasing fluoride intake.There was also a significant negative(inverse) dose-response relationship between the dally total intake of fluoride and the overall preva-lence of dental caries,the prevalence of which decreased when the daily total intake of fluoride increased up to 3.32 mg/child/day.However,at higher levels of daily total intake of fluoride the prevalence of dental caries increased,giving rise to a U-shaped dose-response relationship curve.Conclusion:It is important to monitor total fluoride exposure and protect children from excessive fluoride intake,especially during the years of tooth development.

  20. Fluorosis as an Environmental Disease and its Effect on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simge Varol

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is a halogene found in earth, water, rocks, air, plants and animal tissue in various amounts. In normal conditions, people daily take fluoride compounds in amounts without any harmful effects this cause fewer dental caries and the formation of stronger bones. However, if the amount of fluoride taken daily exceeds the safety threshold, chronic fluoride intoxication, known as fluorosis, arises. As a result of fluorosis, pathological changes appear in tooths, skeletal system, liver, kidney, heart, gastrointestinal system and endocrin system. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 233-238

  1. Mitigation of Fluorosis - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Mahesh R; Dodamani, Arun S; Jadhav, Harish C; Naik, Rahul G; Deshmukh, Manjiri A

    2015-06-01

    Fluoride is required for normal development and growth of the body. It is found in plentiful quantity in environment and fluoride content in drinking water is largest contributor to the daily fluoride intake. The behaviour of fluoride ions in the human organism can be regarded as that of "double-edged sword". Fluoride is beneficial in small amounts but toxic in large amounts. Excessive consumption of fluorides in various forms leads to development of fluorosis. Fluorosis is major health problem in 24 countries, including India, which lies in the geographical fluoride belt. Various technologies are being used to remove fluoride from water but still the problem has not been rooted out. The purpose of this paper is to review the available treatment modalities for fluorosis, available technologies for fluoride removal from water and ongoing fluorosis mitigation programs based on literature survey. Medline was the primary database used in the literature search. Other databases included: PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, WHO, Ebscohost, Science Direct, Google Search Engine, etc. PMID:26266235

  2. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition, skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. Materials and Methods: This survey was conducted among the middle school students (VI th -VIII th studying in three government schools of Sangam Vihar, South Delhi. Students were examined for dental fluorosis by experts. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data regarding age, source of drinking water, toothpaste used, etc. Height, weight, and hemoglobin were recorded. Two repeat visits were made. Out of 432 students enrolled in these schools, 413 students were examined. Statistics: Descriptive and chi-square statistics were used. Results: Dental fluorosis was prevalent in 121 (29.3% study subjects. It was significantly more in children of age 13 years or above, in those who used fluoridated toothpaste for dental cleaning (P=0.033 and in anemic children (P<0.001. However, there was no significant association of disease with gender (P=0.02, source of drinking water (P=0.417, and with BMI (P=0.826. Conclusion: As dental fluorosis is very common (in about one-fourth among the middle school children, in this resettlement colony of Delhi, various control measures e.g. discouraging the fluoridated toothpastes, educating parents about fluorosis, de-fluoridation of water in the high risk areas, etc may help to tackle this situation.

  3. Fluorosis in a dairy herd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, W.G.

    1972-04-29

    Investigation of a high incidence of hip arthritis in a herd of Ayrshires resulted in the discovery of abnormal levels of fluorine in samples of bone. Suspicion of fluorosis was not aroused earlier as the area is not contaminated by industrial fall-out. In addition, many affected animals had no lesions in their teeth; this was because their dentition was complete before ingesting fluorine from a mineral supplement. Only cows receiving toxic levels of fluorine during their first lactation showed lesions, and these were confined to the fourth pair of incisors. Two metabolic profile tests were caried out to establish that the input-output balance in the main metabolites was normal. Analysis of various constituents of the diet revealed significant levels of fluorine in the mineral supplement only. Arthritis was the most prominent feature. This led to debility, with loss of milk and carcase value. Confirmation of fluorosis was obtained by analysis of bone and urine.

  4. Study of thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in subjects with dental fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hosur, Mahadevi B.; Puranik, R S; Vanaki, Shrinivas; Surekha R Puranik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Apart from its well-known deleterious dental and skeletal effects, fluoride excess can have toxic effects on many other tissues. Fluoride, when in excess, is known to interfere with thyroid gland function. Fluoride-induced thyroid disturbances similar to those observed in iodine deficiency state in spite of adequate iodine intake have been documented. Similar thyroid disturbances in individuals with dental fluorosis have not been well studied in populations with endemic fluorosis. ...

  5. Dental enamel, fluorosis and amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ciarrocchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most used antibiotics among pediatric patients for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections and specially for acute otitis media (AOM, a common diseases of infants and childhood. It has been speculated that the use of amoxicillin during early childhood could be associated with dental enamel fluorosis, also described in literature with the term Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH, because they are generally situated in one or more 1st permanent molars and less frequently in the incisors. The effect of Amoxicillin seems to be independent of other risk factors such as fluoride intake, prematurity, hypoxia, hypocalcaemia, exposure to dioxins, chikenpox, otitis media, high fever and could have a significant impact on oral health for the wide use of this drug in that period of life. Objective: The aim of this work was to review the current literature about the association between amoxicillin and fluorosis. Methods and Results: A literature survey was done by applying the Medline database (Entrez PubMed; the Cochrane Library database of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL. The databases were searched using the following strategy and keywords: amoxicillin* AND (dental fluorosis* OR dental enamel* AND MIH*. After selecting the studies, only three relevant articles published between 1966 and 2011 were included in the review. Conclusion: The presence of several methodological issues does not allow to draw any evidence-based conclusions. No evidence of association was detected, therefore, there is a need of further well-designed studies to assess the scientific evidence of the relationship between amoxicillin and fluorosis and to restrict the prescription of this drug for recurrent upper respiratory tract infections especially acute otitis media (AOM during the first two years of life. When it is possible can be opportune to use an alternative antibiotic treatment.

  6. 贵州燃煤型地方性氟中毒重病区总摄氟量调查分析%Analysis of total intake of fluoride in severe endemic fluorosis regions of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李达圣; 安冬; 何平; 梁音; 靳争京

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of the total intake of fluoride in severe fluorosis - endemic regions of Guizhou Province. Methods 4 historic severe endemic villages and 2 mild villages ( control) were investigated by ways of random sampling in the present and retrospect epidemiological study. Results The total detection rate of dental fluorosis in the children aged 8 to 12 years was above 90% , defect type was above 40% , clinic skeletal fluorosis was above 40% , and the sever type above 5%. But the detection rate of dental fluorosis of the age group of 8 and 9 years old was significantly decreased, and the rate of skeletal fluorosis in the group of 16 years old was also decreased obviously. No child cases with the deformity of bone were seen. The daily mean total intake of fluoride was above 30 mg before the 1980s, and below 18 mg in 2006. The order of the constitution of intake is as follows; chilipepper > corn > rice > vegetables > drinking water > air, which is quit different from that of 10 years ago. The time distribution for mild control villages is the same as the severe villages, but severity of fluorosis was significantly lower than that of severe villages. Conclusions The daily mean total intake of fluoride in the severe fluorosis regions of Guizhou is significantly decreased, which resulted in control of the development and prevalence of endemic fluorosis. However, the situation of the severe endemic regions is still worse, and the total intake of fluoride is still higher. The intake path of fluoride through chilipepper need much regard although the constitution of food changed.%目的 探讨贵州燃煤型地方性氟中毒(地氟病)重病区总摄氟量变化.方法 采用随机分层抽样方法,对地氟病重病区村作了流行病学现况和回顾性调查.结果 4个历史重病区村儿童氟斑牙总体检出率达90%以上,缺损型达40%以上,临床氟骨症检出率达40%以上,其中重度检出率达5%以上,但8、9岁

  7. 青海省僧侣饮茶型氟中毒现况分析%Brick-tea type fluorosis in monks in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏生英; 鲁青; 杨萍; 陈萍; 李生梅; 喇翠玲; 姜泓; 何多龙; 吴海坤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To know the distribution and harm of brick-tea type fluorosis in monks in Qinghai Province.Methods Twenty-eight temples were selected as survey sites from 28 counties of Qinghai Province.The amounts of drinking tea-water of each monk and the brick tea capita consumption per temple each year were recorded.Drinking water,tea water and urine samples of monks were collected and fluorine content was tested; dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 years and of adult monks over the age of 16 were examined; clinical skeletal fluorosis of monks 16 years of age and older and X-ray skeletal fluorosis of all adult monks in the temple were examined.Fluorine content in drinking water,brick tea and urine was tested using F-ion selective electrode.Dental fluorosis was checked using the dental fluorine diagnostic criteria (WS/T 208-2001),and skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed based on the endemic skeletal fluorosis diagnosis standard (WS 192-1999).Results A total of 28 copies of drinking water samples were tested,and mean water fluoride was (0.26 ± 0.13) mg/L; in the 69 copies of brick tea,the mean fluoride value was 667.12 mg/kg; a total of 777 adult monks,the average daily drinking water of brick tea was (1 943.93 ± 1 078.93)ml; a total of 224 children monks,the average daily drinking water of brick tea was (795.09 ± 389.81)ml; annual per capita consumption of brick was 5.30 kg; adult daily fluoride intake was 4.47 mg,child was 1.83 mg; the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis was 29.07%(291/1 001),the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis of 8-12 years old children was 39.74%(93/234),the adult was 26.00%(202/777); the prevalence rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 4.76%(37/775); and the prevalence rate of X-ray skeletal fluorosis was 4.88%(2/41).The geometric mean of adult urinary fluoride was 1.11 mg/L(0.15-10.00 mg/L) of the 777 copies of urine samples tested,and that value of children was 1.23 mg/L(0.08-6.62 mg/L) of the 224 copies of samples

  8. Neighbourhood fluorosis in people residing in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants near Udaipur city of Rajasthan (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2015-08-01

    Chronic industrial fluoride toxicosis in the forms of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis was investigated in 162 villagers (94 males and 78 females) above 15 years of age living in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants located approximately 12 km south of Udaipur city of Rajasthan, India. Out of these villagers, 90 (55.5%) and 29 (18.0%) were found to be afflicted with mild to severe dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Dental fluorosis characterized with light to deep-brownish bilaterally striated horizontal lines, pits or patches and fine dots or granules was noted on incisor teeth of villagers. Irregular wearing, excessive corrosions (abrasions), dark-brownish pigmentation of exposed cementum and dentine material, diastem as between teeth, pronounced loss of tooth supporting bone with recession and bulging of gingiva (gum) were also present in subjects of older age group (>55 years). Among 29 (18.0%) individuals, mild to moderate manifestations of skeletal fluorosis such as crippling, kyphosis, invalidism and genu-varum syndrome were found. In these fluorotic subjects pain/rigidity in major joints viz. neck, back, hip, knee and shoulder was also found. None of the fluorotic subjects showed evidence of genu-valgum syndrome. Other signs of chronic industrial fluoride intoxication in soft tissues (non-skeletal fluorosis) included colic, intermittent diarrhoea or constipation, bloating, polyuria and polydipsia. These findings indicate that surrounding environment of superphosphate fertilizer plants is contaminated with fluoride emission, which in turn is causing diverse ill health effects in humans which are discussed. PMID:26160742

  9. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  10. Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahian F. MD- Internist

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The health of habitants, living in un-fluoridated drinking water areas, can be endangered"nthrough fluoride intake from food, beverages, tooth paste and dentistry products. Fluoride is used in"nmouthwash, toothpaste, juice fruits, conserved foods and Teflon dishes. Water exposure to fluoride"noccurs through fertilizers, aluminum industries, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides and fungicides used"nfor fruits and vegetables which ultimately lead to environmental fluoride pollution. Some side effects."ncaused by chronic fluoride intake are as follows: decrease of hemoglobin concentration, gastrointestinal"ndisorders, and tooth loss at young age, osteofluorosis, hip fracture among aged people, osteosclerosis,"nosteoporosis, special forms of arthritis and joint ankylosis, metaphysial osteomalacia, mottling and weak"nstructure of tooth, insulin secretion and glucose tolerance test disorders, decrease of urine concentration,"nimmune system disorders, genetic defects and cancer, learning disabilities and IQ(intelligence quotient"ndeficits and thyroid dysfunction The present article was to investigate the side effect of excessive"nfluoride intake and to discuss different preventive and diagnostic ways.

  11. Dental fluorosis associated with chronic ingestion of dentifrices – what health professionals should know

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Virginia Dutra de Oliveira; Fernanda Lourenção Brighenti

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on two cases of dental fluorosis caused by inadvertent ingestion of fluoridated dentifrice. An eight-year-old child showed whitish spots and loss of dental enamel in first permanent molars and whitish spots without structure loss in permanent incisors and primary second molars, whereas a fourteen-year-old teenager showed whitish spots in all permanent teeth. In both cases, homologue teeth were affected similarly and mothers did not report on the use of fluoride supplements ...

  12. Calcium metabolism in fluorosis and endemic genu valgum using radioactive tracer, whole body counting and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endemic fluorosis with extensive skeletal changes has been reported from several parts of India. In recent years a new condition, endemic genu valgum, has been recognized in one of these areas. In both conditions osteosclerosis, particularly of the spine, has been observed, but in genu valgum the most distinctive pathology is osteoporosis in bones of the extremities and presumably as a result the ''knock knees'' that give the syndrome its name. In this project certain aspects of calcium metabolism were investigated in endemic fluorosis and genu valgum and in appropriate control subjects. Calcium kinetics were studied by intravenously injecting a tracer dose of 47Ca and following for 10 days thereafter the concentration of the tracer in serum and excreta, as well as its total retention in the body (the latter measured by whole body counting). In addition calcium balance was measured on some of the subjects while resident in a metabolic ward. Statistical analysis of the results showed in general a higher metabolic activity of calcium in the fluorosis and genu valgum cases than in the controls (specifically, higher ''turnover'' of calcium in the blood pool and an apparently elevated bone mineralization rate). Whole body retention was somewhat greater in the patients than in the controls. Several measurements were also performed relative to blood chemistry, and in particular the serum concentration of 25-OHD3 (a metabolite of vitamin D) was measured. There was no evidence that vitamin D deficiency played a significant role in the causation of genu valgum

  13. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries; Kindesmisshandlung. Radiologische Diagnostik skelettaler Verletzungsfolgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie

    2012-06-15

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of Dental Fluorosis in Mmp20+/− Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, R.; Tye, C.E.; Arun, A.; Macdonald, D; Chatterjee, A.; Abrazinski, T.; Everett, E T; Whitford, G.M.; Bartlett, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie dental fluorosis are poorly understood. The retention of enamel proteins hallmarking fluorotic enamel may result from impaired hydrolysis and/or removal of enamel proteins. Previous studies have suggested that partial inhibition of Mmp20 expression is involved in the etiology of dental fluorosis. Here we ask if mice expressing only one functional Mmp20 allele are more susceptible to fluorosis. We demonstrate that Mmp20+/− mice express approximately half ...

  15. Caries Experience Evidenced in Children having Dental Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    A, Tuli; U, Rehani; A, Aggrawal

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. Material and methods: 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean’s criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO...

  16. Osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia: a skeletal dysplasia that may mimic lead poisoning in a child with hypotonia and seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the case of a 23-month-old male with hypotonia, developmental delay, and complex seizures. Radiographs revealed profound sclerosis of the metaphyses and epiphyses of the long and short bones in the extremities, with a unique pattern of distribution. Sclerosis also involved the anterior ribs, iliac crests, talus, and calcaneus. The skull and vertebral bodies appeared unaffected. Blood lead levels were normal. We believe that this constellation of clinical and radiographic abnormalities closely resembles osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia (OMD) due to an autosomal recessive defect. Characteristic skeletal findings were instrumental in determining the diagnosis. OMD is a very rare sclerosing bone disorder, first described in 1993. The syndrome is characterized clinically by developmental delay of a progressive nature, hypotonia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and late-onset spastic paraplegia. We encountered a young child with these neurologic symptoms who displayed sclerotic metaphyseal changes on hand radiographs obtained to determine the bone age. Lead poisoning, a known cause of metaphyseal sclerosis, was initially suspected. Careful analysis of the metaphyseal bone changes helped to distinguish this bone dysplasia from lead poisoning and other causes of metaphyseal sclerosis. (orig.)

  17. Quantitative Light Fluorescence (QLF and Polarized White Light (PWL assessments of dental fluorosis in an epidemiological setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pretty Iain A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine if a novel dual camera imaging system employing both polarized white light (PWL and quantitative light induced fluorescence imaging (QLF is appropriate for measuring enamel fluorosis in an epidemiological setting. The use of remote and objective scoring systems is of importance in fluorosis assessments due to the potential risk of examiner bias using clinical methods. Methods Subjects were recruited from a panel previously characterized for fluorosis and caries to ensure a range of fluorosis presentation. A total of 164 children, aged 11 years (±1.3 participated following consent. Each child was examined using the novel imaging system, a traditional digital SLR camera, and clinically using the Dean’s and Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF Indices on the upper central and lateral incisors. Polarized white light and SLR images were scored for both Dean’s and TF indices by raters and fluorescence images were automatically scored using software. Results Data from 164 children were available with a good distribution of fluorosis severity. The automated software analysis of QLF images demonstrated significant correlations with the clinical examinations for both Dean’s and TF index. Agreement (measured by weighted Kappa’s between examiners scoring clinically, from polarized photographs and from SLR images ranged from 0.56 to 0.92. Conclusions The study suggests that the use of a digital imaging system to capture images for either automated software analysis, or remote assessment by raters is suitable for epidemiological work. The use of recorded images enables study archiving, assessment by multiple examiners, remote assessment and objectivity due to the blinding of subject status.

  18. Dental Fluorosis. Impact on Quality of Life and Treatment Need among Adolescents with Dental Fluorosis in an Endemic Area, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Dental fluorosis is the hypomineralization of dental enamel caused by chronic ingestion of fluoride during the formative stages of the dental hard tissues. Fluoride in excess of 1.5 mg/L in water is the principle cause of endemic dental fluorosis. Other causes of dental fluorosis are fluoride supplements (e.g. toothpaste) and food additives like traditional salt "trona". Dental fluorosis has social and psychological effects, whereby individuals affected even with the mild form demonstrate sig...

  19. Topical fluoride as a cause of dental fluorosis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, MCM; Lo, ECM; Glenny, AM; Tsang, BWK; Worthington, HV; Marinho, VCC

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many years, topical use of fluorides has gained greater popularity than systemic use of fluorides. A possible adverse effect associated with the use of topical fluoride is the development of dental fluorosis due to the ingestion of excessive fluoride by young children with developing teeth. OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationship between the use of topical fluorides in young children and the risk of developing dental fluorosis. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic search of the Cochra...

  20. Fluoride in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with fluorosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y H; Wu, S S

    1988-01-01

    The CSF fluoride level of individuals drinking water with normal fluoride content and of patients with endemic fluorosis were studied. For the purpose of studying the relationship between the dynamic equilibrium of the CSF fluoride and other body fluids, urine and blood fluoride were examined simultaneously. Fluoride was revealed in every CSF sample of the control group and its mean value was lower than that of the blood. The CSF fluoride concentration of patients with fluorosis was slightly ...

  1. Dental fluorosis: prevalence and associated factors in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Goiânia, Goiás

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    Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of dental fluorosis, to investigate its association with individual and contextual variables among 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to determine whether there were changes in the prevalence of this condition from 2003 to 2010.METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, in 2010 (n = 2,075, and secondary data from the files of the local health authority. Clinical data were collected through oral examinations in public and private schools. The dependent variable was the presence of dental fluorosis, assessed using the Dean Index. The independent individual variables were sociodemographic characteristics (the child's gender and race, and the mother's level of schooling and those related to clinical conditions (caries experience, evaluated using Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth index; and presence of periodontal calculus and/or bleeding, evaluated using Community Periodontal Index. The contextual variables were linked to the school (type and existence of toothbrushing program and its geographic location in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test was performed, and the percentage difference between the prevalences in the period from 2003 to 2010 was calculated.RESULTS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 2010 was 18.7%, being distributed as very mild (11.2%, mild (4.4%, moderate (2.6%, and severe (0.5%. No significant association was found between prevalence of dental fluorosis and the investigated variables. The prevalence of fluorosis increased 230% from 2003 to 2010, and such difference was significant.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was low, predominantly of the very mild degree, has increased over a 7-year period, and was not associated with the individual or contextual factors studied.

  2. Co-occurrence of arseniasis and fluorosis due to indoor combustion of high fluorine and arsenic content coal in a rural township in northwest China: epidemiological and toxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guo-fang; Shen, Jian-hua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai (China); Gong, Shi-you [County Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Ziyang, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Cheng [Township Clinics of Haoping, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Ji-gang [Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control of Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Golka, Klaus [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    A large number of fluorosis and arseniasis cases appeared in a mountainous area in northwest China. The residents relied on local inferior coal (''bone coal'') of high fluorine and arsenic content for domestic heating and cooking. For deep-inside information about this rare case of co-endemia of fluorosis and arseniasis in the population in this special exposure scenario, a field investigation in one of the hyperendemic townships was conducted. The resident population registered (n = 27,713) was enrolled in the investigation. All cases were diagnosed and assigned to three symptom severity groups, that is severe, medium, and mild according to Chinese National Standard Criteria GB 16396-96 and to the technical guideline WS/T208-01 or WS/T211-01 issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Gender difference was analyzed by standardized incidence ratio. Age trend and severity trend were tested by {chi}{sup 2} analysis. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 56.7% of the residents. Over 95% of the diagnosed arseniasis cases were simultaneously diagnosed with fluorosis symptoms. Combined fluorosis-arseniasis represented 11.9% of the total fluorosis cases and 6.7% of the local population. No gender-related differences in the prevalence of skeletal, dental, or dermal symptoms inside all severity groups were detected. Symptom severity increased with age. The high frequency of superposition of arseniasis with fluorosis might be due to the fact that the local resident population has been exposed to very high levels of fluorine and arsenic via the same exposure route. (orig.)

  3. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokseir, Aira; Golkari, Ali; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childhood Events Life-grid method (ECEL). Methods. A study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children from areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of Fars province, Iran. Fluorosis cases were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using Dean's and TF (Thylstrup and Fejerskov) Indices by calibrated dentists. Agreements between examiners were tested. Early childhood health-related data collected retrospectively by ECEL method were matched with the position of enamel defects. Results. Using both Dean and TF indices three out of four dentists diagnosed that 31.3% (115) children had fluorosis, 58.0%, 29.1%, and 10.0% in high (2.12-2.85 ppm), optimal (0.62-1.22 ppm), and low (0.24-0.29 ppm) fluoride areas respectively (p < 0.001). After matching health-related events in the 115 (31.3%) of children diagnosed with fluorosis, 31 (8.4%) of children had fluorosis which could be matched with their adverse health-related events. This suggests that what was diagnosed as fluorosis were non-fluoride related DDEs that resemble fluorosis. Discussion. The frequently used measures of fluorosis appear to overscore fluorosis. Use of ECEL method to consider health related events relevant to DDEs could help to differentiate between genuine fluorosis and fluorosis-resembling defects. PMID:26966672

  4. Microabrasion as treatment of enamel fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Caroline Brito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a trend in favor of using fluoride as a coadjuvant in reducing caries indexes, as much in underdeveloped as in developedcountries. However, simultaneously the indexes of dental fluorosis seem to grow in an inverse proportion. This is brought about by chronic ingestion of fluoride for a prolonged length of time or in high concentration. Enamel microabrasion is an effective method to remove superficial stains caused by this condition, which affects esthetics of that tissue. The use of 18% hydrochloric acid in association with pumice, despite being a simple and low cost method, has been gradually replaced due to its potential of causing damage to periodontal tissues. Thus, this article reports the treatment of a fluorosis clinical case solved with microabrasion using phosphoric acid 37%, because its costbenefit is supposedly better than with chloridric acid. The deliberate ingestion of toothpaste was the probable cause of the tooth stains. Due to the location of the teeth and to the patient’s smile, only the six upper anterior teeth were selected to receive the proposed treatment. Four clinical sessions, with a seven days interval between each other, were carried out using 37% phosphoric acid and pumice. Under rubber dam isolation, the two first sessions consisted of rubbing the acid-pumice mix on enamel surface using a rubber cup on slow speed, and abrasive paper strips on the interproximal tooth surfaces. On the two final sessions, only finishing touches were performed using a wooden spatula to manually rub the acid-pumice paste.

  5. 2010年山东省地方性氟中毒病情调查%Investigation on endemic fluorosis condition of Shandong province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 李亨祥; 刘源

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the status of endemic fluorosis condition in Shandong province at present, and to provide the scientific evidence for making strategies for the prevention and control. Methods In accordance with the national "Technology Implementation Plan for Endemic Disease Control Project in 2009" and "drinking water endemic fluorosis monitoring program (trial) ", Ten counties were chosen to carry out the investigation, three villages were chosen in each county , to determine fluoride content of drinking water, check the 8 to 12 years old childrens dental fluorosis and ≥ 25 -year -old adult skeletal fluorosis. Water fluoride content was determined by fluoride ion selective electrode method, children aged 8 to 12 were diagnosed with dental fluorosis Dean s method and adults skeletal fluorosis by the National Standard for "Diagnosis of endemic skeletal fluorosis" (WS 192 -2008). Results Twenty - six improved water quality villages and four yet no improve - water quality villages were investigated in 10 counties. In the 26 improved water quality villages, 15 villages had water fluoride mean ≤ 1.20 mg / L and accounted for 57. 69% , 11 villages had water fluoride mean > 1. 20 mg / L and accounted for 42. 31%, with the maximum water fluoride mean as 5. 58 mg/ L. In the 4 yet no improve - water quality villages, 1 village had water fluoride mean ≤ 1. 20 mg / L and accounted for 25. 00%, 3 villages had water fluoride mean > 1.20 mg / L and accounted for 75.00% , with the maximum water fluoride mean as 2.92 mg/ L. 1 331 children aged 8 to 12 years old were checked in the 26 improved water villages, with the detection rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8 to 12 years old was 59. 73%, the index of dental fluorosis as 1. 17 and the rate of dental damage as 10. 14%. 138 children aged 8 to 12 years old were checked in 4 yet no improve - water quality villages, with the detection rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8 to 12 years old was 51. 45

  6. Enamel microabrasion for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Moda, Preeti; Yadav, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Fluorosis has increased in recent times due to fluoridation of drinking water and addition of fluoride to various edible items, which leads to unaesthetic appearance of teeth visible at close quarters. The enamel microabrasion technique is a conservative method that improves the appearance of the teeth by restoring bright and superficial smoothness, without causing significant structural loss. The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing mild to moderate dental fluorosis using Opalustre (Ultradent Products) microabrasion slurry. This conservative approach may be considered an interesting alternative to more invasive prosthetic techniques like composite resin restorations, ceramic veneers or crown fabrications. PMID:24121810

  7. Dental fluorosis severity in a group of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Yukie Fujibayashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in a group of school children in the city of Campo do Tenente (Parana, Brazil in order to compare the mean fluoride concentration in public water supply and discuss the effective values for fluoridation of water supply, as well as, the need of control of fluoride concentration within the water consumed by population. Material and methods: Firstly, 362 children enrolled in regular public schools, at elementary level, were examined by a single researcher, previously calibrated for Dean’s index application. From these, 90 children were affected by some degree of fluorosis, but only 40 returned the signed free and clarified consent form for participating in the research. Results: It was found that 42.5% of the children presented mild fluorosis and 32.5% moderate fluorosis. Moreover, it was observed that the average fluoride concentration in public water supply, in 2004, was 1.7 ppm of fluoride. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the need of a closer supervision of the city situation, by the inclusion of fluoridation external control and constant monitoring of the oral health status of the population.

  8. Surveillance analysis of drinking water borne fluorosis in Tibet autonomous region in 2009%2009年西藏自治区饮水型氟中毒病情监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何风珍; 郭敏; 旦增桑布; 尼玛仓决; 白玛央金

    2011-01-01

    functioning of water improvement projects, drinking water fluoride content, children's dental fluorosis and adult skeletal fluorosis were investigated. Water fluoride was detected by the "standard examination methods for drinking water the non-metallic targets"(GB/T 5750.6-2006) determination of fluoride; urinary fluoride was tested by ion selective electrode (WS/T 89-1996); dental fluorosis was diagnosed using Deans method; adult skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed by "endemic skeletal fluorosis clinical diagnostic criteria" (WS 192-2008). Results Mean water fluoride was 0.18 - 0.34 mg/L in drinking water changed areas, and 0.70 - 2.13 mg/L in not changed areas; prevalence of dental fluorosis of children 8 - 10 was 50.78% (65/128), dental fluorosis index was 1.04,mean urinary fluoride was 1.64 mg/L in drinking water changed areas; prevalence of dental fluorosis of children 8 -10 years old was 80.65%(25/31 ) in not changed areas, dental fluorosis index was 1.50, mean urinary fluoride of children was 2.08; adult clinical skeletal fluorosis was 38.7%(104/269) in drinking water changed areas, the mean urinary fluoride was 1.61 mg/L, prevalence of skeletal fluorosis was 15.4% (18/117) in not changed areas, mean urinary fluoride was 3.54 mg/L. Conclusions The method of change the water to reduce fluoride decreases dental fluorosis to control levels, and severity is also reduced, urinary fluoride is decreased. However, the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis is higher than that of drinking water not changed areas.

  9. Dental fluorosis in Chilean children: evaluation of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, A E; Guerrero, S; Icaza, G; Villalobos, J; Anabalón, M

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to determine the association between very-mild-to-moderate enamel fluorosis and exposure during early childhood to fluoridated water, mainly through ingestion of powdered milk. Analysis was performed on 136 residents of the optimally fluoridated community of San Felipe in the Chilean Fifth Region, who were categorised into one of three groups according to their age when water fluoridation was introduced in 1986: Group I was born after 1986; Group II was 16-24 months old in 1986; and Group III was >24 months of age. The case and control subjects were selected on the basis of a clinical examination given in July 1996. Dean's scoring system was used to determine fluorosis status. Risk factor exposure was ascertained by a questionnaire used in interviews with mothers of participating children. Logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for confounding variables, revealed that very-mild-to-moderate enamel fluorosis of permanent central maxillary incisors (CMI) was strongly associated both with the age of the subjects when water fluoridation began and with breast-feeding duration for children belonging to Group I. Subjects in Group I were 20.44 times more likely (95% CI: 5.00-93.48) to develop CMI fluorosis than children who were older than 24 months (Group III) when fluoridation began. Subjects who were between 16 and 24 months old when water fluoridation began were 4.15 times more likely (95% CI: 1.05-16.43) to have CMI fluorosis than children older than 24 months. An inverse association was found with breastfeeding duration (OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.75-0.98) among Group I subjects but not in Groups II and III. Results obtained suggest that the current fluoride concentration in drinking water may be contributing to fluorosis. Further studies will be necessary to determine the relative competing risks of dental fluorosis and dental caries in Chilean children in order to establish the most appropriate water fluoridation level in

  10. [Problems of fluoride dosing to infants for dental fluorosis prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, B N; Borinskaia, E Iu; Kushnir, S M; Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Beliaev, V V

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride content in drinking water, breast milk, cow milk, additional food for newborns prepared with water containing different amount of fluoride was determined. Fluoride excretion in urine since the first days of birth and up to 4 months of postnatal development was investigated in breast and artificially fed infants. When a neonate was fed with breast milk, fluoride was received in the amount no more than 20 mkg/day. The additional food contained fluoride which water mainly had. Water with high level of fluorine increased its content in the additional food up to the values not comparable to those in breast milk that presented danger of dental fluorosis development. Data on fluorine content in drinking water were absolutely necessary to calculate daily fluorides consumption by infants and to prevent dental fluorosis. PMID:21378727

  11. Fluorosis and periostitis deformans as complications of prolonged voriconazole treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Babak; Saleem, Mohamed; Grant, Susan; Florkowski, Christopher; Coates, Penelope; Gordon, David; Rankin, Wayne

    2015-09-01

    We describe a case of development of painful periostitis deformans in a 39-year-old woman who was receiving long-term voriconazole treatment for Aspergillus infection as a complication of orthotopic liver transplant. Measurement of fluoride levels strongly supports fluorosis to be the mechanism of the voriconazole-induced periostitis deformans and supports the concept that such measurements might be of use in predicting this complication of long-term voriconazole treatment. PMID:25587196

  12. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in the district of Salem, Tamil Nadu, South India: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tamil Nadu is one of the 18 states affected by fluorosis in India. The maximum tolerance limit of fluoride in drinking water specified by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1984 is 1.5 mg/l while it is proved to be above in many areas of Salem. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the following study is to identify the prevalence of dental fluorosis among children in the district of Salem. To compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis between different sexes and age groups. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted in a private school where oral examination was done using mouth mirror and probe under sunlight in 965 students, for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis. As it was a pilot study, the fluorosis indexes were not taken into consideration. Results: In our study, 965 students were examined for dental fluorosis out of which, 624 were boys and 341 were girls. Dental fluorosis was present in 31.1% of boys, and 30.3% of girls 297 students out of 965 (30.8% showed the presence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: The present study showed that Salem is one of the districts affected by dental fluorosis in Tamil Nadu. An extensive study including the grades of fluorosis and estimation of water fluoride levels in different areas is required for better evaluation of the situation. Government should take actions to prevent fluorosis. Awareness should be given to the population to drink only the water supplied by the government.

  13. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur City, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Ashish Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to find the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur city, Uttar Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1343 school children, residing in the city since childhood and consuming the groundwater, in the age group of 7-17 years was selected from various schools. Schools were selected from all four directions of the city. Children were categorized in five age groups and were examined for dental fluorosis. Dean′s criteria for assessment of dental fluorosis were used, and observations were recorded on a study specific performa. Results: Among the 1343 children examined, 243 (18% were found to be having dental fluorosis, among which number of males (131 was more than females (112. Among the different grades of fluorosis observed, mild dental fluorosis was observed in most of the cases (158. It was observed that the southern part of the city had a maximum number of cases of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: It was evident from the results that the city had a good number of cases of dental fluorosis and that the groundwater in certain areas had more than normal quantity of fluoride. Since this study was the first attempt in this area, more studies can be undertaken to substantiate our findings.

  14. Renal proteome in mice with different susceptibilities to fluorosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Guimarães Carvalho

    Full Text Available A/J and 129P3/J mouse strains have different susceptibilities to dental fluorosis due to their genetic backgrounds. They also differ with respect to several features of fluoride (F metabolism and metabolic handling of water. This study was done to determine whether differences in F metabolism could be explained by diversities in the profile of protein expression in kidneys. Weanling, male A/J mice (susceptible to dental fluorosis, n = 18 and 129P3/J mice (resistant, n = 18 were housed in pairs and assigned to three groups given low-F food and drinking water containing 0, 10 or 50 ppm [F] for 7 weeks. Renal proteome profiles were examined using 2D-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. Quantitative intensity analysis detected between A/J and 129P3/J strains 122, 126 and 134 spots differentially expressed in the groups receiving 0, 10 and 50 ppmF, respectively. From these, 25, 30 and 32, respectively, were successfully identified. Most of the proteins were related to metabolic and cellular processes, followed by response to stimuli, development and regulation of cellular processes. In F-treated groups, PDZK-1, a protein involved in the regulation of renal tubular reabsorption capacity was down-modulated in the kidney of 129P3/J mice. A/J and 129P3/J mice exhibited 11 and 3 exclusive proteins, respectively, regardless of F exposure. In conclusion, proteomic analysis was able to identify proteins potentially involved in metabolic handling of F and water that are differentially expressed or even not expressed in the strains evaluated. This can contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic susceptibility to dental fluorosis, by indicating key-proteins that should be better addressed in future studies.

  15. Características generales de la fluorosis dental

    OpenAIRE

    Josefa Calderón Betancourt; Naise López Larquin; Ana María Dobarganes Coca

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, utilizando los recursos disponibles desde la red infomed, con el objetivo de describir las características generales de la fluorosis dental. Esta es la hipomineralización del esmalte dental y tiene tres formas de presentación: leve, moderada y severa. Su cuadro clínico esta dado principalmente por manchas blanquecinas que cubre una mínima superficie del diente, hasta manchas de color café oscuro y su complicación más temida es la fractura que causa una a...

  16. Fine mapping of dental fluorosis quantitative trait loci in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Eric T.; Yin, Zhaoyu; Yan, Dong; Zou, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors underlie dental fluorosis (DF) susceptibility/resistance. The A/J (DF susceptible) and 129P3/J (DF resistant) strains have been previously used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with DF on chromosomes (Chr) 2 and 11. In the present study increased marker density genotyping followed by interval mapping was performed to narrow the QTL intervals and improve the LOD scores. Narrower intervals on Chr 2 where LOD ≥ 6.0 (57–84 cM or ~51 Mb), LOD ≥ 7.0 (62–79 cM or ~3...

  17. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.;

    2006-01-01

    tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from...

  18. Life history dictates fluorosis risk in a small mammal community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental lesions, due to fluorosis, previously have been reported in wild, male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) on an abandoned oil refinery located at the Oklahoma Refining Company in Cyril, Oklahoma. This study was expanded to include examinations of the fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), house mouse (Mus musculus), prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius), least shrew (Cryptotis parva), shorttailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), and deer mouse (Peromyscus spp.) at this same site. A sample of each species was collected form the contaminated refining site and a reference site with no known contamination. The authors grossly scored dentition of lower and upper incisors, microscopically examined cellular aberrations in ameloblasts and ondontoblasts, and quantified femur fluoride levels. Alterations in the lower and upper incisors were common in prairie voles, whose incisors possessed striations and erosion of the enamel and appeared chalky white. Incisors of animals taken from the reference site were normal. Patterns in occurrence of fluorosis and degree of enamel erosion was examined relative to the life history characteristics of the species

  19. Prevalence of dental caries in fluorosis areas of Shantou City Guangdong Province after water improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏源

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the relationship between children urine fluoride level,time of water supply improvement and detection rate of dental caries in fluorosis areas after water supply improvement.Methods The following

  20. Prevalence and Severity of Dental Fluorosis in the United States, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... community water fluoridation programs were developed to add fluoride to drinking water to reach an optimal level for preventing tooth ... dental fluorosis ( 4 , 5 ), paralleling the expansion of water ... of ingested fluoride, such as fluoride toothpaste (if swallowed) and fluoride ...

  1. Stress Response Pathways in Ameloblasts: Implications for Amelogenesis and Dental Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, John D.; Sierant, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Human enamel development of the permanent teeth takes place during childhood and stresses encountered during this period can have lasting effects on the appearance and structural integrity of the enamel. One of the most common examples of this is the development of dental fluorosis after childhood exposure to excess fluoride, an elemental agent used to increase enamel hardness and prevent dental caries. Currently the molecular mechanism responsible for dental fluorosis remains unknown; howeve...

  2. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in school children of Bangarpet taluk, Kolar district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Narayanamurthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is an endemic disease resulting due to excess ingestion of fluoride. Ground water has been a significant water source for domestic, irrigating, and industrial purposes in India. India is placed in a geographical fluoride belt. Kolar, a drought prone area with semiarid climate, is one among 16 fluorosis endemic districts of Karnataka. Aims: To study the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children and to estimate the fluoride levels in drinking water sources. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school-going children. Materials and Methods: School-going children from two randomly selected schools of two randomly selected Panchayat areas of Kyasamballi and Gollahalli were studied in August 2011. All the children in these schools were evaluated for dental fluorosis based on Dean′s index. Fluoride levels of drinking water sources in these communities were estimated by ion-electrode method. Statistical analysis: The data were analyzed with Epi-info 7 statistical software and expressed in proportions. Chi-square test was employed to test the significance. Results: A total of 380 children in the age group of 6-15 years were studied. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 31.05%, predominant in females. The community fluorosis index was 0.718 indicating slight public health importances. The fluoride levels in drinking water sources exceeded 1.5 mg/L. Conclusion: Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kolar. High fluoride content in the sources of drinking water is the main reason for dental fluorosis, suggesting an urgent need for defluoridation of water sources with sustainable long-term measures in Kolar.

  3. 2005-2007年陕西省饮用水含氟量和地方性氟中毒病情调查%Investigation of drinking water fluoride and fluorosis in Shaanxi Province from 2005 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱参胜; 陈彦菲

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate fluoride in drinking waters and fluorosis status and evaluate the effectiveness of fluoride-reducing projects in Shaanxi Province from 2005 to 2007. Methods In the Shaanxi province-wide, the 10 endemic areas of fluorosis were chosen according to historical data as focusing areas for investigation. The village was considered as investigation spot, 5 water samples were collected from each village for investigating of fluoride content. Four water samples were collected from each fluoride-reducing project for evaluating its effectiveness. Fluoride concentrations in drinking water were measured by fluoride-selective electrode method or speetrophotometry. When fluoride content in drinking water was greater than 1.00 mg/L, the epidemical study wasd conducted to investigate fluorosis patients, focusing on investigating of dental fluorosis prevalence in 8 to 12-year-old children and skeletal fluorosis prevalence in adults. Dental fluorosis of children was diagnosed by using Dean's method, and adult skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed according to National Standard for Clinical Diagnosis of Endemic Skeletal Fiuorosis(GB 16396-1996). Results The fluoride content in drinking water from 6390 villages was measured. The fluoride content of drinking water of 2619 villages ranged from 1.0 to1.00 mg/L的人群中进行地方性氟中毒流行病学调查,采用Dean法进行8~12岁儿童氟斑牙诊断,成人氟骨症按(GB16396-1996)诊断.结果 共测定6390个村的水源水含氟量,其中水氟在1.00~1.00 mg/L,为高氟水集中分布的地区.共检测了3115个改水工程水氟,其中水氟在1.00~<2.00 mg/L的有1269个,暴露人口为1 415 877人;水氟在2.00~<4.00 mg/L的有120个,暴露人口为43 888人:水氟≥4.00 mg/L的有14个,暴露人口为5960人.44 081名8~12岁儿童进行氟斑牙临床检查,检出16 489例氟斑牙患者,检出率为37.4%(16 489/44 081);对310 993名成人进行氟骨症临床检查,检出15 877例Ⅱ度

  4. Surface Structure Study of Crystal Hydroxy-Apatite from Fluorosis Enamels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdillah Imron Nasution

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis is a condition due to ingestion of excessive amounts of fluor which can cause the change in tooth structure and strength. However, there is still lack of explanation on the surface structure of crystal hydroxyapatite that influences the microscopic characteristic of fluorosis enamel. Objectives: To investigate the surface structure of crystal hydroxy-apatite in fluorosis enamel. Materials and Methods: Determination of fluor concentration and the surface structure of normal and fluorosis enamel specimen were carried out by using Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Disperse X-Ray (SEM/EDX. Results: Fluor concentration of fluorosis enamel was significantly higher with increased surface roughness and porosity than normal enamel. SEM observation also showed gaps areas between enamel rods and visible aprismatic zone in some regions. Conclusion: High level of fluor concentration on fluorosis enamel indicated the subtitution of OH- by F- increasing the surface roughness of enamel surface.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i3.100

  5. Dental caries and endemic dental fluorosis in rural communities, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Melo Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227, 10 to 12 years (n = 153, 13 to 15 years (n = 92, 16 to 22 years (n = 39. For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF, dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0 and severity (TF 5. In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p 0.05. The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.

  6. 2006年和2007年陕西省安康市燃煤污染型氟砷中毒及相关性调查%Investigation on fluorosis and arsenism caused by coal-burning and relevant study in Ankang city of Shaanxi province in the year of 2006 and 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李跃; 白广禄; 白爱梅; 虞江萍; 范中学; 杨晓栋

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of the disease of the fluorosis and arsenism caused by coal-burning in Ankang city of Shaanxi. Methods Nine survey spots were chosen to carry out the epidemiological investigation of adult skeletal fluorosis and arsenism in the coal-polluted areas of Ankang, respectively using Determination of Fluorine in Coal (GB/T 4633-1997) to determine the coal fluorine and using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry(HCAFS) to determine coal arsenic. The diagnose of the adult skeletal fluorosis followed the Diagnosis of Clinical Classification for Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis Standard(GB 16396-1996), that of arsenism using Standard of Diagnosis for Endemic Arsensim (WS/T 211-2001). Results Totally 569 adults were investigated over the age of 16, among which 121 cases were skeletal fluorosis, with a total detection rate of 21.27%. Four cases of II degree and higher skeletal fluorosis patients were identified, accounting for 0.70% of the number of subjects. One hundred and thirty-two cases of arsenic poisonin were detected, in a rate of 23.20%. Ninety-five patients were identified with moderate or severe arsenic poisoning, accounting for 16.69% of subjects. A positive correlation was found between the detection rates of the skeletal fluorosis and the arsenism(r = 0.816, P (GB/T 4633-1997),煤炭砷采用氢化物原子荧光光度法测定,成人氟骨症诊断采用(GB 16396-1996),砷中毒诊断采用(WS/T211-2001).结果 共调查16岁以上成人569人,检出氟骨症121例,总检出率为21.27%,查出Ⅱ度以上氟骨症病人4例,占受检人数的0.70%;检出砷中毒132例,总检出率为23.200/%,查出中度以上砷中毒病人95例,占受检人数的16.69%.氟骨症与砷中毒检出率间呈正相关(r=0.816,P<0.01);氟骨症检出率与煤炭含氟量有密切关系(r=0.775,P<0.05);砷中毒检出率与煤炭含砷量间也有密切关系(r=0.761,P<0.05).40~、50~、60~岁组[27.20%(34/125)、29.27%(36/123

  7. 山东省黄河下游冲积平原地区地方性氟中毒流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation on endemic fluorosis along the Yellow River alluvial plain of Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 马爱华; 刘源; 李亨祥

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current prevalent status of endemic fluorosis in the floodplain area of the lower Yellow River in Shandong province. Methods According to "The National Technical Scheme for Endemic Disease Control in 2008", 16 counties were chosen to carry out the epidemiological survey of endemic fluorosis. Three villages were chosen in each county, to determine the fluoride content of drinking water and to check the dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 year old, the skeletal fluorosis of adults over 16 years of age. Both children and adults were tested for urine fluoride. The content of fluoride in drinking water and urine was determined by F-ion selective electrode while dental fiuorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years old was diagnosed by Dean's method and adults skeletal fluorosis by the National Standard for "Diagnosis of endemic skeletal quality' villages in 16 counties, among which 19 villages had water fluoride content ≤ 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 73.08% ( 19/26), 7 villages had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and accounted for quality' villages in 16 counties, 5 villages had water fluoride content ≤ 1.00 mg/L (accounted for 22.73% ), 17 villages had water fluoride content >1.00 mg/L(accounted for 77.27% ), with the highest water fluoride content as 3.38 mg/L. The overall rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8to 12 years old was 52.18% (1042/1997), with the index of dental fluorosis as 1.17 and the rate of dental damage as 8.01% (160/1997). The urinary fluoride values above 1.40 mg/L were found in 65.00% (845/1300) of children aged 8 to 12 years old, with the highest urinary fluoride concentrations as 18.53 mg/L. The rate of skeletal fiuorosis by clinic and X-rays in adults older than 16 years old were 4.35% ( 1121/25 781 ) and 11.36%(5/44), respectively. The urinary fluoride values above 1.60 mg/L were found as 63.92%(606/948) in adults older than 16 years old, with the highest urinary fluoride concentrations as 21

  8. An evaluation of the prevention and control measures on coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis in Shaanxi Province in 2014%2014年陕西省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒防治效果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓉; 杨晓栋; 李晓茜; 任宇飞; 范中学; 杜怡; 崔成宝

    2015-01-01

    12周岁儿童氟斑牙总体检出率为12.52% (87/695),氟斑牙指数为0.24,尿氟范围为0.04~ 7.00mg/L,几何均数为0.61 mg/L.病区无新发重度氟骨症患者.结论 陕西省地方性氟中毒病区防治效果明显,今后应继续加强健康教育、健康促进和病情监测工作并强化防氟炉具后期管理工作.%Objective To investigate the usage of defluoridation stove and the formation of related behavior in the disease affected areas and the current situation of coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis,to evaluate the control effect,so as to provide a theoretical basis for superior department to adjust the control strategy in time.Methods According to "The Implementation Plan for Prevention and Treatment of Coal-burning-borne Endemic Fluorosis in Shaanxi Province",Ziyang and Langao in Ankang City were chosen for epidemiological survey.Using stratified sampling method,according to the degree of disease situation,each county was divided into 3 layers and then 5% from each layer was extracted to carry out an investigation,respectively.The number of investigated village was at least 1,up to 30.The number in a non-endemic area was 1-3.Questionnaire survey of all residents was carried out to ask of the changes of cooking and heating fuel;the correct usage of the improved stove;the changes of life behavior related to the corn and pepper for human consumption and the development of prevention and treatment of post management.In endemic areas and in non-endemic areas,according to the "Determination of Fluoride in Foods" (GB/T 5009.18-2003),fluoride levels of corn (or rice) and chili which collected from 10 families were determined.Meanwhile,the criteria for "Diagnosis of Dental Fluorosis" (WS/T 208-2011) was used to diagnose dental fluorosis and the criteria of "Urine-determination of Fluoride-ion Specific Electrode Method" (WS/T 89-1996) was used to evaluate urine fluoride;dental fluorosis of every child aged 8-12 was examined and 10 copies of

  9. Características generales de la fluorosis dental

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    Josefa Calderón Betancourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, utilizando los recursos disponibles desde la red infomed, con el objetivo de describir las características generales de la fluorosis dental. Esta es la hipomineralización del esmalte dental y tiene tres formas de presentación: leve, moderada y severa. Su cuadro clínico esta dado principalmente por manchas blanquecinas que cubre una mínima superficie del diente, hasta manchas de color café oscuro y su complicación más temida es la fractura que causa una agresiva y acentuada pérdida de la estructura dentaria. Es causada por el acumulo excesivo de flúor en el diente. Su prevención está encaminada a la administración de flúor sistémico en las diferentes edades y entre las recomendaciones para evitarla se encuentra: usar en lo posible agua con el nivel adecuado de flúor, utilizar pastas de dientes con los contenidos óptimos de flúor, excepto en las zonas con aguas fluoradas y no aplicar las lacas fluoradas a estos niños

  10. Application of PIGE to determine fluorine concentration in human teeth. Contribution to fluorosis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorosis, osteoselerosis, and systemic illness may result when tolerance levels of fluorine intake are exceeded. To avoid these abnormalities, we shall be aware of the mechanisms of their development. For this, quantitative results gathered from different parts of the world are necessary. In this paper, PIGE method is used to determine fluorine concentration in human teeth, collected from different regions of the Algerian Sahara. Both enamel and dentine regions were inspected. The external and internal mappings of the analyzed teeth have shown more variation in the localized fluorine concentration in dentine than in enamel, and the lowest level of fluorine concentration was observed in the frontier crown-root zone. The obtained results reveal relatively high fluorine concentration lying within the limit of fluorosis, according to the standardised grading dental fluorosis. (author)

  11. Influencia de los tratamientos microabrasivos sobre la resistencia adhesiva en dientes con fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mena Silva; Ana del Carmen Armas

    2015-01-01

    La búsqueda de tratamientos mínimamente invasivos y altamente estéticos para pacientes con fluorosis, ha llevado a buscar mecanismos para solucionar esta problemática, mediante la utilización de resinas como la primera opción. Sin embargo el principal problema del tratamiento, se centra en la poca adhesión debido a las características estructurales del esmalte fluorótico, en grados de fluorosis TF 1 al 3, el ácido no actúa correctamente, causando ausencia de grabado principalmente entre las e...

  12. Analytical surveys for epidemiological prevalence of fluorosis of brick-tea type in Sichuan Province in 2006%2006年四川省饮茶型氟中毒病情调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小静; 杨定焯; 杨小明; 邓佳云; 周定友; 陈敬; 梁代华; 王再跃; 胡志林; 陈开华; 齐艳凤

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析四川省饮茶型氟中毒病情现状.方法 按,在四川省的饮砖茶区,选择10个县,每个县按不同方位选择10个乡镇,每个乡选择2个行政村和1所中心小学,对8~12岁儿童和20岁以上成人开展氟斑牙、氟骨症、尿氟调查.氟斑牙诊断采用Dean法,氟骨症采用临床和X线检查,尿氟测定采用氟离子选择电极法.结果 调查儿童5044名、成人4053名,氟斑牙检出率分别为55.69%(2809/5044)、60.41%(4053/6709),病损以轻度为主;成人氟骨症X线总检出率、Ⅱ度临床检出率分别为44.64%(167/1241)、38.94%(3883/9973).儿童和成人尿氟平均水平分别为1.88、2.78 mg/L,超出正常范围.儿童尿氟各年龄组间差别不大,而成人尿氟高年龄段高于低年龄段.尿氟水平与氟骨症间呈正相关(r=0.74).农区、牧区和半农半牧区氟骨症临床检出率分别为31.70%(1369/4318)、50.04%(1228/2454)、40.17%(1286/3201).以牧区最高.氟骨症X线检出率男性[49.57%(229/462)]高于女性[41.72%(325/779)],性别比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=11.72,P<0.05).结论 四川省调查区饮茶型氟中毒流行严重.%Objective To find out the status of brick-tea type fluorosis in the epidemic areas.Methods Based on "Scheme for Epidemiological Brick-tea Type Fluorosis in Sichuan Province",ten counties were selected in Sichuan brick-tea areas and ten towns were selected in every county,then the epidemicologic survey was performed in children of 8~12 year-old and adults aged above 20 years old.Results 5044 children and 4053 adults were selected from brick-tea areas.The rates of dental fluorosis in children and adults were 55.69%(2809/5044)and 60.41%(4053/6709)respectively.The dental fluorosis was mainly of mild damage.The skeletal fluorosis found in X-ray film was 44.64%(167/1241)and in clinical examination,38.94%(3883/9973).The levels of urine fluoride in children and adults were 1.88 and 2.78 mg/L.The level of urine fluoride was not

  13. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez; Amaury de Jesús Pozos-Guillén; Juan Carlos Hernández-Guerrero; Juan Francisco Hernández-Sierra

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaro...

  14. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 6 a 12 años

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Dobarganes Coca; Naisé López Larquin; Magda Lima Álvarez; Josefa Calderón Betancourt; Miriam Elina García Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis y la caries dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de estas enfermedades. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en niños de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, con el objetivo de caracterizar la fluorosis y la caries dental, desde septiembre de 2011 hasta septiembre de 2012. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por 67 escolares, a los que se les determinó la presencia de fluorosis dental y los índice...

  15. Analysis of an investigational result of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Hebei Province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find out the status of drinking-waterborne endemic fluorosis and the effect of preventive measures in Hebei Province,so as to provide a basis to prevent and cure fluorosis.Methods One affected county(city,district)with drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis was sampled in every city and 10 water improvement projects were investigated in that county.Three villages were taken out in every county.The operating state of the projects,the water fluoride content,

  16. 山东省鲁西南地区地方性氟中毒流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of endemic fluorosis in the southwestern region of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 马爱华; 刘源; 李亨祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of an illness of endemic fluorosis in the southwestern region of Shandong province at present, and to provide the scientific evidence for making strategies for the prevention and control. Methods To adopt the method of Epidemiological investigation, 11 counties were chosen to carry out the investigation of endemic fluorosis. The content of fluoride in drinking water and urine was determined by F - ion selective electrode, dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years old was diagnosed by Dean's method and diagnosed skeletal fluorosis by clinic and X -rays. Results The investigation was used in 20 water - improving villages in 11 counties, among which 14 villages had water fluoride content ≤ 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 70.00% ( 14/20), 6 villages had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 30.00% ( 6/20 ), the highest water fluoride content was 3.73 mg/L. The investigation was used in 13 non -water- improving villages in 11 counties , among which 3 villages had water fluoride content ≤ 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 23.08% ( 3/13 ), 10 villages had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 76.92% ( 10/13 ), the highest water fluoride content was 3.38 mg/L. The total rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years old was 39.17% ( 597/1 524), the index of dental fluorosis was 0. 75 and the rate of dental damage was 3.94% (60/1 524 ). The urinary fluoride values above 1.40 mg/L were found in 42.13% ( 642/ 947 ) of children aged 8 to 12 years old, with the highest urinary fluoride concentrations was 18.53 mg/L. The rate of skeletal fluorosis by clinic and X - rays in adults older than 16 years old were 5.88% ( 1 235/20 980 ) and 8.00% ( 2/25 ), respectively. The urinary fluoride values above 1.60 mg/L were found in 65.34% ( 1 130/2 023 ) of adults older than 16 years old, with the highest urinary fluoride concentrations was 13.97 mg/L. Conclusions The status of an illness of

  17. Endemic fluorosis in northwestern region of Shandong province%山东省鲁西北地区地方性氟中毒流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 马爱华; 刘源; 李亨祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of endemic fluorosis in the northwestern region of Shandong province and to provide scientific evidence for making strategies for the prevention and control of the disease. Methods Eleven counties were chosen to carry out the investigation of endemic fluorosis. The content of fluoride in drinking water and urine was determined with F-ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years was diagnosed with Dean' s method and skeletal fluorosis were diagnosed with clinic examination and X-rays. Results The investigation was conduct in 17 water-improvement villages of 11 counties,among which 12 villages(70. 59% ) had water fluoride oontent ≤1. 00 mg/L,5 villages(29. 41% ) had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and the highest water fluoride content was 4. 46 mg/L. The investigation was also condcuted in 16 non-water-improvement villages in 11 counties,among which 5 villages(31,25/% )had water fluoride content ≤1.00 mg/L, 11 villages(68. 75%) had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and the highest water fluoride content was 4. 09 mg/L. The total prevalence of dental fluorosis among the children was 51.51%(701/1 361 ). The index of dental fluorosis was 1.05 and the rate of dental damage was 6. 25% ( 85/1 631 ). Tne urinary fluoride values above 1.40 mg/L were found in 60. 86% (510/838)of the children,with the highest urinary fluoride concentration of 15.20 mg/L. The rate of skeletal fluorosis among the adults older than 16 years were 2. 49% (454/18 257) and 15. 79% (3/19) with clinic and x-ray examination,respectively. The urinary fluoride values above 1.60 mg/L were found in 62. 27% (406/652) of the adults,with the highest urinary fluoride concentration of 25.44 mg/L. Conclusion The endemic fluorosis is not effectively controlled and the preventive situation for endemic fluorosis control is still very severe in the northwestern region of Shandong province. So preventive measures for

  18. Fluorosis dental en escolares de una zona rural de Camagüey

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    Naise López Larquin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de esta enfermedad. Determinar su severidad y evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados fue el objetivo de esta investigación, para lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo en los consultorios 46 y 64 de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, en el período comprendido entre julio de 2011 y febrero de 2012. El universo estuvo constituido por 84 niños de seis a doce años y la muestra por 67 escolares. La fluorosis dental se clasificó en: leve, moderada y grave. Las concentraciones de flúor natural en el agua de consumo, la exposición a altas concentraciones del elemento y el tiempo de exposición al mismo, fueron los factores de riesgo asociados a la fluorosis dental estudiados. Al concluir el estudio, se observó un predominio de la fluorosis dental leve (52,9 %, seguido de la moderada (38,2 %. Las concentraciones de flúor natural encontradas en las aguas de consumo fueron óptimas (0,7 y 1,2 ppm en el 44,8 % de los casos y altas (1,7 y 2,0 ppm en el 55,2 %. El 81,8 % de los casos sin fluorosis han estado expuestos a la acción del flúor solamente de uno a tres años, mientras que todos los niños con fluorosis dental lo han recibido por más de cuatro años, aumentando la severidad en la medida en que se incrementa el tiempo de exposición. El 36,4 % de los niños que ingirieron flúor antes de los seis años no presentaron fluorosis dental

  19. Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, as a clinical study. The purpose of this study is to determine the periodontal status using CPITN index in a population aged between 15 and 74 years residing in the high-fluoride areas of Davangere district. The possible reasons for the susceptibility of this population to periodontal disease are discussed. Materials and Methods: 1029 subjects, aged between 15 and 74 years suffering from dental fluorosis were assessed for their periodontal status. Clinical parameters recorded were OHI-S to assess the oral hygiene status, Jackson′s fluorosis index to assess the degree of fluorosis and CPITN index to assess the periodontal status where treatment need was excluded. Results: Gingivitis and periodontitis were more common in females (65.9% and 32.8%, respectively than in males (75.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Periodontitis was significantly more common in females. As the age advanced from 15 to 55 years and above, gingivitis reduced from 81.0 to 42.9% and periodontitis increased steadily from 18.0 to 57.1%, which was significant. Periodontitis was high in subjects with poor oral hygiene (81.3%, compared to those with good oral hygiene (14.5%, which was significant. As the degree of fluorosis increased, severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased, i.e., with A degree fluorosis, gingivitis was 89.4% and periodontitis 8.5%, but with F degree fluorosis the former was 64% and the latter 35.8%, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results

  20. Skeletal mastocytosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, S M; Freemont, A J

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To characterise the condition of skeletal mastocytosis, an uncommon cause of apparently "idiopathic" osteoporosis. METHODS--Transiliac crest biopsy specimens submitted over a period of five years were examined for nodular accumulation of mast cells. The cases were reviewed histologically and clinical follow up was obtained from hospital notes. RESULTS--Six cases of mastocytosis occurring in bone biopsy specimens submitted to our department were identified. Four patients presented initia...

  1. Cognitive Impairment and Risk Factors in Elderly People Living in Fluorosis Areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mang; Gao, Yanhui; Cui, Jing; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Bingyun; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xiaona; Liu, Hongxu; Zhao, Lijun; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-07-01

    Residents living in fluorosis areas generally experienced long-term exposure to excessive fluoride in drinking water. The adverse effects of high fluoride levels on the nervous system have been studied; however, the effect of fluoride exposure on cognitive functions of elderly people in fluorosis areas is rarely reported. This study was aimed to find out the potential risk factors of cognitive impairment among elderly people who lived in fluorosis areas of China. A total of 511 subjects, aged 60 years or above, were investigated in fluorosis areas of Heilongjiang Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to examine cognitive functions of the study subjects. Based on the MMSE scores, the study subjects were divided into normal group and cognitive impairment group that consisted of mild, moderate, and severe groups. Multivariable logistic regression showed that a higher risk of cognitive impairment was associated with increased age and decreased education levels. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that MMSE scores were negatively associated with serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels. However, both urinary fluoride and serum Hcy levels in the normal group were not the lowest among the four groups. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that urinary fluoride levels were positively correlated with serum Hcy (r s = 0.209, P < 0.01). Our study suggests that people with cognitive impairment in fluorosis areas have elevated serum Hcy levels, which was positively correlated with urinary fluoride concentrations. A certain low dose of fluoride intake may play a potential protective rather than harmful role in cognitive functions; however, high fluoride exposure is a potential risk factor for cognitive impairment. PMID:26606914

  2. 1991-2007年广东省丰顺县地方性氟中毒重点监测结果分析%Analysis on sentinel surveillance outcome of endemic fluorosis in Guangdong Province from 1991 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锦权; 戴昌芳; 杨通; 吴和岩; 冯光辉; 杜国歆

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate and master the outcome of endemic fluorosis surveillance, the use and management situation of the facilities for decreasing fluorine in water-related endemic fluorosis in Fengshun County, Guangdong Province. Methods The surveillance was carried out according to The National Surveillance Scheme of Endemic Fluorosis in 1991 - 2007. Dazhai, Hupo and Anquan Villages in Fengshun County of Guangdong Province were selected as monitoring spots. The dental fluorosis of 8 - 12 years old children was examined with Dean index, the fluoride contents in urine and drinking water were determined with fluoride selective ion electrode method. Clinical and X-ray skeletal fluorosis of adults over 16 years of age were examined every 3 to 5 years. Results The fluoride contents in water almost reached the hygienic requirements (1.0 mg/L) in Dazhai (0.83 mg/L in 2007) and Anquan Villages(0.27 mg/L in 2007) after improving water and decreasing fluorine. The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis of students aged 8 - 12 years old fluctuated and decreased gradually, especially prevalence rate of mederate and severe fluorosis decreased obviously and reached the hygienic requirements (30%) after altering water source(20.8% in Dazhai, 3.8% in Anquan in 2007). But the fluoride contents in water were in relatively high level (1.01~2.30 mg/L), and the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis of students aged 8-12 years old(44.3% in 2007) was above the hygienic requirements in Hupo Village after improving water and decreasing fluorine. The dental fluorosis index in Daizai, Hupo and Anquan Villages dropped from 1.5, 3.0 and 1.3 in 1991 to 0.30, 0.80 and 0.10 in 2007, respectively. Epidemic strength reached respectively the criteria in mild and non-endemic areas. Fluoride contents in urine of children aged 8-12 years old in the three villages all were under the limit of 1.50 mg/L after 2002. The prevalence rate of adult clinical fluorosis [31.8% (84/264), 34.4% (131/381), 44.1% (89

  3. A Quantitative Look at Fluorosis, Fluoride Exposure, and Intake in Children Using a Health Risk Assessment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    ERDAL, Serap; Buchanan, Susan N.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the United States has increased during the last 30 years. In this study, we used a mathematical model commonly employed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to estimate average daily intake of fluoride via all applicable exposure pathways contributing to fluorosis risk for infants and children living in hypothetical fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities. We also estimated hazard quotients for each exposure pathway and hazard indices for expos...

  4. "Borderline" fluorotic region in Serbia: correlations among fluoride in drinking water, biomarkers of exposure and dental fluorosis in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Evica; Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Djukic-Cosic, Danijela; Milicevic, Nemanja; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Carevic, Momir; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2016-06-01

    This study explores relation between dental fluorosis occurrence in schoolchildren, residents of Ritopek, a small local community near Belgrade, and fluoride exposure via drinking water. Additionally, fluoride levels were determined in children's urine and hair samples, and efforts were made to correlate them with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence were examined in a total of 52 schoolchildren aged 7-15 years (29 boys and 23 girls). Fluoride levels in three types of samples were analyzed using composite fluoride ion-selective electrode. Results showed high prevalence of dental fluorosis (34.6 %) and low prevalence of dental caries (23.1 %, mean DMFT 0.96) among children exposed to wide range of water fluoride levels (0.11-4.14 mg/L, n = 27). About 11 % of water samples exceeded 1.5 mg/L, a drinking-water quality guideline value for fluoride given by the World Health Organization (2006). Fluoride levels in urine and hair samples ranged between 0.07-2.59 (n = 48) and 1.07-19.83 mg/L (n = 33), respectively. Severity of dental fluorosis was positively and linearly correlated with fluoride levels in drinking water (r = 0.79). Fluoride levels in urine and hair were strongly and positively correlated with levels in drinking water (r = 0.92 and 0.94, respectively). Fluoride levels in hair samples appeared to be a potentially promising biomarker of fluoride intake via drinking water on one hand, and severity of dental fluorosis on the other hand. Based on community fluorosis index value of 0.58, dental fluorosis revealed in Ritopek can be considered as "borderline" public health issue. PMID:26423526

  5. Adolescents' perceptions of the aesthetic impact of dental fluorosis vs. other dental conditions in areas with and without water fluoridation

    OpenAIRE

    McGrady Michael G; Ellwood Roger P; Goodwin Michaela; Boothman Nicola; Pretty Iain A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of fluorides for caries prevention is well established but is linked with an increased risk of dental fluorosis, some of which may be considered to be aesthetically objectionable. Patient opinion should be considered when determining impact on aesthetics. The aim of this study was to assess participant rating of dental aesthetics (from photographic images) of 11 to 13 year olds participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in a fluoridated and a n...

  6. Prevalence of gingival diseases, malocclusion and fluorosis in school-going children of rural areas in Udaipur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar V

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of dental diseases has been recorded in Rajasthan, however, not much work has been done to ascertain the prevalence of dental diseases in Udaipur district. This study was conducted among 1,587 government school children of Udaipur district in the age group of 5-14 years for recording the prevalence of gingival diseases, fluorosis and malocclusion. Gingivitis was found in 84.37% of children, malocclusion in 36.42% and fluorosis in 36.36%.

  7. Assessment of Fluoride Level in Groundwater and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in Didwana Block of Nagaur District, Central Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem.Objective: To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India.Methods: The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis.Results: The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%–72.1% had dental fluorosis—252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis.Conclusion: High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  8. Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Prevalence among 12 and 15-Year-Old School Children in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhabogi, JR; Parthasarathi, P; Anjum, S.; Shekar, BRC; Padma, CM; Rani, AS

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence among 12 and 15-year-old school children in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional stu...

  9. Analysis of monitoring results of endemic fluorosis in Shandong province in 2009%2009年山东省地方性氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 马爱华; 刘源; 李亨祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of endemic fluorosis in Shandong province, and to provide the scientific evidence for making strategies for prevention and control of the disease. Methods According to "The National Technical Scheme for Endemic Disease Control in 2008", thirty-four counties were divided into mild, moderate and severe endemic fluorosis areas and a village was randomly selected from each category of the area to carry out the monitoring of endemic fluorosis. The content of fluoride in drinking water and urine was determined by F-ion selective electrode, dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 was diagnosed by Dean method and skeletal fluorosis diagnosed by clinic and X-rays. Results The monitoring was done in 70 water-improving villages in 34 counties, among which 54 villages had water fluoride content ≤ 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 77.14%(54/70), 16 villages had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 22.86%(16/70), the highest water fluoride content was 4.46 mg/L. The monitoring was also carried out in 32 non-water-improving villages in 34 counties, among which 9 villages had water fluoride content ≤ 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 28.12%(9/32), 23 villages had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 71.88% (23/32), the highest water fluoride content was 4.09 mg/L. The total rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 was 45.81%(1988/4340), the index of dental fluorosis was 0.97 and the rate of dental damage was 6.91%(300/4340). The urinary fluoride values above 1.40 mg/L were found in 55.33%(1417/2657) of children aged 8 to 12, with the highest urinary fluoride concentrations was 18.53 mg/L. The rate of skeletal fluorosis by clinic and X-rays in adults older than 16 years were 4.25% (2462/57 968) and 28.40%(23/81 ), respectively. The urinary fluoride values above 1.60 mg/L were found in 55.86% (1130/2023) of adults older than 16 years, with the highest urinary fluoride concentrations was 25.44 mg

  10. Fluorosis as a probable cause of chronic lameness in free ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Emily; Beveridge, Ian; Slocombe, Ron; Coulson, Graeme

    2006-12-01

    A population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) inhabiting heathland and farmland surrounding an aluminum smelter at Portland, Victoria, Australia, exhibited clinical signs of lameness. An investigation was undertaken to determine the cause of this lameness. Hematology, necropsy, histopathology, fecal egg count, total worm count, reproductive status, and the population age range were examined and failed to reveal any additional underlying disease state. The specific problem of lameness was addressed with bone histopathology, radiography, quantitative ultrasonography, microradiography, and multielement analysis of bone ash samples. The significant lesions observed were: osteophytosis of the distal tibia and fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsus IV, and proximal coccygeal vertebrae; osteopenia of the femur, tibia, and metatarsus IV; incisor enamel hypoplasia; stained, uneven, and abnormal teeth wear; abnormal bone matrix mineralization and mottling; increased bone density; and elevated bone fluoride levels. Microradiography of affected kangaroos exhibited "black osteons," which are a known manifestation of fluorosis. Collectively, these lesions were consistent with a diagnosis of fluorosis. PMID:17315432

  11. Skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal scintigraphy, using phosphates or diphosphonates labeled with technetium 99m, is a sensitive method of detecting bone abnormalities. The most important and most frequent role of bone scanning is evaluating the skeletal areas in patients who have a primary cancer, especially a malignant condition that has a tendency to spread to bone areas. The bone scan is superior to bone radiographs in diagnosing these abnormalities; 15 percent to 25 percent of patients with breast, prostate or lung cancer, who have normal roentgenograms, also have abnormal scintigrams due to metastases. The majority of bone metastases appear as hot spots on the scan and are easily recognized. The incidence of abnormal bone scans in patients with early stages (I and II) of breast cancer varies from 6 percent to 26 percent, but almost invariably those patients with scan abnormalities have a poor prognosis and should be considered for additional therapies. Progression or regression of bony lesions can be defined through scanning, and abnormal areas can be identified for biopsy. The incidence of metastases in solitary scan lesions in patients with known primary tumors varies from 20 percent to 64 percent. Bone scintigraphy shows positive uptake in 95 percent of cases with acute osteomyelitis. Stress fractures and trauma suspected in battered babies can be diagnosed by scanning before there is radiological evidence. The procedure is free from acute or long-term side effects and, except in cases of very young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Although the test is sensitive, it is not specific and therefore it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and scanning correlation in each patient

  12. Drinking-water type of fluorosis in Shaanxi province in 2009: an analysis of surveillance results%2009年陕西省饮水型氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范中学; 李跃; 李晓茜; 白广禄; 刘晓莉; 白爱梅; 李平安; 杨晓栋

    2011-01-01

    . Methods Forty-eight villages of 16 counties in Xi'an, Baoji, and Yulin cities of Shaanxi province were monitored in 2009. Five water samples were collected randomly in water unimproved monitoring villages by the position of east, west, south, north, and center parts. In water improved monitoring villages, 3 tap water and one source water samples were collected. Water fluoride was tested using fluoride ion selective electrode method according to the "Standard Testing Methods for Drinking Water" (GB/T 5750-2006). All school children aged 8 to 12 in monitored villages were examined their dental fluorosis using Dean criteria. All people over 16 years old were examined clinical skeletal fluorosis, and 30% of the project counties were randomly selected, then randomly selected one village among these counties, clinically diagnosed patients with skeletal fluorosis were examined again by X-ray using "Diagnostic Criteria of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis"(WS 192-2007). Urine samples of 30 children aged 8 to 12 and of 20 adults over the age of 16 were randomly collected, urinary fluoride was tested according to "the Determination of Urinary Fluoride by Ion Selective Electrode Method" (WS/T 89-19%). Results Of the 22 water improvement projects that in normal operation, fluoride level of 8 source waters exceeded the standard, accounting for 36.36%(8/22), and projects scrapped 5. Two hundred and two water samples were tested. In water improved historical diseased areas, the median of water fluoride of source water and tap water were 0.72,0.62 mg/L, respectively, and the average rate of water fluoride exceeded the standard ere 36.36%(8/22) and 31.94%(23/72), respectively. In water unimproved historical diseased areas, the median of water fluoride was 1.00 mg/L, and the average rate of water fluoride exceeded the standard was 39.81%(43/108). Detection rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8 to 12 was 16.06% (367/2285), dental fluorosis index was 0.30, and the prevalence was negative

  13. STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF RABBIT SHIN-BONE AFTER FLUOROSIS EXPERIMENTAL MODEL CREATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Karmazov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Impact of ecological factors and chronic intoxications on an organism is not accounted in treatment of bone injuries. The more significant osseous tissue modifications arise in case of fluoric intoxication accompanied by structural bone modifications. The main structural changes of more and less variability by mineral density of similar shin-bone zones of rabbit at fluorosis have been revealed in the research.

  14. Content and distribution of fluorine in rock, clay and water in fluorosis area Zhaotong, Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.; Li, H.; Feng, F. (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-04-15

    About 160 samples of coal, pyritic coal balls, coal seam gangue, clay, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin county, China to determine the fluorine content, distribution pattern and source in this fluorosis area. The study shows that the average fluorine content in the coal samples collected from 3 coal mines of the Late Permian coals in Zhenxiong and Weixin county, Zhaotong City, which are the main mining coals there, is 77.13 mg/kg. The average fluorine content coals collected form thee typical fluorosis villages in 72.56 mg/kg. Both of them are close to the world average and little low than the Chinese average. The fluorine content of drinking water is lower than 0.35 mg/L, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binfer in briquette-making by local residents has a high content of fluorine, ranging from 367-2,435 mg/kg, with the majority higher than 600 mg/kg and an average of 1,084.2 mg/kg. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Control status quo of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in the disease affected areas in Shandong Province in 2012:an analysis of survey results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the schedule and effectiveness of water-improving defluoridation projects comprehensively of control of fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Shandong Province,and to provide a scientific basis for making strategies for prevention and control of the disease.Methods In accordance

  16. 重庆市渝东北燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒流行因素调查%A survey of epidemiological factors of coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis in northeast of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫菊; 钟朝晖; 王应雄; 王力; 雍开文; 张茂忠; 罗兴建; 晏维

    2012-01-01

    (endemic fluorosis) and to provide a scientific basis for making prevention and control strategy.Methods One hundred children with dental fluorosis and 30 adults with skeletal fluorosis who lived in Wushan county and Fengjie county,the endemic fluorosis regions northeast of Chongqing were randomly selected as the case group in 2010.One hundred healthy children and 30 healthy adults were selected from the population where the cases were selected from as the control group and 30 healthy external adults control were selected from Yubei district,a non-endemic fluorosis area.Fasting venous blood was draw from all subjects and the content of zinc (Zn),copper(Cu),calcium (Ca),magnesium(Mg),and ferrum(Fe) in venous blood was measured by atomic spectrophotometric.Instant urine was collected from all subjects and urinary fluorine was measured by fluorine selective electrode.We also did questionnaire survey to 100 dental fluorosis children and 100 control children about their situation of fluorine pollution and knowledge related to endemic fluorosis.Results Children's blood Zn of the ease group[(70.88 ±9.28) μmol/L] was lower than that of the control group [(75.53 ± 10.78)μmol/L],and the difference was statistically significant(P < 0.05).But the average blood Cu content[(30.28 ± 2.58)μ mol/L] and the average urinary fluorine of the case group [(0.74 ± 0.36)mg/L] were significantly higher than that [Cu (28.45 ± 4.05)μmol/L and urinary fluorine (0.48 ± 0.21)mg/L] of the control group in children,respectively,and the differences was statistically significant(P < 0.05).The average blood Zn content of adults in the case group[(91.13 ± 10.29)μ mol/L] was lower than that of the control group[(99.57 ± 11.73)μmol/L],and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).The average content of Mg[(1.57 ± 0.19)mmol/L],Fe[(8.17 ± 1.01) mmol/L] and urinary fluorine[(2.37 ± 1.01)mg/L] in the case group were higher than that [Mg(1.46 ± 0.16) mmol/L,Fe(7.72 ± 0.96) mmol

  17. [Epidemiological surveillance of dental fluorosis in a city with a tropical climate with a fluoridated public drinking water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Marcoeli Silva de; Barbosa, Pablo Renan Ribeiro; Nunes-Dos-Santos, Danila Lorena; Dantas-Neta, Neusa Barros; Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; Lima, Marina de Deus Moura de

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among 11 to 14-year-old schoolchildren in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, which is a tropical city with a fluoridated public drinking water supply. It involved a cross-sectional observational study on a sample of 571 students in public and private schools. Informed Consent forms were approved for the data collection and the exams were conducted at the schools. Data were recorded on a questionnaire answered by the parents, regarding the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits of the sample. The dental exam was performed qualified dental sugeons. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index was used. The prevalence of fluorosis was 77.9%, and only 12.5% of the affected children had TF ≥ grade 3 (with aesthetic damage). The premolars were the teeth most affected by fluorosis. Among the students with the highest severity of fluorosis, 98.6% belonged to the lowest social bracket (> B2), 91.5% were born and had always lived in Teresina, 94.4% consumed water from the fluoridated public supply, 76% used toothpaste for children and 64% of mothers reported that they swallowed toothpaste. The prevalence of fluorosis was high, though the severity was low in individuals exposed to fluoridation since birth. PMID:27076023

  18. Coal-burning endemic fluorosis is associated with reduced activity in antioxidative enzymes and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Cui, Kang-ping; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Yan-ling; Zhao, Jing; Li, Da-sheng; Li, Xiao-lei; Huang, Hou-jin

    2014-02-01

    To study the effect of fluorine on the oxidative stress in coal-burning fluorosis, we investigated the environmental characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis combined with fluorine content surveillance in air, water, food, briquette, and clay binder samples from Bijie region, Guizhou Province, southwest of China. The activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and level of lipid peroxidation such as malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in serum samples obtained from subjects residing in the Bijie region. Expression of the Cu/Zn-SOD gene was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that people suffering from endemic fluorosis (the high and low exposure groups) had much higher MDA level. Their antioxidant enzyme activities and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression levels were lower when compared to healthy people (the control group). Fluorosis can decrease the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with exposure level of fluorine. Down-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD expression may play an important role in the aggravation of oxidative stress in endemic fluorosis. PMID:23567976

  19. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children in Sarada tehsil of Udaipur district, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B U Sarvaiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean′s index in school children of selected villages. The drinking water samples of all the selected villages were collected in polyethylene bottles and the fluoride content of these samples was determined by fluoride ion selective method using Orion microprocessor analyser. Results: The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 69.84%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI with corresponding increase in water fluoride content was found. Conclusion: There was an increase in prevalence of dental fluorosis with a corresponding increase in water fluoride content from 0.8 ppm to 4.1 ppm. A significantly strong positive correlation was found between CFI and fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  20. 低氟青砖茶预防饮茶型氟中毒效果观察%Role of brick tea with low-fluoride level in prevention of tea type fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆斌; 田淑彩; 刘晓波; 王树君; 刘学慧; 于冰; 姜志立; 王在君; 周明仁; 璋显坤

    2012-01-01

    预防效果更为可靠.%Objective To investigate the effect of drinking brick tea with low-fluoride level on prevention of tea type fluorosis.Methods Handahangacha,Hadayinggegacha,Dalainuoyi town,in Keshiketengqi Inner Mongolia endemic fluorosis area were selected as test points,and brick tea with fluoride [(204.5 ± 10.2),(308.2 ±15.4)mg/kg] was given for 12 months.Dental fluorosis,clinical skeletal fluorosis,and X-ray diagnosis of skeletalfluorosis [according to “Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis Diagnostic Criteria” (WS 192-2008)] of adults 20 to 70 years of age were examined and level of fluoride before and after the prevention trial,in brick tea,drinking water,milk tea and urine were tested (fluoride ion selective electrode method),and fluoride intake through tea was calculated.Results Detection rate of adult dental fluorosis in Handahangacha was 68.89% (62/90),clinical detection of skeletal fluorosis was 55.32% (52/94),and X-ray detection of skeletal fluorosis was 65.17% (58/89); adult dental fluorosis detection rate in Hadayinggegacha was 54.84%(51/93),clinical detection of skeletal fluorosis was 65.69%(67/102),and X-ray detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 61.36% (54/88).Brick tea fluoride was (831.4 ±138.9),(864.3 ± 134.6)mg/kg before the prevention trial in Handahangacha and Hadayinggegacha,respectively,drinking water fluoride content was (0.27 ± 0.05),(0.54 ± 0.24)mg/L,fluoride content of milk tea was (216 ± 1.12),(2.82 ± 1.38)mg/L,adult urine fluoride content was (2.78 ± 1.57),(2.96 ± 1.80)mg/L,and fluoride intake through milk tea was (8.12 ± 5.84),(6.42 ± 5.04)mg/d,respectively; after the prevention trial the fluoride content of brick tea was (204.5 ± 10.2),(308.2 ± 15.4)mg/kg,fluoride content of drinking water (0.34 ± 0.11),(0.62 ± 0.30)mg/L,fluoride content of milk tea(0.97 ± 0.33),(1.83 ± 0.66)mg/L,fluoride content in urine(1.29 ± 0.55),( 1.47 ±0.62)mg/L,fluoride intake through milk tea (3.45 ± 2.05),(3.71 ± 2.07)mg/d,respectively; in Handahan and

  1. Prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in 11-15 year old school children of Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India: A cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaradoss Jagan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study presents data on the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 11-15-years-old school children of Kanyakumari district, TamilNadu, India, and also the relationships between prevalence of dental fluorosis and selected risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 1800 children, from all the nine blocks of Kanyakumari district, studying in classes 6-10 were examined using type III examination. The assessment form designed specifically for this study was used while examining each student. Results: Dental fluorosis was present in 15.8% (285 children of the study population and the community fluorosis index was calculated to be 0.27. The prevalence of dental fluorosis varied from as low as 1.4% in some blocks to as high as 29.4% in some others. There was a significant difference in the level of dental fluorosis between rural and urban residents ( P < 0.001. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was higher in children who consumed pipe water as compared to children who consumed ground water. 65% of the children with dental fluorosis had no caries, indicating the positive effects of fluoride. Conclusions: The prevalence of dental fluorosis can be attributed to the level of fluoride in the drinking water as it exhibited a step-wise increase when the water fluoride levels increased from 1.5-1.7 ppm. Measures for defluoridation of drinking water before distribution has to be taken in the high prevalence blocks to lower the burden of dental fluorosis in this community.

  2. Adolescents' perceptions of the aesthetic impact of dental fluorosis vs. other dental conditions in areas with and without water fluoridation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of fluorides for caries prevention is well established but is linked with an increased risk of dental fluorosis, some of which may be considered to be aesthetically objectionable. Patient opinion should be considered when determining impact on aesthetics. The aim of this study was to assess participant rating of dental aesthetics (from photographic images of 11 to 13 year olds participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in a fluoridated and a non-fluoridated community in Northern England. Methods Consented participants were invited to rank in order of preference (appearance a collage of 10 computer generated images on a touch-screen laptop. The images comprised an assortment of presentations of teeth that included white teeth, a spectrum of developmental defects of enamel and dental caries. Data were captured directly and exported into SPSS for analysis. Results Data were available for 1553 participants. In general, there were no significant differences in the rank positions between the fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities, with the exception of teeth with caries and teeth with large demarcated opacities. Very white teeth had the highest rating in both localities. Overall, there was a trend for teeth with fluorosis to be ranked more favourably in the fluoridated community; for TF 1 and TF 2 this preference was significant (p Conclusions The results of this study suggest teeth that are uniformly very white have the highest preference. The rankings suggest teeth with a fluorosis score of TF 1 may not be considered aesthetically objectionable to this population and age group. The image depicting a tooth with caries and the image with large demarcated opacities were deemed to be the least favoured. Participant preference of images depicting fluorosis falls with increasing severity of fluorosis.

  3. Synthesis and performance evaluation of Al/Fe oxide coated diatomaceous earth in groundwater defluoridation: Towards fluorosis mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuagie, Anthony A; Gitari, Wilson M; Gumbo, Jabulani R

    2016-08-23

    The quest to reduce fluoride in groundwater to WHO acceptable limit of 1.5 mg/L to prevent diseases such as teeth mottling and skeletal fluorosis was the motivation for this study. Al/Fe oxide-modified diatomaceous earth was prepared and its defluoridation potential evaluated by batch method. The sorbent with pHpzc 6.0 ± 0.2 is very reactive. The maximum 82.3% fluoride removal attained in 50 min using a dosage of 0.3 g/100 mL in 10 mg/L fluoride was almost attained within 5 min contact time; 81.3% being the percent fluoride removal at 5 min contact time. The sorbent has a usage advantage of not requiring solution pH adjustment before it can exhibit its fluoride removal potential. A substantial amount of fluoride (93.1%) was removed from solution when a sorbent dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL was contacted with 10 mg/L fluoride solution for 50 min at a mixing rate of 200 rpm. The optimum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 7.633 mg/g using a solution containing initially 100 mg/L fluoride. The equilibrium pH of the suspensions ranged between 6.77 and 8.26 for 10 and 100 mg/L fluoride solutions respectively. Contacting the sorbent at a dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL with field water containing 5.53 mg/L at 200 rpm for 50 min reduced the fluoride content to 0.928 mg/L-a value below the upper limit of WHO guideline of 1.5 mg/L fluoride in drinking water. The sorption data fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms but better with the former. The sorption data obeyed only the pseudo-second-order kinetic, which implies that fluoride was chemisorbed. PMID:27220558

  4. 2010年山东省地方性氟中毒重点调查结果与分析%Analysis of surveillance outcome of endemic fluorosis in Shandong province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培忠; 云中杰; 李亨祥; 高红旭; 王玉涛; 高杰; 尹玉岩

    2012-01-01

    urinary fluoride were determined by ion selective electrode and examination of dental fluorosis was done by using Dean method.Results A total of 288normal operated water improvement projects were examined in the 4 counties,the qualified rate of water fluoride (≤ 1.00 mg/L) of the projects was 51.39%(148/288),mean water fluoride was 1.35 mg/L and the maximum value was 6.27 mg/L.A total of 26 copies of drinking water samples were measured,the fluoride content ranged from 0.62mg/L to 4.36 mg/L,and mean water fluoride was 2.02 mg/L.A total of 685 children aged 8 to 12 were examined in the major investigated villages,the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 80.14% (549/685),detectable rate of the defective dental fluorosis was 15.33% (105/685),and dental fluorosis index was 1.56.Three hundred and seventynine copies of child urine samples were tested,the geometric mean of urinary fluoride were 0.66 - 13.28 mg/L,and the average was 3.04 mg/L.Conclusions Nearly 50% of the water fluoride level of the water improvement project exceeds the standard ( > 1.00 mg/L) in the 4 countries.The detection rate of dental fluorosis exceeds 80% and urinary fluoride is significantly exceeds the standard in the major investigated villages.The endemic fluorosis is still serious and the situation of prevention and control of the disease is still grim.

  5. Esthetic improvement of white spot lesions and non-pitted fluorosis using resin infiltration technique: Series of four clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gugnani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available White opacities have always been a major concern of esthetics for patients and can have varying etiology. In general, white discolorations of enamel might be due to dental fluorosis, early caries (white spot lesions, developmental defects etc. Conventional treatment options available for such opacities include non-invasive and invasive approaches. Recently, a new "micro-invasive" technique has been introduced as an alternative therapeutic approach that improves such opacities esthetically, in a single sitting, is painless and exhibits no complications. This case series illustrates the use of resin infiltration to treat fluorosis stains and WSLs, exhibiting significant improvement in esthetics.

  6. Investigation of status in coal-burning fluorosis areas in Luoyang city of Henan in 2006%2006年河南省洛阳市燃煤污染型氟中毒病区现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付书霞; 杨芳丽; 康建山; 马娟; 乔玉朋; 姚巧玲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution status of coal-burning fluorosis (endemic fluorosis) areas in Luoyang and to provide scientifc evidence for making strategies in prevention and control. Methods In 2006, a household per village was chosen to carry the general survey so as of disease condition, living habits and housing structure among 941 coal-burning pollution fluorine sickness natural villages in Yanshi, Mengjin, Xin'an, Luanchuan counties and Geely area which were under the jurisdiction of Luoyang. In the general survey, the sampled village having a population of more than 500 person was considered as a major survey village, and water fluoride, 8 - 12 year-old child fluorine spot on tooth and the urinary fluoride were surveyed. Water fluoride and the child urinary fluoride determination used the fluoride ion selective electrode method, and the children's dental fluorosis used Dean method. Results The endemic fluorosis of Luoyang existed 742 in endemic fluomsis villages, compared with history, a decrease of 199 in number. Ninety-six point seven per cent( 142 543/147 419) of the households were consuming smoke-free coal. Households using intact kitchens accounted for 93.6%( 137 919/147 419). Of which 63.0%(86 889/137 919) of kitchens were mixed up with bedrooms. Total 125 060 people were using coal- fired furnace for heating, of which 87.8%(109 802/125 060) had smoke-free facilities, 12.2%(15 258/125 060) had none. Among 52 endemic villages with population of more than 500 people surveyed, a total of 183 water samples were collected, 2 had water fluoride exceeding 1.0 rag/L, the highest water fluoride being 1.04 rag/L, averaging 0.39 mg/L Sixteen villages had a prevalence rate of dental fluorosis for children less than 30.00%, accounting for 30.8% (16/52), 36 endemic villages the prevalence of dental fluorosis detection rate of more than 30.00%, accounting for 69.2%(36/52). Twenty-thrce villages had a dental fluorosis index greater than 0.6, severe dental

  7. The sources, pathway, and preventive measures for fluorosis in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, S.F.; Li, W.W.; Tang, Y.G.; Zhang, Y.; Feng, P. [China University of Mining Technology, Beijing (China)

    2007-05-15

    The F content of several materials from households of Zhijin County, one of the most severe endemic fluorosis-stricken areas in western Guizhou, was determined using the pyrohydrolysis/fluoride ion-selective electrode method to determine the sources of F and the pathways causing the disease. The average F content of the coal burned is 237 {mu} g/g, the clay used as a binder for fine coal is 2262 {mu} g/g, with 828 {mu} g/g in the mixed coal and clay, while the F content of corn is 1419 {mu} g/g, with 110 {mu} g/g in chilies. The binder clay is found to be the main F source for the endemic fluorosis. Fluorine in the clay not only occurs in apatite and hornblende, but also is associated with illite and mixed-layer clay minerals of smectite and illite. About 80% of the F is released during combustion of the mixture. The F content of corn and chilies is about 1000 and 110 times higher, respectively, than the permitted level of F in foodstuffs according to the Chinese Standard GB 4809-84. Most of the F in corn and chilies probably occurs either in smoke dusts attached to the surface or is adsorbed onto the outer peel, rather than being absorbed by the inner part. Thus, in addition to developing F-sequestration technologies, changing the living habits of the residents in the endemic area, for example, washing corn and chilies before cooking and peeling corn before being pulverized into corn flour, will remove a large proportion of the F, and thus it can play an important role in endemic fluorosis prevention.

  8. An analysis of monitoring data of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Shanxi Province in 2014%2014年山西省饮水型地方性氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段虎顺; 王三祥; 贾清珍; 王正辉; 吴赵明; 李鹏飞; 程晓天; 武敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To dynamically monitor the implementation progress and the quality of the water quality improvement project in drinking water type of endemic fluorosis areas,to learn the condition change tendency,and to evaluate the effect of control measures.Methods According to "The Plan of Surveillance on Drinking-water-borne Endemic Fluorosis in China",18 villages in 6 counties were selected as monitoring sites in Yanggao,Dingxiang,Xiaodian,Taigu,Xiangfen,Linyi counties.Water fluoride content in residents' drinking water samples was determined in monitoring counties and villages,and the operation of water supply projects was investigated.The fluorine content in water samples was determined according to the standard testing methods for drinking water (GB/T 5750.5-2006).All children aged 8 to 12 of the survey villages were examined and determined dental fluorosis using "Diagnostic of Dental Fluorosis" (WS/T 208-2011).People of over 25 years old in monitoring counties were selected to be examined skeletal fluorosis by X-ray and the content of urinary fluoride was determined,and they were examined by X-ray according to "Diagnostic Criteria of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis"(WS 192-2008),and the urinary fluoride content was determined by fluoride ion selective electrodemethod.Results A total of 18 villages were monitored,16 had changed the water,2 had not changed the water.In water changed villages,small water projects were 15,accounted for 93.75% (15/16);large water project was 1,accounted for 6.25% (1/16);all projects were in normal operation,10 of the projects provided water with normal fluoride,the range of water fluoride content was 0.11-1.00 mg/L,the qualified rate of water fluoride content was 62.50%(10/16);6 of the projects provided water with fluoride exceeded the standard,the range of water fluoride content was 1.69-2.91 mg/L,the rate of water fluoride content exceeded was 37.5% (6/16).Water fluoride content of the two villages which water had not changed

  9. Influencia de los tratamientos microabrasivos sobre la resistencia adhesiva en dientes con fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mena Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda de tratamientos mínimamente invasivos y altamente estéticos para pacientes con fluorosis, ha llevado a buscar mecanismos para solucionar esta problemática, mediante la utilización de resinas como la primera opción. Sin embargo el principal problema del tratamiento, se centra en la poca adhesión debido a las características estructurales del esmalte fluorótico, en grados de fluorosis TF 1 al 3, el ácido no actúa correctamente, causando ausencia de grabado principalmente entre las estrías de Retzius, en las rugosidades y espacios adamantinos ocupados por detritus de materia orgánica y cúmulos de placa dentobacteriana, siendo necesario efectuar técnicas microabrasivas y desproteinizantes como paso previo a los procesos adhesivos. Así, el presente estudio pretendió determinar la resistencia adhesiva en dientes con fluorosis grados TF 2 y 3, empleando tres diferentes técnicas de abrasión adamantina, se seleccionaron 48 dientes divididos en 3 grupos de 16 muestras cada uno, 8 con grado TF2 y 8 con grado TF3. Las superficies del esmalte fueron preparadas mediante la técnica “microabrasión modificada”, la “técnica de microabrasión” y “Opalustre”, todos los grupos recibieron desproteinización con hipoclorito de sodio al 5% por un minuto. Posterior a lo cual fueron realizados los procesos adhesivos mediante sistema adhesivo y resina compuesta, sometiéndose posteriormente a pruebas de cizallamiento. Los resultados analizados mediante testes de ANOVA y T de Student no determinaron una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos, la facilidad en los protocolos de aplicación debe ser considerada en la elección de la técnica, sin embargo resulta importante su ejecución en dientes afectados por fluorosis.

  10. Analysis of the dri nking water type endemic fluorosis surveillance in Bozhou City, Anhui Province,2010%2010年安徽亳州市饮水型地方性氟中毒监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐慧文

    2013-01-01

    目的 掌握亳州市饮水型地方性氟中毒病情及降氟改水工程等防治措施落实情况,为进一步开展防治地氟病工作提供科学依据.方法 2010 年在市辖3 个县(区)谯城区、涡阳县、蒙城县的地氟病监测点,对所有改水工程运行情况、水氟含量进行了调查.对每县区的3 个固定监测村的人口学资料、水氟含量、8~12 岁儿童氟斑牙、25 岁以上成人氟骨症等情况开展了调查工作.结果 共调查了134 个集中式改水设施,无经费运行或损坏的有14 个,水氟>1.0mg / L 的有93 个.共采集9 个病区村的48 份水样,全市水氟浓度检测结果 的算术平均值范围为1.37mg / L,最大值为4.91mg / L.726 名8~12 岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为21.26%(158 / 726),缺损率为1.24%(9 / 726),氟斑牙指数为0.74;25 岁以上成人X 线氟骨症检出率为15.4%(69/448).结论 亳州市饮水型地氟病病情尚未完全控制,防控形势仍很严峻,需进一步加强降氟改水监管力度,使群众能够饮用低氟水.%Objective To understand the situation of drinking water type endemic fluorosis and the implement status on proj ects of lowing fluoride content in drinking water in Bozhou City, and provide scientific basis to carry out control work of the disease. Methods In 2010, the operation situation of projects of lowing fluoride content in drinking water in surveillance sites in Qiaocheng District, Guoyang County and Mengcheng County of Bozhou City were investigated, and the fluoride content in water was detected, and the demographic data, water fluoride content, dental fluorosis of children aged 8 — 12, skeletal fluorosis of adults aged over 25 in 3 fixed monitoring villages were investigated. Results A total of 134 centralized water facilities were investigated, 14 of which didn′t run or damaged, 93 of which were found that the water fluoride were all over 1.0mg/ L. A total of 48 water samples from 9 villages were collected, and the

  11. Induced skeletal mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a large-scale experiment that, by means of breeding tests, confirmed that many dominant skeletal mutations are induced by large-dose radiation exposure. The author also discusses: (1) the major advantages and disadvantages of the skeletal method in improving estimates of genetic hazard to man; (2) future uses of the skeletal method; (3) direct estimation of risk beyond the first generation using the skeletal method; and (4) the possibility of using the skeletal method as a quick and easy screen for chemical mutagens

  12. 2008年青海省饮水型地方性氟中毒病情调查分析%Outcome analysis on drinking-water type endemic fluorosis in Qinghai in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏生英; 刘秋香; 王兴; 万玛; 鲁青; 丁萍; 丁生荣; 浦广兰; 陈萍; 何多龙; 张海燕; 司文江

    2010-01-01

    groups. The fluorine content in urine was determined with F-ion selective electrode. The situation of clinical skeletal fluorosis of adults over 16 years of age was examined,and 20 adults in the villages of medium and heavy levels were filmed for skeletal fluorosis. Results The detectable rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 years old was 43.59% (245/562),that of skeletal flurosis of adults aged above 16 years was 50.32% (1582/3144) and detectable rate of X-ray was 29.45% (48/163). Fluoride content in urine was 1.52 mg/L. Conclusions Endemic fluorosis is still very serious in Qiaghai province in a rising trend,so the control measures need to be strengthen.

  13. Identificación de fluorosis dental en una población estudiantil universitaria en el Estado de Tabasco, México

    OpenAIRE

    RM Bulnes-López; Teresa Ramón-Frías; D. Bermudez-Ocaña; Isela Juárez-Rojop; Manuel E. Borbolla-Sala; Olga E. Piña-Gutiérrez

    2008-01-01

    Introducción. En los últimos años en la república mexicana se ha observado un aumento en la frecuencia y severidad de la fluorosis dental. De la misma manera, en la población tabasqueña se ha identificado la presencia de hipocalcificaciones semejantes a la fluorosis dental un una población estudiantil universitaria. Objetivo. Determinar la fluorosis dental y el nivel de flúor en orina en un grupo de alumnos universitarios como un indicador de sobreexposición a fluoruros. Material y métodos. S...

  14. 昆明市儿童龋病和氟牙症流行状况调查%Epidemiology survey of dental caries and fluorosis of children in Kunming city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆; 刘娟; 张灿华; 张石楠; 李艳红

    2011-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of water fluoridation to prevent caries in Kunming by investigating the epidemiological status of dental caries and dental fluorosis of children, and to provide the longitudinal reference data for the long-term epidemiology survey of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Kunming city. Methods Through stratified cluster sampling method, 212 5-year-old children and 1 149 12-year-old children were recruited in the survey. Dental caries condition of each child was clinically examined, dental fluorosis was examined in 12-year-old group. Results The prevalence of dental caries of primary teeth in 5-year-old group was 73.6%, mean value was 4.47± 4.39. The values of permanent teeth in 12-year-old group were 53.5% and 1.42±1.83. The prevalence of dental fluo- rosis in 12-year-old group was 4.1% and the average community fluorosis index was 0.03. Conclusion Based on the high prevalence of dental caries and the low prevalence of dental fluorosis, it is suggested that using water fluoridation to prevent caries is feasible and necessary in Kunming city.%目的 通过对昆明市儿童龋病和氟牙症的流行病学调查,为该区开展饮水加氟预防龋齿提供可行性依据,并为昆明市龋病和氟牙症长期流行病学研究提供基础数据.方法 采用分层、整群随机抽样方法,调查5、12岁2个年龄组儿童各212、1 149人,调查内容包括5、12岁儿童龋病患病现状以及12岁儿童氟牙症流行现状.结果 昆明市5岁儿童乳牙患龋率73.6%,龋均4.47+4.39; 12岁儿童恒牙患龋率53.5%,龋均1.42±1.83; 12岁儿童氟牙症患病率4.1%,社区氟牙症指数为0.03.结论 昆明市属于龋病患病状况较严重和氟牙症非流行区,从流行病学角度认为该地区具有调节水氟浓度预防龋齿的必要性及可行性.

  15. POLLUTION OF DRINKING WATER DUE TO FLUORIDE AND DENTAL FLUOROSIS AT HUNAGUND TALUK OF BAGALKOT DISTRICT, KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.Kugali

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground water quality in Hunagund taluk of Bagalkot district has been studied with special reference to the presence of fluoride. The main purpose is to draw attention to the presence and the severity of dental fluorosis. Out of 3000 people aged 8-50 years 1275 (42.5% had dental fluorosis of some degree. The well being of humans depends on quality of drinking water. Consumption of water containing excess fluoride over over long period results in fluorosis. Currently, fifteen states of India are endemic for fluorosis. The presence of fluoride in exceeding limits and its related problems of drinking water prevailing in many parts of India is well documented. Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. Many solutions to these problems were also suggested. Fluoride from water or waste water can be removed by an ion exchange/ adsorption process or by coagulation. Precipitation process. The paper presents the current information on defluoridation

  16. Diagnosing dental caries in populations with different levels of dental fluorosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvad, Bente; Machiulskiene, Vita; Fejerskov, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Nyvad visual-tactile caries-diagnostic criteria when used among children who have been lifelong residents in areas with 'optimal' or low concentrations of fluoride in the drinking water. In each of two areas with drinking water fluoride...... concentrations of 0.3 and 1.1 ppm (0.3 and 1.1 mg/l) fluoride, respectively, 150 children were clinically examined twice, 2 wk apart, for dental fluorosis, using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TF index), and for dental caries using the Nyvad visual-tactile caries criteria. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was...... 45% in the 1.1 ppm fluoride area and 21% in the 0.3 ppm fluoride area. When the results of the duplicate caries recordings were compared at the surface level, only minute differences were observed in the percentage agreement (91.7 and 90.7%, respectively) and in the kappa values (0.73 and 0...

  17. Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo BUZALAF

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the overall apatite crystals profile in the enamel matrix of mice susceptible (A/J strain or resistant (129P3/J strain to dental fluorosis through analyses by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Material and Methods: Samples from the enamel matrix in the early stages of secretion and maturation were obtained from the incisors of mice from both strains. All detectable traces of matrix protein were removed from the samples by a sequential extraction procedure. The purified crystals (n=13 per strain were analyzed qualitatively in the AFM. Surface roughness profile (Ra was measured. Results: The mean (±SD Ra of the crystals of A/J strain (0.58±0.15 nm was lower than the one found for the 129P3/J strain (0.66±0.21 nm but the difference did not reach statistical significance (t=1.187, p=0.247. Crystals of the 129P3/J strain (70.42±6.79 nm were found to be significantly narrower (t=4.013, p=0.0013 than the same parameter measured for the A/J strain (90.42±15.86 nm. Conclusion: enamel crystals of the 129P3/J strain are narrower, which is indicative of slower crystal growth and could interfere in the occurrence of dental fluorosis.

  18. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mohammadi Bassir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound (split-mouth design. Both treatment compounds were applied for 30-second periods and treatment continued up to 10 minutes. Before and after treatment, standardized photographs were taken. The photographs were compared by two experienced observers unaware of the modality of treatment. Two indices of aesthetics, improvement in appearance (IA and degree of stain removal (DSR, were determined according to a visual analog scale. The inter- and intra-correlation coefficients were made; then, statistical analyses were calculated using Mann-Whitney and t-test. Results: There were no significant differences in interobserver evaluation. Improvements in aesthetic indices were observed in all fluorotic teeth by both compounds; however, the mean treatment time with HCl-pumice was significantly lower than H 3 PO 4 -pumice. Conclusion: The H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound improved aesthetic indices in fluorotic teeth similar to the HCl-pumice compound.

  19. The Skeletally Immature and Newly Mature Throwing Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Kiery A; Marshall, Kelley W

    2016-09-01

    Injuries to the shoulder and elbow in the pediatric and adolescent throwing athlete are common. Both knowledge of throwing mechanics and understanding of normal bone development in the immature skeleton are key to the diagnosis, treatment, and potential prevention of these common injuries. Pathologic changes from chronic repetitive trauma to the developing shoulder and elbow manifest as distinctly different injuries that can be predicted by the skeletal maturation of the patient. Sites of vulnerability and resulting patterns of injury change as the child evolves from the skeletally immature little league player to the skeletally mature high school/college athlete. PMID:27545423

  20. Outcome analysis of surveillance on endemic fluorosis during thr period of 1991 to 2006 in Jilin Province%1991-2006年吉林省地方性氟中毒病情监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长青; 王成海; 张晓东; 许宏伟; 唐红艳; 卢振明; 张爱君; 张玉林

    2009-01-01

    Objective To unveil the changes of endemic fluorosis in order to provide the scientific basis for making countermeasure. Methods Seven villages was selected as monitoring points in Qianan County of Jilin Province where drinking water was improved or was going tobe improved. Dental fluorosis was surveyed with Dean method and for urine fluoride content was tested using fluoride ion-selective electrode analysis in 8 - 12 years old children. Clinical skeletal fluorosis was detected in all residents of aged 16 and over in the beginning of the monitor and every 3 years. X-ray films were taken in those over 16 years old at the beginning of the monitor and every 5 years. Results Detectable rate of dental fluorosis was decreased compared with before(Weizi: 11.3% to 2.2%, Danzi: 16.3% to 12.1%, Houqi: 53.7% to 37.5%, Houju: 38.6% to 33.3%), and severity was declining, for example, in Dongnanjing, rate of being moderate was dropping from 11.3% to 7.8%, severe rate from 2.8% to 0;in Houqi: moderate rate from 16.7% to 0, severe rate from 1.9% to 0;in Houju, moderate rate from 1.4% to 0,severe rate from 1.4% to 0. However, detectable rate of dental fluorosis rose in Dabin from 61.7% to 70.0% and in Dongbin-donju from 52.7% to 71.1% due to increased fluorides in drinking water. Urine fluorides content in 8 - 12 years old children was decreased to normal level(1.5 mg/L) in most of monitoring spots, but in Dabin it still remained at a high level, being 4.03 and 4.57 mg/L before and after respectively. Detectable rate clinical skeletal fluorosis was between 11.1% - 25.7% among those aged 16 and over in 7 monitoring point in 1991 - 2006, however it increased year after year in Dabin (15.9%, 21.6% and 25.7% in 1991, 1993 and 1995). Positive X-ray rate for skeletal fluorosis was decreased from 54.9% to 24.0% in Dabin, from 40.7% to 23.5% in Dongbin-donju and from 28.6% to 20.4% in Dangnanjing. Conclusions Endemic fluorosis has been controlled attributed to improved drinking water and

  1. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied.

  2. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  3. Prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in 11-15 year old school children of Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India: A cross sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Baskaradoss Jagan; Clement Roger; Narayanan Aswath

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study presents data on the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 11-15-years-old school children of Kanyakumari district, TamilNadu, India, and also the relationships between prevalence of dental fluorosis and selected risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 1800 children, from all the nine blocks of Kanyakumari district, studying in classes 6-10 were examined using type III examination. The assessment form designed specifically for this study was used whi...

  4. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  5. X-ray analysis of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis caused by coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.P.; Yuan, M.B.; Liu, G.F. [Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China)

    1996-05-01

    Radiographs of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis of coalburning type (CBFF) - 49 males and 31 females aged 30 to 70 years - were analysed to examine the changes to the bone substance, peripheral structure of bone, and joints. The changes to bone substance were: (1) osteosclerosis type, 62 cases (77.5%); (2) mixed type, 16 cases (21.25%); (3) osteoporosis type, one case (1.25%); (4) osteomalacia type, one case (1.25%). The changes to the joints were found in the hips and elbows in 79 cases (98.75%), and in the knees in 75 cases (93.75%). When combinations of the above three changes occur, the classification of the disease is according to the most severe one of the three. Our findings can increase the accuracy of X-ray diagnosis, making it more consistent with clinical diagnosis, thus improving prevention and treatment of CBEF.

  6. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Maya; Narasimhan, Malathi; Krishnan, Ramesh; Chalakkal, Paul; Aruna, Rita Mary; Kuruvilah, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Context: There are various regions in India that have high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. Many people residing in such places suffer from dental fluorosis (DF). Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of DF in children residing in Salem and also to find any correlation between DF and other related factors. Materials and Methods: One school from each block of Salem (total 21 blocks) was selected for the study. A single examiner had evaluated untreated caries, lesions, and DF (for permanent anterior teeth and molars) using the Dean's fluorosis index, in all children. Water fluoride level determination at each school was done using the Tamil Nadu Water Fluoridation and Drainage Board field kit. Other factors that may have contributed to DF were assessed using a questionnaire, which was provided to each student. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 11.5. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: DF was present in 56.9% of the children examined. It was mostly seen in 9 years old (72%) and male (59%) children. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of DF and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content, consumption of borewell water (64%), the parts per million of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of black tea (59%). However, no correlation was found between DF, dental caries, consumption of milk, or consumption of foods cooked in aluminum vessels. Conclusion: There was a correlation between DF and factors such as male gender, bore well water consumption, black tea consumption and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content. PMID:27307668

  7. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There are various regions in India that have high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. Many people residing in such places suffer from dental fluorosis (DF. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of DF in children residing in Salem and also to find any correlation between DF and other related factors. Materials and Methods: One school from each block of Salem (total 21 blocks was selected for the study. A single examiner had evaluated untreated caries, lesions, and DF (for permanent anterior teeth and molars using the Dean's fluorosis index, in all children. Water fluoride level determination at each school was done using the Tamil Nadu Water Fluoridation and Drainage Board field kit. Other factors that may have contributed to DF were assessed using a questionnaire, which was provided to each student. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 11.5. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: DF was present in 56.9% of the children examined. It was mostly seen in 9 years old (72% and male (59% children. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of DF and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content, consumption of borewell water (64%, the parts per million of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of black tea (59%. However, no correlation was found between DF, dental caries, consumption of milk, or consumption of foods cooked in aluminum vessels. Conclusion: There was a correlation between DF and factors such as male gender, bore well water consumption, black tea consumption and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content.

  8. Dental and Skeletal Maturity- A Biological Indicator of Chronologic Age

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Vivek; Saha, Sonali; Yadav, Gunjan; Tripathi, Abhay Mani; Grover, Kavita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Precise evaluation of the developmental stage of a child is not only an integral part of both diagnosis and treatment of paediatric patients; it is also essential in Forensic Medicine and Dentistry. Physiologic age can be estimated by somatic, sexual, skeletal and dental maturity.

  9. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola-Rodríguez Juan Pablo; Pozos-Guillén Amaury de Jesús; Hernández-Guerrero Juan Carlos; Hernández-Sierra Juan Francisco

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaro...

  10. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  11. Dental Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proper amount of fluoride helps prevent and control tooth decay in children and adults. Fluoride works both while ... more sources of fluoride became available to prevent tooth decay. These sources include drinking water with fluoride, fluoride ...

  12. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  13. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 6 a 12 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Dobarganes Coca

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis y la caries dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de estas enfermedades. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en niños de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, con el objetivo de caracterizar la fluorosis y la caries dental, desde septiembre de 2011 hasta septiembre de 2012. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por 67 escolares, a los que se les determinó la presencia de fluorosis dental y los índices de dientes cariados, perdidos y obturados, en la dentición temporal y en la permanente (ceo-d y COP-D, respectivamente. Los factores de riesgo asociados a la caries dental que se tomaron en consideración fueron: susceptibilidad del esmalte, dieta cariogénica e higiene bucal deficiente. Se detectó la presencia de higiene bucal deficiente (71,6 % y dieta cariogénica (82,1 %, sin embargo, el 29,8 % y el 41,8 % de los niños, respectivamente, aunque estuvieron sometidos a estos factores de riesgo no desarrollaron caries dental. El mayor por ciento de los niños sin caries (70,3 % presentó esmalte resistente. Se observó un índice ceo-d de 1,50 y COP-D de 0,20. De los pacientes sin fluorosis, el 60,6 % no presentó caries dental

  14. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Bælum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental defects of non-fluoride origin in Lithuanian children born and raised in regions with 1.1 ppm (1.1 mg/l F) and 0.3 ppm (0.3 mg/l F) water fluoride levels, respectively. All permanent surfaces....../teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.......3 ppm fluoride' groups (19.6 and 18.1, respectively). However, a greater number of inactive lesions and fewer fillings were found in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' group than in the '0.3 ppm fluoride' group (mean difference 1.18 and -2.80, respectively). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 45% and 21...

  15. Coal-burning roasted corn and chili as the cause of dental fluorosis for children in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun-li; Li, Ling; Zhang, Shi-xi

    2011-01-30

    To find the pathologic cause of the children's dental fluorosis in southwestern China, diet structure before the age of 6 and prevalence rate of dental fluorosis (DF) of 405 children were investigated, and the fluorine and arsenic content of several materials were determined. The prevalence rate of DF of children living on roasted corn before the age of 6 is 100% with nearly 95% having the mild to severe DF; while that of children living on non-roasted corn or rice is less than 5% with all having very mild DF. The average fluorine and arsenic concentration are 20.26 mg/kg and 0.249 mg/kg in roasted corn, which are about 16 times and 35 times more than in non-roasted corn, respectively. The average fluorine concentration is 78 mg/kg in coal, 1116 mg/kg in binder clay and 313 mg/kg in briquette (coal mixed with clay). The average arsenic concentration of coal is 5.83 mg/kg, the binder clay is 20.94 mg/kg, with 8.52 mg/kg in the briquette. Living on roasted corn and chili is the main pathologic cause of endemic fluorosis in southwestern China. The main source of fluorine and arsenic pollution of roasted corn and chill is the briquette of coal and binder clay. PMID:21074315

  16. Structure of Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in some they are oblique. Each skeletal muscle fiber is a single cylindrical muscle cell. An individual ... made up of hundreds, or even thousands, of muscle fibers bundled together and wrapped in a connective tissue ...

  17. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) presenting with skeletal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2-year-old child presenting with bone pain and bone lesions was found to have sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML). SHML presenting with skeletal symptoms is unusual. Management has been conservative and the child has been symptom free for 30 months, although the bone lesions have not completely regressed. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of the survey result of the coal-burning endemic fluorosis in Hongya County of Sichuan Province in 2006%2006年四川省洪雅县燃煤污染型氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良; 杨志明; 伍子江; 罗志宇; 颜琼; 张健

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of coal-burning endemic fluorosis and the fluoride content in foods and drinking water in Hongya County,Sichuan Province.Methods Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride were suveyed in children of 8~12 years old in two schools which repectively located in Gaomiao and Wawushan Town.The adults above 20 years old underwent clinical examination.At the same time,fifty adults above 20 years old in Garden Village were chosen to take forearm and calf X-ray films to find out the evidence of skeletal fluorosis.The content of fluoride in food such as bacon,corn,dry capsicum in Sanxing Village in Gaomiao Town and Futian Village in Wawushan Town as well as drinking water in five families in Sanxing Village were determined.Results The dental fluorosis rate of children was 40.76%(161/395),the dental fluorosis index was 0.86 in Gaomiao Town.The dental fluorosis rate of children was 14.36%(82/571),the dental fluorosis index was 0.31 in Wawushan Town.The medium value of the urine fluoride was 0.81 mg/L.ranged 0.16~3.89 mg/L.The positive rate oi the clinical examination of skeletal fluorosis was 5.27%(27/512),the X-rays detective rate was 4.00%(2/50).The medium value in bacon,corn,dry capsicum were 6.00,0.64,1.49 mg/kg.The averaged content of the fluoride in drinking water(0.14±0.06)mg/L of local household was within the eligible limitation.Conclusions It is currently a mild endemic disease in Hongya Country,its incidence is reduced apparently,pathogenetic environmental fluoride content is reduced.The main source of fluoride is from the preserved ham contaminated with fluoride,which is epidemiologically significant in endemic area of Hongya County.Defluoriding countermeasures should be taken in the endemic areas.%目的 了解四川省洪雅县燃煤型地方性氟中毒病区病情现况及食物、饮水含氟量.方法 对高庙镇和瓦屋山镇两所中心小学8~12岁儿童进行氟斑牙检查和尿

  19. 2008年重庆市燃煤型氟中毒病区环境氟调查分析%Analysis of environmental fluoride of the coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 肖邦忠; 晏维; 周倩如; 张洁; 王正虹; 赵舰; 郭小琳; 罗兴建

    2009-01-01

    Objective To find out the distribution pattern of environmental fluoride in the coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas to provide scientific evidence for establishing prevention and remedial measures in Chongqing. Methods According to historical data in Chongqing In 2008, 4 endemic villages(Lingyun and Lizi Villages of Wushan County, and Taiping and Daqing Villages of Pengshui County) and 2 non-endemic villages (ShuangLou and XianLong Villages of Yongchuan County) were investigated. Dental fluorosis of children in 8 to 12 year old and residents over 16 years of age for clinical skeletal fluorosis were examined in four endemic villages. Five households from each of 6 villages were taken, where 500 g of coal, mixed clay with coal, mixed coal of soil, coal cinder, soil were sampled; 15 people were taken in each village, each household gathering 500 g of corn, rice, potatoes, vegetables, grain and vegetable, 100 g of dried pepper and 250 ml of drinking water were sampled from 15 families of each village. Household drinking water samples were collected 1, each 250 ml. For those having tea-drinking habit, each household was collected 50 g of tea and 600 ml of drinking tea, the amount of fluoride were determined. Indoor and outdoor air was collected and measured in 5 households in each village. Results The detected rate of dental fluorosis of children in endemic areas was 74.65% (736/986). The detected rate of skeletal fluorosis of adult was 7.20%(736/986). The average fluoride content of coal, mixed clay with coal, mixed coal of soil, cinder coal, soil in the endemic villages was (310.56±209.46), (360.51±224.96), (293.62±65.15), (186.59±133.66), (497.54±294.70)mg/kg. The average fluoride content in non-endemic villages was (48.68±10.62), (275.66±62.69), (152.20±34.43), (209.14±188.66),269.98±58.21)mg/kg. The fluoride content level of endemic villages was significantly higher than that of non-endemic villages(t=7.67,31.54,5.82, 5.82, all P0.05]. The amount of

  20. Influence of high-fluorine environmental background on crops and human health in hot spring-type fluorosis-diseased areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN De; WU Daishe; LI Ping; WANG Tengsheng; CHEN Chengguang; WANG Wuyi

    2008-01-01

    Drinking water-type fluorosis is the most harmful endemic disease in China with the largest number of sufferers. Although the implementation of the policy to alter water sources to lower fluoride level has effectively controlled the spread of this kind of endemic disease, its prevalence could not thoroughly be stopped because the high-fluoride environmental background in these endemically diseased areas could still do harm to human health through food chain. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a more deep-going study on the drinking water-type fluorosis. To investigate the effect of high fluorine environmental background on crops and human health in the hot spring-type fluorosis-diseased areas, local water, paddy soil, rice, whole vegetables and soils around their roots were sampled for analysis. The results were compared with those of the control groups in fluorosis-free areas which are similar to the fluorosis-diseased areas both in natural background and in social background. It is indicated that rice and vegetables can accumulate water-soluble fluorine either in soils or in irrigating water, and different crops have different abilities of fixing fluorine. The contents of fluorine in different parts of vegetables in the fluorosis-diseased and fluorosis-free areas were statistically categorized. The results showed that the fluorine contents of roots, tubers, leaves and flowers of vegetables in the fluorosis-diseased areas are 3.56, 1.17, 3.07 and 3.23 mg/kg, respectively. However, comparisons showed that in the fluorosis-free areas, the fluorine contents are 2.17, 0.70, 1.91 and 2.52 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, different parts of a crop also show significantly different fluorine fixation abilities. It is demonstrated that the fluorine contents of the strongly metabolic parts are relatively high. For example, the fluorine contents of roots, leaves and flowers of vegetables are much higher than those of stems. The fluorine fixation ability of seeds is very

  1. Current public health perspective of fluorosis mitigation project in Pavagada taluk, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halappa Mythri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride has become a recurring theme in discussing water issues in India. In Karnataka, where groundwater sources are concentrated with fluorides the impact is devastating. Dental and spine-related ailments are showing up in many cities and villages. Several villages in Pavagada taluk in Tumkur district have fluoride concentration 5 times more than the permissible level. The different aspects to the problem are many defluoridation interventions were failure. Objective: To determine and compare fluoride level in water samples from Fluorosis mitigation project area. Materials and Methods: Samples of municipal water were collected in sterile containers in an unannounced visit. All the samples of water were assigned a code so that those undertaking analysis would be blind to the source. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode (Orion 94-09 method. Results: Mean fluoride level in the water samples collected in the project was 0.8 which was within the normal range. Conclusion: Even though the fluoride level was within the normal limits after implementation of flourosis mitigation project, ground reality was numbers of beneficiaries were less. Hence, proper planning and monitoring always becomes essential for any project to be successful.

  2. [Muscle-skeletal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vygonskaya, M V; Filatova, E G

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the most complicated aspects of low back pain. The differences between specific and nonspecific low back pain using the "red flags" system is highlighted. The authors consider the causes of pain chronification (the "yellow flags" system) and the necessity of using a biopsychosocial model. Main pathogenetic mechanisms of chronic muscle/skeletal pain are considered and the possible involvement of several mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic pain as well as the use of complex therapy is discussed. The high efficacy and safety of ketorolac in treatment of nonspecific muscle/skeletal pain is demonstrated. PMID:27042717

  3. Fluorosis dental en niños y fluor en el agua de consumo humano. Mexticacán, Jalisco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa de Jesús Pérez Patiño; Rosa Leticia Scherman Leaño; René Juan Hernández Gutiérrez; Genoveva Rizo Curiel; Martha Patricia Hernández Guerrero

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en los niños de 6 a 12 años y su relación con la concentración de flúor en agua para consumo humano de Mexticacán, Jalisco. Material y métodos: Estudio Ecológico Exploratorio. Se estudiaron 355 niños para diagnosticar fluorosis dental. Se determinaron las concentraciones de flúor en las fuentes de agua de consumo de la población, por espectrofotometría SPADN utilizando las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (NMX-AA-077 y NOM127, NOM041) Resultad...

  4. Expression of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts and nuclear factor κB in brain hippocampus of rat with chronic fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expressions of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts(RAGE)and nuclear factorκB(NF-κB)in brain hippocampus of rat with chronic fluorosis,and to reveal the mechanism of brain damage resulted from chronic fluorosis.Methods Sixty clean grade SD rats were randomly divided to three groups(20 rats in each group,10 female and 10 male)fed with different contents of fluoride,control group with normal tap-water(<0.5 mg/L fluoride),

  5. Perinatal lethal skeletal dysplasia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Dubey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The word dysplasia originates from ancient Greek words dys (anomalous and plasia (formation. Skeltal dysplasia (SD is a heterogeneous group of congenital anomalies characterized by abnormalities in the development of the bone and cartilage tissue. This results in mark disproportion of the long bones, the spine and fetal head relation to the trunk. Perinatal lethal skeletal dysplasia leads to still birth or early neonatal death due to pulmonary hypoplasia. 30 yrs old G3P3L2 at 32 weeks presented with leaking per vaginum. Her serial scan was done as she had previous stillborn male child with short limbs. Her antenatal scan revealed short limbs from 24 weeks. From18 weeks to 24 weeks she did not underwent any sonography. She went into spontaneous labor and delivered still born male baby with clinical and radiological features suggestive of skeletal dysplasia. Skeletal dysplasia can be diagnosed on antenatal 2 D ultrasound from 14 - 16 weeks onwards. Prenatal genetic testing should be done to diagnose the genetic anomaly and patient should be referred to higher institute for this test. Even if genetic test not done even then termination of pregnancy should be considered based on ultrasound diagnosis especially with family history because of poor fetal prognosis and long term morbidity if survived. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 224-229

  6. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  7. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  8. Fluoride concentrations in the water of Maringá, Brazil, considering the benefit/risk balance of caries and fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmara Tatiely Pedroso BERGAMO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current Brazilian law regarding water fluoridation classification is dichotomous with respect to the risks of and benefits for oral diseases, and fluoride (F concentrations less than 0.6 or above 0.8 mg F/L are considered outside the normal limits. Thus, the law does not consider that both caries and fluorosis are dependent on the dosage and duration of fluoride exposure because they are both chronic diseases. Therefore, this study evaluated the quality of water fluoridation in Maringá, PR, Brazil, considering a new classification for the concentration of F in water the supply, based on the anticaries benefit and risk of fluorosis (CECOL/USP, 2011. Water samples (n = 325 were collected monthly over one year from 28 distribution water networks: 20 from treatment plants and 8 from artesian wells. F concentrations were determined using a specific ion electrode. The average F concentration was 0.77 mg F/L (ppm F, ranging from 0.44 to 1.22 mg F/L. Considering all of the water samples analyzed, 83.7% of them presented from 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L, and according to the new classification used, they would provide maximum anticaries benefit with a low risk of fluorosis. This percentage was lower (75.4% in the water samples supplied from artesian wells than from those distributed by the treatment plant (86%. In conclusion, based on the new classification of water F concentrations, the quality of water fluoridation in Maringá is adequate and is within the range of the best balance between risk and benefit.

  9. Case study of the public relations program of U. S. Steel's Utah fluorosis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuiddy, A.R.

    1958-01-01

    In the 1950s, fluoride emissions were determined to be a problem at US Steel's Geneva Steel Works in Utah. Neighboring farms were affected, in that fluorosis was found in cattle. The problem was settled in litigation, and US Steel installed state-of-the-art pollution control technology on the steel mill in order to eliminate recurrence. The investigations that led to the elucidation of fluorides as the problem, the installation of pollution control equipment, and the public relations efforts on the part of the company are described. 22 references.

  10. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a herbal compound made for treatment of discolorations caused by dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mohammdi Basir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was research on a new herbal compound (Seidlitzia Rosmarinus made by Traditional Medicine Research Group, University of shahed to find a safer alternative to HCL-Pumice compound technique.   Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial seventy two anterior teeth from 9 patients were divided in to three groups according to fluorosis severity: mild (34 teeth, moderate (14 teeth, and sever (24 teeth. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with “Shahed” compound and other half treated with HCL-Pumice compound. Before and after treatment, photographs were taken in both groups. HCL-Pumice treatment compound was applied for 30 seconds periods and continued for 10 minutes if necessary. In case of herbal Shahed compound the time was determined by clinical symptoms or when labial contour was dismissed, If the result was not esthetistically acceptabale for the patient, HCL-Pumice compound was applied on teeth. NaF was applied after mouth washing. The photographs of the teeth before and after treatment were reviewed by two experienced observer unaware of the treatment modality. The results were analyzed using willcoxon’s, kruskal-wallis and scheffe test.   Results: There was over 81.3% acceptance between two observers and no significant differences in intraobservers evaluation (P>0.05. Improvement in beauty indexes were observed in all degrees of dental fluorosis by 18% with HCL-Pumice compound application, but “Shahed” herbal compound induced significant reduction in the amount of white spots in mild fluorosis and stain intensity of moderate fluorosis (P<0.05 , while the reduction in the severity of discoloration in group 2, these two techniques were statistically equivalent but in the remainder, HCL-Pumice compound was more significantly effective (P<0.05 .   Conclusion: HCL-Pumice compound reduces the severity of the discoloration of the teeth. Shahed herbal compound

  11. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in ''battered child syndrome'' and brain injuries in ''shaken baby syndrome''. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.)

  12. The skeletal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkels, PGJ

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a group of disorders with a disturbance in development and/or growth of cartilage and/or bone. Epiphysis, metaphysis, and diaphysis of long bones are affected in a generalized manner with or without involvement of membranous bone of the skull. A dysostosis affects one or some

  13. Guidelines for Skeletal Surveys in Suspected Chils Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo; Poulsen, Mette Ramsdal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in that there is exceptional necessity for high quality images. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if imaging is sub-optimal. The consequences...... child. The second meeting resulted in consensus on the necessary projections required for follow-up skeletal surveys. Conclusion Common protocols for child abuse imaging have been established and fully implemented in the Region of Southern Denmark. Annual meetings have also been established where legal...... of misdiagnosis are serious. Should head trauma or fractures be overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. Conversely, where no abuse has taken place, but the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, the unnecessary...

  14. Comparison of radiographic and radionuclide skeletal surveys in battered children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of 13 cases of suspected child abuse in which radionuclide (RN) scans, radiographic skeletal surveys, and sufficient follow-up were available showed that the RN scans were insensitive, even though fractures were more than 48 hours old at the time of the scan. Frequently missed lesions included skull and extremity fractures. Furthermore, soft tissue and visceral abnormalities that were identified on radiographic examination went undetected on RN scan. We conclude that, although the RN scan may augment the radiographic examination, it should not be used alone to screen for the battered child

  15. Influence of chronic fluorosis on the expression of mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related 1 in the cortical neurons of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼迪栋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of protein expression of mito-fission gene dynaminrelated 1 (Drp 1) in the cortical neurons of rats with chronic fluorosis.MethodsA total of 120 one-month-old SD rats (each weighing approximately 100—120 g at the beginning of the

  16. Effects of health education and stove improvement in preventing coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis in Pingba County of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯友

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of health education and installation of improved stove in control of coal-burn-ing-borne endemic fluorosis in Pingba County of Guizhou Province.Methods Two towns (Shizi and Qibo) of Pingba County that had implemented the health education and

  17. Spatial distribution of dental fluorosis in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from North Bohemia (Czech Republic) and its relationships with environmental factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, František; Heřman, Michal; Kierdorf, H.; Kierdorf, U.; Sedláček, František

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 370, 2-3 (2006), s. 491-505. ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biomonitoring * dental fluorosis * environmental pollution * fluoride * GIS * roe deer Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2006

  18. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 9 a 11 años del estado de Aguascalientes, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Hernández Montoya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aguascalientes presenta contenido de fluoruros superior a 1.5 mg/L. A pesar de que existe una exposición crónica a los fluoruros a través del agua para consumo humano en este estado, se han realizado pocos estudios para establecer los daños en la salud pública ocasionados por la ingesta de fluoruros. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer las prevalencias de fluorosis y caries dental en 445 niños con una edad entre 9 y 11 años que residían en diferentes zonas de exposición a fluoruros del estado de Aguascalientes. Se encontraron prevalencias de fluorosis dental cercanas al 100 % en aquellas regiones donde el agua para consumo presentó concentración de fluoruros superior a 5.0 mg/L. Inclusive en las zonas donde el contenido de fluoruros en el agua para consumo era inferior a 1.5 mg/L, las prevalencias de fluorosis dental fueron superiores al 50 %. Se encontró que el 76 % de los niños que participaron en este estudio presentaron caries dental. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio confirman la presencia de un problema de salud pública de fluorosis dental en esta entidad mexicana.

  19. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Jarquín-Yañez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean’s index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF index. Results. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect.

  20. Skeletal Manifestations of Scurvy: A Case Report from Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Shahryar Noordin; Naveed Baloch; Muhammad Sohail Salat; Abdul Rashid Memon; Tashfeen Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Nutritional deficiencies are rarely reported in developed countries. We report a child of Pakistani origin brought up in Dubai who developed skeletal manifestations of scurvy due to peculiar dietary habits. Case Presentation. A 4.5 year old boy presented with pain and swelling of multiple joints for three months and inability to walk for two months. Dietary history was significant for exclusive meat intake for the preceding two years. On examination the child’s height and weight...

  1. Establishment of animal model of dental fluorosis by drinking in SD rat%饮水型SD大鼠氟斑牙模型的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长城; 刘晓利; 刘克俭; 崔彩岩; 刘芸; 余立凯; 黄安斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立饮水型大鼠氟斑牙模型,为深入研究氟性骨损伤发病机制提供科学依据.方法 采用饮水加氟的方法复制大鼠氟斑牙模型,染氟剂量采用日测体重然后按体重(mg/kg)给予及尿氟、血氟监测的方法进行,尿氟、血氟采用微量氟法测定,血清中碱性磷酸酶(ALP)采用全自动生化分析仪测定,氟斑牙采用数码相机拍照,按照氟斑牙观测标准进行诊断及分度.结果 90d末,高、中剂量组大鼠均出现明显氟斑牙,尿氟、血氟及血ALP含量与对照组相比均明显升高(P<0.05).染氟剂量与尿氟水平显著相关(r =0.924,P=0.038);染氟剂量与血氟水平呈显著相关(r =0.948,P=0.026);高、中剂量组大鼠氟负荷水平明显高于对照组;氟斑牙发生率与染氟剂量呈正相关(r=0.983,P=0.017).结论 染氟剂量与氟斑牙的发生存在明显的剂量-反应关系:16 mg/kg和32 mg/kg的染氟剂量,14 d即可发生Ⅰ度氟斑牙,35 d即可发生典型氟斑牙.%Objective To establish a rat model of dental fluorosis by drinking thereby provide a scientific basis (or researching the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. Methods The animal model of dental fluorosis was made by adding fluoride in drinking water for rats, the dose was adjusted with the daily body weight ( mg/kg), the urine and blood fluoride were monitored everyday by micro determination of fluoride; meanwhile, the serum ALP was also detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. At last, the dental fluorosis was documented by photographing with digital camera and diagnosis was made according to the dental fluorosis criteria. Results The results showed that all the rats exposed to middle and high doses of fluorine developed significant dental fluorosis 90 days later after exposure, the urinary fluoride, blood fluoride and serum ALP also increased compared with those of control group (P < 0.05). The urine fluorine and blood fluorine were all markedly associated with

  2. Skeletal parallel programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saez, Fernando; Printista, Alicia Marcela; Piccoli, María Fabiana

    2007-01-01

    In the last time the high-performance programming community has worked to look for new templates or skeletons for several parallel programming paradigms. This new form of programming allows to programmer to reduce the time of development, since it saves time in the phase of design, testing and codification. We are concerned in some issues of skeletons that are fundamental to the definition of any skeletal parallel programming system. This paper present commentaries about these issues in the c...

  3. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid;

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy for....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  4. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and15 year-old school children in an endemic fluoride area of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeeswara Rao Sukhabogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The published literature on the prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis in Nalgonda district, an endemic fluoride belt in India was scanty. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in Nalgonda district. Materials and Methods: Stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration. The oral examination for dental caries and fluorosis among children who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using mouth mirror and CPI (Community Periodontal Index probe under natural daylight. The data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among 12 and 15 year old school children was 42.6% and 48.6% respectively. The prevalence was more among females (56.9% than males (34.2%. The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (67% followed by very high fluoride area (56.1%. The lowest prevalence was in medium fluoride area (20.5%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in the gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Defluoridation of water in areas where the concentration of fluoride is more than optimal is an immediate need as dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in these areas.

  5. Skeletal surveys in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three patients with multiple myeloma were studied with serial skeletal surveys, serum immunoglobulin levels, and postabsorptive urinary hydroxyproline (Spot-HYPRO) determinations. Twenty receiving chemotherapy were also followed with skeletal surveys in order to evaluate bone response to treatment. A close association was found between skeletal findings and changes in immunoglubulin levels with positive correlation in 71% of the patients. A similar association was found between skeletal disease and Spot-HYPRO level changes in 65%. Five of 12 patients (42%) with partial or complete clinical response to chemotherapy, demonstrated improvement in the appearance of skeletal lesions. Positive correlation between the roentgenographic changes and clinical markers of myeloma as well as therapeutic response, indicates that skeletal surveys are useful and effective in monitoring patients with multiple myeloma. (orig.)

  6. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation...... systems of muscle have been visualized in their full complexity, including the ‘neglected' lymphatic capillaries at the level of the endomysium. These findings serve to remind us that muscle contraction is not only about force generation and transmission, but also about nutrient supply and waste removal...

  7. The association between social deprivation and the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in populations with and without water fluoridation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the association between social deprivation and the prevalence of caries (including caries lesions restricted to enamel and enamel fluorosis in areas that are served by either fluoridated or non-fluoridated drinking water using clinical scoring, remote blinded, photographic scoring for caries and fluorosis. The study also aimed to explore the use of remote, blinded methodologies to minimize the effect of examiner bias. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 11–13 years. Clinical assessments of caries and fluorosis were performed on permanent teeth using ICDAS and blind scoring of standardized photographs of maxillary central incisors using TF Index (with cases for fluorosis defined as TF > 0. Results Data from 1783 subjects were available (910 Newcastle, 873 Manchester. Levels of material deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation were comparable for both populations (Newcastle mean 35.22, range 2.77-78.85; Manchester mean 37.04, range 1.84-84.02. Subjects in the fluoridated population had significantly less caries experience than the non-fluoridated population when assessed by clinical scores or photographic scores across all quintiles of deprivation for white spot lesions: Newcastle mean DMFT 2.94 (clinical; 2.51 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 4.48 (clinical; 3.44 (photo and caries into dentine (Newcastle Mean DMFT 0.65 (clinical; 0.58 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 1.07 (clinical; 0.98 (photo. The only exception being for the least deprived quintile for caries into dentine where there were no significant differences between the cities: Newcastle mean DMFT 0.38 (clinical; 0.36 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 0.45 (clinical; 0.39 (photo. The odds ratio for white spot caries experience (or worse in Manchester was 1.9 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for caries into dentine in Manchester was 1.8 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for developing fluorosis in Newcastle was 3.3 relative

  8. The skeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The joy of diagnostic radiology is derived in great measure in its neverending variety including the unveiling of new diagnostic entities and new information concerning known disease processes. This year is no exception in the fascinating documentation of skeletal disease. In the study of disorders of the joints, CT investigation of the temporomandibular joint and arthotomography of the shoulder are gaining in popularity. New observations concerning cyst-like osseous lesions in lupus erthematosis, destructive joint lesions in renal osteodystrophy, and intra- and periarticular calcifications secondary to steroid injections have come forward. Articles discussing interesting observations concerning chondrosarcoma are included as well as one that describes the demonstration of fluid levels in aneurysmal bone cysts by CT. Ossification in soft tissues following resection of giant cell tumors as evidence of residual neoplasm is an important new sign. Marrow transplantation for treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis represents a new therapeutic breakthrough. Some of the skeletal manifestions of hypomagnesemia, 13-cis-retinoic acid, and aluminum are elucidated in this year's articles on metabolic disease. Further studies of methods of measuring bone density are also included

  9. Child Support

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, J. (Jonathan)

    2006-01-01

    Child support is a private transfer, which for many people is mediated by the government, and which mainly benefits lone parents. Children in lone parent families represented 42 per cent of all poor children in 2003/4. Therefore child support might play an important part in reducing child poverty. Although this was not an aspiration of the 1991 Child Support Act it was certainly the main aspiration of the Child Support, Pensions and Social Security Act 2000. This paper is a review of the pote...

  10. Who are we missing? Too few skeletal surveys for children with humeral and femoral fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine the potential shortfall in skeletal survey referral for children presenting with an acute non-supracondylar humeral or femoral fracture. Materials and methods: Plain radiograph reports were reviewed retrospectively using the radiology information system database over a 5 year study period (May 2008–2013) in children under 18 months of age who presented with an acute fracture. Subsequent skeletal survey referral was used as a surrogate marker for further investigation of child abuse. Application of robust meta-analysis derived probability data regarding likelihood of child abuse as a cause of non-supracondylar humeral or femoral fracture was applied. An estimation of the expected number of cases of abuse, with shortfall in skeletal survey referrals, was then calculated. Results: There were 288 fractures in 281 children. Three children presented with multiple fractures and were considered separately in the present data. The mean patient age was 10.5 months. Nine (3%) non-supracondylar humeral fractures were identified of which four cases may have been due to non-accidental injury (NAI). One (11%) of these patients was referred for a skeletal survey indicating a potential shortfall of three referrals. Twenty-five (9%) femoral fractures were identified of which 13 cases may have been due to NAI, with six (24%) referrals for skeletal surveys generated. This indicates a potential shortfall of seven referrals. Conclusion: The present study serves as a current analysis of practice within a tertiary paediatric referral centre. There appeared to be local under-investigation of NAI. Improved child protection education and awareness programmes have now been introduced. - Highlights: • Long bone fractures in non-ambulatory children carry high probability for child abuse. • Suspicion for child abuse should trigger a referral for a skeletal survey. • We examine the potential shortfall in skeletal survey referrals in such patients. • Only 11% and 24% of

  11. Axial skeletal CT densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of the Roentgen ray a precise and accurate assessment of bone mineral content has been a challenge to many investigators. A number of methods have been developed but no one satisfied. Considering its technical possibilities computed tomography is very promising in determination of bone mineral content (BMC). The new modality enables BMC estimations in the axial skeletal trabecular bone. CT densitometry can be performed on a normal commercially available third generation whole body CT scanner. No dedicated device in a special clinical set-up is necessary. In this study 106 patients, most of them clinically suspected of osteoporosis, were examined. The new method CT densitometry has been evaluated. The results have been correlated to alternative BMC determination methods. (Auth.)

  12. Assessment of periodontal status of the patients with dental fluorosis in area with natural high levels of fluoride: A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ketan Sukumar Vora; Pallavi Ketan Vora

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dental fluorosis exhibits as enamel mottling, surface irregularities, leading to plaque accumulation and periodontal diseases. It may cause failure of cemental resorption leading to hypercementosis and causes osteonecrosis of alveolar bone leading to reduced bone height. The study is conducted in Raichur, being known as one of the highest fluoride containing area in Karnataka with level of fluoride in drinking water approximately 3.5-5.5 ppm. This is an effort to find an associa...

  13. An atlas of normal skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This atlas was compiled to provide the neophyte as well as the experienced radiologist and the nuclear medicine physician with a reference on normal skeletal scintigraphy as an aid in distinguishing normal variations in skeletal uptake from abnormal findings. Each skeletal scintigraph is labeled, and utilizing an identical scale, a relevant skeletal photograph and radiograph are placed adjacent to the scintigraph

  14. The yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal surveys are routinely performed in cases of suspected child abuse, but there are limited data regarding the yield of high-detail skeletal surveys in infants. To determine the diagnostic yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse. We reviewed the high-detail American College of Radiology standardized skeletal surveys performed for suspected abuse in 567 infants (median: 4.4 months, SD 3.47; range: 4 days-12 months) at a large urban children's hospital between 2005 and 2013. Skeletal survey images, radiology reports and medical records were reviewed. A skeletal survey was considered positive when it showed at least one unsuspected fracture. In 313 of 567 infants (55%), 1,029 definite fractures were found. Twenty-one percent (119/567) of the patients had a positive skeletal survey with a total of 789 (77%) unsuspected fractures. Long-bone fractures were the most common injuries, present in 145 children (26%). The skull was the site of fracture in 138 infants (24%); rib cage in 77 (14%), clavicle in 24 (4.2%) and uncommon fractures (including spine, scapula, hands and feet and pelvis) were noted in 26 infants (4.6%). Of the 425 infants with neuroimaging, 154 (36%) had intracranial injury. No significant correlation between positive skeletal survey and associated intracranial injury was found. Scapular fractures and complex skull fractures showed a statistically significant correlation with intracranial injury (P = 0.029, P = 0.007, respectively). Previously unsuspected fractures are noted on skeletal surveys in 20% of cases of suspected infant abuse. These data may be helpful in the design and optimization of global skeletal imaging in this vulnerable population. (orig.)

  15. The yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Pediatric Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States); Wilson, Celeste R. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of General Pediatrics, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-06

    Skeletal surveys are routinely performed in cases of suspected child abuse, but there are limited data regarding the yield of high-detail skeletal surveys in infants. To determine the diagnostic yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse. We reviewed the high-detail American College of Radiology standardized skeletal surveys performed for suspected abuse in 567 infants (median: 4.4 months, SD 3.47; range: 4 days-12 months) at a large urban children's hospital between 2005 and 2013. Skeletal survey images, radiology reports and medical records were reviewed. A skeletal survey was considered positive when it showed at least one unsuspected fracture. In 313 of 567 infants (55%), 1,029 definite fractures were found. Twenty-one percent (119/567) of the patients had a positive skeletal survey with a total of 789 (77%) unsuspected fractures. Long-bone fractures were the most common injuries, present in 145 children (26%). The skull was the site of fracture in 138 infants (24%); rib cage in 77 (14%), clavicle in 24 (4.2%) and uncommon fractures (including spine, scapula, hands and feet and pelvis) were noted in 26 infants (4.6%). Of the 425 infants with neuroimaging, 154 (36%) had intracranial injury. No significant correlation between positive skeletal survey and associated intracranial injury was found. Scapular fractures and complex skull fractures showed a statistically significant correlation with intracranial injury (P = 0.029, P = 0.007, respectively). Previously unsuspected fractures are noted on skeletal surveys in 20% of cases of suspected infant abuse. These data may be helpful in the design and optimization of global skeletal imaging in this vulnerable population. (orig.)

  16. Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drubach, Laura A. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Sapp, Mark.V. [School of Osteopathic Medicine, Child Abuse Research Education and Services (CARES) Institute University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey (United States); Laffin, Stephen [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    We describe the use of {sup 18}F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  17. Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the use of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  18. Skeletal Manifestations of Scurvy: A Case Report from Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Noordin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nutritional deficiencies are rarely reported in developed countries. We report a child of Pakistani origin brought up in Dubai who developed skeletal manifestations of scurvy due to peculiar dietary habits. Case Presentation. A 4.5 year old boy presented with pain and swelling of multiple joints for three months and inability to walk for two months. Dietary history was significant for exclusive meat intake for the preceding two years. On examination the child’s height and weight were below the 5th percentile for his age. He was pale and tachycardic. There was significant swelling and tenderness over the wrist, knee and ankle joints, along with painful restriction of motion. Basic blood workup was unremarkable except for anemia. However, X-rays showed delayed bone age, severe osteopenia of the long bones, epiphyseal separation, cortical thinning and dense zone of provisional calcification, suggesting a radiological diagnosis of scurvy. The child was started on vitamin C replacement therapy. Over the following two months, the pain and swelling substantially reduced and the child became able to walk. Repeat X-rays showed improvement in the bony abnormalities. Conclusion. Although scurvy is not a very commonly encountered entity in the modern era, inappropriate dietary intake can lead to skeletal abnormalities which may be confused with rickets. A high index of suspicion is thus required for prompt diagnosis of scurvy in patients with bone and joint symptoms.

  19. Skeletal changes in tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is based on the skeletal changes which were found in six cases with confirmed tuberous sclerosis. The bone changes of this rare condition are summarised. The differential diagnosis is discussed. (orig.)

  20. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    state is determined by the overall content / activity of the regulatory proteins PDH kinase (PDK), of which there are 4 isoforms, and PDH phosphatase (PDP), of which there are 2 isoforms. The overall aim of the PhD project was to elucidate 4 issues. 1: Role of muscle type in resting and exercise......-induced PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle. 2: Effect of muscle glycogen on PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise. 3: The impact of physical inactivity on PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise. 4: Elucidating the importance of PGC-1? in PDH...... regulation in mouse skeletal muscle at rest and in response to fasting and during recovery from exercise. The studies indicate that the content of PDH-E1? in human muscle follows the metabolic profile of the muscle, rather than the myosin heavy chain fiber distribution of the muscle. The larger lactate...

  1. [Key regulators of skeletal myogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopantseva, E E; Belyavsky, A V

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal myogenesis has been extensively studied at both morphological and molecular levels. This review considers the main stages of embryonic skeletal myogenesis and myogenic factors that trigger their initiation, focusing on specific protein interactions involved in somitic myogenesis, head myogenesis, and limb myogenesis. The second part of the review describes the role of noncoding RNAs (microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs) in myogenesis. This information is of particular interest, because regulation of cell processes by noncoding RNAs is an actively developing field of molecular biology. Knowledge of mechanisms of skeletal myogenesis is of applied significance. Various transcription factors, noncoding RNAs, and other myogenic regulators can be employed in the induction of myogenic reprogramming in stem cells and differentiated somatic cells. Current trends and strategies in the field of skeletal myogenic reprogramming are discussed in the last part of the review. PMID:27239841

  2. 氟中毒大鼠骨组织中内质网应激实验研究%Study on endoplasmic reticulum stress in bone tissue of fluorosis rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐辉; 赵志涛; 井玲; 李广生

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察内质网应激在氟中毒大鼠骨组织中的变化,探索内质网应激在氟骨症发病机制中的可能作用.方法 48只Wistar大鼠,按体质量分成4组,每组12只.对照组和低钙组分别饲以常食饲料(含钙量为0.790%)和自制低钙饲料(含钙量为0.063%),饮用自来水(含NaF<1 mg/L);高氟组和低钙高氟组分别饲以常食饲料和自制低钙饲料,饮用加氟(NaF,221 mg/L)自来水.实验期间动物自由进食、进水,每周测体质量1次.实验期3个月.生化方法检测大鼠血清氧化应激酶、尿酸(URIC)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性.抽提大鼠一侧股骨骨干的总RNA,利用RT-PCR技术分析内质网应激相关基因BIP、Xbp1、CHOP和PDI的表达水平.结果 低钙高氟组血清丙二醛(MDA)水平高于对照组[(14.74±3.11)μmol/L比(10.15±1.96)μmol/L,P<0.05];高氟组血清谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPx)的活性高于对照组[(3.87±0.41)×103 U/L比(2.85±0.55)×103U/L,P<0.05];高氟组和低钙高氟组的尿酸(URIC)分别低于对照组和低钙组[(73.95±9.52)μmol/L比(110.43±25.48)μmol/L,(54.32±22.09)μmol/L比(101.71±17.01)μmol/L/L,P<0.05].低钙高氟组大鼠的ALP活性高于对照组[(24.77±4.57)×103 U/L比(12.91±3.97)×103 U/L,P<0.01)].低钙组和低钙高氟组BIP/GAPDH的表达高于对照组(1.38±0.24、1.35±0.12比1.14±0.06,P<0.05).低钙高氟组的Xbp1/GAPDH的表达高于对照组和低钙组(1.48±0.20比1.02±0.25、1.07±0.25,P<0.01);低钙高氟组的CHOP/GAPDH的表达高于对照组(0.84±0.18比0.52±0.07,P<0.05).结论 氟中毒大鼠机体内氧化应激态和骨形成有明显的增强,并伴有骨组织细胞的内质网应激.说明内质网应激与氧化应激很可能都参与了氟骨症的发病机制.%Objective To observe endoplagmic reticulum stress in bone tissue of fluomsis rats and further explore the pathogenesis of skeletal fluorosis.Methods 48 Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups according to their body

  3. Regulation of skeletal muscle proteolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Slee, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Proteolysis is a component of protein turnover, controlled by multiple proteolytic systems. Alterations in system components within skeletal muscle has been associated with hypertrophy, remodelling, atrophy, apoptosis and metabolic dysregulation. Key components may have novel regulatory roles, e. g. calpain-3 and cathepsin-L. Experiments described within this thesis investigated the hypothesis that the gene expression of specific proteolytic system components within skeletal muscle may be co-...

  4. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9).......Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  5. Fluoride exposure from groundwater as reflected by urinary fluoride and children's dental fluorosis in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Jeuland, Marc; Tekle-Haimanot, Redda; Weinthal, Erika; Kravchenko, Julia; Paul, Christopher; McCornick, Peter

    2014-10-15

    This cross-sectional study explores the relationships between children's F(-) exposure from drinking groundwater and urinary F(-) concentrations, combined with dental fluorosis (DF) in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) Valley. We examined the DF prevalence and severity among 491 children (10 to 15 years old) who are life-long residents of 33 rural communities in which groundwater concentrations of F(-) cover a wide range. A subset of 156 children was selected for urinary F(-) measurements. Our results showed that the mean F(-) concentrations in groundwater were 8.5 ± 4.1 mg/L (range: 1.1-18 mg/L), while those in urine were 12.1±7.3 mg/L (range: 1.1-39.8 mg/L). The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe DF in children's teeth was 17%, 29%, and 45%, respectively, and the majority (90%; n=140) of the children had urinary F(-) concentrations above 3 mg/L. Below this level most of the teeth showed mild forms of DF. The exposure-response relationship between F(-) and DF was positive and non-linear, with DF severity tending to level off above a F(-) threshold of ~6 mg/L, most likely due to the fact that at ~6 mg/L the enamel is damaged as much as it can be clinically observed in most children. We also observed differential prevalence (and severity) of DF and urinary concentration, across children exposed to similar F(-) concentrations in water, which highlights the importance of individual-specific factors in addition to the F(-) levels in drinking water. Finally, we investigated urinary F(-) in children from communities where defluoridation remediation was taking place. The lower F(-) concentration measured in urine of this population demonstrates the capacity of the urinary F(-) method as an effective monitoring and evaluation tool for assessing the outcome of successful F(-) mitigation strategy in relatively short time (months) in areas affected with severe fluorosis. PMID:25084227

  6. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  7. Alex in the Middle: Inclusion of a Child with Severe Disabilities and Complex Health Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A.

    This case study describes the 2-year process of moving a young child with severe disabilities and complex medical needs from a special school setting to a special class in a regular education setting. The child had Marshall-Smith Syndrome, characterized by respiratory, pulmonary, and skeletal abnormalities, and developmental delays due to the…

  8. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  9. Skeletal muscle involvement in cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongelli, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Maddaloni, Valeria; Rea, Alessandra; Sarkozy, Anna; McKenna, William J

    2013-12-01

    The link between heart and skeletal muscle disorders is based on similar molecular, anatomical and clinical features, which are shared by the 'primary' cardiomyopathies and 'primary' neuromuscular disorders. There are, however, some peculiarities that are typical of cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders. Skeletal muscle weakness presenting at any age may indicate a primary neuromuscular disorder (associated with creatine kinase elevation as in dystrophinopathies), a mitochondrial disease (particularly if encephalopathy, ocular myopathy, retinitis, neurosensorineural deafness, lactic acidosis are present), a storage disorder (progressive exercise intolerance, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa, as in Danon disease), or metabolic disorders (hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonaemia or other specific biochemical abnormalities). In such patients, skeletal muscle weakness usually precedes the cardiomyopathy and dominates the clinical picture. Nevertheless, skeletal involvement may be subtle, and the first clinical manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder may be the occurrence of heart failure, conduction disorders or ventricular arrhythmias due to cardiomyopathy. ECG and echocardiogram, and eventually, a more detailed cardiovascular evaluation may be required to identify early cardiac involvement. Paediatric and adult cardiologists should be proactive in screening for neuromuscular and related disorders to enable diagnosis in probands and evaluation of families with a focus on the identification of those at risk of cardiac arrhythmia and emboli who may require specific prophylactic treatments, for example, pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and anticoagulation. PMID:24149064

  10. A cross-sectional investigation of drinking brick-tea fluorosis of children aged 8-12 in Qinghai Province%青海省8~12岁儿童饮茶型氟中毒现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萍; 何多龙; 魏生英; 蒲光兰; 喇翠玲; 姜鸿; 李生梅; 鲁青; 赵元博

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the epidemiological situation of drinking brick-tea fluorosis in Qinhai Province.Methods According to the survey results of drinking brick-tea fluorosis in Qinghai Province in 2006,an investigation was carried out inchildren aged 8-12 in 28 counties of Qinghai Province by the method of field epidemiology in 2010.In the 28 counties,three townships and one town were selected in each county; a primary school was selected in each township (town).Fluoride content of water,brick-tea and urine was determined by using a fluoride ion-selective electrode; dental fluorosis was diagnosed by Deans method.Results In 28 counties of Qinghai Province,the mean of water fluoride concentration was 0.26 mg/L and the rang was 0-1.00 mg/L; the mean of brick-tea fluoride concentration was 1.96 mg/L and the rang was 0.14-12.59 mg/L.Chidren's geometric mean of urinary fluorine concentration was 1.14 mg/L and the rang was 0.03-9.84 mg/L; the average amount of brick-tea water drank daily by each child was (587.09 ± 237.02)ml and the rang was 0-7 000 ml; children's daily fluoride intake from brick-tea was 1.15 mg and the rang was 0-13.65 mg.Chidren's detection rate of dental fluorosis was 24.38%(3 012/12 355),and the index of dental fluorosis was 0.44.Conclusions Drinking brick-tea fluorosis of children aged 8-12 in Qinghai Province has a epidemic trend.Although the state of the disease is not serious,it is widely distributed.The intake from brick-tea water has showed an increasing trend with increasing age,we should strengthen monitoring.%目的 了解青海省儿童饮茶型氟中毒流行病学特征.方法 依据青海省2006年饮茶型氟中毒病区基础资料调查结果,于2010年采用现场流行病学调查方法,在青海省的28个县中,每个县抽取3个乡、1个镇,每个乡(镇)抽取1所小学,每所小学抽取全部8~ 12岁儿童进行调查,同时采集当地居民生活饮用水、砖茶水检测氟含量.水、尿、茶中氟含量采用

  11. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water in an endemic fluoride belt of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The published literature on the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis among school going children in Nalgonda district - An Endemic Fluoride belt was lacking . Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water . Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study, done in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India (endemic fluoride belt . Materials and Methods: 5 of the 59 mandals in the district of Nalgonda were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 3 schools from each of these selected mandals were chosen at random. All the eligible 6 th and 9 th standard children were considered for final analysis. The demographic and other relevant information was collected by 3 trained and calibrated dentists, using a structured questionnaire. Dental caries were recorded using dentition status and treatment needs and fluorosis were recorded by Dean′s fluorosis index. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among children was 56.3% with the highest in below optimal fluoride area (71.3% and lowest in optimal fluoride area (24.3%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 71.5%. The prevalence was 39.7% in below optimal fluoride area and 100% in high and very fluoride areas. The prevalence and severity of fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration. The caries experience was more among boys than girls. Conclusion: There was a negative correlation between dental caries and fluoride concentration for the entire study population. However, in high fluoride areas, there was a positive correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. Water defluoridation on an urgent basis is a priority here than water fluoridation, because the prevalence and severity of dental flurorosis is very high.

  12. Disobedient Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of their parents' rules and of their own self-control. Sometimes, however, these conflicts are more than occasional ... a timeout until he calms down and regains self-control. When your child is obedient and respectful, compliment ...

  13. Skeletal complications of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Abigail A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  14. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth;

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. S...

  15. Fluorose dentária em crianças de Princesa Isabel, Paraíba Dental fluorosis in children from Princesa Isabel, Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Delano Soares FORTE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversas localidades da Paraíba possuem níveis moderados ou elevados de fluoreto in natura nas águas de abastecimento. Nas áreas onde os níveis de fluoretos são considerados "ótimos" para a região (0,6 ppm, já constatou-se uma moderada prevalência de fluorose dentária (30-40%. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo observar a prevalência de fluorose dentária na cidade de Princesa Isabel, com níveis "subótimos" de fluoretos (0,4 ppm. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 142 escolares de 10 a 15 anos para o levantamento de fluorose dentária pelo índice TF (de Thylstrup e Fejerskov. Os exames foram realizados por três examinadores previamente calibrados, sob luz natural indireta e após escovação supervisionada e secagem dos elementos dentários. Cerca de 20% dos escolares examinados apresentaram fluorose dentária, sendo que 70% com TF 1 e outros 30% distribuídos em diversos graus (TF 2 a 5. Fluorose foi mais prevalente no sexo masculino e em dentes pré-molares. Embora a fluorose dentária observada esteja dentro dos níveis esperados para o teor de fluoretos (0,4 ppm, outras fontes sistêmicas de fluoretos devem ser controladas. A prevalência de fluorose dentária observada não é problema de saúde pública nesta localidade.Several communities in Paraíba have moderate or high levels of fluoride naturally present in the drinking water. A moderate prevalence of dental fluorosis (30-40% has been observed in some areas where the levels of fluoride are regarded as "optimal" for the region (0.6 ppm. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Princesa Isabel, a city with "sub-optimal" fluoride levels (0.4 ppm. The sample comprised 142 schoolchildren (10- to 15-year-old subjects randomly selected and examined by means of the TF (Thylstrup & Fejerskov index. The clinical exams were carried out under indirect natural light by three calibrated examiners. Prior to the examination the teeth were

  16. Imaging in pediatric skeletal trauma. Techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a comprehensive textbook on imaging of pediatric skeletal trauma. It provides a detailed description of the techniques used and the imaging findings, detailing their clinical relevance. Emphasis is placed on those injuries and their radiological features which are important to the orthopedic surgeon and the successful management of the child. In the first part of the book, the various techniques and procedures needed to successfully image both acute and more chronic skeletal injuries are discussed in depth. Individual chapters are devoted to radiography, CT, MRI, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine. The second part of the book documents the different types of skeletal injury, and the chapters are arranged according to anatomical site. In addition, chapters are included on growth plate injuries, non-accidental injuries, and normal variants that can imitate fractures. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field and a wealth of illustrative material is included. This book is designed to be of value to all radiologists who are involved with pediatric trauma, whether trainees or consultants, and also to orthopedic surgeons. (orig.)

  17. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  18. Skeletal stem cells in space and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice...... and demonstrate its role in skeletal tissue maintenance and regeneration....

  19. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlev, Jens; Godtfredsen, Erik; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Jensen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion...... between the skeletal IMF group and the no skeletal group regarding advancement nor relapse at B-point or Pog. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy is characterized as a stable treatment to correct Class II malocclusion. This study demonstrated no difference of relapse between the skeletal...

  20. Exploración del riesgo para fluorosis dental en niños de las clínicas odontológicas universidad de cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Arrieta Vergara, Katherine Margarita; Gonzalez Martinez, Farith Damian; Luna Ricardo, Luzmayda

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de fluorosis dental y su relación con factores asociados en niños que acuden a las clínicas de Odontopediatría Universidad de Cartagena. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, realizado en la Universidad de Cartagena durante el 2009. Se seleccionó una muestra probabilística aleatoria simple con remplazo. Se examinaron 230 niños utilizando el índice de Thylstrup y Fejerskov y se aplicó una encuesta a las madres de los participantes, que indagaba sobre los facto...

  1. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  2. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  3. Surveillance of coal-burning endemic fluorosis prevailing status in Henan Province%河南省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒流行现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余波; 刘洋; 原春生; 康健山; 黄河秋; 魏建军; 胡留安; 李爱茹

    2009-01-01

    目的 掌握河南省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)流行现状,为地氟病的防治工作提供依据.方法 2006、2007年对河南省13个县(市、区)的1832个历史燃煤污染型地氟病病区村燃煤情况、生活习惯、主食、住房结构、水氟等因素进行普查,对仍使用高氟煤的216个村进行重点抽样调查,每村对8~12岁全部儿童进行氟斑牙检查,并采集30份即时尿样检测尿氟.结果 所有历史病区村饮水含氟量30.0%,全部集中在洛阳市;77.8%(168/216)的病区村儿童尿氟≤1.50 mg/L.结论 河南省燃煤污染型地氟病病区范围已大大缩小,危害程度明显减轻.其中8个县(市、区)历史病区村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙病情已经达到了病区控制标准,有5个县(市、区)未达到控制标准,集中分布在洛阳市.%Objective To understand the prevailing status of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in Henan, and to provide scientific grounds for endemic fluorosis prevention. Methods Undertook general surveillance on factors such as coal using, living habit, main foods, the structure of the houses and the fluoride content in drinking-water among 1832 historical coal-burning endemic fluorosis villages within 13 counties in 2006 and 2007, and conducted focal point sampling survey on 216 villages which still using local high-fluoride. For all children aged 8-12 years of each village, conducted dental fluorosis examination and collected 30 immediate urinary samples for fluoride content determination. Results The fluoride content in drinking-water of all historical fluorosis villages was below 1.0 mg/L. Households having individual kitchens accounted for 93.7%(241 281/257 393), those with stoves having smoke evacuation devices accounted for 41.9% (107 917/257 393), those using local high-fluoride coal for cooking accounted for 28.6%(73 686/257 393), those using local high-fluoride coal for heating accounted for 24.1%(61 924/257 393). Villages with serf

  4. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions. PMID:18711953

  5. The relat ionship between denta l fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentrat ion – A study in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Daniel Grynpas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9 and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15 and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20, nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65 and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56. Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]. When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DFseverity, only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67. Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a goodpredictor/indicator of DF severity.

  6. Analysis of monitoring results of children dental fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Liaoning province in 2011%2011年辽宁省饮水型地方性氟中毒病区儿童氟斑牙病情监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩来; 郑照霞; 刘微; 王健辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查辽宁省饮水型地方性氟中毒病区儿童氟斑牙的流行现况,评价改水措施的防病效果.方法 2011年9月,在辽宁省海城市、凌海市、法库县、阜蒙县、辽阳县、建平县6个地方性氟中毒病区县(市),每个县抽取3个已改水病区村,共18个病区村作为调查点.各调查村普查8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况.每个调查村采集1份末梢水样,进行水氟测定.结果 共检查8~12岁儿童786人,检出氟斑牙患者110人,氟斑牙检出率为14.0%,无缺损型氟斑牙病例,氟斑牙指数为0.27.其中,极轻度76例,检出率为9.7%;轻度33例,检出率为4.2%;中度1例,检出率为0.1%;重度0例.8岁组病例4例,占3.6%;9岁组病例20例,占18.2%; 10岁组病例26例,占23.6%;11岁组病例32例,占29.1%; 12岁组病例28例,占25.5%.各年龄组儿童氟斑牙检出率比较差异有统计学意义(x2=13.57,P<0.05).采集的18份改水工程末梢水样水氟范围为0.34~ 2.03 mg/L.77.8%(14/18)的改水病区达到了地方性氟中毒病区控制标准.结论 饮水氟含量高的病区儿童氟斑牙患病率仍较高,改水措施还有待于加强.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of children dental fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Liaoning province and to evaluate the disease prevention effects of water improvement measures.Methods Haicheng city,Linghai city,Faku county,Fumeng county,Liaoyang county and Jianping county six endemic fluorosis diseased counties (cities) of Liaoning province were included in the study in September 2011.In each county,3 water improvement villages were selected as survey points.In each surveyed village,children aged 8-12 were generally surveyed the prevalence of dental fluorosis.One tap water sample was collected in each surveyed village for determination of water fluorine.level.Results A total of 786 children aged 8-12 were examined; 110 of them were found with dental

  7. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirthika Muthukumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results.

  8. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Kirthika; Vijaykumar, N M; Sainath, M C

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask) and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results. PMID:27041912

  9. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  10. Child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  11. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  12. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  13. Fluoride Levels in Urine, Blood Plasma and Serum of People Living in an Endemic Fluorosis Area in the Thar Desert, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluoride (F/sup -/) levels in the urine, blood plasma and serum samples of people living in a village in the Thar Desert have been analysed where fluorosis is endemic and groundwater contains fluoride as high as 9.76 mg/L. Average values of fluoride levels in these human specimens i.e. urine, blood plasma and serum have been found to be 12.98 mg/L, 0.61 mg/L and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. These values are much higher than the normal values reported from other parts of the world. It was observed that urinary fluoride levels increase with age of an individual but with an insignificant correlation (r = 0.116), however, fluoride levels in plasma and serum samples did not vary considerably with age in male and female subjects. It has been found that after the age of 50 years the urinary fluoride decreases with its concomitant increase in serum fluoride level. Since groundwater is the only available source of water for human consumption and it contains higher fluoride (av. 7.09 mg/L) than WHO limit (1.5 mg/L), therefore, it is the main cause of fluorosis in the area. (author)

  14. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  15. CHILD TRAFFICKING

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Chincholkar

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is the third biggest beneficial industry on the planet. Child trafficking unlike many other issues is found in both developed and developing nations. NGOs evaluate that 12,000 - 50,000 ladies and kids are trafficked into the nation every year from neighboring states for the sex exchange.

  16. Analysis and surveillance of coal-burning type endemic fluorosis in Hubei province%湖北省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒病区防治现况调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧云; 李明健; 熊培生; 周芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 掌握湖北省燃煤污染型氟中毒病区流行现状,为防治工作提供科学依据.方法 对燃煤地区的燃煤方式、食物干燥与保存方法和8 ~ 12岁儿童氟斑牙等情况进行横断面调查.结果 8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率9.89%;氟斑牙患病率大于30%的病区村51个,主要分布在恩施市、建始县、巴东县、宣恩县、竹山县和竹溪县;主食结构以大米为主,98%的调查户能采取正确的方式干燥和保存玉米和辣椒.结论 湖北省燃煤污染型氟中毒病情危害程度已明显减轻,但仍应继续坚持以改炉降氟为主的综合防治措施,以达到持续消除燃煤污染型氟中毒危害的目的.%Objectives To study the prevailing status of coal - burning type endemic fluorosis in Hubei Province, and to provide scientific basis for fluorosis control and prevention. Methods A cross - section survey was conducted to investigate the ways of coal combustion, food dehydration and storage and dental fluorosis status in children aged from 8 to 12. Results The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis in children aged from 8 to 12 was 9. 89% ; There were 51 villages with dental fluorosis detection rate was higher than 30% , which were mainly distributed in Enshi city, Jianshi county, Badong county, Xuanen county, zhushan county and Zhuxi county; staple food is given priority to rice, 98% of investigation families could take the right way to dry and preserve corn and pepper. Conclusion The coal - burning type fluorosis hazard degree has been significantly reduced in Hubei province. But in order to achieve the sustainable elimination of coal - burning fluorosis, the comprehensive prevention and treatment measures mainly including furnace modification and defluoridation should be adhere to in the future.

  17. Shangqiu drinking water type fluorosis monitoring village children aged 8 to 12 dental fluorosis prevalence survey analysis%商丘市饮水型氟中毒监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔雪梅; 史宏凤; 邢艳平

    2014-01-01

    objective to understand the shangqiu drinking-water type endemic fluorosis monitoring village 8 to 12 years old children's dental fluorosis illness,as the improvement of water decreasing fluorine,provide a scientific basis for prevention and treatment of endemic fluorosis. Method choose HuiYangOu without changing water digoxin town-ship,Liu Qiaocun HouZhuang village,the ancient song township Xu Loucun;Have to change water to rein in town-ship JiaoZhuang zhuang village, township LinHeDian ShuangMiaoCun east ShuangMiaoCun. MinQuanXian BeiGuanZhen Jin Zhuang village;Garden township double Wells village,zhao village,ward building village,a total of eight as the infested,detection of residents drinking water fluoride concentration,8 and 12 years old children's den-tal fluorosis prevalence survey. Fluorine spot tooth diagnosis according to the dental fluorosis in accordance with the (Dean fluorine spot tooth diagnosis methods,sample collection and preservation and water fluoride detection using the standard test methods for domestic and drinking water (GB/T 5750-5750). Results The results of shangqiu drinking-water type endemic fluorosis monitoring village 8 to 12 years old children's dental fluorosis detection rate of 67.8%in 2011;34.8%in 2012. Dental fluorosis patients suspected,extremely light and mild accounted for most of the pa-tients,and patients with moderate and severe accounts for only a few. In 8 monitoring village water fluoride which in 2011 was 100.0%,87.5%in 2012. Conclusion exercises of endemic fluorosis monitoring village high fluoride drink-ing water is the direct cause of endemic fluorosis popularity,improvement of water decreasing fluorine,is urgently needed.%目的:了解商丘市饮水型地方性氟中毒监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况,为降氟改水,防治地方性氟中毒提供科学依据。方法选择睢阳区未改水的高辛乡候庄村、刘桥村,古宋乡许楼村;已改水的勒马乡集庄村焦庄、临河

  18. Prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de Brasília - Distrito Federal Prevalence of dental fluorosis in school children from Brasília - Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Lopes CAMPOS

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de avaliar a prevalência de fluorose dentária, foi realizado levantamento epidemiológico em Brasília, Distrito Federal, comunidade na qual o teor de flúor na água de abastecimento público é de 0,8 ppm. Foram examinadas 833 crianças de ambos os sexos com idades variando entre 8 e 12 anos, escolares e residentes em Brasília desde o nascimento. Os exames foram realizados em escolas públicas, em cadeira comum, sob luz natural e campo seco obtido com auxílio de gaze. Por meio do exame dos dentes permanentes anteriores superiores foi levantado o índice de fluorose entre os sexos. O percentual de crianças livres de fluorose apresentou-se elevado (85,36%, enquanto 14,64% mostraram níveis de fluorose dentária entre muito leve e moderado.An epidemiologic study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Brasilia - Federal District, a community where fluoride concentration is 0.8 ppm in drinking water. The sample consisted of 833 school children of both sexes, aged between 8 and 12, who have been living in Brasilia since birth. The anterior upper permanent teeth were examined and HOROWITZ fluorosis index was applied to evaluate pathological occurrences. No sex differences were observed in dental fluorosis prevalence. The authors found a high number of dental fluorosis free children (85.36% and 14.64% of the sample showed light and moderate levels of fluorosis.

  19. 2012年江苏省饮水型地方性氟中毒病情监测结果分析%Outcome analysis of drinking-water type endemic fluorosis in Jiangsu in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶云杰; 夏玉婷; 汪旸; 王培桦; 王彩生

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解江苏省饮水型地方性氟中毒病情及降氟改水工程使用情况,为及时调整地方性氟中毒防治措施提供科学依据.方法 2012年,在江苏省选择9个地方性氟中毒防治重点县(区)作为调查点,每个调查点选择3个病区村作为调查村,了解调查村改水降氟工程进度和运行情况,采集调查村水样检测水氟含量;对所有调查村8~12岁儿童进行氟斑牙检查.水氟测定采用《地方性氟中毒病区饮水氟化物的测定方法》(WS/T 106-1999);氟斑牙诊断采用Dean法.结果 共监测了27个村,其中已改水村26个,占96.30%(26/27);未改水村1个,占3.70%(1/27).26个改水工程中,正常运转21个,占80.77%(21/26);间歇运转2个,占8.70%(2/26);报废3个,占11.54%(3/26).改水工程正常运转且水氟合格的监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为22.74%(380/1 761),氟斑牙指数为0.45;改水工程水氟超标或工程不能正常运转的监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为66.51%(143/215),氟斑牙指数为1.45;未改水村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为42.86%(12/28),氟斑牙指数为0.86.结论 江苏省降氟改水工程对儿童氟斑牙的预防有一定效果,但改水工程仍然有报废或者水氟超标的情况.%Objective To know the state of endemic fluorosis,running state of water improvement project in Jiangsu Province,and to provide a scientific basis for adjusting control measures against the disease.Methods Nine key counties were selected from the endemic fluorosis areas as survey spots in Jiangsu in 2012.Three villages in each spot were selected as survey villages.To known the progress and running conditions of water facilities,water samples were collected to determine the fluorosis level.All children aged 8 to 12 were tested for dental fluorosis at the survey villages.The fluorine content in water was determined with F-selective electrode (WS/T 106-1999).Dental fluorosis was diagnosed byased on the Dean

  20. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  1. Child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Zoran S.; Petković, Nikola; Matijašević Obradović, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of children for pornographic purposes is a serious sociological, criminological and victimological problem of today which, despite all preventive and restrictive activities on an international level, shows a tendency of global expansion. The fact that the Republic of Serbia has only recently actively joined the fight against child pornography on the Internet indicates the need for critical analysis of the existing national, penal, and legal solutions and their harmonization with the...

  2. The 'Battered-Child-Syndrome': The view of the pediatric radiologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of the Battered-Child-Syndrome (BSC) is made by the pediatrician and the radiologist. The recognition of this entity by the radiologist is possible because of the high frequency of the typical skeletal lesions. This skeletal changes are illustrated by X-ray pictures and bone scans. Not only skeletal trauma can be discovered but also visceral injuries may be combined and diagnosed in the BCS. For the detection of all changes in the BCS nowadays all possible imaging procedures should be used. Some forensic problems in this field are added. (orig.)

  3. Skeletal scintigraphy manifestations of hematologic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal manifestations are common in hematologic disorders. Benign entities such as Sickle cell disease develop microvascular embolization causing skeletal crisis. Leukemia, acute myeloblastic or lymphoblastic may develop bone marrow infarcts. Compromised immunity makes them susceptible to secondary infection leading to osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. Exposure to steroids may lead to osteonecrosis in these cases. Presented here is an atlas of various scintigraphic skeletal manifestations encountered over the past 10 years, in hematologic disorders

  4. The Effects of Lactate on Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Willkomm, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise and physical activity are cornerstones in the prevention and treatment of numerous chronic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and age-related sarcopenia. The associated health benefits arise from a number of tissues but due to its high plasticity skeletal muscle plays a pivotal role. The resident stem cells of skeletal muscle tissue, so called Satellite cells (SCs), contribute significantly to skeletal muscle adaptation and hence, maintenance of heal...

  5. Nutrient and energy sensing in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Atul S.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient overload and physical inactivity often leads to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Acute over-nutrition can induce insulin resistance, while physical exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Like every living cell, skeletal muscle senses nutrient and energy signals and to adjust metabolic flux. This thesis focuses on some of the key nutrient and energy sensing (exercise/contraction-induced) pathways in skeletal muscle that regulate metabol...

  6. Cerebellar medulloblastoma presenting with skeletal metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Barai Sukanta; Bandopadhayaya G; Julka P; Dhanapathi H; Haloi A; Seith A

    2004-01-01

    Medulloblastomas are highly malignant brain tumours, but only rarely produce skeletal metastases. No case of medulloblastoma has been documented to have produced skeletal metastases prior to craniotomy or shunt surgery. A 21-year-old male presented with pain in the hip and lower back with difficulty in walking of 3 months′ duration. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction were present hence a diagnosis of cerebellar neoplasm or skeletal tuberculosis with cerebellar abscess formation was consid...

  7. Dental caries and dental fluorosis in 7-12-year-old schoolchildren in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil Cárie e fluorose dentária em escolares de 7 a 12 anos de idade em Catalão, Goiás, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Ariede Petinuci Bardal; Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf; José Roberto Magalhães Bastos

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Over the last two decades, the prevalence of dental caries in children has decreased and the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased. Knowledge on the epidemiologic conditions of a population is fundamental for the planning of health programs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren, in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: A random sample of 432 schoolchildren aged 7-12-years old was obtained. WHO (1997) criteria for de...

  8. Epidemiologic Survey of Dental Fluorosis and Caries in School Students in Wensu Cotmty in Xinjiang%新疆温宿县中小学生氟牙症与龋病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程竑; 梁爱喜; 艾力·阿不都如苏里; 林自强; 李存荣

    2000-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the dental fluorosis and caries, and their prevalence features in school students in Wensu county in Xinjang. Methods The study groups consisted of 1 527 Weuer and Han students at the age of 6 to 16. Dental fluorosis and caries diseases were assessed strictly by Dean' s Classification Standard and WHO ”Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods” (the 3rd ed). The concentration of fluorine in water and urine was measured by using selective electrod. Results The prevalence and index of dental fluorosis in Weuer and Han students were 73.70%, 64.67 %, 1.647,1.303, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries and DMFT were 61.19%, 42.66%, 1. 648, 1. 023 respectively. The corresponding values were 51. 94% ,52.99% ,1,305,1. 449 for students of fluorosis group and non-fluorosis group, respectively. The fluorine degree of water was 2~5mg/L,the average value of fluorine in urine was 3.64mg/L in Han students,and 5.28mg/L in Weuer students. Conclu- sions The prevalence of dental caries didn' t decrease, eventhough the prevalence of fluorosis was high in Wensu county. The prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in Weuer students were significantly higher than those in Han students. It showed no signifi- cant different between the group of fluorosis and the group of non-fluorosis in the prevalence of dental caries, perhaps due to thehigh fluorine intake, poor oral hygiene, and unqualified medicalservice.%了解新疆温宿县中小学生氟牙症和龋病发病特点及相互关系。方法按Dean分度标准和WHO第 3版《口腔健康调查基本方法》对1527名6~16岁维、汉族学生进行氟牙症和冠龋流行病学调查,并以电极法进行水 和尿氟含量测定。结果维、汉族氟牙症患病率和指数分别为73.70%、64.67%和1.647、1.303;维、汉族患龋率和 龋均分别为61.19%、42.66%和1.648、1.023;氟牙症组与非氟牙症组患龋率和龋均分别为51.94%、52.99%和 1.305、1

  9. 青铜峡市8~12岁学龄儿童氟斑牙防治效果分析%Preventive efficacy of dental fluorosis among 8-12 school-age children in Qingtongxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕楠; 周进才; 李胜玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后儿童氟斑牙患病情况及其防治效果,为指导地方性氟中毒的防治工作提供科学依据.方法 采取整群随机抽样的方法,对青铜峡市2006年已改水的改水队1(高氟重病区叶盛镇叶盛5队)、改水队2(高氟轻病区大坝镇新桥5队)、未改水队(大坝镇滑石沟5队)670名8~12岁儿童进行氟斑牙患病情况调查,根据病变程度进行分型分度,计算患病率.结果 2011年改水队1和改水队2儿童氟斑牙患病率均低于未改水队,差异有统计学意义(x2值分别为5.012,20.676,P值均<0.05).儿童氟斑牙临床分度与水氟质量浓度间显著相关(r=0.638,P<0.05).2个改水队改水后水氟质量浓度分别为(0.24±0.05) mg/L、(0.32 ±0.07) mg/L,已达到国家正常标准.结论 青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水降氟防治措施取得了一定成效.但儿童氟斑牙尚存在一定程度的流行,未达到完全控制.%Objective To evaluate the results of water improvement project aimed in eliminating the prevalence of dental fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City. Methods By using epidemiological sample survey methods, 670 children (8-12 years) had been examined in dental fluorosis in Yesheng 5th team Yesheng Township, where endemic fluorosis was seriously prevailed and had become water-improvement area in 2006; Daba township, where endemic fluorosis mild prevailed; and Huash-igou 5th team, which was not included in water-improvement area. And according to the degree of disease classification indexing, prevalence rate was calculated. Results There was evident differences of the dental fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the place was not in the water-improvement Projects areas(x2 =5.012, 20.676, P<0.05). There was significant correlation between water fluorine concentration and Childrens dental fluorosis clinical dividing(r = 0. 638, P <0. 05 ). The fluoride content in drinking

  10. Quality of life and its determinants among residents in endemic fluorosis areas with integrated intervention program%氟中毒干预病区人群生命质量及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梨丽; 黄文湧; 杨敬源; 官志忠; 于燕妮

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quality of life and its influencing factors among local residents in endemic fluorosis areas under integrated intervention program for controlling endemic fluorosis.Methods By using the MOS 36-Item Short Form Health Survey(SF-36),666 residents from 453 households in 4 towns were interviewed to assess the quality of life of the residents after implementing the integrated intervention program for controlling endemic fluorosis in Bijie city of Guizhou province.The determinants of the quality of life were analyzed with multiple linear regression models.Results The rates of dental fluorosis in all residents and children aged 8-15 years were 84.2% and 53.2%,respectively.The rate of endemic fluorosis was 32.5 %.The degree of the fluorosis of bone was related to 8 dimensions on quality of life.Age,two-week disease prevalence,extent of the fluorosis of bone,dental fluorosis,and baking food with coal fire were inversely correlated with the quality of life (P < 0.05) ; higher education,higher family income,improved stoves,and the stretched out chimney were positively correlated with the quality of life (P < 0.05).Conclusion The health attitude of local residents has been raised gradually with continuous implemention of the integrated intervertion program and the establishment of a long-term management mechanism.The change of unhealthy life style in the residentsalso has a significant importance to improve the quality of life among the residents in edemic fluorosis areas.%目的 了解贵州省毕节市氟中毒综合治理干预病区人群的生命质量状况,分析该病区居民生命质量的影响因素.方法 对病区4个乡镇453户共666人进行问卷调查,采用自编量表及生命质量量表(SF-36)评价研究对象综合干预措施实施情况及生命质量状况,生命质量各维度影响因素分析采用多元线性回归分析.结果 氟斑牙检出率为84.2%,8~15岁儿童氟斑牙患病率为53.2

  11. Effects of drinking water defluoride in endemic fluorosis areas in Shantou city of Guangdong province%广东省汕头市地方性氟中毒病区改水降氟效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军义; 李伯灵; 赵新华; 黄奕祥; 陈俊凯; 陈思湖; 欧汉宏; 陈少贤

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对汕头市地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)病区水氟及氟中毒状况的调查,为进一步改水工作提供依据.方法 于2001、2009年,对4个地氟病病区村(仙港村、范溪村、义英村、溪北村)和一个非地氟病病区村(上南村)检测水氟,每个村抽取约100名(男女各半)8~ 12岁儿童检查氟斑牙及采集尿样.水氟及尿氟测定采用氟离子选择电极法,按照Dean法进行儿童氟斑牙诊断.结果 4个地氟病病区村改水后饮用水氟含量均< 1.0 mg/L.2001年儿童氟斑牙检出率[63.29%(1505/2378)]高于2009年[14.12%(462/3271),x2=1466.48,P< 0.01].在2009年,与上南村[5.88%(77/1309)、(0.54±0.25)mg/L]相比,仙港村儿童氟斑牙检出率[30.95%(321/1037)]和尿氟水平[(0.75±0.58)mg/L]均较高(x2=258.20,t=17.40,P均<0.05).结论 汕头市改水降氟效果显著,管理部门仍应坚持地氟病病区的定期监测工作.%Objective To provide a scientific basis for drinking-water improvement and defluoridation by survey water fluoride level and situation of fluorosis in the endemic fluorosis areas of Shantou city.Methods Four endemic fluorosis villages and a non-fluorosis village were detected of water fluoride in 2001 and 2009.Randomly selected subjects of about 100 children(men and women in equal,aged 8 to 12) were checked dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride in each village.Fluoride content in water was determined by fluoride selective ion electron.And diagnosis of dental fluorosis of children was made according to Deans method.Results Through monitoring drinking water in 4 villages of the fluorosis areas after water improvement,we found that fluoride content in water source was under the standardlimitation of 1.0 mg/L,and prevalence of dental fluorosis decreased from 63.29%(1505/2378) in 2001 to 14.12%(462/3271) in 2009,the difference was significant(x2 =1466.48,P < 0.01).But compared with Shangnan village[5.88%(77/1309),(0.54 ± 0.25) mg/L] in

  12. Expression of Gla proteins during fish skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaia, Paulo J.

    2006-01-01

    Senegal sole skeletal development; Skeletal malformations; Skeletal malformation in mediterranean species; Senegal sole skeletal deformities; Zebra fish as model system: skeletal development; Identification of bone cells / skeletal development; Spatial - temporal pattern of bgp expression; Single cell resolution: localization of bgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Bgp; Single cell resolution: localization of mgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Mgp; An i...

  13. Skeletal scintigraphy following incidental trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance of antecedent trauma in skeletal scintigraphy was assessed in 503 patients, of whom 241 (46%) had prior fracture or tooth extraction. In patients with sufficiently accurate histories for site-by-site analysis, 33 of 131 fracture sites and 16 of 83 dental-procedure sites were positive scintigraphically. In general, the frequency of scan positivity diminished as the interval between trauma and scanning increased, but a significant number of patients showed prolonged uptake at fracture sites. Several patterns of uptake suggested trauma rather than metastatic disease. Knowledge of a history of trauma is often critical in bone scan interpretation

  14. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, P. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Donner, R. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Birngruber, E. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Thodberg, H.H. [Visiana Aps, Sollerodvej 57C, DK-2840 Holte (Denmark); Kainberger, F. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Langs, G. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: georg.langs@meduniwien.ac.at

    2009-11-15

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  15. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  16. My Child Is Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might do so anyway because they lack enough self-control . Preteens and teens know they're not supposed ... About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood Stress Nine Steps to ...

  17. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) defines ... person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime to ...

  18. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  19. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  20. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Hyngstrom, John R; Garten, Ryan S; Diakos, Nikolaos A; Ives, Stephen J; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Drakos, Stavros; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-01-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial function. Therefore, this study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in the smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cardiac, skele...

  1. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Bart Jochem Julius Joost

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  2. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. 氟宁抗氟作用机制的初步研究%The mechanism study of Funing antagonizing fluorosis function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩鹏; 吕惠茹; 贺西京; 上官存民; 王栋

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨氟宁抗氟的作用机 制。方法 采用随机分组,A组为氟宁组,B组为试验对照组 ,C组为空白对照组,观察各组动物血、尿、粪、器官组织的含氟量及血清酶活性变化。结果 A组骨、牙齿中含氟量显著低于B组(P<0.05 ),血和尿含氟量显著高于B组(P<0.05),碱性磷酸酶(AKP)及肌酸磷酸激酶( CPK)活性显著低于B组(P<0.05)。结论 氟宁可促进氟的排泄,减少氟在组织中的沉积, 具有明显的抗氟作用%Objective To probe into the mechanism of Fun ing antagonizing fluorosis function.Methods Animals were classified randomly into three groups:group A were given Funing.group B was experiment control group and group C was blank control group.After treated by a respective process,we tested the fluor ine in the animals blood,urine dung and organ,and the vary of serumase.Results Fluorine content in bone and tooth of group A was notable lower than that of group B (P<0.05) and more in blood and urine than group B.AKP and CPK was lower than group B too.Conclusions Funing can promote the excreting of florine and reduce its depositing in organs,so it is effective to antagonizing fluorosis.

  4. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund;

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle and...... adipose tissue leptin release in vivo. We recruited 16 healthy male human participants. Catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and vein draining skeletal muscle, as well as an epigastric vein draining the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. By combining the veno-arterial differences in plasma...... leptin with measurements of blood flow, leptin release from both tissues was quantified. To induce changes in leptin, the participants were infused with either saline or adrenaline in normo-physiological concentrations. The presence of leptin in skeletal muscle was confirmed by western blotting. Leptin...

  5. Assessment of mandibular growth by skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate assessment of facial skeletal growth remains a major problem in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Current methods include: (1) comparisons of chronologic age with growth histories of the patient and the family, (2) hand-wrist radiographs compared with a standard, and (3) serial cephalometric radiographs. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate into bone is a reflection of current metabolic activity and blood flow. Therefore, scintigraphy with this radiopharmaceutical might serve as a good method of assessing skeletal growth. Thirty-four patients, ranging in age from 15 months to 22 years, who were undergoing skeletal scintigrams for acute pathologic conditions of the extremities, were used to develop standards of uptake based on age and skeletal maturation. The results indicate that skeletal scintigraphy may be useful in evaluation of mandibular growth

  6. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  7. Analysis of the monitoring results of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province in 2011%2011年山东省地方性氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 高杰; 尹玉岩; 边建朝; 陈培忠; 张本政

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解山东省地方性氟中毒的病情现状.方法 按照国家《饮水型地方性氟中毒监测方案(试行)》和《山东省饮水型地方性氟中毒监测方案(试行)》的要求,在山东省选择10个县(市、区),每个县(市、区)抽取10个改水工程,调查改水工程运行效果,每个工程采集末梢水水样1份,检测水氟含量;每个县(市、区)选择3个病区村作为固定监测村,在已改水村,采集末梢水水样1份;在未改水村,按照东、西、南、北、中5个方位各采集水样1份,检测水氟含量;对监测村的全部8~12岁学生进行氟斑牙检查.水氟检测采用氟离子选择电极法;氟斑牙诊断采用Dean法.结果 ①在10个县(市、区)中,共监测改水工程85个,均正常运转;水氟合格工程47个,合格率为55.29%,水氟最大值为4.74 mg/L.②30个固定监测村中,已改水村27个,水氟合格村19个,合格率为70.37%,水氟最大值为4.77 mg/L;未改水村3个,其中水氟≤1.20 mg/L的村有2个,>1.20mg/L的村1个,水氟最大值为1.55 mg/L.③在19个改水工程运转正常且水氟含量合格的监测村中,儿童氟斑牙检出率为52.37%(508/970),缺损型氟斑牙检出率为6.39%(62/970),氟斑牙指数为1.02;在8个改水工程运转正常而水氟含量超标的监测村中,儿童氟斑牙检出率为62.39%(297/476),缺损型氟斑牙检出率为8.82%(42/476),氟斑牙指数为1.67;在3个未改水村中,儿童氟斑牙检出率为49.45%(90/182),缺损型氟斑牙检出率为7.14%(13/182),氟斑牙指数为1.25.结论 山东省改水降氟工程的水氟超标严重,改水工程的水质质量还需改善;有效改水对控制病区氟斑牙病情起到了一定的作用,但儿童氟斑牙病情仍较严重,需进一步加大防控力度.%Objective To understand the status of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province.Methods In accordance with the requirements of the "National Surveillance Scheme of Drinking

  8. Surveillance of fluorosis through water drinking in Dingxiang county, Shanxi province, 2009%2009年山西省定襄县饮水型氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周集慧; 赵俊兰; 牛志宏

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解和评价山西省定襄县氟中毒流行现状和改水降氟防治效果.方法 按照山西省2008年度《中央补助地方公共卫生专项资金饮水型地方性氟中毒防治项目技术方案》,水氟测定采用地方性氟中毒病区饮水氟化物的测定方法(WS/T 106);尿氟测定采用离子选择电极法( WS/T 89);氟斑牙诊断采用Dean,s法,并记录牙齿缺损情况;临床氟骨症诊断采用地方性氟骨症诊断及分度标准( WS 192-2007).结果 3个监测点水氟含量均超标;8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为60.7%,缺损型氟斑牙检出率为12.1%,氟斑牙指数为1.23;儿童尿氟均值为5.66 mg/L,标准差为1.94 mg/L,范围值3.11~12.4 mg/L;成年人尿氟均值为7.31 mg/L,标准差为2.41 mg/L,范围值4.07~ 19.5 mg/L;成年人氟骨症临床检出率为8.9%.结论 监测显示氟中毒病情总体呈下降趋势,但3个监测点水氟、儿童氟斑牙患病率、尿氟含量仍高于正常值.降氟改水工程在80年代末建成,由于年久失修,井管破损严重,氟水向井内渗透,造成水氟含量回升,应加大改水降氟力度,提高防治效果.%Objective To understand the prevalence of fluorosis through water drinking and evaluate the effects of the prevention project by reducing fluorine in water in Dingxiang county. Methods The fluorine in water was detected by detection methods of fluorine in water in endemic fluorosis area( WS/T 106), the fluorine in urine was detected by ion selective electrode method( WS/T 89), the dental fluorosis was diagnosed by Dean's method( tooth defect was recorded) and the clinical fluorosis of bone was diagnosed according to diagnosing and grading standard of endemic fluorosis of bone(WS 192-2007) specified in the technical protocol of prevention and treatment of endemic fluorosis through water drinking. Results The content of fluorine in water in 3 surveillance areas exceeded limit; The detection rate of dental fluorosis was 60

  9. Child Mortality, Child Labour, and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Strulik

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a model where the interplay between fertility, child labour, and education can explain economic stagnation when parents live in an environment of high child mortality. If in contrast child mortality is low, the solution of the parental decision problem leads to perpetual economic growth. The two long-run states are connected by a path of demographic transition and economic take-off along which the incidence of child labour disappears. The paper also discusses alternative po...

  10. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2008-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the implications of child care subsidies for child development. In this paper, we provide a systematic assessment of the impact of subsidy receipt on a wide ran...

  11. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  12. 饮水型地方性氟中毒病区改水后儿童尿氟与氟斑牙和龋齿的关系%Relationship between urinary fluoride level, incidences of dental fluorosis and caries of children in fluorosis areas after change of water sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翠婵; 李伯灵; 赵新华; 黄奕祥; 陈俊凯; 陈思湖; 张桂松; 欧汉宏; 陈少贤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess and analyze the relationship between urinary fluoride level,incidences of dental fluorosis and caries of children in fluorosis areas after change of water sources,and to provide a basis for health risk assessment of children in fluorosis areas after change of water sources.Methods From 2009 to 2012,Xiangang,Fanxi,Yiying,Xibei Villages in fluorosis areas with water improvement project and Shangnan Village in a non-fluorosis area were selected randomly as investigation subjects.Dental fluorosis and caries of children aged 6-12 in the 5 villages were examined and 600 children among them were chosen based on ages to measure their urinary fluoride.Results Water sources were changed for 6,14,15,17 years in Xiangang,Fanxi,Yiying and Xibei villages,respectively.Urinary fluoride levels of children between the 5 villages were significantly different (F=44.29,P < 0.05),urinary fluoride level of children in Xiangang village (0.62 mg/L) was higher than that of children in Shangnan Village (0.48 mg/L,P < 0.05),but all other three villages,Fanxi,Yiying and Xibei(0.51,0.36,0.27 mg/L) were lower or near that of Shangnan Village.The incidences of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 in Xiangang,Fanxi,Yiying,Xibei and Shangnan Villages were 31.0%(321/1037),7.8%(22/283),7.5% (88/1166),3.9%(31/785),and 5.9% (77/1309),respectively,and the differences were statistically significant (x2 =481.89,P < 0.05).The incidences of caries of children in Xiangang,Fanxi,Yiying and Xibei Villages were 32.0% (332/1037),65.0% (184/283),56.3% (657/1166) and 45.2% (355/785),respectively,Shangnan Village was 49.7%(651/1309),and the differences were statistically significant(x2 =109.21,P < 0.05).The incidence difference of children dental fluorosis with different urinary fluoride were statistically significant between groups (x2 =32.05,P < 0.05) ;but the incidence difference of caries was not statistically significant(x2 =8.28,P > 0.05),and it was

  13. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Shanthi, M.; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; V Venkataramana; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in ...

  14. Health assessment fluoride levels above the parametric value in water for human consumption in relation to the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis in school children 12 years of age Valoración sanitaria de la superación del valor paramétrico de fluoruro en agua de consumo humano en relación con la prevalencia de caries y fluorosis dental en escolares de doce años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Gómez Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Real Decreto 140/2003 of February 7, provides the opportunity to request approval of a temporary exception to the parametric value for the parameter B of Annex I, including fluoride. The work presented aims at testing the effect of water with fluoride levels above the parametric value on the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis, total and by grade, in the permanent dentition of schoolchildren in 12 years in order to establish the basis for the valuation of non-compliance and health decisions to applications for permits for temporary emergency situations and new parametric value. Sixty students were explored in a municipality of Tenerife where the concentration of fluoride in the water for human consumption has remained at 2,7 ± 0,5 mg / L, ie around the value ± 0,5 considered adequate to prevent dental caries and minimize the occurrence of dental fluorosis. The methodology used is standardized by the WHO. The examination included the recording of caries and dental fluorosis measured by the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF. There was a prevalence of dental caries of 38,33%, with a CAOD 0,87 and 81,67% of dental fluorosis: 35% for TF1-2, a 31,67% for TF3-4 and 15 % for grades TF5-9.Passing the values established requires the establishment of measures for health protection by restricting the use and consumption of water for children up to 8 years old.El R. D. 140/2003, de 7 de febrero, contempla la posibilidad de solicitud de autorización de excepción temporal al valor paramétrico establecido para parámetros de la parte B del anexo I, entre los que se encuentra el fluoruro. El trabajo que se presenta tiene como objeto la comprobación del efecto del consumo de agua con niveles de fluoruro superiores al valor paramétrico sobre la prevalencia de caries y fluorosis dental, total y por grados, en la dentición permanente de escolares de doce años con el fin de establecer las bases para la valoración sanitaria del incumplimiento y la toma

  15. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    OpenAIRE

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the...

  16. Autopercepção da fluorose pela exposição a flúor pela água e dentifrício Self-perception of fluorosis due to fluoride exposure to drinking water and dentifrice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Maria Bezerra de Menezes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A percepção da fluorose dental e seu impacto em escolares de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil, expostos ao uso de flúor pela água e dentifrício, foram avaliados. O problema foi encontrado em 72% das crianças, mas o grau de alteração decorrente não provocou nenhum impacto na satisfação das crianças com seus dentes. Embora a fluorose dental, devido à ingestão de flúor pela água e ao uso de dentifrício fluoretado, não tenha comprometido a estética da amostra populacional avaliada, estudo mais abrangente deve ser realizado.The impact of dental fluorosis in children exposed to fluoride in drinking water and dentifrice was evaluated. Dental fluorosis was found in 72% of the children, but the children's well-being was not affected. It was concluded that although dental fluorosis due to the intake of optimally fluoridated drinking water and dentifrice did not affect the dental aesthetics of this studied population sample, there is a need of further studies on the subject.

  17. Toilet Training Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  18. Child Abuse and Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Yaşar Tıraşçı; Süleyman Gören

    2007-01-01

    Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

  19. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-06-14

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. PMID:27304505

  20. SPECT/CT diagnostics for skeletal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal infections are often a diagnostic and clinical challenge. Nuclear imaging modalities used in the diagnostic workup of acute and chronic skeletal infections include three-phase bone scintigraphy and scintigraphy with labelled leucocytes. The introduction of hybrid technologies, such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) has dramatically changed nuclear medical imaging of infections. In general SPECT/CT leads to a considerably more accurate diagnosis than planar or SPECT imaging. Given the integrated acquisition of metabolic, functional and morphological information, SPECT/CT has increased in particular the specificity of three-phase skeletal scanning and scintigraphy with labeled leucocytes. (orig.)

  1. Multifocal skeletal tuberculosis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, LIANG; WANG, JINGCHENG; FENG, XINMIN; TAO, YUPING; YANG, JIANDONG; ZHANG, SHENFEI; CAI, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) of the musculoskeletal system is a rare clinical condition. Multifocal bone involvement is extremely rare and difficult to recognize. Thus, due to the diverse and atypical clinical manifestations of multifocal skeletal TB, the disease is easy to misdiagnose. In the present study, a rare case of atypical disseminated multifocal skeletal TB was reported, which exhibited uncommon findings in radiological images that were more suggestive of a hematological malignancy or metastatic disease. In conclusion, the diagnosis of this condition by conventional diagnostic methods is challenging. The importance of CT-guided needle biopsy and open biopsy in the diagnosis of skeletal TB was emphasized. PMID:27073438

  2. GENERAL ANAESTHESIA FOR A CHILD WITH CLEIDOCRANIAL DYSPLASIA: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeetha; Kevin Koshy; Shabna; Mangesh

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a child with Cleidocranial Dysplasia (CD) undergoing multiple teeth extraction. This is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterized by developmental abnormalities of bony structures such as supernumerary teeth, brachycephalic skull, short stature and hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles. These structural abnormalities may pose challenges to anaesthetic management. However, there are only limited literatures describing anaesthetic implications o...

  3. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-01-01

    Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

  4. Accuracy of two dental and one skeletal age estimation methods in 6-16 year old Gujarati children

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Purv S; Anjani Ramachandra Chaudhary; Bhavin B Dudhia; Parul V Bhatia; Naresh C Soni; Yesha V Jani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Age estimation is of immense importance not only for personal identification but also for treatment planning in medicine and dentistry. Chronologic age conveys only a rough approximation of the maturational status of a person, hence dental and skeletal ages have been explored as maturity indicators since decades. The tooth maturation provides a valuable indicator of dental age and serves as a better index of the maturation of a child as compared to other maturity indicators. Aim...

  5. Digital radiograph of the middle phalanx of the third finger (MP3) region as a tool for skeletal maturity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Y Hegde; Sudhindra Baliga; Ramakrishna Yeluri; A K Munshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability of the digital radiograph of the middle phalanx of the third finger (MP3) in skeletal maturity assessment Study Design: Fifty children (24 girls and 26 boys) belonging to the circumpubertal age-group were selected for the study. Two radiographs - lateral cephalogram and digital radiograph of the MP3 region - were taken in each child. Age assessment was based on the changes in shape of the cervical vertebrae and the epiphysis of the middle phalanx of ...

  6. Proteomic profiling of skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2011-10-01

    One of the most striking physiological features of skeletal muscle tissues are their enormous capacity to adapt to changed functional demands. Muscle plasticity has been extensively studied by histological, biochemical, physiological and genetic methods over the last few decades. With the recent emergence of high-throughput and large-scale proteomic techniques, mass spectrometry-based surveys have also been applied to the global analysis of the skeletal muscle protein complement during physiological modifications and pathophysiological alterations. This review outlines and discusses the impact of recent proteomic profiling studies of skeletal muscle transitions, including the effects of chronic electro-stimulation, physical exercise, denervation, disuse atrophy, hypoxia, myotonia, motor neuron disease and age-related fibre type shifting. This includes studies on the human skeletal muscle proteome, animal models of muscle plasticity and major neuromuscular pathologies. The biomedical importance of establishing reliable biomarker signatures for the various molecular and cellular transition phases involved in muscle transformation is critically examined. PMID:23738259

  7. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olfert, I Mark; Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva;

    2016-01-01

    on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion, and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable, and thus one of the few organ systems which can be experimentally manipulated (e.g. by exercise) to study physiologic regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus...... during health, but poorly controlled in disease - resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact...... on 1) the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity, and 2) highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes and ultrastructural...

  8. Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is manifested by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and results from impaired insulin signaling and multiple post-receptor intracellular defects including impaired glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation, and reduced glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Insulin resistance is a core defect in type 2 diabetes, it is also associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have reported a mitochondrial defect in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in variety of insulin resistant states. In this review, we summarize the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  9. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth; Brand, Christian Lehn; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindqvist, Anna Kaufmann; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-12-15

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. Therefore, we investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle-specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 33), whereas 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-wk prazosin treatment, which ensured that prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole body insulin sensitivity increased by ∼24%, and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose disposal increased by ∼30% concomitant with an ∼20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was enhanced independent of improvements in skeletal muscle insulin signaling to glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suggesting that the improvement in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake could be due to improved diffusion conditions for glucose in the muscle. The prazosin treatment did not affect the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point toward the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25352432

  10. Proteomic profiling of skeletal muscle plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2012-01-01

    One of the most striking physiological features of skeletal muscle tissues are their enormous capacity to adapt to changed functional demands. Muscle plasticity has been extensively studied by histological, biochemical, physiological and genetic methods over the last few decades. With the recent emergence of high-throughput and large-scale proteomic techniques, mass spectrometry-based surveys have also been applied to the global analysis of the skeletal muscle protein complement during physio...

  11. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  12. Multifocal skeletal tuberculosis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Jingcheng; Feng, Xinmin; Tao, Yuping; Yang, Jiandong; ZHANG, SHENFEI; Cai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) of the musculoskeletal system is a rare clinical condition. Multifocal bone involvement is extremely rare and difficult to recognize. Thus, due to the diverse and atypical clinical manifestations of multifocal skeletal TB, the disease is easy to misdiagnose. In the present study, a rare case of atypical disseminated multifocal skeletal TB was reported, which exhibited uncommon findings in radiological images that were more suggestive of a hematological malignancy or metastat...

  13. Stem cells for skeletal muscle repair

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Wagers, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly specialized tissue composed of non-dividing, multi-nucleated muscle fibres that contract to generate force in a controlled and directed manner. Skeletal muscle is formed during embryogenesis from a subset of muscle precursor cells, which generate both differentiated muscle fibres and specialized muscle-forming stem cells known as satellite cells. Satellite cells remain associated with muscle fibres after birth and are responsible for muscle growth and repair throug...

  14. Fluoride in drinking water and endemic fluorosis in Xuchang, Henan%许昌市饮水型氟中毒流行分布及干预情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 胡留安; 李晓利; 吴宁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze fluoride concentration in drinking water and endemic fluorosis in Xuchang, Henan, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis. Methods The fluoride concentration of drinking water was tested for all villages in Xuchang, Henan. The method of random sampling was applied to select 30% of villages that with high fluoride concentration in drinking water. The children of selected villages were checked with endemic fluorosis. Results There were 12. 05% (645/ 5 323) villages with higher fluoride concentration in drinking water than that of reference level in Xuchang, Henan. The rate of dental fluorosis was 35. 84% for children aged 8 to 12 in villages with high fluoride concentration in drinking water. The average index of dental fluorosis was 0. 69. 31. 40% of villages with high fluoride concentration in drinking water changed the sources of water supply after the surveillance. Conclusion New source of drinking water should be provided for villages with high fluoride in drinking water.%目的 为了澄清许昌市饮水型地方性氟中毒的流行现状及干预措施落实情况,为防制地方性氟中毒提供科学依据.方法 对全市所有自然村进行高氟水源筛查,随机抽取30%的水氟超标村进行儿童氟斑牙患病情况调查,对筛查出的所有水氟超标村的改水措施落实情况进行问卷调查.结果 许昌市共筛查出645个水氟超标村,8~12岁儿童氟斑牙的总检出率为35.84%;氟斑牙流行指数为0.69;缺损率为4.38%,流行强度以轻度为主,水氟超标村改水率为31.40%.结论 许昌市饮水型地方性氟中毒流行分布情况发生了很大变化,目前的改水措施落实情况不能满足防制要求.

  15. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown. PMID:26912035

  16. Relationship between dental fluorosis and quality of life: a population based study Relação entre fluorose dentária e qualidade de vida: um estudo de base populacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Michel-Crosato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of dental fluorosis in schoolchildren aged 6 to 15 and its possible association with the impacts on their daily activities. This study is observational, cross-sectional and analytical. A total of 513 schoolchildren from the city of Pinheiro Preto, SC, took part in this study. The children were examined by three calibrated dentists, after obtaining a kappa > 0.80. To assess the prevalence of fluorosis, clinical examinations were performed according to the methodology set forth by the 4th edition of the WHO. To assess the impact of fluorosis on their daily activities, a modified OIDP (Oral Impacts on Daily Performance was adopted. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-squared test with a 5% significance level. Of the total number of children examined, 262 (51.1% were of the female gender and 251 (48.9% were of the male gender. In regard to the prevalence of fluorosis, 94 (18.3% of the children presented this condition, while 419 children (81.7% presented a normal condition. In regard to the severity of fluorosis, few children presented severe alterations. No association was found between dental fluorosis and gender (p = 0.646, between fluorosis and socioeconomic status (p = 0.848 or between fluorosis and access to public water supply system (p = 0.198. The activities that most affected children's daily performance were: oral hygiene (40.9% and food intake or enjoying food (40.4%. None of the daily activities could be associated with the occurrence of dental fluorosis. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was consonant with the standards found for locations with optimum fluoride content in the water supply. The questionable and very slight levels of fluorosis were the most frequently found, without influence in the quality of life of the schoolchildren participating in the study.O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de 6 a 15 anos de idade e sua poss

  17. An epidemiological study of drinking water type of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province in 2013%2013年山东省饮水型地方性氟中毒流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 尹玉岩; 高杰; 张本政; 边建朝; 陈培忠

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解山东省饮水型地方性氟中毒的流行现状,为制订防制策略提供科学依据.方法 按随机数字表法,在山东省选择10个县(市、区),调查改水降氟工程进度和运行效果;每个县(市、区)选择3个村作为调查村,氟离子选择电极法测定饮用水水氟含量,Dean法检查8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况.结果 在10个县(市、区)中,共有改水降氟工程515个,覆盖3 207个病区村,改水率为81.71%(3 207/3 925).调查的85个改水工程均运行正常;水氟含量合格(≤1.20 mg/L)的工程51个,合格率为60.00% (51/85),水氟最大值为4.38 mg/L.29个调查村均已改水,水氟均值≤1.20 mg/L的村21个,占调查村的72.41%(21/29);水氟均值> 1.20 mg/L的村8个,占27.59%(8/29),水氟最大值为4.02 mg/L.在水氟合格村共检查8~ 12岁儿童1 023名,氟斑牙检出率为38.12%(390/1 023),氟斑牙指数为0.67,氟斑牙流行强度为极轻度流行.在水氟超标村共检查8~ 12岁儿童449名,氟斑牙检出率为54.79%(246/449),氟斑牙指数为1.18,氟斑牙流行强度为轻度流行.结论 山东省改水降氟工程的水氟超标严重,儿童的氟斑牙病情仍较严重,改水措施有待进一步加强.%Objective To study the prevalence of drinking water type of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province,and to provide a scientific basis in making strategies for prevention and control of the disease.Methods Ten counties (cities,districts) were selected by random number table method to carry out the epidemiological study,and to study the progress and effect of water-improving and defluoridation projects.Three villages in each county (city,district) were chosen to determine fluoride content of drinking water and to check the prevalence of dental fluorosis of children 8 to 12 years old.Water fluoride content was determined with fluoride ion-selective electrode,and dental fluorosis was diagnosed by the Deans method.Results In the 10 counties (cities

  18. 山东省黄河流域内地方性氟中毒流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of endemic fluorosis along the Yellow River basin of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 边建朝; 陈培忠; 庞绪贵; 秦启亮; 赵力军; 王玉涛

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current prevailing status of endemic fluorosis in the Yellow River basin of Shandong Province and to provide the scientific evidence for making strategies in prevention and control.Methods Nine counties were chosen to carry out the epidemiological investigation.The content of fluoride in drinking water was determined by F-ion selective electrode and dental fluorosis of children aged 8~12 years old was diagnosed by Deans method.Results Water fluoride content was determined in 1761 fluorosis villages,among which 606 villages had water fluoride content≤1.00 mg/L,accounting for 34.41%(606/1761);1155 villages had water fluoride content>1.00 mg/L,which accounted for 65.59%(1155/1761).The highest water fluoride content was 11.33 mg/L.Water fluoride content of 618 water-improving and defluoridation projects had been determined,among which 449 projects had water fluoride content≤1.00 mg/L and accounted for 72.65%(449/618),169 projects had water fluoride content>1.00 mg/L and accounted for 27.35%(169/618),the highest water fluoride content was 5.85 mg/L.The total rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8~12 years old was 45.03%(25 579/56 804) and the index of dental fluorosis was 0.80. Conclusions In the Yellow River basin in Shandong Province,up to 50.00%in the villages the water fluoride content exceeds the county standard(≤1.00 mg/L).The prevalence of endemic fluorosis in the basin hasn't been effectively controlled.So the counterrneasures for endemic fluorosis should be carried out as soon as possible.%目的 了解山东省黄河流域内地方性氟中毒流行现状,为制订防治策略提供科学依据.方法 在山东省选择9个病区县进行了流行病学调查,居民饮用水含氟量测定采用氟离子选择电极法,8~12儿童氟斑牙诊断采用Dean法.结果 水氟均值≤1.00 mg/L的村占34.41%(606/1761);>1.00 mg/L的村占65.59%(1155/1761);水氟最大值为11.33 mg/L.水氟均值≤1.00 mg

  19. Child Poverty and Changes in Child Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, WEN-HAO; Corak, Miles

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state i...

  20. Child Abuse in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  1. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  2. A epidemiological study of children's dental fluorosis in coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas of three counties in Guizhou Province%贵州省3个县燃煤型地方性氟中毒病区8~12岁儿童氟斑牙流行变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯友; 李达圣; 张念恒; 何平; 胡小强; 王晓明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of children's dental fluorosis before and after implementation of comprehensive prevention and control intervention in coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas of Guizhou Province,and to provide a scientific basis for making corresponding prevention and control measures.Methods In 2010,according to a simple random cluster sampling method,1/5 of the villages out of 1/5 of the towns of Zunyi,Kaiyang and Longli Counties,were selected as investigation sites for inspection of dental fluorosis in 8-12 years old children and a longitudinal comparison was done with historical related dental fluorosis (year 1986 and 2000).Dental fluorosis of children was diagnosed by Dean method.Results In Zunyi,Kaiyang and Longli Counties,the detection rates of 8-12 years old children's dental fluorosis were 23.76%(202/850),15.77% (79/501) and 11.17%(42/376),respectively.The detection rates of dental fluorosis in the 8,9,10,11 and 12 years old age group of children were 11.52%(19/165),17.19%(44/256),20.20% (81/401),18.61% (75/403) and 20.72% (104/502),respectively,and there was no significant difference between groups (x2 =2.90,P > 0.05).The survey results of this investigation in the three counties in 2000 were 34.20%(7 805/22 821),39.77%(1 782/ 4 481),60.88%(2 806/4 609),and the differences were statistically significant between the results of 2010 and 2000(x2 =37.81,110.91,350.76,all P < 0.01).And compared with the results of 1986[34.29% (9 463/27 596),36.30% (2 708/7 460),35.72% (1 896/5 308)],the difference of Zunyi County was not statistically significant (x2 =0.045,P > 0.05),but for Kaiyang and Longli the differences were statistically significant(x2 =14.35,626.39,all P < 0.01).Conclusions The effect of comprehensive prevention and control intervention is very obvious.In the 3 counties,the incidence rates of 8-12 years old children's dental fluorosis are already dropped to below 30% of the control standard

  3. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or working on a craft. Reward and praise self-control . For example, allow your little girl to use ... Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can I Stop My Child ...

  4. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Excellent June 7, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  5. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  6. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  7. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  8. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 OCC has a variety of resources and tools related to the law. Visit our Reauthorization site to find webinars, program instructions, and other guidance and information. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  9. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  10. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  11. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  12. Economics of child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima, Ambreen

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation aims to explore the supply and demand side determinant of child labour at macro, meso and micro level. At macro level it explores the effect of globalization (defined as openness to trade and inflow of foreign direct investment) and credit market imperfections on child labour. At meso level it explores the effect of labour market conditions on child labour. As the above two levels of analysis are mainly concerned with the demand for child labour, the micro level analysis expl...

  13. Child Poverty in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Crossley; Lori Curtis

    2003-01-01

    A 1989 all-party motion of parliament called for the elimination of child poverty in Canada by the year 2000. Despite a series of policy initiatives, recent reports suggest that the child poverty rate may now be comparable to that in 1989. The apparent persistence of child poverty in Canada might reflect socioeconomic developments, or something about the way that child poverty is measured. Using micro data covering the period 1986 to 2000 we find little support for these explanations.

  14. Mandibular dimensional changes and skeletal maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Growth and development of the human face provides a fascinating interplay of form and function. Among the various facial bones, the mandible plays a very important role during various growth-modification therapies. These treatment modalities will yield a better result in less time if properly correlated with skeletal maturity. It is very essential to know where the site of growth occurs and also the time when it occurs or ceases to occur. This study was conducted to assess the mandibular dimensions at various stages of skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: The subjects included 6 to 18-year-old children who were grouped according to their middle phalanx of the third finger stages of skeletal maturity. Lateral cephalographs were taken and, from their cephalometric tracings, linear and angular measurements of the mandible were made. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Results showed that the mandibular height, length and symphysis thickness increased with skeletal maturity. An increase in angles SNB (Sella, Nasion, Supramentale and L1-MP (Long axis lower incisors- Mandibular plane and a decrease in the gonial angle and ANB (Subspinale, Nasion, Supramentale angle were observed. Conclusion: The study showed a significant correlation between mandibular growth and skeletal maturity.

  15. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Pradeep; Kumar, Naveen; Shingh, Shishir; Ahuja, N.K.; Ghalaut, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis of skeletal class I, class II and class III malocclusion, each comprising of 38 subjects with equal number of males and females. Lip prints of all the individuals were recorded and digital soft copies of lateral cephalograms were taken. Lip prints were compared between different skeletal malocclusions. Results: It was found that branched lip pattern was most common in North Indian adult population with no sexual dimorphism. The Z-test for proportion showed that the prevalence of vertical lip pattern was significantly higher in subjects having skeletal class III malocclusion. Conclusion: A definite co-relation of vertical lip patterns with skeletal class III malocclusion was revealed. PMID:24255559

  16. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Raghav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis of skeletal class I, class II and class III malocclusion, each comprising of 38 subjects with equal number of males and females. Lip prints of all the individuals were recorded and digital soft copies of lateral cephalograms were taken. Lip prints were compared between different skeletal malocclusions. Results: It was found that branched lip pattern was most common in North Indian adult population with no sexual dimorphism. The Z-test for proportion showed that the prevalence of vertical lip pattern was significantly higher in subjects having skeletal class III malocclusion. Conclusion: A definite co-relation of vertical lip patterns with skeletal class III malocclusion was revealed.

  17. Disciplining Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are ways to ease frustration and avoid unnecessary conflict with your child. Be Aware of What Your Child Can and ... moment, wait to cool down, apologize to your child, and explain how you will handle the situation in the future. Be sure to keep your ...

  18. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your child to return to school or daycare. This may be as soon as 2 to 3 weeks after surgery. Your child's activity restrictions will depend on: The type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) Your child's age The reason for ...

  19. Intraurethral Injection of Autologous Minced Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intraurethral injection of in vitro expanded autologous skeletal muscle derived cells is a new regenerative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. We examined the efficacy and safety of a simpler alternative strategy using freshly harvested, minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue with...... its inherent content of regenerative cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 and 15 women with uncomplicated and complicated stress urinary incontinence, respectively, received intraurethral injections of minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue and were followed for 1 year. Efficacy was assessed...... events were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Intraurethral injection of minced autologous muscle tissue is a simple surgical procedure that appears safe and moderately effective in women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence. It compares well to a more complicated regenerative strategy using in vitro...

  20. Child Labor - Moral Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lagasse, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  1. Experimental study on antagonistic effects of Mg-Se preparation on dental fluorosis of mice%镁硒制剂拮抗小鼠氟牙症的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 侯铁舟; 唐成芳; 娄鸣; 李洁洁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the antagonistic effects of Mg-Se preparation on dental fluorosis of mice and its mechanism for providing fundamental data in the prevention and control of dental fluorosis. Methods Eighty male ICR mice were randomly divided into 8 groups:control group,magnesium group,selenium group,magnesium-selenium group,fluorine group,magnesium-fluorine group,selenium-fluorine group and magnesium-selenium-fluorine group. The mice were given the double distilled water in control group,magnesium group, selenium group and magnesium-selenium group, and the double distilled water containing fluorinion 50 mg/L in the other four groups. The mice were fed conventionally in control group and fluorine group,while in the other groups the mice were given additionally a certain amount of magnesi-um,selenium. The growth rate of body weight and tooth length,final grade of dental fluorosis were observed. Results ①In magnesium-sele-nium-fluorine group, the growth rate of tooth length was significantly higher than in fluorine group(P<0. 01). ②The morbidity of dental fluorosis was significantly lower in magnesium-selenium-fluorine group than in the other groups(P<0. 01),and the fluorosis degree was lower. Conclusion Adding a certain amount of magnesium-selenium in mice food could better reduce the morbidity of dental fluorosis.%目的:通过动物实验研究镁硒制剂对小鼠氟牙症的影响及其机制,为氟牙症的防治提供基础数据。方法80只雄性ICR小鼠随机分为对照组、单镁组、单硒组、镁硒组、加氟组、镁氟组、硒氟组和镁硒氟组。对照组、单镁组、单硒组、镁硒组每日饮用双蒸水,各加氟组每日饮用含F-浓度50 mg/L的氟化双蒸水。除对照组、加氟组外,小鼠常规饲料中分别添加一定量的镁、硒。饲养42 d,观察小鼠体重、牙长增长情况,以及第42天时氟牙症的发生情况、病变程度。结果①镁硒氟组小鼠牙长增长率明显高于加氟组(P<0

  2. Pannexin 1 channels in skeletal muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Cea, Luis A.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Vargas, Anibal A.; Urrutia, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Normal myotubes and adult innervated skeletal myofibers express the glycoprotein pannexin1 (Panx1). Six of them form a “gap junction hemichannel-like” structure that connects the cytoplasm with the extracellular space; here they will be called Panx1 channels. These are poorly selective channels permeable to ions, small metabolic substrate, and signaling molecules. So far little is known about the role of Panx1 channels in muscles but skeletal muscles of Panx1−/− mice do not show an evident ph...

  3. Occipital projections in the skeletal dysplasias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occipital projections of the cranium have been reported in a number of skeletal dysplasias and syndromes. We observed two cases of atelosteogenesis type I with a bony occipital projection. This finding has neither been noted nor reported in any form of atelosteogenesis. This led us to search the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry for occipital projections, and we found them in four other syndromes in which they had not been reported. Thus occipital spurs are a non-diagnostic feature that can be found in at least ten distinct disorders as well as a normal variant. (orig.)

  4. Archform Comparisons between Skeletal Class II and III Malocclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Wei; Wu, Jiaqi; Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, Tianmin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of t...

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Jeromson; Gallagher, Iain J.; Stuart D. R. Galloway; D. Lee Hamilton

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscl...

  6. Role of microRNAs in skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Hitachi, Keisuke; Tsuchida, Kunihiro

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of body weight, and is important for locomotion, as well as for metabolic homeostasis. Adult skeletal muscle mass is maintained by a fine balance between muscle protein synthesis and degradation. In response to cytokines, nutrients, and mechanical stimuli, skeletal muscle mass is increased (hypertrophy), whereas skeletal muscle mass is decreased (atrophy) in a variety of conditions, including cancer cachexia, starvation, immobilization, aging, and n...

  7. Chronic alcohol ingestion delays skeletal muscle regeneration following injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dekeyser, Graham J; Clary, Caroline R; OTIS, JEFFREY S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol ingestion may cause severe biochemical and pathophysiological derangements to skeletal muscle. Unfortunately, these alcohol-induced events may also prime skeletal muscle for worsened, delayed, or possibly incomplete repair following acute injury. As alcoholics may be at increased risk for skeletal muscle injury, our goals were to identify the effects of chronic alcohol ingestion on components of skeletal muscle regeneration. To accomplish this, age- and gender-match...

  8. Effectiveness of health education on drinking-water fluorosis in Zhejiang province in 2011%2011年浙江省饮水型氟中毒病区健康教育效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金水; 楼晓明; 朱文明; 毛光明; 莫哲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of health education on endemic fluorosis prevention and control. Methods A uniform questionnaire was applied to target population on health education of endemic fluorosis. Results The awareness rate of school students improved from 67. 24% to 98. 45% , got an increase of 31. 15% averagely ( x2 = 640. 94 , P < 0. 01 ) ;The awareness rate of housewives improved from 67. 89% to 97. 60% , got an increase of 31. 30% averagely( x2 =296. 86, P <0.01). Conclusion The awareness rates of endemic fluorosis prevention and control among students and housewives were remarkably increased after implementing the health education projects. The sense of self protection from public was strengthened.%目的 调查健康教育干预防治饮水型地方性氟中毒(以下简称地氟病)的效果.方法 采用统一问卷方式对目标人群开展地氟病健康教育调查.结果 实施健康教育干预后,小学生地氟病防治知识平均知晓率由基线调查的67.24%上升为效果评价的98.45%(x2=640.94,P<0.01);家庭主妇平均知晓率由基线调查的67.89%上升为效果评价的97.60%(X2=296.86,P<0.01).结论 健康教育干预可有效提高项目地区小学生、家庭主妇的地氟病防治知识知晓率,增强群众的自我保健意识.

  9. 2010年山东省饮水型地方性氟中毒监测报告%Surveillance of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 高杰; 王玉涛; 尹玉岩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province,and to provide a scientific basis for development of control strategies.Methods In accordance with the requirements of the national "Surveillance Scheme of Drinking-Water-Borne Endemic Fluorosis (Trial)" and "Shandong Provincial Surveillance Scheme of Drinking-Water-Borne Endemic Fluorosis (Trial)",and to understand the progress of the province's water-improvement projects,10 counties were chosen in the province,and 10 water-improvement projects were selected in each county.Running condition of the water-improvement projects was investigated,and water fluoride content was tested.Three epidemic villages were chosen as fixed monitoring villages in each county.In each village,fluoride content in drinking water was determined,and dental fluorosis of all children aged 8 to 12 was diagnosed.Water fluoride content was determined by fluoride ion selective electrode method,and dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 was diagnosed by Dean method.Results ① There were 3570 water defluoridation projects in the province,and water-improvement rate was 87.49% (10 122/11 569).Normal operating projects accounted for 89.10% (3181/3570),and the passing rate of water fluoride content was 73.14% (2611/3570),with the maximum water fluoride as 9.71 mg/L.② In the 10 counties,a total of 86 waterimprovement projects were monitored.Normal operation,intermittent operation and scrapped projects accounted for 95.35% (82/86),3.49% (3/86) and 1.16% (1/86),respectively,and passing rate of fluoride content in water was 50.00% (43/86),and the maximum water fluoride was 5.32 mg/L.③ In the 27 monitored villages with improved water quality,the passing rate of fluoride content in water was 74.07% (20/27),and the maximum water fluoride was 4.50mg/L.In the 3 monitored villages without improved water quality,villages of mean water fluoride ≤ 1.20 mg/L and > 1.20 mg/L accounted for 33.33% (1

  10. Study on the related risk factors of endemic fluorosis and its integrated control in Loudi City%娄底市地氟病相关危害因素与综合防制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健龙; 曾桂华; 戴练平; 吴锦如; 吴笃卿; 胡东风; 杨劝姣; 欧阳吾锋

    2011-01-01

    目的 确证娄底市地氟病的主要氟源,探讨同一区域内病区轻重程度相差悬殊的问题和改灶降氟项目的可持续性.方法 检查学生氟斑牙和尿氟浓度,测定煤、制作藕煤的壤土、饮用水和食物氟含量及改灶前后室内空气氟浓度,评价改灶降氟的效果.结果 原煤氟含量平均值为91.90 mg/kg,拌煤壤土平均氟含量816.90 mg/kg,各病区差异无统计学意义(F=0.58,P>0.05),干蔬菜氟含量超过卫生标准;25年来病区村数增加了2.42倍,重病区分布于海拔800 m以上山区;实施改灶降氟后,室内空气氟含量下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001),学生和村民地氟病防控知识知晓率明显提高.结论 娄底市地氟病的氟源具有多源性,且主要来源于拌煤壤土,地氟病病区轻重程度与拌煤壤土氟含量高低不呈正相关;病区分布具明显高海拔特征,社会经济因素在病区形成与发展中起重要作用;地氟病防控项目管理模式要创新,必须强化综合防制策略.%Objective To determine the main fluoride source of endemic fluorosis in Loudi, explore the problem that the degrees of severity of fluorosis areas varied greatly in the same district, and to discuss the sustainability of the campaign of de-fluoridation by improving household stoves.Methods School-children were examined for dental fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration.Fluoride content in coal, loam for making briquettes, drinking water, foodstuffs, indoor air before and after the improvement of stoves were determined.And assessments were conducted on the effects of de-fluoridation by improving stoves.Results Mean fluoride content in coal was 91.90 mg/kg while that in loam was 816.90 mg/kg and no significant difference ( F = 0.58, P >0.05) was found among the endemic areas of various severity degrees.Fluoride contents in dried vegetables exceeded the hygienic standards.Endemic villages increased by 2.42-fold in the past 25 years, severe

  11. Epidemiology of fluorosis and dental caries according to different types of water supplies Epidemiologia da fluorose e cáries dentárias de acordo com diferentes tipos de abastecimento de água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange de Oliveira Braga Franzolin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between fluorosis/dental caries in schools, according to the level of fluoride in public water supply. The sample comprised of twelve-year-old daytime students (360 of both genders, attending schools close to the region where they were born. The schools were classified into three groups according to the presence of fluoride in the water supply: 1 fluoridation in the Water Treatment Station-WTS; 2 Direct Fluoridation in Wells-DFW; and 3 Non Fluoridated Areas-NFA. The χ2 and Goodman tests (significance=5% were used to evaluate the association between the origin of water and degree of fluorosis; percentage of distribution and descriptive measures were used for investigation of the degree of fluorosis. The following outcomes were predominant: presence of dental caries in the entire sample (P0.05. Dental caries is still an important problem in this population, despite the establishment of preventive measured. The observation of fluorosis in students living in non-fluoridated areas confirms the presence of other sources of fluoride.O objetivo do presente artigo é investigar a relação fluorose/cáries em escolas, de acordo com o nível de fluoreto no abastecimento público de água. A amostra consistiu em 360 alunos de doze anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, que frequentam as escolas próximas da região em que nasceram. As escolas foram classificadas em três grupos de acordo com a presença de fluoreto no abastecimento de água: 1 fluoretação na Estação de Tratamento de Água (ETA; 2 fluoretação direta em poços; e 3 áreas não fluoretadas (ANF. Os testes deχe de Goodman (significância = 5% foram utilizados para avaliar a associação entre a origem da água e o grau de fluorose. Os resultados mais predominantes foram presença de cáries em toda a amostra (P0,05. As cáries ainda são uma importante questão nessa população, apesar do estabelecimento de medida preventiva. A

  12. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process. PMID:22171534

  13. Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

  14. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik A.

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4 to...

  15. Tuberous sclerosis complex: skeletal CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the skeletal CT imaging manifestations in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), and to analyze their diagnostic value so as to establish an adequate skeletal change imaging data for the diagnosis of TSC. Methods: Thirteen patients fulfilling TSC diagnostic criteria were examined with CT of the brain (n=13) and abdomen (n=7). Examinations from January, 2004 to July, 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There were three forms of lesions being demonstrated on CT: (l) Multiple sclerosing nodule (n=13): numerous, ovoid and circular, homogeneous, small and well- defined foci and symmetrical lesions were revealed in all cases in the central marrow portion of the bones, which could mimic blastic metastases. Follow-up CT imaging showed no change in both size and number. The lesions measured approximately 2-10 mm. (2) Local sclerosing bone dysplasia with little bone expansion (n=7). Symmetrical and irregular density in the radix of the posterior arch of the vertebral body (n=5). (3) The spherical periosteal proliferation demonstrating as a cortex double line sign (n=2), and cortical thickening of metatarsals (n=3). The appearance of the skeletal manifestation was as that in adulthood. Conclusion: CT imaging of the skeletal system in TSC has some characteristics, by which the diagnosis of TSC could be made if combined with other main clinical diagnostic criteria. We suggest that those particular findings can be added as primary diagnostic features in the clinical diagnosis of TSC. (authors)

  16. Skeletal malformations in fetuses with Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Fischer Hansen, B; Keeling, J W;

    1999-01-01

    one foot was normal. Malformations of the cranial base (the basilar part of the occipital bone or the postsphenoid bone) occurred in five cases, and the vertebral bodies in the lumbar region of the spine were malformed (cleft) in three cases. It is proposed that a skeletal analysis be included in the...

  17. Sexual selection on skeletal shape in Carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeremy S; Carrier, David R

    2016-04-01

    Lifetime reproductive success of males is often dependent upon the ability to physically compete for mates. However, species variation in social structure leads to differences in the relative importance of intraspecific aggression. Here, we present a large comparative dataset on sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape in Carnivora to test the hypotheses that carnivorans exhibit sexual dimorphism in skeletal anatomy that is reflective of greater specialization for physical aggression in males relative to females and that this dimorphism is associated with the intensity of sexual selection. We tested these hypotheses using a set of functional indices predicted to improve aggressive performance. Our results indicate that skeletal shape dimorphism is widespread within our sample. Functional traits thought to enhance aggressive performance are more pronounced in males. Phylogenetic model selection suggests that the evolution of this dimorphism is driven by sexual selection, with the best-fitting model indicating greater dimorphism in polygynous versus nonpolygynous species. Skeletal shape dimorphism is correlated with body size dimorphism, a common indicator of the intensity of male-male competition, but not with mean body size. These results represent the first evidence of sexual dimorphism in the primary locomotor system of a large sample of mammals. PMID:26969835

  18. Correction of Skeletal Anomalies of Maxillofacial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyuk А.N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is described a case of correction of skeletal forms of malocclusions with an orthodontist and orthognathic surgeon participation. The observation emphasizes the necessity of team approach to solve esthetic and functional defects in dentition in marked forms of pathological occlusions.

  19. Correction of Skeletal Anomalies of Maxillofacial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Senyuk А.N.; Marakhtanov N.B.

    2012-01-01

    There is described a case of correction of skeletal forms of malocclusions with an orthodontist and orthognathic surgeon participation. The observation emphasizes the necessity of team approach to solve esthetic and functional defects in dentition in marked forms of pathological occlusions.

  20. Vasodilatory mechanisms in contracting skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifford, Philip S.; Hellsten, Ylva

    2004-01-01

    and stabilizes within 30 s during dynamic exercise under normal conditions. Vasodilator substances may be released from contracting skeletal muscle, vascular endothelium, or red blood cells. The importance of specific vasodilators is likely to vary over the time course of flow, from the initial rapid...

  1. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  2. Engineering skeletal muscle tissue in bioreactor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Yang; Li Dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) related to skeletal muscle and kinds of bioreactor environment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection A total of 106 articles were selected from several hundred original articles or reviews.The content of selected articles is in accordance with our purpose and the authors are authorized scientists in the study of engineered muscle tissue in bioreactor.Results Skeletal muscle TE is a promising interdisciplinary field which aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss.Although numerous studies have indicated that engineering skeletal muscle tissue may be of great importance in medicine in the near future,this technique still represents a limited degree of success.Since tissue-engineered muscle constructs require an adequate connection to the vascular system for efficient transport of oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products.Moreover,functional and clinically applicable muscle constructs depend on adequate neuromuscular junctions with neural calls.Third,in order to engineer muscle tissue successfully,it may be beneficial to mimic the in vivo environment of muscle through association with adequate stimuli from bioreactors.Conclusion Vascular system and bioreactors are necessary for development and maintenance of engineered muscle in order to provide circulation within the construct.

  3. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity. : AMPK in skeletal musclemetabolic adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Treebak, Jonas,; Pehmøller, Christian; Sanz, Nieves; Sakakibara, Iori; Saint-Amand, Emmanuelle; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Maire, Pascal; Marette, André; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Ferry, Arnaud; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen,

    2014-01-01

    : AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle exercise capacity, mitochondrial function, and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Exercise performance was significantly reduced in the mdKO mice, with a reduction in maximal force production an...

  4. The relationship between dental fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentration - a study in an endemic area - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p355

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Daniel Grynpas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9 and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15 and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20, nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65 and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56. Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]. When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DF severity, only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67. Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a good predictor/indicator of DF severity.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the skeletal musculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre (ed.) [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Intverventional Radiology

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. Presents research findings in respect of the role of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques. Provides examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases. Although muscular diseases are a huge and heterogeneous group, in most cases of progressive disease the result is focal or general muscular weakness that presents as an unspecific symptom. Imaging techniques that offer differential diagnostic clues are therefore urgently needed. Despite this, MRI has to date often been assigned a subsidiary role in the diagnostic work-up of these diseases owing to the frequent inability of routine MRI protocols to detect pathognomonic findings. This situation is changing with the advent of modern MRI techniques that offer deeper insights into surrogate pathophysiologic parameters, such as muscular microcirculation, sodium homeostasis, energy and lipid metabolism, and muscle fiber architecture. Much higher levels of acceptance and demand by clinicians can be anticipated for these new techniques in the near future, and radiologists will have to face up to the increasing value of MRI of the skeletal musculature. In this book, recognized experts from around the world provide a comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. A range of aspects are covered, from the general role of MRI in imaging the skeletal musculature, including in comparison with ultrasonography, through to the current value of MRI in the diagnostic work-up of different diseases. In addition, several chapters present research findings in respect of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques for assessment of the skeletal musculature and provide examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases.

  6. Measuring child marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Cong Nguyen; Quentin Wodon

    2012-01-01

    Child or early marriage is recognized as an important development and human rights issue that affects girls especially in many developing countries. The practice has been linked to psychological, health, and education risks. These negative impacts explain why in many countries child marriage has been prohibited by law but often with little effect. While child marriage has been recognized as a major issue, its measurement has remained unsophisticated. Existing studies tend to simply report the...

  7. Child Labor and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Dinopoulos; Laixun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper embeds child labor in a standard two-sector general-equilibrium model of a small open economy facing perfectly competitive markets, efficiency wages, and free-trade. The modern sector produces a homogeneous good using skilled adult labor and capital, and offers effort-based efficiency wages. The agrarian (traditional) sector produces a homogeneous good using unskilled (child and adult) labor and skilled adult labor, and offers nutritional efficiency wages to child workers. Nutrition...

  8. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  9. Towards understanding child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Inés Carreño; Alicia Rey

    2010-01-01

    This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatm...

  10. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  11. Child labor handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Cigno, Alessandro; Rosati, Furio C.; Tzannatos, Zafiris

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys many aspects and issues of child labor, including its causes and effects as well as policies associated with it. Child labor has come to be considered an expression of poverty, both a cause and an effect of underdevelopment. Child labor cannot be viewed in isolation from educational, health, fertility, and technological issues; and is not necessarily an aberration but a rational household response to an adverse economic environment. With this in mind, the following proposit...

  12. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  13. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To review the knowledge on child health and child health problems in Greenland. METHOD: The review was based on theses, national statistics, national and international reports, and a search in Pub Med, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and WHOLIB databases from 1985 to 2005. The resulting articles...... importance to the health of children in Greenland. More accurate data on child health are necessary in the future to secure better prioritization. It is suggested to construct a set of reliable indicators of child health in Greenland to monitor the health of children on a national and regional basis....

  14. Is Child Labor Inefficient?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie Baland; Robinson, James A.

    2000-01-01

    We build a model of child labor and study its implications for welfare. We assume that there is a trade-off between child labor and the accumulation of human capital. Even if parents are altruistic and child labor is socially inefficient, it may arise in equilibrium because parents fail to fully internalize its negative effects. This occurs when bequests are zero or when capital markets are imperfect. We also study the effects of a simple ban on child labor and derive conditions under which i...

  15. The Effect of Child Care Characteristics on Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, David M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of group size, staff-child ratio, training, and other characteristics of child care on child development is estimated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In contrast to most previous research, the sample is large and nationally representative, the data contain good measures of the home environment, and there are repeated measures of child development. Child care characteristics have little association with child development on average. Associations are found ...

  16. Do market wages influence child labor and child schooling?

    OpenAIRE

    Wahba, Jackline

    2000-01-01

    Thispaper provides empirical evidence on the joint determinants of child labor, and child schooling, using individual level data from Egypt. The main findings are as follows: 1) A ten percent increase in the illiterate male market wage decreases the probability of child labor by 21.5 percent for boys, and 13.1 percent for girls. 2) Higher local regional income inequality increases the likelihood of child labor. 3) Parents who were child laborers themselves, are more likely to send their child...

  17. Child maintenance and child poverty: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hakovirta, Mia

    2010-01-01

    This article uses the Luxembourg Income Study datasets from circa 2004 to analyse the contribution child maintenance makes to the reduction of child poverty. The countries compared are Canada, UK, USA, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland representing countries with different child maintenance schemes. Results show that the contribution that child maintenance makes in reducing overall child poverty is minimal but it can reduce child poverty among non-widowed lone mother families if ma...

  18. Survey of the Incidence of Dental Fluorosis in High Fluoride Areas of Zhaotong, Yunnan Province after Stove Changing and Decreasing of Fluorine%云南昭通高氟区改灶降氟后氟斑牙患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范群; 姚霜; 季娟娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To survey the incidence of dental fluorosis in coal polluted high fluoride areas of Zhaotong, Yunnan province after stove changing and decreasing of fluorine. The result will give us reference of prevention of endemic fluorosis. Methods: Using the methods and diagnostic criteria of the third national oral health epidemiologi-cal sample survey and Dean's dental fluorosis classificationas as reference, we give sample survey to the dental fluorosis and oral health status of 35 - 44 years - old people born before stove changing and decreasing of fluorine and 12 years -old students born after stove changing and decreasing of fluorine. Give questionnaire survey of 30% of people in each group,about their using of coal,their living habit,stove changing status,their knowledge of prevention of endemic fluorosis and their oral hygiene behavior. Use SPSS 15. 0 to do the statistical analysis of the survey data. Re-sultS: The total prevalence of dental fluorosis of these people was 91. 0% , and dental fluorosis index was 2. 58. The detection rate of dental fluorosis in 35 - 44 years-old group was 100% , and moderate to severe dental fluorosis rate in this group was 87. 50% , dental fluorosis index was 3. 49. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12 years-old students group was 86. 5% , moderate to severe dental fluorosis rate in this group was 47. 25% , dental fluorosis index was 2. 12,there were significant differences between the two groups(P<0. 01). At the age of 12 students group, no gender differences, but there are urban and rural differences (P<0. 05). Conclusion: Prevalence rate and severity of dental fluorosis in high fluoride areas of Zhaotong decreased after stove-changing and fluorine decreasing,but these areas still belong to moderate dental fluorosis epidemic areas. It is suggested that in the premise of stove changing and de-screasing of fluorine, we use these measures such as health education, improvement of scientific management and e-conomic and cultural

  19. 氟中毒对肘关节尺神经蠕变影响实验研究%The Experimental Study on Creep of Elbow Joint Ulnar Nerve on Fluorosis of Bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翘; 李鹏; 马洪顺

    2009-01-01

    Objective To research on the creep of elbow joint ulnar nerve on fluorosis, supply bioviscoelastic mechan-ics parameter with clinic. Methods We proceed ereep experiment on elbow joint ulnar nerve of animal model with reproducing fluorosis animal model. Results We got out the data and curve of creep on elbow joint ulnar nerve between control group and experimental group. Conclusion:The creep of elbow joint ulnar nerve with experimental group is prominence less than control group.%目的 研究氟中毒对肘关节尺神经蠕变的影响,为临床提供生物力学参数.方法 复制氟中毒动物模型,取动物模型肘关节尺神经进行蠕变实验.结果 得出了对照组和实验组动物肘关节尺神经蠕变数据和曲线.结论 实验组肘关节尺神经7200S蠕变量显著低于对照组.

  20. Prevalence of coal-burning-fluorosis by factor analysis in Guizhou Province%应用因子分析法评价贵州省燃煤污染型氟中毒流行现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高静; 李达圣; 张华; 何平; 梁音; 王晓明; 张伯友

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价贵州省燃煤污染型氟中毒流行现状,探索贵州省氟中毒防治工作实施的重点区域和主要干预措施.方法 应用因子分析法对2010年实施综合防治措施前的23个病区县8~12周岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况、目标学生和家庭户主防氟知识及家庭户健康相关行为等调查数据进行分析和综合评价.结果 ①导致燃煤污染型氟中毒流行的3个主因子(F),分别为经济因子(Fl)、知识因子(F2)和行为因子(F3),F1为8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率、回风炉拥有率、玉米正确干燥率、辣椒正确干燥率;F2为炉灶正确使用率、学生知晓率、户主知晓率;F3为玉米食前淘洗率和辣椒食前淘洗率.②经济因子评分排列前三的是遵义、修文、清镇,知识因子评分排列前三的是遵义、习水、西秀,行为因子评分排列前三的是六枝、毕节、西秀.③经综合评分,燃煤污染型氟中毒流行控制相对较强的县有遵义、清镇、习水、西秀、普定、六枝,中等的县有修文、仁怀、关岭等13个县,较弱的县有桐梓、赫章、水城、纳雍.结论 ①燃煤污染型氟中毒流行与众多因素有关,本研究所选指标间具有较强的相关性及敏感性,用于因子分析是真实可信的.②燃煤污染型氟中毒在贵州省各地间流行现状不同,可根据因子分析法综合评价,分类指导各病区县防治重点.%Objective To investigate the epidemic situation of coal-burning-fluorosis,and to explore key areas for implementing prevention and control measures in Guizhou Province.Methods Survey data of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-10,anti-fluoride knowledge and health-related behaviors of target students and their families before implementing the comprehensive disease control measures in 2010,were analyzed and evaluated using the method of factor analysis in 23 diseased districts.Results ①The three main factors (F) related to the endemic of coal-burning-fluorosis

  1. Multifocal tuberculosis of long bones in an immunocompetent child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Taghi; Shirazi, Mehdi Ramezan; Daneshjoo, Khadijeh

    2016-05-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) is prevalent in many parts of the world, multifocal TB involvement of bones is rare. It is believed that less than 5% of skeletal TB is multifocal. We report a case of multifocal TB of long bones in an immunocompetent child. We describe the radiological and diagnostic features of TB osteomyelitis and outline its therapy and prognosis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, such a case with multiple long bone involvement without articular sequel and visceral involvement/constitutional symptoms has not been reported previously in the literature. PMID:26600081

  2. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  3. The Economics of Child Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Dessy; Stéphane Pallage

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we highlight the economic effects of the existence of child trafficking. We show that the risk of child trafficking on the labor market acts as a deterrent to supply child labor, unless household survival is at stake. An imperfectly enforceable legislation aiming at fighting child trafficking, by raising the expected gains parents derive from sending their children to work, will cause a rise in the number of child laborers. We show that it can even cause the incidence of child ...

  4. Multiple regression analysis of urinary fluoride, s aliva and plaque fluoride levels of adolescents dental fluorosis%氟斑牙青少年尿氟与唾液氟及菌斑氟的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于阳阳; 赵伟; 刘晓燕; 邹冬荣; 杨晓昀; 刘荣; 于晓峰; 营杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to study the correlation between dental fluorosis, saliva and plaque fluoride levels and urinary fluoride values in adolescents dental fluorosis. Methods A middle school was chosen as a survey point in the study. Two hundred adolescents were examined the degree of dental fluorosis by Dean's method. These adolescents were divided into four groups according to the severity of fluorosis (n = 52, 40, 28 and 80). Fluoride ion specific electrode was used to measure the fluoride levels in dental plaque, saliva, urinary and drinking water. The differences were analyzed b y ANOVA. Correlation of the fluoride levels between dental plaque, saliva, urine and the degree of dental fluorosis were analyzed by the method of multiple linear regression. Results The average fluoride content of drinking water was (2.20 ± 0.40) mg/L. Compared with controls, the fluoride concentrations in dental plaque, saliva and urine were higher in light, medium and severe dental fluorosis groups [(1.55 ± 0.88), (1.94 ± 0.77), (2.74 ± 0.83) than (0.32 ± 0.20) mg/L; (4.44 ± 1.62), (8.09 ± 0.93), (10.72 ± 0.99) than (0.02 ± 0.01) mg/L;(31.77 ± 6.09), (57.98 ± 1.83), (65.98 ± 2.78) than (13.06 ± 2.11) μg/g, all P<0.05]. Urinary fluoride was correlated with fluoride in saliva and dental plaque (r=0.245, 0.440, all P<0.05). Saliva fluoride was correlated with fluoride in dental plaque (r=0.849, P<0.01). The degree of dental fluorosis was correlated with fluoride in urine and saliva (r = 0.497, 0.896, 0.924, all P< 0.01). The multiple linear regression equation between fluoride in urine and the degree of dent al fluorosis, fluoride in dental plaque and saliva was as follow: y = 1.357 + 1.618x1 + 0.001x2 - 0.331x3 ± 0.69. Conclusions The metabolism of fluoride in body is related with oral fluoride repository in adolescents dental fluorosis. Fluoride in urine is influenced by plaque fluoride level, saliva fluoride concentration and the degree of dental

  5. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy: an 18 Months Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hartlev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion. One group (n = 13 were treated postoperatively with skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation (IMF while the other group (n = 13 where threated without skeletal elastic IMF. Results: The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.44 mm and 7.22 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.74 mm and -0.29 mm at Pog. The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the no skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.30 mm and 6.45 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.97 mm and -0.86 mm at Pog. There was no statistical significant (P > 0.05 difference between the skeletal IMF group and the no skeletal group regarding advancement nor relapse at B-point or Pog. Conclusions: Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy is characterized as a stable treatment to correct Class II malocclusion. This study demonstrated no difference of relapse between the skeletal intermaxillary fixation group and the no skeletal intermaxillary fixation group. Because of selection-bias and the reduced number of patients it still remains inconclusive whether to recommend skeletal intermaxillary fixation or not in the prevention of relapse after mandibular advancement.

  6. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  7. Your Child's Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Vision KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Vision Print A A A Text Size What's in ... La vista de su hijo Healthy eyes and vision are a critical part of kids' development. Their ...

  8. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Piotrowski; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by revi

  9. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... example, by a friend, neighbor, child care person, teacher, or stranger. When sexual abuse has occurred, a child can develop many distressing ... t tell children to 'always do everything the teacher or baby-sitter tells you to ... of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. ...

  11. Choosing Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a parent, you want to ensure that your child is safe and happy in a childcare environment that is fun, educational, and nurturing. Here are ... person or program? Do you believe that your child will be happy and have the ... in this environment? If none of the caregivers or childcare centers ...

  12. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  13. Child Care at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN, Child Care Initiative

    2008-01-01

    This is a document summarizing a survey of child care needs of CERN staff and users which was performed in February 2008 by the CERN Child Care Initiative. The document presents the analysis of this data. Conclusions on the minimal facilities size are derived and possible funding source at the European Union are discussed.

  14. Weaning Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby and makes it possible to leave your child with a caregiver. It's important to remember that infants over 6 months should have solid foods as well as breast milk. After 1 year, breast milk alone does not provide all the nutrients a growing child needs; solid foods must become a regular part ...

  15. Ileostomy and your child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now your child has an opening called a stoma in their belly. Waste will pass through the stoma into a pouch that collects it. You and ... child will need to take care of the stoma and empty the pouch many times a day. ...

  16. Healthy Weight, Healthy Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity Healthy Weight, Healthy Child Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... Summer_flyer_508.pdf Read More "Reducing Childhood Obesity" Articles Healthy Weight, Healthy Child / Get Involved How Parents and Kids Can Get ...

  17. Child Wellness and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  18. Skeletal scintigraphy in benign and malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper begins with a discussion of the technical factors in skeletal scintigraphy, including collimation, the use of three-phase bone scan, and single-photon emission computed tomography. Skeletal scintigraphy for benign conditions is commonly indicated for the patient presenting with pain (trauma, sports-related injury, posttraumatic pain syndrome, painful orthopedic prosthesis) and for the patient with abnormal laboratory test results (metabolic bone disease, Paget disease). For malignant conditions, the bone scan is useful in the evaluation of metastases in patients with extraosseous malignancies and primary bone tumors. The discussion addresses the various scan patterns seen in the more common tumors, such as prostate carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and lung carcinoma. Bone scintigraphy is an exquisitely sensitive modality. With some understanding of the techniques necessary for obtaining the optimal bone scan, and of the patterns that can be seen in various clinical conditions, the radiologist will find the bone scan a very specific tool for evaluating both benign and malignant diseases

  19. Spatial resolution requirements in digital skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital technology use requires definition of spatial resolution parameters necessary to maintain diagnostic quality. Skeletal radiography requirements differ from past applications focusing on chest imaging. In this study radiographs of 56 nondisplaced fractures and matched normal studies are digitized to varying spatial resolution, evaluated by 10 radiologists, and analyzed with receiver operating characteristic curves. Pixel size greater than 0.16 mm (2.88 1p/mm) results in significantly lower diagnostic accuracy than that of conventional radiographs. Spatial resolution requirements are more demanding in skeletal radiography than in many other digital applications. Implications concerning digital systems (including teleradiology) and methods of using available technology to satisfy image quality demands need to be determined

  20. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Kirsten F; McGee, Sean L

    2016-07-01

    Normal skeletal muscle metabolism is essential for whole body metabolic homoeostasis and disruptions in muscle metabolism are associated with a number of chronic diseases. Transcriptional control of metabolic enzyme expression is a major regulatory mechanism for muscle metabolic processes. Substantial evidence is emerging that highlights the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in this process. This review will examine the importance of epigenetics in the regulation of muscle metabolism, with a particular emphasis on DNA methylation and histone acetylation as epigenetic control points. The emerging cross-talk between metabolism and epigenetics in the context of health and disease will also be examined. The concept of inheritance of skeletal muscle metabolic phenotypes will be discussed, in addition to emerging epigenetic therapies that could be used to alter muscle metabolism in chronic disease states. PMID:27215678

  1. Tractography of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, C; Budzik, J F; Kermarrec, E; Balbi, V; Le Thuc, V; Cotten, A

    2010-12-01

    The assessment of human peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles by means of diffusion tensor imaging and tractograpy has been a recent area of research. These techniques have been successfully applied in both volunteers and patients, providing non-invasively, quantitative microstructural parameters (mainly mean fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient) and offering a three-dimensional visualization tool of nerves and muscles fibers. DTI and tractography may reveal abnormalities that are beyond the resolution of conventional MR techniques and hence open the way to potential clinical applications. In this article, we will first summarize the current state of DTI and tractography in the evaluation of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles as well as their potential future clinical applications. Then, we will address important technical considerations, which understanding is necessary to appropriately apply DTI and tractograhy, and in order to understand the current limitations of these innovative and promising techniques. PMID:20392583

  2. Tractography of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of human peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles by means of diffusion tensor imaging and tractograpy has been a recent area of research. These techniques have been successfully applied in both volunteers and patients, providing non-invasively, quantitative microstructural parameters (mainly mean fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient) and offering a three-dimensional visualization tool of nerves and muscles fibers. DTI and tractography may reveal abnormalities that are beyond the resolution of conventional MR techniques and hence open the way to potential clinical applications. In this article, we will first summarize the current state of DTI and tractography in the evaluation of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles as well as their potential future clinical applications. Then, we will address important technical considerations, which understanding is necessary to appropriately apply DTI and tractograhy, and in order to understand the current limitations of these innovative and promising techniques.

  3. Cytokine Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Liu, Bin; Liang, Chun; Li, Yangxin; Song, Yao-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in a variety of diseases including diabetes, cancer, Crohn's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disuse, and denervation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in mediating the wasting effect. To date, a causal relationship between TNF-α signaling and muscle wasting has been established in animal models. However, results from clinical trials are conflicting. This is partly due to the fact that other factors such as TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are also involved in skeletal muscle wasting. Because muscle wasting is often associated with physical inactivity and reduced food intake, therapeutic interventions will be most effective when multiple approaches are used in conjunction with nutritional support and exercise. PMID:27025788

  4. Child Schooling and Child Work in India

    OpenAIRE

    Malathy Duraisamy

    2000-01-01

    In India, about 62 percent of the children in the age group of 5-14 are currently enrolled in schools, and 4 percent of children are reported to be working. The remaining 34 percent of children in this age group are neither enrolled in school nor reported as participating in work. The twin problems of child schooling and child work in India have not been adequately addressed in the literature. Another important dimension to this problem is the gender disparity in school enrollment. Available ...

  5. Skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment on skeletal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone mediates growth and development of the skeleton through its direct effects and through its permissive effects on growth hormone. The effect of hypothyroidism on bone is well described in congenital hypothyroidism, but the impact of thyroid hormone deficiency on a growing skeleton, as it happens with juvenile hypothyroidism, is less defined. In addition, the extent to which the skeletal defects of juvenile hypothyroidism revert on the replacement of thyroid hormone is not known. A study was undertaken in 29 juvenile autoimmune hypothyroid patients to study the skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment of hypothyroidism on the skeletal system of juvenile patients. Hypothyroidism has a profound impact on the skeletal system and delayed bone age, dwarfism, and thickened bands at the metaphyseal ends being the most common findings. Post treatment, skeletal findings like delayed bone age and dwarfism improved significantly, but there were no significant changes in enlargement of sella, presence of wormian bones, epihyseal dysgenesis, vertebral changes and thickened band at the metaphyseal ends. With the treatment of hypothyroidism, there is an exuberant advancement of bone age, the catch up of bone age being approximately double of the chronological age advancement.

  6. Skeletal Muscle Autophagy: A New Metabolic Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Neel, Brian A.; Lin, Yuxi; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy classically functions as a physiological process to degrade cytoplasmic components, protein aggregates, and/or organelles, as a mechanism for nutrient breakdown, and as a regulator of cellular architecture. Proper autophagic flux is vital for both functional skeletal muscle, which controls support and movement of the skeleton, and muscle metabolism. The role of autophagy as a metabolic regulator in muscle has been previously studied; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms that...

  7. Treatment of Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Bossche, L. C.; Vanderstraeten, G; Almqvist, K.F.; Rimbaut, S.; Witvrouw, E.; Philips, N.; Van den Steen, E; Baoge, L

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are the most common sports-related injuries and present a challenge in primary care and sports medicine. Most types of muscle injuries would follow three stages: the acute inflammatory and degenerative phase, the repair phase and the remodeling phase. Present conservative treatment includes RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and physical therapy. However, if use improper, NSAIDs may suppress an essential inflammator...

  8. Pannexin 1 channels in skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, Luis A.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Vargas, Anibal A.; Urrutia, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Normal myotubes and adult innervated skeletal myofibers express the glycoprotein pannexin1 (Panx1). Six of them form a “gap junction hemichannel-like” structure that connects the cytoplasm with the extracellular space; here they will be called Panx1 channels. These are poorly selective channels permeable to ions, small metabolic substrate, and signaling molecules. So far little is known about the role of Panx1 channels in muscles but skeletal muscles of Panx1−/− mice do not show an evident phenotype. Innervated adult fast and slow skeletal myofibers show Panx1 reactivity in close proximity to dihydropyridine receptors in the sarcolemma of T-tubules. These Panx1 channels are activated by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. Panx1 channels play a relevant role in potentiation of muscle contraction because they allow release of ATP and uptake of glucose, two molecules required for this response. In support of this notion, the absence of Panx1 abrogates the potentiation of muscle contraction elicited by repetitive electrical stimulation, which is reversed by exogenously applied ATP. Phosphorylation of Panx1 Thr and Ser residues might be involved in Panx1 channel activation since it is enhanced during potentiation of muscle contraction. Under denervation, Panx1 levels are upregulated and this partially explains the reduction in electrochemical gradient, however its absence does not prevent denervation-induced atrophy but prevents the higher oxidative state. Panx1 also forms functional channels at the cell surface of myotubes and their functional state has been associated with intracellular Ca2+ signals and regulation of myotube plasticity evoked by electrical stimulation. We proposed that Panx1 channels participate as ATP channels and help to keep a normal oxidative state in skeletal muscles. PMID:24782784

  9. Impaired skeletal muscle microcirculation in systemic sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Partovi, Sasan; Schulte, Anja-Carina; Aschwanden, Markus; Staub, Daniel; Benz, Daniela; Imfeld, Stephan; Jacobi, Björn; Broz, Pavel; Jäger, Kurt A; Takes, Martin; Huegli, Rolf W; Bilecen, Deniz; Walker, Ulrich A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Muscle symptoms in systemic sclerosis (SSc) may originate from altered skeletal muscle microcirculation, which can be investigated by means of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods After ethics committee approval and written consent, 11 consecutive SSc patients (5 men, mean age 52.6 years, mean SSc disease duration 5.4 years) and 12 healthy volunteers (4 men, mean age 45.1 years) were included. Subjects with peripheral arterial occlusi...

  10. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Raghav; Naveen Kumar; Shishir Shingh; N K Ahuja; Priyanka Ghalaut

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis...

  11. Skeletal muscle HIF-1 and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Rundqvist, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Regular physical activity prevents and improves a number of disease conditions and reduces the risk for premature death substantially. From a clinical as well as a basic science point of view it is important to create a more fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the improved functional capacity induced by regular physical activity. Skeletal muscle tissue exhibits a remarkable ability to adapt to altered demands. Training adaptations include...

  12. Training induced adaptation in horse skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    van Dam, K.G.

    2006-01-01

    It appears that the physiological and biochemical adaptation of skeletal muscle to training in equine species shows a lot of similarities with human and rodent physiological adaptation. On the other hand it is becoming increasingly clear that intra-cellular mechanisms of adaptation (substrate transport, enzyme activity, etc) differ considerably between species. The major drawbacks in equine training physiological research are the lack of an appropriate training model and the lack of control o...

  13. Ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    von Walden, Ferdinand

    2014-01-01

    Muscle adaptation to chronic resistance exercise (RE) is the result of a cumulative effect on gene expression and protein content. Following a bout of RE, muscle protein synthesis increases and, if followed by consecutive bouts (training), protein accretion and muscle hypertrophy develops. The protein synthetic capacity of the muscle is dictated by ribosome content. Therefore, the general aim of this thesis is to investigate the regulation of ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertr...

  14. Collagen quantification across human skeletal muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Evie Ya Hui

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular connective tissue provides structural stability and facilitates force transmission in skeletal muscle. Additionally, it contains extracellular matrix that is crucial for muscle development and regeneration¹. Alterations of collagen content within intramuscular connective tissue have been associated with aging or diseased muscle ²,³. Data of baseline collagen content among different muscles, to provide deeper understanding of normal muscular functions, does not exist. Hence the a...

  15. Multiple myeloma: imaging evaluation of skeletal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Crichlow, Candice; Sexton, Carlton

    2013-01-01

    This patient is a 56-year-old woman with a history of IGG k multiple myeloma diagnosed 15 years prior to admission. She had widespread lytic bone lesions and pathological fractures, which remarkably had not been accompanied by significant pain, but were mostly refactory to chemotherapy.Keywords: multiple myeloma; skeletal; pathological fracture; imaging(Published: 5 July 2013)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2013, 3: 21419 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/jchi...

  16. Heat stress inhibits skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Frier, Bruce C.; Locke, Marius

    2007-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperones that aid in protein synthesis and trafficking and have been shown to protect cells/tissues from various protein damaging stressors. To determine the extent to which a single heat stress and the concurrent accumulation of Hsps influences the early events of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, Sprague-Dawley rats were heat stressed (42°C, 15 minutes) 24 hours prior to overloading 1 plantaris muscle by surgical removal of the gastrocnemius muscle. The...

  17. The battered child syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.)

  18. Regulation of skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.

  19. CT findings in skeletal cystic echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the CT findings of skeletal cystic echinococcosis. Material and Methods: CT findings of 7 patients with pathologically confirmed skeletal cystic echinococcosis were evaluated. Results: There were 4 men and 3 women, aged 36-75 years. Hydatid cysts were located in the spine (n=2), a rib (n=3), the pelvis and a vertebra (n=1), the pelvis and the left femur (n=1). The size of the lesions varied from 1 cm to 15 cm. CT showed well defined, single or multiple cystic lesions with no contrast enhancement, no calcification, no daughter cysts, and no germinal membrane detachment. The cystic lesion had a honeycomb appearance in 2 cases, there was pathologic fracture in 2 cases, bone expansion in 5 cases, cortical thinning in 6 cases, cortical destruction in 6 cases, bone sclerosis in 1 case, and soft tissue extension in 6 cases. Conclusion: Preoperative differential diagnosis of skeletal cystic lesions should include cystic echinococcosis, especially in endemic areas, since this diagnosis may easily be missed unless kept in mind

  20. Redox characterization of functioning skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZuo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle physiology is influenced by the presence of chemically reactive molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS. These molecules regulate multiple redox-sensitive signaling pathways that play a critical role in cellular processes including gene expression and protein modification. While ROS have gained much attention for their harmful effects in muscle fatigue and dysfunction, research has also shown ROS to facilitate muscle adaptation after stressors such as physical exercise. This manuscript aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of redox signaling in skeletal muscle. ROS-induced oxidative stress and its role in the aging process are discussed. Mitochondria have been shown to generate large amounts of ROS during muscular contractions, and thus are susceptible to oxidative stress. ROS can modify proteins located in the mitochondrial membrane leading to cell death and osmotic swelling. ROS also contribute to the necrosis and inflammation of muscle fibers that is associated with muscular diseases including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. It is imperative that future research continues to investigate the exact role of ROS in normal skeletal muscle function as well as muscular dysfunction and disease.

  1. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype.

  2. Craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome: Radiological observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience with craniocerebral trauma in 712 physically abused children is reviewed. Ninety-three (13%) had evidence of head trauma (cranial and/or intracranial). Seventy-seven of these patients had computed tomography (CT) of the head, and 47 had CT evidence of intracranial injury. Extracerebral fluid collections, predominantly convexity subdural hemorrhage, were the most common acute intracranial lesions. Concurrent intracranial and skeletal trauma (cranial and/or ectracranial) was present in 33 of the 47 patients (70%) with intracranial injury. A high incidence of skull fractures (45%) in those children with intracranial lesions suggest a significant role for impact head injuries (''battering'') in the pathogenesis of craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome. Greater emphasis on CT examination in evaluation of the abuse infant and child is recommended. (orig.)

  3. GENERAL ANAESTHESIA FOR A CHILD WITH CLEIDOCRANIAL DYSPLASIA: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a child with Cleidocranial Dysplasia (CD undergoing multiple teeth extraction. This is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterized by developmental abnormalities of bony structures such as supernumerary teeth, brachycephalic skull, short stature and hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles. These structural abnormalities may pose challenges to anaesthetic management. However, there are only limited literatures describing anaesthetic implications of CD patients. Characteristics of this genetic disorder and implications for the anaesthesiologist are discussed.

  4. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury; Kindesmisshandlung. Nicht akzidentelle Kopfverletzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg [Universitaetsklinik Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-12-15

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  5. Skeletal dysplasias: A radiographic approach and review of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananya; Panda; Shivanand; Gamanagatti; Manisha; Jana; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are not uncommon entities and a radiologist is likely to encounter a suspected case of dysplasia in his practice. The correct and early diagnosis of dysplasia is important for management of complications and for future genetic counselling. While there is an exhaustive classification system on dysplasias, it is important to be familiar with the radiological features of common dysplasias. In this article, we enumerate a radiographic approach to skeletal dysplasias, describe the essential as well as differentiating features of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias and conclude by presenting working algorithms to either definitively diagnose a particular dysplasia or suggest the most likely differential diagnoses to the referring clinician and thus direct further workup of the patient.

  6. Skeletal dysplasias: A radiographic approach and review of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Ananya; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Jana, Manisha; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2014-10-28

    Skeletal dysplasias are not uncommon entities and a radiologist is likely to encounter a suspected case of dysplasia in his practice. The correct and early diagnosis of dysplasia is important for management of complications and for future genetic counselling. While there is an exhaustive classification system on dysplasias, it is important to be familiar with the radiological features of common dysplasias. In this article, we enumerate a radiographic approach to skeletal dysplasias, describe the essential as well as differentiating features of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias and conclude by presenting working algorithms to either definitively diagnose a particular dysplasia or suggest the most likely differential diagnoses to the referring clinician and thus direct further workup of the patient. PMID:25349664

  7. Child labor, schooling, and child ability

    OpenAIRE

    Akresh, Richard; Bagby, Emilie; de Walque, Damien; Kazianga, Harounan

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected in rural Burkina Faso, this paper examines how children's cognitive abilities influence households' decisions to invest in their education. To address the endogeneity of child ability measures, the analysis uses rainfall shocks experienced in utero or early childhood to instrument for ability. Negative shocks in utero lead to 0.24 standard deviations lower ability z-sc...

  8. Regenerating skeletal muscle in the face of aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Ravi; LeBrasseur, Nathan K

    2014-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is a fundamental organ in the generation of force and movement, the regulation of whole-body metabolism, and the provision of resiliency. Indeed, physical medicine and rehabilitation is recognized for optimizing skeletal muscle health in the context of aging (sarcopenia) and disease (cachexia). Exercise is, and will remain, the cornerstone of therapies to improve skeletal muscle health. However, there are now a number of promising biologic and small molecule interventions currently under development to rejuvenate skeletal muscle, including myostatin inhibitors, selective androgen receptor modulators, and an activator of the fast skeletal muscle troponin complex. The opportunities for skeletal muscle-based regenerative therapies and a selection of emerging pharmacologic interventions are discussed in this review. PMID:24879554

  9. Child Abuse in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

  10. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  11. Percepção estética de fluorose dentária entre jovens universitários Aesthetic perceptions of dental fluorosis among young university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Helena Baldani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os níveis de aprovação da fluorose dentária entre adultos leigos e cirurgiões-dentistas, comparando os padrões de aceitação da aparência de dentes afetados por acadêmicos da área de Ciências Exatas, representando a população leiga, com os de formandos do curso de Odontologia, representando os profissionais. MÉTODO: Participaram 180 alunos dos cursos de Odontologia e da área das Ciências Exatas, os quais responderam a questionário acerca de fotografias de arcadas dentárias com fluorose nos níveis muito leve, leve e moderada de Dean, e moderada após aplicação da técnica de micro-abrasão do esmalte. Perguntou-se sobre aparência geral da boca; coloração, forma e posição dos dentes; aspecto da gengiva e possibilidade de sorrir sem constrangimento. A análise dos dados foi realizada utilizando-se o teste qui-quadrado e regressão logística com intervalos de confiança em nível de 95%. RESULTADOS: Houve maior percentual de aprovação quanto à aparência da boca e coloração dos dentes para o caso de fluorose muito leve. Para todos os casos os alunos dos cursos de Exatas mostraram-se mais exigentes do que os acadêmicos de Odontologia. Verificou-se associação significativa entre percepção de aparência da boca e coloração dos dentes. A análise multivariada revelou que, para o caso de fluorose muito leve, a coloração dos dentes foi incluída no modelo explicativo de percepção da aparência da boca apenas para o grupo dos formandos. CONCLUSÕES: Todos os níveis de fluorose foram percebidos pelos grupos estudados, porém os casos de fluorose muito leve parecem não comprometer a percepção positiva da aparência da boca para os grupos que representam indivíduos leigos.OBJECTIVE: To identify the levels of approval of dental fluorosis among lay adults and dentists, comparing the standards of acceptance of the appearance of affected teeth among groups of university students attending the

  12. Effect of dietary nutrition on dental fluorosis degrees in school children%膳食营养对小学生氟斑牙发病程度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪亮; 房军; 冯利红; 徐永俊; 丁雪尘; 郑和辉; 经正; 韩永成

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨氟中毒病区小学生的膳食营养状况对其氟斑牙发病程度的影响.方法 从饮水型氟中毒历史重病区某直辖市郊区镇(以下简称郊区镇)和某自治区某旗镇(以下简称某旗镇)整群随机抽样208名8~12岁小学生作为调查对象,用离子选择电极法测定尿氟,按Dean分类法检查氟斑牙病损程度,采用三日膳食调查法和双份饭菜法分析小学生营养素摄入状况.结果 某旗镇小学生尿氟为(6.80±3.90)mg/L,明显高于郊区镇小学生[(5.20±2.75)mg/L,t=3.21,P<0.01].郊区镇小学生氟斑牙指数为1.8,某旗镇小学生氟斑牙指数为1.9,二者比较差异有统计学意义(H=10.266,P<0.01).某旗镇小学生氟斑牙临床分度数加权值≥2的人数所占比例[63.3%(57/90)]高于郊区镇小学生[48.3%(57/118),χ2=4.633,P<0.05].三日膳食调查法发现,郊区镇小学生对蛋白质、钙、维生素C等12种营养素的摄入量明显高于某旗镇小学生,而膳食纤维、维生素E、镁等5种营养素的摄入量则低于某旗镇小学生(P均<0.01).双份饭菜法发现,某旗镇小学生镁、锂、铅的日摄入最高于郊区镇小学生,而镉的日摄入量则低于郊区镇小学生(P<0.01或<0.05).郊区镇小学生膳食中氟的日摄入量[(2.24±1.18)mg/d]高于某旗镇小学生[(1.78±0.06)mg/d,t=4.21,P<0.01].结论 良好的膳食营养可以减少氟斑牙的发生或减轻其病损程度,为今后控制和消除地方性氟中毒的危害提供科学依据.%Objective To investigate the effect of dietary nutrition on dental fluorosis degrees of school children in endemic fluorosis areas. Methods Two hundred and eight children aged 8 to 12 years were chosen using cluster random sampling method from a village of municipal suburban and a town of autonomous region, both with a history of serious endemic fluorosis. Morning urinary fluoride was measured by fluoride ion electrode. The Tooth Surface Index of Dean was applied to measure

  13. Changes in skeletal muscle gene expression following clenbuterol administration

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre Lauren M; McDaneld Tara G; Spurlock Diane M

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists (BA) induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, yet specific mechanisms that lead to this effect are not well understood. The objective of this research was to identify novel genes and physiological pathways that potentially facilitate BA induced skeletal muscle growth. The Affymetrix platform was utilized to identify gene expression changes in mouse skeletal muscle 24 hours and 10 days after administration of the BA clenbuterol. Results Administ...

  14. Calpain-10 and insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Luke

    2007-01-01

    Variation in the calpain-10 gene has been linked to a three-fold increased risk for type 2 diabetes in Pima Indian and some European populations. Furthermore, reduced skeletal muscle expression of calpain-10 is associated with reduced insulin mediated glucose disposal and carbohydrate oxidation. The skeletal muscle specific calpain-3 plays a key role in skeletal muscle integrity and has also been linked to insulin resistance in humans and rodents. The major aims of this thesis were to...

  15. Regulatory mechanisms of skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    downstream of changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and energy turnover. In particular, a signaling cascade involving Ca(2+)-calmodulin-eEF2 kinase-eEF2 is implicated. The possible functional significance of altered protein turnover in working skeletal muscle during exercise is discussed. Further work with...... available and new techniques will undoubtedly reveal the functional significance and signaling mechanisms behind changes in skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise. Key words: Exercise, skeletal muscle, protein metabolism, translation....

  16. Skeletal muscle regeneration - mechanisms, satellite cells, factors involved

    OpenAIRE

    Marš, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant of the human body's tissues and it represents a substantial percentage of body mass. Its main function is contraction, which produces force for different types of movement. It also includes the contraction of skelet al muscles that enables locomotion, joint stabilization, posture maintenance and production of body heat. Overall, skeletal muscles play an important role in the body's long-term survival and are crucial for fast and efficient response to chang...

  17. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Zant, Gary Van; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overl...

  18. ORTHOGNATIC SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SKELETAL CLASS III MALOCLUSION: CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNGÖR, AHMET YALÇIN; Turkkahraman, Hakan; Baykul, Timucin; Aydın, Asım

    2012-01-01

    In this case report a case is presented with skeletal class III malocclusion which were treated with proper planned orthognatic surgery and orthodontic treatment. Our patient was a girl with 16 years, 3 months of chronologic and Ru period of skeletal age. A concave soft tissue profile and Class III molar relation was detected in extraoral and intraoral examination. Cephalometric evaluation revealed a significant Class III skeletal discrepancy (ANBº= -6). Presurgical orthodontics involved deco...

  19. A metabolic link to skeletal muscle wasting and regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    René eKoopman; C. Hai eLy; Ryall, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to its essential role in movement, insulating the internal organs, generating heat to maintain core body temperature, and acting as a major energy storage depot, any impairment to skeletal muscle structure and function may lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality. In the context of skeletal muscle, altered metabolism is directly associated with numerous pathologies and disorders, including diabetes, and obesity, while many skeletal muscle pathologies have secondary changes in m...

  20. Skeletal muscle adaptation in response to exercise(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Li; Zhen Yan

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Skeletal muscles of adult mammalian species, including humans,are the source of power for locomotion and other daily activities essential for survival. Loss of skeletal musclecontractile function is a major cause of falling,morbidity and mortality,especially in elderly populations [1]. More importantly,skeletal muscles collectively influence total body metabolism of glucose, fat and protein, abnormalities of which are associated with a variety of common diseases[2-3].

  1. Working around the clock: circadian rhythms and skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, XIPING; Dube, Thomas J.; Esser, Karyn A.

    2009-01-01

    The study of the circadian molecular clock in skeletal muscle is in the very early stages. Initial research has demonstrated the presence of the molecular clock in skeletal muscle and that skeletal muscle of a clock-compromised mouse, Clock mutant, exhibits significant disruption in normal expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. In light of the growing association between the molecular clock, metabolism, and metabolic disease, it will also be important to ...

  2. Measurement of skeletal muscle collagen breakdown by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, B F; Ellis, D; Robinson, M M;

    2011-01-01

    Exercise increases the synthesis of collagen in the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle. Breakdown of skeletal muscle collagen has not yet been determined because of technical limitations. The purpose of the present study was to use local sampling to determine skeletal muscle collagen breakdown...... collagen breakdown 17–21 h post-exercise, and our measurement of OHP using GC–MS was in agreement with traditional assays....

  3. Na,K-ATPase regulation in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkmajer, Sergej; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle contains one of the largest and the most dynamic pools of Na,K-ATPase (NKA) in the body. Under resting conditions, NKA in skeletal muscle operates at only a fraction of maximal pumping capacity, but it can be markedly activated when demands for ion transport increase, such as during exercise or following food intake. Given the size, capacity, and dynamic range of the NKA pool in skeletal muscle, its tight regulation is essential to maintain whole body homeostasis as well as muscle function. To reconcile functional needs of systemic homeostasis with those of skeletal muscle, NKA is regulated in a coordinated manner by extrinsic stimuli, such as hormones and nerve-derived factors, as well as by local stimuli arising in skeletal muscle fibers, such as contractions and muscle energy status. These stimuli regulate NKA acutely by controlling its enzymatic activity and/or its distribution between the plasma membrane and the intracellular storage compartment. They also regulate NKA chronically by controlling NKA gene expression, thus determining total NKA content in skeletal muscle and its maximal pumping capacity. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms that underlie regulation of NKA in skeletal muscle by major extrinsic and local stimuli. Special emphasis is given to stimuli and mechanisms linking regulation of NKA and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, such as insulin and the energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase. Finally, the recently uncovered roles for glutathionylation, nitric oxide, and extracellular K(+) in the regulation of NKA in skeletal muscle are highlighted. PMID:27166285

  4. Cryopreservation of human skeletal muscle impairs mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Wright-Paradis, C; Gnaiger, E;

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated if cryopreservation is a viable approach for functional mitochondrial analysis. Different tissues have been studied, and conflicting results have been published. The aim of the present study was to investigate if mitochondria in human skeletal muscle maintain...... functionality after long term cryopreservation (1 year). Skeletal muscle samples were preserved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for later analysis. Human skeletal muscle fibres were thawed and permeabilised with saponin, and mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry. The capacity...... of oxidative phosphorylation was significantly (P skeletal muscle samples. Cryopreservation impaired respiration with substrates linked to Complex I more than for Complex II (P

  5. Intracellular compartmentalization of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats Gavalda, Clara; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The interest in skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signalling has increased exponentially in recent years as a consequence of their role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite this, the exact mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism...... compartmentalization in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling. As a result, a hypothetical regulatory mechanism is proposed by which cells could direct glycogen resynthesis towards different pools of glycogen particles depending on the metabolic needs. Furthermore, we discuss...... the role of skeletal muscle transverse tubules as potential modulators of tissue insulin responsiveness....

  6. Father-Child Play Behaviors and Child Emotion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the father-child activation theory, which identifies the father-child relationship as a source for self-regulation learning. Father-child play behaviors during toddlerhood were examined for their contribution to self-regulation skills, specifically emotion regulation and aggression. This study examined father-child play behaviors of emotion amplification, intrusiveness, positive regard, and child emotion regulation seeking in the National Early Head Start (EHS) Evaluation. Fat...

  7. Child income poverty and child deprivation: an essay on measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia Bastos; Graca Leao Fernandes,; Jose Passos

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study on child poverty from two perspectives: child income poverty (derived from family income) and child deprivation (evaluated by non-monetary indicators). On the one hand, empirical evidence supports the thesis that income-based poverty measures and deprivation measures do not overlap. On the other hand, the relationship between poverty and the child's living conditions is not linear. Uses micro-econometric techniques to analyse child income poverty and present deprivation ...

  8. National and sub-national drinking water fluoride concentrations and prevalence of fluorosis and of decayed, missed, and filled teeth in Iran from 1990 to 2015: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Nader; Amini, Heresh; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Taghipour, Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Fluoride intake, fluorosis, and dental caries could affect quality of life and disease burden worldwide. As a part of the National and Sub-national Burden of Disease Study (NASBOD) in Iran, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate province-year-specific mean drinking water fluoride concentrations and prevalence of fluorosis and of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) in Iran from 1990 to December 2015. We did electronic searches of all English and Persian publications on PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Iranian databases. Results revealed that the weighted mean drinking water fluoride concentration in Iran from 1990 to 2015 has been about 0.65 ± 0.38 mg/l. However, based on the WHO guideline value (1.50 mg/l) and the maximum permissible Iranian national fluoride standard (1.40 to 2.40 mg/l depending on the region's climate), there have been some regions in Iran with non-optimum fluoride concentrations in their drinking water (up to 7.0 mg/l). Overall, concentrations have been higher in southern parts of Iran and in some areas of Azerbaijan-e-Gharbi Province in the northwest and lower in the rest of the northwest and central parts of Iran. In addition, some hotspots have been found in Bushehr Province, southwest of Iran. The highest prevalence of dental flourosis has been reported in normal index while the lowest prevalence has been expressed in severe index. The lowest DMFT (about 0.1) was in Arsanjan City in Fars Province, and the highest (about 6.7) was for Najaf Abad City in Isfahan Province. Prevalence of fluorosis has been rather high in studied areas of Iran (e.g. 100 % in Maku City in Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi Province), and there was discrepancy for DMFT, but a lack of studies renders the results inconclusive. Further studies, health education and promotion plans, and evidence-based nutrition programs are recommended. PMID:26841772

  9. Beliefs and attitudes about endemic dental fluorosis among adolescents in rural Brazil Creencias y actitudes con relación a la fluorosis dentaria de jóvenes en región rural de Brasil Crenças e atitudes em relação à fluorose dentária de jovens em região rural do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Silva de Castilho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand beliefs and attitudes about fluorosis among young people living in a rural area. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES: Qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with 23 adolescents with dental fluorosis, 14 teachers and three health authorities in the city of São Francisco, Southeastern Brazil, in 2002. Content analysis and social representation theory were applied. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS: The organoleptic characteristics of carbonates that affect groundwater (salty flavor, whitish coloration, and turbidity associated with negative aspects of household use of this water are considered a cause of mottled enamel. Even after contact with researchers who investigated this phenomenon and helped find a solution for this condition, the local population is still unwilling to accept fluoride as the cause of the problem and does not fully agree to use water from other sources because they are afraid of the quality of water. CONCLUSIONS: Misperceptions of the causes of dental fluorosis and water treatment costs compromise the implementation of uncontaminated surface water supplies. Health education strategies are required in parallel with solutions for securing water supply in drought-ravaged areas.OBJETIVO: Comprender creencias y actitudes con relación a la fluorosis dentaria de jóvenes residentes en región rural de Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo en que fueron realizadas entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 23 adolescentes con fluorosis dentaria, 14 profesores y tres gestores públicos en el municipio de Sao Francisco, en Sureste de Brasil, en 2002. Fueron empleadas la técnica de análisis de contenido y la teoría de las representaciones sociales. RESULTADOS: Por las características organolépticas que imprime al agua (sabor salado, coloración blanquecina y turbidez y su asociación con aspectos negativos relacionados al uso doméstico, el carbonato es considerado la causa de la fluorosis por adolescentes y

  10. Your Child's Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and when to go to the doctor. "Barky" Cough Barky coughs are usually caused by a swelling ... happens when the child inhales (breathes in). Whooping Cough Whooping cough is another name for pertussis, an ...

  11. Concussion - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid activities that need concentration, such as reading, homework, and complex tasks. When you go home from the emergency room, it is okay for your child to sleep: For the first 12 hours, you may want ...

  12. Surviving Your Child's Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your child that will never be answered. Depression Lack of energy, sleep problems, inability to concentrate, ... a zip code. Search Connect with us on Facebook Find Support Video Online Support Community Connect, share ...

  13. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  14. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dentist or doctor suggests it. Provide healthy foods and limit sweet snacks and drinks Schedule regular dental check-ups Forming good habits at a young age can help your child have healthy teeth ...

  15. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron and ... enough iron in their daily diets. How Much Iron Do Kids Need? Kids require different amounts of ...

  16. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  17. Helping Your Overweight Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are high in calories, sugar, and salt like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy refined grains (white ... make smoothies. Buy fewer high-calorie foods like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy. Offer your child ...

  18. The Facially Disfigured Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Georgia A.

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews diagnosis and treatments for facially disfigured children including craniofacial reconstruction and microsurgical techniques. Noted are associated disease processes that affect the social and intellectual outcomes of the afflicted child. (Author/DB)

  19. Understanding Child Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Awareness Sustainability Policy Issues Understanding Child Traumatic Stress Page Contents: Responding to Danger When Danger Turns ... malevolence, and human accountability. Back to Top Posttraumatic Stress Responses For reasons that are basic to survival, ...

  20. Your Child's Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ll need an accurate height and weight measurement. Bathroom scales and tape measures aren't always precise. ... child's health, level of physical activity, and eating habits, as well as your family medical history. The ...

  1. Normal Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... is "normal" depends upon the child's level of development, which can vary greatly among children of the ...

  2. Child with NF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead some ado- lescents to feelings of depression, anxiety and social isolation. Counseling and assisting the child in finding a social network can help significantly. In addition to promoting local ...

  3. Child Marriage in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Saalfeldt, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Child marriage is a major health and security concern that still prevails in Bangladesh. The paper attempts to investigate and tries to understand the societal and cultural context of the problem. By applying Mary Douglas’ Socio-Cultural Viability theory and her parsimonious model onto the issue of child marriage in Bangladesh the four major opposing cultural camps are pointed out (Plan Bangladesh, Bangladesh government, the garment factory owners, and the individual Bangladeshi citizen). The...

  4. Microfinance and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Jonas; Breyer, Julika

    2011-01-01

    Aims to assess the role of microfinance as an instrument in combating child labour. Reviews the economic literature drawing on empirical evidence of the impact of microfinance on poverty, income stability, overall household wellbeing and the demand for child labour taking a comprehensive perspective on microfinance which includes loans for consumption, savings, insurance, financial services for improving the access to education, and awareness raising. Examines the direct experience of microfi...

  5. Child sex rings.

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, N J; Wynne, J M

    1986-01-01

    Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a "family friend" or obtained a position of authority over children. Secrecy was encouraged and bribery, threats, and peer pressure used to induce participatio...

  6. ''Battered child'' syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synonyms for the 'battered child' syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as 'child abuse', or 'non-accidental injury'. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ)

  7. Music in child care

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2007-01-01

    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  8. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  9. Insulin binding to individual rat skeletal muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of insulin binding to skeletal muscle, performed using sarcolemmal membrane preparations or whole muscle incubations of mixed muscle or typical red (soleus, psoas) or white [extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius] muscle, have suggested that red muscle binds more insulin than white muscle. We have evaluated this hypothesis using cryostat sections of unfixed tissue to measure insulin binding in a broad range of skeletal muscles; many were of similar fiber-type profiles. Insulin binding per square millimeter of skeletal muscle slice was measured by autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometry. We found a 4.5-fold range in specific insulin tracer binding, with heart and predominantly slow-twitch oxidative muscles (SO) at the high end and the predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) muscles at the low end of the range. This pattern reflects insulin sensitivity. Evaluation of displacement curves for insulin binding yielded linear Scatchard plots. The dissociation constants varied over a ninefold range (0.26-2.06 nM). Binding capacity varied from 12.2 to 82.7 fmol/mm2. Neither binding parameter was correlated with fiber type or insulin sensitivity; e.g., among three muscles of similar fiber-type profile, the EDL had high numbers of low-affinity binding sites, whereas the quadriceps had low numbers of high-affinity sites. In summary, considerable heterogeneity in insulin binding was found among hindlimb muscles of the rat, which can be attributed to heterogeneity in binding affinities and the numbers of binding sites. It can be concluded that a given fiber type is not uniquely associated with a set of insulin binding parameters that result in high or low binding

  10. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  11. Contemporary approaches for imaging skeletal metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Ulmert; Lilja Solnes; Daniel LJ Thorek

    2015-01-01

    The skeleton is a common site of cancer metastasis. Notably high incidences of bone lesions are found for breast, prostate, and renal carcinoma. Malignant bone tumors result in significant patient morbidity. Identification of these lesions is a critical step to accurately stratify patients, guide treatment course, monitor disease progression, and evaluate response to therapy. Diagnosis of cancer in the skeleton typically relies on indirect bone-targeted radiotracer uptake at sites of active bone remodeling. In this manuscript, we discuss established and emerging tools and techniques for detection of bone lesions, quantification of skeletal tumor burden, and current clinical challenges.

  12. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B;

    2013-01-01

    four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P = 0.003). The addition of...... exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within the...

  13. Converting skeletal structures to quad dominant meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Welnicka, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    We propose the Skeleton to Quad-dominant polygonal Mesh algorithm (SQM), which converts skeletal structures to meshes composed entirely of polar and annular regions. Both types of regions have a regular structure where all faces are quads except for a single ring of triangles at the center of each...... polar region. The algorithm produces high quality meshes which contain irregular vertices only at the poles or where several regions join. It is trivial to produce a stripe parametrization for the output meshes which also lend themselves well to polar subdivision. After an initial description of SQM, we...

  14. International Skeletal Society outreach 2013: Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, James; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Monu, Johnny

    2014-05-01

    It has been almost 20 years since the horrific events of the Rwandan genocide. Since that time, the country has made a remarkable recovery owing to good government and a great deal of aid. Health-care services are well organized, but remain short of resources and expertise. Musculoskeletal imaging (and treatment) is in its infancy. Given the huge strides that have been made in social order and stability, there is great hope for the future. It is proposed that future International Skeletal Society (ISS) outreach programs plan to make a meaningful commitment to developing expertise in specific hospitals. PMID:24496585

  15. Cryopreservation of human skeletal muscle impairs mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S; Wright-Paradis, C; Gnaiger, E;

    2012-01-01

    functionality after long term cryopreservation (1 year). Skeletal muscle samples were preserved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for later analysis. Human skeletal muscle fibres were thawed and permeabilised with saponin, and mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry. The capacity of...

  16. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  17. Radiological contribution to skeletal changes in systemic mastocytosis - urticaria pigmentosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three patients are demonstrated suffering from systemic mastocytosis with skin and skeletal involvement. History, clinical and radiological results are reported. After a brief analysis of the pathogenetic mechanism, the radiological findings on the skeletal system in systemic mastocytosis are discussed. Finally, roentgenological differential diagnosis of the osseous lesions is explained. (orig.)

  18. Radiological contribution to skeletal changes in systemic mastocytosis - urticaria pigmentosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schratter, M.; Canigiani, G.; Schoenbauer, C.; Mach, K.

    1983-11-01

    Three patients are demonstrated suffering from systemic mastocytosis with skin and skeletal involvement. History, clinical and radiological results are reported. After a brief analysis of the pathogenetic mechanism, the radiological findings on the skeletal system in systemic mastocytosis are discussed. Finally, roentgenological differential diagnosis of the osseous lesions is explained.

  19. Chance findings in skeletal radiology; Zufallsbefunde in der Skelettradiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, Juergen [Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    The book on chance findings in skeletal radiology covers the following issues: Part (I): Introduction - what are chance findings? Part (II); change findings under different radiological modalities: most frequent skeletal radiological change findings: scintiscanning, radiography and CT, MRT, PET and PET/CT. Part (III): case studies: skull; spinal cord; shoulder/pectoral girdle, chest; pelvis and hip joints; upper extremities; lower extremities.

  20. Insulin resistance and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2013-01-01

    are used in the attempt to resolve the mechanisms of insulin resistance. In this context, a dysfunction of mitochondria in the skeletal muscle has been suggested to play a pivotal role. It has been postulated that a decrease in the content of mitochondria in the skeletal muscle can explain the insulin...

  1. Current opportunities and challenges in skeletal muscle tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Merel; Harmsen, Martin C; van Luyn, Marja J A; Werker, Paul M N

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) of skeletal muscle and the opportunities and challenges for future clinical applicability. The endogenous progenitor cells of skeletal muscle, i.e. satellite cells, show a high pronenes

  2. Influence of age on leptin induced skeletal muscle signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe Grau, Amelia; Larsen, Steen; Guerra, Borja;

    2014-01-01

    Age associated fat mass accumulation could be due to dysregulation of leptin signaling in skeletal muscle. Thus, we investigated total protein expression and phosphorylation levels of the long isoform of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), and leptin signaling through Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal...... skeletal muscle of different age....

  3. Lymphosarcoma with disseminated skeletal involvement in a pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphoblastic lymphosarcoma with disseminated skeletal involvement was diagnosed in a 15-week-old Golden Retriever. The skeletal disease was characterized by diffuse, irregular areas of radiolucency most evident in the diaphyseal portion of long bones and was associated with gait abnormalities and signs of pain. Necropsy also revealed involvement of the spleen, liver, kidneys, and mesenteric lymph nodes

  4. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  5. The physiological roles of Sirt1 in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, Patricia S.; Boriek, Aladin M.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle aging is associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress, a decrease in the ability to rebuild muscle after injury and in response to exercise. In this perspective, we discuss the mechanisms regulating Sirt1 activity and expression in skeletal muscles, emphasizing their implications in muscle physiology and the impairment of muscle function with age.

  6. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  7. Myonase is localized in skeletal muscle myofibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Shinichiro; Yamada, Makoto; Ohtani, Sachiko; Hori, Chiyo; Yokomizo, Tadahiro; Webb, Timothy; Shimokawa, Teruhiko

    2002-09-01

    A novel chymotrypsin-like proteinase termed myonase was previously purified from MDX-mouse skeletal muscle [Hori et al. (1998) J. Biochem. 123, 650-658]. Western blots and immunohistochemical analyses showed that myonase was present within myocytes of both MDX-mouse and control mouse, and subcellular fractionation showed that it was associated with myofibrils. No significant difference was observed on Western blots between the amounts of myonase in myofibrils of MDX-mouse and control mouse, but the amount of myonase recoverable as a pure protein was 5-10-fold more when MDX-mouse was the source of the skeletal muscle. Myofibrils also possessed an endogenous inhibitor of myonase, whose inhibitory activity at physiological pH (pH 7.4) depended on salt concentration, stronger inhibition being observed at a low salt concentration. Inhibition at alkaline pH (pH 9) was weak and independent of salt concentration. Myonase in myofibrils was partially released at neutral pH by a high salt concentration (>0.6 M NaCl). However, even at 4 M NaCl, more than 80% of myonase remained within the myofibrils. Under alkaline conditions, release of myonase from myofibril was more extensive. At pH 12, myonase was almost completely present in the soluble fraction. Release of myonase under these conditions coincided with the solubilization of other myofibrillar proteins. PMID:12204111

  8. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology SB-05, Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Lough, L.R. [Pitts Radiological Associates, Columbia, SC (United States); Shuman, W.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Lazerte, G.D. [Dept. of Pathology RC-72, Washington Univ., Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Conrad, E.U. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery RK-10, Washington Univ., Medical Center of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  9. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  10. Shark skeletal muscle tropomyosin is a phosphoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Michael; Chevaldina, Tatiana; Mudalige, Wasana A K A; Jackman, Donna M; Dobbin, Alvin D; Heeley, David H

    2008-01-01

    Shark skeletal muscle tropomyosin is classified as an alpha-type isoform. The chemical structure is characterised by the absence of cysteine and the presence of a sub-stoichiometric amount of covalently bound phosphate. The protein migrates as a single component on a SDS polyacrylamide gel but is resolved into two components by chromatography and electrophoresis both in the presence of urea at mild alkaline pH. The only detectable difference between these components is the presence of phosphoserine in the tropomyosin form of greater net negative charge. Low ionic strength (pH 7) solutions of phosphorylated shark tropomyosin display significantly higher specific viscosity than unphosphorylated, consistent with the presence of a phosphorylation site within the overlap region, serine 283, as well as conservation of the positively charged amino terminal region. Similar observations were made with tropomyosin prepared from the trunk muscle of Atlantic cod. In a steady-state MgATPase assay, thin filaments (Ca2+) reconstituted with shark phosphorylated tropomyosin activate myosin to a greater extent than those composed of unphosphorylated. The difference is attributable chiefly to a change in Vmax. Skeletal muscle tropomyosin is concluded to be phosphorylated in cartilaginous fishes as well as some teleosts. PMID:18763042

  11. Control of cell volume in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher-Smith, Juliet A; Huang, Christopher L-H; Fraser, James A

    2009-02-01

    Regulation of cell volume is a fundamental property of all animal cells and is of particular importance in skeletal muscle where exercise is associated with a wide range of cellular changes that would be expected to influence cell volume. These complex electrical, metabolic and osmotic changes, however, make rigorous study of the consequences of individual factors on muscle volume difficult despite their likely importance during exercise. Recent charge-difference modelling of cell volume distinguishes three major aspects to processes underlying cell volume control: (i) determination by intracellular impermeant solute; (ii) maintenance by metabolically dependent processes directly balancing passive solute and water fluxes that would otherwise cause cell swelling under the influence of intracellular membrane-impermeant solutes; and (iii) volume regulation often involving reversible short-term transmembrane solute transport processes correcting cell volumes towards their normal baselines in response to imposed discrete perturbations. This review covers, in turn, the main predictions from such quantitative analysis and the experimental consequences of comparable alterations in extracellular pH, lactate concentration, membrane potential and extracellular tonicity. The effects of such alterations in the extracellular environment in resting amphibian muscles are then used to reproduce the intracellular changes that occur in each case in exercising muscle. The relative contributions of these various factors to the control of cell volume in resting and exercising skeletal muscle are thus described. PMID:19133959

  12. Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. PMID:26677010

  13. Magnetic resonance findings in skeletal muscle tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of skeletal muscle tears can clearly delineate the severity of muscle injury. Although MR imaging is seldom necessary in patients with acute musle trauma, it can be helpful in deciding on clinical management. The two major MR findings in acute muscle tears are deformity of the muscle and the presence of abnormal signal reflecting hemorrhage and edema. In acute tears, methemoglobin within the extravascular blood causes high-signal areas on both T1- and T2-weighted images. With partial tears, the blood may dissect in a distinctive linear pattern along the muscle bundles and fibers. As healing begins, the muscle signal diminishes, first on the T1-weighted images and then on the T2-weighted images. When there is residual abnormal signal on images obtained more than several months after the injury, it is presumed to represent hemorrhage from recurrent tears. In patients with a questionable history of a remote injury, the clinical presentation may be that of persistent pain or a soft tissue mass. In these cases MR imaging may identify the cause of the pain and can exclude a neoplasm by proving that the mass is a hypertrophied or retracted musle. Thus, MR imaging has a limited, but occasionally important role in selected patients with skeletal muscle tears. (orig.)

  14. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria and Aging: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. Declines in skeletal muscle mitochondria are thought to play a primary role in this process. Mitochondria are the major producers of reactive oxygen species, which damage DNA, proteins, and lipids if not rapidly quenched. Animal and human studies typically show that skeletal muscle mitochondria are altered with aging, including increased mutations in mitochondrial DNA, decreased activity of some mitochondrial enzymes, altered respiration with reduced maximal capacity at least in sedentary individuals, and reduced total mitochondrial content with increased morphological changes. However, there has been much controversy over measurements of mitochondrial energy production, which may largely be explained by differences in approach and by whether physical activity is controlled for. These changes may in turn alter mitochondrial dynamics, such as fusion and fission rates, and mitochondrially induced apoptosis, which may also lead to net muscle fiber loss and age-related sarcopenia. Fortunately, strategies such as exercise and caloric restriction that reduce oxidative damage also improve mitochondrial function. While these strategies may not completely prevent the primary effects of aging, they may help to attenuate the rate of decline.

  15. Fluoride analysis of drinking water in endemic fluorosis areas in Shandong province from 2005 to 2007%2005-2007年山东省地方性氟中毒病区水氟测定结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 马爱华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of water-borne fluoride and the current status of water defluoridation project by improving drinking water quality in endemic fluorosis areas in Shandong province,and to provide scientific basis for making strategies in prevention and control of the disease. Methods According to "the National Technical Scheme for Endemic Disease Control in 2004, 2005 and 2006", 113 endemic fluorosis diseased counties(cities, and districts) of the province's 17 cities were screened in order to investigate the fluoride level in drinking water in fluorosis villages, recheck the fluoride level after implementing the water defluoridation project, and investigate the current status of the water defluoridation project. The fluoride level in drinking water was determined by F-ion selective electrode. Results There were a total of 5816 water defluoridation projects in the province. Most of them were carried out by drilling a deep well to get under-ground water. The wells still in good condition were accounted for 72.80% (4234/5816). Intermittent operated wells were accounted for 3.11% (181/5816). Abandoned wells were accounted for 24.09%(1401/5816). Level of water fluoride was determined in 6940samples from fluorosis villages(villages that not carry out the water defluoridation project as well as villages carried out the water defluoridation project with abandoned wells were included) and the value that lower or equal to 1.00mg/L was determined in 2987 villages which accounted for 43.04% (2987/6940). Level of water fluoride that over 1.00 mg/L was found in 3953 villages which accounted for 56.96% (3593/6940), and the highest level of water fluoride was 11.33 mg/L. Level of water fluoride were determined in 4415 samples from water defluoridation project and the value lower or equal to 1.00 mg/L was in 2983 wells which accounted for 65.53%(2983/4415). The value over 1.00 mg/L was in 1522 wells which accounted for 34.47%(1522/4415), the highest value

  16. Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel and skeletal muscle myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei; Zhang Li; Sun Liang; Wang Chengyue [Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Fan Ming; Liu Shuhong, E-mail: Weiwang_Ly@yahoo.com.c [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Science, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2009-04-15

    Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel (HAH) and skeletal muscle myoblasts has been investigated for the first time in the present paper. Skeletal muscle myoblasts were separated from skeletons of rats and incubated with a HAH-containing culture medium. Cell morphology, hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of the HAH scaffold were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Hoechest33258 fluorescent staining, the immunocytochemistry method and water adsorption rate measurement. It was found that at a proper concentration (around 0.5%) of hyaluronic acid, the hydrogel possessed good compatibility with skeletal muscle myoblasts. The hydrogel can create a three-dimensional structure for the growth of skeletal muscle myoblasts and benefit cell attachment to provide a novel scaffold material for the tissue engineering of skeletal muscle.

  17. Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel and skeletal muscle myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel (HAH) and skeletal muscle myoblasts has been investigated for the first time in the present paper. Skeletal muscle myoblasts were separated from skeletons of rats and incubated with a HAH-containing culture medium. Cell morphology, hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of the HAH scaffold were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Hoechest33258 fluorescent staining, the immunocytochemistry method and water adsorption rate measurement. It was found that at a proper concentration (around 0.5%) of hyaluronic acid, the hydrogel possessed good compatibility with skeletal muscle myoblasts. The hydrogel can create a three-dimensional structure for the growth of skeletal muscle myoblasts and benefit cell attachment to provide a novel scaffold material for the tissue engineering of skeletal muscle.

  18. FOXO1 delays skeletal muscle regeneration and suppresses myoblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Atsushi; Hatazawa, Yukino; Hirose, Yuma; Ono, Yusuke; Kamei, Yasutomi

    2016-08-01

    Unloading stress, such as bed rest, inhibits the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. FOXO1 expression, which induces the upregulated expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p57 and Gadd45α, is known to be increased in the skeletal muscle under unloading conditions. However, there is no report addressing FOXO1-induced inhibition of myoblast proliferation. Therefore, we induced muscle injury by cardiotoxin in transgenic mice overexpressing FOXO1 in the skeletal muscle (FOXO1-Tg mice) and observed regeneration delay in skeletal muscle mass and cross-sectional area in FOXO1-Tg mice. Increased p57 and Gadd45α mRNA levels, and decreased proliferation capacity were observed in C2C12 myoblasts expressing a tamoxifen-inducible active form of FOXO1. These results suggest that decreased proliferation capacity of myoblasts by FOXO1 disrupts skeletal muscle regeneration under FOXO1-increased conditions, such as unloading. PMID:27010781

  19. Dynamics of the skeletal muscle secretome during myoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jeanette; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Blagoev, Blagoy;

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, increased efforts have focused on elucidating the secretory function of skeletal muscle. Through secreted molecules, skeletal muscle affects local muscle biology in an auto/paracrine manner as well as having systemic effects on other tissues. Here we used a quantitative...... proteomics platform to investigate the factors secreted during the differentiation of murine C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Using triple encoding stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, we compared the secretomes at three different time points of muscle differentiation and followed the dynamics...... of the skeletal muscle as a prominent secretory organ. In addition to previously reported molecules, we identified many secreted proteins that have not previously been shown to be released from skeletal muscle cells nor shown to be differentially released during the process of myogenesis. We found 188...

  20. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Skovbro, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    Objective Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance, which has been linked to decreased mitochondrial function. We measured mitochondrial respiration in lean and obese women with and without PCOS using high-resolution respirometry. Methods Hyperinsul......Objective Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance, which has been linked to decreased mitochondrial function. We measured mitochondrial respiration in lean and obese women with and without PCOS using high-resolution respirometry. Methods...... mitochondrial function and indices of insulin sensitivity. Conclusions In contrast to previous reports we found no evidence that skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration is reduced in skeletal muscle of women with PCOS compared to control subjects. Furthermore, mitochondrial content did not differ between our...... control and PCOS groups. These results question the causal relationship between reduced mitochondrial function and skeletal muscle insulin resistance in PCOS....

  1. THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Goel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environments especially for children. Children are exposed to dangerous machinery causing fatal and non-fatal injuries, while operating or working near them. Children are exposed to strenuous labour, which can affect the musculo-skeletal development of the children. In industries, child workers are exposed to various physical, mental, social occupational hazards resulting in lower growth and poor health status. Working long hours, child labourers are often denied a basic school education, normal social interaction, personal development and emotional support from their family. The Child Labour Act was implemented in India in 1986 that outlaws child labour in certain areas and sets the minimum age of employment at fourteen. Eradicating poverty is only the first step on the road for eliminating child labour. There is an urgent need for intensive focus and research along with political and practical decisions to improve the conditions of working children for the betterment of their health and development. Proper education of the children and banning child labor will help in boosting the success of the country.

  2. 不同浓度氟化物对氟斑牙牙釉质的影响%Effects of different concentrations of fluoride on tooth enamel fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶波; 宁颖圆

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨不同浓度氟化物对氟斑牙牙釉质的硬度值及表面微观结构的影响。方法2012年6月~2014年6月期间收集氟斑恒牙60颗,按照随机数字表法分为对照组、低氟组及高氟组。对照组置于蒸馏水中,低氟组置于低浓度氟化液中,高氟组置于高浓度氟化液中。用显微硬度计和扫描电镜分别测定3组浸泡前后的釉质表面硬度值和釉质表面微观及形态的变化。结果浸泡后,低氟组牙釉质显微硬度最高,高于对照组和高氟组(P<0.01),而对照组牙釉质显微硬度高于高氟组(P<0.01)。对照组浸泡后牙釉质显微硬度和浸泡前比较无明显变化(P>0.05),低氟组浸泡后牙釉质显微硬度明显较浸泡前提高(P<0.01),高氟组浸泡后牙釉质显微硬度明显较浸泡前降低(P<0.01)。扫描电镜照片显示,对照组样本与高氟组样本釉质表面未见反应物沉积,低氟组样本釉质表面可见反应物沉积。结论低浓度氟化物制剂可防止牙釉质脱矿、促进牙釉质再矿化、提升氟斑牙患者牙釉质硬度,进而保持患者牙齿健康。%ObjectiveTo study the effect of different concentrations of fluoride on dental enamel hardness values and surface microstructure. Methods 60 fluorosis teeth were collected between June 2012 to June 2014, andaccording to the random number table method they were divided into the control group, low fluoride group and high fluoride group. The control group were placed in distilled water, low fluoride group were placed in the low concentration fluoride solution, high fluoride group were placed in the high concentration fluoride solution. Microhardness and scan electron micrography were used respectively to determinate the changes in enamel surface hardness and enamel surface micro morphology of three groups before and after immersion.Results After soaking, the enamel microhardness of low fluoride group was

  3. Child life services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Child life programs are an important component of pediatric hospital-based care to address the psychosocial concerns that accompany hospitalization and other health care experiences. Child life specialists focus on the optimal development and well-being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults while promoting coping skills and minimizing the adverse effects of hospitalization, health care, and/or other potentially stressful experiences. Using therapeutic play, expressive modalities, and psychological preparation as primary tools, in collaboration with the entire health care team and family, child life interventions facilitate coping and adjustment at times and under circumstances that might otherwise prove overwhelming for the child. Play and developmentally appropriate communication are used to: (1) promote optimal development; (2) educate children and families about health conditions; (3) prepare children and families for medical events or procedures; (4) plan and rehearse useful coping and pain management strategies; (5) help children work through feelings about past or impending experiences; and (6) establish therapeutic relationships with patients, siblings, and parents to support family involvement in each child's care. PMID:24777212

  4. Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging: prospective tools for monitoring skeletal cells and skeletal regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Catarina Costa; Tare, Rahul S.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    The use of skeletal stem cells (SSCs) for cell-based therapies is currently one of the most promising areas for skeletal disease treatment and skeletal tissue repair. The ability for controlled modification of SSCs could provide significant therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine, with the prospect to permanently repopulate a host with stem cells and their progeny. Currently, SSC differentiation into the stromal lineages of bone, fat and cartilage is assessed using different approaches that typically require cell fixation or lysis, which are invasive or even destructive. Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy present an exciting alternative for studying biological systems in their natural state, without any perturbation. Here we review the applications of Raman spectroscopy and CARS imaging in stem-cell research, and discuss the potential of these two techniques for evaluating SSCs, skeletal tissues and skeletal regeneration as an exemplar. PMID:27170652

  5. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Itismita; Edvardsson, Martin; Abello, Annie; Eldridge, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia’s only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health service...

  6. [Managing an autistic child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2010-03-20

    General practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect atypical developmental trajectories in children, They have to inform parents and to guide them toward specialized centers where further multidisciplinary evaluation will be conducted. It is admitted that early intervention is a factor of better prognosis in autism. To help starting early intervention, general practitioners may first indicate sensorymotor or language and communication evaluations. A specific project will then be defined for each child according to the results of the multidisciplinary evaluation. Each individualized project will be based on different behavioral and developpemental interventions, speech therapy, sensorymotor therapy, and psychotherapy. General practitioners and pediatricians will keep up following the child evolution as part of the child care team with parents and specialized centers. PMID:20402134

  7. Osmoregulatory processes and skeletal muscle metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschmann, Michael; Gottschalk, Simone; Adams, Frauke; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    Prolonged microgravity during space flight is associated with a decrease in blood and extracellular volume. These changes in water and electrolyte balance might activate catabolic processes which contribute finally to the loss of muscle and bone mass and strength. Recently, we found a prompt increase that energy expenditure by about 30% in both normal and overweight men and women after drinking 500 ml water. This effect is mediated by an increased sympathetic nervous system activity, obviously secondary to stimulation of osmosensitive afferent neurons in the liver, and skeletal muscle is possibly one effector organ. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this thermogenic response to water is accompanied by a stimulation of aerobic glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. To this end, 16 young healthy volunteers (8 men) were studied. After an overnight fast (12h), a microdialysis probe was implanted into the right M. quadriceps femoris vastus lateralis and subsequently perfused with Ringer's solution (+50 mM ethanol). After 1h, volunteers were asked to drink 500 ml water (22° C) followed by continuing microdialysis for another 90 min. Dialysates (15 min fractions) were analyzed for [ethanol], [glucose], [lactate], [pyruvate], and [glycerol] in order to assess changes in muscle tissue perfusion (ethanol dilution technique), glycolysis and lipolysis. Blood samples were taken and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored. Neither HR and systolic and diastolic BP, nor plasma [glucose], [lactate], [insulin], and [C peptide] changed significantly after water drinking. Also, tissue perfusion and dialysate [glucose] did not change significantly. However, dialysate [lactate] increased by about 10 and 20% and dialysate [pyruvate] by about 100 and 200% in men and women, respectively. In contrast, dialysate [glycerol] decreased by about 30 and 20% in men and women, respectively. Therefore, drinking of 500 ml water stimulates aerobic glucose metabolism and inhibits

  8. Death of a Special Needs Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of a Special Needs Child When a child ... Needs Child Dies The grief that follows the death of a special-needs child comes not only ...

  9. Marital Problems and the Exceptional Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoz, Daniel

    1977-01-01

    The exceptional child, because he/she does not fulfill the parental expectations of a child's behavior, becomes a disturbing child and frequently is labeled as disturbed. The case of one such child is presented and conclusions are drawn. (Author)

  10. Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my child is having? General anesthesia Spinal or epidural anesthesia Conscious sedation When does my child need to ... upset stomach? If my child had spinal or epidural anesthesia, will my child have a headache afterwards? What ...

  11. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  12. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  13. Reporting Child Abuse: Rights and Responsibilities for Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Law Center, San Francisco, CA.

    This booklet provides answers to 12 questions about the rights and responsibilities of child care providers in California concerning the issue of child abuse. The questions are (1) Who is a "Child Care Custodian?" (2) How do I decide whether or not to report? (3) How do I recognize 'abuse' and 'neglect'? (4) How and when should I tell the parent…

  14. The Role of Child Care Providers in Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Nancy L.; Gillespie, Linda G.; Temple, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    Child care providers are likely to be the professionals who most frequently interact with families with young children. Thus, infant and toddler child care providers are uniquely positioned to recognize and respond to families' needs for information and support. This article describes knowledge, skills, and strategies that support child care…

  15. Kindergarten Child Care Experiences and Child Achievement and Socioemotional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…

  16. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  17. Is child work necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalotra, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the income from child wage work is necessary to the survival of rural households in Pakistan. It is by no means obvious that it is. For instance, children may work because the returns to work exceed the returns to school, or because parents are selfish or short-sighted. It is argued here that, if child work is necessary, then the income effect of a wage change will dominate the substitution effect and the labour supply curve will be "forward falling" or negativ...

  18. The visually impaired child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa; Kaufman, Lawrence M

    2003-02-01

    This article discusses the causes of childhood blindness and how the primary care provider may begin the appropriate steps toward diagnosing and managing the visually impaired child. Community resources (see Box 3) and low-vision programs in schools should be used so that parents do not need to reinvent strategies to raise a blind child. Worldwide, childhood blindness, which places is a tremendous burden on families and communities of the third world, is mostly preventable with improved hygiene, diet, and immunization. PMID:12713115

  19. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  20. When Your Child Has Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You When Your Child Has Tinnitus When Your Child Has Tinnitus Patient Health Information News media interested in ... be continuous or sporadic. This often debilitating condition has been linked to ear injuries, circulatory system problems, ...