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Sample records for child skeletal fluorosis

  1. Child Skeletal Fluorosis from Indoor Burning of Coal in Southwestern China

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    Xianghui Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We assess the prevalence and pathogenic stage of skeletal fluorosis among children and adolescents residing in a severe coal-burning endemic fluorosis area of southwest China. Methods. We used a cross-sectional design. A total of 1,616 students aged between 7 and 16 years in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China in late 2004 were selected via a cluster sampling of all 9-year compulsory education schools to complete the study questionnaire. Any student lived in a household that burned coal, used an open-burning stove, or baked foodstuffs over a coal stove was deemed high-risk for skeletal fluorosis. About 23% (370 of students (188 boys, 182 girls were identified as high-risk and further examined by X-ray. Results. One-third of the 370 high-risk participants were diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis. Overall prevalence of child skeletal fluorosis due to indoor burning of coal was 7.5%. Children aged 12–16 years were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis than children aged 7–11 years (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.90; = .0082. Four types of skeletal fluorosis were identified: constrictive (60.7%, raritas (15.6%, mixed (16.4%, and soft (7.4%. Most diagnosed cases (91% were mild or moderate in severity. In addition, about 97% of 370 high-risk children were identified with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis was highly correlated with skeletal fluorosis in this study. Conclusions. Skeletal fluorosis among children may contribute to poor health and reduced productivity when they reach adulthood. Further efforts to reduce fluoride exposure among children in southwestern of China where coal is burned indoors are desperately needed.

  2. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

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    Reddy D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  3. Skeletal fluorosis from indoor burning of coal in southwestern China

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    Watanabe, T.; Kondo, T.; Asanuma, S.; Ando, M.; Tamura, K.; Sakuragi, S.; Ji, R.D.; Liang, C.K. [Saku Central Hospital, Nagano (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The effects of airborne fluoride from unvented indoor burning of fluoride-rich coal on the bones and teeth of residents of two rural villages in SW China were investigated and compared. In the highly polluted village of Xaochang in Sichuan Province, stage HI skeletal fluorosis was found in 43 (84%) of 51 examinees. In the moderately polluted village of Minzhu in Guizhu Province, this stage was seen in 25 (51%) of 49 examinees. In the nonpolluted control village of Shucai in Jiangxi Province in SE China, none of 47 examinees showed any evidence of skeletal fluorosis. In Minzhu, but not in Xaochang, significantly more males than females were afflicted with stage III skeletal fluorosis. In contrast with Xaochang, some examinees in Minzhu had serious skeletal effects but normal teeth or minor dental fluorosis, A high frequency of extremital transverse bone growth lines was observed in Xaochang but not in Minzhu, These findings suggest that greater exposure to fluoride occurred during infancy and early childhood in Xaochang than in Minzhu.

  4. SKELETAL FLUOROSIS- AN EPIDIMIO-CLINICO-RADIOLOGICA L STUDY

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    Prasanta Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Skeletal fluorosis is endemic problem in many part s of world including India as well as West Bengal effecting mainly low socio-econ omic group of populations. This study is to detect the epidemiological and clinical as well as r adiological survey to detect and help to prevent the morbidity and mortality of the people fro m the so called slow environmental poison

  5. Lung X-ray changes in skeletal fluorosis caused by coal combustion

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    Liu, B.K. [Hubei Sanitary-Epidemiological Station, Wuhan (China)

    1996-02-01

    Lung X-ray findings are reported in 45 cases with skeletal fluorosis in an area contaminated by coal combustion. The findings include chronic bronchitis, with diffuse interstitial fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema. The degree of pulmonary pathological findings and skeletal fluorosis is correlated with patient age. Among the 45 cases were 5 with cardio-pulmonary disease and 5 with tuberculosis.

  6. Epidemiological and radiological study of skeletal fluorosis of Minzhu Town, Longli County, Guizhou Province, China

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    Li, D.S.; Duan, R.X.; Wang, S.Q.; He, G.Y.; Li, P.; Nie, Z.X.; Wen, T.G. [Guizhou Province Health and Antiepidemiology Station, Guiyang (China)

    1999-05-01

    A study was carried out on an area of endemic fluorosis based on the relation between detection rate or incidence, classification and severity of skeletal fluorosis, and sex-age distribution. The results show that Minzhu Town of Longli County is a moderate and typical epidemic area of endemic fluorosis resulting from coal-burning pollution in Guizhou Province, China. Five features characterize the skeletal fluorosis of the residents: Osteosclerosis is significantly more prevalent than osteoporosis; no mixed type of skeletal fluorosis and no osteomalacia were found in the subjects examined; no cases with moderate or severe osteoporosis were found; the severity of osteosclerosis in females was significantly milder than in males; and the rate of osteoporosis caused by fluoride in females showed no difference from that in males. These observations provide new parameters for assessing collective conditions of epidemic regions of endemic fluorosis resulting from coal-burning pollution.

  7. A STUDY ON SPIROMETRIC EVALUATION OF LUNG VOLUME RESTRICTION IN PREDIAGNOSED CASES OF SKELETAL FLUOROSIS

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    Abhijit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis is an important public health problem in India. Skeletal changes and mottled enamel may result when drinking water contains excess fluoride. Due to involvement of ribcage skeletal fluorosis causes restrictive lung disease causing reduction in vital capacity. This cross sectional observational study has been done on 55 pre diagnosed patients of skeletal fluorosis, they have been classified according to MMRC dyspnea grading & lung volume has been measured. Among 55 patients, 43 patients (78.18% have shortness of breath, it also has been seen that 13.95% patients have MMRC grade 4 dyspnea, i.e. too breathless to leave the home & 21.81% of cases have FVC < 34% of predicted, i.e. very severe lung volume restriction.

  8. Matrix Metallopeptidase-2 Gene rs2287074 Polymorphism is Associated with Brick Tea Skeletal Fluorosis in Tibetans and Kazaks, China

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    Pei, Junrui; Li, Bingyun; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaona; Li, Mang; Chu, Yanru; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Fuxun; Darko, Gottfried M.; Yang, Yanmei; Gao, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    Brick tea skeletal fluorosis is still a public health issue in the north-western area of China. However its pathogenesis remains unknown. Our previous study reveals that the severity of skeletal fluorosis in Tibetans is more serious than that in Kazaks, although they have similar fluoride exposure, suggesting the onset of brick tea type skeletal fluorosis might be genetically influenced. Here we show that MMP-2 rs2287074 SNP (G/A), but not rs243865, was associated with Brick tea type fluorosis in Tibetans and Kazaks, China. The trend test reveals a decline in probability for skeletal fluorosis with increasing number of A alleles in Tibetans. After controlling potential confounders, AA genotype had about 80 percent lower probability of developing skeletal fluorosis than GG genotype in Tibetans (odds ratio = 0.174, 95% CI: 0.053, 0.575), and approximately 53 percent lower probability in Kazaks (odds ratio = 0.462, 95% CI: 0.214, 0.996). A meta-analysis shows that the AA genotype had approximately 63 percent lower odds (odds ratio = 0.373, 95% CI: 0.202, 0.689) compared with GG genotype within the two ethnicities. A significant correlation was also found between the genotype of MMP2 rs2287074 and skeletal fluorosis severity. Therefore, the A allele of MMP2 rs2287074 could be a protective factor for brick tea skeletal fluorosis.

  9. Matrix Metallopeptidase-2 Gene rs2287074 Polymorphism is Associated with Brick Tea Skeletal Fluorosis in Tibetans and Kazaks, China

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    Pei, Junrui; Li, Bingyun; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaona; Li, Mang; Chu, Yanru; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Fuxun; Darko, Gottfried M.; Yang, Yanmei; Gao, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    Brick tea skeletal fluorosis is still a public health issue in the north-western area of China. However its pathogenesis remains unknown. Our previous study reveals that the severity of skeletal fluorosis in Tibetans is more serious than that in Kazaks, although they have similar fluoride exposure, suggesting the onset of brick tea type skeletal fluorosis might be genetically influenced. Here we show that MMP-2 rs2287074 SNP (G/A), but not rs243865, was associated with Brick tea type fluorosis in Tibetans and Kazaks, China. The trend test reveals a decline in probability for skeletal fluorosis with increasing number of A alleles in Tibetans. After controlling potential confounders, AA genotype had about 80 percent lower probability of developing skeletal fluorosis than GG genotype in Tibetans (odds ratio = 0.174, 95% CI: 0.053, 0.575), and approximately 53 percent lower probability in Kazaks (odds ratio = 0.462, 95% CI: 0.214, 0.996). A meta-analysis shows that the AA genotype had approximately 63 percent lower odds (odds ratio = 0.373, 95% CI: 0.202, 0.689) compared with GG genotype within the two ethnicities. A significant correlation was also found between the genotype of MMP2 rs2287074 and skeletal fluorosis severity. Therefore, the A allele of MMP2 rs2287074 could be a protective factor for brick tea skeletal fluorosis. PMID:28079131

  10. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

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    Patel, Prerna P.; Patel, Pinal A.; Zulf, M. Mughal; Yagnik, Bhrugu; Kajale, Neha; Mandlik, Rubina; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Phanse, Supriya; Patwardhan, Vivek; Joshi, Priscilla; Patel, Ashish; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a) prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES) and (b) association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90), from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India). Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall) and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd). Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis); no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05). Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01) as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937) and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825) did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  11. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

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    Prerna P Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES and (b association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90, from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis; no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05. Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01 as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937 and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825 did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  12. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

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    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-07-26

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  13. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

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    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J.; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed. PMID:27472351

  14. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

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    Aweke Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F in drinking water (~5 mg F/L. The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60 and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220. Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  15. Clinical Effect of Acupuncture on Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Zhou Jincao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on endemic skeletal fluorosis (ESF through the randomized controlled trial. Methods. Ninety-nine cases were divided into the treatment group (68 cases and the control group (31 cases randomly. Normal acupuncture combined with electroacupuncture was used in treatment group, while Caltrate with vitamin D tablets were applied in control group. After 2 courses, the VAS, urinary fluoride, serum calcium, and serum phosphate were evaluated before and after treatment. Results. Both of these two methods could relieve pain effectively and the effect of acupuncture was better (P<0.05. In treatment group, the content of urinary fluoride after treatment was higher than before (P<0.05, while the content of serum calcium and phosphate was lower (P<0.05. Conclusion. The effect of acupuncture on relieving pain and promoting discharge of urinary fluoride is better than that of western medicine. Acupuncture can reduce the content of serum calcium and phosphate.

  16. Prolactin rs1341239 T allele may have protective role against the brick tea type skeletal fluorosis

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    Li, Bing-Yun; Yang, Yan-Mei; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Ye, Yan; Liu, Xiao-Na; Liu, Hong-Xu; Sun, Zhen-Qi; Li, Mang; Cui, Jing; Sun, Dian-Jun; Gao, Yan-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Objective Prolactin (PRL) has been reported to be associated with increased bone turnover, and increased bone turnover is also a feature of skeletal fluorosis (SF). Autocrine/paracrine production of PRL is regulated by the extrapituitary promoter and a polymorphism in the extrapituitary PRL promoter at -1149 (rs1341239) is associated with disturbances of bone metabolism in other diseases. Here, we have investigated the possibility that the rs1341239 polymorphism is associated with SF, which results from the consumption of brick tea. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study in Sinkiang, Qinghai, Inner Mongolia in China. Demography survey questionnaires were completed and physical examination and X-ray diagnoses were used to diagnose SF. Brick tea water fluoride intake (IF) and urinary fluoride (UF) were tested by an F-ion selective electrode method. A Sequenom MassARRAY system was used to determine PRL gene polymorphisms. Results Subjects who were younger than 45 years of age and carried the T allele had a significantly decreased risk of SF [OR = 0.279 (95%CI, 0.094–0.824)] compared to those carrying the homozygous G allele. This phenomenon was only observed in Kazakh subjects [OR = 0.127 (95%CI, 0.025–0.646)]. Kazakh females who carried T alleles has a decreased risk of SF [OR = 0.410 (95%CI, 0.199–0.847)]. For Kazakh subjects which IF is less than 3.5 mg/d, a decreased risk of SF was observed among the participants who carried T alleles [OR = 0.118 (95%CI, 0.029–0.472)]. Overall, subjects with 1.6–3.2 mg/L UF and carried T alleles had a significantly decreased risk of SF [OR = 0.476 (95%CI, 0.237–0.955)] compared to homozygous G allele carriers. This phenomenon was only observed in Kazakh subjects [OR = 0.324 (95%CI, 0.114–0.923)]. Conclusions Our results suggested that the PRL rs1341239 T allele decreases the risk of brick tea SF. PMID:28152004

  17. Fluorosis... causing paraplegia... mutilating life...

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    Ahsan, Tasnim; Jabeen, Rakhshanda; Hashim, Saba; Bano, Zeenat; Ghafoor, Subheen

    2016-02-01

    Fluorosis is thought to be rare in Pakistan but endemic in various parts of the world, especially in India and China. In Pakistan only a few cases have been reported from Thar, Sibbi and Manga Mandi, with probability of fluorosis on MRI findings, supported by high drinking waterfluoride content. Neurological manifestations of skeletal fluorosis may vary from radiculo-myelopathy to neuropathy. A case of 26 years old female from Thul, Sindh, who presented with paraplegia, is reported here. Her MRI showed extensive classical degenerative changes throughout the spine, consistent with fluorosis, leading to cord compression at multiple levels. No such case with confirmed fluorosis has been previously reported from Pakistan.

  18. Investigation on prevalent condition of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis after Water-improvement Projects in the endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City%青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后氟斑牙及氟骨症患病调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜玲; 周进才

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后氟斑牙及氟骨症患病情况,以评价其改水防治效果.方法 采用流行病学抽样调查的方法,对青铜峡市2006年已改水的高氟重病区叶盛镇叶盛5队,高氟轻病区大坝镇新桥5队(原高桥4队),未改水的大坝镇滑石沟5队共670名儿童和1 400名25岁以上成人分别进行了氟斑牙和氟骨症的调查.结果 改水与未改水地区儿童氟斑牙患病率差异有统计学意义(x2=9.954,P<0.05);改水与未改水地区氟骨症患病率差异有统计学意义(x2=13.098,P<0.05);改水后水氟浓度为0.24~0.32 mg/L.结论 青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区经改水降氟后,饮用水符合卫生要求,但氟斑牙及氟骨症尚存在一定程度的流行,还未达到完全控制.%OBJECTIVE The survey is conducted to evaluate the result of water-improvement project aimed in eliminating the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City.METHODS By applying epidemiological sample survey method,some 670 children and 1 400 adults (> 25 years) had been examined in dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in Yesheng 5th team of Yesheng Township,where endemic fluorosis was seriously prevailed and had become water-improvement area in 2006; in Xinqiao 5th team Daba Township,endemic fluorosis mild prevailed; and Huashigou 5th team in Daba Township was not included in water-improvement area.RESULTS There was an evident difference in the dental fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the places without sater-improvement projects (x2 =9.954,P< 0.05).There was an evident difference in skeletal fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the places without water-improvement projects areas (x2 =13.098,P< 0.05).Since the drinking water improvement,the fluoride content in drinking water was 0.24-0.32 mg/L.CONCLUSION After water-improvement projects in the endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City

  19. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoride content as biomarkers of excess fluoride exposure in marsupials.

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    Death, Clare; Coulson, Graeme; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Morris, William K; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2015-11-15

    Particulate and gaseous fluoride emissions contaminate vegetation near fluoride-emitting industries, potentially impacting herbivorous wildlife in neighboring areas. Dental fluorosis has been associated with consumption of fluoride-contaminated foliage by juvenile livestock and wildlife in Europe and North America. For the first time, we explored the epidemiology and comparative pathology of dental fluorosis in Australian marsupials residing near an aluminium smelter. Six species (Macropus giganteus, Macropus rufogriseus, Wallabia bicolor, Phascolarctos cinereus, Trichosurus vulpecula, Pseudocheirus peregrinus) demonstrated significantly higher bone fluoride levels in the high (n=161 individuals), compared to the low (n=67 individuals), fluoride areas (pdental fluorosis in eutherian mammals. Within the high-fluoride area, 67% of individuals across the six species showed dental enamel lesions, compared to 3% in the low-fluoride areas. Molars that erupted before weaning were significantly less likely to display pathological lesions than those developing later, and molars in the posterior portion of the dental arcade were more severely fluorotic than anterior molars in all six species. The severity of dental lesions was positively associated with increasing bone fluoride levels in all species, revealing a potential biomarker of excess fluoride exposure.

  20. Investigatetion of Skeletal Fluorosis of the Adult in High Fluoride Region of Paotaizhen in Shihezi from 2010~2011%某镇2010~2011年高氟地区成人氟骨症的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪建军; 王天霆; 郑军; 徐江

    2012-01-01

      目的了解2010~2011年石河子炮台镇高氟地区成人氟骨症的流行现状,为本地氟骨症防治提供科学依据.方法采用随机抽样的方法,按照《地方性氟骨症诊断标准》(WS 192-2008)中临床氟骨症的检查方法和标准,对本地区25岁以上成年人进行了临床症状与体征及 X 线检查.2010年调查625人,2011年调查342人.结果2010~2011年成人氟骨症患病率依次为7.04%、17.25%,χ2=24.219,P <0.05,2010、2011年成人氟骨症患病率有显著差异性.结论石河子炮台镇病区成人氟骨症尚存在一定程度的流行,地方性氟中毒尚未达到完全控制;不同地方连队人群患病率有差异性.%  Objective  To investigate skeletal fluorosis of the adult in the population in high fluoride region of Paotaizhen in Shihezi from 2010 to 2011,and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of skeletal fluorosis. Methods By using random sampling method, such indexes of clinical symptom, sign and X-ray of endemic fluorosis among the adult aged above 25 years old were investigated in Paotaizhen . The status of skeletal fluorosis was assessed according to adults skeletal fluorosis by the National Standard for Diagnosis of endemic skeletal fluorosis(WS 192-2008).625 people in the 2010 survey,342 people in the 2011survey. Results From 2010 to 2011,the prevalence rates of skeletal fluorosis were 7.04%,17.25%.χ2=24.219, P<0.05, Skeletal fluorosis prevalence differences from 2010 to 2011. Conclusion From 2010 to 2011,skeletal fluorosis of adult is still a certain degree of popular in Paotaizhen .And endemic fluorosisis still out of control. Prevalence rate of different parts is differences in Paotaizhen.

  1. Pronounced reduction of fluoride exposure in free-ranging deer in North Bohemia (Czech Republic) as indicated by the biomarkers skeletal fluoride content and dental fluorosis.

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    Kierdorf, Uwe; Bahelková, Petra; Sedláček, František; Kierdorf, Horst

    2012-01-01

    Wild deer have been recommended as bioindicators of fluoride pollution. We compared bone fluoride concentrations and prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in free-ranging European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from five counties in the northwestern part of the Czech Republic that had been collected by hunters and whose mandibles were presented at trophy exhibitions in the years 1996/1997 ("early period") and 2009 ("late period"). Data on atmospheric fluoride deposition suggested that the deer from the early period had been exposed to markedly higher fluoride levels than those from the late period. We therefore predicted a decline in skeletal fluoride levels and prevalence of dental fluorosis for both species from the early to the late period. Fluoride concentrations were determined in the coronoid process of the mandible, and assessment of dental fluorosis was performed on the permanent cheek teeth. A pronounced drop in fluoride concentrations from the early period (roe deer (n = 157), median: 3147 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone; red deer (n = 127), median: 1263 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone) to the late period (roe deer (n = 117), median: 350 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone; red deer (n = 72), median: 288 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone) was recorded. Prevalence of dental fluorosis also markedly declined from the early to the late period (roe deer: from 93% to 12%, red deer: from 87% to 28%). The reduction of fluoride deposition in the study area and, in consequence, fluoride exposure of the resident deer populations, is attributed largely to the implementation of emission control devices in the brown coal-fired power plants located in North Bohemia from the mid 1990s onwards. The findings of the present study demonstrate that wild deer are well suited for monitoring temporal changes in fluoride pollution of their habitats.

  2. Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offiah, A.; van Rijn, R.R.; Perez-Rossello, J.M.; Kleinman, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse

  3. 黑龙江省氟中毒病区居民生活方式与氟骨症关系的调查%Study of the relationship between lifestyle and skeletal fluorosis for residents in fluorosis area of Heilongjiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国杰; 林平; 高学琴; 李玲; 赵振娟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨黑龙江省氟中毒病区居民生活方式对氟骨症发生的影响.方法 采用半定量食物频率问卷(SQFFQ)、自制的生活习惯问卷和一般资料调查表对黑龙江省氟中毒病区289例居民进行调查,同时按照地方性氟骨症诊断标准(WS 192-2008)诊断出氟骨症人群和非氟骨症人群,采用广义估计方程对氟骨症发生的影响因素进行分析.结果 男性居民易患氟骨症;氟骨症的保护因素有:饮用开水、用陶瓷水缸储水、水果类、维生素A、硫胺素;危险因素有:BMI >24.9、水氟浓度、水氟摄入量、饮用茶水、不储水、油脂类、磷.结论 氟骨症的发生与生活方式有着密切关系,改善氟中毒病区居民的生活方式可以减少氟骨症的发生或减轻其病损程度.%Objective To investigate the influence of lifestyle on skeletal fluorosis in fluorosis area of Heilongjiang province.Methods A total of 289 residents in the endemic fluorosis area of Heilongjiang province were all investigated with Smei-qanatiattive Food Frequency Questionnaire,self-designed Habits and Customs Questionnaire and General Information Questionnaire and divided for sketetal fluorosis patients and non-patients according to the criteria for the diagnosis of endemic skeletal fluorosis (WS 192-2008).All the data were analyzed by SAS statistical software,the influencing factors were analyzed by Generalized Estimating Equation.Results Male morbidity was higher than female,drinking boiled water,water storage in ceramic water tanks,fruits,Vitamin A,thiamine were the protective factors for skeletal fluorosis.BMI > 24.9,concentration of drinking water,water fluoride intake,drinking tea,not storage well water,oil,phosphor were the risk factors of skeletal fluorosis.Conclusions Lifestyle plays an important role in the development of skeletal fluorosis.Improving the lifestyle of the residents in the endemic fluorosis area can reduce the occurrence of skeletal

  4. Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offiah, Amaka [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Perez-Rossello, Jeanette Mercedes; Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of Craniofacial Morphology of Children with Dental Fluorosis in Early Permanent Dentition Period

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Alev Aksoy; Bolpaca, Pinar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives High intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg/L) for a prolonged period may lead to skeletal fluorosis as well as dental fluorosis. The aim of this study was to compare the craniofacial characteristics of children with dental fluorosis in early permanent dentition period to those without fluorosis. Methods Two hundred and sixteen children in early permanent dentition (girls:121, boys:95) were included in the study. Study group was composed of 124 children with dental fluorosis who was born and ...

  6. Dental Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fluorosis if they are being fed infant formula? Three types of infant formula are available in ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  7. Dental fluorosis and its influence on children's life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Marques, Lívia Bino; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Saliba, Nemre Adas

    2015-01-01

    This study verified the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old children and its association with different fluoride levels in the public water supply, and evaluated the level of perception of dental fluorosis by the studied children. To assess fluorosis prevalence, clinical examinations were performed and a structured instrument was used to evaluate the self-perception of fluorosis. The water supply source in the children's area of residence since birth was used as the study criterion. In total, 496 children were included in the study. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 292 (58.9%) children; from these, 220 (44.4%) children were diagnosed with very mild fluorosis, 59 (11.9%) with mild fluorosis, 12 (2.4%) with moderate fluorosis, and 1 (0.2%) child with severe fluorosis. A significant association (p = 0.0004) was observed between the presence of fluorosis and areas with excessive fluoride in the water supply. Among the 292 children that showed fluorosis, 40% perceived the presence of spots in their teeth. The prevalence of fluorosis was slightly high, and the mildest levels were the most frequently observed. Although most of the children showed fluorosis to various degrees, the majority did not perceive these spots, suggesting that this alteration did not affect their quality of life.

  8. Dental fluorosis and its influence on children’s life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old children and its association with different fluoride levels in the public water supply, and evaluated the level of perception of dental fluorosis by the studied children. To assess fluorosis prevalence, clinical examinations were performed and a structured instrument was used to evaluate the self-perception of fluorosis. The water supply source in the children’s area of residence since birth was used as the study criterion. In total, 496 children were included in the study. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 292 (58.9% children; from these, 220 (44.4% children were diagnosed with very mild fluorosis, 59 (11.9% with mild fluorosis, 12 (2.4% with moderate fluorosis, and 1 (0.2% child with severe fluorosis. A significant association (p = 0.0004 was observed between the presence of fluorosis and areas with excessive fluoride in the water supply. Among the 292 children that showed fluorosis, 40% perceived the presence of spots in their teeth. The prevalence of fluorosis was slightly high, and the mildest levels were the most frequently observed. Although most of the children showed fluorosis to various degrees, the majority did not perceive these spots, suggesting that this alteration did not affect their quality of life.

  9. 氟骨症对腰椎间盘突出患者腰椎骨密度的影响%Effect of skeletal fluorosis on the bone mineral density of patients with lumbar disc herniation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗平; 王兴国; 王长海

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the status of bone mineral density ( BMD) in skeletal fluorosis patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, in order to provide scientific basis for early prevention of lumbar disc herniation and osteoporosis in fluorosis patients.Methods BMD between patients with lumbar disc herniation ( 61 patients with fluorosis and 1149 patients without fluorosis) and 400 healthy controls were compared.Results BMD in disc herniation patients with fluorosis was significantly different comparing to that in healthy controls.BMD decreased in disc herniation patients without fluorosis comparing to that in healthy controls, but the difference was not statistically significant.Conclusion Early diagnosis and treatment of fluorosis is important for prevention of lumbar disc herniation and osteoporosis.%目的:研究氟骨症患者的腰椎间盘突出及其腰椎骨密度状况,为氟骨症患者早期预防腰间盘突出及骨质疏松提供科学的依据。方法对61例合并有氟骨症和1149例无氟骨症的腰椎间盘突出患者腰椎骨密度与400例健康对照组腰椎骨密度进行比较。结果合并有氟骨症的腰椎间盘突出患者与健康对照组腰椎骨密度差异有显著性,具有统计学意义,不合并有氟骨症的腰椎间盘突出患者较健康对照组腰椎骨密度减少,但差异无统计学意义。结论氟骨症的早期诊治对预防腰椎间盘突出及骨质疏松有重要意义。

  10. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition), skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. Ma...

  11. Total knee arthroplasty for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis caused by endemic skeletal fluorosis%全膝关节置换治疗氟骨症所致的膝关节损害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗锐; 刘日光; 叶川; 于燕妮; 官志忠

    2012-01-01

    背景:地方性氟骨症膝关节损害是一个复杂的慢性全身性疾病,可造成膝关节骨周,骨质的损害.目的:观察人工全膝关节置换治疗地方性氟骨症所致的膝关节损害的临床疗效.方法:纳入2010-03/2011-10依据地方性流行病学、氟斑牙、临床表现及影像学检查确诊由氟骨症所致的膝关节损害患者9例,均行双侧人工全膝关节置换,于置换前及本次随访时根据美国特种外科医院膝关节评分系统进行临床疗效评估.结果与结论:膝关节置换后,美国特种外科医院膝关节评分结果显示优5例,良3例,可1例.患者治疗后在疼痛、功能以及关节活动度等方面均明显改善.说明人工全膝关节置换是治疗地方性氟骨症所致的膝关节损害的有效方法.%BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis caused by endemic skeletal fluorosis is a complex and chronic systemic disease, which cancause the damage of surrounding bone and sclerotin of knee joint.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis caused by endemicskeletal fluorosis.METHODS: Nine patients suffered from knee osteoarthritis caused by skeletal fluorosis that diagnosed by local epidemiology,dental fluorosis, clinical and imaging from March 2010 to October 2011 and all the patients were treated with bilateral TKA. Theclinical efficacy was evaluated according to the knee scoring system of United States Hospital for Special Surgery beforearthroplasty and final follow-up after arthroplasty.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Score results showed that 5 knees were excellent, 3 knees were good and 1 knee was fair afterknee arthroplasty. All patients have been improved in pain, function and range of motion. TKA is an effective method for thetreatment of knee osteoarthritis caused by skeletal fluorosis.

  12. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of thei...

  13. Plasma fluoride and enamel fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angmar-Månsson, B; Ericsson, Y; Ekberg, O

    1976-11-24

    It is postulated that tissue fluid F concentrations are the primary determinants of flouride effects on bones and developing teeth and that these concentrations are dependent on, or mirrored by, blood plasma F. It has earlier been shown that the plasma F levels are dependent on the dietary F supply as well as on skeletal F concentration. Fasting and post-ingestion or postinjection plasma F levels have been determined in rats on F doses that cause different degrees of enamel fluorosis. The results indicate that temporary peak values rather than elevated fasting values are responsible for the occurrence of enamel fluorosis and that the peak values must approach about 10 muM in order to block enamel formation by the ameloblasts. The diagnostic and prognostic importance of plasma F determinations is discussed.

  14. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner.

  15. Occupational fluorosis through 50 years: clinical and epidemiological experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty years ago, in 1932, skeletal fluorosis was discovered as an occupational disease in cryolite workers in Copenhagen, Denmark. Following the initial reports, new cases were identified in other industries, such as the production of aluminum and superphosphate fertilizer. In light cases of fluorosis, the bone changes are often associated with nonspecific joint and muscle pains, but the disease may be entirely asymptomatic. The fluoride-induced osteosclerosis seems to be reversible, but the long-term significance of fluoride accumulation in the body is not known. Family cases of dental fluorosis have been occurred in long-term residents near fluoride-emitting industries, and in hot areas with high, natural fluoride levels in the drinking water. Skeletal fluorosis has only played a minor role in the discussion concerning fluoridation of drinking water, however. Changing and increasing uses of fluorides have led to a renewed interest in this occupational disease.

  16. Study of Prevalence of fluorosis in endemic village of Kankar district of Chhattisgarh State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil V Gitte, K M Kamble, Ramanath N Sabat

    2014-01-01

    Results: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 24.8 % and skeletal fluorosis was 6.0%. Both the types were more common in males. Dental fluorosis was higher in the age group of 13 to19 years. The prevalence of skeletal fluorosis increased with increasing age. Common skeletal deformities were genu varum (12.2% and genu valgum (0.7 %. Water fluoride levels in different localities ranged from 0.5 to 2.8 ppm. Conclusions: This study has shown the relation of fluorosis to high fluoride levels of prime water sources. Change in water source from deep tube well and a hand pump with health education to the community is needed to reduce in order to reduce the problem."

  17. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Mary P.; Kao, Simon C. [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  18. Epidemiological survey of fluorosis in a village of Bastar division of Chhattisgarh state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Vilasrao Gitte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is an important public health problem in few pockets of some states of India. Aim: The aim was to study the prevalence of fluorosis, mapping the deformities, the type and severity of deformities and to assess the fluoride concentration in prime drinking water sources in the Dimrapal village of Bastar region. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of the Dimrapal village was done by door to door visit and on-site clinical examination of the study population was carried out. This was followed by collection of drinking water samples in selected paras for estimating fluoride levels. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis was done using prevalence rate, Chi-square test, mean and standard deviation. Results: Overall prevalence of fluorosis cases was found to be 23.10%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 12.6% that of skeletal fluorosis was 28.8%, and the combined prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was 1.8%. Dental fluorosis was found to be very common in children and teenagers. Skeletal fluorosis was found to be more common in age group above 45 years, however, it was lower in the children's (6-12 irrespective of the gender. The fluoride level in surveyed ground water sources from various para ranged from 0.1 to 7.30 ppm.

  19. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  20. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Fan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  1. Retrospective review to determine the utility of follow-up skeletal surveys in child abuse evaluations when the initial skeletal survey is normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachelmeyer Andrea

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The AAP recommends that a follow-up skeletal survey be obtained for all children Methods A retrospective review of radiology records from September 1, 1998 - January 31, 2007 was conducted. Suspected victims of child abuse who were Results Forty-seven children had a negative initial skeletal survey and were included for analysis. The mean age was 6.9 months (SD 5.7; the mean number of days between skeletal surveys was 18.7 (SD 10.1 Four children (8.5% had signs of healing bone trauma on a follow-up skeletal survey. Three of these children (75% had healing rib fractures and one child had a healing proximal humerus fracture. The findings on the follow-up skeletal survey yielded forensically important information in all 4 cases and strengthened the diagnosis of non-accidental trauma. Conclusion 8.5 percent of children with negative initial skeletal surveys had forensically important findings on follow-up skeletal survey that increased the certainty of the diagnosis of non-accidental trauma. A follow-up skeletal survey can be useful even when the initial skeletal survey is negative.

  2. Guidelines for skeletal surveys in Suspected Child Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo

    Purpose/Objective Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in the demands for low noise. The consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if the images are not adequate....... If head trauma or fractures are overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. If no abuse has taken place, and the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, it may result in prolonged hospitalization of an innocent family....... In many cases supplement images or a complete reexamination of the child were needed in order to state a second opinion, resulting in unnecessary excess radiation dose. Materials and methods A literature review was performed and the results were discussed at an initial meeting at Odense University...

  3. Dental fluorosis in bovine temporary teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttie, J.W.; Clay, A.B.; Shearer, T.R.

    1985-02-01

    Deciduous incisors from calves born to dams fed an average of 40 mg of fluoride/kg of forage ration (40 ppm) were compared with incisors from calves born to dams fed a normal dairy ration. Skeletal fluoride concentration in the calves born to fluoride-fed dams was increased 5 to 8 fold, but enamel mottling and hypoplasia, typical of permanent bovine incisor dental fluorosis were not seen by gross, histologic, or radiologic examination. Decreases in the amount of enamel on the tooth or hardness of the enamel were not observed. These data do not support recent reports of widespread dental fluorosis of deciduous bovine teeth as a clinical sign of fluoride toxicity.

  4. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores. Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F. A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p  Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  5. 少儿地方性氟骨症骨损害的X线表现及改水降氟后变化%X-rays manifestation of bones lesion and changes after improving water to reduce fluoride for children endemic skeletal fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长青

    2012-01-01

    Objective To konw x - rays manifestation and features of bone lesion of children endemic skeletal fluorosis and similarities and differences between adults and children and changes after improving water to reduce fluoride so as to provide references for diagnosis, evaluation of control effect and mechanism of occurrence and outcome of children endemic skeletal fluorosis. Methods 30 cases of children endemic skeletal fluorosis were screened by x - rays methods in endemic fluorosis areas where fluoride level in drinking water was high(4.3 to16.0 mg/L). The patients'various kinds of x - rays signs and characteristics were observed and analysed. Tracing observation and analysis of x - rays manifestation and diagnosis of 8 children skeletal fluorosis were conducted and compared from pre - water improvement to post - water improvement. Results In 30 cases of children endemic skeletal fluorosis, the mild , the moderate and the severe were followed by 22 cases, 4 sases and 4 cases. Among the patients , osteosclerosis - type, osteomalacia - type and mix - type were followed by 26 cases, 2 cases, 2 cases. An abnormal bone trabecula x - rays sign was overwhelming in all 30 patients, which appeared as bone trabecula increased in number, densety, thickness, ambiguity, structural disorder and fusion. Serious bone trabecula structural disorder and fusion caused bone mineral density increased ,osteosclerosis and softening and deformation of the skeletal of forearm, shank and pelvis. Different from adult fluorosis, the joints and soft tissue surrounding bones were ont abnormal. Conclusions Children endemic skeletal fluorosis occurs mainly in areas with higher fluorosis level in drinking water. X - rays manifestations showed a damage on sclerotin, jionts and soft tissue surrounding bones were not affected. 5 years after improving water to reduce fluoride,original abnormal skeletal x - rays signs were markedly reversed or returned to normal. The patients of osteosclerosis before

  6. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S Kurdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease.

  7. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdi, Madhuri S

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease. PMID:27053777

  8. Dental fluorosis in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narozny, J.

    1965-01-01

    Dental fluorosis in cattle was used as an indicator of toxic effects produced by fluorine emissions from an aluminium factory. Data are presented on the effects of a ten-year exposure to fluorides on cattle teeth. Emissions from the factory were observed in two directions from the factory, and extended as far as 16 km from the source.

  9. Impact of dental fluorosis on the quality of life of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laynna Marina Santos LIMA

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental fluorosis is a disturbance of high prevalence caused by the ingestion of fluoride ions present mainly in toothpaste. Preventive measures to avoid it are still controversial. Thus, knowing the impact that fluorosis can cause on the population's quality of life it is important for planning public health policies.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of dental fluorosis on the quality of life of children and adolescents.MATERIAL AND METHOD: We studied 300 subjects aged 8 to 12 years divided into 4 groups: children (8-10 years and adolescents (10 to 12 years with and without fluorosis. The diagnosis of fluorosis was performed according to the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov and quality of life was evaluated using Child Perceptions Questionnaire 8-10 and 11-14. The socio-demographic characteristics of the patients were also evaluated. For inclusion in the sample, selected patients should present eight permanent incisors with crowns fully erupted. Patients who had extensive restorations, fractured teeth, other dental enamel defects and who wore braces were excluded.RESULT: Fluorosis was present in 64.7% of the patients analyzed and in most cases (80.3% was mild or very mild. In children, the average overall score of the questionnaire was 15.9 for the group without fluorosis and 18.3 for the group with fluorosis (p = 0.255. The teenagers' score in the group without fluorosis was 26.1, while the group with fluorosis was 22.7 (p = 0.104.CONCLUSION: Dental fluorosis caused impact on the quality of life of the population analyzed only in the functional domain.

  10. Micro-CT observation of compound Chinese medicine in treatment of chronic skeletal fluorosis in fluorosis rats%复方中药对慢性氟中毒大鼠氟骨症治疗效果的显微CT观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭生琼; 喻茂娟; 申惠鹏; 袁筑华; 王丹; 成锦芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment effect of compound Chinese medicine on skeletal fluorosis in rats by Micro-CT.Methods Eighty-eight Wistar rats which had been weaned for two weeks were divided into four groups according to body weight [(91.1 ± 10.0)g] by the method of random number table:control group(16 mts),middle fluorine(MF)group(24 rats),high fluorine(HF) group(24 rats),and high fluoride and low calcium low protein (HF-LC-LP) group (24 rats).The amounts of fluorine of MF,HF and HF-LC-LP groups were 50,100 and 100 mg/kg,respectively.The contents of calcium and protein in HF-LC-LP group were half of MF and HF groups.Six months after treatment with fluoride,eight rats of each group were put to death with femoral artery bleeding.The rest 16 rats of each fluorosis group were divided into two groups,one was the control group and the other was fed with both fluorine and the compound Chinese medicine which simulated the actual situation of fluorosis area.Each rat of the treatment group was given the medicine 194 mg/100 g for six days every week.Daily urine samples were collected when the medicine had been used for 0,30 and 60 days.All the rats were put to death with femoral artery bleeding after the medicine had beengiven for 90 days,and limbs bones were dissected.Urine fluoride was tested by the method of fluoride ion selective electrode ; bone fluoride was tested by the method of high temperature ashing-fluoride ion selective electrode; bone mineral density(BMD),tissue mineral density(TMD),structure model index (SMI),trabecular thickness (Tb.Th),trabecular separation (Tb.Sp),anisotropy (a1/a3),trabecular connection density(Conn.D),the volume ratio of trabecular and bone tissue,the ratio of bone surface area and volume(BS/BV),and trabecular number(Tb.N) were detected by Micro-CT technology.Results The level of urinary fluoride of high fluoride and low calcium low protein treatment group [(11.01 ± 3.67)mg/L] was lower than that of its control group [(34.32 ± 9

  11. Endemic fluorosis:prevalence and prevention in Liaoning Province%辽宁省地方性氟中毒的流行和防治现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健辉; 郑照霞; 刘微; 刘羽; 高嵘; 李子荣; 赵伟光; 王思茜; 刘万洋

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of control of endemic fluorosis in Liaoning Province.Methods To investigate the prevalence rate of endemic fluorosis and water fluoride content in regions with different extent of endemic fluorosis,dental fluomsis among 8-12 years old children and clinical fluorosis at adult above 16 years old were extensively surveyed,urinary fluoride among 8-12 years old children was detected.Results We surveyed 842 undefluorided drinking water in endemic fluorosis villages and 1234 projects of improving drinking water in 1829 endemic fluorosis viflages.Water fluoride content was 0.01-7.10 mg/L in unimproved drinking water in endemic fluorosis resions,averaging(0.96±0.64)mg/L;29.2%(246/842)of the endemic fluorosis regions had a fluoride content more than 1.2 mg/L In 1234 projects of improving drinking water.drinking water fluoride content was between 0.06-7.67 mg/L.The project normally operated and having a fluoride content≤1.2 mg/L accounted for 68.31%(843/1234),while 31.69%(391/1234)of the projects did not function well.The prevalence of dental fluomsis in 8-12 years old child ren in endemic fluorosis regions was 24.4%(2960/12 127),the prevalence of clinical fluorosis among adults was 2.22%(1900/85 636).The prevalente of dental fluorosis in slight,moderate and serious fluorosis regions had remarkable statistics differences(X2=19.25,P<0.01).The prevalence of dental fluorosis of children in serious fluorosis regions was the highest,reaching 100%,while the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis wns 18.03%(97/538).The median of urinary fluoride was 2.01.2.00mg/L in serious and slight fluomsis regions,respectively.Conclusions Endemic fluorosis is still serious.so we need urgently to improve water in serious fluorosis regions without defluoridaton of drinking water.Endemic fluomsis resions where worn-out and closed defluoriding projects exist need defluoriding management.%目的 了解辽宁省地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)流行现状和防

  12. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  13. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez

    2000-06-01

    estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition of a San Luis Potosi children population, and its association to fluoride concentration in drinking water and urine. An additional objective was, to develop, validate, and test a specific index for dental fluorosis in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May 1997, to January 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. Study subjects were 100 children aged 3-6 years, selected at random from three kindergartens in three risk areas of San Luis Potosi. The specific index of dental fluorosis for primary dentition (Dental Fluorosis for Primary Dentition Index-DFPDI was validated by estimating fluoride concentrations in enamel of teeth with and without dental fluorosis. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the association between fluoride concentrations in drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis; the association between risk area and dental fluorosis was assessed with the Mantel-Haenszel chi² test. RESULTS: . The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was 78%; primary molars were most affected in both maxillae and the predominant color was a non-glossy white appearance. We found a strong direct correlation (r=0.93 between fluoride concentrations in primary teeth and the DFPDI. Associations were found between fluoride concentrations of drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis (Kruskal-Wallis p=0.00001, and between risk area and dental fluorosis (Mantel-Haenszel chi² p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: DFPDI allowed adequate identification and grading of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. It is important to detect the initial toxic effects of fluoride exposure to predict dental fluorosis in permanent dentition and skeletal fluorosis.

  14. DENTAL FLUOROSIS IN CHILDREN

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    K. Imandel

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Some children of Borazjan area have minute white flecks, yellow or brown spot areas scattered irregularly over the tooth surface, the causative factor was attributed to excess of fluoride in water. To verify this matter short chemical examination of water samples from endemic area was carried out. The results of water analysis by colorimetric method, using zirconium a1izarin reagent after distillation the samples, showed that the average mount of fluoride of Borazjan and the mixture of treated. Water of Boshigan River with water piped of Borazjan wells were 4 and 2 times respectively more than recommended control limits for fluoride and confirmed that this was the causative agent of mottled, teeth (Dental Fluorosis.

  15. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, se...

  16. Relationships between daily total fluoride intake and dental fluorosis and dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanyong Xiang; Minghao Zhou; Ming Wu; Xinya Zhou; Li Lin; Jiuning Huang; Youxing Liang

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationships between the dally total intake of fluoride,dental fluorosis and dental caries.Methods:An epidemiological method was used to investigate the daily total intake of fluoride,dental fluorosis,and dental caries among 236 and 290 children aged 8-13 years in a severe endemic area and in a non-fluorosis control area,respectively.The children were divided into eight subgroups according to each child's estimated dally total intake of fluoride.The prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in each group was calculated.Results:As expected,elevated levels of fluoride intake were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dental fluorosis and an increasing amount of more severe defect dental fhiorosis.When the dally total F intake was 2.78 rag/child/day,the prevalence of dental fluorosis was nearly 100%,with the prevalence of defect dental fluorosis increasing with increasing fluoride intake.There was also a significant negative(inverse) dose-response relationship between the dally total intake of fluoride and the overall preva-lence of dental caries,the prevalence of which decreased when the daily total intake of fluoride increased up to 3.32 mg/child/day.However,at higher levels of daily total intake of fluoride the prevalence of dental caries increased,giving rise to a U-shaped dose-response relationship curve.Conclusion:It is important to monitor total fluoride exposure and protect children from excessive fluoride intake,especially during the years of tooth development.

  17. Bovine calves as ideal bio-indicators for fluoridated drinking water and endemic osteo-dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L

    2014-07-01

    Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5 ppm F) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7 %) and 322 (36.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2 % mature and 10.7 % immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2 %) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed.

  18. Fluorosis as an Environmental Disease and its Effect on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simge Varol

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is a halogene found in earth, water, rocks, air, plants and animal tissue in various amounts. In normal conditions, people daily take fluoride compounds in amounts without any harmful effects this cause fewer dental caries and the formation of stronger bones. However, if the amount of fluoride taken daily exceeds the safety threshold, chronic fluoride intoxication, known as fluorosis, arises. As a result of fluorosis, pathological changes appear in tooths, skeletal system, liver, kidney, heart, gastrointestinal system and endocrin system. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 233-238

  19. Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denbesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2-3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface. With more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the dose-related decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffle-ended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As further

  20. Compressive myelopathy in fluorosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.K. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Agarwal, P. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Kumar, S. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Surana, P.K. [Department of Neurology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow-226014 (India); Lal, J.H. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Misra, U.K. [Department of Neurology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow-226014 (India)

    1996-05-01

    We examined four patients with fluorosis, presenting with compressive myelopathy, by MRI, using spin-echo and fast low-angle shot sequences. Cord compression due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) and ligamentum flavum (LF) was demonstrated in one and ossification of only the LF in one. Marrow signal was observed in the PLL and LF in all the patients on all pulse sequences. In patients with compressive myelopathy secondary to ossification of PLL and/or LF, fluorosis should be considered as a possible cause, especially in endemic regions. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi

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    Poornima Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition, skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. Materials and Methods: This survey was conducted among the middle school students (VI th -VIII th studying in three government schools of Sangam Vihar, South Delhi. Students were examined for dental fluorosis by experts. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data regarding age, source of drinking water, toothpaste used, etc. Height, weight, and hemoglobin were recorded. Two repeat visits were made. Out of 432 students enrolled in these schools, 413 students were examined. Statistics: Descriptive and chi-square statistics were used. Results: Dental fluorosis was prevalent in 121 (29.3% study subjects. It was significantly more in children of age 13 years or above, in those who used fluoridated toothpaste for dental cleaning (P=0.033 and in anemic children (P<0.001. However, there was no significant association of disease with gender (P=0.02, source of drinking water (P=0.417, and with BMI (P=0.826. Conclusion: As dental fluorosis is very common (in about one-fourth among the middle school children, in this resettlement colony of Delhi, various control measures e.g. discouraging the fluoridated toothpastes, educating parents about fluorosis, de-fluoridation of water in the high risk areas, etc may help to tackle this situation.

  2. Aesthetic management of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Ninawe, Nupur

    2013-05-22

    Significant numbers of patients visiting the paediatric dental clinics have aesthetically objectionable brown stains and desire treatment for them. Intrinsic tooth discolouration can be a significant aesthetic, and in some instances, functional, problem. Dental fluorosis, tetracycline staining, localised and chronological hypoplasia, and both amelogenesis and dentinogenesis imperfecta can all produce a cosmetically unsatisfactory dentition. The aetiology of intrinsic discolouration of enamel may sometimes be deduced from the patient's history, and one factor long associated with the problem has been a high level of fluoride intake. Optimal use of topical fluorides leads to a decrease in the caries prevalence but may show an increase in the prevalence of fluorosis staining because of metabolic alterations in the ameloblasts, causing a defective matrix formation and improper calcification. A 12-year-old male patient was screened at the dental clinic for routine dental care. He wanted us to remove and/or minimise the noticeable brown/yellow staining of his teeth. He requested the least invasive and most cost-effective treatment to change his smile. Various treatment modalities are present for the treatment of fluorosis stains. This report discusses the microabrasion technique in the patient having dental fluorosis.

  3. Mitigation of Fluorosis - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Mahesh R; Dodamani, Arun S; Jadhav, Harish C; Naik, Rahul G; Deshmukh, Manjiri A

    2015-06-01

    Fluoride is required for normal development and growth of the body. It is found in plentiful quantity in environment and fluoride content in drinking water is largest contributor to the daily fluoride intake. The behaviour of fluoride ions in the human organism can be regarded as that of "double-edged sword". Fluoride is beneficial in small amounts but toxic in large amounts. Excessive consumption of fluorides in various forms leads to development of fluorosis. Fluorosis is major health problem in 24 countries, including India, which lies in the geographical fluoride belt. Various technologies are being used to remove fluoride from water but still the problem has not been rooted out. The purpose of this paper is to review the available treatment modalities for fluorosis, available technologies for fluoride removal from water and ongoing fluorosis mitigation programs based on literature survey. Medline was the primary database used in the literature search. Other databases included: PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, WHO, Ebscohost, Science Direct, Google Search Engine, etc.

  4. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Eneide Leitão de; Teixeira, Ana Karine Macedo; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral), Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  5. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eneide Leitão de Almeida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral, Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  6. Dental enamel, fluorosis and amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ciarrocchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most used antibiotics among pediatric patients for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections and specially for acute otitis media (AOM, a common diseases of infants and childhood. It has been speculated that the use of amoxicillin during early childhood could be associated with dental enamel fluorosis, also described in literature with the term Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH, because they are generally situated in one or more 1st permanent molars and less frequently in the incisors. The effect of Amoxicillin seems to be independent of other risk factors such as fluoride intake, prematurity, hypoxia, hypocalcaemia, exposure to dioxins, chikenpox, otitis media, high fever and could have a significant impact on oral health for the wide use of this drug in that period of life. Objective: The aim of this work was to review the current literature about the association between amoxicillin and fluorosis. Methods and Results: A literature survey was done by applying the Medline database (Entrez PubMed; the Cochrane Library database of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL. The databases were searched using the following strategy and keywords: amoxicillin* AND (dental fluorosis* OR dental enamel* AND MIH*. After selecting the studies, only three relevant articles published between 1966 and 2011 were included in the review. Conclusion: The presence of several methodological issues does not allow to draw any evidence-based conclusions. No evidence of association was detected, therefore, there is a need of further well-designed studies to assess the scientific evidence of the relationship between amoxicillin and fluorosis and to restrict the prescription of this drug for recurrent upper respiratory tract infections especially acute otitis media (AOM during the first two years of life. When it is possible can be opportune to use an alternative antibiotic treatment.

  7. 云南省富源县燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒病情调查分析%An investigation of coal-burning type endemic fluorosis in Fuyuan County of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄开莲; 王安伟; 彭昌艳; 史亮晶; 赵志花; 郭玉熹; 张海涛

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the prevailing status of coal-burning type endemic fluorosis in Fuyuan County of Yunnan Province, and to provide a scientific basis for fluorosis control and prevention. Methods In 2013, five towns were selected from the villages and towns which the defluoridation stove project was implemented and by the end of 2007 defluoridation stove rate was higher than 95%(including 95%), and two natural villages were selected in each township to carry out the investigation. Dental fluorosis was examined of all children aged 8 to 12 of survey points. At least 20 people were selected in each village. At the same time, 20 copies of instant urine samples were collected from these children of half male and half female, and urinary fluoride was determined. Then five natural villages were sampled from all survey points, and permanent residents were divided into"25-","35-","45-","55-"and"≥65"groups according to age. Six people were selected from each group with male and female in half who were conducted examination of adult skeletal fluorosis by X-ray. Dental fluorosis diagnosis was based on the"Dental Fluorosis Diagnosis"(WS/T 208-2011). Urinary fluoride determination was done in accordance with"Urine-Determination of Fluoride-Ion Specific Electrode Method"(WS/T 30-1996). Skeletal fluorosis diagnosis was carried out according to "Diagnostic Criteria for Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis" (WS 192-2008). Results A total of 556 children aged 8 to 12 were monitored, the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 41.55%(231/556), the dental fluorosis index was 0.78. The very mild, mild, moderate and severe proportions of children's dental fluorosis were 20.50%(114/556), 17.09%(95/556), 3.60%(20/556) and 0.36%(2/556), respectively, given priority to very mild. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in children was increased with increasing age (χ2=74.27, P<0.05). One hundred and ninety-three copies of child urine samples were tested, the geometric mean of urinary fluoride was 0

  8. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries; Kindesmisshandlung. Radiologische Diagnostik skelettaler Verletzungsfolgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie

    2012-06-15

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  9. Fluorosis of sheep caused by the Hekla eruption in 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgsson, G.; Petursson, G.

    1972-01-01

    For centuries, eruptions of the volcano Hekla in Iceland have caused serious damage to domestic animals. This study is concerned with the effect of the May 5, 1970 eruption. On that day, samples of ash contained up to 2000 ppm of fluoride. The values decreased to 10% within two weeks and to 2% within three weeks. During the first week stagnant surface water contained up to 70 ppm fluoride, running water up to 10 ppm. Where the layers of ash on the ground were about 10 mm thick, grass analyzed for fluoride showed 4300 ppm on the second day after the eruption. This level fell to less than 30 ppm after 35 to 40 days, partly due to heavy rainfall. Acute fluorosis accounted for a mortality approximately 3% of the sheep and 8 to 9% of lambs in the affected area during the first few weeks. Convulsive seizures, pulmonary edema, kidney and liver changes accounted for the deaths. Subsequently, no evidence of skeletal fluorosis was noted except for slight periosteal thickening in less than 0.25% of 400 animals which were x-rayed. In the bones of lambs, fluoride concentrations increased about 4 fold of normal, but in adult sheep only about 50%. In spite of the relatively short time exposure to fluoride, dental fluorosis occurred in 25.3% of the third incisors which erupted 4 to 9 months later and in 8.6% of the second incisors which erupted 9 to 13 months after the volcanic eruption. 12 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of Chidambaram taluk, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean′s fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997. Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ′borderline′ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6. A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors

  11. The new characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in some areas in North-Western Guizhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wua, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, A.M. [CAS, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride contents in coal, drinking water, corn and chili, were assayed, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis and fluoride levels in urine in the local inhabitants were investigated. Fluoride content in coal of Hualuo, Majiazhuang and Pianpozhai (China) is 107.8, 104.1 and 117.6 mg/kg, respectively, in drinking water of the three villages is 0.12, 0.14 and {lt} 0.05 mg/l, respectively; in corn of the three villages is 30.6,33.4 and 49.8 mg/kg, respectively; in chili of the three village is 513.2, 342.6 and 281.0 mg/kg. Fluorosis is serious in the areas. It is concluded that fluoride levels in urine and coal is relatively low to the serious fluorosis and the high fluoride contents in foodstuff, it is the new characteristics in the endemic fluorosis area. Further study should be made.

  12. Analysis of monitoring results of drinking-tea borne endemic fluorosis in Lhasa of Tibet%西藏拉萨市饮茶型氟中毒流行现状调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    格桑卓嘎

    2012-01-01

    .Four townships in each county were selected(including 2 villages in Chengguan county),and 2 administrative villages in each township were selected as monitoring villages.By using Dean method,dental fluorosis of every child aged 8 - 12 in the monitoring villages was examined.At the same time,urine samples were randomly collected in each age group in the above-mentioned villages.The content of fluoride in urine was determined by F-ion selective electrode (WS/T 30-1996) and evaluated according to “The Normal Concentration of Uriary Fluride of Population” (WS/T 256-2005).Over 18 years old in the monitoring counties were divided into five age group as - 25,- 35,- 45,- 55 and 56 -,at least 10 ment were randomly selected in each age group to be examined clinical skeletal fluorosis,and the diagnosis was based on the endemic skeletal fluorosis standard(WS 192-2007 ).At the same time,adult dental fluorosis diagnosis and urinary fluoride examination were done.Drinking water samples in each survey point were collected and water fluoride was determination by ion selective electrode method.Results ①Dental fluorosis:a total of 723 children aged 8 to 12 were examined,91 cases of dental fluorosis were detected,and detection rate was 12.58%,dental fluorosis index was 0.34; ②adult dental fluorosis:a total of 2626 adults were examined,998 cases of dental fluorosis were detected,and detection rate was 38.00%,dental fluorosis index was 0.71; ③Adult clinical skeletal fluorosis:a total of 2626 adults were examined,15 degree Ⅱ clinical skeletal fluorosis patients were detected,and the detection rate was 0.57% ; ④Child urine fluoride:a total of 700 child urine samples were collected.The geometric mean was 1.97 mg/L,ranged 0.01 to 17.56 rng/L; ⑤Adult urine fluoride:a total of 2626 adults were examined,geometric mean 2.16 mg/L,ranged 0.01 to 56.87 mg/L; ⑥Water fluoride:52 water samples were tested in survey sites,and fluoride content of 15 water samples exceeded the

  13. Effects of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoriobe, U; Rozier, R G; Cantrell, J; King, R S

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in North Carolina schoolchildren and their families. Students (n = 7,686) enrolled in 398 classrooms in grades K-12 were recruited for a onetime survey. Parents of students in grades K-3 and 4-12 completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and Family Impact Scale (FIS), respectively. Students in grades 4-12 completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 in grades 4-5; CPQ11-14 in grades 6-12). All students were examined for fluorosis (Dean's index) and caries experience (d2-3fs or D2-3MFS indices). OHRQoL scores (sum response codes) were analyzed for their association with fluorosis categories and sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS according to ordinary least squares regression with SAS procedures for multiple imputation and analysis of complex survey data. Differences in OHRQoL scores were evaluated against statistical and minimal important difference (MID) thresholds. Of 5,484 examined students, 71.8% had no fluorosis; 24.4%, questionable to very mild fluorosis; and 3.7%, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis. Caries categories were as follows: none (43.1%), low (28.6%), and moderate to high (28.2%). No associations between fluorosis and any OHRQoL scales met statistical or MID thresholds. The difference (5.8 points) in unadjusted mean ECOHIS scores for the no-caries and moderate-to-high caries groups exceeded the MID estimate (2.7 points) for that scale. The difference in mean FIS scores (1.5 points) for the no-caries and moderate-to-high groups exceeded the MID value (1.2 points). The sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS scores was positively associated with CPQ11-14 (B = 0.240, p caries experience negatively affects OHRQoL, while fluorosis has little impact.

  14. Early interception of skeletal-dental factors predisposing to temporomandibular disorders during child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, M; Landi, N; Manfredini, D; Gandini, P; Bosco, M

    2003-02-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comprise a heterogoneous group of pathologies or dysfunctions of the temporomandibular joints and their related neuromuscular systems. The multifactoral etiology of these disorders raises serious diagnostic and therapeutic problems. A modern approach demands close collaboration between a number of specialists in order to create the best possible treatment plan. The progressive nature of certain forms of TMD, combined with the major advantages deriving from early treatment, encourage the dental surgeon to carry out early interception of all those dental and/or skeletal anomalies which may determine the dysharmonic function and development of the facial mass, even though such anomalies may not represent the sole causes of the various forms of TMD. The general practitioner, and to an even greater extent the pediatrician, may therefore play a role of primary importance as those medical influences capable of early detection of TMD risk situations.

  15. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  16. Barrier formation: potential molecular mechanism of enamel fluorosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Medina, J.F.; Sarvide, S.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Everts, V.; Denbesten, P.; Smith, C.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. We hypothesized that fluorosis is associated with excess release of protons during formation of hypermineralized lines in the mineralizing enamel matrix. We tested

  17. Dental fluorosis and its influence on children’s life

    OpenAIRE

    Moimaz,Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando [UNESP; Marques, Lívia Bino; Garbin,Cléa Adas Saliba; Nemre Adas SALIBA

    2015-01-01

    This study verified the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old children and its association with different fluoride levels in the public water supply, and evaluated the level of perception of dental fluorosis by the studied children. To assess fluorosis prevalence, clinical examinations were performed and a structured instrument was used to evaluate the self-perception of fluorosis. The water supply source in the children’s area of residence since birth was used as the study criterion....

  18. Use of fluoride tablets and effect on prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, H.; Verrips, E.; Dirks, O.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was executed to investigate the relation between the use of fluoride tablets by children in the age period 1.5-6 yr on the one hand and the caries experience at the age of 6 and 15 yr and the prevalence of fluorosis at the age of 15 yr on the other hand. The year of birth of the child, the m

  19. Osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia: a skeletal dysplasia that may mimic lead poisoning in a child with hypotonia and seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennel, Emilie A. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); John, Susan D. [Department of Radiology, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, 6431 Fannin-MSB2.100, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 23-month-old male with hypotonia, developmental delay, and complex seizures. Radiographs revealed profound sclerosis of the metaphyses and epiphyses of the long and short bones in the extremities, with a unique pattern of distribution. Sclerosis also involved the anterior ribs, iliac crests, talus, and calcaneus. The skull and vertebral bodies appeared unaffected. Blood lead levels were normal. We believe that this constellation of clinical and radiographic abnormalities closely resembles osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia (OMD) due to an autosomal recessive defect. Characteristic skeletal findings were instrumental in determining the diagnosis. OMD is a very rare sclerosing bone disorder, first described in 1993. The syndrome is characterized clinically by developmental delay of a progressive nature, hypotonia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and late-onset spastic paraplegia. We encountered a young child with these neurologic symptoms who displayed sclerotic metaphyseal changes on hand radiographs obtained to determine the bone age. Lead poisoning, a known cause of metaphyseal sclerosis, was initially suspected. Careful analysis of the metaphyseal bone changes helped to distinguish this bone dysplasia from lead poisoning and other causes of metaphyseal sclerosis. (orig.)

  20. Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahian F. MD- Internist

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The health of habitants, living in un-fluoridated drinking water areas, can be endangered"nthrough fluoride intake from food, beverages, tooth paste and dentistry products. Fluoride is used in"nmouthwash, toothpaste, juice fruits, conserved foods and Teflon dishes. Water exposure to fluoride"noccurs through fertilizers, aluminum industries, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides and fungicides used"nfor fruits and vegetables which ultimately lead to environmental fluoride pollution. Some side effects."ncaused by chronic fluoride intake are as follows: decrease of hemoglobin concentration, gastrointestinal"ndisorders, and tooth loss at young age, osteofluorosis, hip fracture among aged people, osteosclerosis,"nosteoporosis, special forms of arthritis and joint ankylosis, metaphysial osteomalacia, mottling and weak"nstructure of tooth, insulin secretion and glucose tolerance test disorders, decrease of urine concentration,"nimmune system disorders, genetic defects and cancer, learning disabilities and IQ(intelligence quotient"ndeficits and thyroid dysfunction The present article was to investigate the side effect of excessive"nfluoride intake and to discuss different preventive and diagnostic ways.

  1. Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahian F. MD- Internist

    2003-01-01

    The health of habitants, living in un-fluoridated drinking water areas, can be endangered"nthrough fluoride intake from food, beverages, tooth paste and dentistry products. Fluoride is used in"nmouthwash, toothpaste, juice fruits, conserved foods and Teflon dishes. Water exposure to fluoride"noccurs through fertilizers, aluminum industries, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides and fungicides used"nfor fruits and vegetables which ultimately lead to environmental fluoride po...

  2. Dental fluorosis: exposure, prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto Alvarez, Jenny; Rezende, Karla Mayra P C; Marocho, Susana María Salazar; Alves, Fabiana B T; Celiberti, Paula; Ciamponi, Ana Lidia

    2009-02-01

    Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel, caused by successive exposures to high concentrations of fluoride during tooth development, leading to enamel with lower mineral content and increased porosity. The severity of dental fluorosis depends on when and for how long the overexposure to fluoride occurs, the individual response, weight, degree of physical activity, nutritional factors and bone growth. The risk period for esthetic changes in permanent teeth is between 20 and 30 months of age. The recommended level for daily fluoride intake is 0.05 - 0.07 mg F/Kg/day, which is considered of great help in preventing dental caries, acting in remineralization. A daily intake above this safe level leads to an increased risk of dental fluorosis. Currently recommended procedures for diagnosis of fluorosis should discriminate between symmetrical and asymmetrical and/or discrete patterns of opaque defects. Fluorosis can be prevented by having an adequate knowledge of the fluoride sources, knowing how to manage this issue and therefore, avoid overexposure.

  3. 2010年陕西省燃煤污染型氟中毒监测结果分析%Analysis of monitoring results of coal-burning borne endemic fluorosis in Shanxi province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范中学; 李跃; 李晓茜; 白广禄; 李平安; 刘晓莉; 白爱梅; 杨晓栋

    2012-01-01

    in each of the nine monitoring points and every chosen village,and a survey on the stove using and related behavior changes was carried out.By using Dean method,the dental fluorosis of every child aged 8 - 12 in the monitoring villages was examined.Meanwhile 10 copies of urine samples were randomly collected in each age group in the above-mentioned villages.The content of fluoride in urine was determined by F-ion selective electrode(WS/T 30-1996) and evaluated according to “The Normal Concentration of Urinary Fluoride of Population” (WS/T 256-2005).Twenty men over 25years old in the monitoring counties were randomly selected in each age group to be examined skeletal fluorosis by X-rays,and diagnosis was based on “The Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis Standard”(WS 192-2007).Results The proper utilization rate and the qualified households of iron stoves and improved stoves,the correct drying rate and the correct storage rate of peppers and coms were all low.The washing rate of corns and peppers before eating was higher than 95%.Of the 350 children being examined of dental fluorosis in the 9 monitoring villages,the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 59.71% (209/350).A total of 871 adults over the age of 25 were examined,and the detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 17.22% (150/871).A total of 350 copies of children urine samples were tested and the fluoride content were between 0.07 - 2.02 mg/L,the geometric mean value of fluoride content was 0.66 mg/L.Conclusions The coal-burning borne endemic fluorosis in Shanxi is in a growth phase,many defluoridation stoves are out of order,and the formation of healthy behaviors is low.To strengthen the disease surveillance,health education and management of defluoridation stoves are keys to prevent coal-burning borne endemic fluorosis in the future.

  4. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - Paper 2: The ability of fluorescence imaging to detect differences in fluorosis prevalence and severity for different fluoride intakes from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect a dose response relationship between fluorosis severity and different levels of fluoride in water supplies compared to remote photographic scoring in selected populations participating in an observational, epidemiological survey in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of cooking water samples (CWS was assessed to create categorical intervals of water fluoride concentration. Fluorescence images were taken of the maxillary central incisors and analyzed for dental fluorosis using two different software techniques. Output metrics for the fluorescence imaging techniques were compared to TF scores from blinded photographic scores obtained from the survey. Results Data from 553 subjects were available. Both software analysis techniques demonstrated significant correlations with the photographic scores. The metrics for area effected by fluorosis and the overall fluorescence loss had the strongest association with the photographic TF score (Spearman’s rho 0.664 and 0.652 respectively. Both software techniques performed well for comparison of repeat fluorescence images with ICC values of 0.95 and 0.85 respectively. Conclusions This study supports the potential use of fluorescence imaging for the objective quantification of dental fluorosis. Fluorescence imaging was able to discriminate between populations with different fluoride exposures on a comparable level to remote photographic scoring with acceptable levels of repeatability.

  5. Investigation on fluoride content in well water and prevalent state of fluorosis in endemic fluorosis area of Yangyuan County Hebei Province%河北省阳原县高氟区水氟含量和地方性氟中毒病情调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀平; 王志祥; 杨富花; 韩国毅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the fluoride contents of well water and prevalent state of fluorosis in endemic fluorosis area of Yangyuan County in Hebei Province. Method Randomly selecting 2 villages as objects, including one endemic area named Nanwa and one non — endemic area named Dongbu. Detemination fluoride content in well water and, investigation of dental fluorosis prevalence rate and deformed skeletal fluorosis in these villages. Results The fluoride content in well water of Nanwa was obviously higher than that in Dongbao (P < 0. 01), contents at the range of 2. 20 to 2. 91mg/L, which were higher than the limit of Sanitary Standard for Drinking Water Quality (2001) . The urine fluoride and dental fluorosis rate of children in Nanwa were obviously higher than that in Dongbao (P <0. 01), the dental fluorosis rate was 81.4%. There were 26 deformed skeletal fluorosis patients in Nanwa. Conclusions The fluoride contents in well water of endemic fluorosis area were seriously higher than the sanitary standard and people in endemic area still had severe fluorosis.%目的 了解河北省阳原县地方性氟中毒病区水氟含量以及人群氟中毒患病情况.方法 选择阳原县地方性氟中毒病区南洼村和非病区东堡村为调查点,测定井水氟含量、儿童尿氟含量,并进行儿童氟斑牙患病率及人群残废型氟骨症情况调查.结果 南洼村井水氟含量明显高于东堡村(P<0.01),井水氟含量范围为2.20~2.91mg/L,均超过《生活饮用水卫生规范》(2001),南洼村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率为81.4%,其氟斑牙患病率和尿氟含量均明显高于东堡村(P<0.01);南洼村仍存在成人残废型氟骨症患者.结论 阳原县地方性氟中毒病区南洼村井水氟含量超标严重,病区人群仍存在严重的氟中毒流行.

  6. Coal burning induced endemic fluorosis in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Cao, S.R. [Chinese Academy of Preventative Medicine, Beijing (China). Inst. of Environmental Health and Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Wide-spread coal-burning in China is caused by indoor combustion of high fluoride (F) containing coal. The incidence of fluorosis increases with increase in the F content of coal. Indoor airborne F of fluorosis-afflicted areas exists mainly in a gaseous form (SiF{sub 4} and HG) with some co-existing aerosol forms. Gaseous F contributes about 40-84% of total inorganic F emission. Total airborne inorganic F was in the range of 11-155 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, several times higher than the National Hygienic Standards. Total F intake by adults in disease areas was found to be about 10 mg/day as compared to 0.8 mg/day in nondisease areas.

  7. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    0977   Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years A. RICHARDS1, M. LARSEN1, L. MAARE2, and H. HEDEBOE2, 1Aarhus University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark, 2Præstø School Dental Service, Denmark Objectives: To describe the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among al...

  8. Dietary behaviours and dental fluorosis among Gaza Strip children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhaloob, L; Abed, Y

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of dental fluorosis has been identified among children in the Gaza Strip. This study aimed to determine the history of breastfeeding and dietary behaviours among children in the Gaza Strip and to examine potential associations with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. A cross-sectional study recruited a stratified cluster random sample of 350 children aged 12-18 years and their mothers. Data about dietary behaviours in the first 7 years of life were collected by interview questionnaire. Dental fluorosis was determined using the Thyllstrup-Fejerskov index. A majority of children were breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months (82.9%) but 98.1% were given tea in the first year of life. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 78.0%. Both intake of animal proteins and plant proteins were negatively associated with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Further studies to investigate fluoride intake is required to plan preventive interventions.

  9. Surveillance on Fluorosis of Brick Tea Type in Ruoergai County, 2011%2011年若尔盖县饮茶型氟中毒监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 为及时掌握若尔盖县饮茶型氟中毒病区居民户合格砖茶普及情况,动态评价病区人群饮茶型地氟病流行趋势,为采取针对性干预措施提供依据.方法 2011年对5个监测村50个居民户采集砖茶并测定茶氟含量,检测8 ~ 12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况及成人氟骨症X线患病情况.结果 检测村民砖茶氟含量最小值为502.05 mg/kg,最大值为1 513.4 mg/kg;平均值为990.28 mg/kg,无合格份数,日人均摄氟量达5.23 mg;检查137名8~12岁儿童,共检出极轻度及以上氟斑牙病例15例,检出率为10.95%;共X线拍摄成人氟骨症111名,检出49例氟骨症患者,检出率为44.14%.结论 若尔盖县属于饮茶型氟中毒高流行区,农牧民群众处于高摄氟状态;成人氟骨症病情重,呈现慢性氟中毒蓄积.%Objective To master the situation of the household eligible brick tea in tea type fluorosis area of Ruoergai county, dynamically evaluate the epidemic trend of brick tea fluorosis and provide evidence for the targeted intervention. Methods Brick tea from 50 villages in 5 surveillance sites were collected to examine fluoride content. Dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 and X - ray of adult skeletal fluorosis were examined. Results The minimum value of brick tea fluoride content was 502. 05 mg/kg, while the maximum value was 1 513. 4 mg/kg, and the average was 990. 28 mg/kg. There was no qualified copies. The daily incept of fluoride was 5. 23 mg per capita; 137 children aged 8 - 12 were checked, in which 15 cases with dental fluorosis were checked out, the detection rate was 10. 95% ; 111 skeletal fluorosis cases were got X - ray photoed, 49 cases with skeletal fluorosis were checked out, with the detection rate 44. 14%. Conclusions Ruoergai county is a tea type fluorosis endemic area, farmers and herdsmen in the highly fluoride incept status; the illness of adult skeletal fluorosis is severe, showing the accumulation of chronic fluorosis.

  10. Quantitative Light Fluorescence (QLF and Polarized White Light (PWL assessments of dental fluorosis in an epidemiological setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pretty Iain A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine if a novel dual camera imaging system employing both polarized white light (PWL and quantitative light induced fluorescence imaging (QLF is appropriate for measuring enamel fluorosis in an epidemiological setting. The use of remote and objective scoring systems is of importance in fluorosis assessments due to the potential risk of examiner bias using clinical methods. Methods Subjects were recruited from a panel previously characterized for fluorosis and caries to ensure a range of fluorosis presentation. A total of 164 children, aged 11 years (±1.3 participated following consent. Each child was examined using the novel imaging system, a traditional digital SLR camera, and clinically using the Dean’s and Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF Indices on the upper central and lateral incisors. Polarized white light and SLR images were scored for both Dean’s and TF indices by raters and fluorescence images were automatically scored using software. Results Data from 164 children were available with a good distribution of fluorosis severity. The automated software analysis of QLF images demonstrated significant correlations with the clinical examinations for both Dean’s and TF index. Agreement (measured by weighted Kappa’s between examiners scoring clinically, from polarized photographs and from SLR images ranged from 0.56 to 0.92. Conclusions The study suggests that the use of a digital imaging system to capture images for either automated software analysis, or remote assessment by raters is suitable for epidemiological work. The use of recorded images enables study archiving, assessment by multiple examiners, remote assessment and objectivity due to the blinding of subject status.

  11. 氟中毒患者COLIXA3基因多态性观察%Observation on COLIXA3 polymorphism of patients with fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐莉; 王三祥; 钟近洁; 张跃新; 白生宾; 张亚楼; 刘开泰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the COLIXA3 gene polymorphism of patients with fluorosis and to explore the pathogenesis of COLIXA3 gene in endemic fluorosis.Methods Fifty one cases of patients with drinking-water borne fluorosis were selected as the case group in Xinzhou city,Shanxi province and 28 cases of healthy people were as the control group.Dental fluorosis was detected by Dean method and skeletal fluorosis was examined by X-ray.COLIXA3 of exon 5 gene product of 103 points was amplified by PCR and the gene locus genotype was sequenced.Results Ten cases of mild dental fluorosis,14 cases of moderate dental fluorosis,15 cases of severe dental fluorosis were detected among the 51 patients.The control group was free of dental fluorosis.All the 51 cases of patients with fluorosis had varying degrees of skeletal fluorosis,mainly osteosclerosis lesions,accounting for 86.27%(44/51 ),and mild skeletal fluorosis patients were all osteosclerosis lesions,and osteosclerosis lesions and multiple skeletal lesions were found among moderate and severe skeletal fluorosis patients in the case group,while control group had no skeletal fluorosis.The differences between genotypes of frequency distribution of AA,Aa,aa of COLIXA3 of case and control groups were not statistically significant [96.08%(49/51 ),3.92%(2/51 ),0.00%(0/51) and 96.43%(27/28),3.57%(1/28),0.00%(0/28),x2 =0.94,P > 0.05].Conclusions COLIXA3 gene polymorphism is not significantly correlated to fluorosis.%目的 观察氟中毒患者COLIXA3基因多态性,探讨COLIXA3基因在地方性氟中毒发病机制中的作用.方法 在山西省忻州市,选取51例饮水型氟中毒患者作为病例组,28例健康居民作为对照组,用Dean法检测氟斑牙,X线拍片检测氟骨症,PCR法扩增血清COLIXA3第5外显子103位点基因产物,测序后分析该基因位点的基因型.结果 病例组51例患者中检出轻度氟斑牙10例,中度氟斑牙14例,重度氟斑牙15例,对照组

  12. PREVALENCE AND CAUSATIVE FACTORS OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS IN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Excessive consumption of fluoride leads to toxic manifestations in man, collectively referred to as Fluorosis. Latest estimates suggest that around 200 million people from among 25 nations the world over, are under the dreadful fate of Fluorosis. In India, 20 states are under fluoride attack. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and causative factors of dental fluorosis among children in the age group of 10-15 years in Kerala. METHODOLOGY: Two endemic districts and two neighboring non endemic districts were selected for this study. Sample size of 980 was calculated and adequate sample was selected from the school going children. A pretested modified questionnaire was used to collect the data. The fluorosis status was assessed by dental specialists. The information regarding the fluoride content of the water was also obtained. The data was entered and analyzed. The prevalence of fluorosis was calculated in percentages. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the endemic districts of Alappuzha and Palakkad were 37.4% and 39.2% respectively. The prevalence in the neighboring non endemic districts of Kollam and Thrissur were 4.4 % and 2.2% respectively. The community fluorosis index was 0.61 in Alappuzha and 0.63 in Palakkad. The prevalence was higher among boys than among girls

  13. Bovine dental fluorosis: histologic and physical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, T.R.; Kolstad, D.L.; Suttie, J.W.

    1978-04-01

    Incisor teeth from 5- to 6-year-old Holstein-Friesian cattle maintained on a ration averaging 40 ppm F annually from 4 months of age were analyzed by a variety of histologic techniques. These techniques included photomicroscopy, microradiography, protein staining, and microhardness testing. The features of fluorotic enamel that were noted were: hypomineralized outer enamel, coronal cementum hyperplasia, disrupted subsurface pigment band, hypoplastic pits, puckered incremental lines, periodic radiolucent regions, positive protein staining, and decreased microhardness of the outer enamel. These results were similar to the lesions of dental fluorosis observed in other species, and explain the external appearance of fluorotic bovine teeth observed under field conditions.

  14. Fluorosis of cattle in the Wroclaw province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohosiewicz, M.; Jopek, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Fluorosis of cattle and sheep was diagnosed in the neighborhood of glassworks and a superphosphate mill. In cows there was a brown color and loss of the enamel on incisive teeth, uneven detrition of molar teeth, osseous lesions in teeth and limb bones, and in some animals also swelling and painfulness of limb joints, hobble and cachexia. In sheep the lesions were observed in teeth only. Exacerbation of the lesions in the animals coming from the neighborhood of the glass works was greater than in those coming from the neighborhood of the superphosphate mill. There was found no relation between exacerbation of the lesions in teeth and bones.

  15. Factors associated to endemic dental fluorosis in Brazilian rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Efigênia F; Vargas, Andréa Maria D; Castilho, Lia S; Velásquez, Leila Nunes M; Fantinel, Lucia M; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2010-08-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9) or absence (TF = 0) of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5-with loss of enamel structure) or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4-with no loss of enamel structure). Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07-6.27; p = 0.073) and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01-1.03; p = 0.060) in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05). More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5) was only associated with age group (p dental fluorosis (p > 0.05). Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05) to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  16. Factors Associated to Endemic Dental Fluorosis in Brazilian Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9 or absence (TF = 0 of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure. Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073 and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060 in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05. More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5 was only associated with age group (p < 0.05. No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05 to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  17. FACTORES DE RIESGO DE FLUOROSIS DENTAL EN ESCOLARES DE LA I.E.P. N°40088 REYNO DE BÉLGICA DEL DISTRITO DE UCHUMAYO. AREQUIPA, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    GUEVARA MAMANI, LOURDES ISABEL

    2014-01-01

    FLUOROSIS DEFINICIÓN PATOGENIA CARACTERÍSTICAS CLÍNICAS DE LA FLUOROSIS DENTAL ÍNDICE DE FLUOROSIS REGISTRO DE LA FLUOROSIS DENTAL ÍNDICE COMUNITARIO DE FLUOROSIS DENTAL FLÚOR EN LA SAL DENTÍFRICOS FLUORADOS FLÚOR DE APLICACIÓN PROFESIONAL ENJUAGUES FLUORADOS BEBIDAS PREPARADAS CON AGUA FLUORADA PREVENCIÓN DE LA FLUOROSIS DENTAL

  18. Dental fluorosis: prevalence and associated factors in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Goiânia, Goiás

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    Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of dental fluorosis, to investigate its association with individual and contextual variables among 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to determine whether there were changes in the prevalence of this condition from 2003 to 2010.METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, in 2010 (n = 2,075, and secondary data from the files of the local health authority. Clinical data were collected through oral examinations in public and private schools. The dependent variable was the presence of dental fluorosis, assessed using the Dean Index. The independent individual variables were sociodemographic characteristics (the child's gender and race, and the mother's level of schooling and those related to clinical conditions (caries experience, evaluated using Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth index; and presence of periodontal calculus and/or bleeding, evaluated using Community Periodontal Index. The contextual variables were linked to the school (type and existence of toothbrushing program and its geographic location in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test was performed, and the percentage difference between the prevalences in the period from 2003 to 2010 was calculated.RESULTS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 2010 was 18.7%, being distributed as very mild (11.2%, mild (4.4%, moderate (2.6%, and severe (0.5%. No significant association was found between prevalence of dental fluorosis and the investigated variables. The prevalence of fluorosis increased 230% from 2003 to 2010, and such difference was significant.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was low, predominantly of the very mild degree, has increased over a 7-year period, and was not associated with the individual or contextual factors studied.

  19. Co-occurrence of arseniasis and fluorosis due to indoor combustion of high fluorine and arsenic content coal in a rural township in northwest China: epidemiological and toxicological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guo-fang; Gong, Shi-you; Wei, Cheng; Chen, Ji-gang; Golka, Klaus; Shen, Jian-hua

    2012-06-01

    A large number of fluorosis and arseniasis cases appeared in a mountainous area in northwest China. The residents relied on local inferior coal ("bone coal") of high fluorine and arsenic content for domestic heating and cooking. For deep-inside information about this rare case of co-endemia of fluorosis and arseniasis in the population in this special exposure scenario, a field investigation in one of the hyperendemic townships was conducted. The resident population registered (n = 27,713) was enrolled in the investigation. All cases were diagnosed and assigned to three symptom severity groups, that is severe, medium, and mild according to Chinese National Standard Criteria GB 16396-96 and to the technical guideline WS/T208-01 or WS/T211-01 issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Gender difference was analyzed by standardized incidence ratio. Age trend and severity trend were tested by χ(2) analysis. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 56.7% of the residents. Over 95% of the diagnosed arseniasis cases were simultaneously diagnosed with fluorosis symptoms. Combined fluorosis-arseniasis represented 11.9% of the total fluorosis cases and 6.7% of the local population. No gender-related differences in the prevalence of skeletal, dental, or dermal symptoms inside all severity groups were detected. Symptom severity increased with age. The high frequency of superposition of arseniasis with fluorosis might be due to the fact that the local resident population has been exposed to very high levels of fluorine and arsenic via the same exposure route.

  20. Co-occurrence of arseniasis and fluorosis due to indoor combustion of high fluorine and arsenic content coal in a rural township in northwest China: epidemiological and toxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guo-fang; Shen, Jian-hua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai (China); Gong, Shi-you [County Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Ziyang, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Cheng [Township Clinics of Haoping, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Ji-gang [Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control of Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Golka, Klaus [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    A large number of fluorosis and arseniasis cases appeared in a mountainous area in northwest China. The residents relied on local inferior coal (''bone coal'') of high fluorine and arsenic content for domestic heating and cooking. For deep-inside information about this rare case of co-endemia of fluorosis and arseniasis in the population in this special exposure scenario, a field investigation in one of the hyperendemic townships was conducted. The resident population registered (n = 27,713) was enrolled in the investigation. All cases were diagnosed and assigned to three symptom severity groups, that is severe, medium, and mild according to Chinese National Standard Criteria GB 16396-96 and to the technical guideline WS/T208-01 or WS/T211-01 issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Gender difference was analyzed by standardized incidence ratio. Age trend and severity trend were tested by {chi}{sup 2} analysis. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 56.7% of the residents. Over 95% of the diagnosed arseniasis cases were simultaneously diagnosed with fluorosis symptoms. Combined fluorosis-arseniasis represented 11.9% of the total fluorosis cases and 6.7% of the local population. No gender-related differences in the prevalence of skeletal, dental, or dermal symptoms inside all severity groups were detected. Symptom severity increased with age. The high frequency of superposition of arseniasis with fluorosis might be due to the fact that the local resident population has been exposed to very high levels of fluorine and arsenic via the same exposure route. (orig.)

  1. Topical fluoride as a cause of dental fluorosis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, MCM; Lo, ECM; Glenny, AM; Tsang, BWK; Worthington, HV; Marinho, VCC

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many years, topical use of fluorides has gained greater popularity than systemic use of fluorides. A possible adverse effect associated with the use of topical fluoride is the development of dental fluorosis due to the ingestion of excessive fluoride by young children with developing teeth. OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationship between the use of topical fluorides in young children and the risk of developing dental fluorosis. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic search of the Cochra...

  2. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokseir, Aira

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childhood Events Life-grid method (ECEL). Methods. A study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children from areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of Fars province, Iran. Fluorosis cases were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using Dean’s and TF (Thylstrup and Fejerskov) Indices by calibrated dentists. Agreements between examiners were tested. Early childhood health-related data collected retrospectively by ECEL method were matched with the position of enamel defects. Results. Using both Dean and TF indices three out of four dentists diagnosed that 31.3% (115) children had fluorosis, 58.0%, 29.1%, and 10.0% in high (2.12–2.85 ppm), optimal (0.62–1.22 ppm), and low (0.24–0.29 ppm) fluoride areas respectively (p < 0.001). After matching health-related events in the 115 (31.3%) of children diagnosed with fluorosis, 31 (8.4%) of children had fluorosis which could be matched with their adverse health-related events. This suggests that what was diagnosed as fluorosis were non-fluoride related DDEs that resemble fluorosis. Discussion. The frequently used measures of fluorosis appear to overscore fluorosis. Use of ECEL method to consider health related events relevant to DDEs could help to differentiate between genuine fluorosis and fluorosis-resembling defects. PMID:26966672

  3. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children

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    Aira Sabokseir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childhood Events Life-grid method (ECEL. Methods. A study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children from areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of Fars province, Iran. Fluorosis cases were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using Dean’s and TF (Thylstrup and Fejerskov Indices by calibrated dentists. Agreements between examiners were tested. Early childhood health-related data collected retrospectively by ECEL method were matched with the position of enamel defects. Results. Using both Dean and TF indices three out of four dentists diagnosed that 31.3% (115 children had fluorosis, 58.0%, 29.1%, and 10.0% in high (2.12–2.85 ppm, optimal (0.62–1.22 ppm, and low (0.24–0.29 ppm fluoride areas respectively (p < 0.001. After matching health-related events in the 115 (31.3% of children diagnosed with fluorosis, 31 (8.4% of children had fluorosis which could be matched with their adverse health-related events. This suggests that what was diagnosed as fluorosis were non-fluoride related DDEs that resemble fluorosis. Discussion. The frequently used measures of fluorosis appear to overscore fluorosis. Use of ECEL method to consider health related events relevant to DDEs could help to differentiate between genuine fluorosis and fluorosis-resembling defects.

  4. Thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of ligamentum flavum of which fluorosis as an etiology factor

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    Zhou Jing

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the clinical feature, operative method and prognosis of thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum caused by skeletal fluorosis. Methods All the patients with thoracic OLF, who underwent surgical management in the authors' hospital from 1993–2003, were retrospectively studied. The diagnosis of skeletal fluorosis was made by the epidemic history, clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, and urinalysis. En bloc laminectomy decompression of the involved thoracic levels was performed in all cases. Cervical open door decompression or lumbar laminectomy decompression was performed if relevant stenosis existed. The neurological statuses were evaluated with the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA scoring system preoperatively and at the end point of follow up. Also, the recovery rate was calculated. Results 23 cases have been enrolled in this study. Imaging study findings showed all the cases have ossification of ligamentum flavum together with ossification of many other ligaments and interosseous membranes, i.e. interosseous membranes of the forearm in 18 of 23 (78.3%, of the leg in 14 of 23 (60.1% and of the ribs in 11 of 23 (47.8%. Urinalysis showed markedly increased urinary fluoride in 14 of 23 patients (60.9%. All the patients were followed up from 12 months to 9 years and 3 months, with an average of 4 years and 5 months. The JOA score increased significantly at the end of follow up (P = 0.0001. The recovery rate was 51.83 ± 32.36%. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the preoperative JOA score was an important predictor of surgical outcome (p = 0.0022, r = 0.60628. ANOVA analysis showed that patients with acute onset or too long duration had worse surgical result (P = 0.0003. Conclusion Fluorosis can cause ossification of thoracic ligamentum flavum, as well as other ligaments. En bloc laminectomy decompression was an effective method. Preoperative JOA score was the most important predictor of surgical

  5. Microabrasion as treatment of enamel fluorosis

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    Ana Caroline Brito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a trend in favor of using fluoride as a coadjuvant in reducing caries indexes, as much in underdeveloped as in developedcountries. However, simultaneously the indexes of dental fluorosis seem to grow in an inverse proportion. This is brought about by chronic ingestion of fluoride for a prolonged length of time or in high concentration. Enamel microabrasion is an effective method to remove superficial stains caused by this condition, which affects esthetics of that tissue. The use of 18% hydrochloric acid in association with pumice, despite being a simple and low cost method, has been gradually replaced due to its potential of causing damage to periodontal tissues. Thus, this article reports the treatment of a fluorosis clinical case solved with microabrasion using phosphoric acid 37%, because its costbenefit is supposedly better than with chloridric acid. The deliberate ingestion of toothpaste was the probable cause of the tooth stains. Due to the location of the teeth and to the patient’s smile, only the six upper anterior teeth were selected to receive the proposed treatment. Four clinical sessions, with a seven days interval between each other, were carried out using 37% phosphoric acid and pumice. Under rubber dam isolation, the two first sessions consisted of rubbing the acid-pumice mix on enamel surface using a rubber cup on slow speed, and abrasive paper strips on the interproximal tooth surfaces. On the two final sessions, only finishing touches were performed using a wooden spatula to manually rub the acid-pumice paste.

  6. 2010年山东省地方性氟中毒病情调查%Investigation on endemic fluorosis condition of Shandong province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 李亨祥; 刘源

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the status of endemic fluorosis condition in Shandong province at present, and to provide the scientific evidence for making strategies for the prevention and control. Methods In accordance with the national "Technology Implementation Plan for Endemic Disease Control Project in 2009" and "drinking water endemic fluorosis monitoring program (trial) ", Ten counties were chosen to carry out the investigation, three villages were chosen in each county , to determine fluoride content of drinking water, check the 8 to 12 years old childrens dental fluorosis and ≥ 25 -year -old adult skeletal fluorosis. Water fluoride content was determined by fluoride ion selective electrode method, children aged 8 to 12 were diagnosed with dental fluorosis Dean s method and adults skeletal fluorosis by the National Standard for "Diagnosis of endemic skeletal fluorosis" (WS 192 -2008). Results Twenty - six improved water quality villages and four yet no improve - water quality villages were investigated in 10 counties. In the 26 improved water quality villages, 15 villages had water fluoride mean ≤ 1.20 mg / L and accounted for 57. 69% , 11 villages had water fluoride mean > 1. 20 mg / L and accounted for 42. 31%, with the maximum water fluoride mean as 5. 58 mg/ L. In the 4 yet no improve - water quality villages, 1 village had water fluoride mean ≤ 1. 20 mg / L and accounted for 25. 00%, 3 villages had water fluoride mean > 1.20 mg / L and accounted for 75.00% , with the maximum water fluoride mean as 2.92 mg/ L. 1 331 children aged 8 to 12 years old were checked in the 26 improved water villages, with the detection rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8 to 12 years old was 59. 73%, the index of dental fluorosis as 1. 17 and the rate of dental damage as 10. 14%. 138 children aged 8 to 12 years old were checked in 4 yet no improve - water quality villages, with the detection rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8 to 12 years old was 51. 45

  7. Dental fluorosis associated with chronic ingestion of dentifrices – what health professionals should know

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    Rosa Virginia Dutra de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on two cases of dental fluorosis caused by inadvertent ingestion of fluoridated dentifrice. An eight-year-old child showed whitish spots and loss of dental enamel in first permanent molars and whitish spots without structure loss in permanent incisors and primary second molars, whereas a fourteen-year-old teenager showed whitish spots in all permanent teeth. In both cases, homologue teeth were affected similarly and mothers did not report on the use of fluoride supplements during pregnancy or children’s infancy. The water fluoridation of the city where they live is considered optimal. Both patients reported eating dentifrice frequently during tooth brushing and in other occasions. Mothers also stated that they did not receive instructions about oral hygiene or about the fact that chronic ingestion of dentifrice could contribute to the development of dental fluorosis. It is believed that the cooperative work between dentists and other health professionals is a way to prevent the occurrence of this condition.

  8. Study on the Situation of the Endemic Fluorosis Control Efficiency after the Water Improvement in Qingtongxia City%青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后防治效果调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕楠; 赵红梅; 李小军; 李胜玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of water improvement aimed at eliminating the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia, Ningxia. Methods By applying epidemiological sample survey melhuds, 670 children were examined in dental fluorosis and 1 400 adults (>25 years) were examined in skeletal fluorosis in Yesheng of Yesheng township, the water-mprovement area where endemic fluorosis was seriously prevailed, Xinqiao of Daba township which was mild endemic fluorosis area, and Huashigou of Daba township which was non-water-improvement area. Results The fluoride content in drinking water of Yesheng,Xinqiao and Huashiguu were (0.24±0.05) , (0.32±0.07) and (1.03±0.19) mg/L. The dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in water-improvenment areas increased significantly than that in non-water-improvement area (P<0.05). Conclusion After water improvement,drinking water fluoride levels decrease, dental fluorosis is still prevalent in certain degree in the endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia, Ningxia.%目的 了解青铜峡市饮水型地方性氟中毒病区改水后儿童氟斑牙及成人氟骨症的患病情况.方法 选择已改水的高氟重病区叶盛镇叶盛5队(改水区1)、高氟轻病区大坝镇新桥5队(改水区2)和未改水的高氟轻病区大坝镇滑石沟5队(未改水区).于2011年3-4月,对全部670名儿童进行氟斑牙诊断并对所有25岁以上成人共1400名进行氟骨症诊断.结果两个改水区水氟浓度分别为(0.24±0.05)、(0.32±0.07) mg/L,均合格;未改水区水氟浓度为(1.03±0.19)mg/L.改水地区儿童氟斑牙患病率和成人氟骨症患病率均低于未改水地区,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区经改水降氟后,饮用水符合卫生要求,但氟斑牙及氟骨症尚存在一定程度的流行.

  9. Assessment of dental fluorosis in Mmp20 +/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R; Tye, C E; Arun, A; MacDonald, D; Chatterjee, A; Abrazinski, T; Everett, E T; Whitford, G M; Bartlett, J D

    2011-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie dental fluorosis are poorly understood. The retention of enamel proteins hallmarking fluorotic enamel may result from impaired hydrolysis and/or removal of enamel proteins. Previous studies have suggested that partial inhibition of Mmp20 expression is involved in the etiology of dental fluorosis. Here we ask if mice expressing only one functional Mmp20 allele are more susceptible to fluorosis. We demonstrate that Mmp20 (+/-) mice express approximately half the amount of MMP20 as do wild-type mice. The Mmp20 heterozygous mice have normal-appearing enamel, with Vickers microhardness values similar to those of wild-type control enamel. Therefore, reduced MMP20 expression is not solely responsible for dental fluorosis. With 50-ppm-fluoride (F(-)) treatment ad libitum, the Mmp20 (+/-) mice had F(-) tissue levels similar to those of Mmp20 (+/+) mice. No significant difference in enamel hardness was observed between the F(-)-treated heterozygous and wild-type mice. Interestingly, we did find a small but significant difference in quantitative fluorescence between these two groups, which may be attributable to slightly higher protein content in the Mmp20 (+/-) mouse enamel. We conclude that MMP20 plays a nominal role in dental enamel fluorosis.

  10. Fluoride Exposure Effects and Dental Fluorosis in Children in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Gaona, Enrique; Angulo, Marina; Sánchez Pérez, Leonor; González González, Rogelio; Nevarez Rascón, Martina; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-11-26

    BACKGROUND The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and to evaluate exposure to fluoridated products in students in the southwest part of the Federal District (Mexico City). MATERIAL AND METHODS Students between 10 and 12 years of age who were born and raised in the study zone were evaluated. The level of dental fluorosis was determined using the modified Dean index (DI) using criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). A bivariate analysis was performed with the χ2 test, and odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between dental fluorosis and the independent variables. RESULTS A total of 239 students were evaluated. Their mean age was 11±0.82 years, and there were 122 (51%) males. Overall, dental fluorosis was found in 59% of participants; 29.3% had very mild fluorosis, 20.9% had mild fluorosis, 6.7% had moderate fluorosis, and 2.1% had severe fluorosis. The mean fluorosis score was 0.887±0.956. In the final logistic regression model, dental fluorosis was significantly associated with frequency of brushing (OR: 0.444; 95% CI: 0.297-0.666) and with the absence of parental supervision (OR: 0.636; 95% CI: 0.525-0.771). CONCLUSIONS The association found with frequency of brushing and lack of parental supervision may be contributing to the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis.

  11. Enamel microabrasion for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Moda, Preeti; Yadav, Madhulika

    2013-10-11

    Fluorosis has increased in recent times due to fluoridation of drinking water and addition of fluoride to various edible items, which leads to unaesthetic appearance of teeth visible at close quarters. The enamel microabrasion technique is a conservative method that improves the appearance of the teeth by restoring bright and superficial smoothness, without causing significant structural loss. The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing mild to moderate dental fluorosis using Opalustre (Ultradent Products) microabrasion slurry. This conservative approach may be considered an interesting alternative to more invasive prosthetic techniques like composite resin restorations, ceramic veneers or crown fabrications.

  12. Surveillance analysis of drinking water borne fluorosis in Tibet autonomous region in 2009%2009年西藏自治区饮水型氟中毒病情监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何风珍; 郭敏; 旦增桑布; 尼玛仓决; 白玛央金

    2011-01-01

    functioning of water improvement projects, drinking water fluoride content, children's dental fluorosis and adult skeletal fluorosis were investigated. Water fluoride was detected by the "standard examination methods for drinking water the non-metallic targets"(GB/T 5750.6-2006) determination of fluoride; urinary fluoride was tested by ion selective electrode (WS/T 89-1996); dental fluorosis was diagnosed using Deans method; adult skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed by "endemic skeletal fluorosis clinical diagnostic criteria" (WS 192-2008). Results Mean water fluoride was 0.18 - 0.34 mg/L in drinking water changed areas, and 0.70 - 2.13 mg/L in not changed areas; prevalence of dental fluorosis of children 8 - 10 was 50.78% (65/128), dental fluorosis index was 1.04,mean urinary fluoride was 1.64 mg/L in drinking water changed areas; prevalence of dental fluorosis of children 8 -10 years old was 80.65%(25/31 ) in not changed areas, dental fluorosis index was 1.50, mean urinary fluoride of children was 2.08; adult clinical skeletal fluorosis was 38.7%(104/269) in drinking water changed areas, the mean urinary fluoride was 1.61 mg/L, prevalence of skeletal fluorosis was 15.4% (18/117) in not changed areas, mean urinary fluoride was 3.54 mg/L. Conclusions The method of change the water to reduce fluoride decreases dental fluorosis to control levels, and severity is also reduced, urinary fluoride is decreased. However, the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis is higher than that of drinking water not changed areas.

  13. Investigation of children's intelligence quotient and dental fluorosis in drinking water-type of endemic fluorosis area in Pucheng county Shaanxi province before and after drinking water change%陕西省蒲城县饮水型地方性氟中毒病区改水前后儿童智商及氟斑牙患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺明侠; 张崇农

    2010-01-01

    Objective To further understand the effect of anti-fluoride water on intellectual development of children and dental fluorosis in drinking water-type of endemic fluorosis area Pucheng county Shaanxi province.Methods Two hundred 8 to 12 years old children were randomly selected in endemic fluorosis area with changed water or unchanged water, in 2009 in Pucheng county Shaanxi province. Intelligence quotient(IQ) of children was measured by Raven's test. Children's dental fluorosis was examined by Dean's classification scheme. Results The rates of child dental fluorosis in changed water and unchanged water endemic fluorosis areas were 28.50%(57/200), 87.88%(203/231) , respectively, the difference was statistically significant(x2 = 159.19, P< 0.01),while dental fluorosis indices were 0.57,1.97, was marginal, moderate epidemic. Children with IQ above 90 was accounted for 89.5% (179/200), 91.5% (183/200) in changed water and unchanged water endemic fluorosis area,respectively, the difference was not significant (x2 = 0.46, P > 0.05). Conclusions Changed water may decrease the incidence of child dental fluorosis, but has no obvious effect on children's IQ development in endemic fluorosis area.%目的 了解防氟改水前后陕西省蒲城县饮水型地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)病区儿童智力发育和氟斑牙患病情况.方法 2009年,在陕西省蒲城县饮水型地氟病病区中,从改水与未改水病区各抽取8~12岁儿童200名,采用瑞文测验进行儿童智商测定,Dean法进行儿童氟斑牙检查.结果 改水和未改水病区儿童氟斑牙检出率分别为28.50%(57/200)、87.88%(203/231),两者比较差异有统计学意义(x2=159.19,P<0.01);氟斑牙指数分别为0.57、1.97,呈边缘、中等流行.改水病区智商≥90的儿童占89.5%(179/200),而未改水病区占91.5%(183/200),两者比较差异无统计学意义(x2=0.46,P>0.05).结论 防氟改水明显降低病区儿童氟斑牙的发生,但对儿童智力发育作用不明显.

  14. Determination of fluorosis prevalence in rural communities  of East Azerbaijan Province

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    Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour Feizi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intake of high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water can cause dental fluorosis. In this study, the prevalence of dental fluorosis in rural communities of East Azerbaijan Province was studied. Materials and Methods: 3 villages of Bashsizkooh, Bostanabad (fluoride concentration in drinking water = 0.12 mg/L, Nagharehkub,  Ahar (current water resource = 0.6 mg/L, old water resource = 1.1-1.2 mg/L, and Gharehbolaq, Jolfa (current water resource = 0.35 mg/L and old water resource = 2.4 mg/L old source were selected as low, medium, and high exposure to fluoride respectively. All village residents above 6 years old were visited by physician. Quality of water resources was determined by referring to the records archived and through conducting new analysis.Results: Dental fluorosis was observed in 62.7 % of the people visited. In 31.5% of participants, fluorosis Grade 1; in 22.4 % of participants, fluorosis grade 2; in 7.7 % of participants, fluorosis grade 3; and finally fluorosis grade 4 was observed in 4 patients. Different levels of fluorosis were observed in residents of the villages of Gharebolaq, Nagharehkub, and Bashsizkooh (83.3%, 70.5 %, and 32.5 % respectively. There was a significant difference in prevalence of fluorosis between villages (P < 0.001. Fluorosis was observed in both permanent and temporary teeth. Mean cumulative fluoride index (MCFI in people with and without fluorosis was 22660.2 and 4743.2 mg, respectively. There was a correlation between this index and fluorosis (R =0.413. Conclusion: In all three villages studied, even Bashsizkooh, different grades of fluorosis were endemic. It is recommended that the responsible authorities take a  new measure and approach  for the intake of fluoride from drinking water.

  15. Dental fluorosis severity in a group of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Yukie Fujibayashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in a group of school children in the city of Campo do Tenente (Parana, Brazil in order to compare the mean fluoride concentration in public water supply and discuss the effective values for fluoridation of water supply, as well as, the need of control of fluoride concentration within the water consumed by population. Material and methods: Firstly, 362 children enrolled in regular public schools, at elementary level, were examined by a single researcher, previously calibrated for Dean’s index application. From these, 90 children were affected by some degree of fluorosis, but only 40 returned the signed free and clarified consent form for participating in the research. Results: It was found that 42.5% of the children presented mild fluorosis and 32.5% moderate fluorosis. Moreover, it was observed that the average fluoride concentration in public water supply, in 2004, was 1.7 ppm of fluoride. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the need of a closer supervision of the city situation, by the inclusion of fluoridation external control and constant monitoring of the oral health status of the population.

  16. Endemic fluorosis in Jilin province: analysis of surveillance data for 2006 - 2010%2006-2010年吉林省地方性氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 卢振明; 唐红艳; 张秀丽; 房联营

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify changes in the occurrence of endemic fluorosis in order to provide scientific basis for making countermeasures. Methods Five villages from 14 counties of mild, moderate and severe fluorosis affected areas were selected by stratified cluster sampling every year in the whole province during 2006 - 2010. Water and urinary fluorine were determined by ion selective electrode method(GB/T 8538-1995); dental fluorosis of children 8-12 years old was diagnosed with Dean method; skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed according to "clinical indexing standards of endemic skeletal fluorosis "(GB 16396-1996), between 2006 and 2008, and "clinical diagnosis standard of endemic skeletal fluorosis"(WS 192-2008) between 2009 and 2010. Results A total of 25 diseased villages were surveyed, 14 with water sources changed, covered a resident population of 8005 people, beneficiary population 7154, and accounting for 89.37% of the resident population; not changed villages 11. In accordance with the "State drinking water health standards", in the 14 changed villages the fluoride in drinking water was qualified (≤ 1.20 mg/L), there were 3 schools whose water fluorine content exceeded the standard; among the 11 villages that did not change water sources 7 drinking water samples fluorine content exceeded the standard. Of the 8 to 12 years old children in villages with changed water sources, 363 of them were checked and 142 dental fluorosis were found, the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 39.12% (142/363); in villages with water sources not changed, 303 children were checked, the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 43.89%(133/303). Of sixteen and elder adults in water source changed villages, 6424 people were checked and 403 skeletal fluorosis were found, skeletal fluorosis detection rate was 6.27% (403/6424); 3572 people were checked in not changed villages, the detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 13.89%(496/3572). In water sources changed areas, geometric mean

  17. Monitoring result of drinking water-born endemic fluorosis in Jiaozuo City during 2009-2012%2009-2012年焦作市饮水型地方性氟中毒监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小利; 冉伟霞; 毋燕; 马敏英

    2013-01-01

    questionnaire. 10 water improvement projects were randomly sampled from Wuzhi County every year, so as to survey the operation condition. One water sample was collected from each project to detect the concentration of fluoride in drinking water. 5 fluorosis villages were randomly sampled, in order to monitor the general condition, incidence rate of dental fluorosis among students aged 8-12 years old and skeletal fluorosis among people over 25 years old. The collection and preservation of water samples were conducted based on the Standard examination methods for drinking water (GB/T 5750.2 -2006). The concentration of fluoride in drinking water was tested according to the Standard examination methods for drinking water ( GB/T 5750.5 -2006). Dean's method was applied on the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. The clinical and x-ray diagnosis for skeletal fluorosis was based on the Diagnosis standard of endemic fluorosis (WS 192-2008). [Results]The rate of water improvement in fluorosis villages was 80.48% , and 637 000 people have benefited from it. 30 water improvement projects were monitored, all of them run well. The concentrations of fluoride in 25 projects were qualified with the qualified rate of 83. 33% . The detection rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8-12 years showed a downward trend, but the difference in detection rate was statistically significant in only one village ( x2 =9. 92 ,P <0.05). 40 cases of skeletal fluorosis were found with the detection rate of 26. 67% , and all were mild cases. [ Conclusion] The progress of water improvement projects in drinking water-born endemic fluorosis areas in Jiaozuo City should be accelerated. The cooperation of health department and water resources department need to be strengthened, and it is important to ensure the qualified rate of water improvement projects. The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8-12 years had an unobvious decrease, so it is necessary to improve the monitoring, pay attention to

  18. Relation between dental fluorosis and intelligence quotient in school children of Bagalkot district

    OpenAIRE

    P K Shivaprakash; Kushagra Ohri; Hina Noorani

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted on 160 children, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka state between August and October 2010, with the aim of finding out if there is a relation between dental fluorosis status and Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Children were categorized as, those suffering from dental fluorosis and those not suffering from dental fluorosis and for all children in both categories, Intelligence testing was done using the Raven′s Coloured Progressive Matrices. The following observations we...

  19. Relation between dental fluorosis and intelligence quotient in school children of Bagalkot district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprakash, P K; Ohri, Kushagra; Noorani, Hina

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted on 160 children, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka state between August and October 2010, with the aim of finding out if there is a relation between dental fluorosis status and Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Children were categorized as, those suffering from dental fluorosis and those not suffering from dental fluorosis and for all children in both categories, Intelligence testing was done using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The following observations were made from the data gathered: The mean IQ score of children without dental fluorosis was significantly higher than those children who had dental fluorosis. The mean IQ scores did not vary with the severity of dental fluorosis as classified by Dean's fluorosis index. Also it was noticed that the percentage of children with dental fluorosis was more in Extremely Low and Low IQ categories whereas the percentage of children without dental fluorosis was more in Average and High Average IQ categories. Previous studies had indicated toward decreased Intelligence in children exposed to high levels of fluoride and our study also confirmed such an effect.

  20. Analysis of coalsmoke-borne endemic fluorosis control in Ziyang County, Shaanxi Province from 1991 to 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiao Li; Bai Guang Lu; Ma Chang An; Fan Zhong Xue [Shaanxi Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Research, Xi' an (China)

    2004-07-01

    The monitoring data of coal-burning fluorosis during 1991-95, obtained from Ziyang county, Shaanxi, China, were analysed. The level of fluorosis in indoor air and food was still higher than the national standard. 2 ref.

  1. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-03

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  2. A minimally invasive treatment of severe dental fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ardu, Stefano; Stavridakis, Minos; Krejci, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a minimally invasive technique to treat a severe case of enamel fluorosis using microabrasion to eliminate the hypermineralized, white-colored, superficial enamel layer, followed by home bleaching treatment and chairside re-creation of superficial enamel microstructure. The proposed technique may improve the esthetics of fluorotic teeth without requiring other restorative procedures. Microabrasion followed by home bleaching may be an interesting alternative for the rest...

  3. Enamel microabrasion for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Moda, Preeti; Yadav, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Fluorosis has increased in recent times due to fluoridation of drinking water and addition of fluoride to various edible items, which leads to unaesthetic appearance of teeth visible at close quarters. The enamel microabrasion technique is a conservative method that improves the appearance of the teeth by restoring bright and superficial smoothness, without causing significant structural loss. The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing mild to moderate dental fluoro...

  4. Fluorosis and periostitis deformans as complications of prolonged voriconazole treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Babak; Saleem, Mohamed; Grant, Susan; Florkowski, Christopher; Coates, Penelope; Gordon, David; Rankin, Wayne

    2015-09-01

    We describe a case of development of painful periostitis deformans in a 39-year-old woman who was receiving long-term voriconazole treatment for Aspergillus infection as a complication of orthotopic liver transplant. Measurement of fluoride levels strongly supports fluorosis to be the mechanism of the voriconazole-induced periostitis deformans and supports the concept that such measurements might be of use in predicting this complication of long-term voriconazole treatment.

  5. The control of coal-burning fluorosis in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, P.S. [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China)

    1997-11-01

    The distribution and main causes of the coal-burning type of endemic fluorosis in China have been identified from epidemiological investigations. Local residents absorb high doses of fluoride through the respiratory and/or digestive tract because of the incorrect use of high-fluoride coal in cooking, heating and drying of food. Effective preventive measures have been taken to minimise the harm, but more needs to be done.

  6. The investigation of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Hebei province in 2009%2009年河北省饮水型地方性氟中毒病情调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽辉; 徐栋; 马景; 杜永贵; 马东瑞; 姚光俊; 梁索理; 张津旗; 种振水; 赵君

    2011-01-01

    random sampling in Hebei in 2009. All affected villages in every county were divided into mild, moderate and severe endemic fluorosis areas and a village was randomly selected from each category of the area to carry out the monitoring of endemic fluorosis. Dental fluorosis of children aged 8 - 12 were examined and 6 copies of urine samples were randomly collected in each age group in the above-mentioned villages. Clinical skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed among adults aged 16 and over and 20 copies of urine samples were tested for fluorosis in every village.Results A total of 112 affected villages were investigated, among which the drinking water quality of 66 villages were improved and 46 villages were not improved. A total of 236 copies of water samples from the 66 villages were measured and the fluoride content ranged from 0.1 to 4.3 mg/L, among which 20 copies of water samples exceeded the fluorine standard of 1.2 mg/L, accounting for 33.3%. A total of 230 copies of water samples were collected in the 46 villages and the fluoride content ranged from 0.2 to 4.6 mg/L, among which 76.1% (35/46) of the water samples exceeded the fluorine standard of 1.2 mg/L. A total of 5169 children aged 8 - 12 were examined of dental fluorosis, the dental fluorosis rate was 36.43%(1883/5169) and the dental fluorosis index was 0.81. A sum of 71 497 adults aged over 16 years were examined, and the rate of skeletal fluorosis was 4.81%(3438/71 497), moderate or severe clinical detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 1.56%( 1114/71 497). A total of 2876 copies of children urine samples and 2021 copies of adult urine samples were tested and the geometric mean of fluoride content was 2.30,3.32 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of dental fluorosis of children in the areas with improved water is less than 30% and the rate of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis decline gradually with time.The rate of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis increases with the increase of water

  7. Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and dental trauma amongst school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga de; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Rafael Inácio Pompeu; Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; Oliveira, Carolina de Castro; Lima, Carolina Veloso; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether there is an association with the different levels of dental fluorosis and the presence of dental trauma amongst school children. A transversal study was conducted amongst school children from the age of 12. Dental examinations were conducted by 24 well trained and fully qualified dental surgeons. Data was collected from 36 randomly selected public schools amongst 89 schools in a municipality. The criteria used to diagnose dental fluorosis was based on the Dean's fluorosis Index and for diagnosing dental trauma we looked for clinical signs of crown fractures and dental avulsions. Multiple descriptive analysis, which was bivariate, was carried out. Amongst the 2,755 school children that took part in the study 1,089 (39.6%) were diagnosed with dental fluorosis and 106 (3.8%) had one tooth or more with dental trauma. We noted a high prevalence of dental fluorosis, independent of the level of severity, amongst individuals with one tooth or more who had dental trauma. This association was even more evident where there were severely high levels of fluorosis. We also noted that the presence of fluorosis was greater amongst those that actively paid more attention to discoloration on their teeth and who received treatment from a dental professional at their schools. Nevertheless dental fluorosis was associated with the presence of dental trauma, independent of its severity.

  8. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur City, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Ashish Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to find the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur city, Uttar Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1343 school children, residing in the city since childhood and consuming the groundwater, in the age group of 7-17 years was selected from various schools. Schools were selected from all four directions of the city. Children were categorized in five age groups and were examined for dental fluorosis. Dean′s criteria for assessment of dental fluorosis were used, and observations were recorded on a study specific performa. Results: Among the 1343 children examined, 243 (18% were found to be having dental fluorosis, among which number of males (131 was more than females (112. Among the different grades of fluorosis observed, mild dental fluorosis was observed in most of the cases (158. It was observed that the southern part of the city had a maximum number of cases of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: It was evident from the results that the city had a good number of cases of dental fluorosis and that the groundwater in certain areas had more than normal quantity of fluoride. Since this study was the first attempt in this area, more studies can be undertaken to substantiate our findings.

  9. An investigation of social judgments made by young adults toward appearance of dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Nagashree

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Smile is a crucial factor in creating a good first impression. However conditions like dental fluorosis hamper the esthetics of teeth. This study was conducted to find out whether young adults attribute socially relevant characteristics to people with dental fluorosis. Materials and Methods : A total of 150 young adults were presented with images of individuals with different severity levels of dental fluorosis along with images of normal tooth appearance on a computer screen. They had to attribute various socially relevant characteristics to these images. Images were digitally manipulated to simulate dental fluorosis. Images were displayed on a computer screen and Visual Basic Software was used to record the participants′ responses as well as the time taken to respond. The time taken to respond or response latency indicates the response strength. Statistical analysis : A chi-square test was used to test the association between the dental appearances and the socially relevant characteristics. A Mann--Whitney test was used to compare the time taken to respond. Results : As the severity of fluorosis increases, participants attribute less and less of positive characteristics. Attribution of negative characteristics also increases with the severity of dental fluorosis. For images with moderate and severe fluorosis, respondents took more time to accept positive characteristics and less time to reject positive characteristic. This means that the participants felt strongly when rejecting positive characteristics in these images. Conclusion : Social judgments are made by young adults when viewing digitally manipulated images of different levels of fluorosis.

  10. The impact of fluoride on ameloblasts and the mechanisms of enamel fluorosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Lyaruu, D.M.; Denbesten, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Intake of excess amounts of fluoride during tooth development cause enamel fluorosis, a developmental disturbance that makes enamel more porous. In mild fluorosis, there are white opaque striations across the enamel surface, whereas in more severe cases, the porous regions increase in size, with ena

  11. Role of stanniocalcin1 in brain injury of coal-burning-borne fluorosis rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭义

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the change of stanniocalcin 1(STC1) and calcium content in brain of coal-burning-borne fluorosis rats,and to explore the role of STC1 in brain injury of coal-burning-borne fluorosis.Methods Twenty four male SD rats were randomly divided into control,low,medium,

  12. 2010年河北省饮水型地方性氟中毒监测结果分析%Analysis of an investigational result of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Hebei Province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽辉; 马景; 杜永贵; 马东瑞; 梁索理; 周朝辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the status of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis and the effect of preventive measures in Hebei Province,so as to provide a basis to prevent and cure fluorosis.Methods One affected county (city,district) with drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis was sampled in every city and 10 water improvement projects were investigated in that county.Three villages were taken out in every county.The operating state of the projects,the water fluoride content,and the dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 and skeletal fluorosis of adults were investigated in these villages.Results A total of 93 projects were investigated,among which 94.6%(88/93) were operating properly and the qualified rate(fluoride content ≤ 1.2 mg/L) of the projects was 54.84%(51/93).Among the 9 large projects,the water fluoride content of 7 projects exceeded 1.2 mg/L.A total of 23 villages with water improvement projects were investigated and only 43.4% (10/23) of them water fluoride content were lower than 1.2 mg/L.The dental fluorosis rate,the dental fluorosis index and the rate of skeletal fluorosis were 33.2% (532/1601),0.74 and 5.7% (66/1155),respectively.In the 7 villages without water improvement projects,2 of them exceeded 2.0 mg/L,but lower than and equal to 4.0 mg/L of water fluorosis and 5 of them were normal(< 1.2 mg/L).The dental fluorosis rate,the dental fluorosis index and the rate of skeletal fluorosis were 33.4% (111/332),0.72 and 2.9% (10/350),respectively.Conclutions The qualified rate of water improvement projects of fluoride content ≤ 1.2 mg/L is low and the endemic fluorosis is still comparatively serious in Hebei Province.The progress of water improvement projects in the areas with endemic fluorosis should be accelerated and the quality of water improvement projects should be increased.%目的 了解饮水型地方性氟中毒的病情动态,评价防治措施的落实效果,为及时调整防治策略提供科学依据.方法

  13. The relationships between low levels of urine fluoride on children's intelligence, dental fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunpeng; YanhuiGao; Sun, Huixin; Han, Hepeng; Wang, Wei; Ji, Xiaohong; Liu, Xuehui; Sun, Dianjun

    2011-02-28

    There has been public concern about children's intellectual performance at high levels of fluoride exposure, but few studies provide data directly to the question of whether low fluoride exposure levels less than 3.0 mg/L in drinking water adversely associated with children's intelligence. In this survey, we investigated the effects of low fluoride exposure on children's intelligence and dental fluorosis. 331 children aged from 7 to 14 were randomly recruited from four sites in Hulunbuir City, China. Intelligence was assessed using Combined Raven Test-The Rural in China while dental fluorosis was diagnosed with Dean's index. Mean value of fluoride in drinking water was 1.31±1.05 mg/L (range 0.24-2.84). Urine fluoride was inversely associated with IQ in the multiple linear regression model when children's age as a covariate variable was taken into account (Pdental fluorosis (Pdental fluorosis.

  14. DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, PARENTS' KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AMONG 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOL CHILDREN IN QUETTA, PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its relationship to socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness among 12-year-old school children in Quetta, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among 349 school children aged 12 years in Quetta, Pakistan. By interviewing children and questionnaire for parents, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness of fluorosis were collected. Dental fluorosis was examined using Dean's Index and Community Fluorosis Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was high (63.6%) among children with a majority of moderate and mild degree at 32.1% and 27.5%, respectively. The community fluorosis index was 1.6. While most children and parents had low-to-moderate levels of fluorosis knowledge, the majority of them worried about dental fluorosis. Most parents (84.8%) were uncertain about the condition of fluorosis in their children, and 87.4% did not know about fluorosis before. Dental fluorosis was found significantly associated with gender, family income, and parents' awareness (p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, and parent's awareness significantly predicted children's dental fluorosis. Knowledge and basic information regarding dental fluorosis is lacking in the community. Efforts in dissemination and communication about dental fluorosis should be increased in order to raise awareness and prevent the dental fluorosis in Pakistan.

  15. Renal proteome in mice with different susceptibilities to fluorosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Guimarães Carvalho

    Full Text Available A/J and 129P3/J mouse strains have different susceptibilities to dental fluorosis due to their genetic backgrounds. They also differ with respect to several features of fluoride (F metabolism and metabolic handling of water. This study was done to determine whether differences in F metabolism could be explained by diversities in the profile of protein expression in kidneys. Weanling, male A/J mice (susceptible to dental fluorosis, n = 18 and 129P3/J mice (resistant, n = 18 were housed in pairs and assigned to three groups given low-F food and drinking water containing 0, 10 or 50 ppm [F] for 7 weeks. Renal proteome profiles were examined using 2D-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. Quantitative intensity analysis detected between A/J and 129P3/J strains 122, 126 and 134 spots differentially expressed in the groups receiving 0, 10 and 50 ppmF, respectively. From these, 25, 30 and 32, respectively, were successfully identified. Most of the proteins were related to metabolic and cellular processes, followed by response to stimuli, development and regulation of cellular processes. In F-treated groups, PDZK-1, a protein involved in the regulation of renal tubular reabsorption capacity was down-modulated in the kidney of 129P3/J mice. A/J and 129P3/J mice exhibited 11 and 3 exclusive proteins, respectively, regardless of F exposure. In conclusion, proteomic analysis was able to identify proteins potentially involved in metabolic handling of F and water that are differentially expressed or even not expressed in the strains evaluated. This can contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic susceptibility to dental fluorosis, by indicating key-proteins that should be better addressed in future studies.

  16. Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in Chinese rural adults with dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Cheng, R; Cheng, G; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) among residents of rural China with dental fluorosis aged 30-69 years. A village located in northern China in which dental fluorosis was common was selected. Some 1250 residents with fluorosis ranging in age from 30 to 69 years completed a structured questionnaire and underwent clinical examination. Diagnosis of DH was based on the combination of the subject's self-evaluation and clinical examination. Dental fluorosis was evaluated using Dean's index (DI). In the village, the fluoride concentration in drinking water was 1.15-1.50 mg L(-1) . The community fluorosis index was 1.47, and 74 (9.7%) of the participants with dental fluorosis were diagnosed with DH. There was no significant difference between men and women. DH was most commonly observed in the lower incisors, and the most common cause of DH was cold stimulation. Logistic regression analysis showed acid reflux to be the only risk factor for DH in the current study. Among subjects with DH, none took treatment measures, visited a hospital or clinic, or used antisensitivity toothpaste. The prevalence of DH in the selected subjects with dental fluorosis was 9.7%. Acid reflux was found to be a risk factor for DH in the current study.

  17. 农安县地方性氟中毒病情调查结果分析%Research result of the prevalent state of endemic fluorosis area of in Nongan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾华

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unde(Changchun City Center for Disease Control and prevention of rstand the prevatent state of endemic fluorosis in Nongan County,advance of work in prevention and cure of endemic fluorosis,and to provide science basis to deep going of prevention and treatment of endemic fluorosis.Methods The place of research was selected in slight,medium,serious areas and non-disease area of whole county used to method of flock lay-ering sampling,10%of the samples were extracted to investigate water fluoride content were detected , dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis clinical examination.Results The farmers were detected in 30 wards County resident and non-endemic fluoride content of drinking water , in line with the national drinking water standard for fluoride content in only three villages , accounting for 10%, 90%of the survey area than the national standard . Light ward where the fluorine content 0.63-1.77 (mg/L), the fluorine content in the ward 0.75-1.96 (mg/L), illness district fluorine content of 0.87-2.46 (mg/L);each survey area aged 7-12 ages dental fluorosis result of the comparison data , the detection rate of dental fluorosis 26.44%, P=0.042,*P<0.05;each survey area skeletal fluorosis data comparison of results of skeletal fluorosis detection rate of 28.28%, P=0.032,*P<0.05, explain differences were statistically significant.Conclusion As the county's water improvement work , Ward masses mostly on low-fluoride drinking water , fluoride content of the water reached the national standard , lower detection rate of dental fluorosis , skeletal fluorosis prevalence of clinical reduced effective control Nong'an endemic fluorosis occurrence and development.%目的:调查了解农安县地方性氟中毒病情现状及防治方法,为深入开展地方性氟中毒的防治提供依据。方法采用分层随机抽样方法,在全县的轻病区、中病区、重病区和非病区分别抽取10%的样本进行调查,分别进行水中氟含量检测、氟斑牙

  18. Características generales de la fluorosis dental

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, utilizando los recursos disponibles desde la red infomed, con el objetivo de describir las características generales de la fluorosis dental. Esta es la hipomineralización del esmalte dental y tiene tres formas de presentación: leve, moderada y severa. Su cuadro clínico esta dado principalmente por manchas blanquecinas que cubre una mínima superficie del diente, hasta manchas de color café oscuro y su complicación más temida es la fractura que causa una a...

  19. Analysis of a survey results on drinking brick-tea type fluorosis in Hainan Prefecture of Qinghai Province in 2013%2013年青海省海南州饮茶型氟中毒流行现况调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喇翠玲; 魏生英; 陈萍; 杨萍; 姜泓; 李生梅; 赵元博; 马静; 张强

    2016-01-01

    investigation in four countries,Gonghe,Tongde,Guinan and Xinghai,3 townships and 1 town in each county were selected,and 2 villages were selected from each townships.Dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12was examined,and their urine samples were collected,urine fluorine content was determined at each site;the situation of the dental fluorosis and the skeletal fluorosis of adults over 16 years old were examined,and their urine samples were collected,urine fluorine content was determined at each site;the samples of brick-tea water and the samples of drinking water were collected from the residents of each sits,and fluoride contents was detected.Dental fluorosis was determined by Dean method according to the "Diagnostic Criteria of Dental Fluorosis" (WS/T 208-2011);skeletal fluorosis wvas determined by "Diagnostic Criteria of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis" (WS 192-1999);the content of urinary fluorine was determined by "Determination of Fluoride in Urine-Ion Selective Electrode Method"(WS/T 89-1996);the content of water fluoride and tea water fluorine were determined by fluoride ion selective electrode method.Results ①Children dental fluorosis and the mean of urinary fluoride:A total of 1 824 children aged 8 to 12 were examined,238 cases were dental fluorosis,the rate of dental fluorosis was 13.05% (238/1 824),and the index of dental fluorosis was 0.27;1 824 urine samples of children were determined and geometric mean of urinary fluorine was 1.02 mg/L,the range was 0.09-5.77 mg/L.②Adult dental fluorosis,clinical skeletal fluorosis and the mean of urinary fluoride:a sum of 1 384 adults were examined,266 cases of dental fluorosis were detected,the rate of dental fluorosis was 19.22% (266/1 384),and the index of dental fluorosis was 0.45,clinical examination of skeletal fluorosis found degree Ⅰ patient 1 case,degree Ⅱ 3 cases and degree Ⅲ case,and the rate of skeletal fluorosis was 0.36% (5/1 384);1 384 adult urine samples were tested,and the geometric mean of urinary

  20. 山西省临猗县饮水型地方性氟中毒与尿氟关系的研究%Study on relationship between drinking water endemic fluorosis and urine fluorine in Linyi county, Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁妍; 王素萍; 罗宏; 周继华; 王建武; 饶华祥; 柴冰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence for endemic fluorosis of drinking water type and to discuss the relationship between endemic fluorosis and urinary fluorine in Linyi county, Shanxi province. Methods In 2006, three counties were selected as heavy, medium and control areas according to the distributing feature of the disease. The dental fluorosis in each spots was examined by Dean method. The levels of urinary fluorine were determined by fluorine selective ion electrode. The skeletal fluorosis of adults were examined by X-ray. Results There was evident differences of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoresis among the heavy and the medium endemic fluorosis and control areas(X~2 = 410.945, P < 0.01 ), the prevalence of dental fluoresis in the medium area and the heavy area were 92.34% (253/274), 90.09% ( 291/323), significantly higher than in the control area[23.27% (64/275), X~2 = 274.927,268.287, all P < 0.01]. The heavy area had the highest rate of the skeletal fluorosis rate [59.75% (141/236) ], the medium area had the middle-level of the skeletal fluorosis rate[24.76%(52/210), X~2 = 183.578, P< 0.01]. Urine fluorine contents in both beavy[ (4.69 ± 0.17)mg/L] and medium areal (4.86 ± 0.13)mg/L] were higher than that in the control areas[ (1.75 ± 0.04)mg/L, H = 411.197, P< 0.01], and there was linear relevance between the different degree of skeletal fluorosis and urine fluorine contents (r = 0.508, P < 0.01). Conclusions The local fluoresis condition of Linyi county in Shanxi province was serious. The degree of skeletal fluorosis is associated with the fluoride content in urine.%目的 了解山西省临猗县饮水型地方性氟中毒的患病情况,探讨氟中毒与尿氟之间的关系,为当地饮水型地方性氟中毒的防治提供依据.方法 2006年在临猗县饮水型地方性氟中毒重、中病区和非病区各选取1个村作为调查点,采用Dean法和离子选择电极法对当地居民进行氟斑牙和尿氟检查,对病区30岁

  1. Skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  2. Incidence of human dental fluorosis in the Raft River geothermal area in southern Idaho. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shupe, J.L.; Olson, A.E.; Peterson, H.B.

    1978-09-01

    A total of 270 school aged individuals representing 151 families living in the vicinity of the Raft River Geothermal area of Idaho were examined for evidence of dental fluorosis. Of these 132 had some dental anomaly. Fifty-two individuals from 45 families had lesions classified as typical dental fluorosis. Eleven of these, some of which had severe dental fluorosis recently moved into the area from other locations. Samples of the drinking waters that were likely consumed by the individuals with dental fluorosis were collected for analyses. In most instances the fluoride content of the waters were low and would not account for the tooth lesions. Possible reasons for lack of correlation are changing of the composition of the water, other sources of fluoride in the diet, and possibly analytical errors.

  3. Prediction of the Spatial Distribution of Bovine Endemic Fluorosis Using Ordinary Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the studies was to develop an alternative method which could overcome the lack of sampling to improve the efficiency of control efforts for bovine endemic fluorosis. The spatial distribution characteristics of the disease were analysed and a prediction model for the estimation of fluorosis distribution in some districts in northwest Liaoning province in China was established. The model used ordinary kriging, and was evaluated using cross-validation. Analysis showed that the distribution of the disease was spatial autocorrelation. The prediction error of the cross-validation (ME = -0.0092, PMSE = 0.627, AKSE = 0.597, and RMSP = 1.007 and comparison with the actual disease distribution indicated that the prediction map accurately distributed bovine endemic fluorosis. It is feasible to predict bovine endemic fluorosis in the area by using ordinary kriging and limited data.

  4. Study on the association between environmental chemical elements and fluorosis caused by coal-fire pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦永卓

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the distribution of chemical elements in soil,to investigate the differences between patients under different state of fluorosis and normal population after preventive measurement was implemented to get rid of some chemical elements and to lower

  5. Prevalence of dental caries in fluorosis areas of Shantou City Guangdong Province after water improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏源

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the relationship between children urine fluoride level,time of water supply improvement and detection rate of dental caries in fluorosis areas after water supply improvement.Methods The following

  6. Osteo-dental fluorosis in relation to chemical constituents of drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L

    2012-01-01

    Study was conducted in 17 fluoride endemic villages to find out association between the prevalence and severity of osteo-dental fluorosis with different chemical constituents of drinking waters. These villages were arranged in 7 sets, each containing 2 to 3 villages with identical mean fluoride (F) concentrations in the range 1.0 to 5.8 mg/L but having different mean values of total hardness, alkalinity and nitrate (NO3) content in drinking water sources. A close association or relationship was found between the prevalence of fluorosis and the total hardness and alkalinity of potable waters. A low prevalence of fluorosis was found at low alkalinity and at high total hardness. But no specific association was observed between the prevalence figures of fluorosis with pH and NO3 levels which is also discussed in the present communication.

  7. Stress Response Pathways in Ameloblasts: Implications for Amelogenesis and Dental Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Bartlett

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human enamel development of the permanent teeth takes place during childhood and stresses encountered during this period can have lasting effects on the appearance and structural integrity of the enamel. One of the most common examples of this is the development of dental fluorosis after childhood exposure to excess fluoride, an elemental agent used to increase enamel hardness and prevent dental caries. Currently the molecular mechanism responsible for dental fluorosis remains unknown; however, recent work suggests dental fluorosis may be the result of activated stress response pathways in ameloblasts during the development of permanent teeth. Using fluorosis as an example, the role of stress response pathways during enamel maturation is discussed.

  8. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahshid Mohammadi Bassir; Golnaz Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 )-pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl)-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound (split-mou...

  9. EVALUATION OF YOUNG’S KNOWLEDGE AND BEHAVIOR ABOUT DENTAL FLUOROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos, Patrícia Aleixo dos Santos; Neves, Amanda Soler; Rios, Mariana Gisele; Oliveira,Ana Luísa Botta Martins de

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study has evaluated the knowledge about dental fluorosis and the behavior of young people regarding to the use of Fluor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 313 students from High School of Tabatinga/SP, from 15 to 21 years old have answered a questionnaire with pre-encoded questions in which was approached the variables: gender, age, schooling level, dwelling, water consumption, oral hygiene habits, frequency of consults to the dentist and perception about clinical characteristics of fluorosis. ...

  10. C syndrome with skeletal anomalies, mental retardation, eyelid chalazion, Bitot’s spots and agenesis of the corpus callosum in an Egyptian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 2.5 year old female child, third in order of birth of healthy non consanguineous Egyptian parents with C syndrome. The patient had moderate mental retardation, trigonocephaly, protruding forehead, low anterior hair line, wide upslanted palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge, broad nose, high arched palate, microretrognathia, low set ears, short neck, scoliosis, hypertrichosis over the back, talipes equinovarus as well as interatrial septal defect. The patient had in addition chalazion in left lower eyelid as well as bilateral Bitot’s spots most probably due to vitamin A deficiency. MRI brain revealed agenesis of the corpus callosum.

  11. Fluoride concentration of drinking water and dental fluorosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Goodarzi; Amir Hossein Mahvi; Mostafa Hosseini; Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi; Mohammad Javad Kharazifard; Mina Parvizishad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, a number of studies have investigated the impact of fluoride concentration of drinking water on dental fluorosis. These Studies should be reviewed to provide a new outlook on the analysis of the causes and effects of dental fluorosis in specific regions. The objective of this study was to systematically review the fluoride concentration of drinking water and investigate its relation to the frequency of dental fluorosis in Iran. Materials and Methods: Dean′s index was u...

  12. Validation of fingernail fluoride concentration as a predictor of risk for dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalaf, M A R; Massaro, C S; Rodrigues, M H C; Fukushima, R; Pessan, J P; Whitford, G M; Sampaio, F C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the use of fingernail fluoride concentrations at ages 2-7 years as predictors of the risk for developing dental fluorosis in the permanent dentition. Fifty-six children of both genders (10-15 years of age) had their incisors and premolars examined for dental fluorosis using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index. Fingernail fluoride concentrations were obtained from previous studies when children were 2-7 years of age. Data were analyzed by unpaired t test, ANOVA, and Fisher's exact test when the fingernail fluoride concentrations were dichotomized (≤ 2 or >2 µg/g). Children with dental fluorosis had significantly higher fingernail fluoride concentrations than those without the condition, and the concentrations tended to increase with the severity of fluorosis (r(2) = 0.47, p dental fluorosis. The high positive predictive value indicates that fingernail fluoride concentrations should be useful in public health research, since it has the potential to identify around 80% of children at risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  13. A cross-sectional study to assess the effect of dental fluorosis on periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of fluoride in the reduction of dental caries is well established, its effect on periodontal tissues is enigmatic. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between dental fluorosis and the periodontal status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 600 subjects suffering from fluorosis. Variables such as age, gender, and smoking, which could act as covariates for the periodontal disease were recorded. The oral examination included assessment of oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S, community periodontal index and treatment need, and assessment of dental fluorosis by Jackson's fluorosis index. Results: Periodontitis was more common in females than in males. As the age advances, the rate of periodontal disease increases steadily. Periodontitis was significantly associated with poor oral hygiene and tobacco usage. As the degree of fluorosis increased, the severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased. Conclusion: There is a strong association between the degree of dental fluorosis and periodontal disease along with other factors such as age, gender, OHI-S, and tobacco usage.

  14. Surface Structure Study of Crystal Hydroxy-Apatite from Fluorosis Enamels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdillah Imron Nasution

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis is a condition due to ingestion of excessive amounts of fluor which can cause the change in tooth structure and strength. However, there is still lack of explanation on the surface structure of crystal hydroxyapatite that influences the microscopic characteristic of fluorosis enamel. Objectives: To investigate the surface structure of crystal hydroxy-apatite in fluorosis enamel. Materials and Methods: Determination of fluor concentration and the surface structure of normal and fluorosis enamel specimen were carried out by using Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Disperse X-Ray (SEM/EDX. Results: Fluor concentration of fluorosis enamel was significantly higher with increased surface roughness and porosity than normal enamel. SEM observation also showed gaps areas between enamel rods and visible aprismatic zone in some regions. Conclusion: High level of fluor concentration on fluorosis enamel indicated the subtitution of OH- by F- increasing the surface roughness of enamel surface.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i3.100

  15. Dental caries and endemic dental fluorosis in rural communities, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Melo Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227, 10 to 12 years (n = 153, 13 to 15 years (n = 92, 16 to 22 years (n = 39. For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF, dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0 and severity (TF 5. In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p 0.05. The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.

  16. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride in 10-12 years old adolescents of Bushehr port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Javan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride increases tooth resistance to dental caries, but mild toxicity due to excessive ingestion of fluoride can cause dental fluorosis. Drinking water naturally contains fluoride and is a major source of fluoride. In Bushehr port, drinking water is supplied from limestone springs with normal fluoride levels but dental fluorosis is observed. Methods: A total of 95 native school children (between the ages of 10-12 years old were randomly selected from four Bushehr port regions. Dental fluorosis, height and weight were examined. Probable attributing factors of dental fluorosis were also questioned. A 16 to 18 hours urinary fluoride concentration was measured with a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results: Dental fluorosis in four upper incisors was apparent in 52.6 % of the subjects. The urinary fluoride concentration was 2.18 mg/lit. Fluoride concentration in drinking water of schools ranged from 0.41 to 0.58 mg/lit. Forty percent of subjects were caries free. Conclusion: In spite of the normal range of fluoride concentration in the drinking water of Bushehr, dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration are higher than the recommended ranges. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the amount and effects of fluoride ingestion in residents of Bushehr province.

  17. Multifocal Skeletal Tuberculosis Mimicking Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a Child: a Case Report With a Long-Term Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Jafroodi, Yousef; Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Pourghorban, Ramin; Sadeghian Dehkordy, Afarin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multifocal skeletal tuberculosis is a rare condition that may masquerade as Langerhans cell histiocytosis, especially in children. Case Presentation: We report a case of multifocal osseous tuberculosis in a 5-year-old female patient admitted to our hospital with a complaint of low back pain but no history of respiratory symptoms or malaise. Radiological findings included vertebra plana and multiple lytic lesions in both the frontal and pelvic bones. An initial diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis was made based on imaging findings; however, the patient underwent further evaluation for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and histopathologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The patient showed a nearly complete response after receiving a course of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is required for the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of patients with osseous tuberculosis. Given the high prevalence of tuberculosis in developing countries, tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multifocal lytic lesions and vertebra plana, especially in children. PMID:26744631

  18. 2006年和2007年陕西省安康市燃煤污染型氟砷中毒及相关性调查%Investigation on fluorosis and arsenism caused by coal-burning and relevant study in Ankang city of Shaanxi province in the year of 2006 and 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李跃; 白广禄; 白爱梅; 虞江萍; 范中学; 杨晓栋

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of the disease of the fluorosis and arsenism caused by coal-burning in Ankang city of Shaanxi. Methods Nine survey spots were chosen to carry out the epidemiological investigation of adult skeletal fluorosis and arsenism in the coal-polluted areas of Ankang, respectively using Determination of Fluorine in Coal (GB/T 4633-1997) to determine the coal fluorine and using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry(HCAFS) to determine coal arsenic. The diagnose of the adult skeletal fluorosis followed the Diagnosis of Clinical Classification for Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis Standard(GB 16396-1996), that of arsenism using Standard of Diagnosis for Endemic Arsensim (WS/T 211-2001). Results Totally 569 adults were investigated over the age of 16, among which 121 cases were skeletal fluorosis, with a total detection rate of 21.27%. Four cases of II degree and higher skeletal fluorosis patients were identified, accounting for 0.70% of the number of subjects. One hundred and thirty-two cases of arsenic poisonin were detected, in a rate of 23.20%. Ninety-five patients were identified with moderate or severe arsenic poisoning, accounting for 16.69% of subjects. A positive correlation was found between the detection rates of the skeletal fluorosis and the arsenism(r = 0.816, P (GB/T 4633-1997),煤炭砷采用氢化物原子荧光光度法测定,成人氟骨症诊断采用(GB 16396-1996),砷中毒诊断采用(WS/T211-2001).结果 共调查16岁以上成人569人,检出氟骨症121例,总检出率为21.27%,查出Ⅱ度以上氟骨症病人4例,占受检人数的0.70%;检出砷中毒132例,总检出率为23.200/%,查出中度以上砷中毒病人95例,占受检人数的16.69%.氟骨症与砷中毒检出率间呈正相关(r=0.816,P<0.01);氟骨症检出率与煤炭含氟量有密切关系(r=0.775,P<0.05);砷中毒检出率与煤炭含砷量间也有密切关系(r=0.761,P<0.05).40~、50~、60~岁组[27.20%(34/125)、29.27%(36/123

  19. A survey of epidemic situation on endemic fluorosis in Heze city of Shandong province%山东省菏泽市地方性氟中毒流行现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国栋; 高红旭; 卢晓娣

    2012-01-01

    prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults and urine fluoride content in population. [Results] Among 69 water samples collected from IS villages of 5 county (district), water fluoride content of 56 samples exceeded the national standard ( >1.0 mg/L) , and the over standard rate was 81. 16%. In over standard samples, there were 26 of water fluoride content > 2.0 mg/L and 3 of >4.0 mg/L, and the maximum value of the water fluoride was 7. 76mg/L. 728 people were tested for the urine fluoride content, and the geometric mean of children (435 cases) and adults (293 cases) was 2. 73 mg/L and 2. 92mg/L respectively. 679 children aged 8-12 years old received dental fluorosis examination. The detection rate of dental fluorosis was 50.81% (345/679) , the rate of default type was 4.57% (31/679) , and dental fluorosis index was 1.16. 7 956 adults were examined for clinical symptoms and signs of endemic fluorosis, the detection rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 7.69% (612/7 956) , and there were 175 medium and severe cases. [Conclusion] The over standard rates of water fluoride content is serious in Heze city, especially in villages without water improvement (including water improvement projects are abandoned). The urine fluoride content maintains at a high level, the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis are high, and there still exist the harm of high level of fluorine. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the effective and scientific measures of water improvement to reduce fluoride projects, so as to control the endemic fluorosis.

  20. Investigation of drinking water-born endemic fluorosis in Henan province in 2010%河南省2010年饮水型地方性氟中毒的现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 余波; 郝宗宇

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the current status of drinking water-born endemic fluorosis and the effect of preventive measures in Henan province,so as to provide a basis to prevent and cure the disease.METHODS Ten counties with drinking water-born endemic fluorosis were selected.Ten defluoridation projects were sampled by random sampling in every county for surveillance,all affected villages in every county were divided into mild,moderate and severe monitoring of endemic fluorosis areas and a village was randomly selected from each category of the area to carry out the monitoring of endemic fluorosis.Dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 were diagnosed in the above-mentioned villages and skeletal fluorosis diagnosed by X-rays.RESULTS Among 100 water improvement projects investigated,all were running normally.Fluoride level of 15 source water exceeded the standard,accounting for 15%.A total of 30 affected villages were investigated,among which the drinking water quality of 7 villages were improved,and all the fluoride content of 7 villages were normal.In the 7 villages,detection rate of dental fluorosis of 847 children aged 8 to 12 was 50.53%,defect rate was 6.38%,detection rate of skeletal fluorosis by X-ray among 352 adults over 25 years were 5.68%.The monitoring was also carried out in 23 non-waterimproving villages,among which 11 villages had water fluoride content > 2.0mg/L and ≤4.0mg/L,12 villages had water fluoride content > 2.0mg/L.In the 23 villages,detection rate of dental fluorosis of 2 240 children aged 8 to 12 was 54.33%,defect rate was 15.80%,detection rates of skeletal fluorosis by X-ray among 1 162 adults over 25 years were 5.85%,in which 3.01% moderate osteofluorosis.CONCLUSION The fluoride level of defluoridation projects exceeding the standard is serious,the endemic fluorosis is still comparatively serious in Henan,so the defluoridation project should be fulfilled as soon as possible and the acceptability of water should be

  1. An evaluation of the prevention and control measures on coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis in Shaanxi Province in 2014%2014年陕西省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒防治效果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓉; 杨晓栋; 李晓茜; 任宇飞; 范中学; 杜怡; 崔成宝

    2015-01-01

    12周岁儿童氟斑牙总体检出率为12.52% (87/695),氟斑牙指数为0.24,尿氟范围为0.04~ 7.00mg/L,几何均数为0.61 mg/L.病区无新发重度氟骨症患者.结论 陕西省地方性氟中毒病区防治效果明显,今后应继续加强健康教育、健康促进和病情监测工作并强化防氟炉具后期管理工作.%Objective To investigate the usage of defluoridation stove and the formation of related behavior in the disease affected areas and the current situation of coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis,to evaluate the control effect,so as to provide a theoretical basis for superior department to adjust the control strategy in time.Methods According to "The Implementation Plan for Prevention and Treatment of Coal-burning-borne Endemic Fluorosis in Shaanxi Province",Ziyang and Langao in Ankang City were chosen for epidemiological survey.Using stratified sampling method,according to the degree of disease situation,each county was divided into 3 layers and then 5% from each layer was extracted to carry out an investigation,respectively.The number of investigated village was at least 1,up to 30.The number in a non-endemic area was 1-3.Questionnaire survey of all residents was carried out to ask of the changes of cooking and heating fuel;the correct usage of the improved stove;the changes of life behavior related to the corn and pepper for human consumption and the development of prevention and treatment of post management.In endemic areas and in non-endemic areas,according to the "Determination of Fluoride in Foods" (GB/T 5009.18-2003),fluoride levels of corn (or rice) and chili which collected from 10 families were determined.Meanwhile,the criteria for "Diagnosis of Dental Fluorosis" (WS/T 208-2011) was used to diagnose dental fluorosis and the criteria of "Urine-determination of Fluoride-ion Specific Electrode Method" (WS/T 89-1996) was used to evaluate urine fluoride;dental fluorosis of every child aged 8-12 was examined and 10 copies of

  2. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Bælum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole

    2009-01-01

    ; the prevalence of non-fluoride opacities was 8% and 19%, respectively; and the prevalence of hypoplasia was 12% and 16%, respectively, in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm fluoride' groups. Higher caries levels were noted in children with no fluorosis compared to those with fluorosis recorded (mean DS...

  3. Dental fluorosis linked to degassing of Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu: a novel exposure pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allibone, Rachel; Cronin, Shane J; Charley, Douglas T; Neall, Vince E; Stewart, Robert B; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2012-04-01

    Ambrym in Vanuatu is a persistently degassing island volcano whose inhabitants harvest rainwater for their potable water needs. The findings from this study indicate that dental fluorosis is prevalent in the population due to fluoride contamination of rainwater by the volcanic plume. A dental survey was undertaken of 835 children aged 6-18 years using the Dean's Index of Fluorosis. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 96% in the target area of West Ambrym, 71% in North Ambrym, and 61% in Southeast Ambrym. This spatial distribution appears to reflect the prevailing winds and rainfall patterns on the island. Severe cases were predominantly in West Ambrym, the most arid part of the island, and the most commonly affected by the volcanic plume. Over 50 km downwind, on a portion of Malakula Island, the dental fluorosis prevalence was 85%, with 36% prevalence on Tongoa Island, an area rarely affected by volcanic emissions. Drinking water samples from West Ambrym contained fluoride levels from 0.7 to 9.5 ppm F (average 4.2 ppm F, n = 158) with 99% exceeding the recommended concentration of 1.0 ppm F. The pathway of fluoride-enriched rainwater impacting upon human health as identified in this study has not previously been recognised in the aetiology of fluorosis. This is an important consideration for populations in the vicinity of degassing volcanoes, particularly where rainwater comprises the primary potable water supply for humans or animals.

  4. Evaluating the use of fluorescent imaging for the quantification of dental fluorosis

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    McGrady Michael G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of fluorosis using fluorescence imaging (QLF hardware and stain analysis software has been demonstrated in selected populations with good correlation between fluorescent image metrics and TF Index scores from photographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of QLF to quantify fluorosis in a population of subjects (aged 11–13 participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities in Northern England. Methods Fluorescent images of the maxillary incisors were captured together with standardized photographs were scored blind for fluorosis using the TF Index. Subjects were excluded from the analysis if there were restorations or caries on the maxillary central incisors. Results Data were available for 1774 subjects (n=905 Newcastle, n=869 Manchester. The data from the fluorescence method demonstrated a significant correlation with TF Index scores from photographs (Kendall’s tau = 0.332 p Conclusions Despite confounding factors the fluorescence imaging system may provide a useful objective, blinded system for the assessment of enamel fluorosis when used adjunctively with photographic scoring.

  5. Accuracy of the Simplified Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index in Rural Communities with Endemic Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the values of the Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (TF index for the determination of the prevalence of dental fluorosis using either all teeth (gold standard or six upper anterior teeth (simplified TF index. The sample was made up of 396 individuals aged six to 22 years from three Brazilian cities with endemic fluorosis caused by the ingestion of water with high fluoride concentration. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was evaluated by a single trained examiner with excellent intraexaminer agreement (kappa = 0.95. Intraexaminer reproducibilities were calculated at tooth level. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the simplified TF compared to gold standard were 90.6 (95%CI: 86.6 to 93.6, 100 (95%CI: 95.3 to 100, 100 (95%CI: 98.3 to 100 and 77.5 (95%CI: 69.8 to 83.5, respectively. The ROC value was 0.953 (95%CI: 0.933 to 0.973. The simplified TF index proved suitable for determining the prevalence of dental fluorosis in regions with endemic fluorosis caused by the ingestion of water with high concentrations of fluoride.

  6. Environmental epidemic characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis and the safety threshold of coal fluoride in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.H.; Wang, W.Y.; Yang, L.S.; Li, H.R. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2003-05-01

    Data on coal-burning endemic fluorosis throughout China and on the exposure-response relationship between concentrations of fluoride determined in coal samples and the prevalence of dental fluorosis reported from 17 representative surveillance stations in Southwest China were used to estimate the safety threshold for coal fluoride. Coal-burning endemic fluorosis occurs mainly in the mountainous areas of this part of China, where the prevalence of the disease is closely linked to geochemical parameters of the local environment. In these regions the incidence of dental fluorosis has a significant positive correlation with the concentration of fluoride in coal. The safety threshold of coal fluoride is estimated to be 190 mg/kg by the criterion of 0% incidence of dental fluorosis.

  7. Epidemiological investigation of endemic fluorosis of Shandong province in 2010%2010年山东省地方性氟中毒流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 尹玉岩; 李亨祥; 刘源

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of endemic fluorosis in Shandong province,and to provide a scientific basis for the development of preventive strategies.Methods In accordance with the requirements of the national "Technical Implementation Plan for Endcmic Disease Control Project in 2009" and "Drinking-Water-Borne Endemic Fluorosis Monitoring Program (trial)",ten counties were selected to carry out the epidemiological investigation,to understand the progress and the effect of the water improvement projects; three villages were selected in each county,to determine fluoride content of drinking water,to check dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 and skeletal fluorosis of adults over the age of 25.Water fluoride content was determined by fluoride ion selective electrode method,children dental fluorosis was diagnosed with Dean method and adults skeletal fluorosis by the National Standard for "Diagnosis of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis" (WS 192-2008).Results There were a total of 687 improved-water defluoridation projects of the 10 counties,the improved-water rate was 83.34% (3247/3896).The investigation was taken place in 84 improved-water projects of the 10 counties,the projects running normally accounted for 98.81% (83/84); 41 projects had water fluoride concentration ≤1.20 mg/L,and the pass rate was 48.81%(41/84),with the maximum water fluoride as 5.76 mg/L.In the 26 villages with improved-water projects of the 10 counties,villages with a mean water fluoride ≤ 1.20 mg/L were 15,which accounted for 57.69% (15/26),> 1.20 mg/L were 11,which accounted for 42.31% (11/26),with the maximum water fluoride as 5.58 mg/L.In the 4 yet to improve water quality villages of the 10 counties,1 village had mean water fluoride ≤ 1.20 mg/L,3 villages had mean water fluoride > 1.20 mg/L,with the maximum water fluoride as 2.92 mg/L.A total of 1331 children aged 8 to 12 were checked in the 26 improved water villages,the detection rate of dental fluorosis

  8. 青海省从事不同生产活动人群饮茶型氟中毒流行现状探讨%Epidemic status of drinking-tea-borne fluorosis in different occupational groups in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏生英; 鲁青; 杨萍; 李生梅; 姜泓; 陈萍; 喇翠玲; 何多龙; 吴海坤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemic status of drinking-tea-borne fluorosis in different occupational groups in Qinghai Province.Methods In Qinghai Province,28 counties were randomly selected.According to occupational groups,each county was divided into 4 groups:towns,agricultural areas,semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas and pastoral areas; a township was selected from each group (in case of agricultural county or pastoral county,one town and three townships were randomly selected),and two administrative villages (neighborhood committees) were selected in each township(town) as survey sites.Fifty adults over the age of 16 were selected in each survey site for examination of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis and their urine samples were collected ; the way of tea drinking,the amount of tea drank per capita daily and the household consumption of brick-tea were investigated; tea-water samples in each of the 5 different locations(the east,the west,the south,the north and the center) of the survey sites were collected.Detection of dental fluorosis was based on "Dental Fluorosis Diagnostic Criteria" (WS/T 208-2011),using Dean method; the clinical diagnosis of adult skeletal fluorosis was based on "Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis Diagnostic Criteria" (WS 192-1999); fluorine content was determined by fluoride ion selective electrode.Results Ten thousand and three hundred and thirty four adults over the age of 16 were detected,the detection rates of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis were 24.1%(2 494/10 343) and 11.2% (1 159/10 343),respectively.The detection rates of dental fluorosis in towns,agricultural areas,semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas and pastoral areas were 17.7%(366/2 069),26.6%(1 005/3 784),20.7%(330/1 594) and 27.4%(793/2 896),respectively; the detection rates of clinical skeletal fluorosis were 4.7%(98/2 069),7.3% (299/1 159),9.2%(147/1 594) and 21.2%(615/2 896),respectively.Urinary fluoride levels were 0

  9. 忻州市2008~2011年饮水型氟中毒监测结果分析%Monitoring results of drinking-water type fluorosis in Xinzhou city from 2008 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成锦丽; 赵俊兰; 智尹; 杨晓丽

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand the effect of water improvement project on defluoridation and epidemiological dynamic of drinking - water type fluorosis of Xinzhou city. Methods With Surveillance Program for Endemic Fluorosis of Shanxi Province and Standard Examination Methods for Drinking Water ( GB/T5750 - 2006) as guide we detected the fluoride content in drinking water. Fluoride content in urine was detected with fluoride ion selective electrode; Dental fluorosis determined by Dean method; Clinical and X - ray skeletal fluorosis were tested by diagnostic standard for endemic skeletal fluorosis ( WS/T192 -2007). Results We carried out water improvement and defluoridation project on 221 experimental units covering 230 villages with the coverage rate of 80. 7% benefiting 282 thousand people and accounted for 70. 3% of the whole population in endemic area, 462 drinking water was detected, the average water fluoride value was1. 08mg/L ranged from 0. 56 to 4. 97 mg/L, 1 7352 children were surveyed aged from 8 to 12, positive rate was 21. 87% , dental fluorosis index was 0. 49; 1368 urine samples of children were determined, geometric average of urine fluorine in total sample wasl. 67 mg/L from 0. 52 to 15. 36 mg/L; 4935 cases were diagnosed with clinical skeletal fluorosis in 31 ,728 people aged over 16 years old, the overall detection rate was 15. 55% ; 622 people were examined with X - ray and 163cases of skeletal fluorosis was detected, detection rate was 26. 21%. Conclusion Water improvement and defluoridation project achieved results in Xinzhou , but fluorosis still spread in certain area, prevention and control work still has a long way to go.%目的 了解山西省忻州市改水降氟防治饮水型氟中毒效果及病情流行动态.方法 按照《山西省地方性氟中毒监测方案》进行,水氟测定按照《生活饮用水标准检验方法》(GB/T5750-2006),尿氟采用氟离子选择电极法(WS/T89-1996);氟斑牙采用Dean法,临床氟骨症和X

  10. Severe dental fluorosis in juvenile deer linked to a recent volcanic eruption in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Werner T; Smith-Flueck, Jo Anne M

    2013-04-01

    The Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic eruption deposited large amounts of tephra (ashes) on about 36 million ha of Argentina in June of 2011. Tephra was considered chemically innoxious based on water leachates, surface water fluoride levels were determined to be safe, and livestock losses were attributable to inanition and excessive tooth wear. To evaluate effects on wild ungulates, we sampled wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at 100 km from the volcano in September-November 2012. We show that tephra caused severe dental fluorosis, with bone fluoride levels up to 5,175 ppm. Among subadults, tephra caused pathologic development of newly emerging teeth typical of fluorosis, including enamel hypoplasia, breakages, pitting, mottling, and extremely rapid ablation of entire crowns down to underlying pulp cavities. The loss of teeth functionality affected physical condition, and none of the subadults was able to conceive. Susceptibility to fluorosis among these herbivores likely resides in ruminant food processing: 1) mastication and tephra size reduction, 2) thorough and repeated mixing with alkaline saliva, 3) water-soluble extraction in the rumen, and 4) extraction in the acidic abomasum. Although initial analyses of water and tephra were interpreted not to present a concern, ruminants as a major component of this ecosystem are shown to be highly susceptible to fluorosis, with average bone level increasing over 38-fold during the first 15.5 mo of exposure to tephra. This is the first report of fluorosis in wild ungulates from a volcanic eruption. The described impact will reverberate through several aspects of the ecology of the deer, including effects on population dynamics, morbidity, predation susceptibility, and other components of the ecosystem such as scavenger and plant communities. We anticipate further impact on livestock production systems, yet until now, existence of fluorosis had not been recognized.

  11. Características generales de la fluorosis dental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Calderón Betancourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, utilizando los recursos disponibles desde la red infomed, con el objetivo de describir las características generales de la fluorosis dental. Esta es la hipomineralización del esmalte dental y tiene tres formas de presentación: leve, moderada y severa. Su cuadro clínico esta dado principalmente por manchas blanquecinas que cubre una mínima superficie del diente, hasta manchas de color café oscuro y su complicación más temida es la fractura que causa una agresiva y acentuada pérdida de la estructura dentaria. Es causada por el acumulo excesivo de flúor en el diente. Su prevención está encaminada a la administración de flúor sistémico en las diferentes edades y entre las recomendaciones para evitarla se encuentra: usar en lo posible agua con el nivel adecuado de flúor, utilizar pastas de dientes con los contenidos óptimos de flúor, excepto en las zonas con aguas fluoradas y no aplicar las lacas fluoradas a estos niños

  12. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyola-Rodríguez Juan Pablo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaron 100 niños de edades entre tres y seis años. El índice específico de fluorosis para dientes temporales fue validado mediante la cuantificación de concentraciones de flúor en esmalte de dientes con y sin fluorosis. Para estimar la asociación entre las concentraciones de flúor en agua y orina y el grado de fluorosis dental se utilizó la prueba estadística Kruskal-Wallis. En el caso de la asociación entre el área de riesgo y el desarrollo de fluorosis dental se utilizó ji2 de Mantel-Haenszel. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de fluorosis en dentición temporal fue de 78%, la cual tuvo patrones diferentes de presentación, siendo los dientes posteriores los más afectados en ambos maxilares y la coloración predominante fue blanco mate. Se encontró una correlación (r=0.93 entre la concentración de flúor en esmalte de dientes temporales y el índice de fluorosis para dentición temporal (IFDDT. Se encontraron asociaciones entre la concentración de flúor en el agua de consumo y orina con el grado de fluorosis dental (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.00001 y entre el área de riesgo y el grado de fluorosis (ji² de Mantel-Haenszel p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONES: El IFDDT identifica y gradúa adecuadamente la fluorosis en dentición temporal. Es importante detectar el primer efecto tóxico de exposición a flúor para ser usado como predictor de fluorosis en dentición permanente y fluorosis esquelética.

  13. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PREVALENCE OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND DETERMINATION OF DMFT INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S MORTAZAVI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The optimum amount of fluoride in drinking water has been determined 1ppm for special areas by WHO. In jarghoyeh the amount of fluoride in drinking water is less than optimum, but dental fluorosis has been observed in a great deal. The purpose of this comparative study is to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the mean DMFT values and their relationship among guidance school students in Jarghoyeh Olya and Jarghoyeh Sofia. Methods. The main reason of this research was to compare fluorosis prevalence in Jarghoyeh Sofia and Jarghoyeh Olya. A pilot study was carried out and 191 person for the number of specimen was determined. Since DMFT was also to be investigated, the number of specimen was incresed., Finally 256 guaidance school students in Jarghoyeh Sofia and 263 students in Jarghoyeh Olya were selected by sharing method. The DMFT and TF indices, respectively, were used to asses dental caries and dental fluorosis. Results. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Jarghoyeh Olya was 65.8 percent and in Jarghoyeh Sofia was 44.9 percent. The mean DMFT indices in these two regions were 2.2471 and 2.0508 respectively. Evaluation of amounts of DMFT in different scores of TF index, shows that from zero score to 1 score, DMFT decreases. Then it gradually increases and as a result in 5≤ score it reaches to the highest level. Discussion. Factors such as hot climate and salty drinking water causes the inhabitants to drink more water. Also they drink tea a lot. Thus in spite of the low fluoride content of drinking water, prevalence of dental fluorosis was high. During tooth mineralization, fluoride reacts with hydroxyapatite crystals and produces fluorohydroxyapatite, resulting in higher resistance to tooth caries. On the other hand, absorption of excessive fluoride, results in disorder of formation of enamel. This leads to a hypoplastic and porose enamal. This enamel has lower resistance to caries and higher potential to absorb

  14. Influencia de los tratamientos microabrasivos sobre la resistencia adhesiva en dientes con fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mena Silva; Ana del Carmen Armas

    2015-01-01

    La búsqueda de tratamientos mínimamente invasivos y altamente estéticos para pacientes con fluorosis, ha llevado a buscar mecanismos para solucionar esta problemática, mediante la utilización de resinas como la primera opción. Sin embargo el principal problema del tratamiento, se centra en la poca adhesión debido a las características estructurales del esmalte fluorótico, en grados de fluorosis TF 1 al 3, el ácido no actúa correctamente, causando ausencia de grabado principalmente entre las e...

  15. Endemic fluorosis in northwestern region of Shandong province%山东省鲁西北地区地方性氟中毒流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 马爱华; 刘源; 李亨祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of endemic fluorosis in the northwestern region of Shandong province and to provide scientific evidence for making strategies for the prevention and control of the disease. Methods Eleven counties were chosen to carry out the investigation of endemic fluorosis. The content of fluoride in drinking water and urine was determined with F-ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years was diagnosed with Dean' s method and skeletal fluorosis were diagnosed with clinic examination and X-rays. Results The investigation was conduct in 17 water-improvement villages of 11 counties,among which 12 villages(70. 59% ) had water fluoride oontent ≤1. 00 mg/L,5 villages(29. 41% ) had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and the highest water fluoride content was 4. 46 mg/L. The investigation was also condcuted in 16 non-water-improvement villages in 11 counties,among which 5 villages(31,25/% )had water fluoride content ≤1.00 mg/L, 11 villages(68. 75%) had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and the highest water fluoride content was 4. 09 mg/L. The total prevalence of dental fluorosis among the children was 51.51%(701/1 361 ). The index of dental fluorosis was 1.05 and the rate of dental damage was 6. 25% ( 85/1 631 ). Tne urinary fluoride values above 1.40 mg/L were found in 60. 86% (510/838)of the children,with the highest urinary fluoride concentration of 15.20 mg/L. The rate of skeletal fluorosis among the adults older than 16 years were 2. 49% (454/18 257) and 15. 79% (3/19) with clinic and x-ray examination,respectively. The urinary fluoride values above 1.60 mg/L were found in 62. 27% (406/652) of the adults,with the highest urinary fluoride concentration of 25.44 mg/L. Conclusion The endemic fluorosis is not effectively controlled and the preventive situation for endemic fluorosis control is still very severe in the northwestern region of Shandong province. So preventive measures for

  16. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  17. Investigation of status in coal-burning fluorosis areas in Luoyang city of Henan in 2006%2006年河南省洛阳市燃煤污染型氟中毒病区现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付书霞; 杨芳丽; 康建山; 马娟; 乔玉朋; 姚巧玲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution status of coal-burning fluorosis (endemic fluorosis) areas in Luoyang and to provide scientifc evidence for making strategies in prevention and control. Methods In 2006, a household per village was chosen to carry the general survey so as of disease condition, living habits and housing structure among 941 coal-burning pollution fluorine sickness natural villages in Yanshi, Mengjin, Xin'an, Luanchuan counties and Geely area which were under the jurisdiction of Luoyang. In the general survey, the sampled village having a population of more than 500 person was considered as a major survey village, and water fluoride, 8 - 12 year-old child fluorine spot on tooth and the urinary fluoride were surveyed. Water fluoride and the child urinary fluoride determination used the fluoride ion selective electrode method, and the children's dental fluorosis used Dean method. Results The endemic fluorosis of Luoyang existed 742 in endemic fluomsis villages, compared with history, a decrease of 199 in number. Ninety-six point seven per cent( 142 543/147 419) of the households were consuming smoke-free coal. Households using intact kitchens accounted for 93.6%( 137 919/147 419). Of which 63.0%(86 889/137 919) of kitchens were mixed up with bedrooms. Total 125 060 people were using coal- fired furnace for heating, of which 87.8%(109 802/125 060) had smoke-free facilities, 12.2%(15 258/125 060) had none. Among 52 endemic villages with population of more than 500 people surveyed, a total of 183 water samples were collected, 2 had water fluoride exceeding 1.0 rag/L, the highest water fluoride being 1.04 rag/L, averaging 0.39 mg/L Sixteen villages had a prevalence rate of dental fluorosis for children less than 30.00%, accounting for 30.8% (16/52), 36 endemic villages the prevalence of dental fluorosis detection rate of more than 30.00%, accounting for 69.2%(36/52). Twenty-thrce villages had a dental fluorosis index greater than 0.6, severe dental

  18. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez; Amaury de Jesús Pozos-Guillén; Juan Carlos Hernández-Guerrero; Juan Francisco Hernández-Sierra

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaro...

  19. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 6 a 12 años

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Dobarganes Coca; Naisé López Larquin; Magda Lima Álvarez; Josefa Calderón Betancourt; Miriam Elina García Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis y la caries dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de estas enfermedades. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en niños de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, con el objetivo de caracterizar la fluorosis y la caries dental, desde septiembre de 2011 hasta septiembre de 2012. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por 67 escolares, a los que se les determinó la presencia de fluorosis dental y los índice...

  20. Analysis of an investigational result of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Hebei Province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find out the status of drinking-waterborne endemic fluorosis and the effect of preventive measures in Hebei Province,so as to provide a basis to prevent and cure fluorosis.Methods One affected county(city,district)with drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis was sampled in every city and 10 water improvement projects were investigated in that county.Three villages were taken out in every county.The operating state of the projects,the water fluoride content,

  1. Direct Esthetic Rehabilitation of Teeth with Severe Fluorosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiei F.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an esthetic rehabilitation of a case of severe fluorosis associated with tooth mobility and gingival recession. Direct composite technique was applied to improve the color, shape and alignment of the teeth using direct composite veneering and replacement of the missing tooth by fiber-reinforced composite bridge. One year follow up have displayed acceptable outcomes and esthetic appearance.

  2. [Dental fluorosis in San Luis Potosi and its solution alternatives (pilot study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Prieto, M; Vázquez Guerrero, V; Silva Romo, E; Moreno Vélez, R; Ochoa Flores, L; Hernández, M J

    1988-12-01

    A study exposing the situation affecting the population of San Luis Potosí in central México, caused by dental fluorosis. Findings point to the need of implementing devices capable of regulating the concentrations of Fluorine ion (generating the efficient prevention of dental cavity incidence), to maintain them at optimal levels and without deletereal effects.

  3. The cause of endemic fluorosis in western Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shifeng Dai; Deyi Ren; Shimin Ma [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2004-10-01

    The endemic fluorosis in western Guizhou Province, southwest China is usually attributed to a high-fluorine content in Late Permian coals. This study found that the average fluorine content in 50 coal channel samples from western Guizhou Province ranges from 16.6 to 500 {mu}g/g, with an average of 83.1 {mu}g/g, which is close to the world average (80 {mu}g/g) and that of Chinese coals (82 {mu}g/g). Additionally, the fluorine content of drinking water and fresh corn is too low to lead to fluorosis in western Guizhou Province. However, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binder in briquette-making by local residents has a very high content of fluorine, ranging from 100.8 to 2455.7 {mu}g/g, with an average of 1027.6 {mu}g/g. The endemic fluorosis is likely caused by fluorine in the clay. Therefore, in areas where unhealthy traditional coal-burning habits and customs are kept and furnaces without chimneys are used, the more clay used for a coal-burning additive and as a binder for briquettes, the more serious the fluorosis problem is. Short communication. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Irene Ramires

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in scholars aging 12 to 15 years old, residents in the city of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 1318 volunteers were enrolled in this study and examined in 18 public schools of the State of São Paulo. The examinations were performed in the schools' court by three dentists (with a Master's degree in Public Health, after toothbrushing supervised by another dentist. The teeth were dried with cotton pellets and examined under natural light by visual inspection, using an explorer as recommended by the WHO, a plane mirror and a tongue depressor. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF index was used for rating fluorosis. Intra and inter-examiner reproducibility was calculated and data were submitted to descriptive analysis. RESULTS: Approximately 36% of the children presented dental fluorosis, of which 28% was diagnosed as TF1 while the remaining received scores between TF2 and TF4. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bauru is within the expected range, based on previous studies. Although fluoride is an important resource for caries control, its use must be adequate to the needs of each specific population.

  5. Knowledge of dental fluorosis of undergraduate dental students at a private university in Brazil

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    Juliana De Oliveira Ferla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The understanting of the dental fluorosis process, that begins with enamel maturation, is important to Dentistry students, since fluoride has drastically decreased the incidence of caries in several population groups, with a resultant increase in fluorosis prevalence and severity, as shown in literature. Aims: The objective of this paper is to report the changes in the level of knowledge about dental fluorosis of undergraduate Dentistry students at Guarulhos University. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty-four undergraduate students enrolled in the first and second semester (2008 and seventh semester (2008 were evaluated. The data was obtained through questionnaires with dichotomic questions (true and false and an alternative to evaluate whether the subject had been presented in the classroom. The data obtained was submitted to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test (α=0.05. Results: When evaluating the first semester students, differences were verified in numbers of the questions assigned with the alternatives true or false, when compared with seventh semester students (p<0.001. However, there were no differences when the same questionnaire was applied to the first semester students after six months (p=0.358. Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that the six months period was insufficient to increase the level of knowledge about dental fluorosis, and when the students beginning and concluding the dentistry course were compared, there was an increase in the number of correctly assigned true or false questions in the latter group.

  6. 1991-2007年广东省丰顺县地方性氟中毒重点监测结果分析%Analysis on sentinel surveillance outcome of endemic fluorosis in Guangdong Province from 1991 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锦权; 戴昌芳; 杨通; 吴和岩; 冯光辉; 杜国歆

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate and master the outcome of endemic fluorosis surveillance, the use and management situation of the facilities for decreasing fluorine in water-related endemic fluorosis in Fengshun County, Guangdong Province. Methods The surveillance was carried out according to The National Surveillance Scheme of Endemic Fluorosis in 1991 - 2007. Dazhai, Hupo and Anquan Villages in Fengshun County of Guangdong Province were selected as monitoring spots. The dental fluorosis of 8 - 12 years old children was examined with Dean index, the fluoride contents in urine and drinking water were determined with fluoride selective ion electrode method. Clinical and X-ray skeletal fluorosis of adults over 16 years of age were examined every 3 to 5 years. Results The fluoride contents in water almost reached the hygienic requirements (1.0 mg/L) in Dazhai (0.83 mg/L in 2007) and Anquan Villages(0.27 mg/L in 2007) after improving water and decreasing fluorine. The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis of students aged 8 - 12 years old fluctuated and decreased gradually, especially prevalence rate of mederate and severe fluorosis decreased obviously and reached the hygienic requirements (30%) after altering water source(20.8% in Dazhai, 3.8% in Anquan in 2007). But the fluoride contents in water were in relatively high level (1.01~2.30 mg/L), and the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis of students aged 8-12 years old(44.3% in 2007) was above the hygienic requirements in Hupo Village after improving water and decreasing fluorine. The dental fluorosis index in Daizai, Hupo and Anquan Villages dropped from 1.5, 3.0 and 1.3 in 1991 to 0.30, 0.80 and 0.10 in 2007, respectively. Epidemic strength reached respectively the criteria in mild and non-endemic areas. Fluoride contents in urine of children aged 8-12 years old in the three villages all were under the limit of 1.50 mg/L after 2002. The prevalence rate of adult clinical fluorosis [31.8% (84/264), 34.4% (131/381), 44.1% (89

  7. Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, as a clinical study. The purpose of this study is to determine the periodontal status using CPITN index in a population aged between 15 and 74 years residing in the high-fluoride areas of Davangere district. The possible reasons for the susceptibility of this population to periodontal disease are discussed. Materials and Methods: 1029 subjects, aged between 15 and 74 years suffering from dental fluorosis were assessed for their periodontal status. Clinical parameters recorded were OHI-S to assess the oral hygiene status, Jackson′s fluorosis index to assess the degree of fluorosis and CPITN index to assess the periodontal status where treatment need was excluded. Results: Gingivitis and periodontitis were more common in females (65.9% and 32.8%, respectively than in males (75.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Periodontitis was significantly more common in females. As the age advanced from 15 to 55 years and above, gingivitis reduced from 81.0 to 42.9% and periodontitis increased steadily from 18.0 to 57.1%, which was significant. Periodontitis was high in subjects with poor oral hygiene (81.3%, compared to those with good oral hygiene (14.5%, which was significant. As the degree of fluorosis increased, severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased, i.e., with A degree fluorosis, gingivitis was 89.4% and periodontitis 8.5%, but with F degree fluorosis the former was 64% and the latter 35.8%, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results

  8. Fluorosis dental en escolares de una zona rural de Camagüey

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    Naise López Larquin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de esta enfermedad. Determinar su severidad y evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados fue el objetivo de esta investigación, para lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo en los consultorios 46 y 64 de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, en el período comprendido entre julio de 2011 y febrero de 2012. El universo estuvo constituido por 84 niños de seis a doce años y la muestra por 67 escolares. La fluorosis dental se clasificó en: leve, moderada y grave. Las concentraciones de flúor natural en el agua de consumo, la exposición a altas concentraciones del elemento y el tiempo de exposición al mismo, fueron los factores de riesgo asociados a la fluorosis dental estudiados. Al concluir el estudio, se observó un predominio de la fluorosis dental leve (52,9 %, seguido de la moderada (38,2 %. Las concentraciones de flúor natural encontradas en las aguas de consumo fueron óptimas (0,7 y 1,2 ppm en el 44,8 % de los casos y altas (1,7 y 2,0 ppm en el 55,2 %. El 81,8 % de los casos sin fluorosis han estado expuestos a la acción del flúor solamente de uno a tres años, mientras que todos los niños con fluorosis dental lo han recibido por más de cuatro años, aumentando la severidad en la medida en que se incrementa el tiempo de exposición. El 36,4 % de los niños que ingirieron flúor antes de los seis años no presentaron fluorosis dental

  9. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and exposure to fluoride in drinking water: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Fatemeh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Hosseini, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Parvizishad, Mina; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background. Regarding the lack of comprehensive systematic review on the efficacy of water fluoridation and prevalence of dental fluorosis, the aim of the current research was to systematically study the prevalence of dental fluorosis at different levels of water fluoride in the world and lay emphasis on the amount of fluoride in drinking water. Methods. Studies were searched in PubMed, Scopus, SID, and IranMedex, with regard to inclusion criteria. Study validity was assessed with some checklists, and analyses were performed to ascertain the prevalence of dental fluorosis among individuals categorized in age groups. Results. Investigation of the heterogeneity and analysis of the subgroups revealed that in the 6-18 year age group, when water fluoride level was less than 0.7 ppm and there was exposure to water fluoride in the first 6-8 years of life, no significant heterogeneity was detected among the studies in this subgroup. Thus, the pooled estimation of dental fluorosis prevalence in this subgroup was 12.9% (95% CI: 7.5-18.3%). Furthermore, meta-regression indicated that the exposure time to fluoride in drinking water, or exposure to fluoride in supplements, diets, air, etc as well as the quality of studies had a significant relation to the difference in the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion. The results revealed no heterogeneity in just 2 subgroups, and the results of subgroups could be pooled in them. Furthermore, the number of studies included in this review considerably decreased by considering all the detected confounding factors, whereas other similar systematic reviews mentioned at most 2 factors.

  10. Development and psychometric testing of a visual analog scale for dental fluorosis

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    R Ramya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to develop and psychometrically test a visual analog scale (VAS for dental fluorosis. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, esthetic perceptions of varying severities of fluorosis in permanent maxillary incisor teeth presented in 36 photographs were graded on a 10 cm VAS by two groups - an expert panel of dental specialists and lay group comprising 1 st year dental students. The photographs were also graded using Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TFI. Inter and intra-examiner reliability testing and comparison of specialists′ and 1 st year students′ perceptions were made using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Mean VAS values were validated against TFI scores using Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: A VAS for dental fluorosis was constructed with the help of mean values of subjective ratings for each of the photographs. Inter-rater reliability was found to be moderate (ICC = 0.59. The intra-rater reliability for both the lay group (ICC range: 0.91-0.98 and dental specialists′ group (ICC range: 0.87-0.98 was found to be excellent. High correlation was obtained between lay group′s and dental specialists′ perception of fluorosis on VAS (r = 0.93. VAS scores correlated moderately with TFI scores for the photographs (Spearman′s ρ = 0.725. All the findings were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The developed VAS was found to be a valid and reliable tool to assess dental fluorosis. Validation of the scale on a larger sample from the general population is recommended before it is applied in clinical and epidemiological settings.

  11. Exposure to high-fluoride drinking water and risk of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Ashokkumar, B R; Dhingra, Sonal; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying levels of fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted among 3007 school children in the age group of 12 to 16 years in 2 districts of Haryana having varying fluoride levels in drinking water. Type III examination for dental caries according to the WHO index and dental fluorosis estimation according to Dean's index was done. The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 48.02% to 28.07% as fluoride levels increased from 0.5 to 1.13 ppm, but as the fluoride level increased further to 1.51 ppm, there was no further reduction in caries prevalence, but there was a substantial increase in fluorosis prevalence. The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water was found to be 1.13 ppm, at which there was maximum caries reduction with minimum amount of esthetically objectionable fluorosis.

  12. 氟中毒与大骨节混合病区居民骨关节症状体征调查%A survey of residents' symptoms and signs in the areas with fluorosis and kaschin - beck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 黄长青; 唐红艳; 王成海; 张晓东; 何广辉

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study residents' symptoms and signs in the areas with fluorosis and kaschin - beck,to provide scientific basis for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of fluorosis and bone in the areas with fluorosis and kaschin - beck. Methods Two villages as investigational spots were selected by stratified cluster sampling technique from the areas with fluorosis and kashin - beck in Jilin province,residents with bone and joint symptoms were examined in the selected spots; The dates were analyzed with SPSS13.0. Results 43 cases were surveyed, the pain of finger joints was the most of all the symptoms, accounting for 74.42% ; The added thick performance of bone joint was the most of all physical signs, accounting for 81.40% ; The differences of gender on all symptoms and physical signs only in hip pain were statistically significant ( P 0.05) ;There were significant differences in elbow pain , the middle finger cannot touch contralateral auricle after the head, and the middle finger cannot touch inferior angle scapula after back . ( P < 0.05) ; Significant difference of pain in the shoulders, knees,ankles, fingers, finger tips bend to palm,fingertip cannot touch distal palm transverse striation and added thick( P <0. 001). Conclusions Two or more diseases of skeletal fluorosis, kashin - beck, osteoarthritis and other joint disease existed in the areas with fluorosis and kaschin - beck. The Survey and diagnostic method of skeletal fluorosis in the areas with fluorosis and kaschin - beck should be distinguished from simple fluorosis area.%目的 了解氟中毒与大骨节病混合病区居民骨关节症状、体征,为混合病区氟骨症的诊断和鉴别诊断提供科学依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样,在全省氟中毒和大骨节病混合病区中抽取2个屯做为调查点,对病区屯有骨关节症状、体征的居民进行调查;数据用SPSS13.0进行统计处理.结果 共调查43例,所有症状中,指关节痛最多,占74.42%,所有

  13. "Borderline" fluorotic region in Serbia: correlations among fluoride in drinking water, biomarkers of exposure and dental fluorosis in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Evica; Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Djukic-Cosic, Danijela; Milicevic, Nemanja; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Carevic, Momir; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2016-06-01

    This study explores relation between dental fluorosis occurrence in schoolchildren, residents of Ritopek, a small local community near Belgrade, and fluoride exposure via drinking water. Additionally, fluoride levels were determined in children's urine and hair samples, and efforts were made to correlate them with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence were examined in a total of 52 schoolchildren aged 7-15 years (29 boys and 23 girls). Fluoride levels in three types of samples were analyzed using composite fluoride ion-selective electrode. Results showed high prevalence of dental fluorosis (34.6 %) and low prevalence of dental caries (23.1 %, mean DMFT 0.96) among children exposed to wide range of water fluoride levels (0.11-4.14 mg/L, n = 27). About 11 % of water samples exceeded 1.5 mg/L, a drinking-water quality guideline value for fluoride given by the World Health Organization (2006). Fluoride levels in urine and hair samples ranged between 0.07-2.59 (n = 48) and 1.07-19.83 mg/L (n = 33), respectively. Severity of dental fluorosis was positively and linearly correlated with fluoride levels in drinking water (r = 0.79). Fluoride levels in urine and hair were strongly and positively correlated with levels in drinking water (r = 0.92 and 0.94, respectively). Fluoride levels in hair samples appeared to be a potentially promising biomarker of fluoride intake via drinking water on one hand, and severity of dental fluorosis on the other hand. Based on community fluorosis index value of 0.58, dental fluorosis revealed in Ritopek can be considered as "borderline" public health issue.

  14. Prevalence of gingival diseases, malocclusion and fluorosis in school-going children of rural areas in Udaipur district

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    Dhar V

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of dental diseases has been recorded in Rajasthan, however, not much work has been done to ascertain the prevalence of dental diseases in Udaipur district. This study was conducted among 1,587 government school children of Udaipur district in the age group of 5-14 years for recording the prevalence of gingival diseases, fluorosis and malocclusion. Gingivitis was found in 84.37% of children, malocclusion in 36.42% and fluorosis in 36.36%.

  15. FACTORES ASOCIADOS A LA FLUOROSIS DENTAL EN ESCOLARES DEL COLEGIO NACIONAL JOSE DOMINGO ZUZUNAGA OBANDO, UCHUMAYO-AREQUIPA 2015

    OpenAIRE

    BÉJAR DE CALDERÓN, ZAIDA MOYA

    2016-01-01

    FLÚOR DINÁMICA DEL FLÚOR ADMINISTRACIÓN DEL FLÚOR FLÚOR TÓPICO FLÚOR SISTÉMICO INTOXICACIÓN AGUDA TOXICIDAD CRÓNICA: FLUOROSIS PATOGÉNESIS ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS DIAGNÓSTICO DIFERENCIAL ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS FACTORES DETERMINANTES FACTORES DE RIESGO FACTORES DE PROTECCIÓN ÍNDICES DE FLUOROSIS

  16. Agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis in central incisors performed by a standardized photographic method and clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carolina Castro; Chalub, Loliza; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed by a standardized digital photographic method and a clinical examination (gold standard). 49 children (aged 7-9 years) were clinically evaluated by a trained examiner for the assessment of dental fluorosis. Central incisors were evaluated for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis and were photographed with a digital camera. Photographs were presented to three pediatric dentists, who examined the images. Data were analyzed using Cohen's kappa and validity values. Agreement in the diagnosis performed by the photographic method and clinical examination was good (0.67) and accuracy was 83.7%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was reported to be higher in the clinical examination (49%) compared with the photographic method (36.7%). The photographic method presented higher specificity (96%) than sensitivity (70.8%), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.4% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.4%. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed using the photographic method presented high specificity and PPV, which indicates that the method is reproducible and reliable for recording dental fluorosis.

  17. The association between osteocalcin gene polymorphism and dental fluorosis among children exposed to fluoride in People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Yue; Huang, Hui; Yang, Yuejin; Cui, Liuxin; Zhu, Jingyuan; Zhu, Cairong; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Yawei

    2009-11-01

    Excessive fluoride intake has been shown to affect dentin and cementum mineralization throughout life. Some studies indicated that a HindIII polymorphism, of osteocalcin (OC) gene, was associated with bone metabolism-related diseases. Therefore, it is possible that the variation in OC genotypes will be associated with dental fluorosis (DF) status and/or serum caciotropic hormone level. A case-control study was conducted among children aged 8-12 years in Henan Province, PR China to investigate the association between dental fluorosis, serum calciotropic hormone level, and polymorphisms in the OC gene. HindIII polymorphism in OC gene was genotyped using the PCR-RFLP procedure. OC and calcitonin (CT) level in serum was detected using radioimmunoassay. No significant difference was observed for OC HindIII genotypes among the cases with dental fluorosis, the controls from endemic fluorosis area (EFA) and the controls from non-endemic fluorosis area (NEFA). A significant negative correlation was observed between serum calcium and OC level. No significant relationship was found between OC HindIII polymorphisms and the level of OC and CT. In conclusion, OC HindIII polymorphisms may not be a useful genetic marker for differential risk of dental fluorosis among children in PR China.

  18. Assessment of Fluoride Level in Groundwater and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in Didwana Block of Nagaur District, Central Rajasthan, India

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    S Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem.Objective: To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India.Methods: The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis.Results: The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%–72.1% had dental fluorosis—252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis.Conclusion: High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  19. Drinking-water type of fluorosis in Shaanxi province in 2009: an analysis of surveillance results%2009年陕西省饮水型氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范中学; 李跃; 李晓茜; 白广禄; 刘晓莉; 白爱梅; 李平安; 杨晓栋

    2011-01-01

    . Methods Forty-eight villages of 16 counties in Xi'an, Baoji, and Yulin cities of Shaanxi province were monitored in 2009. Five water samples were collected randomly in water unimproved monitoring villages by the position of east, west, south, north, and center parts. In water improved monitoring villages, 3 tap water and one source water samples were collected. Water fluoride was tested using fluoride ion selective electrode method according to the "Standard Testing Methods for Drinking Water" (GB/T 5750-2006). All school children aged 8 to 12 in monitored villages were examined their dental fluorosis using Dean criteria. All people over 16 years old were examined clinical skeletal fluorosis, and 30% of the project counties were randomly selected, then randomly selected one village among these counties, clinically diagnosed patients with skeletal fluorosis were examined again by X-ray using "Diagnostic Criteria of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis"(WS 192-2007). Urine samples of 30 children aged 8 to 12 and of 20 adults over the age of 16 were randomly collected, urinary fluoride was tested according to "the Determination of Urinary Fluoride by Ion Selective Electrode Method" (WS/T 89-19%). Results Of the 22 water improvement projects that in normal operation, fluoride level of 8 source waters exceeded the standard, accounting for 36.36%(8/22), and projects scrapped 5. Two hundred and two water samples were tested. In water improved historical diseased areas, the median of water fluoride of source water and tap water were 0.72,0.62 mg/L, respectively, and the average rate of water fluoride exceeded the standard ere 36.36%(8/22) and 31.94%(23/72), respectively. In water unimproved historical diseased areas, the median of water fluoride was 1.00 mg/L, and the average rate of water fluoride exceeded the standard was 39.81%(43/108). Detection rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8 to 12 was 16.06% (367/2285), dental fluorosis index was 0.30, and the prevalence was negative

  20. Study on the sources of endemic fluorosis in Weixin, Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G.; Tian, J.; Qin, Y. [Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China). Institute of Sedimentary Geology

    2007-03-15

    The sources of endemic fluorosis in Weixin, Zhaotong of Yunnan Province has been studied using ion selective electrode (ISE) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results show that the main workable channel coal seams contain an average fluorine content of 67.8 x 10{sup -6}, which is much lower than that of Chinese and American common coals. The contents in the clay and the mixture of coal and clay reach to 2239 x 10{sup -6} and 863.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. (The mixture of clay and coal is the primary fuel in the local families.) The volatile yield of the mixture of coal and clay during combustion is about 89%. The fluorine in the clay is the main source of the endemic fluorosis. The high content of fluorine is closely related to the mixed-layer minerals of illite and smectite, apatite, hornblende, and K-feldspar. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. High cadmium concentrations in areas with endemic fluorosis: A serious hidden toxin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Xiao, T.F.; Wang, S.J.; Lei, J.L.; Zhang, M.Z.; Gong, Y.Y.; Li, H.J.; Ning, Z.P.; He, L.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Institute of Geochemistry

    2009-07-15

    Environmental contamination with cadmium (Cd) and fluorine (F) and the associated health impacts on humans have raised significant concerns in the literature, but the additional health risks created by Cd have not been investigated in areas with endemic fluorine intoxication (fluorosis). Here, we report for the first time that naturally occurring Cd in areas where endemic fluorosis is related to coal combustion is a serious hidden toxin. The high Cd levels in rocks and soils of these areas may increase health risks to epidemiological level, irrespective of fluorine levels. We implemented a pilot study in a fluorosis-affected rural area within China's Three Gorges region, and revealed enrichment of Cd in local bedrock (4.48-187 mg kg{sup -1}), coal (11.5-53.4 mg kg{sup -1}), and arable soils (1.01-59.7 mg kg{sup -1}). Cadmium was also observed to concentrate in local food crops (0.58-14.9 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the urine of local residents (1.7-13.4 {mu} g L{sup -1}). A routine epidemiological investigation revealed that the two major Cd exposure pathways were through crop consumption and inhalation of emissions from coal combustion. Therefore, the naturally occurring Cd in areas with endemic fluorosis related to coal combustion represents a previously unrecognized toxin that must be addressed as part of efforts to control the endemic problem. The biogeochemical processes of Cd and the associated environmental effects will require additional in-depth study.

  2. Risk factors and prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in school children of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaka, Kavita; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mor, Suman; Gauba, Krishan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis, dental caries, and associated risk factors in the school children of district Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India, using a cross-sectional study design. Oral health status of children aged between 8 and 15 years was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 criteria. Dental fluorosis was assessed using Dean's index, and dental caries were recorded using decayed, missing, filled/decayed, extracted, filled (DMF/def) indices. Four hundred school children were examined, of which 207 were in the 8-11-year-old group and 193 were in the 12-15-year-old group. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 4.1%, which might be linked to a high concentration of fluoride in drinking water at certain locations of rural Punjab. The prevalence of dental caries was 36.5% with a mean DMF score of 0.3 and def score of 0.6. Risk factors for dental caries include oral hygiene behavior and sugar consumption patterns. The study highlights the need to increase awareness about the oral health and hygiene among the school children in India.

  3. Fluorosis increases the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis by stimulating interferon γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yun-Gang; Kang, Li; Wu, Guangyao

    2016-10-14

    Estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women frequently activates osteoclasts (OC), accelerates bone resorption, and leads to osteoporosis (OP). Previous studies have demonstrated that interferon γ (IFNγ) could increase bone resorption and may be involved in postmenopausal OP. Fluorosis also increased the risk of fractures and dental fluorosis, and fluoride may enhance osteoclast formation and induce osteoclastic bone destruction in postmenopausal women, but the underlying mechanisms are as yet unknown. Here, we show that serum fluoride and IFNγ levels are negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women residing in a fluorotic area. Estrogen suppresses IFNγ, which is elevated by fluoride, playing a pivotal role in triggering bone loss in estrogen-deficient conditions. In vitro, IFNγ is inhibited by estrogen treatment and increased by fluoride in Raw264.7 cell, an osteoclast progenitor cell line. In ovariectomized (Ovx) mice, estrogen loss and IFNγ promote OC activation and subsequent bone loss in vivo. However, IFNγ deficiency prevents bone loss in Ovx mice even in fluoride conditions. Interestingly, fluoride fails to increase IFNγ expression in estrogen receptor α (ERα)-deficient conditions, but not in ERβ-deficient conditions. These findings demonstrate that fluorosis increases the bone loss in postmenopausal OP through an IFNγ-dependent mechanism. IFNγ signaling activates OC and aggravates estrogen deficiency inducing OP. Thus, stimulation of IFNγ production is a pivotal ''upstream'' mechanism by which fluoride promotes bone loss. Suppression of IFNγ levels may constitute a therapeutic approach for preventing bone loss.

  4. Content and distribution of fluorine in rock, clay and water in fluorosis area Zhaotong, Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.; Li, H.; Feng, F. (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-04-15

    About 160 samples of coal, pyritic coal balls, coal seam gangue, clay, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin county, China to determine the fluorine content, distribution pattern and source in this fluorosis area. The study shows that the average fluorine content in the coal samples collected from 3 coal mines of the Late Permian coals in Zhenxiong and Weixin county, Zhaotong City, which are the main mining coals there, is 77.13 mg/kg. The average fluorine content coals collected form thee typical fluorosis villages in 72.56 mg/kg. Both of them are close to the world average and little low than the Chinese average. The fluorine content of drinking water is lower than 0.35 mg/L, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binfer in briquette-making by local residents has a high content of fluorine, ranging from 367-2,435 mg/kg, with the majority higher than 600 mg/kg and an average of 1,084.2 mg/kg. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

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    Ene Indermitte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.

  6. Skeletally Dugundji spaces

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and investigate the class of skeletally Dugundji spaces as a skeletal analogue of Dugundji space. The main result states that the following conditions are equivalent for a given space $X$: (i) $X$ is skeletally Dugundji; (ii) Every compactification of $X$ is co-absolute to a Dugundji space; (iii) Every $C^*$-embedding of the absolute $p(X)$ in another space is strongly $\\pi$-regular; (iv) $X$ has a multiplicative lattice in the sense of Shchepin \\cite{s76} consisting of skeletal ...

  7. Assessment of periodontal status of the patients with dental fluorosis in area with natural high levels of fluoride: A cross-sectional survey

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    Ketan Sukumar Vora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental fluorosis exhibits as enamel mottling, surface irregularities, leading to plaque accumulation and periodontal diseases. It may cause failure of cemental resorption leading to hypercementosis and causes osteonecrosis of alveolar bone leading to reduced bone height. The study is conducted in Raichur, being known as one of the highest fluoride containing area in Karnataka with level of fluoride in drinking water approximately 3.5-5.5 ppm. This is an effort to find an association between dental fluorosis and periodontal diseases. Aims: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of severity of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status in the patients assessed. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional, epidemiological survey was carried out at rural parts of Raichur. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eleven subjects with dental fluorosis were selected for the study with age range of 15-45 years. Assessment of dental fluorosis and periodontal status was done by Dean′s Community Fluorosis Index (DCFI and Ramfjord′s Periodontal Index (RPI, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance (ANOVA test, chi-square test, and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: A statistically significant relation was found between severity of dental fluorosis and severity of periodontal diseases (Spearman′s correlation coefficient 0.88, significant. Discussion: Dental fluorosis may have significant effect on periodontal condition. But, further studies on the periodontal status of subjects from naturally high water fluoride regions from different parts of India are essential.

  8. Control status quo of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in the disease affected areas in Shandong Province in 2012:an analysis of survey results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the schedule and effectiveness of water-improving defluoridation projects comprehensively of control of fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Shandong Province,and to provide a scientific basis for making strategies for prevention and control of the disease.Methods In accordance

  9. The relationship of PTH Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shibao; Li, Anqi; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Qi; Chen, Hongyang; Guo, Xiaoyi; Luo, Yixin; Hao, Qianyun; Hou, Jiaxiang; Ba, Yue

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association of parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children. A case-control study was conducted in two counties (Kaifeng and Tongxu) in Henan Province, China in 2005-2006. Two hundred and twenty-five children were recruited and divided into three groups including dental fluorosis group (DFG), non-dental fluorosis group (NDFG) from high fluoride areas, and control group (CG). Urine fluoride content was determined using fluoride ion selective electrode; PTH Bst BI were genotyped using PCR-RFLP; osteocalcin (OC) and calcitonin (CT) levels in serum were detected using radioimmunoassay. Genotype distributions were BB 85.3% (58/68), Bb 14.7% (10/68) for DFG; BB 77.6% (52/67), Bb 22.4% (15/67) for NDFG; and BB 73.3% (66/90), Bb 27.7% (24/90) for CG. No significant difference of Bst BI genotypes was observed among three groups (P > 0.05). Serum OC and urine fluoride of children were both significantly higher in DFG and NDFG than in CG (P 0.05). Serum OC level of children with BB genotype was significantly higher compared to those with Bb genotype in high fluoride areas (P dental fluorosis and PTH Bst BI polymorphism. Serum OC might be a more sensitive biomarker for detecting early stages of dental fluorosis, and further studies are needed.

  10. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children in Sarada tehsil of Udaipur district, Rajasthan

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    B U Sarvaiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean′s index in school children of selected villages. The drinking water samples of all the selected villages were collected in polyethylene bottles and the fluoride content of these samples was determined by fluoride ion selective method using Orion microprocessor analyser. Results: The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 69.84%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI with corresponding increase in water fluoride content was found. Conclusion: There was an increase in prevalence of dental fluorosis with a corresponding increase in water fluoride content from 0.8 ppm to 4.1 ppm. A significantly strong positive correlation was found between CFI and fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  11. Prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in 11-15 year old school children of Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India: A cross sectional survey

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    Baskaradoss Jagan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study presents data on the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 11-15-years-old school children of Kanyakumari district, TamilNadu, India, and also the relationships between prevalence of dental fluorosis and selected risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 1800 children, from all the nine blocks of Kanyakumari district, studying in classes 6-10 were examined using type III examination. The assessment form designed specifically for this study was used while examining each student. Results: Dental fluorosis was present in 15.8% (285 children of the study population and the community fluorosis index was calculated to be 0.27. The prevalence of dental fluorosis varied from as low as 1.4% in some blocks to as high as 29.4% in some others. There was a significant difference in the level of dental fluorosis between rural and urban residents ( P < 0.001. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was higher in children who consumed pipe water as compared to children who consumed ground water. 65% of the children with dental fluorosis had no caries, indicating the positive effects of fluoride. Conclusions: The prevalence of dental fluorosis can be attributed to the level of fluoride in the drinking water as it exhibited a step-wise increase when the water fluoride levels increased from 1.5-1.7 ppm. Measures for defluoridation of drinking water before distribution has to be taken in the high prevalence blocks to lower the burden of dental fluorosis in this community.

  12. 2010年山东省地方性氟中毒重点调查结果与分析%Analysis of surveillance outcome of endemic fluorosis in Shandong province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培忠; 云中杰; 李亨祥; 高红旭; 王玉涛; 高杰; 尹玉岩

    2012-01-01

    urinary fluoride were determined by ion selective electrode and examination of dental fluorosis was done by using Dean method.Results A total of 288normal operated water improvement projects were examined in the 4 counties,the qualified rate of water fluoride (≤ 1.00 mg/L) of the projects was 51.39%(148/288),mean water fluoride was 1.35 mg/L and the maximum value was 6.27 mg/L.A total of 26 copies of drinking water samples were measured,the fluoride content ranged from 0.62mg/L to 4.36 mg/L,and mean water fluoride was 2.02 mg/L.A total of 685 children aged 8 to 12 were examined in the major investigated villages,the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 80.14% (549/685),detectable rate of the defective dental fluorosis was 15.33% (105/685),and dental fluorosis index was 1.56.Three hundred and seventynine copies of child urine samples were tested,the geometric mean of urinary fluoride were 0.66 - 13.28 mg/L,and the average was 3.04 mg/L.Conclusions Nearly 50% of the water fluoride level of the water improvement project exceeds the standard ( > 1.00 mg/L) in the 4 countries.The detection rate of dental fluorosis exceeds 80% and urinary fluoride is significantly exceeds the standard in the major investigated villages.The endemic fluorosis is still serious and the situation of prevention and control of the disease is still grim.

  13. Synthesis and performance evaluation of Al/Fe oxide coated diatomaceous earth in groundwater defluoridation: Towards fluorosis mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuagie, Anthony A; Gitari, Wilson M; Gumbo, Jabulani R

    2016-08-23

    The quest to reduce fluoride in groundwater to WHO acceptable limit of 1.5 mg/L to prevent diseases such as teeth mottling and skeletal fluorosis was the motivation for this study. Al/Fe oxide-modified diatomaceous earth was prepared and its defluoridation potential evaluated by batch method. The sorbent with pHpzc 6.0 ± 0.2 is very reactive. The maximum 82.3% fluoride removal attained in 50 min using a dosage of 0.3 g/100 mL in 10 mg/L fluoride was almost attained within 5 min contact time; 81.3% being the percent fluoride removal at 5 min contact time. The sorbent has a usage advantage of not requiring solution pH adjustment before it can exhibit its fluoride removal potential. A substantial amount of fluoride (93.1%) was removed from solution when a sorbent dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL was contacted with 10 mg/L fluoride solution for 50 min at a mixing rate of 200 rpm. The optimum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 7.633 mg/g using a solution containing initially 100 mg/L fluoride. The equilibrium pH of the suspensions ranged between 6.77 and 8.26 for 10 and 100 mg/L fluoride solutions respectively. Contacting the sorbent at a dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL with field water containing 5.53 mg/L at 200 rpm for 50 min reduced the fluoride content to 0.928 mg/L-a value below the upper limit of WHO guideline of 1.5 mg/L fluoride in drinking water. The sorption data fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms but better with the former. The sorption data obeyed only the pseudo-second-order kinetic, which implies that fluoride was chemisorbed.

  14. 古蔺县高中生地氟病相关知识知晓情况及影响因素分析%The Survey of Risk Factors and Related Knowledge about Endemic Fluorosis of High School Students in Gulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖晋锋; 刘娅; 陈君; 陈建国; 王从林; 陈映翰; 叶运莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective :To understand the health education present situation and the demand about the Endemic Fluoro‐sis Prevention in Gulin county which could provide the basis for controlling endemic fluorosis .Methods :A total of 748 High school students in Gulin ,were chosen under Stratified cluster random sampling and had completed a question‐naire survey related with fluorosis knowledge .Results:The awareness rate of endemic fluorosis of the participants was 57 .95% .The awareness of the lowest three points“the performance of severe skeletal fluorosis (7 .6% )” ,“the height of health stoves above the roof (21 .8% )” ,“the main performance of the endemic fluorosis (26 .3% )”;Students of en‐demic fluorosis prevention knowledge sources accounts are publicity column ,leaflets (62 .3% ) ,radio/TV (38 .4% ) , the school teachers (34 .5% ) . The hopeful way for the top three are doctors (64 .9% ) ,publicity column ,flyer (55.8% ) ,radio/TV (47 .1% ) .Conclusion:The high school students in Gulin county of Sichuan endemic fluorosis pre‐vention knowledge awareness rate is very low ,less access to health knowledge ,and there is an urgent need to strength‐en the publicity health education and the popularization work .%目的:了解古蔺县地氟病区高中生燃煤型地氟病防治健康教育现状及需求,为地氟病进一步防治提供依据。方法:通过分层整群随机抽样的方法抽取古蔺县地氟病区748名高中生,对其进行问卷调查。结果:调查对象地氟病防治知识总知晓率为57.95%;知晓率最低的三个知识点分别是“严重氟骨症引起的表现(7.6%)”、“卫生炉灶高出屋脊的高度(21.8%)”、“地氟病主要表现(26.3%)”;调查对象目前地氟病防治知识来源占前三位的分别是宣传栏、宣传单(62.3%),广播/电视(38.4%),学校老师(34.5%)。学生希望获得地氟病的防治

  15. Enzymatic Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase and Dental Fluorosis Among Children Receiving Two Different Levels of Naturally Fluoridated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonola-Gallardo, Irvin; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Vera-Robles, Liliana; Campero, Antonio; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the activity of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in saliva and to compare the activity of this enzyme in children with and without dental fluorosis in communities with different concentrations of naturally fluoridated water. A total of 141 schoolchildren participated in this cross-sectional study. Children were selected from two communities: one with a low (0.4 ppm) and the other with a high (1.8 ppm) water fluoride concentration. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index (TFI) criteria. Stimulated saliva was obtained, and fluoride concentration and GST activity were measured. The GST activity was compared among children with different levels of dental fluorosis using multinomial logistic regression models and odds ratios (OR). The mean age of the children was 10.6 (±1.03) years. Approximately half of the children showed dental fluorosis (52.5 %). The average GST activity was 0.5678 (±0.1959) nmol/min/μg. A higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva was detected in children with a higher GST activity (p = 0.039). A multinomial logistic regression model used to evaluate the GST activity and the dental fluorosis score identified a strong association between TFI = 2-3 (OR = 15.44, p = 0.007) and TFI ≥ 4 (OR = 55.40, p = 0.026) and the GST activity level, compared with children showing TFI = 0-1, adjusted for age and sex. Schoolchildren with higher levels of dental fluorosis and a higher fluoride concentration in the saliva showed greater GST activity. The increased GST activity most likely was the result of the body's need to inactivate free radicals produced by exposure to fluoride.

  16. Relationship between water, urine and serum fluoride and fluorosis in school children of Jhajjar District, Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Lata, Suman; Yadav, Jyoti; Yadav, J. P.

    2016-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the relationship between fluoride in water, urine and serum and dental fluorosis. The fluoride level in water and urine were measured spectrophotometrically by using acid zirconyl and SPADNS reagents, while the fluoride level in serum was determined by ion selective electrode meter. Dental fluorosis survey was conducted with the help of Performa prescribed by Rajiv Gandhi Drinking Water Mission and the use of Tooth Surface Index for Fluorosis. Mean fluoride values in water samples of Jhajjar City and Dadanpur and Dariyapur villages of Jhajjar District were measured to be 2.17 (range from 1.92 to 2.60 mg/L), 2.81 (range from 2.53 to 3.14 mg/L) and 2.22 mg/L (range from 1.63 to 3.33 mg/L), respectively. The mean fluoride values in the urine samples of children were found to be 1.51 (range from 0.05 to 2.64 mg/L), 1.71 (range from 0.69 to 2.80 mg/L) and 1.45 mg/L (range from 0.31 to 2.50 mg/L) at Jhajjar City and Dadanpur and Dariyapur sites, respectively. Serum fluoride was detected in the blood samples of children, who have high urinary fluoride at these three sites. The mean serum fluoride level was reported to be 0.15, 0.34 and 0.17 mg/L, respectively. A total of 842 children were also analyzed for dental fluorosis. The mean values of fluorosis-affected children in Jhajjar, Dadanpur and Dariyapur were 51.90, 94.63 and 36.84 %, respectively. A significantly positive correlation between water, urine, serum fluoride concentration and fluorosis was seen.

  17. Adolescents' perceptions of the aesthetic impact of dental fluorosis vs. other dental conditions in areas with and without water fluoridation

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    McGrady Michael G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of fluorides for caries prevention is well established but is linked with an increased risk of dental fluorosis, some of which may be considered to be aesthetically objectionable. Patient opinion should be considered when determining impact on aesthetics. The aim of this study was to assess participant rating of dental aesthetics (from photographic images of 11 to 13 year olds participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in a fluoridated and a non-fluoridated community in Northern England. Methods Consented participants were invited to rank in order of preference (appearance a collage of 10 computer generated images on a touch-screen laptop. The images comprised an assortment of presentations of teeth that included white teeth, a spectrum of developmental defects of enamel and dental caries. Data were captured directly and exported into SPSS for analysis. Results Data were available for 1553 participants. In general, there were no significant differences in the rank positions between the fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities, with the exception of teeth with caries and teeth with large demarcated opacities. Very white teeth had the highest rating in both localities. Overall, there was a trend for teeth with fluorosis to be ranked more favourably in the fluoridated community; for TF 1 and TF 2 this preference was significant (p Conclusions The results of this study suggest teeth that are uniformly very white have the highest preference. The rankings suggest teeth with a fluorosis score of TF 1 may not be considered aesthetically objectionable to this population and age group. The image depicting a tooth with caries and the image with large demarcated opacities were deemed to be the least favoured. Participant preference of images depicting fluorosis falls with increasing severity of fluorosis.

  18. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among 12–15 years school children of Bharatpur city: A cross-sectional study

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    Harsh Vardhan Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Healthy teeth are important for any section of society. Dental caries, the product of man's progress toward civilization, has a very high morbidity potential. Fluoride has been recognized as one of the most influential factor responsible for the observed decline of caries among children as well as adults of these countries. While fluoride is accepted as an effective method to prevent caries, the excessive consumption of fluoride can put teeth at risk of developing dental fluorosis. Aims and Objectives: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among 12–15 years old government and private school children of Bharatpur city, Rajasthan. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out on total 1400 school children, out of which 700 school children were from government schools and 700 were from private schools. Simple random sampling methodology was used to select the sample. The subjects were examined for dental fluorosis according to WHO 1997 assessment form. Results: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was found higher among government school children, that is, 54.5% when compared to private school children, that is, 45.5% respectively, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The study showed the increased prevalence of dental fluorosis among government school children as compared to private school children. Dental fluorosis was found to be the major public health problem among both government and private school children of Bharatpur city which needed immediate attention. Regular dental check-ups and routine oral hygiene practice will enable them to lead a healthier life.

  19. 2007年全国饮茶型氟中毒现况调查资料的聚类分析%Cluster analysis of 2007 survey data of current status of the national brick-tea-born fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩贺鹏; 沈雁峰; 王涵; 高彦辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用聚类分析方法对全国饮茶型氟中毒流行现况调查数据进行分析,明确全国各病区省级或市级病情的分类层次,以指导饮茶型氟中毒的防治.方法 利用2007年全国饮茶型氟中毒流行现况调查数据库,以Ⅱ度及以上临床氟骨症检出率为聚类指标,对全部调查资料进行聚类分析,绘制聚类图,根据聚类结果进行方差分析以及两两比较.结果 全国饮茶型氟中毒病区从省级层面可分为三类:一类地区包括西藏和四川,二类地区为青海,三类地区包括内蒙古、甘肃、新疆和宁夏.从地市级层面也可分为三类:一类地区包括四川阿坝州、西藏日喀则地区及拉萨市;二类地区包括内蒙古乌兰察布市、呼伦贝尔市、包头市,青海海北州、果洛州、海西州、西宁市、海东地区,四川甘孜州,甘肃陇南市、酒泉市,新疆乌鲁木齐市和博尔塔拉州;其他地市(州、盟)为三类地区.省级及地市级一、二、三类地区Ⅱ度及以上临床氟骨症检出率(35.18%、16.21%、5.22%,41.16%、19.64%、4.19%)任意两类间比较差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 全国省级层面与地市级层面饮茶型氟中毒流行程度可以应用聚类分析法进行分类,聚类分析结果可以为国家有效落实饮茶型氟中毒防治措施提供科学依据.%Objective Cluster analysis method was applied to analyze the data of brick-tea-born fluorosis,to clarify the provincial and municipal classification hierarchy in nation-wide epidemic areas and to guide the prophylaxis and treatment of the disease.Methods Prevalence survey database of the 2007 national brick-tea-born fluorosis was analyzed.Detection rate of second degree and above clinical skeletal fluorosis as clustered index,clustering analysis of all survey data was carried out,clustering figure was drawn,and analysis of variance and multiple comparison was done.Results The provincial level of the

  20. Analysis of the dri nking water type endemic fluorosis surveillance in Bozhou City, Anhui Province,2010%2010年安徽亳州市饮水型地方性氟中毒监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐慧文

    2013-01-01

    目的 掌握亳州市饮水型地方性氟中毒病情及降氟改水工程等防治措施落实情况,为进一步开展防治地氟病工作提供科学依据.方法 2010 年在市辖3 个县(区)谯城区、涡阳县、蒙城县的地氟病监测点,对所有改水工程运行情况、水氟含量进行了调查.对每县区的3 个固定监测村的人口学资料、水氟含量、8~12 岁儿童氟斑牙、25 岁以上成人氟骨症等情况开展了调查工作.结果 共调查了134 个集中式改水设施,无经费运行或损坏的有14 个,水氟>1.0mg / L 的有93 个.共采集9 个病区村的48 份水样,全市水氟浓度检测结果 的算术平均值范围为1.37mg / L,最大值为4.91mg / L.726 名8~12 岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为21.26%(158 / 726),缺损率为1.24%(9 / 726),氟斑牙指数为0.74;25 岁以上成人X 线氟骨症检出率为15.4%(69/448).结论 亳州市饮水型地氟病病情尚未完全控制,防控形势仍很严峻,需进一步加强降氟改水监管力度,使群众能够饮用低氟水.%Objective To understand the situation of drinking water type endemic fluorosis and the implement status on proj ects of lowing fluoride content in drinking water in Bozhou City, and provide scientific basis to carry out control work of the disease. Methods In 2010, the operation situation of projects of lowing fluoride content in drinking water in surveillance sites in Qiaocheng District, Guoyang County and Mengcheng County of Bozhou City were investigated, and the fluoride content in water was detected, and the demographic data, water fluoride content, dental fluorosis of children aged 8 — 12, skeletal fluorosis of adults aged over 25 in 3 fixed monitoring villages were investigated. Results A total of 134 centralized water facilities were investigated, 14 of which didn′t run or damaged, 93 of which were found that the water fluoride were all over 1.0mg/ L. A total of 48 water samples from 9 villages were collected, and the

  1. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  2. Esthetic improvement of white spot lesions and non-pitted fluorosis using resin infiltration technique: Series of four clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gugnani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available White opacities have always been a major concern of esthetics for patients and can have varying etiology. In general, white discolorations of enamel might be due to dental fluorosis, early caries (white spot lesions, developmental defects etc. Conventional treatment options available for such opacities include non-invasive and invasive approaches. Recently, a new "micro-invasive" technique has been introduced as an alternative therapeutic approach that improves such opacities esthetically, in a single sitting, is painless and exhibits no complications. This case series illustrates the use of resin infiltration to treat fluorosis stains and WSLs, exhibiting significant improvement in esthetics.

  3. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  4. Early detection of dental fluorosis using Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, José Luis; Martínez-Cano, Evelia; Magaña-López, Yolanda

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectroscopic technique has the potential to provide vibrational spectra of minerals by analyzing scattered light caused by monochromatic laser excitation. In this paper, recent applications of Raman spectroscopy in the study of dental hard tissues are reported. Special attention is given to mineral components in enamel and to calcium fluoride formed in/on enamel. The criteria used to classify the dental hard samples were according to the Dean Index (DI), which consists into healthy or control, mild, moderate, and severe, indicating the amount of dental fluorosis observed on enamel. A total of 39 dental samples (9 control, 9 mild, 10 moderate, and 11 severe) were analyzed in the study. Dental samples were positioned under an Olympus microscope, and around 10 points were chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected by a Horiba Jobin-Yvon LabRAM HR800 Raman Spectrometer with a laser of 830-nm and 17-mW power irradiation. Raw spectra were processed by carrying out baseline correction, smoothing, and normalization to remove noise, florescence, and shot noise and then analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). In the spectra of dental samples, we observed the main bands as the broad band due to CO[Formula: see text] (240-300 cm (-1)), CaF 2 (322 cm (-1)), PO[Formula: see text] vibrations (437 and 450 cm (-1)), PO[Formula: see text] vibrations (582, 598, and 609 cm (-1)), PO[Formula: see text] vibrations (960 cm (-1)), PO[Formula: see text] vibrations (1,045 cm (-1)), and CO[Formula: see text] vibration (1,073 cm (-1)). Nevertheless, the intensity of the band at 960 cm (-1) associated to symmetric stretch of phosphate, PO[Formula: see text], decreases as the amount of dental fluorosis increases, suggesting that the intensity of this band could be used to quantitatively measure the level of fluorosis on a dental sample. On the other hand, PCA allowed to identify two large clusters discriminating between control, and severe and moderate samples

  5. The sources, pathway, and preventive measures for fluorosis in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, S.F.; Li, W.W.; Tang, Y.G.; Zhang, Y.; Feng, P. [China University of Mining Technology, Beijing (China)

    2007-05-15

    The F content of several materials from households of Zhijin County, one of the most severe endemic fluorosis-stricken areas in western Guizhou, was determined using the pyrohydrolysis/fluoride ion-selective electrode method to determine the sources of F and the pathways causing the disease. The average F content of the coal burned is 237 {mu} g/g, the clay used as a binder for fine coal is 2262 {mu} g/g, with 828 {mu} g/g in the mixed coal and clay, while the F content of corn is 1419 {mu} g/g, with 110 {mu} g/g in chilies. The binder clay is found to be the main F source for the endemic fluorosis. Fluorine in the clay not only occurs in apatite and hornblende, but also is associated with illite and mixed-layer clay minerals of smectite and illite. About 80% of the F is released during combustion of the mixture. The F content of corn and chilies is about 1000 and 110 times higher, respectively, than the permitted level of F in foodstuffs according to the Chinese Standard GB 4809-84. Most of the F in corn and chilies probably occurs either in smoke dusts attached to the surface or is adsorbed onto the outer peel, rather than being absorbed by the inner part. Thus, in addition to developing F-sequestration technologies, changing the living habits of the residents in the endemic area, for example, washing corn and chilies before cooking and peeling corn before being pulverized into corn flour, will remove a large proportion of the F, and thus it can play an important role in endemic fluorosis prevention.

  6. Manejo integral estético del sector anterior en el paciente con fluorosis dental

    OpenAIRE

    Giandoménico Villota, Camilo Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Actualmente, la odontología estética ha alcanzado gran importancia en la población general, lo cual se evidencia en la alta demanda de pacientes que buscan una sonrisa armónica, bella, blanca y llamativa. Uno de los principales problemas que más aqueja a la población colombiana y de relevancia en salud pública es la fluorosis dental, que se describe como una “patología endémica asociada al exceso de ingesta del ion flúor, cuya manifestación dental acarrea un problema estético que se caracteri...

  7. Influencia de los tratamientos microabrasivos sobre la resistencia adhesiva en dientes con fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mena Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda de tratamientos mínimamente invasivos y altamente estéticos para pacientes con fluorosis, ha llevado a buscar mecanismos para solucionar esta problemática, mediante la utilización de resinas como la primera opción. Sin embargo el principal problema del tratamiento, se centra en la poca adhesión debido a las características estructurales del esmalte fluorótico, en grados de fluorosis TF 1 al 3, el ácido no actúa correctamente, causando ausencia de grabado principalmente entre las estrías de Retzius, en las rugosidades y espacios adamantinos ocupados por detritus de materia orgánica y cúmulos de placa dentobacteriana, siendo necesario efectuar técnicas microabrasivas y desproteinizantes como paso previo a los procesos adhesivos. Así, el presente estudio pretendió determinar la resistencia adhesiva en dientes con fluorosis grados TF 2 y 3, empleando tres diferentes técnicas de abrasión adamantina, se seleccionaron 48 dientes divididos en 3 grupos de 16 muestras cada uno, 8 con grado TF2 y 8 con grado TF3. Las superficies del esmalte fueron preparadas mediante la técnica “microabrasión modificada”, la “técnica de microabrasión” y “Opalustre”, todos los grupos recibieron desproteinización con hipoclorito de sodio al 5% por un minuto. Posterior a lo cual fueron realizados los procesos adhesivos mediante sistema adhesivo y resina compuesta, sometiéndose posteriormente a pruebas de cizallamiento. Los resultados analizados mediante testes de ANOVA y T de Student no determinaron una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos, la facilidad en los protocolos de aplicación debe ser considerada en la elección de la técnica, sin embargo resulta importante su ejecución en dientes afectados por fluorosis.

  8. [Fluoride content in potable water and drinks. Connection with dental caries prevention and dental fluorosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Rumiantsev, V A; Borinskaia, E Iu; Beliaev, V V

    2009-01-01

    Content of fluoride by ion selective electrode in potable water (municipal water supply, bottled, from draw-wells and springs), in juices of industrial and compotes of domestic preparation, in drinks of various grades of the tea made by water with unequal contents of fluorine was analyzed. Fluoride entered organism of the population in non-control mode more often in minimum quantities that explained, in certain measures a wide caries incidence. Granting of the information upon concentration of fluorides in potable water, juices and drinks used by population would allow people to adjust this microelement intake in the organism with the purpose of preventing of dental caries and fluorosis.

  9. 昆明市儿童龋病和氟牙症流行状况调查%Epidemiology survey of dental caries and fluorosis of children in Kunming city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆; 刘娟; 张灿华; 张石楠; 李艳红

    2011-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of water fluoridation to prevent caries in Kunming by investigating the epidemiological status of dental caries and dental fluorosis of children, and to provide the longitudinal reference data for the long-term epidemiology survey of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Kunming city. Methods Through stratified cluster sampling method, 212 5-year-old children and 1 149 12-year-old children were recruited in the survey. Dental caries condition of each child was clinically examined, dental fluorosis was examined in 12-year-old group. Results The prevalence of dental caries of primary teeth in 5-year-old group was 73.6%, mean value was 4.47± 4.39. The values of permanent teeth in 12-year-old group were 53.5% and 1.42±1.83. The prevalence of dental fluo- rosis in 12-year-old group was 4.1% and the average community fluorosis index was 0.03. Conclusion Based on the high prevalence of dental caries and the low prevalence of dental fluorosis, it is suggested that using water fluoridation to prevent caries is feasible and necessary in Kunming city.%目的 通过对昆明市儿童龋病和氟牙症的流行病学调查,为该区开展饮水加氟预防龋齿提供可行性依据,并为昆明市龋病和氟牙症长期流行病学研究提供基础数据.方法 采用分层、整群随机抽样方法,调查5、12岁2个年龄组儿童各212、1 149人,调查内容包括5、12岁儿童龋病患病现状以及12岁儿童氟牙症流行现状.结果 昆明市5岁儿童乳牙患龋率73.6%,龋均4.47+4.39; 12岁儿童恒牙患龋率53.5%,龋均1.42±1.83; 12岁儿童氟牙症患病率4.1%,社区氟牙症指数为0.03.结论 昆明市属于龋病患病状况较严重和氟牙症非流行区,从流行病学角度认为该地区具有调节水氟浓度预防龋齿的必要性及可行性.

  10. 2009年江苏省饮水型地方性氟中毒监测结果分析%Analysis of surveillance results of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Jiangsu Province in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束长亮; 王彩生; 汪旸; 夏玉婷; 陈思红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the development trend of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Jiangsu Province,and to provide the basis for further prevention and treatment of the disease.Methods In 2009,eight major counties were chosen,and in each county all diseased villages were classified into light,moderate and severe disease types according to water fluorine content based on historical data,and one village was chosen from each type.In monitoring villages with improved water,one source water and three tap water samples were collected,respectively.Five water samples were collected in water unimproved monitoring villages according to water well locations of the east,the west,the south,the north and the center.The fluorine content in water was determined according to the "Standard Testing Methods for Drinking Water" (GB/T 5750-2006).Children aged 8 to 12 were examined for dental fluorosis by Dean method.Residents over the age of 16 were examined for clinical osteofluorosis,and two monitoring counties were chosen,then one village was respectively chosen in each county,and clinically diagnosed patients with skeletal fluorosis were examined again by X-ray.Both clinical and X-ray diagnosis were on the basis of "Diagnostic Criteria of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis" (WS 192-2008).Urine samples of 30 children aged 8 to 12 and of 20 adults over the age of 16 were randomly collected and urinary fluoride was determined by F-ion selective electrode method(WS/T 89-1996).Results Of all the 24 villages of 8 counties,20 villages were water improved,and water-improvedprojects ran normally in 18 villages,while scrapped in the rest 2 villages.One hundred and two samples were tested,and the mean of water fluoride in water-improved villages was 1.10 mg/L,while in water unimproved villages and villages with water improved projects scrapped was 1.90 mg/L.The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 42.51%(854/2009).The prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 23.23% (2024/8713) and the

  11. Expression of mitochondrial fission protein locus Fisl and ultrastructural changes in the renal cells of rats with chronic fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦双立

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of mitochondrial fission protein locus Fis1 and ultrastructural changes in the renal cells of rats with chronic fluorosis,and to reveal the mechanism in mitochondrial damage of the renal cells.Methods Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups according

  12. POLLUTION OF DRINKING WATER DUE TO FLUORIDE AND DENTAL FLUOROSIS AT HUNAGUND TALUK OF BAGALKOT DISTRICT, KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.Kugali

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground water quality in Hunagund taluk of Bagalkot district has been studied with special reference to the presence of fluoride. The main purpose is to draw attention to the presence and the severity of dental fluorosis. Out of 3000 people aged 8-50 years 1275 (42.5% had dental fluorosis of some degree. The well being of humans depends on quality of drinking water. Consumption of water containing excess fluoride over over long period results in fluorosis. Currently, fifteen states of India are endemic for fluorosis. The presence of fluoride in exceeding limits and its related problems of drinking water prevailing in many parts of India is well documented. Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. Many solutions to these problems were also suggested. Fluoride from water or waste water can be removed by an ion exchange/ adsorption process or by coagulation. Precipitation process. The paper presents the current information on defluoridation

  13. Dental Fluorosis and Catalase Immunoreactivity of the Brain Tissues in Rats Exposed to High Fluoride Pre- and Postnatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Şirin; Uyar-Bozkurt, Süheyla; Haznedaroğlu, Eda; Menteş, Ali

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated dental fluorosis of the incisors and immunoreactivity in the brain tissues of rats given chronic fluoride doses pre- and postnatally. Female rats were given drinking water with 0, 30 or 100 ppm fluoride ad libitum throughout gestation and the nursing period. In addition, 63 male offspring were treated with the same water regimens as the mothers after weaning and were followed for 1, 3 or 5 months. The upper and lower incisors were collected, and all teeth were examined under a stereomicroscope and scored by two blinded examiners using a modified rodent enamel fluorosis index. Cortical, hippocampal and cerebellar brain samples were evaluated morphologically and immunohistochemically. All fluoride-treated pups were born with low body weight (p = 0.001). All animals from the fluoride groups had enamel fluorosis with defects of various degrees. The increase in the dental fluorosis scores in the fluoride treatment groups was significant (p catalase immunoreactivity in the 30- and 100-ppm fluoride groups was significantly higher than that in the controls after 1, 3 and 5 months (p catalase immunoreactivity in the brain tissues, which may reflect the neurobehavioral toxicity of fluoride.

  14. Perceptions of adolescents and young people regarding endemic dental fluorosis in a rural area of Brazil: psychosocial suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castilho, Lia Silva; e Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Perini, Edson

    2009-11-01

    Severe dental fluorosis is endemic in some rural areas of Brazil. This paper describes the psychosocial consequences of this condition and how it has affected the self-esteem of adolescents and young people in a rural area in Brazil. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 23 adolescents and young people affected by severe dental fluorosis and 14 of their teachers. The study revealed the affected individuals were embarrassed to smile at strangers due to a presumed association between fluorosis and a lack of dental hygiene. Further findings include conflicts between affected and non-affected students at school, problems in pursuing a romantic relationship and uncertainties regarding a professional future. Disbelief and scepticism were observed regarding the ethical position that science can offer a solution to the problems stemming from the disease. Lesions from severe dental fluorosis appear to be a stigmatizing factor and have contributed toward suffering and self-exclusion among an entire generation of adolescents and young people.

  15. Effect of a short period of fluoride ingestion on dental fluorosis in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttie, J.W.; Faltin, E.C.

    1971-02-01

    The effects of the ingestion of 2.5 mg of fluoride per kilogram of body weight by dairy heifers during their 13th to 15th or 16th to 18th months of age were studied. This short-term exposure was sufficient to cause severe dental fluorosis in at least one pair of incisors, especially in the 2nd group of heifers, even though the total fluoride intake was not excessive. The plasma fluoride concentrations rapidly increased to 0.5 ppm in both groups of heifers and decreased rapidly after fluoride was removed from the ration. Evidence of dental fluorosis was seen when crown formation was completed before exposure to fluoride and also when the fluoride exposure preceded any calcification of the crown. The most severe effects were seen when the exposure coincided with the initiation of crown formation for a particular incisor. Fluoride analysis of consecutive chronologic sections of the avascular enamel indicated that there was a regular pattern of enamel apposition from the top to the bottom of the crown of one incisor before the top of the crown of the next incisor calcified. 13 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo BUZALAF

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the overall apatite crystals profile in the enamel matrix of mice susceptible (A/J strain or resistant (129P3/J strain to dental fluorosis through analyses by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Material and Methods: Samples from the enamel matrix in the early stages of secretion and maturation were obtained from the incisors of mice from both strains. All detectable traces of matrix protein were removed from the samples by a sequential extraction procedure. The purified crystals (n=13 per strain were analyzed qualitatively in the AFM. Surface roughness profile (Ra was measured. Results: The mean (±SD Ra of the crystals of A/J strain (0.58±0.15 nm was lower than the one found for the 129P3/J strain (0.66±0.21 nm but the difference did not reach statistical significance (t=1.187, p=0.247. Crystals of the 129P3/J strain (70.42±6.79 nm were found to be significantly narrower (t=4.013, p=0.0013 than the same parameter measured for the A/J strain (90.42±15.86 nm. Conclusion: enamel crystals of the 129P3/J strain are narrower, which is indicative of slower crystal growth and could interfere in the occurrence of dental fluorosis.

  17. Studies on geological background and source of fluorine in drinking water in the North China Plate fluorosis areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, K.; Feng, F.; Li, H.; Chou, C.-L.; Feng, Z.; Yunshe, D.

    2008-01-01

    Endemic fluorosis in northern China is usually produced by high fluorine (F) content in drinking water. Thirty-one samples of drinking waters, mainly well waters and nearly 200 samples of rocks, loess, and coal were analyzed for F content using the combustion hydrolysis-fluoride-ion selective electrode (ISE) method. The geologic cross sections of two well-known fluorosis basins were studied. The solubility of F in different rock types collected from fluorosis areas was determined. Results showed that areas of endemic fluorosis in northern China are located in coal-bearing basins which are comprised of three stratagraphic portions. The lowest portion is Precambrian granitic rocks or Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates. The middle portion consists of Permo-Carboniferous or Jurassic coal-bearing sequences. The upper portion is 0-400 m Pleistocene loess. Flourine content in the Precambrian granite-gneiss contained (a) 1090-1460 ppm, in the Cambrian-Ordovician limestone and dolomite, (b) 52-133 ppm, in black shales and coal gob of Permo-Carboniferous coal-bearing strata, (c) 200-700 ppm, and (d) Pleistocene loess 454-542 ppm. The solubility of F in black shales of coal-bearing sequences was higher than in Precambrian granitic rocks, and both were more soluble than loess. F solubility from Precambrian granitic rocks was moderate, but Precambrian granitic rocks have high F content and thus contribute an appreciable amount of ion to the shallow groundwater (well water). Varying F content in shallow groundwater is controlled by geological conditions. The sources of F in the shallow groundwater from fluorosis areas in northern China are mainly derived from black shales of coal-bearing sequences and Precambrian granitic basement in the basins of northern China. ?? 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  18. The effectiveness of low-fluoride brick tea on brick-tea-type fluorosis%低氟砖茶干预饮茶型氟中毒效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓波; 刘庆斌; 刘学慧; 姜志立; 英殿双; 张晓明; 田淑彩; 盖长城; 王革

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effectiveness of low-fluoride brick tea on brick-tea-type fluorosis.Methods From 2007 to 2010,a 3-year-intervention trial,using low-fluoride brick tea without additives(fluorine content of 94.8-128.0 mg/kg),was carried out in Cuogang Township,Hulunbeier City of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,and resident from 35 Mongolia pastoralists households were involved in the trial.The followings were compared before and after the intervention trial:fluorine levels in brick tea,milk tea,blood,urine,daily fluoride intake through brick tea,the changes of X-ray,bone density and blood biochemistry indexes.Fluorine content in brick tea,milk tea,blood and urine was determined by ion selective electrode method; dental fluorosis was diagnosed by Dean method; clinical osteofluorosis was diagnosed using the reference of "Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis Diagnosis of Clinical Classification" (GB 16396-1996) ; X-ray skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed based on the reference of "Skeletal Fluorosis X-ray Diagnosis" (WS 192-1999); bone density was determined according to the reference standard of diagnosis of osteoporosis of WHO.Results Before the intervention trial fluorine content of tea[(4.38 ± 2.43)mg/L] was higher than that after the trial[(1.00 ± 0.41)mg/L,t =6.56,P < 0.01] ; blood fluorine content in the population[(0.068 ± 0.018)mg/L] was higher than that after the trial[(0.054 ± 0.025)mg/L,t =3.24,P < 0.01]; urinary fluoride content [(3.17 ± 1.97)mg/L] was higher than that after the trial [(1.57 ± 0.77)mg/L,t =5.78,P < 0.01]; fluoride intake through milk tea [(7.89 ± 6.76)mg/d] was higher than that after the trial[(1.71 ± 1.42)mg/d,t =7.62,P < 0.01].The skeletal fluorosis rate was 32.79%(20/61),no new patient was found after the trial; bone mineral density was improved,and the value before the trial(-0.74 ± 1.18) was lower than that after the trial(-0.56 ± 1.18,t =2.14,P < 0.05).Blood biochemistry:cholesterol and low density lipoprotein

  19. Surveillance Results of Coal-Burning Induced Fluorosis in Sichuan, 2006-2010%2006-2010年四川省燃煤型地氟病监测报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敬; 杨小静; 邓启才; 梁代华; 袁萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of coal-burning induced endemic fluorosis,and to provide scientific basis for formulating control strategies of endemic fluorosis in China.Methods The annual incidence of dental fluorosis among children,the level of urinary fluoride,corn fluoride and capsicum fluoride were detected at the 4 surveillance spots; meanwhile,the performance of kitchen transformation was investigated.Results From 2006 to 2010,the prevalence of dental fluorosis dropped from 49.21% to 21.52%,with a 27.69% average annual decline.The dental fluorosis index fell by 71.82% and the urine fluoride presented a downward trend,with a geometric mean ranged from 0.73 to 1.13 ; the average detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 13.03 % ; the mean corn fluoride content decreased by 72.05 % and average fluoride content in capsicum decreased by 86.07 %,yet with a serious exceeding content of 3309.3 mg/kg.The transformation rate of cooking stoves was 65.38% among the 4 counties,and the perfectness rate of which was 81.88%,resulting in remarkable decline of fluorine pollution in air and qualifying the national standard.Conclusion Through 2006 to 2010 in Sichuan,the coal-burning induced endemic fluorosis remarkable decreased,yet the control measures as following should be abidingly implemented:stove maintenance work,pepper drying method improvement,health education and so on.%目的 了解四川省2006-2010年燃煤污染型地氟病的现况、变化趋势和防治措施落实情况,为制定地氟病防治防治策略提供科学依据.方法 每年1次对4个监测县监测病区8 ~12岁儿童氟斑牙、儿童尿氟、玉米、辣椒氟含量及病区改灶降氟措施完成和使用情况进行调查.结果 2006-2010年监测县燃煤污染型地氟病儿童氟斑牙患病率由49.21%下降到21.52%,年平均患病率下降了27.69%,氟斑牙指数下降了71.82%;尿氟呈下降趋势,尿氟几何均值在0.73 ~1.13之

  20. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied.

  1. Analysis on surveillance outcome of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province from 1992 to 2006%1992-2006年山东省地方性氟中毒重点监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培忠; 云中杰; 边建朝; 李亨祥; 马爱华; 高红旭; 王玉涛; 赵力军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the fulfillment of control measures of endemic fluorosis and find out the prevalent trend of this disease in Shandong Province from 1992 to 2006 in order to provide a scientific basis for the set up of control strategies. Methods According to "the National Survey Scheme of Endemic fluorosis", Huantai County in 1992-1996 and Liaagshan County in 1997-2006 were selected, where water-improving defluoridation and the contents of water fluoride were searched in two counties; dental fluorosis and urine fluoride in children aged 8-12 years old, clinical and X-ray skeletal fluorosis in adult over 16 years old were searched respectively in Lijia Village of Huantai County and Dongxu Village of Liangshan County. Results One hundred percent(304/304) high-fluoride villages of Huantai County in 1992 and 63.72% (137/215) villages of Liangshan County in 2006 had finished the project of water-improving defluoridation; the rate of high-fluorine water(>1.0 mg/L) in normal operation projects was 5.00%(5/100)-17.14%(18/105) in Huantai County from 1992 to 1996, and 18.97%(11/58)-45.61%(26/57) in Liangshan County from 1997 to 2006. The water fluoride of Lijia Village was0.05), and all the cases were in degree I, the rate of Dongxu Village dropped from 64.58%(31/48) in 1997 to 16.67% (4/24) in 2006(χ2=14.71, P,选择桓台县(1992-1996年)和梁山县(1997-2006年)作为监测县,调查2个县改水情况和饮水含氟量;在桓台县选择李家村,染山县选择东徐村,调查居民饮水含氟量,8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况、尿氟水平以及16岁以上成人临床与X线氟骨症患病情况.结果 1992年桓台县、2006年梁山县的改水降氟完成率分别为100.00%(304/304)、63.72%(137/215);1992-1996年桓台县正常使用工程的水氟超标(>1.0mg/L)率范围为5.00%(5/100)~17.14%(18/105),1997-2006年梁山县为18.97%(11/58)~45.61%(26/57).1992-1996年李家村居民饮用水水氟均0.05),均为Ⅰ度病例;东徐村由1997

  2. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analysis of Serum Proteins in Wistar Rats Treated with Sodium Fluoride: Insight into the Potential Mechanism and Candidate Biomarkers of Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan; Zeng, Beibei; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Cheng; Wu, Yanli; Wang, Nanlan; Wu, Yanqiu; Shen, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Fluorosis induced by exposure to high level fluoride is quite widespread in the world. The manifestations of fluorosis include dental mottling, bone damage, and impaired malfunction of soft tissues. However, the molecular mechanism of fluorosis has not been clarified until now. To explore the underlying mechanisms of fluorosis and screen out serum biomarkers, we carried out a quantitative proteomics study to identify differentially expressed serum proteins in Wistar rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF) by using a proteomics approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). We fed Wistar rats drinking water that had 50, 150, and 250 mg/L of dissolved NaF for 24 weeks. For the experimental duration, each rat was given an examination of the lower incisors to check for the condition of dental fluorosis (DF). By the end of the treatment, fluoride ion concentration in serum and lower incisors were detected. The results showed that NaF treatment can induce rat fluorosis. By iTRAQ analysis, a total of 37 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between NaF-treated and control rats. These proteins were further analyzed by bioinformatics, out of which two proteins were validated by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISA). The major proteins were involved in complement and coagulation cascade, inflammatory response, complement activation, defense response, and wound response, suggesting that inflammation and immune reactions may play a key role in fluorosis pathogenesis. These proteins may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of fluoride toxicity, and may serve as potential biomarkers for fluorosis. PMID:27690006

  3. Dental caries and dental fluorosis in 7-12-year-old schoolchildren in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bardal, Priscila Ariede Petinuci; OLYMPIO, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; BASTOS, José Roberto Magalhães

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Over the last two decades, the prevalence of dental caries in children has decreased and the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased. Knowledge on the epidemiologic conditions of a population is fundamental for the planning of health programs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren, in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: A random sample of 432 schoolchildren aged 7-12-years old was obtained. WHO (1997) criteria for de...

  4. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to determine the depth of demineralization of dental fluorosis in enamel microabrasion: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    PARK, Tae-Young; Choi, Han-Sol; Ku, Hee-Won; Kim, Hyun-Su; Lee, Yoo-Jin; Min, Jeong-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Enamel microabrasion has become accepted as a conservative, nonrestorative method of removing intrinsic and superficial dysmineralization defects from dental fluorosis, restoring esthetics with minimal loss of enamel. However, it can be difficult to determine if restoration is necessary in dental fluorosis, because the lesion depth is often not easily recognized. This case report presents a method for analysis of enamel hypoplasia that uses quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) follow...

  5. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analysis of Serum Proteins in Wistar Rats Treated with Sodium Fluoride: Insight into the Potential Mechanism and Candidate Biomarkers of Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis induced by exposure to high level fluoride is quite widespread in the world. The manifestations of fluorosis include dental mottling, bone damage, and impaired malfunction of soft tissues. However, the molecular mechanism of fluorosis has not been clarified until now. To explore the underlying mechanisms of fluorosis and screen out serum biomarkers, we carried out a quantitative proteomics study to identify differentially expressed serum proteins in Wistar rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF by using a proteomics approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. We fed Wistar rats drinking water that had 50, 150, and 250 mg/L of dissolved NaF for 24 weeks. For the experimental duration, each rat was given an examination of the lower incisors to check for the condition of dental fluorosis (DF. By the end of the treatment, fluoride ion concentration in serum and lower incisors were detected. The results showed that NaF treatment can induce rat fluorosis. By iTRAQ analysis, a total of 37 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between NaF-treated and control rats. These proteins were further analyzed by bioinformatics, out of which two proteins were validated by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISA. The major proteins were involved in complement and coagulation cascade, inflammatory response, complement activation, defense response, and wound response, suggesting that inflammation and immune reactions may play a key role in fluorosis pathogenesis. These proteins may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of fluoride toxicity, and may serve as potential biomarkers for fluorosis.

  6. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  7. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-12

    Objective: To identify adolescents' self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2-3 (50%), TF 4-5 (45.6%) and TF 6-7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2-3 (12.3%), TF 4-5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  8. The distribution of drinking-tea-borne fluorosis in the six ethnics in Qinghai Province%饮茶型氟中毒在青海省6个民族人群中的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁青; 魏生英; 何多龙; 杨萍; 李生梅; 姜泓; 陈萍; 蒲光兰; 吴海坤; 喇翠玲

    2014-01-01

    毒防治的重点人群。%Objective To find out the distribution of drinking-tea-borne fluorosis in the six ethnics in Qinghai Province, and to provide basic data for prevention and control of the disease. Methods In 2010, according to the requirement of “The National Surveillance Program of Drinking-Tea-borne Fluorosis”, six ethnics accounted for 99.59% of total population in Qinghai Province were investigated in 28 counties having brick-tea drinking habit. Three townships and a town in each county, two administrative villages(residents’ committee) in each township and town were chosen and 50 adults in each administrative village and residents ’ committee were selected to check skeletal fluorosis, dental fluorosis, urine fluoride and daily drinking amount of tea water. Five to six samples of drinking tea water were determined. Dental fluorosis was examined by Deans method; the fluoride content of brick-tea and urine were determined by fluoride ion selective electrode; the skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed based on “Endemic Osteofluorosis Clinical Indexing Diagnosis Standard”( WS 192-2008 ) . Results A total of 10 335 adults were surveyed, the number of Tibetan, Han, Hui, Mongolian, Tu and Salar ethnics were 4 972, 3 063, 1 196, 634, 235 and 235, respectively. The daily drinking amounts of tea water in Mongolian, Tibetan, Hui, Tu, Han and Salar ethnics were 2.53, 2.19, 1.74, 1.63, 1.22 and 1.07 L, respectively. Daily fluoride intakes in Tibetan, Mongolian, Tu, Hui, Han and Salar ethnics were 3.99, 2.78,2.27, 2.16, 1.78 and 1.28 mg, respectively. The medians of urinary fluoride concentration of the Tibetan, Tu, Hui, Han, Mongolian and Salar ethnics were 1.46, 1.19, 1.12, 0.98, 0.93 and 0.81 mg/L, respectively. The prevalence rates of dental fluorosis of the Hui, Han, Tibetan, Tu, Mongolian and Salar ethnics were 34.53%(413/1 196), 27.07%(829/3 063), 21.60%(1 074/4 972), 20.00%(47/235), 17.98%(114/634) and 6.38%(15/235), respectively. The incidence rates of clinical skeletal fluorosis of the

  9. Guidelines for Skeletal Surveys in Suspected Chils Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo; Poulsen, Mette Ramsdal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in that there is exceptional necessity for high quality images. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if imaging is sub-optimal. The consequences...... child. The second meeting resulted in consensus on the necessary projections required for follow-up skeletal surveys. Conclusion Common protocols for child abuse imaging have been established and fully implemented in the Region of Southern Denmark. Annual meetings have also been established where legal...... of misdiagnosis are serious. Should head trauma or fractures be overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. Conversely, where no abuse has taken place, but the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, the unnecessary...

  10. X-ray analysis of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis caused by coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.P.; Yuan, M.B.; Liu, G.F. [Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China)

    1996-05-01

    Radiographs of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis of coalburning type (CBFF) - 49 males and 31 females aged 30 to 70 years - were analysed to examine the changes to the bone substance, peripheral structure of bone, and joints. The changes to bone substance were: (1) osteosclerosis type, 62 cases (77.5%); (2) mixed type, 16 cases (21.25%); (3) osteoporosis type, one case (1.25%); (4) osteomalacia type, one case (1.25%). The changes to the joints were found in the hips and elbows in 79 cases (98.75%), and in the knees in 75 cases (93.75%). When combinations of the above three changes occur, the classification of the disease is according to the most severe one of the three. Our findings can increase the accuracy of X-ray diagnosis, making it more consistent with clinical diagnosis, thus improving prevention and treatment of CBEF.

  11. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  12. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Maya; Narasimhan, Malathi; Krishnan, Ramesh; Chalakkal, Paul; Aruna, Rita Mary; Kuruvilah, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Context: There are various regions in India that have high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. Many people residing in such places suffer from dental fluorosis (DF). Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of DF in children residing in Salem and also to find any correlation between DF and other related factors. Materials and Methods: One school from each block of Salem (total 21 blocks) was selected for the study. A single examiner had evaluated untreated caries, lesions, and DF (for permanent anterior teeth and molars) using the Dean's fluorosis index, in all children. Water fluoride level determination at each school was done using the Tamil Nadu Water Fluoridation and Drainage Board field kit. Other factors that may have contributed to DF were assessed using a questionnaire, which was provided to each student. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 11.5. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: DF was present in 56.9% of the children examined. It was mostly seen in 9 years old (72%) and male (59%) children. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of DF and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content, consumption of borewell water (64%), the parts per million of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of black tea (59%). However, no correlation was found between DF, dental caries, consumption of milk, or consumption of foods cooked in aluminum vessels. Conclusion: There was a correlation between DF and factors such as male gender, bore well water consumption, black tea consumption and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content. PMID:27307668

  13. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There are various regions in India that have high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. Many people residing in such places suffer from dental fluorosis (DF. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of DF in children residing in Salem and also to find any correlation between DF and other related factors. Materials and Methods: One school from each block of Salem (total 21 blocks was selected for the study. A single examiner had evaluated untreated caries, lesions, and DF (for permanent anterior teeth and molars using the Dean's fluorosis index, in all children. Water fluoride level determination at each school was done using the Tamil Nadu Water Fluoridation and Drainage Board field kit. Other factors that may have contributed to DF were assessed using a questionnaire, which was provided to each student. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 11.5. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: DF was present in 56.9% of the children examined. It was mostly seen in 9 years old (72% and male (59% children. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of DF and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content, consumption of borewell water (64%, the parts per million of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of black tea (59%. However, no correlation was found between DF, dental caries, consumption of milk, or consumption of foods cooked in aluminum vessels. Conclusion: There was a correlation between DF and factors such as male gender, bore well water consumption, black tea consumption and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content.

  14. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  15. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola-Rodríguez Juan Pablo; Pozos-Guillén Amaury de Jesús; Hernández-Guerrero Juan Carlos; Hernández-Sierra Juan Francisco

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaro...

  16. 氟牙症发病机制的研究进展%Research progress on pathogenesis of dental fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盘龙; 周红艳; 王东苗; 梅予锋

    2013-01-01

      氟离子在氟牙症的形成中起着重要的作用,釉质形成的各个时期均受其影响。本文就氟的细胞毒性、氟对釉基质蛋白酶功能的影响和钙离子对氟作用的影响等三方面简述氟对釉质发生过程的影响,探讨氟牙症发生的相关机制。%The fluorine is a master morbigenous factor of dental fluorosis and plays a role in all stages of enamel formation. The influence of fluoride on amelogenesis, which includes the cell toxicity of fluorine, the influence of enamel matrix protease and the mineralized processes, are reviewed in this article. The correlated mechanism of dental fluorosis was also discussed.

  17. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  18. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 6 a 12 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Dobarganes Coca

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis y la caries dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de estas enfermedades. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en niños de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, con el objetivo de caracterizar la fluorosis y la caries dental, desde septiembre de 2011 hasta septiembre de 2012. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por 67 escolares, a los que se les determinó la presencia de fluorosis dental y los índices de dientes cariados, perdidos y obturados, en la dentición temporal y en la permanente (ceo-d y COP-D, respectivamente. Los factores de riesgo asociados a la caries dental que se tomaron en consideración fueron: susceptibilidad del esmalte, dieta cariogénica e higiene bucal deficiente. Se detectó la presencia de higiene bucal deficiente (71,6 % y dieta cariogénica (82,1 %, sin embargo, el 29,8 % y el 41,8 % de los niños, respectivamente, aunque estuvieron sometidos a estos factores de riesgo no desarrollaron caries dental. El mayor por ciento de los niños sin caries (70,3 % presentó esmalte resistente. Se observó un índice ceo-d de 1,50 y COP-D de 0,20. De los pacientes sin fluorosis, el 60,6 % no presentó caries dental

  19. Fluoride concentration of drinking water and dental fluorosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Goodarzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, a number of studies have investigated the impact of fluoride concentration of drinking water on dental fluorosis. These Studies should be reviewed to provide a new outlook on the analysis of the causes and effects of dental fluorosis in specific regions. The objective of this study was to systematically review the fluoride concentration of drinking water and investigate its relation to the frequency of dental fluorosis in Iran. Materials and Methods: Dean′s index was used to classify data, and a meta-analysis was conducted to obtain summary measure with 95% confidence interval (CI. In this regard, Stata/SE 11.1 was employed for data analysis based on random effect models for reporting the results. In this systematic review, Scientific Information Database (SID and IranMedex databases were searched and studies were included based on specific criteria. Data validity was assessed using the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE checklist adapted for cross-sectional study designs. Furthermore, a series of predefined keywords were used, and the combination of these keywords were considered using operators. The inconsistency was examined using the χ2 test at a significance level of 10%. In addition, heterogeneity was quantified across studies using the І2 statistic. The difference between study variance was analyzed based on τ2 statistic. Results: In the age group of 6-18 years old based on the fluoride level in drinking water and exposure time, there was significant heterogeneity among the studies in all subgroups for determining the frequency of dental fluorosis and assessing the effect of other variables. Conclusions: The variables, water fluoride exposure time, and any exposure to fluoride are considered as confounding factors. Analyzing the subgroups and examining the heterogeneity showed that the results of the studies in all subgroups cannot be pooled.

  20. Impact of aesthetic restorative treatment on anterior teeth with fluorosis among residents of an endemic area in Brazil: intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Endemic dental fluorosis has already been described in some regions of the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and psychosocial impact of direct aesthetic restorative treatments in endemic fluorosis patients in the northern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Was a quasi-experimental intervention study. Methods The reference population consisted of individuals between 9 and 27 years of age that were served by a project intended to recover the smiles of patients with severe fluorosis. The questionnaires were administered on two occasions, 24 months apart (before and after dental treatment). Initially, descriptive analyses were conducted. Prevalence and severity, as well as the extent of the functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders were estimated based on the Oral Health Impact Profile instrument (OHIP-14). Comparisons between baseline and follow-up and between treatment techniques were carried out using the McNemar, Wilcoxon, and Mann–Whitney tests. Results The study involved 53 individuals, with a mean age of 15.9 years, treated with microabrasion, dental composite, or a combination of both techniques. The treatments performed proved to be competent for reducing the functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders as measured by the OHIP-14, pointing to the possibility of establishing protocols to be used in programs aimed at restoring the aesthetics and functionality of the anterior teeth in large populations. Conclusions After performing the direct aesthetic restorative treatments in patients with endemic fluorosis, a significant improvement was observed in the prevalence and severity, as well as the extent of the functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders. PMID:24886223

  1. Essentials of skeletal radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics of skeletal radiology: Positioning of patients for diagnostic radiology and normal anatomy; congenital malformations of skeleton; measurements in radiology; spondylolisthesis; metabolic and endocrine diseases of bone and their diagnostic aspects; image processing of vertebrae, skeleton, bone fractures evaluations and epidemiological and social aspects of some bone diseases. Various modalities as CT scanning, NMR imaging, ultrasonography and biomedical radiography are briefly discussed in relation to bone pathology.

  2. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  3. 氟中毒致机体损伤及其机制%Injuries caused by fluorosis and its mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薛燕; 黄文丽

    2015-01-01

    地方性氟中毒简称地氟病,是由氟导致的全身慢性蓄积性中毒。地氟病不仅给患者带来精神和肉体上的痛苦,而且加重家庭经济负担,同时严重影响病区的经济发展。本文将主要从氟对机体各器官系统的损伤作用及其发病机制加以阐述,以期为氟中毒相关研究提供参考。%Endemic fluorosis is a systemic chronic chemical poisoning caused by fluorine . Fluorosis not only imposes mental and physical harm to patients ,but also increases their financial burdens while adversely affecting the economical developments in the area .This article summarizes the injuries on various body organs caused by fluorosis and its pathogenesis ,in hopes of providing references for future fluorosis‐related studies .

  4. Changes of learning and memory ability and brain nicotinic receptors of rat offspring with coal burning fluorosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, C.Z.; Ran, L.Y.; Li, J.P.; Guan, Z.Z. [Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang (China). Dept. of Pathology

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of the investigation is to reveal the mechanism of the decreased ability of learning and memory induced by coal burning fluorosis. Ten offspring SD rats aged 30 days, who were born from the mothers with chronic coal burning fluorosis, and ten offspring with same age from the normal mothers as controls were selected. Spatial learning and memory of the rats were evaluated by Morris Water Maze test. Cholinesterase activity was detected by photometric method. The expressions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at protein and mRNA levels were detected by Western blotting and Real-time PCR, respectively. The results showed that in the rat offspring exposed to higher fluoride as compared to controls, the learning and memory ability declined; the cholinesterase activities in the brains were inhibited; the protein levels of alpha 3, alpha 4 and alpha 7 nAChR subunits were decreased which showed certain significant correlations with the declined learning and memory ability; and the mRNA levels of alpha 3 and alpha 4 nAChRs were decreased, whereas the alpha 7 mRNA increased. The data indicated that coal burning fluorosis can induce the decreased ability of learning and memory of rat offspring, in which the mechanism might be connected to the changed nAChRs and cholinesterase.

  5. Skeletal sarcoidosis; Skelettsarkoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Freyschmidt, P. [Dermatologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Schwalmstadt (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Presentation of the etiology, pathology, clinical course, radiology and differential diagnostics of skeletal sarcoidosis. Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas can trigger solitary, multiple or disseminated osteolysis, reactive osteosclerosis and/or granulomatous synovitis. The incidence of sarcoidosis is 10-12 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Skeletal involvement is approximately 14 %. Skeletal involvement occurs almost exclusively in the stage of lymph node and pulmonary manifestation. Most cases of skeletal involvement are clinically asymptomatic. In the case of synovial involvement, unspecific joint complaints (arthralgia) or less commonly arthritis can occur. Typical skin alterations can be diagnostically significant. Punch out lesions osteolysis, coarse destruction and osteosclerosis can occur, which are best visualized with projection radiography and/or computed tomography. Pure bone marrow foci without interaction with the bone can only be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and more recently with positron emission tomography (PET), mostly as incidental findings. There is a predeliction for the hand and trunk skeleton. Skeletal tuberculosis, metastases, multiple myeloma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and sarcoid-like reactions in solid tumors must be differentiated. The key factors for correct diagnosis are thorax radiography, thorax CT and dermatological manifestations. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Aetiologie, Pathologie, Klinik, Radiologie und Differenzialdiagnose der Skelettsarkoidose. Nichtverkaesende Epitheloidzellgranulome koennen solitaere, multiple oder disseminierte Osteolysen, reaktive Osteosklerosen und/oder eine granulomatoese Synovialitis ausloesen. Inzidenz der Sarkoidose: 10-12/100.000 Einwohner/Jahr. Skelettbeteiligung ca. 14 %. Skelettbeteiligungen kommen fast ausschliesslich im Stadium einer Lymphknoten- und pulmonalen Manifestation vor. Die meisten Skelettbeteiligungen verlaufen klinisch stumm. Bei synovialer

  6. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  7. Influence of high-fluorine environmental background on crops and human health in hot spring-type fluorosis-diseased areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN De; WU Daishe; LI Ping; WANG Tengsheng; CHEN Chengguang; WANG Wuyi

    2008-01-01

    Drinking water-type fluorosis is the most harmful endemic disease in China with the largest number of sufferers. Although the implementation of the policy to alter water sources to lower fluoride level has effectively controlled the spread of this kind of endemic disease, its prevalence could not thoroughly be stopped because the high-fluoride environmental background in these endemically diseased areas could still do harm to human health through food chain. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a more deep-going study on the drinking water-type fluorosis. To investigate the effect of high fluorine environmental background on crops and human health in the hot spring-type fluorosis-diseased areas, local water, paddy soil, rice, whole vegetables and soils around their roots were sampled for analysis. The results were compared with those of the control groups in fluorosis-free areas which are similar to the fluorosis-diseased areas both in natural background and in social background. It is indicated that rice and vegetables can accumulate water-soluble fluorine either in soils or in irrigating water, and different crops have different abilities of fixing fluorine. The contents of fluorine in different parts of vegetables in the fluorosis-diseased and fluorosis-free areas were statistically categorized. The results showed that the fluorine contents of roots, tubers, leaves and flowers of vegetables in the fluorosis-diseased areas are 3.56, 1.17, 3.07 and 3.23 mg/kg, respectively. However, comparisons showed that in the fluorosis-free areas, the fluorine contents are 2.17, 0.70, 1.91 and 2.52 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, different parts of a crop also show significantly different fluorine fixation abilities. It is demonstrated that the fluorine contents of the strongly metabolic parts are relatively high. For example, the fluorine contents of roots, leaves and flowers of vegetables are much higher than those of stems. The fluorine fixation ability of seeds is very

  8. Skeletal manifestations of scurvy: a case report from dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordin, Shahryar; Baloch, Naveed; Salat, Muhammad Sohail; Rashid Memon, Abdul; Ahmad, Tashfeen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Nutritional deficiencies are rarely reported in developed countries. We report a child of Pakistani origin brought up in Dubai who developed skeletal manifestations of scurvy due to peculiar dietary habits. Case Presentation. A 4.5 year old boy presented with pain and swelling of multiple joints for three months and inability to walk for two months. Dietary history was significant for exclusive meat intake for the preceding two years. On examination the child's height and weight were below the 5th percentile for his age. He was pale and tachycardic. There was significant swelling and tenderness over the wrist, knee and ankle joints, along with painful restriction of motion. Basic blood workup was unremarkable except for anemia. However, X-rays showed delayed bone age, severe osteopenia of the long bones, epiphyseal separation, cortical thinning and dense zone of provisional calcification, suggesting a radiological diagnosis of scurvy. The child was started on vitamin C replacement therapy. Over the following two months, the pain and swelling substantially reduced and the child became able to walk. Repeat X-rays showed improvement in the bony abnormalities. Conclusion. Although scurvy is not a very commonly encountered entity in the modern era, inappropriate dietary intake can lead to skeletal abnormalities which may be confused with rickets. A high index of suspicion is thus required for prompt diagnosis of scurvy in patients with bone and joint symptoms.

  9. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  10. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  11. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Molina-Frechero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs. Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%, TF 4–5 (45.6% and TF 6–7 (4.4% for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%, TF 4–5 (67.1% and TF 67 (20.6% for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05. The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6, smile (OR = 1.2 and appearance (OR = 3.36. Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  12. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholamhossein; Valaie, Nasser; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water fluoride level is unknown in many regions of Iran. Besides, only few non-controlled studies world-wide have assessed the effect of water fluoride on dental fluorosis and caries. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of 76 water supplies in 54 cities and evaluate the effect of fluoride on dental caries and fluorosis in a large multi-project study. Materials and Methods: In the first phase (cross-sectional), fluoride levels of 76 water tanks in 54 cities/villages in five provinces of Iran were randomly evaluated in five subprojects. In the second phase (retrospective cohort), 1127 middle school children (563 cohort and 564 control subjects) in the high and low ends of fluoride concentration in each subproject were visited. Their decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and fluorosis states were assessed. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and independent-samples t-test (α = 0.05). Results: Mean fluoride level was 0.298 ± 0.340 mg/L in 54 cities/villages. Only eight water tanks had fluoride levels within the normal range and only one was higher than normal and the rest (67 tanks) were all at low levels. Overall, a significant association was observed between fluoride level and fluorosis. However, this was not the case in all areas, as in 2 of 5 provinces, the effect of fluoride on fluorosis was not confirmed. In 4 of the 5 areas studied, there was a significant link between fluoride level and DMFT. Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied. PMID:25709672

  13. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%), TF 4–5 (45.6%) and TF 6–7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%), TF 4–5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05). The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases. PMID:28085102

  14. Study on the association between environmental chemical elements and fluorosis caused by coal-fire pollution%环境化学元素与燃煤型氟中毒的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦永卓; 牟李红; 王应雄; 晏维; 钟朝晖; 李立

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the distribution of chemical elements in soil.To investigate the differences between patients under different state of fluorosis and normal population after preventive measurement was implemented to get rid of some chemical elements and to lower the urine fluoride levels so as to illustrate the pathogenesis of the disease.Methods Both ecological and comparative studies had been used to analyze the rates and levels of chemical elements.Teeth and skeletal from the patients with fluorosis and controls were taken and florin ion-selective-electrode method was used to determine urine the content of fluorine.Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to determine the copper,zinc,calcium,magnesium and iron contents in the whole blood.Differences of contents were analyzed.Results In Wushan county,the soil contents of nickel (r=0.553,P=0.050),iodine (r=0.571,P=0.041),fluorine (r=0.303,P=0.005),pH value (r=0.304,P=0.005) and the rates of fluorosis showed weaker positive relationship.In Fengjie county,the soil contents of mercury (r=0.285,P=0.001),nickel (r=0.212,P=0.00) and the rates of fluorosis also showed weaker positive relationship.In Wushan county,the urine fluoride level in the patients group [(0.64 ± 0.34) mg/L] was higher than that in the control group [(0.44 ± 0.59) mg/L],(P < 0.05).In Fengjie county,copper [(29.63 ± 3.32)μmol/L] and urine fluoride [(0.83 ±0.37)mg/L] levels in the patients group showed higher than that in the control group [(26.76 ± 3.63) μmol/L,(0.53±0.23)mg/L],(P<0.05).zinc (Zn) [(76.13 ± 11.24)μmol/L],calcium (Ca) [(1.87± 0.25)mmol/L],magnesium (Mg)[(1.41 ±0.18)mmol/L] and fluoride [(0.83 ±0.37)mg/L] levels in urine of the patients in children were higher in Fengjie than that in Wushan [(71.95 ± 7.53) μmol/L,(1.43 ±1.34) mmol/L,(1.34±0.15) mmol/L,(0.64 ±0.34)mg/L],(P<0.05).Mg [(1.56± 1.96)mmol/L],ferrum [(8.15 ± 1.00)mmol/L] and fluoride [(2.17 ± 0.99)mg/L] levels among adult

  15. Expression of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts and nuclear factor κB in brain hippocampus of rat with chronic fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expressions of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts(RAGE)and nuclear factorκB(NF-κB)in brain hippocampus of rat with chronic fluorosis,and to reveal the mechanism of brain damage resulted from chronic fluorosis.Methods Sixty clean grade SD rats were randomly divided to three groups(20 rats in each group,10 female and 10 male)fed with different contents of fluoride,control group with normal tap-water(<0.5 mg/L fluoride),

  16. Fluorosis dental en niños y fluor en el agua de consumo humano. Mexticacán, Jalisco, México

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en los niños de 6 a 12 años y su relación con la concentración de flúor en agua para consumo humano de Mexticacán, Jalisco. Material y métodos: Estudio Ecológico Exploratorio. Se estudiaron 355 niños para diagnosticar fluorosis dental. Se determinaron las concentraciones de flúor en las fuentes de agua de consumo de la población, por espectrofotometría SPADN utilizando las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (NMX-AA-077 y NOM127, NOM041) Resultad...

  17. Effects of high fluoride intake on child mental work capacity: preliminary investigation into the mechanisms involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Li, X.J.; Wei, S.Q. [Child & Adolescent Hygiene Teaching Research Station, Chengdu (China)

    2008-10-15

    A study was carried out on 157 children, age 12-13, from a coal-burning fluorosis endemic area together with an experiment looking into the effect of high fluoride intake in animals. The results showed that early, prolonged high fluoride intake causes a decrease in a child's mental work capacity and that prolonged high uptake of fluoride causes a child's levels of hair zinc to drop. A multifactoral correlative analysis demonstrated a direct correlation between hair zinc and mental work capacity. The decrease of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and the increase of norepinephrine in animal brains exposed to high levels of fluoride suggest a possible mechanism for mental work capacity deficits in children. However, further research is necessary.

  18. Pediatric aspects of skeletal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Keiichi; Namba, Noriyuki; Kubota, Takuo; Kitaoka, Taichi; Miura, Kohji; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Fujiwara, Makoto; Miyoshi, Yoko; Michigami, Toshimi

    2012-10-01

    Skeletal dysplasia is a disorder of skeletal development characterized by abnormality in shape, length, a number and mineral density of the bone. Skeletal dysplasia is often associated with manifestation of other organs such as lung, brain and sensory systems. Skeletal dysplasias or dysostosis are classified with more than 400 different names. Enchondral bone formation is a coordinated event of chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and exchange of terminally maturated chondrocyte with bone. Impaired enchondral bone formation will lead to skeletal dysplasia, especially associated with short long bones. Appropriate bone volume and mineral density are achieved by balance of bone formation and bone resorption and mineralization. The gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 is responsible for achondroplasia, representative skeletal dysplasia with short stature. The treatment with growth hormone is approved for achondroplasia in Japan. Osteogenesis imperfecta is characterized by low bone mineral density and fragile bone. Data on the beneficial effect of bisphosphonate for osteogenesis imperfecta are accumulating. Osteopetrosis has high bone mineral density, but sometimes show bone fragility. In Japan as well as other countries, pediatrician treat larger numbers of patients with skeletal dysplasia with short stature and fragile bones compared to 20 years ago.

  19. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation....... Collagen, being the major protein in connective tissue, has been extensively investigated with regard to its relation to meat tenderness, but the results have been rather conflicting. Meat from older animals is tougher than that from younger animals, and changes in the properties of the collagen due...... that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets...

  20. Endemic fluorosis in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. I. Identification of risk factors associated with human exposure to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldo, M; Borja-Aburto, V H; Ramírez, A L; Ponce, M; Rosas, M; Díaz-Barriga, F

    1995-01-01

    In order to identify risk factors associated with human exposure to fluoride in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico, a biochemical and epidemiological study was carried out in 1992. Results from the analysis of fluoride sources showed that 61% of tap water samples had fluoride levels above the optimal level of 0.7-1.2 ppm. The levels were higher after boiling. In bottled water, fluoride levels ranged from 0.33 to 6.97 ppm. These sources are important since in SLP 82% of the children drink tap water, 31% also drink bottled water, 92% prepare their food with tap water, 44% boiled all the drinking water, and 91% used infant formula reconstituted with boiled water. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in children (11-13 years old) increased as the concentration of water fluoride increased. At levels of fluoride in water lower than 0.7 ppm a prevalence of 69% was found for total dental fluorosis, whereas at levels of fluoride in water higher than 2.0 ppm a prevalence of 98% was found. In the same children, fluoride levels in urine were quantified. The levels increased as the concentration of water fluoride increased. Regressional analysis showed an increment of 0.54 ppm (P < 0.0001) of fluoride in urine for each ppm of fluoride in water. Fluoride urinary levels were higher in samples collected during the afternoon (1800) when compared with sample collected during the morning (1100). Taking together all these results, three risk factors for human exposure to fluoride in SLP can be identified: ambient temperature, boiled water, and food preparation with boiled water. These factors explain the prevalence of dental fluorosis in SLP.

  1. The yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Pediatric Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States); Wilson, Celeste R. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of General Pediatrics, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-06

    Skeletal surveys are routinely performed in cases of suspected child abuse, but there are limited data regarding the yield of high-detail skeletal surveys in infants. To determine the diagnostic yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse. We reviewed the high-detail American College of Radiology standardized skeletal surveys performed for suspected abuse in 567 infants (median: 4.4 months, SD 3.47; range: 4 days-12 months) at a large urban children's hospital between 2005 and 2013. Skeletal survey images, radiology reports and medical records were reviewed. A skeletal survey was considered positive when it showed at least one unsuspected fracture. In 313 of 567 infants (55%), 1,029 definite fractures were found. Twenty-one percent (119/567) of the patients had a positive skeletal survey with a total of 789 (77%) unsuspected fractures. Long-bone fractures were the most common injuries, present in 145 children (26%). The skull was the site of fracture in 138 infants (24%); rib cage in 77 (14%), clavicle in 24 (4.2%) and uncommon fractures (including spine, scapula, hands and feet and pelvis) were noted in 26 infants (4.6%). Of the 425 infants with neuroimaging, 154 (36%) had intracranial injury. No significant correlation between positive skeletal survey and associated intracranial injury was found. Scapular fractures and complex skull fractures showed a statistically significant correlation with intracranial injury (P = 0.029, P = 0.007, respectively). Previously unsuspected fractures are noted on skeletal surveys in 20% of cases of suspected infant abuse. These data may be helpful in the design and optimization of global skeletal imaging in this vulnerable population. (orig.)

  2. Alex in the Middle: Inclusion of a Child with Severe Disabilities and Complex Health Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A.

    This case study describes the 2-year process of moving a young child with severe disabilities and complex medical needs from a special school setting to a special class in a regular education setting. The child had Marshall-Smith Syndrome, characterized by respiratory, pulmonary, and skeletal abnormalities, and developmental delays due to the…

  3. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a herbal compound made for treatment of discolorations caused by dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mohammdi Basir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was research on a new herbal compound (Seidlitzia Rosmarinus made by Traditional Medicine Research Group, University of shahed to find a safer alternative to HCL-Pumice compound technique.   Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial seventy two anterior teeth from 9 patients were divided in to three groups according to fluorosis severity: mild (34 teeth, moderate (14 teeth, and sever (24 teeth. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with “Shahed” compound and other half treated with HCL-Pumice compound. Before and after treatment, photographs were taken in both groups. HCL-Pumice treatment compound was applied for 30 seconds periods and continued for 10 minutes if necessary. In case of herbal Shahed compound the time was determined by clinical symptoms or when labial contour was dismissed, If the result was not esthetistically acceptabale for the patient, HCL-Pumice compound was applied on teeth. NaF was applied after mouth washing. The photographs of the teeth before and after treatment were reviewed by two experienced observer unaware of the treatment modality. The results were analyzed using willcoxon’s, kruskal-wallis and scheffe test.   Results: There was over 81.3% acceptance between two observers and no significant differences in intraobservers evaluation (P>0.05. Improvement in beauty indexes were observed in all degrees of dental fluorosis by 18% with HCL-Pumice compound application, but “Shahed” herbal compound induced significant reduction in the amount of white spots in mild fluorosis and stain intensity of moderate fluorosis (P<0.05 , while the reduction in the severity of discoloration in group 2, these two techniques were statistically equivalent but in the remainder, HCL-Pumice compound was more significantly effective (P<0.05 .   Conclusion: HCL-Pumice compound reduces the severity of the discoloration of the teeth. Shahed herbal compound

  4. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  5. Skeletal Involvement of Brucella melitensis in Children: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a protean disease and should be excluded in any febrile child with a constellation of symptoms such as fever, malaise, sweating, arthralgia, and joint swelling in endemic areas. Skeletal system involvement is the most common source of complaints in brucellosis. The frequency of skeletal involvement in children is 6.4% to 73.5%. There are some controversies regarding the most common sites of involvement: sacroiliac versus peripheral joints. In the vast majority of cases, peripheral joint involvement in pediatric brucellosis has a monoarticular pattern, although there is no agreement about the most commonly involved peripheral joint. In this systematic review, published articles that describe the bone involvement of Brucella melitensis, as the most prevalent kind of the microorganism in the region, in children are evaluated.

  6. Skeletal Manifestations of Scurvy: A Case Report from Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Noordin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nutritional deficiencies are rarely reported in developed countries. We report a child of Pakistani origin brought up in Dubai who developed skeletal manifestations of scurvy due to peculiar dietary habits. Case Presentation. A 4.5 year old boy presented with pain and swelling of multiple joints for three months and inability to walk for two months. Dietary history was significant for exclusive meat intake for the preceding two years. On examination the child’s height and weight were below the 5th percentile for his age. He was pale and tachycardic. There was significant swelling and tenderness over the wrist, knee and ankle joints, along with painful restriction of motion. Basic blood workup was unremarkable except for anemia. However, X-rays showed delayed bone age, severe osteopenia of the long bones, epiphyseal separation, cortical thinning and dense zone of provisional calcification, suggesting a radiological diagnosis of scurvy. The child was started on vitamin C replacement therapy. Over the following two months, the pain and swelling substantially reduced and the child became able to walk. Repeat X-rays showed improvement in the bony abnormalities. Conclusion. Although scurvy is not a very commonly encountered entity in the modern era, inappropriate dietary intake can lead to skeletal abnormalities which may be confused with rickets. A high index of suspicion is thus required for prompt diagnosis of scurvy in patients with bone and joint symptoms.

  7. Neonatal skeletal fractures. Birth trauma or child abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, W A

    1979-03-01

    When a fracture is discovered in a newborn infant, it is important to decide whether it occurred at birth or after birth. Calcification around the fracture site gives a useful estimate of the age of the fracture. We reviewed films of 23 patients with fractures resulting from delivery. The fractures occurred at three different sites: the clavicle, the humerus, and the femur. Calcification could be seen as early as seven days after birth and was absent for as long as 11 days after birth. Six of seven femoral fractures occurred in infants with neuromuscular problems. Fracture at an unusual site or absence of calcification after 11 days should alert the radiologist to the possibility of abuse.

  8. 氟斑牙检出率与病区土壤化学元素含量相关性研究%Correlation between prevalence of dental fluorosis and soil chemical elements in endemic fluorosis areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫菊; 钟朝晖; 黄巧; 王力; 雍开文; 张茂忠; 罗兴建; 晏维

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between chemical elements in soil and dental fluorosis and to provide a scientific basis for prevention of endemic fluorosis.Methods In 2011,using cluster sampling,totally 38 of 55 townships (towns) in Fengjie and Wushan Counties were selected as investigation spots.Dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 were examined with Dean index in all individuals from the sampled townships (towns).We also detected the content of fluorine(F),zinc(Zn),copper(Cu),iodine(I),selenium(Se),cadmium (Cd),chromium (Cr),arsenic (As),nickel (Ni),mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in topsoil of sampled townships (towns).Using Spearman rank correlation analysis the correlation between dental fluorosis prevalence and the content of chemical elements in the topsoil of selected townships (towns) was analyzed.Results Children's dental fluorosis prevalence was positively correlated with surface soil F and Cd content in Wushan County,but negatively correlated with the content of Cu,Zn and Se,and the correlation coefficients were 1.0000,0.9053,-0.6617,-0.7353 and-0.5143,respectively (P < 0.05).Children's dental fluorosis detection rate was also positively correlated with the surface soil content of F and Cd in Fengjie County,but also negatively correlated with the content of Cu,Zn and Se,and the correlation coefficients were 0.9959,0.9298,-0.5728,-0.8308 and-0.6533,respectively(P <0.05).Conclusions The relationship between detection rate of children's dental fluorosis and the content of F,Cd,Cu,Zn and Se in topsoil was positively or negatively correlated in Fengjie and Wushan Counties.And the relationship between these elements and endemic fluorosis should be further studied.%目的 探索土壤中的化学元素与氟斑牙的关系,为地方性氟中毒的防治提供科学依据.方法 2011年,在巫山县与奉节县的55个乡(镇)中,采取整群随机抽样方法,选择38个乡(镇),采用Dean法对所有8~ 12岁儿童进行氟斑牙检查,并检测

  9. Prevalence of enamel fluorosis in 12-year-olds in two Swiss cantons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, Kathrin; Gerwig, Patric; Weber, Catherine; Minnig, Peter; Wiehl, Peter; Schild, Samuel; Meyer, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    The neighbouring cantons Basel-Stadt and Basel-Landschaft had introduced different fluoridation schemes for caries prevention: Basel-Stadt provided drinking water fluoridated at 0.8-1 ppm F since 1962, while Basel-Landschaft introduced fluoridated domestic salt (250 ppm F since 1983). Representative samples of 12-year-old schoolchildren (6th-graders) were studied to evaluate the prevalence of (I) dental fluorosis (FOP) using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index, (II) non fluoride-associated enamel opacities (non-FOP), and (III) hypoplasia of the incisors. Standardised frontal colour photographs were taken and assessed by four examiners after projection. Of 373 schoolchildren studied in 1999 in Basel-Stadt 119 (31.9%) showed fluoride-associated enamel opacities, i. e. 66 (17.7%) a very mild form (TF score 1), 47 (12.6%) a mild form (TF score 2), five scored TF3 and one TF5. In addition, non-FOP were diagnosed in 115 (30.8%) and hypoplasia in 47 (12.6%) children. Among the 448 children evaluated in 2001 in Basel-Landschaft 143 (31.9%) showed FOP, namely 74 (16.5%) scored TF1, 54 (12.2%) scored TF2, 12 (2.7%) scored TF3, and three (0.7%) scored TF5. Non-FOP were found among 93 (20.8%) and hypoplasia among 56 (12.5%) children. Thus, in spite of different fluoridation schemes in the two cantons, the prevalences of FOP were identical. Most fluoride-associated enamel opacities were mild or very mild. They did not represent an aesthetic problem and certainly not a public health concern.

  10. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9).......Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  11. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquín-Yañez, Lizet; Mejía-Saavedra, José de Jesús; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Gaona, Enrique; Rocha-Amador, Diana Olivia; López-Guzmán, Olga Dania; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean's index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index. Results. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect. PMID:25789336

  12. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Jarquín-Yañez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean’s index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF index. Results. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect.

  13. Influence of chronic fluorosis on the expression of mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related 1 in the cortical neurons of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼迪栋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of protein expression of mito-fission gene dynaminrelated 1 (Drp 1) in the cortical neurons of rats with chronic fluorosis.MethodsA total of 120 one-month-old SD rats (each weighing approximately 100—120 g at the beginning of the

  14. Differences of serum parathyroid hormone levels and its gene polymorphism in different ethnic groups in drinking brick-tea-borne endemic fluorosis areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study,the differences of serum parathyroid hormone(PTH)and its gene polymorphism in different ethnic groups in drinking brick-tea-borne endemic fluorosis areas were investigated.Methods Inhabitants over the age of 16 years old in Inner Mongolia,Qinghai and Xinjiang were investigated.The questionnaire survey included basic information,dietary survey

  15. Effects of health education and stove improvement in preventing coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis in Pingba County of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯友

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of health education and installation of improved stove in control of coal-burn-ing-borne endemic fluorosis in Pingba County of Guizhou Province.Methods Two towns (Shizi and Qibo) of Pingba County that had implemented the health education and

  16. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  17. Protective effect of lycopene on fluoride-induced ameloblasts apoptosis and dental fluorosis through oxidative stress-mediated Caspase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weishan; Jiang, Binghua; Cao, Xianglin; Xie, Yongjiang; Huang, Ting

    2017-01-05

    Fluoride is an environmental toxicant and induces dental fluorosis and oxidative stress. Lycopene (LYC) is an effective antioxidant that is reported to attenuate fluoride toxicity. To determine the effects of LYC on sodium fluoride (NaF) -induced teeth and ameloblasts toxicity, rats were treated with NaF (10 mg/kg) and/or LYC (10 mg/kg) by orally administration for 5 weeks; ameloblasts were treated with NaF (5 mM) and/or LYC (2 μM) for 6 h. We found that the concentrations of fluoride, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene expressions and activities of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3, and the gene expressions of Bax were significantly decreased, while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), the gene expression of Bcl-2 were significantly increased in the LYC + NaF-treated rats group; concentrations of MDA and ROS, gene expressions and activities of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3, and the gene expression of Bax, and ameloblasts apoptosis rate were significantly decreased, while the activities of SOD and GPX, the gene expression of Bcl-2 were significantly increased in the LYC + NaF-treated ameloblasts group. These results suggest that LYC significantly combated NaF-induced ameloblasts apoptosis and dental fluorosis by attenuation oxidative stress and down-regulation Caspase pathway.

  18. [Determination of life elements in hair and urine with brick-tea fluorosis in Inner Mongolia by ICP-OES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kun; Ji, Hong-bing; Li, Hai-rong; Wang, Li-zhen; Wang, Wu-yi; Liu, Qing-bin; Wang, Ge; Liu, Xue-hui

    2009-04-01

    In brick-tea fluorosis affected areas XiLinHot city in Inner Mongolia, herdsmen who like drinking a large amount of brick tea in everyday life and Han habitants rarely drinking brick tea as control group were enrolled, and their hair and urine were sampled. The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Al, P, Cu, Zn and Fe in hair and urine were detected using ICP-OES. The RSDs of the method were between 2.32% and 8.03%, and the analytical results of the hair reference samples were consistent with the certified values. The results showed that the contents of Al, Mg and K in hair, and contents of Al and Ca in urine of herdsmen who were accustomed to drinking brick tea were obviously higher than those in control group (Pbrick tea was lower than those in control group (P0.05). Chronically drinking brick tea probably brings metabolic disorder of Ca and Al in human body, and the interaction mechanism of life elements in brick-tea fluorosis should be further studied.

  19. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  20. Aneuploidy and Skeletal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakar, Archana; Harris, John R.; McKelvey, Kent D.; Suva, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The normal human chromosome complement consists of 46 chromosomes comprising 22 morphologically different pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Variations in either chromosome number and/or structure frequently result in significant mental impairment, and/or a variety of other clinical problems, among them, altered bone mass and strength. Chromosomal syndromes associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities are classified as either numerical or structural and may involve more than one chromosome. Aneuploidy refers to the presence of an extra copy of a specific chromosome, or trisomy, as seen in Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21), or the absence of a single chromosome, or monosomy, as seen in Turner syndrome (a single X chromosome in females: 45, X). Aneuploidies have diverse phenotypic consequences, ranging from severe mental retardation and developmental abnormalities to increased susceptibility to various neoplasms and premature death. In fact, trisomy 21 is the prototypical aneuploidy in humans, is the most common genetic abnormality associated with longevity and is one of the most widespread genetic causes of intellectual disability. In this review, the impact of trisomy 21 on the bone mass, architecture, skeletal health and quality of life of people with Down syndrome will be discussed. PMID:24980541

  1. Establishment of animal model of dental fluorosis by drinking in SD rat%饮水型SD大鼠氟斑牙模型的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长城; 刘晓利; 刘克俭; 崔彩岩; 刘芸; 余立凯; 黄安斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立饮水型大鼠氟斑牙模型,为深入研究氟性骨损伤发病机制提供科学依据.方法 采用饮水加氟的方法复制大鼠氟斑牙模型,染氟剂量采用日测体重然后按体重(mg/kg)给予及尿氟、血氟监测的方法进行,尿氟、血氟采用微量氟法测定,血清中碱性磷酸酶(ALP)采用全自动生化分析仪测定,氟斑牙采用数码相机拍照,按照氟斑牙观测标准进行诊断及分度.结果 90d末,高、中剂量组大鼠均出现明显氟斑牙,尿氟、血氟及血ALP含量与对照组相比均明显升高(P<0.05).染氟剂量与尿氟水平显著相关(r =0.924,P=0.038);染氟剂量与血氟水平呈显著相关(r =0.948,P=0.026);高、中剂量组大鼠氟负荷水平明显高于对照组;氟斑牙发生率与染氟剂量呈正相关(r=0.983,P=0.017).结论 染氟剂量与氟斑牙的发生存在明显的剂量-反应关系:16 mg/kg和32 mg/kg的染氟剂量,14 d即可发生Ⅰ度氟斑牙,35 d即可发生典型氟斑牙.%Objective To establish a rat model of dental fluorosis by drinking thereby provide a scientific basis (or researching the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. Methods The animal model of dental fluorosis was made by adding fluoride in drinking water for rats, the dose was adjusted with the daily body weight ( mg/kg), the urine and blood fluoride were monitored everyday by micro determination of fluoride; meanwhile, the serum ALP was also detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. At last, the dental fluorosis was documented by photographing with digital camera and diagnosis was made according to the dental fluorosis criteria. Results The results showed that all the rats exposed to middle and high doses of fluorine developed significant dental fluorosis 90 days later after exposure, the urinary fluoride, blood fluoride and serum ALP also increased compared with those of control group (P < 0.05). The urine fluorine and blood fluorine were all markedly associated with

  2. Study on the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the influencing factors in fluorosis ill districts in Gulin county Sichuan province%古蔺县地氟病区居民氟斑牙患病及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶运莉; 刘娅; 张青碧; 杨超; 陈建国; 周显刚

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解古蔺县地氟病区居民氟斑牙患病状况及其影响因素,为改进地氟病防治策略提供根据.方法 采用多阶段分层抽样的方法抽取古蔺县地氟病区的部分居民进行调查.结果 居民氟斑牙患病率为84.97%,1998年后出生的居民(8~12岁儿童)CFI为(0.84±0.86),氟斑牙患病率44.59%,1981年后出生居民的氟斑牙患病率明显降低(x2趋势=85.08,P< 0.001). “12岁前家里煮饭和取暖用煤”是氟斑牙发生的主要危险因素,OR值(95%CI)为3.08 (2.12~4.47). “12岁前家中参加了改良炉灶、家庭经济年收入高”是氟斑牙发生的保护因素,OR值(95%CI)分别为0.45(0.29 ~0.69)、0.72 (0.58~0.88).结论 该地区的地氟病防制措施取得了显著的成效,但儿童氟斑牙患病率仍然较高,应进一步分析居民降氟炉灶的使用情况及其影响因素,改进防治方案,促进地氟病防治工作的可持续发展.%OBJECTIVE To study local people's prevalence and the influencing factors of dental fluorosis in fluorosis ill districts in Gulin county Sichuan province, and provide the the scientific basis for improving the control strategies. METHODS Multi-stage stratified sampling method was used to select some residents in fluorosis ill districts in Gulin, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the related factors were surveyed. RESULTS The prevalence rate of residents' dental fluorosis was 84.97% in Gulin county. The CFI of people born after 1998 (children aged 8-12) was (0.84 ± 0.86) and their dental fluorosis prevalence was 44.59%. The people's prevalence of dental fluorosis decreased significantly (X2tend = 85.08, P< 0.001) born after 1981. The results showed that "home cooking and warming with coal before 12 years old" was a major risk factor for the occurrence of dental fluorosis, OR (95%CI) =3.08 (2.12-4.47), and "people took part in the improved stoves before 12 years old and high families income" were the protective

  3. JianPingXian drinking water type fluorosis monitoring problem analysis%建平县饮水型氟中毒监测问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文杰

    2013-01-01

    目的:掌握建平县饮水型氟中毒改水工程运行情况以及监测效果,为饮水型氟中毒的防治工作提供科学依据。方法:对建平县2004年~2013年的氟斑牙病情监测情况、水氟检测情况以及饮水工程运行情况进行分析研究。结果:2004年~2013年建平县氟斑牙病检出率逐年递减,水氟检测情况也有所改善,饮水工程的运行情况每年都保持平稳态势。结论:建平县饮水型氟中毒病区通过改水降氟病情得到了一定的控制,但还需要各相关部门加大监测和防治工作的力度。%objective: to master the JianPingXian drinking water type fluorosis improvement of water project operation and monitoring effect, for drinking water type fluorosis will provide a scientific basis for prevention and control work. Methods: the JianPingXian in 2004 ~ 2013 years of dental fluorosis illness monitoring, fluorine water detection and water engineering operation situation analysis. Results: 2004 ~ 2013 JianPingXian dental fluorosis was decreasing year by year, water fluoride detection is improved, the operation of water engineering maintained steady momentum every year. Conclusion: JianPingXian drinking water type fluorosis ward through the change of water decreasing fluorine disease got some control, but also need each related department to strengthen monitoring and prevention and control work.

  4. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and15 year-old school children in an endemic fluoride area of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeeswara Rao Sukhabogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The published literature on the prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis in Nalgonda district, an endemic fluoride belt in India was scanty. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in Nalgonda district. Materials and Methods: Stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration. The oral examination for dental caries and fluorosis among children who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using mouth mirror and CPI (Community Periodontal Index probe under natural daylight. The data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among 12 and 15 year old school children was 42.6% and 48.6% respectively. The prevalence was more among females (56.9% than males (34.2%. The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (67% followed by very high fluoride area (56.1%. The lowest prevalence was in medium fluoride area (20.5%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in the gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Defluoridation of water in areas where the concentration of fluoride is more than optimal is an immediate need as dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in these areas.

  5. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  6. Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) Information Page Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) Information Page Search ...

  7. Molecular mechanisms of dental fluorosis%氟斑牙发生的分子机制的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭睿; 李玲; 管晓燕; 吴家媛; 刘建国

    2016-01-01

    Endemic dental fluorosis has been reported in some regions of the world. China seemed to have high prevalence of endemic dental fluorosis, especially in southwest China. It is now most likely that excessive fluoride intake during enamel development play a key role in the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. However, excessive intake of fluoride-induced cellular and molecular mechanisms of dental fluorosis are not entirely conclusive. Scholars at home and abroad have made a lot of research on pathogenesis of enamel fluorosis by using various experimental techniques. More recent studies mainly suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress and calcium overload-associated apoptotic pathway may participate in fluoride excess-evoked pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. Furthermore, the functional changes of enamel matrix protein and protease activity may be involved in the pathological event. This paper summarized the recent research progress on this topic.%氟斑牙是一种世界范围内多个国家流行的地方病,我国是地方性氟中毒发生最严重的国家之一,尤其在西南地区分布更为广泛。牙胚发育过程中机体摄入过量氟而导致釉质发育障碍是氟斑牙的发病原因,但氟斑牙发生的具体机制尚不完全清楚。国内外学者应用多种方法对氟斑牙的分子发病机制进行了研究,近几年来研究重点主要集中在氟对釉基质蛋白及蛋白酶的影响以及通过内质网应激、钙超载引起的细胞凋亡途径等方面。现就上述分子机制研究现状进行以下综述。

  8. The association between social deprivation and the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in populations with and without water fluoridation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the association between social deprivation and the prevalence of caries (including caries lesions restricted to enamel and enamel fluorosis in areas that are served by either fluoridated or non-fluoridated drinking water using clinical scoring, remote blinded, photographic scoring for caries and fluorosis. The study also aimed to explore the use of remote, blinded methodologies to minimize the effect of examiner bias. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 11–13 years. Clinical assessments of caries and fluorosis were performed on permanent teeth using ICDAS and blind scoring of standardized photographs of maxillary central incisors using TF Index (with cases for fluorosis defined as TF > 0. Results Data from 1783 subjects were available (910 Newcastle, 873 Manchester. Levels of material deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation were comparable for both populations (Newcastle mean 35.22, range 2.77-78.85; Manchester mean 37.04, range 1.84-84.02. Subjects in the fluoridated population had significantly less caries experience than the non-fluoridated population when assessed by clinical scores or photographic scores across all quintiles of deprivation for white spot lesions: Newcastle mean DMFT 2.94 (clinical; 2.51 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 4.48 (clinical; 3.44 (photo and caries into dentine (Newcastle Mean DMFT 0.65 (clinical; 0.58 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 1.07 (clinical; 0.98 (photo. The only exception being for the least deprived quintile for caries into dentine where there were no significant differences between the cities: Newcastle mean DMFT 0.38 (clinical; 0.36 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 0.45 (clinical; 0.39 (photo. The odds ratio for white spot caries experience (or worse in Manchester was 1.9 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for caries into dentine in Manchester was 1.8 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for developing fluorosis in Newcastle was 3.3 relative

  9. Skeletal stem cells in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-15

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice and demonstrate its role in skeletal tissue maintenance and regeneration.

  10. Foundations of Child Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  11. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions.

  12. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Kirthika; Vijaykumar, N M; Sainath, M C

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask) and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results.

  13. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirthika Muthukumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results.

  14. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to determine the depth of demineralization of dental fluorosis in enamel microabrasion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Young; Choi, Han-Sol; Ku, Hee-Won; Kim, Hyun-Su; Lee, Yoo-Jin; Min, Jeong-Bum

    2016-08-01

    Enamel microabrasion has become accepted as a conservative, nonrestorative method of removing intrinsic and superficial dysmineralization defects from dental fluorosis, restoring esthetics with minimal loss of enamel. However, it can be difficult to determine if restoration is necessary in dental fluorosis, because the lesion depth is often not easily recognized. This case report presents a method for analysis of enamel hypoplasia that uses quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) followed by a combination of enamel microabrasion with carbamide peroxide home bleaching. We describe the utility of QLF when selecting a conservative treatment plan and confirming treatment efficacy. In this case, the treatment plan was based on QLF analysis, and the selected combination treatment of microabrasion and bleaching had good results.

  15. Exploration of Clinical Whitening Procedure for Dental Fluorosis Bleaching%氟斑牙临床有效治疗方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晖; 张英

    2015-01-01

    目的 将氟斑牙的治疗手段有序结合,探讨氟斑牙最佳临床美白治疗方法.方法 选取2013年1月至2014年12月本科室就诊且诊断为氟斑牙患者90例,患者均知情同意并签署知情同意书.按照症状(轻度、中度、重度)将患者随机均分为A、B、C组.A组患者(30例,180颗患牙)采取微打磨—酸处理(35%磷酸酸蚀牙面)—冷光美白(Beyond美白凝胶8 h)治疗;B组(30例,175颗患牙)采取微打磨—冷光美白(Beyond美白凝胶8 h)治疗;C组(30例,180颗患牙)采取酸处理—冷光美白(Beyond美白凝胶8 h)治疗.各组患者治疗前后利用Vita比色板进行比色,计算色阶提高值和有效率.结果 3组轻度氟斑牙患者的色阶提高值和治疗有效率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);A组中、重度氟斑牙患者色阶提高值和有效率与B组、C组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);结论 中重度氟斑牙采取微打磨—酸处理—美白有序结合治疗可以取得满意效果.%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of combination of Beyond cold light whitening and fluoride removing material bleaching sys-tem for treatment of dental fluorosis. Methods Ninety patients with light,medium and heavy dental fluorosis were recruited for the study and ran-domly divided into three groups. Thirty patients with 180 dental fluorosis from the A group were treated with microbrasion and etch and Beyond cold light bleaching. Thirty patients with 175 dental fluorosis from the B group were treated with microbrasion and beyond cold light bleaching. Thirty pa-tients with 180 dental fluorosis from the C group were treated with etch and Beyond cold light bleaching. The effects of whitening were evaluated by Vita shade guide matching after treatment. Results Good lightening efficacy and 100%bleaching efficacy was achieved in the light dental fluorosis subjects from all the three groups. The Shade value improvement and overall efficacy of observer group were better than the

  16. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to determine the depth of demineralization of dental fluorosis in enamel microabrasion: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Young; Choi, Han-Sol; Ku, Hee-Won; Kim, Hyun-Su; Lee, Yoo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Enamel microabrasion has become accepted as a conservative, nonrestorative method of removing intrinsic and superficial dysmineralization defects from dental fluorosis, restoring esthetics with minimal loss of enamel. However, it can be difficult to determine if restoration is necessary in dental fluorosis, because the lesion depth is often not easily recognized. This case report presents a method for analysis of enamel hypoplasia that uses quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) followed by a combination of enamel microabrasion with carbamide peroxide home bleaching. We describe the utility of QLF when selecting a conservative treatment plan and confirming treatment efficacy. In this case, the treatment plan was based on QLF analysis, and the selected combination treatment of microabrasion and bleaching had good results. PMID:27508165

  17. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  18. Laminados de resina: Opción estética para dientes con fluorosis dental severa. Reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera C., Andrea Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dental fluorosis is a widespread condition of the enamel, which occurs systemically when fluoride is consumed in excess of the recommended dose and may be a significant concern for the patient. Fluorosed enamel is characterized by white opaque lines in mild cases, are so fine that they resemble shadows of lines drawn with a pencil and can be perceived clearly by drying the enamel surface. In severe cases irregular opaque white to brown spots appear, this requires that patients wit...

  19. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    OpenAIRE

    Lizet Jarquín-Yañez; José de Jesús Mejía-Saavedra; Nelly Molina-Frechero; Enrique Gaona; Diana Olivia Rocha-Amador; Olga Dania López-Guzmán; Ronell Bologna-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinica...

  20. Relationship between the Contents of MDA, the Activity of SOD in Serum of the Milk Goat with Fluorosis and the Erythrocytic Membrane Liquidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To research the relation among the erythrooytic membrane liquidity and the contents of MPA, the activity of SOD in serum of the milk goat with fluorosis. An animal model with fluorosia was constructed, and the fluorescent probe technique of DPH was used to measue the erythrocytic membrane liquidity. At the same time, the contents of MPA and the activity of SOD in serum were measured. The results showed that the erythrocytic membrane liquidity in the control group and flurosis group were 5.6742 ± 0.4417 and 3.7248 ± 0.4521 (P <0.01) respectively, the contents of MPA in serum were 2.0408 ± 0.198 and 4.494± 0.438 (P <0.01) respectively, the activities of SOD were 175.638 ± 22.201 and 113.714 ± 34.258 (P <0.01) respectively. The correlation analysis indicated that the relation between the activity of SOD and the liquidity of erythrocytic membrane was positive correlation ( r=0.7321, P <0.05), whereas the relation between the contents of MPA and the liquidity of erythrocytic membrane was negative correlation (r = -0.6438, P <0.01). The erythrocytio membrane liquidity decreased in milk goat with fluorosis, which played a role in the occurrence and development of the fluorosis. There was correlation among the erythrocytic membrane liquidity and the contents of MDA, the activity of SOD.

  1. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  2. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with reverse pull headgear in a growing individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambreen Afzal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal Class III malocclusion is considered to be one of the most difficult orthodontic problems to treat. This malocclusion is associated with the retrognathic maxilla or prognathic mandible or sometimes a combination of both. The treatment of such cases requires an integrated approach and a comprehensive treatment plan including growth modification, dental camouflage, or orthognathic surgery. In a growing patient, orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with the help of a reverse pull headgear is crucial as it can reduce the chances of further surgical treatment to correct the skeletal discrepancy. This case report describes the management of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a 12-year-old female child with a retrognathic maxilla. The patient did not have any other genetic abnormality or significant known comorbidity. The treatment plan involved fixed orthodontic appliance therapy in combination with a reverse pull headgear for an orthopedic effect. This treatment was continued for 3 years, and well-aligned dental arches with a positive over jet were achieved at the conclusion of treatment. Using facemask therapy in conjunction with fixed orthodontic appliances has been a successful treatment option in growing children. Treatment should be carried out as early as possible to correct the skeletal discrepancy nonsurgically and achieve better results.

  3. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal myogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Saccone, Valentina; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    During embryogenesis a timely and coordinated expression of different subsets of genes drives the formation of skeletal muscles in response to developmental cues. In this review, we will summarize the most recent advances on the “epigenetic network” that promotes the transcription of selective groups of genes in muscle progenitors, through the concerted action of chromatin-associated complexes that modify histone tails and microRNAs (miRNAs). These epigenetic players cooperate to establish fo...

  4. Prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de 12 anos de idade, Ouro Preto/MG - 2003 Prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12 year-old schoolchildren, Ouro Preto/MG - 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Fioravante Braga Barros

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência da fluorose dentária em escolares de 12 anos de idade em Ouro Preto. METODOLOGIA: estudo seccional incluindo 248 crianças selecionadas aleatoriamente em 11 escolas do município. A amostra foi calculada de acordo com a metodologia descrita no Projeto SB2000. Os exames foram realizados por cirurgião-dentista treinado e calibrado. Os índices utilizados para medir a fluorose foram: índice de Dean e índice comunitário de fluorose. RESULTADOS: De 248 crianças selecionadas, 159 (64,1% participaram deste estudo. A prevalência de fluorose (índice de Dean encontrada foi de 11,4%, sendo composta pela condição muito leve (10,1% e leve (1,3%. A condição moderada e severa de fluorose não foi encontrada. Os dentes mais acometidos por fluorose foram os pré-molares, molares, incisivos e caninos. Não houve diferença entre os sexos quanto ao grau de fluorose, e o índice comunitário de fluorose foi de 0,29. CONCLUSÃO: a fluorose em crianças de 12 anos não é um problema de saúde pública em Ouro Preto, dado que a prevalência não é alta e quase todos os casos encontrados são muito leves.OBJECTIVE: to find out the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Ouro Preto. METHODOLOGY: cross-sectional study including 248 children randomly selected from 11 schools in the town. The sample was calculated according to the methodology described in Project SB2000. Exams were undertaken by a trained and calibrated dentist. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by the Dean index and index of community fluorosis. RESULTS: 159 (64.1% children, among the 248 who were selected, participated in the study. The prevalence of fluorosis (Dean index found was 11.4%, and it was found to be a very mild (10.1% or mild (1.3% condition. Moderate and severe fluorosis were not found. The teeth most affected by fluorosis were pre-molars, molars, incisors and canines. There was no difference between genders as to the

  5. An analysis of the incidence of dental Fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years in endemic fluorosis villages that changed water in Lianyungang city%连云港市降氟改水氟病区村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建梅; 周晓梅; 吴同浩; 单建声; 李永久

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解连云港市降氟改水措施对氟病区村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率的影响.方法 对连云港市部分已改水的氟病区村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况进行调查,并检测居民饮水氟含量.结果 (1)8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率由改水前的74.91%降至44.26%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);(2)降氟改水工程一直正常运行的氟病区村儿童氟斑牙患病率为23.32%(<30.00%),达到了地方性氟中毒病区控制标准要求;(3)居民饮水氟含量均值为0.71 mg/L,范围为0.19~3.04 mg/L.结论 连云港市降氟改水有一定成效,病情呈现下降趋势但未得到完全控制,需要加强对降氟改水工程的管理与维护,确保有效控制病情.%Objective To understand the measures of changing water to lower the fluoride content in impacting on the incidence of dental Fluorosis of children aged 8 tol2 years in endemic fluorosis villages in Lianyungang city. Methods Investigated the incidence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 tol2 years in some endemic fluorosis villages that changed water and measured the fluoride content in drinking water for residents in Lianyungang City. Results (1) The incidence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years was 74. 91% in the villages before water changed and decreased to 44. 26% after water changed. And the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ). (2) The incidence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years was 23. 32% in the villages that projects had been running since completed. And it reached the endemic fluorosis control standards. (3)The average content of water fluoride for residents living in endemic fluorosis villages was 0.71 mg/L, and fluoride contents ranged from 0. 19 mg/L to 3.04 mg/L. Conclusions There is a certain effect of the measures that change water to lower the fluoride content to control endemic fluorosis in Lianyungang City. And the disease state is declining, but still out of

  6. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  7. 氟对大鼠股骨生物力学性质改变的影响%Changes of the femur biomechanics in fluorosis rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景岩; 梁子平; 马洪顺

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察氟对大鼠股骨生物力学性质改变的影响.方法 30日龄Wistar大鼠50只,体质量90~100 g,按体质量随机分为氟中毒组和对照组,每组25只.氟中毒组饮用含氟(NaF,100 mg/L)的自来水,对照组饮用自来水.饲养期间观察大鼠牙齿生长状态,6个月后处死大鼠,对大鼠股骨进行拉伸强度、冲击韧性、剪切和弯曲强度实验.结果 氟中毒组氟斑牙检出率[92%(23/25)]高于对照组[0(0/25)],组间比较差异有统计学意义(X2=38.97,P<0.01);氟中毒组大鼠总拉伸强度、冲击韧性、剪切和弯曲强度[(225.67±11.81)Mpa、(1.94±0.15)J/mm2、(76.62±6.10)Mpa、(39.96.3±3.90)Mpa]均低于对照组[(244.70±13.38)Mpa、(2.39±0.19)J/mm2、(87.72±7.05)Mpa、(45.75±3.75)Mpa],组间比较差异有统计学意义(t值分别为3.372、5.879、3.756、3.383,P<0.01).结论 氟影响大鼠的骨代谢,氟中毒大鼠股骨生物力学性质发生了改变.%Objective To observe the changes of femur biomechanical properties in fluorosis rats. Methods Fifty Wistar rats of thirty-day old, weighing 90-100 g, were randomly divided according to body mass into fluorosis and control group of 25 each. Fluorosis group drank tap water containing 100 mg/L of fluoride, the control group drank tap water. The rats were observed of dental growing status and killed after feeding 6 months. Their femurs underwent tensile strength, impact, shear, bending experiments. Results The deteetable rate of dental fluorosis was significantly higher in fluorosis group[92%(23/25)] than control group[0(0/25),X2=38.97, P<0.01]. Biomeehanical data in fluorosis group(225.67±11.81,1.94±0.15,76.62±6.10,39.96.3±3.90) were lower than those of the control group(244.70±13.38,2.39±0.19,87.72±7.05,45.75±3.75) in experiments of tensile strength (MPa), impact toughness (J/mm2), shear and bending strength (MPa). The difference was statistically significant(t=3.372,5.879,3.756 and 3383, respectively, P<0.01) between the

  8. Xinjiang production and construction corps car row son agricultural areas endemic fluorosis prevention water effect evaluation%新疆兵团第七师车排子垦区地方性氟中毒防病改水效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚爱琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understand the seventh division of xinjiang production and construction corps car row of endemic fluorosis prevention and control measures of child land reclamation area and the improvement of water effect.Methods In October 1984, October 2009, in October 2014, respectively, in the row son agricultural areas, affected the heavier 123 regiment, establishment of 9 years old children as the research object, for dental fluorosis prevalence survey work.Results Improvement of water before 1984, 9 years old children's dental fluorosis prevalence was 72.7% (109/150); For the first time in 1986 after the completion of the improvement of water to 2009 - December 2010, 9 years old children's dental fluorosis prevalence was 7.17% (19/265); Between December 2010 and in 2014 the second water source relocate to 61 kilometers of the water supply after da zi temple area, 9 years old children's dental fluorosis prevalence was 0.54% (1/184);There are significant differences. Content of fluorine in water directly influence, children's dental fluorosis prevalence, and is proportional to the relationship. The test was highly significant difference (P < 0.01).Conclusions Change water source address and the depth of the water source well, engineering is the implementation of the effective methods of preventing water, used to correct or reduce the occurrence of endemic fluorine, arsenic poisoning disease has obtained the good effect, is worth promoting.%目的:为了解新疆兵团第七师车排子垦区地方性氟中毒防治措施和改水效果。方法:1984年10月、2009年10月、2014年10月,分别在车排子垦区(123团、127团、126团、128团),受影响较重的123团,确立9周岁儿童为研究对象,进行氟斑牙患病情况的普查工作。结果:改水前的1984年,9周岁儿童氟斑牙患病率为72.7%(109/150);1986年第一次改水完成后至2009-2010年12月,9周岁儿童氟斑牙患病率为7.17%(19/265);然而,2010

  9. Unusual florid skeletal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashebu, Samuel D.; Dahniya, Mohamed H.; Muhtaseb, Sayeed A.; Aduh, Prosper [Department of Radiology, Al-Adan Hospital (Kuwait)

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) with advanced and unusual skeletal manifestations - a rare occurrence in developed countries nowadays. The literature is briefly reviewed. (orig.)

  10. 不同含氟量低氟砖茶预防饮茶型氟中毒效果评价%Effect evaluation of different fluorine contents of low-fluoride brick-tea prevents fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆斌; 周明仁; 盖长城; 刘晓波; 于冰; 刘学慧; 姜志立; 王在君; 王革; 额尔敦宝力格; 田淑彩

    2012-01-01

    subuergagacha drunk fluoride content (115.8 ±38.4) mg/kg, residents of Siziwangqi jishengtaiTown, two groups drunk fluoride content (200.6±20.5) mg/kg, (301.9 ±28.4) mg /kg low fluorine Pufer brick tea as prevention test points. Before carrying out preventive test Dean method was used to check the 20 to 70 years old adults'dental fluorosis, clinical and radiographic examination were used to examine skeletal fluorosis, and according to the"Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis Diagnosis Standard" (WS192 -2008) to conduct diagnosis of fluorosis of bone. Portable dual energy X - ray machine was used to check adults'bone mineral density before prevention test and 24 months after test, fluorine content level of water, brick tea, tea beverage, residents'urinary was detected by fluoride ion by selective electrode method to calculate residents'fluoride ingestion from tea beverage every day. Results Detection rate of dental fluorosis in prevention test points was from 54.84% to79.63% ; Detection rate of clinical fluorine bone disease was from 50.91 % to 65.69% ; Detection rate of X - ray fluorine bone disease was from 44. 30% to 65. 17% , Detection rate of severe X - ray fluorine bone was from 2.27% to 8.86%. Prevention test points were severe endemic fluorosis areas. Adults'bone mineral density was from 0.451 to 0.508, detection rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was from 38.6% to 62.5%. Fluoride content in drinking water were less than or equal to 1.0 mg/ L; Fluoride content of brick tea was from 805.6 to 918.5mg/kg; Before test; fluorine content in tea drinks of Handahangacha test point was (2.16±1.12) mg/L, Hadayinggegacha was (2.82±1.38) mg/L, Subergagacha was (1.61 ±0. 74) mg/L, Nanhaoyizu was (3.95 ± 1.22) mg/L, Nanhaoerzu was (3.56 ± 1.39) mg/L; Adult urine fluorine content in Handahangacha was (2.78 ± 1.57) mg /L, Hadayinggegacha was (2.96 ± 1. 80) mg /L, Subuergagacha was 1. 53 ±0.70) mg /L, Nanhaoyizu was (2.82 ±1.47) mg /L, Nanhaoerzu was (2.76 ± 1.79) mg /L; Intake of

  11. Clinical application and evaluation of the home-made dental fluorosis shade guide%自制氟斑牙比色板临床使用效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王屹; 杨敏; 刘晔; 黄宴斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of the home-made dental fluorosis shade guide. Methods Color matching was performed by three prosthodontists with the home-made dental fluorosis shade guide and VITA16 shade guide respectively in 30 patients with dental fluorosis. According to the results, two sets of crowns were fabricated for each patient, and the satisfactory degree of the dentists and patients was calculated and compared respec tively. Results According to the survey of satisfactory degree, the dentists and patients were more satisfactory with the dental fluorosis shade guide than the VITA16 shade guide. Conclusion In dental fluorosis patients' color matching, home-made dental fluorosis shade guide was more timesaving and efficient than VITA16 shade guide.%目的 研究自制氟斑牙比色板的临床使用效果.方法 由3名口腔修复专业医生,分别采用自制氟斑牙比色板及VITA16色比色板对30例氟斑牙患者在自然光下进行比色,按照2种比色结果分别制作修复体,根据医生及患者满意度对疗效进行评价.结果 通过对修复体的满意度调查,医生及患者对根据自制氟斑牙比色板制作的修复体满意度明显高于根据VITA16色比色板制作的修复体.结论 在对氟斑牙患者比色中,自制氟斑牙比色板较VITA16色比色板省时、高效.

  12. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water in an endemic fluoride belt of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The published literature on the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis among school going children in Nalgonda district - An Endemic Fluoride belt was lacking . Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water . Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study, done in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India (endemic fluoride belt . Materials and Methods: 5 of the 59 mandals in the district of Nalgonda were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 3 schools from each of these selected mandals were chosen at random. All the eligible 6 th and 9 th standard children were considered for final analysis. The demographic and other relevant information was collected by 3 trained and calibrated dentists, using a structured questionnaire. Dental caries were recorded using dentition status and treatment needs and fluorosis were recorded by Dean′s fluorosis index. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among children was 56.3% with the highest in below optimal fluoride area (71.3% and lowest in optimal fluoride area (24.3%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 71.5%. The prevalence was 39.7% in below optimal fluoride area and 100% in high and very fluoride areas. The prevalence and severity of fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration. The caries experience was more among boys than girls. Conclusion: There was a negative correlation between dental caries and fluoride concentration for the entire study population. However, in high fluoride areas, there was a positive correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. Water defluoridation on an urgent basis is a priority here than water fluoridation, because the prevalence and severity of dental flurorosis is very high.

  13. Fluorine in herbage and water supplies in Northern Ireland in relation to the possible occurrence of fluorosis in livestock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordon, J.W.; Alston, A.M.

    1966-01-01

    The mean fluorine content of herbage in areas free from industrial contamination was 3 ppM (range: 1 to 10 ppM). High fluorine contents caused by contamination were found in the vicinity of brickworks and related industries near Dungannon and Coal-island. The mean fluorine content of herbage within half a mile of the works was 30 ppM (range: 11 to 71 ppM). Similar fluorine concentrations occurred in herbage close to a fertilizer factory near Londonderry, but no appreciable contamination was found in any other area. Industrial emissions had no apparent effect on the fluorine content of water supplies. Most water supplies contained less than 0.3 ppM fluorine, except in South Fermanagh where up to 5.7 ppM occurred in water from deep wells. Ingestion by cattle of contaminated herbage or water with a high fluorine content was reflected by a high excretion of fluorine in the urine. Concentrations of up to 17 ppM were recorded. Mild symptoms of dental fluorosis were detected in a few cows, but levels of fluorine ingestion were not sufficient to cause loss of production or affect the health of the animals.

  14. Initial development and chromatic value analysis of customized dental fluorosis shade guide%氟斑牙体瓷层比色板的初步研制及颜色分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛岭; 刘炜; 廖健; 吴兰; 王永

    2012-01-01

    目的 为解决个别牙缺失及缺损的氟斑牙患者烤瓷修复中的比色及颜色调配问题,定制氟斑牙金属基底体瓷层比色板来模拟氟斑牙的基色调.方法 采用牙本质修饰瓷和牙本质瓷粉按一定比例混合后烧制而成氟斑牙体瓷层比色板.分别模拟轻、中、重度氟斑牙基色调.采用松风Shade eye NCC电脑比色仪测定其色度学各要素(L*a*b*)值.结果 (1)比色板各组颜色分布具有一定规律性.(2)各组比色板色差及分布区域明显不同.(3)定制比色板的色度值范围绝大多数在氟斑牙色度值范围内,说明定制比色板的颜色能模拟一部分氟斑牙颜色.结论 定制氟斑牙金属基底体瓷层比色板对于临床氟斑牙比色有一定意义,但其精度有待于进一步提高.%Objective In order to resolve the problems of shade selection and color matching in porcelain for the patients with a-part of odontoptosis dental fluorosis. Customized dental fluorosis shade guide simulate dental fluorosis dentinal primary colour. Methods Vita dentinal porcelain powders and Vita dentine modifier porcelain powders were selected in special prescription to mix and shade guide tabs were made,Which simulate the lightly degree,the midrange degree and weight degree dental fluorosis dentinal primary color. Chromaticity element valueCL * , a * , b * ) were measured by a computer-aided Shade Eye NCC. Results (l)The color distribution in each group of customized dental fluorosis shade guide showed regular pattern. (2) The arrangement order of chroma of the each group color guide marked different color stage in chrome and diffeange. (3) The majority chromatic value rent ramplitude of customized shade guide was simulated the chromatic value amplitude of dental fluorosis. Conclusion The customized metal dental fluorosis shade guide have a special meaning in clinical dental fluorosis shade guide, but its precision need to be improved in the future.

  15. Sympathetic actions on the skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario

    2010-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) modulates several functions in skeletal muscle fibers, including metabolism, ionic transport across the membrane, and contractility. These actions, together with the sympathetic control of other organ systems, support intense motor activity. However, some SNS actions on skeletal muscles may not always be functionally advantageous. Implications for motor control and sport performance are discussed.

  16. Skeletal stem cells in space and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice...

  17. Child with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome: anesthetic management and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Patel, N; Arora, S; Ramachandran, R

    2014-01-01

    Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is a type of acro-cephalo-syndactyly (ACS) syndrome, characterized by premature fusion of the coronal sutures, facial dysmorphism, syndactyly, skeletal deformity, and congenital heart malformations. We here describe a child with diagnosed SCS, who underwent squint surgery under general anesthesia, and review the anesthetic concerns thereof.

  18. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  19. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth;

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity....... Skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague Dawley rats (n=33) while 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-week Prazosin treatment, which ensured......-body insulin sensitivity increased by ~24% and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose disposal increased by ~30% concomitant with a ~20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake...

  20. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  1. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    and adipose tissue leptin release in vivo. We recruited 16 healthy male human participants. Catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and vein draining skeletal muscle, as well as an epigastric vein draining the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. By combining the veno-arterial differences in plasma......Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... leptin with measurements of blood flow, leptin release from both tissues was quantified. To induce changes in leptin, the participants were infused with either saline or adrenaline in normo-physiological concentrations. The presence of leptin in skeletal muscle was confirmed by western blotting. Leptin...

  2. Fluorose dentária em crianças de Princesa Isabel, Paraíba Dental fluorosis in children from Princesa Isabel, Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Delano Soares FORTE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversas localidades da Paraíba possuem níveis moderados ou elevados de fluoreto in natura nas águas de abastecimento. Nas áreas onde os níveis de fluoretos são considerados "ótimos" para a região (0,6 ppm, já constatou-se uma moderada prevalência de fluorose dentária (30-40%. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo observar a prevalência de fluorose dentária na cidade de Princesa Isabel, com níveis "subótimos" de fluoretos (0,4 ppm. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 142 escolares de 10 a 15 anos para o levantamento de fluorose dentária pelo índice TF (de Thylstrup e Fejerskov. Os exames foram realizados por três examinadores previamente calibrados, sob luz natural indireta e após escovação supervisionada e secagem dos elementos dentários. Cerca de 20% dos escolares examinados apresentaram fluorose dentária, sendo que 70% com TF 1 e outros 30% distribuídos em diversos graus (TF 2 a 5. Fluorose foi mais prevalente no sexo masculino e em dentes pré-molares. Embora a fluorose dentária observada esteja dentro dos níveis esperados para o teor de fluoretos (0,4 ppm, outras fontes sistêmicas de fluoretos devem ser controladas. A prevalência de fluorose dentária observada não é problema de saúde pública nesta localidade.Several communities in Paraíba have moderate or high levels of fluoride naturally present in the drinking water. A moderate prevalence of dental fluorosis (30-40% has been observed in some areas where the levels of fluoride are regarded as "optimal" for the region (0.6 ppm. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Princesa Isabel, a city with "sub-optimal" fluoride levels (0.4 ppm. The sample comprised 142 schoolchildren (10- to 15-year-old subjects randomly selected and examined by means of the TF (Thylstrup & Fejerskov index. The clinical exams were carried out under indirect natural light by three calibrated examiners. Prior to the examination the teeth were

  3. THE EFFECT OF BEYOND FLUORIDE-REMOVING MATERIAL ON BLEACHING DENTAL FLUOROSIS%Beyond祛氟剂治疗氟斑牙的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孟博; 邓婧

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察Beyond祛氟剂治疗氟斑牙的临床疗效.方法 将20例着色型氟斑牙病人的左、右侧氟斑牙分别作为该研究的实验组和对照组,实验组用Beyond祛氟剂漂白治疗,对照组采用Beyond祛氟剂联合Beyond冷光美白治疗.用Vita比色板进行美白治疗前后颜色的对比.结果 实验组与对照组的脱色显效率有显著性差异(χ2=4.556,P0.05).结论 Beyond祛氟剂对治疗着色型氟斑牙有较好的美白效果,并且无明显副作用.Beyond祛氟剂联合冷光美白治疗的疗效更显著.%Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of fluoride-removing material on bleaching dental fluorosis. MethodsThe left teeth of 20 patients treated with fluoride-removing material served as experimental group, and the right teeth of the same patients treated with fluoride-removing material combined with Beyond cold light-bleaching technique as controls. The changes of tooth color were evaluated by VITA shade guide matching after treatment. Results The effective rate of experimental group was higher than that of the controls (χ2= 4.556,P0.05). Conclusion Beyond fluoride-removing material is proved to be effective and safe for bleaching discolored dental fluorosis. A combination of Beyond fluoride-removing material and Beyond cold light-bleaching technique is better than using Beyond fluoride-removing material alone for bleaching dental fluorosis.

  4. The progress in the study for the risk factor of dental fluorosis%氟斑牙的危险因素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 徐洪兰

    2001-01-01

    氟斑牙的危害因素除与水中氟化物的含量、氟化物的应用、营养及饮食、氟化物的暴露时间有关外,还与母乳喂养时间、居住地的海拔高度、环境污染、父母所受教育的程度、社区健康保健服务等水平有关 。另外,牙医的学识水平、个人卫生生活习惯、家庭经济状况等因素对氟斑牙的发病也有一定的影响。随着社会的发展,氟化物的暴露因素日趋增多,对氟化物应用的卫生政策应因地制宜。%The risk factor of dental fluorosis are mainly related to the cancen tration of fluoride in the drinking water,the supplements of fluoride,nutrition states and regime,the time of fluoride exposure.Other factor such as the period of mother's milk feeding,the altitude of resident,the environmental pollution,the education degree of parents,and the level of health service of the community are also contributed to the development of dental fluorosis.Besides,the knowledge of dentists,the health habits of individual,the condition of economic,and so on is somehow the risk factor of dental fluorosis.The chances of fluoride exposure will become more often as the prosperous of the society.Thus any health policy of the complement of fluoride should be adapted to local conditions.

  5. Ultrastructural observation of rat maxillary incisors with varied severity of dental fluorosis%大鼠切牙不同程度氟牙症的超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓转云; 郭永利; 陈明霞; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察大鼠饮用不同剂量氟水后发生中、重度氟斑牙的下颌切牙超微结构.方法 给SD雄性大鼠分别自由饮用0、25、50、100m g/L的含氟水,于不同的时间点用数码相机对大鼠下颌切牙进行唇侧正位照相,将中、重度氟斑牙的左、右侧下颌切牙分别进行扫描电镜及透射电镜的超微结构观察.结果 正常鼠切牙的釉质是一层由成釉细胞形成的棕色色素薄层,呈橘黄色、棕黄色;中度氟斑牙表面呈现不同程度棕、白色相间的水平状条纹,透光度降低;重度氟斑牙牙面出现白垩色外观,不透明.扫描电镜显示正常大鼠下颌切牙牙面平整、致密,仅在颈部有小的点窝;中、重度氟斑牙牙面粗糙,点窝在牙冠和牙颈部都明显存在,颈部甚至出现堆积的无釉柱状突起.透射电镜显示随着氟斑牙严重程度加重成釉细胞呈现一系列细胞凋亡的迹象.结论 不同程度的氟斑牙分泌期成釉细胞呈现一系列细胞凋亡迹象,且氟斑牙越严重,细胞凋亡的改变越明显.%Objective To observe the ultrastructural changes of rat maxillary incisors with varied severity of dental fluorosis induced by different concentration of fluoride in their drinking water. Methods Male SD rats drank water containing graded doses of fluoride (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L), respectively. At different time points the labial tooth surface of the maxillary incisors in each rat was taken a picture. Each side of the maxillary incisors with moderate or severe fluorosis was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope, respectively. Results The enamel of rat normal incisors, of an orange-yellow or brown-yellow color, was a film of brown pigment layer formed by ameloblasts. Enamel changes in the rat incisor teeth with fluorosis occurred as brown and white horizontal marks (moderate fluorosis) and progressively developed into a white chalky appearance (severe

  6. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Childhood Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero ... Children with Disabilities October 12, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North ...

  7. Well-child visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who has questions about issues such as feeding, circumcision , and general child health issues. After the baby ... deep tendon reflexes as the child gets older Neonatal jaundice -- first few visits only Palpation Percussion Standard ...

  8. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  9. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  10. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  11. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  12. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  13. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  14. Epidemiological study of endemic fluorosis in Xinbarhuzuoqi Hulunber inner Mongolia%呼盟新巴尔虎左旗地方性氟中毒调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学慧; 董秀梅; 刘晓波; 李树海

    2001-01-01

    Objective Understand recent condition of ten drinking water type of endemic fluorosis and drinking tea type of endemic fluor osis.Methods The fluoride content in drinking water and drin king tea were determind with FSIE method.The dental fluorosis of children was ex amined with Dean's Index.Results Only the median water fluoride content in Asumu was (2.12±0.74)mg/L,other sumu water fluorsis content under normal level.Milk tea fluoride content was within 0.55~4.1 mg/L.Fluoride content in brick tea was 0.6 mg/g.The dental fluorosis of children detectable rate more than 30% was only one sume.Conclusions If we regard Xinbarhuzuoqi as a endemic fluorosis area,we need careful and deep research.%目的 了解饮水型氟中毒病区 范围及饮茶型氟中毒病区。方法 采用氟电极法测定水氟、茶氟含量,用Dean氏分度 法进行儿童氟斑牙诊断。结果 只有阿苏木水氟含量为(2.12±0.74)mg/L, 其它苏木水氟含量均在正常标准以下;奶茶氟含量在0.55~4.1 mg/L之间;砖茶含氟量在(1.37±1.20)mg/g;儿童氟斑牙检出率超过30%的仅有1个苏木。结论 新巴尔虎左旗如果视为氟中毒病区,尚需做深入细 致调查研究。

  15. Your Child's Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the number of shots a child receives. The Vaccines Your Child Needs The following vaccinations and schedules are recommended ... are developed. Your doctor will determine the best vaccinations and schedule for your child. Recommended vaccinations: Chickenpox (varicella) vaccine Diphtheria, tetanus, and ...

  16. Supporting Each Child's Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Buchanan, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    In using developmentally appropriate practices, teachers should intentionally address all aspects of a child's being, the spiritual along with the physical and the cognitive. Because spirituality is a vital part of human nature, a whole-child teaching approach must include the part of the child some call spirituality. Many have attempted to…

  17. Child Care Services Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  18. [Autism and child protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coron, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  19. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    is determined by the overall content / activity of the regulatory proteins PDH kinase (PDK), of which there are 4 isoforms, and PDH phosphatase (PDP), of which there are 2 isoforms. The overall aim of the PhD project was to elucidate 4 issues. 1: Role of muscle type in resting and exercise-induced PDH...... in arm than leg muscles during exercise in humans may be the result of lower PDH-E1? content and not a muscle type dependent difference in PDH regulation. Both low muscle glycogen and increased plasma FFA are associated with upregulation of PDK4 protein and less exercise-induced increase in PDHa activity...... in human skeletal muscle. It may be noted that the increased PDK4 protein associated with elevated plasma FFA occurs already 2 hours after different dietary intake. A week of physical inactivity (bed rest), leading to whole body glucose intolerance, does not affect muscle PDH-E1? content, or the exercise...

  20. Analysis of monitoring results of children dental fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Liaoning province in 2011%2011年辽宁省饮水型地方性氟中毒病区儿童氟斑牙病情监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩来; 郑照霞; 刘微; 王健辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查辽宁省饮水型地方性氟中毒病区儿童氟斑牙的流行现况,评价改水措施的防病效果.方法 2011年9月,在辽宁省海城市、凌海市、法库县、阜蒙县、辽阳县、建平县6个地方性氟中毒病区县(市),每个县抽取3个已改水病区村,共18个病区村作为调查点.各调查村普查8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况.每个调查村采集1份末梢水样,进行水氟测定.结果 共检查8~12岁儿童786人,检出氟斑牙患者110人,氟斑牙检出率为14.0%,无缺损型氟斑牙病例,氟斑牙指数为0.27.其中,极轻度76例,检出率为9.7%;轻度33例,检出率为4.2%;中度1例,检出率为0.1%;重度0例.8岁组病例4例,占3.6%;9岁组病例20例,占18.2%; 10岁组病例26例,占23.6%;11岁组病例32例,占29.1%; 12岁组病例28例,占25.5%.各年龄组儿童氟斑牙检出率比较差异有统计学意义(x2=13.57,P<0.05).采集的18份改水工程末梢水样水氟范围为0.34~ 2.03 mg/L.77.8%(14/18)的改水病区达到了地方性氟中毒病区控制标准.结论 饮水氟含量高的病区儿童氟斑牙患病率仍较高,改水措施还有待于加强.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of children dental fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Liaoning province and to evaluate the disease prevention effects of water improvement measures.Methods Haicheng city,Linghai city,Faku county,Fumeng county,Liaoyang county and Jianping county six endemic fluorosis diseased counties (cities) of Liaoning province were included in the study in September 2011.In each county,3 water improvement villages were selected as survey points.In each surveyed village,children aged 8-12 were generally surveyed the prevalence of dental fluorosis.One tap water sample was collected in each surveyed village for determination of water fluorine.level.Results A total of 786 children aged 8-12 were examined; 110 of them were found with dental

  1. Skeletal abnormalities of acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, A.; White, S.J.; Rasmussen, J.E.

    1987-08-01

    We report the skeletal abnormalities in a 4 1/2-year-old boy with acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome of premature aging of the skin without the involvement of internal organs seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges, delayed cranial suture closure with wormian bones, linear lucent defects of the metaphyses, and antegonial notching of the mandible are the predominant skeletal features of the disorder. The skeletal features described in 21 other reported cases of acrogeria are summarized.

  2. Child Labor - Moral Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lagasse, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  3. From child to child: children as communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J

    1993-01-01

    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  4. Health assessment fluoride levels above the parametric value in water for human consumption in relation to the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis in school children 12 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macrina María Martín Delgado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Real Decreto 140/2003 of February 7, provides the opportunity to request approval of a temporary exception to the parametric value for the parameter B of Annex I, including fluoride. The work presented aims at testing the effect of water with fluoride levels above the parametric value on the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis, total and by grade, in the permanent dentition of schoolchildren in 12 years in order to establish the basis for the valuation of non-compliance and health decisions to applications for permits for temporary emergency situations and new parametric value. Sixty students were explored in a municipality of Tenerife where the concentration of fluoride in the water for human consumption has remained at 2,7 ± 0,5 mg / L, ie around the value ± 0,5 considered adequate to prevent dental caries and minimize the occurrence of dental fluorosis. The methodology used is standardized by the WHO. The examination included the recording of caries and dental fluorosis measured by the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF. There was a prevalence of dental caries of 38,33%, with a CAOD 0,87 and 81,67% of dental fluorosis: 35% for TF1-2, a 31,67% for TF3-4 and 15 % for grades TF5-9.Passing the values established requires the establishment of measures for health protection by restricting the use and consumption of water for children up to 8 years old.

  5. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlev, Jens; Godtfredsen, Erik; Andersen, Niels Trolle;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion....... One group (n = 13) were treated postoperatively with skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation (IMF) while the other group (n = 13) where threated without skeletal elastic IMF. RESULTS: The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.44 mm and 7.22 mm, respectively....... Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.74 mm and -0.29 mm at Pog. The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the no skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.30 mm and 6.45 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.97 mm and -0.86 mm at Pog. There was no statistical significant (P > 0.05) difference...

  6. Analysis and surveillance of coal-burning type endemic fluorosis in Hubei province%湖北省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒病区防治现况调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧云; 李明健; 熊培生; 周芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 掌握湖北省燃煤污染型氟中毒病区流行现状,为防治工作提供科学依据.方法 对燃煤地区的燃煤方式、食物干燥与保存方法和8 ~ 12岁儿童氟斑牙等情况进行横断面调查.结果 8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率9.89%;氟斑牙患病率大于30%的病区村51个,主要分布在恩施市、建始县、巴东县、宣恩县、竹山县和竹溪县;主食结构以大米为主,98%的调查户能采取正确的方式干燥和保存玉米和辣椒.结论 湖北省燃煤污染型氟中毒病情危害程度已明显减轻,但仍应继续坚持以改炉降氟为主的综合防治措施,以达到持续消除燃煤污染型氟中毒危害的目的.%Objectives To study the prevailing status of coal - burning type endemic fluorosis in Hubei Province, and to provide scientific basis for fluorosis control and prevention. Methods A cross - section survey was conducted to investigate the ways of coal combustion, food dehydration and storage and dental fluorosis status in children aged from 8 to 12. Results The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis in children aged from 8 to 12 was 9. 89% ; There were 51 villages with dental fluorosis detection rate was higher than 30% , which were mainly distributed in Enshi city, Jianshi county, Badong county, Xuanen county, zhushan county and Zhuxi county; staple food is given priority to rice, 98% of investigation families could take the right way to dry and preserve corn and pepper. Conclusion The coal - burning type fluorosis hazard degree has been significantly reduced in Hubei province. But in order to achieve the sustainable elimination of coal - burning fluorosis, the comprehensive prevention and treatment measures mainly including furnace modification and defluoridation should be adhere to in the future.

  7. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olfert, I Mark; Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva;

    2016-01-01

    during health, but poorly controlled in disease - resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact...... on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion, and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable, and thus one of the few organ systems which can be experimentally manipulated (e.g. by exercise) to study physiologic regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus...... on 1) the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity, and 2) highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes and ultrastructural...

  8. [Molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astratenkova, I V; Rogozkin, V A

    2014-06-01

    Enzymes Akt, AMPK, mTOR, S6K and PGC-1a coactivator take part in skeletal muscles in the regulation of synthesis of proteins. The expression of these proteins is regulated by growth factors, hormones, nutrients, mechanical loading and leads to an increase in muscle mass and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The review presents the results of studies published in the past four years, which expand knowledge on the effects of various factors on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The attention is focused on the achievements that reveal and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The central place is taken by mTOR enzyme which controls and regulates the main stages of the cascade of reactions of muscle proteins providing synthesis in the conditions of human life. coactivator PGC-1a.

  9. Inflammation induced loss of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londhe, Priya; Guttridge, Denis C

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathology of diseases implicated in skeletal muscle dysfunction. A number of diseases and disorders including inflammatory myopathies and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) are characterized by chronic inflammation or elevation of the inflammatory mediators. While these disease states exhibit different pathologies, all have in common the loss of skeletal muscle mass and a deregulated skeletal muscle physiology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are key contributors to chronic inflammation found in many of these diseases. This section of the review focuses on some of the known inflammatory disorders like COPD, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and inflammatory myopathies that display skeletal muscle atrophy and also provides the reader an overview of the mediators of inflammation, their signaling pathways, and mechanisms of action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions".

  10. Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is manifested by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and results from impaired insulin signaling and multiple post-receptor intracellular defects including impaired glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation, and reduced glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Insulin resistance is a core defect in type 2 diabetes, it is also associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have reported a mitochondrial defect in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in variety of insulin resistant states. In this review, we summarize the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  11. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  12. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik A.

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  13. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I

    2014-01-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial function. Therefore, this study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in the smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cardiac......, skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), psmooth muscle (222±13; 115±2; 48±2 umol•g(-1)•min(-1), p

  14. Satellite cells: the architects of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Natasha C; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is attributed to the resident muscle stem cell termed satellite cell. Satellite cells are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration as they ultimately provide the myogenic precursors that rebuild damaged muscle tissue. Satellite cells characteristically are a heterogeneous population of stem cells and committed progenitor cells. Delineation of cellular hierarchy and understanding how lineage fate choices are determined within the satellite cell population will be invaluable for the advancement of muscle regenerative therapies.

  15. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2016-01-01

    caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  16. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  17. Prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de Brasília - Distrito Federal Prevalence of dental fluorosis in school children from Brasília - Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Lopes CAMPOS

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de avaliar a prevalência de fluorose dentária, foi realizado levantamento epidemiológico em Brasília, Distrito Federal, comunidade na qual o teor de flúor na água de abastecimento público é de 0,8 ppm. Foram examinadas 833 crianças de ambos os sexos com idades variando entre 8 e 12 anos, escolares e residentes em Brasília desde o nascimento. Os exames foram realizados em escolas públicas, em cadeira comum, sob luz natural e campo seco obtido com auxílio de gaze. Por meio do exame dos dentes permanentes anteriores superiores foi levantado o índice de fluorose entre os sexos. O percentual de crianças livres de fluorose apresentou-se elevado (85,36%, enquanto 14,64% mostraram níveis de fluorose dentária entre muito leve e moderado.An epidemiologic study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Brasilia - Federal District, a community where fluoride concentration is 0.8 ppm in drinking water. The sample consisted of 833 school children of both sexes, aged between 8 and 12, who have been living in Brasilia since birth. The anterior upper permanent teeth were examined and HOROWITZ fluorosis index was applied to evaluate pathological occurrences. No sex differences were observed in dental fluorosis prevalence. The authors found a high number of dental fluorosis free children (85.36% and 14.64% of the sample showed light and moderate levels of fluorosis.

  18. Beyond冷光美白在治疗氟斑牙和四环素牙中的临床应用%Clinical application of Beyond cold light whitening in treatment of dental fluorosis and minocvcline teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周吉武; 夏惠丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe clinical effects of Beyond cold light whitening agent on the bleaching treatment of minocycline teeth and dental fluorosis. Methods Beyond cold light whitening instrument and Beyond the cold light whitening agent were used for bleaching treatment for 11 patients with different degrees of dental fluorosis and 8 patients with minocycline teeth. Before bleaching, VITA-3 D MASTER colorimetric plate (VITA Toothguide-MASTER, hereinafter referred to as " VITA colorimetric plate" ) was used to compare the teeth' color and records were made. Observe bleaching treatment effect. Results Beyond cold light whitening were used in the treatment of 11 cases with dental fluorosis and 8 cases with minocycline teeth. As a result, dental fluorosis disappeared, color on the surfaces of the teeth was close to normal. Conclusions Reliable bleaching treatment effects can be achieved in the treatment of dental fluorosis and minocycline teeth with Beyond cold light whitening agent.%目的 观察Beyond冷光美白剂对氟斑牙和四环素牙患者的漂白效果.方法 对11例不同程度氟斑牙及8例四环素牙患者,采用Beyond冷光美白仪及配套的冷光美白剂进行漂白治疗,分别于漂白前用VITA - 3D MASTER比色板(VITA Toothguide - MASTER,以下简称Vita比色板)对牙齿比色并记录,观察漂白效果.结果 使用Beyond冷光美白治疗氟斑牙11例,四环素牙8例,氟斑消失,牙面颜色接近正常.结论 Beyond冷光美白剂对氟斑牙及四环素牙患者的漂白效果可靠.

  19. Shangqiu drinking water type fluorosis monitoring village children aged 8 to 12 dental fluorosis prevalence survey analysis%商丘市饮水型氟中毒监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔雪梅; 史宏凤; 邢艳平

    2014-01-01

    objective to understand the shangqiu drinking-water type endemic fluorosis monitoring village 8 to 12 years old children's dental fluorosis illness,as the improvement of water decreasing fluorine,provide a scientific basis for prevention and treatment of endemic fluorosis. Method choose HuiYangOu without changing water digoxin town-ship,Liu Qiaocun HouZhuang village,the ancient song township Xu Loucun;Have to change water to rein in town-ship JiaoZhuang zhuang village, township LinHeDian ShuangMiaoCun east ShuangMiaoCun. MinQuanXian BeiGuanZhen Jin Zhuang village;Garden township double Wells village,zhao village,ward building village,a total of eight as the infested,detection of residents drinking water fluoride concentration,8 and 12 years old children's den-tal fluorosis prevalence survey. Fluorine spot tooth diagnosis according to the dental fluorosis in accordance with the (Dean fluorine spot tooth diagnosis methods,sample collection and preservation and water fluoride detection using the standard test methods for domestic and drinking water (GB/T 5750-5750). Results The results of shangqiu drinking-water type endemic fluorosis monitoring village 8 to 12 years old children's dental fluorosis detection rate of 67.8%in 2011;34.8%in 2012. Dental fluorosis patients suspected,extremely light and mild accounted for most of the pa-tients,and patients with moderate and severe accounts for only a few. In 8 monitoring village water fluoride which in 2011 was 100.0%,87.5%in 2012. Conclusion exercises of endemic fluorosis monitoring village high fluoride drink-ing water is the direct cause of endemic fluorosis popularity,improvement of water decreasing fluorine,is urgently needed.%目的:了解商丘市饮水型地方性氟中毒监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况,为降氟改水,防治地方性氟中毒提供科学依据。方法选择睢阳区未改水的高辛乡候庄村、刘桥村,古宋乡许楼村;已改水的勒马乡集庄村焦庄、临河

  20. Relationship between dental fluorosis and serum chemical element levels of 8-12 year-old children in endemic fluorosis areas and non-diseased areas%地方性氟中毒病区与非病区8-12岁儿童氟斑牙及与血清化学元素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓红; 梁妍; 冯永亮; 王素萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children aged 8 - 12 years, and to explore the relationship between dental fluorosis and serum chemical elements. Methods The cross-sectional study was used to investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis. The dental fluorosis was diagnosed according to Dean method. The contents of serum calcium ( Ca ),copper ( Cu ),iron ( Fe ),magnesium ( Mg ),phosphorus ( P ),zinc ( Zn ) were determined using IRIS Intrepid Ⅱ XSP ICP spectrometer. Results The prevalence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 - 12 years in severe endemic fluorosis areas, the wards, the control areas were 93.0% , 81.5% and 11.8% , respectively. Serum levels of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, P, and Zn in the children of severe endemic fluorosis areas, the wards, the control areas were different( Fca= 12. 150,P < 001; FCu= 3. 326, P < 0.05; FFe= 11. 893, P < 001; FMg= 13. 053, P < 001; FP= 3. 131,P < 0.05 ;Fzn= 28. 019,P < 001 ). Content of calcium in the wards was lower than that in the control areas ( P < 0.001 ). Iron content in the wards was higher than that in the control areas ( P < 0. 001 ). Magnesium content was lower in the severe areas and the wards than that in the control areas ( P < 0.001 ). Phosphorus content in severe areas was lower than that in the control zone ( P < 0.05 ). Zinc content in seriously ill areas was higher than that in the control areas, while it was lower in the wards than that in the control areas ( P < 0.05 ). Level of magnesium in dental fluorosis patients was higher than that in normal children( t= 2.14, P < 0.05 ), but there was no significant difference in the rest chemical elements between them. Conclusion The higher the concentration of fluoride in drinking water is, the higher the detection rate of dental fluorosis is. Calcium and magnesium can be antagonistic with dental fluorosis.%目的 了解8-12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况,探讨化学元素与氟斑牙的关系.方法

  1. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown.

  2. Prevalence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 in coal-burning type of endemic fluorosis areas in Guizhou Province%贵州省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒病区8~12岁儿童氟斑牙病情调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯友; 李达圣; 高静; 张念恒; 张锐智; 胡小强; 叶红兵; 姚丹成; 王晓明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 in coalburning type of endemic fluorosis areas in Guizhou Province and to provide a scientific basis for assessment and acceptance of the diseased areas.Methods According to the "Diagnosis of Dental Fluorosis" (WS/T 208-2011),dental fluorosis of all children aged 8-12 were examined in historic diseased areas of 13 counties (districts) from 2013 to 2014.The date of dental fluorosis of all children aged 8-12 was collected in 13 countries (districts) in 1986 and 2000.The date of 1986 was compared with that of 2000; the survey results were compared with those of 2000,and assessed by the standards for "Control Criteria for Endemic Fluorosis Areas" and "Elimination of Coalburning Type of Endemic Fluorosis".Results The total detectable rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 was 5.42% (12 446/229 428),and the total dental fluorosis index was 0.094 that covered 229 428 children from 1 673 villages of 166 towns of 13 counties (districts) in the province.The detection rate and dental fluorosis index in every county (district) ranged from 2.83% to 9.39% and from 0.037 to 0.174,respectively.The ratio of dental fluorosis detection rate ≤15% and > 15-30% was accounted for 98.09% (1 641/1 673) and 1.91% (32/1 673),respectively in the 1 673 villages.Compared with that of 2000 in each county (district),the difference was statistically significant (all P < 0.01).Compared between 2000 and 1986,the differences were not statistically significant in Zunyi County,Meitan County and Baiyun District (x2 =0.045,0.067,3.420,all P > 0.05),but the prevalence was significantly lower in Huishui County,Wudang District and Huaxi District (x2 =537.70,352.03,374.84,all P < 0.01).The prevalence was increased to varying degrees in counties (districts) including Honghuagang,Zhenning,Changshun,Pingba,Longli,Xifeng and Kaiyang (x2 =9.48,219.97,116.93,288.24,626.39,272.38,14.35,all P < 0

  3. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  4. 2012年江苏省饮水型地方性氟中毒病情监测结果分析%Outcome analysis of drinking-water type endemic fluorosis in Jiangsu in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶云杰; 夏玉婷; 汪旸; 王培桦; 王彩生

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解江苏省饮水型地方性氟中毒病情及降氟改水工程使用情况,为及时调整地方性氟中毒防治措施提供科学依据.方法 2012年,在江苏省选择9个地方性氟中毒防治重点县(区)作为调查点,每个调查点选择3个病区村作为调查村,了解调查村改水降氟工程进度和运行情况,采集调查村水样检测水氟含量;对所有调查村8~12岁儿童进行氟斑牙检查.水氟测定采用《地方性氟中毒病区饮水氟化物的测定方法》(WS/T 106-1999);氟斑牙诊断采用Dean法.结果 共监测了27个村,其中已改水村26个,占96.30%(26/27);未改水村1个,占3.70%(1/27).26个改水工程中,正常运转21个,占80.77%(21/26);间歇运转2个,占8.70%(2/26);报废3个,占11.54%(3/26).改水工程正常运转且水氟合格的监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为22.74%(380/1 761),氟斑牙指数为0.45;改水工程水氟超标或工程不能正常运转的监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为66.51%(143/215),氟斑牙指数为1.45;未改水村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为42.86%(12/28),氟斑牙指数为0.86.结论 江苏省降氟改水工程对儿童氟斑牙的预防有一定效果,但改水工程仍然有报废或者水氟超标的情况.%Objective To know the state of endemic fluorosis,running state of water improvement project in Jiangsu Province,and to provide a scientific basis for adjusting control measures against the disease.Methods Nine key counties were selected from the endemic fluorosis areas as survey spots in Jiangsu in 2012.Three villages in each spot were selected as survey villages.To known the progress and running conditions of water facilities,water samples were collected to determine the fluorosis level.All children aged 8 to 12 were tested for dental fluorosis at the survey villages.The fluorine content in water was determined with F-selective electrode (WS/T 106-1999).Dental fluorosis was diagnosed byased on the Dean

  5. Aspects of skeletal muscle modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Marcelo; Herzog, Walter

    2003-09-29

    The modelling of skeletal muscle raises a number of philosophical questions, particularly in the realm of the relationship between different possible levels of representation and explanation. After a brief incursion into this area, a list of desiderata is proposed as a guiding principle for the construction of a viable model, including: comprehensiveness, soundness, experimental consistency, predictive ability and refinability. Each of these principles is illustrated by means of simple examples. The presence of internal constraints, such as incompressibility, may lead to counterintuitive results. A one-panel example is exploited to advocate the use of the principle of virtual work as the ideal tool to deal with these situations. The question of stability in the descending limb of the force-length relation is addressed and a purely mechanical analogue is suggested. New experimental results confirm the assumption that fibre stiffness is positive even in the descending limb. The indeterminacy of the force-sharing problem is traditionally resolved by optimizing a, presumably, physically meaningful target function. After presenting some new results in this area, based on a separation theorem, it is suggested that a more fundamental approach to the problem is the abandoning of optimization criteria in favour of an explicit implementation of activation criteria.

  6. Skeletal development in Acropora cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladfelter, Elizabeth H.

    1984-08-01

    Monthly linear extension and calcium carbonate accretion were measured over a year in the Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. X-radiographs were made of cross sections of branches to analyze radial growth. Correlations were made between parameters of skeletal growth and four environmental parameters monitored over the same sampling periods: temperature, daylight hours, sun hours, plankton abundance. The results indicate that linear extension does not change during the year with the possible exception of April. It is suggested that temperatures outside an optimal range (ca. 26° 29°C for staghorn Acroporas) might cause a decrease in linear extension, however. Specific accretion (mg. mm-1) does show significant variations through the year. Calcium carbonate accretion (mean specific accretion times mean linear extension, mg. tip-1) is most strongly correlated with number of sun hours. A comparison is made between diel patterns of extension and accretion and longer term measurements. It is suggested that the accretion process is probably most influenced by some activity influenced by light. There are no annual growth bands in X-radiographs of cross-sections of the branches of A. cervicornis. This may result from secondary infilling in the skeleton.

  7. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  8. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  9. 青铜峡市8~12岁学龄儿童氟斑牙防治效果分析%Preventive efficacy of dental fluorosis among 8-12 school-age children in Qingtongxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕楠; 周进才; 李胜玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后儿童氟斑牙患病情况及其防治效果,为指导地方性氟中毒的防治工作提供科学依据.方法 采取整群随机抽样的方法,对青铜峡市2006年已改水的改水队1(高氟重病区叶盛镇叶盛5队)、改水队2(高氟轻病区大坝镇新桥5队)、未改水队(大坝镇滑石沟5队)670名8~12岁儿童进行氟斑牙患病情况调查,根据病变程度进行分型分度,计算患病率.结果 2011年改水队1和改水队2儿童氟斑牙患病率均低于未改水队,差异有统计学意义(x2值分别为5.012,20.676,P值均<0.05).儿童氟斑牙临床分度与水氟质量浓度间显著相关(r=0.638,P<0.05).2个改水队改水后水氟质量浓度分别为(0.24±0.05) mg/L、(0.32 ±0.07) mg/L,已达到国家正常标准.结论 青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水降氟防治措施取得了一定成效.但儿童氟斑牙尚存在一定程度的流行,未达到完全控制.%Objective To evaluate the results of water improvement project aimed in eliminating the prevalence of dental fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City. Methods By using epidemiological sample survey methods, 670 children (8-12 years) had been examined in dental fluorosis in Yesheng 5th team Yesheng Township, where endemic fluorosis was seriously prevailed and had become water-improvement area in 2006; Daba township, where endemic fluorosis mild prevailed; and Huash-igou 5th team, which was not included in water-improvement area. And according to the degree of disease classification indexing, prevalence rate was calculated. Results There was evident differences of the dental fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the place was not in the water-improvement Projects areas(x2 =5.012, 20.676, P<0.05). There was significant correlation between water fluorine concentration and Childrens dental fluorosis clinical dividing(r = 0. 638, P <0. 05 ). The fluoride content in drinking

  10. Effects of drinking water defluoride in endemic fluorosis areas in Shantou city of Guangdong province%广东省汕头市地方性氟中毒病区改水降氟效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军义; 李伯灵; 赵新华; 黄奕祥; 陈俊凯; 陈思湖; 欧汉宏; 陈少贤

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对汕头市地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)病区水氟及氟中毒状况的调查,为进一步改水工作提供依据.方法 于2001、2009年,对4个地氟病病区村(仙港村、范溪村、义英村、溪北村)和一个非地氟病病区村(上南村)检测水氟,每个村抽取约100名(男女各半)8~ 12岁儿童检查氟斑牙及采集尿样.水氟及尿氟测定采用氟离子选择电极法,按照Dean法进行儿童氟斑牙诊断.结果 4个地氟病病区村改水后饮用水氟含量均< 1.0 mg/L.2001年儿童氟斑牙检出率[63.29%(1505/2378)]高于2009年[14.12%(462/3271),x2=1466.48,P< 0.01].在2009年,与上南村[5.88%(77/1309)、(0.54±0.25)mg/L]相比,仙港村儿童氟斑牙检出率[30.95%(321/1037)]和尿氟水平[(0.75±0.58)mg/L]均较高(x2=258.20,t=17.40,P均<0.05).结论 汕头市改水降氟效果显著,管理部门仍应坚持地氟病病区的定期监测工作.%Objective To provide a scientific basis for drinking-water improvement and defluoridation by survey water fluoride level and situation of fluorosis in the endemic fluorosis areas of Shantou city.Methods Four endemic fluorosis villages and a non-fluorosis village were detected of water fluoride in 2001 and 2009.Randomly selected subjects of about 100 children(men and women in equal,aged 8 to 12) were checked dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride in each village.Fluoride content in water was determined by fluoride selective ion electron.And diagnosis of dental fluorosis of children was made according to Deans method.Results Through monitoring drinking water in 4 villages of the fluorosis areas after water improvement,we found that fluoride content in water source was under the standardlimitation of 1.0 mg/L,and prevalence of dental fluorosis decreased from 63.29%(1505/2378) in 2001 to 14.12%(462/3271) in 2009,the difference was significant(x2 =1466.48,P < 0.01).But compared with Shangnan village[5.88%(77/1309),(0.54 ± 0.25) mg/L] in

  11. Epidemiologic Survey of Dental Fluorosis and Caries in School Students in Wensu Cotmty in Xinjiang%新疆温宿县中小学生氟牙症与龋病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程竑; 梁爱喜; 艾力·阿不都如苏里; 林自强; 李存荣

    2000-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the dental fluorosis and caries, and their prevalence features in school students in Wensu county in Xinjang. Methods The study groups consisted of 1 527 Weuer and Han students at the age of 6 to 16. Dental fluorosis and caries diseases were assessed strictly by Dean' s Classification Standard and WHO ”Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods” (the 3rd ed). The concentration of fluorine in water and urine was measured by using selective electrod. Results The prevalence and index of dental fluorosis in Weuer and Han students were 73.70%, 64.67 %, 1.647,1.303, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries and DMFT were 61.19%, 42.66%, 1. 648, 1. 023 respectively. The corresponding values were 51. 94% ,52.99% ,1,305,1. 449 for students of fluorosis group and non-fluorosis group, respectively. The fluorine degree of water was 2~5mg/L,the average value of fluorine in urine was 3.64mg/L in Han students,and 5.28mg/L in Weuer students. Conclu- sions The prevalence of dental caries didn' t decrease, eventhough the prevalence of fluorosis was high in Wensu county. The prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in Weuer students were significantly higher than those in Han students. It showed no signifi- cant different between the group of fluorosis and the group of non-fluorosis in the prevalence of dental caries, perhaps due to thehigh fluorine intake, poor oral hygiene, and unqualified medicalservice.%了解新疆温宿县中小学生氟牙症和龋病发病特点及相互关系。方法按Dean分度标准和WHO第 3版《口腔健康调查基本方法》对1527名6~16岁维、汉族学生进行氟牙症和冠龋流行病学调查,并以电极法进行水 和尿氟含量测定。结果维、汉族氟牙症患病率和指数分别为73.70%、64.67%和1.647、1.303;维、汉族患龋率和 龋均分别为61.19%、42.66%和1.648、1.023;氟牙症组与非氟牙症组患龋率和龋均分别为51.94%、52.99%和 1.305、1

  12. 江西省2009年燃煤污染型氟中毒病区现状调查%Investigation of the current situation in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Jiangxi province in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊小玲; 刘玮; 李志宏; 万建平; 裘海清; 陈都; 上官俊

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To find out the prevalence and distrbution of endemic fluorosis in coal-burning pollution areas,provide the basis for formulating prevention and control measures.METHODS An administrative village for the unit,the population,households and dental fluorosis in children aged from 8 to 12 years were surveyed generally in study areas.During the investigation,sampling test of fluoride levels in drinking water and urine of children were carried out and the prevalent factors were surveyed in epidemic fluorosis villages where the prevalence of children's dental fluorosis was over 30%.RESULTS In this survey,the number of children aged from 8 to 12 years was 218 763,the number of children with dental fluorosis was 25 899,the prevalence of children's dental fluorosis was 11.84%.The conditions of dental fluorosis gave priority to extremely light and mild; the ratios were 49.56% and 43.62% respectively.The number of epidemic fluorosis villages where the prevalence of children dental fluorosis over 30% was 371,accounting for 24.25% of the total survey villages,and the epidemic fluorosis villages where the prevalence of children dental fluorosis over 30% weren't found only in Fengcheng city.2 588 children's urine samples and 346 resident drinking water samples were collected,the geometric mean of fluoride concentration in urine was 0.87 mg/L,and its scopes were 0.10 mg/L to 10.44 mg/L.The number of villages where the geometric mean of fluoride concentration in urine over 1.40 mg/L was 13,accounting for 14.94%.The fluoride concentrations in resident drinking water were from 0.01 mg/L to 0.92 mg/L,the mean was 0.15 mg/L,the fluoride concentration in all samples were under the sanitary standard for drinking water.The percentage of houses with masonry structure was 95.85% of total survey households,97.39% of the residents still used coal as the main fuel,98.75% of the residents in coal-burning households used open burn ovens,the percentage of households

  13. Comparative study of X-ray photographic feature in bone injuries between industrial and endemic fluorosis%工业性和地方性氟病骨损伤X线征象的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文朋; 徐建; 刘克俭; 李长城; 刘晓利; 崔彩岩

    2012-01-01

    Objective Through the skeleton X-ray detection on industrial and endemic fluorosis patients, to explore the differences and its reasons of X-ray photographic features in two different types of fluorosis. Methods All 60 cases of industrial fluorosis from a large aluminum plant in Hubei province and 39 cases of endemic fluorosis in fluorosis high-risk region of Enshi area in Hubei province were selected as the subjects. The questionnaire was used for investigation of general situation, past history, present illness history, etc. , biological saimples were also taken, meantime, the X-ray examination on the forearms of the patients was made as well. The data was analyzed with SPSS software system, version 18.0 (SPSS Inc, 2003 ). Results The results showed that the fluorine levels in blood and urine of industrial fuorosis patients were higher than that of endemic fluorosis patients (P < 0. 05 ) ; the clinical manifestations of industrial fluorosis were lighter mainly were joint pain and stiffness while endemic fluorosis always had heavier manifestations, might appear limb-joints activities limitation and limbs slight deformation. The X-ray examination showed that there mainly were osteosclerosis and peripheral osseous ossification, osteoporosis and osteomalacia were seldom, but three types all could be seen in endemic fluorosis (P <0. 01). As for scale division in X-ray examination , there were only slight or mild degree in industrial fluorosis, no severe could be seen, while endemic fluorosis were severe relatively (P <0. 01). Conclusion The results showed that there were some differences in X-ray photographs between two types of fluorosis, the bone injuries in industrial fluorosis mainly were the mild osteosclerosis and peripheral osseous ossification types, however, the endemic fluorosis, bone injuries mianly were mixed types.%目的 通过对工业性和地方性氟病患者进行骨骼X线检测,探究两种不同类型骨损伤X线的

  14. 氟骨症性颈椎管狭窄症手术的麻醉管理%Anesthetic Management for Fluorosis Cervical Stenosis Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟平; 韩永正; 张耕; 张梁; 王军; 郭向阳

    2014-01-01

    Objective-To-explore-the-anesthetic-management-during-operation-for-fluorosis-cervical-stenosis-.-Methods-The-demographic-data,-surgical-parameters-,-and-anesthetic-management-of-5-patients-with-fluorosis-cervical-stenosis-from-February-2009-to-March-2014-were-analyzed-.Two-of-the-5-patients-had-severely-limited-movement-of-cervical-spine-and-were-classified-as-Mallampati-grade-Ⅲ.Both-of-them-received-awake-fiberoptic-intubation-under-topical-anesthesia-.The-remaining-three-patients-had-no-difficulty-in-tracheal-intubation-and-were-intubated-with-Macintosh-direct-laryngoscope-under-rapid-anesthesia-induction-.-Results-All-the-patients-underwent-the-surgery-smoothly-,-without-deaths-during-the-perioperative-period-.After-surgery,-1-patient-was-transferred-to-the-ICU-due-to-respiratory-insufficiency-and-was-extubated-on-the-following-day-.The-remaining-4-patients-were-transferred-to-the-PACU-and-had-the-tracheal-tube-removed-there-afterwards-.All-the-patients-had-no-anesthesia-related-complications-after-operation-and-were-discharged-uneventfully-.-Conclusions-Patients-with-fluorosis-cervical-stenosis-have-a-high-incidence-of-difficult-airway-.Airway-management-is-the-key-of-perioperative-anesthetic-management-.%目的:探讨氟骨症性颈椎管狭窄症手术的麻醉特点及管理方法。方法对2009年2月~2014年3月5例氟骨症性颈椎管狭窄症的麻醉管理进行总结。2例术前颈椎活动严重受限,改良Mallampati分级Ⅲ级,考虑可能为困难气管插管,清醒表面麻醉下行纤维支气管镜引导气管插管;余3例为非困难气管插管,行快速诱导直视下Macintosh喉镜气管插管。结果5例均安全度过围术期,无死亡。1例因呼吸功能不全,术后转入ICU病房,次日拔管;余4例术后转入PACU拔管。术后均无麻醉相关并发症,顺利出院。结论氟骨症性颈椎管狭窄症患者困难气道发生率高,气道管理是围术期麻醉管理的核心问题。

  15. Estudo sobre a fluorose dentária num município do sul do Brasil Study on the dental fluorosis in a Southern city of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Rigo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a frequência e a severidade da fluorose dentária, bem como verificar possíveis associações com cárie dentária, sexo, idade, etnia e localização geográfica das escolas, nos escolares de doze e de quinze a dezenove anos de idade do município de Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul. A população estudada foi constituída por 633 escolares, de ambos os sexos, matriculados em vinte e seis escolas municipais de ensino fundamental, nas idades índices citadas. Os exames foram realizados por três examinadores previamente calibrados para a aplicação do Índice de Dean. A prevalência de fluorose dentária no grupo estudado foi de 32,8%. O grau predominante foi o muito leve (78,4%, seguido pelos graus leve (11,1%, questionável (8,7% e moderado (1,9%. A prevalência de fluorose dentária na população estudada foi expressiva, embora com um baixo grau de severidade. Os fatores idade e índice de cárie dentária mostraram-se relacionados à variável resposta.The objective of this article is to determine the frequency and severity of dental fluorosis, as well as to verify possible associations with dental caries, gender, age, ethnicity and geographic location of schools in schoolchildren of 12 years old and from 15 to 19 years in the city of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A total of 633 schoolchildren of both genders at the cited ages, enrolled in 26 public schools of fundamental teaching were involved in the epidemiological study. The inspection was performed by three examiners previously trained to apply Dean's Index. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the studied group was of 32.8%. Predominant degree was the very light (78.4%, followed by light (11.1%, questionable (8.7% and moderate (1.9%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was expressive in this population, however, with a low degree of severity. Factors such as age and dental caries index showed to be related to the variable response.

  16. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  17. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981-2663 (301) ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...

  18. Talking to Your Child's Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Talking to Your Child's Doctor KidsHealth > For Parents > Talking to Your Child's Doctor ... an important role in your child's health? The Doctor-Patient Relationship Today, doctors are pressured to see ...

  19. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Review Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  20. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Raghav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis of skeletal class I, class II and class III malocclusion, each comprising of 38 subjects with equal number of males and females. Lip prints of all the individuals were recorded and digital soft copies of lateral cephalograms were taken. Lip prints were compared between different skeletal malocclusions. Results: It was found that branched lip pattern was most common in North Indian adult population with no sexual dimorphism. The Z-test for proportion showed that the prevalence of vertical lip pattern was significantly higher in subjects having skeletal class III malocclusion. Conclusion: A definite co-relation of vertical lip patterns with skeletal class III malocclusion was revealed.

  1. Child Wellness and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  2. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  3. Child Psychology Experiences Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla Walla Coll., WA.

    Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

  4. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  5. Divorce Child Custody Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlgate, Laurence D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines ethical issues in making policy decisions regarding divorce child custody disputes. Suggests dilemma occurs when legislator must decide between discretionary standard promoting best interest of child and nondiscretionary arbitrary assignment of custody. Advocates normative analysis of various types of dispute-settling processes and…

  6. The Census Analysis of Dental Fluorosis of 1660 Students Aged 7-14%1660名7~14岁在校学生氟斑牙患病的调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荣; 吴金荣

    2013-01-01

      Objective The objective is to understand the state of dental fluorosis of students aged 7 to 14 in 133 mission, research the preventive treatment of students’ chronic fluorosis and formulate appropriate intervention measures. To perfect oral diseases prevention and control network in schools and strengthen oral health care of students are important. Method The state of dental fluorosis of 1660students aged 7 to 14 from No1 and No2 Middle School in 133 mission in 2012 has been investigated. Result The number of students is 1660 and 410 of them have dental fluorosis. The rate of this disease is 24.7%. Conclusion In order to know the situation of regional chronic fluorosis to achieve early discovery and early prevention, regular inspection of students’ dental fluorosis is necessary. It is also contribute to improving students’ health level and prevent the occurrence of chronic endemic disease.%  目的为了解一三三团7~14岁学生氟斑牙患病情况,探讨学生慢性氟中毒的防治工作,制定相应的干预措施。健全学校口腔疾病防治网,加强学校学生口腔保健工作。方法对2012年一三三团一中、二中1660名7~14岁在校学生进行了氟斑牙患病情况调查。结果受检人数1660人,患氟斑牙410例,患病率达24.7%。结论定期开展学生氟斑牙患病情况的检查,以掌握本地区性慢性氟中毒的情况,以做到早发现,早预防,对提高学生的健康水平,预防慢性地方病的发生有重要的意义。

  7. Analysis the monitoring results of endemic fluorosis by lowering fluoride in drinking water in Yu County Hebei province%河北省蔚县地方性氟中毒改水降氟监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀平; 王志祥; 郝冬梅; 韩国毅; 杨富花

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握河北省蔚县地方性氟中毒病区的改水现状及防治措施、控制效果.方法 选取蔚县55个病区村,对8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率及改水设施运行情况进行调查.儿童氟斑牙检查采用Dean氏法,水氟含量检测采用氟离子选择电极法.结果 正常使用的改水工程为29个,受益人口达56 751人,管网末梢水氟含量均值为0.80mg/L,范围为0.2~2.1mg/L.氟斑牙患病率为15.92%,氟斑牙指数为0.27.结论 蔚县地氟病防治取得较好效果,但病区改水降氟的防病措施尚须加强.%Objective To master the drinking water defluoridation current state, preventive measures and control effects in endemic fluorosis areas of Yu County Hebei province. Method Selected 55 endemic villages and investigated the dental fluorosis prevalence rate of 8 to 12 old children and the operation status of drinking water defluoridation facilities. Children's dental fluorosis was examined by Deans, fluoride content in drinking water was determined by fluorion selective electrodes. Results Total of 56 751 people were profited from 29 drinking water defluoridation projects. The average value of fluorides content in water of end pipe network was 0. 80mg/ L (0. 2 ~2. Lmg/L) . The dental fluorosis prevalence rate was 15. 92% and dental fluorosis index was 0. 27. Conclusions Endemic fluorosis prevention and control work received good effect in Yu County, but we still need to improve the drinking water defluoridation projects in endemic areas.

  8. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  9. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2007-01-01

    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  10. Skeletal muscle as an immunogenic organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2008-01-01

    During the past few years, a possible link between skeletal muscle contractile activity and immune changes has been established. This concept is based on the finding that exercise provokes an increase in a number of cytokines. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced......; expressed and released by muscle fibers and exert either paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Human skeletal muscle has the capacity to express several myokines belonging to distinct different cytokine classes and contractile activity plays a role in regulating the expression...... of cytokines in skeletal muscle. In the present review, we focus on the myokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-15 and their possible anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and metabolic roles....

  11. Intraurethral Injection of Autologous Minced Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intraurethral injection of in vitro expanded autologous skeletal muscle derived cells is a new regenerative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. We examined the efficacy and safety of a simpler alternative strategy using freshly harvested, minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue...... with its inherent content of regenerative cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 and 15 women with uncomplicated and complicated stress urinary incontinence, respectively, received intraurethral injections of minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue and were followed for 1 year. Efficacy was assessed...... noted. CONCLUSIONS: Intraurethral injection of minced autologous muscle tissue is a simple surgical procedure that appears safe and moderately effective in women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence. It compares well to a more complicated regenerative strategy using in vitro expanded muscle...

  12. The benefits of coffee on skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2015-12-15

    Coffee is consumed worldwide with greater than a billion cups of coffee ingested every day. Epidemiological studies have revealed an association of coffee consumption with reduced incidence of a variety of chronic diseases as well as all-cause mortality. Current research has primarily focused on the effects of coffee or its components on various organ systems such as the cardiovascular system, with relatively little attention on skeletal muscle. Summary of current literature suggests that coffee has beneficial effects on skeletal muscle. Coffee has been shown to induce autophagy, improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate glucose uptake, slow the progression of sarcopenia, and promote the regeneration of injured muscle. Much more research is needed to reveal the full scope of benefits that coffee consumption may exert on skeletal muscle structure and function.

  13. Skeletal muscle regeneration in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossola, Maurizio; Marzetti, Emanuele; Rosa, Fausto; Pacelli, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    Muscle wasting is the most important phenotypic and clinical feature of cancer cachexia, and the principal cause of impaired physical function, fatigue, and respiratory complications. Muscle loss has been attributed to a variable combination of reduced nutritional intake and an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes. It has been suggested that defective skeletal muscle regeneration may also contribute to muscle wasting in cancer patients. However, there is little in vitro or in vivo data available, in either animals or in humans, regarding skeletal muscle regeneration in cancer wasting. The aim of the present review is to define the role of skeletal muscle regeneration in the muscle wasting of cancer patients and to determine possible therapeutic implications.

  14. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  15. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Estudo da prevalência de fluorose dentária em Aracaju Study of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Aracaju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wathson Feitosa de Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência de fluorose dentária em Aracaju (SE, 196 escolares foram submetidos a exame clínico bucal, utilizando o índice de Dean. Pôde ser concluído que a prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de cinco a quinze anos do município de Aracaju (SE foi de 8,16%, não implicando risco à saúde pública. Porém, estudos semelhantes devem ser realizados com periodicidade regular, além de orientação aos órgãos responsáveis pela fluoretação da água, para que os níveis considerados ótimos para essa região sejam respeitados, prevenindo assim o surgimento de tal ocorrência.With the aims of determining the prevalence dental fluorosis in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe State, 196 students were submitted to an oral exam, utilizing the Dean's index. It was concluded that the prevalence of dental fluorosis in students ranging from 5 to 15 years old in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe State was of 8.16%, not implying in a risk to public health. However, similar studies must be done regularly, besides orientation to governmental departments responsible for water fluoridation, so that the level considered excellent for this area can be respected, avoiding such problem to occur.

  17. Vasodilatory mechanisms in contracting skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifford, Philip S.; Hellsten, Ylva

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscle blood flow is closely coupled to metabolic demand, and its regulation is believed to be mainly the result of the interplay of neural vasoconstrictor activity and locally derived vasoactive substances. Muscle blood flow is increased within the first second after a single contraction...... and stabilizes within 30 s during dynamic exercise under normal conditions. Vasodilator substances may be released from contracting skeletal muscle, vascular endothelium, or red blood cells. The importance of specific vasodilators is likely to vary over the time course of flow, from the initial rapid rise...

  18. Surveillance of fluorosis through water drinking in Dingxiang county, Shanxi province, 2009%2009年山西省定襄县饮水型氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周集慧; 赵俊兰; 牛志宏

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解和评价山西省定襄县氟中毒流行现状和改水降氟防治效果.方法 按照山西省2008年度《中央补助地方公共卫生专项资金饮水型地方性氟中毒防治项目技术方案》,水氟测定采用地方性氟中毒病区饮水氟化物的测定方法(WS/T 106);尿氟测定采用离子选择电极法( WS/T 89);氟斑牙诊断采用Dean,s法,并记录牙齿缺损情况;临床氟骨症诊断采用地方性氟骨症诊断及分度标准( WS 192-2007).结果 3个监测点水氟含量均超标;8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为60.7%,缺损型氟斑牙检出率为12.1%,氟斑牙指数为1.23;儿童尿氟均值为5.66 mg/L,标准差为1.94 mg/L,范围值3.11~12.4 mg/L;成年人尿氟均值为7.31 mg/L,标准差为2.41 mg/L,范围值4.07~ 19.5 mg/L;成年人氟骨症临床检出率为8.9%.结论 监测显示氟中毒病情总体呈下降趋势,但3个监测点水氟、儿童氟斑牙患病率、尿氟含量仍高于正常值.降氟改水工程在80年代末建成,由于年久失修,井管破损严重,氟水向井内渗透,造成水氟含量回升,应加大改水降氟力度,提高防治效果.%Objective To understand the prevalence of fluorosis through water drinking and evaluate the effects of the prevention project by reducing fluorine in water in Dingxiang county. Methods The fluorine in water was detected by detection methods of fluorine in water in endemic fluorosis area( WS/T 106), the fluorine in urine was detected by ion selective electrode method( WS/T 89), the dental fluorosis was diagnosed by Dean's method( tooth defect was recorded) and the clinical fluorosis of bone was diagnosed according to diagnosing and grading standard of endemic fluorosis of bone(WS 192-2007) specified in the technical protocol of prevention and treatment of endemic fluorosis through water drinking. Results The content of fluorine in water in 3 surveillance areas exceeded limit; The detection rate of dental fluorosis was 60

  19. Child Development Associate. Child Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is to help the CDA intern understand the factors and principles which affect the total growth and development of children. Early sections of the module stipulate the module's competency-based objectives, define terms, and suggest procedures by which…

  20. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  1. Validity and reliability of the Child Perceptions Questionnaires applied in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavião Maria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Child Perceptions Questionnaires (CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 are indicators of child oral health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the self-applied CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 in Brazilian children, after translations and cultural adaptations in the Brazilian Portuguese language. Methods Schoolchildren were recruited from general populations for pre-testing (n = 80, validity (n = 210, and test-retest reliability (n = 50 studies. They were also examined for dental caries, gingivitis, fluorosis, and malocclusion. Results Children with greater dental caries experience in primary dentition had higher impacts on CPQ domains. Girls had higher scores for CPQ8–10 domains than boys. Mean CPQ11–14 scores were highest for 11-year-old children and lowest for 14-year-old children. Construct validity was supported by significant associations between the CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 scores and the global rating of oral health (r = 0.38, r = 0.43 and overall well-being (r = 0.39, r = 0.60, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.95 for both questionnaires. The test-retest reliabilities of the overall CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 scores were both excellent (ICC = 0.96, ICC = 0.92. Conclusion The Brazilian Portuguese version of CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 was valuable and reliable for use in the Brazilian child population, although discriminant validity was sporadic due to the fact that impacts are mediated by others factors, such personal, social, and environmental variables.

  2. Epidemiological Factors for Dental Fluorosis among 12-year-old Age Goup in Industrial Zone of Baiyin City%白银市工业区域12岁人群氟牙症的行因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素萍; 彭晓泽; 王鸿玉; 赫永虎

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the oral health status and the prevalence of dental fluorosis for industrial region in Baiyin Cit-y, to analyze prevalence factors, and to explore prevention and treatment measures in order to provide information support to oral health care in Baiyin city.[Methods]Selected 480 people of 12-year-old residents of industrial region in Baiyin City with random, multi-stage, stratified sampling method, male and female are half-and-half. Inspection for fluorosis cases was conducted in accordance with the clinical inspection methods and standards for dental fluorosis of " The Third National Oral Health Epidemiology Survey Program". By using of SAS software to make statistics, the prevalence rate comparing was conducted by x2 te8t-[Results]Fluorosis prevalence rate of 12-year-old crowd was 31. 88% , fluorosis index was 0. 3, and dental fluorosis is in the prevalence edge.[Conclusion]Fluorosis prevalence rate and fluorosis index of industrial region in Baiyin city are higher than the national level, which are at the edge of prevalence and related to industrial region fluorine pollution and environmental fluorine pollution.%目的 了解白银市工业区域人群口腔健康状况及恒牙氟牙症流行状况,分析流行因素,探讨防治对策,为白银市口腔卫生保健工作提供信息支持.方法 采用多阶段、分层、等容量、随机抽样的方法,抽取白银市工业区域城乡12岁常住人口480人,男女各半.按照《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》中临床氟牙症的检查方法和标准,检查全口恒牙牙冠氟牙症情况.数据采用SAS软件统计,患病率比较采用x2检验.结果 12岁人群氟牙症患病率为31.88%,氟牙症指数为0.3,氟牙症处于流行边缘.尿和水的中氟含量均在正常范围.结论 白银市工业区域氟牙症患病率和氟牙症指数均高于全国水平,处于流行边缘,推测与工业区域空气氟污染和环境氟污染有关.

  3. Skeletal Stability after Large Mandibular Advancement (> 10 mm) with Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy and Skeletal Elastic Intermaxillary Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Kristoffer; Rodrigo, Maria; Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    : A total of 33 consecutive patients underwent bimaxillary surgery to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion with a mandibular advancement (> 10 mm) measured at B-point and postoperative skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation for 16 weeks. Skeletal stability was evaluated using lateral cephalometric...

  4. Skeletal maturation determined by cervical vertebrae development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Román, Paloma; Palma, Juan Carlos; Oteo, M Dolores; Nevado, Esther

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity of cervical vertebrae radiographic assessment to predict skeletal maturation. Left hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 958 Spanish children from 5 to 18 years of age were measured. On the left hand-wrist radiographs the classification of Grave and Brown was used to assess skeletal maturation. Cervical vertebrae maturation was evaluated with lateral cephalometric radiographs using the stages described by Lamparski and by Hassel and Farman. A new method to evaluate the cervical maturation by studying the changes in the concavity of the lower border, height, and shape of the vertebral body was created. Correlation coefficients were calculated to establish the relationship between skeletal maturation values obtained by the three classifications of vertebral and skeletal maturation measured at the wrist. All correlation values obtained were statistically significant (P vertebral bodies to evaluate the maturation stage has been designed. In the population investigated, this method is as accurate as the Hassel and Farman classification and superior to the Lamparski classification. The morphological vertebral parameter best able to estimate the maturation is the concavity of the lower border of the body.

  5. Engineering skeletal muscle tissue in bioreactor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Yang; Li Dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) related to skeletal muscle and kinds of bioreactor environment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection A total of 106 articles were selected from several hundred original articles or reviews.The content of selected articles is in accordance with our purpose and the authors are authorized scientists in the study of engineered muscle tissue in bioreactor.Results Skeletal muscle TE is a promising interdisciplinary field which aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss.Although numerous studies have indicated that engineering skeletal muscle tissue may be of great importance in medicine in the near future,this technique still represents a limited degree of success.Since tissue-engineered muscle constructs require an adequate connection to the vascular system for efficient transport of oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products.Moreover,functional and clinically applicable muscle constructs depend on adequate neuromuscular junctions with neural calls.Third,in order to engineer muscle tissue successfully,it may be beneficial to mimic the in vivo environment of muscle through association with adequate stimuli from bioreactors.Conclusion Vascular system and bioreactors are necessary for development and maintenance of engineered muscle in order to provide circulation within the construct.

  6. miRNAs Related to Skeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeliger, Claudine; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; van Griensven, Martijn

    2016-09-01

    miRNAs as non-coding, short, double-stranded RNA segments are important for cellular biological functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. miRNAs mainly contribute to the inhibition of important protein translations through their cleavage or direct repression of target messenger RNAs expressions. In the last decade, miRNAs got in the focus of interest with new publications on miRNAs in the context of different diseases. For many types of cancer or myocardial damage, typical signatures of local or systemically circulating miRNAs have already been described. However, little is known about miRNA expressions and their molecular effect in skeletal diseases. An overview of published studies reporting miRNAs detection linked with skeletal diseases was conducted. All regulated miRNAs were summarized and their molecular interactions were illustrated. This review summarizes the involvement and interaction of miRNAs in different skeletal diseases. Thereby, 59 miRNAs were described to be deregulated in tissue, cells, or in the circulation of osteoarthritis (OA), 23 miRNAs deregulated in osteoporosis, and 107 miRNAs deregulated in osteosarcoma (OS). The molecular influences of miRNAs regarding OA, osteoporosis, and OS were illustrated. Specific miRNA signatures for skeletal diseases are described in the literature. Some overlapped, but also unique ones for each disease exist. These miRNAs may present useful targets for the development of new therapeutic approaches and are candidates for diagnostic evaluations.

  7. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  8. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Semba, Richard D.; Ubaida-Mohien, Ceereena

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a large organ that accounts for up to half the total mass of the human body. A progressive decline in muscle mass and strength occurs with ageing and in some individuals configures the syndrome of ‘sarcopenia’, a condition that impairs mobility, challenges autonomy, and is a ri...

  9. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process.

  10. [Effects of lycopene on the skeletal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtysiak, Patrycja; Folwarczna, Joanna

    2015-02-21

    Antioxidant substances of plant origin, such as lycopene, may favorably affect the skeletal system. Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment, responsible for characteristic red color of tomatoes. It is believed that lycopene may play a role in the prevention of various diseases; despite theoretical premises and results of experimental studies, the effectiveness of lycopene has not yet been clearly demonstrated in studies carried out in humans. The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge on the effects of lycopene on the osseous tissue in in vitro and in vivo experimental models and on the skeletal system in humans. Results of the studies indicate that lycopene may inhibit bone resorption. Favorable effects of high doses of lycopene on the rat skeletal system in experimental conditions, including the model of osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency, have been demonstrated. The few epidemiological and clinical studies, although not fully conclusive, suggest a possible beneficial effect of lycopene present in the diet on the skeletal system.

  11. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    2000-01-01

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  12. Training induced adaptation in horse skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, K.G. van

    2006-01-01

    It appears that the physiological and biochemical adaptation of skeletal muscle to training in equine species shows a lot of similarities with human and rodent physiological adaptation. On the other hand it is becoming increasingly clear that intra-cellular mechanisms of adaptation (substrate transp

  13. Observation on the clinical curative effect of porcelain fused to metal crown restoration of dental fluorosis%金属烤瓷冠修复氟斑牙临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春科

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical application effect of porcelain fused to metal crown for restoration of dental fluorosis and the appearance of anterior teeth repair.Methods:16 patients with dental fluorosis were required aesthetics of anterior teeth.They were taken porcelain fused metal crown to restorate 98 dental fluorosis of cosmetic repair,then followed-up for 3 years and comprehensive evaluated the therapy effect.Results:After 3 years of follow-up,the shape and color of all the 98 teeth did not change,and also kept a good function.Conclusion:Using porcelain fused to metal crown restoration of anterior teeth can provide beautiful appearance,vivid color,smooth and wear characteristics,so we can concluded that metal porcelain crown has a good effect on the restoration of dental fluorosis cosmetic repair.%目的:探讨金属烤瓷冠用于修复氟斑牙的临床应用效果及对前牙的美观修复情况。方法:16例氟斑牙患者要求前牙美观,采用金属烤瓷冠对98颗氟斑牙进行美容修复,进行3年随访,综合评价。结果:随访3年,98颗金属烤瓷冠修复后色泽形态良好,功能良好。结论:金属烤瓷冠修复前牙具有美观、色泽逼真、光滑耐磨等特点,金属烤瓷冠对氟斑牙美容修复有着良好的修复效果。

  14. Health assessment fluoride levels above the parametric value in water for human consumption in relation to the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis in school children 12 years of age Valoración sanitaria de la superación del valor paramétrico de fluoruro en agua de consumo humano en relación con la prevalencia de caries y fluorosis dental en escolares de doce años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Gómez Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Real Decreto 140/2003 of February 7, provides the opportunity to request approval of a temporary exception to the parametric value for the parameter B of Annex I, including fluoride. The work presented aims at testing the effect of water with fluoride levels above the parametric value on the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis, total and by grade, in the permanent dentition of schoolchildren in 12 years in order to establish the basis for the valuation of non-compliance and health decisions to applications for permits for temporary emergency situations and new parametric value. Sixty students were explored in a municipality of Tenerife where the concentration of fluoride in the water for human consumption has remained at 2,7 ± 0,5 mg / L, ie around the value ± 0,5 considered adequate to prevent dental caries and minimize the occurrence of dental fluorosis. The methodology used is standardized by the WHO. The examination included the recording of caries and dental fluorosis measured by the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF. There was a prevalence of dental caries of 38,33%, with a CAOD 0,87 and 81,67% of dental fluorosis: 35% for TF1-2, a 31,67% for TF3-4 and 15 % for grades TF5-9.Passing the values established requires the establishment of measures for health protection by restricting the use and consumption of water for children up to 8 years old.El R. D. 140/2003, de 7 de febrero, contempla la posibilidad de solicitud de autorización de excepción temporal al valor paramétrico establecido para parámetros de la parte B del anexo I, entre los que se encuentra el fluoruro. El trabajo que se presenta tiene como objeto la comprobación del efecto del consumo de agua con niveles de fluoruro superiores al valor paramétrico sobre la prevalencia de caries y fluorosis dental, total y por grados, en la dentición permanente de escolares de doce años con el fin de establecer las bases para la valoración sanitaria del incumplimiento y la toma

  15. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening themselves, other people or pets Damaging or destroying property Lying or stealing Not ...

  16. Your child's first vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... multi.html . CDC review information for Multi Pediatric Vaccines: Your Child's First Vaccines: What you need to know (VIS): ... baby. 2. Some children should not get certain vaccines Most children can safely get all of these vaccines. But ...

  17. My Child Is Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there's often little sympathy for repeat offenders. Further punishment , particularly physical punishment, is not necessary and could make a child ... They should also know that stealing is a crime and can lead to consequences far worse than ...

  18. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  19. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. Such treatment can help reduce the ... Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Teen Suicide ...

  20. My Child Is Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around. And there's often little sympathy for repeat offenders. Further punishment , particularly physical punishment, is not necessary and could make a child or teen angry and more likely to engage in even ...

  1. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as feelings of betrayal, powerlessness, worthlessness and low self-esteem. It is impossible to calculate how many times a child's pornographic image may be possessed and distributed online. Each and ...

  2. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  3. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... when traveling, around the birth of a sibling , changing from the crib to the bed, moving to ...

  4. Weaning Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... cup, or maybe even just a cuddle. Try changing your daily routine so that you're otherwise ...

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the skeletal musculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre (ed.) [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Intverventional Radiology

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. Presents research findings in respect of the role of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques. Provides examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases. Although muscular diseases are a huge and heterogeneous group, in most cases of progressive disease the result is focal or general muscular weakness that presents as an unspecific symptom. Imaging techniques that offer differential diagnostic clues are therefore urgently needed. Despite this, MRI has to date often been assigned a subsidiary role in the diagnostic work-up of these diseases owing to the frequent inability of routine MRI protocols to detect pathognomonic findings. This situation is changing with the advent of modern MRI techniques that offer deeper insights into surrogate pathophysiologic parameters, such as muscular microcirculation, sodium homeostasis, energy and lipid metabolism, and muscle fiber architecture. Much higher levels of acceptance and demand by clinicians can be anticipated for these new techniques in the near future, and radiologists will have to face up to the increasing value of MRI of the skeletal musculature. In this book, recognized experts from around the world provide a comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. A range of aspects are covered, from the general role of MRI in imaging the skeletal musculature, including in comparison with ultrasonography, through to the current value of MRI in the diagnostic work-up of different diseases. In addition, several chapters present research findings in respect of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques for assessment of the skeletal musculature and provide examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases.

  6. The decreased expression of mitofusin-1 and increased fission-1 together with alterations in mitochondrial morphology in the kidney of rats with chronic fluorosis may involve elevated oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuang-Li; Deng, Jie; Lou, Di-Dong; Yu, Wen-Feng; Pei, Jinjing; Guan, Zhi-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize changes in the expression of mitofusin-1 (Mfn1) and fission-1 (Fis1), as well as in mitochondrial morphology in the kidney of rats subjected to chronic fluorosis and to elucidate whether any mitochondrial injury observed is associated with increased oxidative stress. Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into 3 groups of 20 each, i.e., the untreated control group (natural drinking water containing morphology of renal mitochondria was observed under the transmission electron microscope. In the renal tissues of rats with chronic fluorosis, expression of both Mfn1 protein and mRNA was clearly reduced, whereas that of Fis1 was elevated. The level of MDA was increased and the T-AOC lowered. Swollen or fragmented mitochondria in renal cells were observed under the electronic microscope. These findings indicate that chronic fluorosis can lead to the abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and changed morphology in the rat kidney, which in mechanism might be induced by a high level of oxidative stress in the disease.

  7. Autopercepção da fluorose pela exposição a flúor pela água e dentifrício Self-perception of fluorosis due to fluoride exposure to drinking water and dentifrice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Maria Bezerra de Menezes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A percepção da fluorose dental e seu impacto em escolares de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil, expostos ao uso de flúor pela água e dentifrício, foram avaliados. O problema foi encontrado em 72% das crianças, mas o grau de alteração decorrente não provocou nenhum impacto na satisfação das crianças com seus dentes. Embora a fluorose dental, devido à ingestão de flúor pela água e ao uso de dentifrício fluoretado, não tenha comprometido a estética da amostra populacional avaliada, estudo mais abrangente deve ser realizado.The impact of dental fluorosis in children exposed to fluoride in drinking water and dentifrice was evaluated. Dental fluorosis was found in 72% of the children, but the children's well-being was not affected. It was concluded that although dental fluorosis due to the intake of optimally fluoridated drinking water and dentifrice did not affect the dental aesthetics of this studied population sample, there is a need of further studies on the subject.

  8. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury; Kindesmisshandlung. Nicht akzidentelle Kopfverletzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg [Universitaetsklinik Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-12-15

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  9. Music in child care

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2007-01-01

    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  10. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  11. A dental fluorosis trend analysis of children aged 8 to 12 in drinking-water-type endemic fluorosis areas of Hubei Province from 2010 to 2014%2010-2014年湖北省饮水型氟中毒病区8~12岁儿童氟斑牙病情监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧云; 李明健; 周素华; 戴馨; 熊培生; 祝淑珍

    2016-01-01

    Objective Through the dynamical monitoring of the water improvement projects operation,we intend to understand the prevalent trends of endemic fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 in Hubei,to evaluate the effect of control measures and to provide the basis for making preventive measures.Methods In Hubei,ten surveillance counties were selected,and three epidemic villages were selected as fixed monitoring villages in each county from 2010 to 2014.In those villages,the operation situation of water improvement projects and the fluoride content in drinking water were detected,and the dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 was diagnosed.Results From 2010 to 2014,the normal operation rate of water improvement projects was 75.61%-100.00%,the average of water fluorine content did not change,the differences were not statistically significant (F =2.00,P > 0.05).The numbers of water improvement projects with water fluorine content in excessive amount was increased in the past five years which was only one project in 2010-2012 and was increased to two projects in 2013 and 2014.In 2010-2014,the dental fluorosis prevalence rate of whole children was 9.45% (525/5 557),the dental fluorosis prevalence rate of exceeding-standard villages of water fluoride content was 42.40% (92/217),the dental fluorosis prevalence rate of qualified villages was 8.11% (433/5 340).The children's dental fluorosis prevalence rate of exceeding-standard villages of water fluoride content was higher than that in qualified villages;the differences were statistically significant (x2 =282.60,P < 0.05).Conclusions The operation rate of water-improving projects is mostly higher than 90%,and so is the qualification rate of fluoride content in drinking water.The operation condition and water quality of the water-improving projects in Hubei need to be improved.The prevalence of children dental fluorosis of affected villages has dropped significantly after low fluoride water is provided continuously

  12. Effect of Beyond cold light tooth whitening in treatment of minocycline teeth and dental fluorosis:a comparison%Beyond冷光美白对四环素牙和氟斑牙的美白效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽琴; 陈慧霞; 沈云娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较Beyond冷光美白技术对轻中度四环素牙及氟斑牙的美白效果。方法选择2010年1月-2012年8月在我院口腔美容科进行牙齿美白的轻中度四环素牙及氟斑牙患者各30例,采用Beyond冷光美白技术对其进行美白,术前及术后用Vita比色板比色,比较美白后即刻、1周(诊室护理后)、6个月、12个月时的美白效果及满意度。结果四环素牙及氟斑牙患者美白后的美白有效率逐渐降低( P<0.05)。氟斑牙颜色接近正常,而氟斑并未完全消失,而患者的满意度一直保持在较高水平;四环素牙患者的满意度下降较多(P<0.05)。结论四环素牙和氟斑牙均可以采用Beyond冷光美白技术进行美白,随着时间的延长,需要进行护理以保持美白效果。%Objective To compare the effect of Beyond cold light tooth whitening in treatment of minocycline teeth and dental fluorosis.Methods 30 cases with mild and moderate minocycline teeth and 30 cases with dental fluorosis were selected respectively.Beyond cold light tooth whitening technology was used.The whitening effect and satisfaction were recorded before and after the treatment.Results The whitening effective rate of minocycline teeth and dental fluorsis after the treatment was declining(P<0.05).The color of dental fluorosis was close to normal,but dental fluorosis didn't disappear completely.The satisfaction of patients with minocycline teeth was lower 12 month later after the treatment(P<0.05).Conclusion Beyond cold light tooth whitening technology can be used on minocycline teeth and dental fluorosis effectively.

  13. An epidemiological study of drinking water type of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province in 2013%2013年山东省饮水型地方性氟中毒流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 尹玉岩; 高杰; 张本政; 边建朝; 陈培忠

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解山东省饮水型地方性氟中毒的流行现状,为制订防制策略提供科学依据.方法 按随机数字表法,在山东省选择10个县(市、区),调查改水降氟工程进度和运行效果;每个县(市、区)选择3个村作为调查村,氟离子选择电极法测定饮用水水氟含量,Dean法检查8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况.结果 在10个县(市、区)中,共有改水降氟工程515个,覆盖3 207个病区村,改水率为81.71%(3 207/3 925).调查的85个改水工程均运行正常;水氟含量合格(≤1.20 mg/L)的工程51个,合格率为60.00% (51/85),水氟最大值为4.38 mg/L.29个调查村均已改水,水氟均值≤1.20 mg/L的村21个,占调查村的72.41%(21/29);水氟均值> 1.20 mg/L的村8个,占27.59%(8/29),水氟最大值为4.02 mg/L.在水氟合格村共检查8~ 12岁儿童1 023名,氟斑牙检出率为38.12%(390/1 023),氟斑牙指数为0.67,氟斑牙流行强度为极轻度流行.在水氟超标村共检查8~ 12岁儿童449名,氟斑牙检出率为54.79%(246/449),氟斑牙指数为1.18,氟斑牙流行强度为轻度流行.结论 山东省改水降氟工程的水氟超标严重,儿童的氟斑牙病情仍较严重,改水措施有待进一步加强.%Objective To study the prevalence of drinking water type of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province,and to provide a scientific basis in making strategies for prevention and control of the disease.Methods Ten counties (cities,districts) were selected by random number table method to carry out the epidemiological study,and to study the progress and effect of water-improving and defluoridation projects.Three villages in each county (city,district) were chosen to determine fluoride content of drinking water and to check the prevalence of dental fluorosis of children 8 to 12 years old.Water fluoride content was determined with fluoride ion-selective electrode,and dental fluorosis was diagnosed by the Deans method.Results In the 10 counties (cities

  14. Relationship between dental fluorosis and quality of life: a population based study Relação entre fluorose dentária e qualidade de vida: um estudo de base populacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Michel-Crosato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of dental fluorosis in schoolchildren aged 6 to 15 and its possible association with the impacts on their daily activities. This study is observational, cross-sectional and analytical. A total of 513 schoolchildren from the city of Pinheiro Preto, SC, took part in this study. The children were examined by three calibrated dentists, after obtaining a kappa > 0.80. To assess the prevalence of fluorosis, clinical examinations were performed according to the methodology set forth by the 4th edition of the WHO. To assess the impact of fluorosis on their daily activities, a modified OIDP (Oral Impacts on Daily Performance was adopted. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-squared test with a 5% significance level. Of the total number of children examined, 262 (51.1% were of the female gender and 251 (48.9% were of the male gender. In regard to the prevalence of fluorosis, 94 (18.3% of the children presented this condition, while 419 children (81.7% presented a normal condition. In regard to the severity of fluorosis, few children presented severe alterations. No association was found between dental fluorosis and gender (p = 0.646, between fluorosis and socioeconomic status (p = 0.848 or between fluorosis and access to public water supply system (p = 0.198. The activities that most affected children's daily performance were: oral hygiene (40.9% and food intake or enjoying food (40.4%. None of the daily activities could be associated with the occurrence of dental fluorosis. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was consonant with the standards found for locations with optimum fluoride content in the water supply. The questionable and very slight levels of fluorosis were the most frequently found, without influence in the quality of life of the schoolchildren participating in the study.O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de 6 a 15 anos de idade e sua poss

  15. Benchmark dose of saliva fluoride concentration in adolescents and it's relationship to the prevalence of dental fluorosis%儿童唾液氟基准剂量及与氟斑牙相关关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于阳阳; 王连芳; 赵伟; 邹冬荣; 郭蕊

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the benchmark dose (BMD) of fluoride concentration in saliva,and to evaluate the significance of saliva fluoride on control and prevention of endemic fluorosis.Methods In September 2014,middle school students in endemic fluorosis areas and non-endemic fluorosis areas in North China Petoleum were selected as objects.The contents of fluoride in water,urine and saliva were determined.The correlation of fluoride content in water,urine fluoride and fluoride concentration in saliva was analyzed.According to the levels of the saliva fluoride concentration,the children were divided into 11 groups,< 1.00,1.00-,2.00-,3.00-,4.00-,5.00-,6.00-,7.00-,8.00-,9.00-and ≥ 10.00 mg/L.The prevalence of dental fluorosis and defected dental fluorosis were investigated and the saliva fluoride concentration was calculated by Banch-Mark Dose Software.Results Compared with non endemic areas,the fluoride contents in water,urine and saliva [(2.13 ± 0.13),(1.29 ±0.73),(4.01 ± 3.61) mg/L] were higher than that in endemic areas [(0.67 ± 0.13),(0.38 ± 0.08),(0.75 ± 0.12) mg/L,t =158.730,24.780,18.114,all P < 0.01].The fluoride concentration in saliva was positively correlated with the fluoride content in water and urine in endemic areas (r =0.626,0.945,all P < 0.01).The (BMDs and benchmark dose lower bound (BMDLs) were 0.91,0.54,3.72,3.32 mg/L respectively,calculated by Banch-Mark Dose Software.With the increase of fluoride concentration in saliva,the prevalence of dental fluorosis and defect dental fluorosis had increased too,especially when the fluoride content in saliva was more than 4 mg/L.There were significant doseresponse relationships between the urine fluoride and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and defected dental fluorosis.Conclusion The fluoride concentration in saliva could be used as one of the evaluation indexes of fluorosis,and the BMD of saliva fluoride concentration in endemic fluorosis areas is suggested as 0.91 mg/L.%目的 探讨唾液氟

  16. An investigation of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 - 12 in Wushan and Fengjie counties of Chongqing%重庆市巫山和奉节县8~12岁儿童氟斑牙调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫菊; 钟朝晖; 王应雄; 罗兴建; 晏维; 牟李红

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解重庆市巫山和奉节2个县8~12岁儿童氟斑牙流行现状及分布特征,为氟斑牙防治工作提供科学依据.方法 2010年,采取整群随机抽样的方法,在巫山、奉节2个县各抽取20、18个乡(镇)作为调查点,用Dean法对抽中乡(镇)的所有8~ 12岁儿童进行氟斑牙检查,计算并比较2个县的儿童氟斑牙检出率、缺损率及氟斑牙指数.结果 2个县共调查8~12岁儿童38 209人,氟斑牙总检出率为43.09%( 16 466/38 209),巫山、奉节2个县氟斑牙检出率分别为48.98%(9397/19 186)、37.16%(7069/19 023),二者比较差异有统计学意义(x2=544.03,P<0.01);8、9、10、11、12岁年龄组儿童氟斑牙总检出率依次为32.52%(2157/6632)、40.07%(2672/6668)、43.67%(3420/7831)、46.01%(3861/8391)、50.14%(4356/8687),各年龄组间比较差异有统计学意义(x2=510.50,P<0.01);巫山、奉节2个县8~ 12岁儿童氟斑牙指数分别为0.713、0.485,氟斑牙缺损率分别为4.05%(777/19 186)、1.57%(298/19 023).结论 巫山和奉节2个县8~12岁儿童氟斑牙总检出率仍较高;随着年龄增长,儿童氟斑牙检出率逐渐升高;巫山县仍是氟斑牙流行区,奉节县则处于边缘区.%Objective To investigate the prevalence and distribution characteristics of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 - 12 in Wushan and Fengjie counties of Chongqing and to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of the disease.Methods Twenty townships(towns) in Fengjie county and 18 in Wushan county were selected as survey points by random cluster sampling in 2010.Dental fluorosis of all the children aged 8 - 12 was examined with Dean index.The detection rate of children's dental fluorosis,defect rate and dental fluorosis index were compared between the two counties.Results Totally 38 209 children aged 8 - 12 were investigated.The total detection rate of dental fluorosis was 43.09%( 16 466/38 209) in the two counties.The detection

  17. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy: an 18 Months Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hartlev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion. One group (n = 13 were treated postoperatively with skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation (IMF while the other group (n = 13 where threated without skeletal elastic IMF. Results: The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.44 mm and 7.22 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.74 mm and -0.29 mm at Pog. The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the no skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.30 mm and 6.45 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.97 mm and -0.86 mm at Pog. There was no statistical significant (P > 0.05 difference between the skeletal IMF group and the no skeletal group regarding advancement nor relapse at B-point or Pog. Conclusions: Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy is characterized as a stable treatment to correct Class II malocclusion. This study demonstrated no difference of relapse between the skeletal intermaxillary fixation group and the no skeletal intermaxillary fixation group. Because of selection-bias and the reduced number of patients it still remains inconclusive whether to recommend skeletal intermaxillary fixation or not in the prevention of relapse after mandibular advancement.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of oxidative stress indexs in hunman serum with endemic fluorosis of coal burning%氟中毒病区人群血清中多种氧化应激指标的综合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈修文; 万昌武; 官志忠; 吴昌学; 朱按英; 李福成; 唐福

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察氟中毒病区人群抗氧化能力及过氧化产物水平,为筛选氟中毒早期诊断指标提供依据。方法选取贵州省六盘水市陡箐乡氟病区165人为病区组,同市非病区花嘎乡90人为对照组,经体检及氟斑牙判定后采集空腹血液、尿液,分别检测尿氟、血清中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化酶(GSH-Px)、总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)活力,同时检测血清中丙二醛(MDA)、8-异前列腺素 F2α(8-iso-PGF2α)、晚期氧化蛋白产物(AOPPs)和8-羟基脱氧鸟苷(8-OHdG)含量,分析氧化应激指标与氟斑牙及尿氟水平的相关性。结果病区组尿氟高于对照组(P0.05)。结论氟中毒病区人群普遍处于氧化应激状态,并存在脂质生物膜、蛋白质及DNA的多种损伤。%Objective To observe the changes of the antioxidant ability and the levels of peroxidation products in hunman with endemic fluorosis of coal burning,and to provide the provement for early diagnosis of endemic fluorosis.Methods 165 residents were selected from Douqing town of Guiyang province,the endemic fluorosis of coal burning area,as the experimental group.90 residents were selected from Huaga town of Guiyang province,the non-endemic fluorosis of coal burning area as the control group.Urine and blood was collected on the empty stomach in the morning after medical examination and diagnosis of dental fluorosis.Flouride contents of urine,the activities of SOD,GSH-Px,T-AOC and contecnts of MDA,8-OhDG,8-iso-PGF2α,AOPPs in serum were measured respectively.Meanwhile the correlation between the activities and the degree of dental fluorosis and levels of the urinary fluoride should be analyzed.Results The flouride contents of urine in experimental group were significant higher than the control group(P0.05 ).Conclusions The people with the the endemic fluorosis of coal burning were in the state of oxidative stress generally.In the meantime, the membrane,protein and DNA have been damaged.

  19. 山东省黄河流域内地方性氟中毒流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of endemic fluorosis along the Yellow River basin of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 边建朝; 陈培忠; 庞绪贵; 秦启亮; 赵力军; 王玉涛

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current prevailing status of endemic fluorosis in the Yellow River basin of Shandong Province and to provide the scientific evidence for making strategies in prevention and control.Methods Nine counties were chosen to carry out the epidemiological investigation.The content of fluoride in drinking water was determined by F-ion selective electrode and dental fluorosis of children aged 8~12 years old was diagnosed by Deans method.Results Water fluoride content was determined in 1761 fluorosis villages,among which 606 villages had water fluoride content≤1.00 mg/L,accounting for 34.41%(606/1761);1155 villages had water fluoride content>1.00 mg/L,which accounted for 65.59%(1155/1761).The highest water fluoride content was 11.33 mg/L.Water fluoride content of 618 water-improving and defluoridation projects had been determined,among which 449 projects had water fluoride content≤1.00 mg/L and accounted for 72.65%(449/618),169 projects had water fluoride content>1.00 mg/L and accounted for 27.35%(169/618),the highest water fluoride content was 5.85 mg/L.The total rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8~12 years old was 45.03%(25 579/56 804) and the index of dental fluorosis was 0.80. Conclusions In the Yellow River basin in Shandong Province,up to 50.00%in the villages the water fluoride content exceeds the county standard(≤1.00 mg/L).The prevalence of endemic fluorosis in the basin hasn't been effectively controlled.So the counterrneasures for endemic fluorosis should be carried out as soon as possible.%目的 了解山东省黄河流域内地方性氟中毒流行现状,为制订防治策略提供科学依据.方法 在山东省选择9个病区县进行了流行病学调查,居民饮用水含氟量测定采用氟离子选择电极法,8~12儿童氟斑牙诊断采用Dean法.结果 水氟均值≤1.00 mg/L的村占34.41%(606/1761);>1.00 mg/L的村占65.59%(1155/1761);水氟最大值为11.33 mg/L.水氟均值≤1.00 mg

  20. Exercise and the Skeletal Muscle Epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Sean L; Walder, Ken R

    2017-03-20

    An acute bout of exercise is sufficient to induce changes in skeletal muscle gene expression that are ultimately responsible for the adaptive responses to exercise. Although much research has described the intracellular signaling responses to exercise that are linked to transcriptional regulation, the epigenetic mechanisms involved are only just emerging. This review will provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms and what is known in the context of exercise. Additionally, we will explore potential interactions between metabolism during exercise and epigenetic regulation, which serves as a framework for potential areas for future research. Finally, we will consider emerging opportunities to pharmacologically manipulate epigenetic regulators and mechanisms to induce aspects of the skeletal muscle exercise adaptive response for therapeutic intervention in various disease states.

  1. YAP-mediated mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eFischer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is not only translating chemical energy into mechanical work, it is also a highly adaptive and regenerative tissue whose architecture and functionality is determined by its mechanical and physical environment. Processing intra- and extracellular mechanical signaling cues contributes to the regulation of cell growth, survival, migration and differentiation. Yes-associated Protein (YAP, a transcriptional coactivator downstream of the Hippo pathway and its paralogue, the transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ, were recently found to play a key role in mechanotransduction in various tissues including skeletal muscle. Furthermore, YAP/TAZ modulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration and abnormal YAP activity has been reported in muscular dystrophy and rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of mechanosensing and -signaling in striated muscle. We highlight the role of YAP signaling and discuss the different routes and hypotheses of its regulation in the context of mechanotransduction.

  2. Bone Proteoglycan Changes During Skeletal Unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, M.; Uzawa, K.; Pornprasertsuk, S.; Arnaud, S.; Grindeland, R.; Grzesik, W.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal adaptability to mechanical loads is well known since the last century. Disuse osteopenia due to the microgravity environment is one of the major concerns for space travelers. Several studies have indicated that a retardation of the mineralization process and a delay in matrix maturation occur during the space flight. Mineralizing fibrillar type I collagen possesses distinct cross-linking chemistries and their dynamic changes during mineralization correlate well with its function as a mineral organizer. Our previous studies suggested that a certain group of matrix proteoglycans in bone play an inhibitory role in the mineralization process through their interaction with collagen. Based on these studies, we hypothesized that the altered mineralization during spaceflight is due in part to changes in matrix components secreted by cells in response to microgravity. In this study, we employed hindlimb elevation (tail suspension) rat model to study the effects of skeletal unloading on matrix proteoglycans in bone.

  3. Role of skeletal muscle proteoglycans during myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandan, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jaime

    2013-08-08

    Skeletal muscle formation during development and the adult mammal consists of a highly organised and regulated the sequence of cellular processes intending to form or repair muscle tissue. This sequence includes, cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Proteoglycans (PGs), macromolecules formed by a core protein and glycosaminoglycan chains (GAGs) present a great diversity of functions explained by their capacity to interact with different ligands and receptors forming part of their signalling complex and/or protecting them from proteolytic cleavage. Particularly attractive is the function of the different types of PGs present at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This review is focussed on the advances reached to understand the role of PGs during myogenesis and skeletal muscular dystrophies.

  4. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvement of the spine.

  5. [Vademecum of skeletal complications of malignancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Céline; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Ben Aïssa, Assma

    2013-05-22

    Bone metastasis is a frequent complication for cancer patients leading pain, fracture, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia. A multidisciplinary approach is strongly recommended to optimize the different treatment options (i.e. radiotherapy, surgery and vertebroplasty) in the context of the underlying cancer. The effectiveness of bisphosphonates and denosumab to reduce skeletal events has widely been demonstrated. Prevention and treatment of bone complications are crucial for maintaining the independence and quality of life of patients.

  6. Reactive Oxygen Species in Skeletal Muscle Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in eukaryotic cells' life. Up to the 1990s of the past century, ROS have been solely considered as toxic species resulting in oxidative stress, pathogenesis and aging. However, there is now clear evidence that ROS are not merely toxic species but also—within certain concentrations—useful signaling molecules regulating physiological processes. During intense skeletal muscle contractile activity myotubes' mitochondria genera...

  7. Skeletal Analysis: Investigating Senescence in Ancient Nubia

    OpenAIRE

    Reavis, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of older adult life experiences is deficient when compared to younger adults and children in the archaeological record. Research has been devoted toward aging techniques and studies of osteoarthritis, but there are few discussions describing senescence, the cumulative process of aging, in the past. Most research includes the oldest cohort (45 years and above) within the broad category of adults, but it is useful to look at this demographic separately. Skeletal remains were a...

  8. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype.

  9. The Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein abbasnezhadriyabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While a large number of children are losing their lives due to poverty, malnutrition, contagious diseases and war, we are witnessing hundreds of children death by reason of misbehaving. Today, "child abuse" as a social-cultural phenomenon which shows crisis in a society, has a growing process in our country. The goal of this research was to investigate the base factors of child abuse that according to the results are consist as follows, poverty, unemployment, addiction, large families, single-parent, Considering the increase of factors such as poverty, addiction, unemployment, divorce, temporary marriage, street children and other effective factors, the hypothesis based on growth of child abuse was proved in Iran.

  10. Meet the good child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Malene; Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    to be appropriate child and parental behavior. The study takes a practice theoretical perspective, building on previous research on family consumption, and draws empirically on 35 interviews with 5–6 year-olds and 13 family interviews. Findings show that the children recognize the position of ‘the good child......’ and most often prefer to take on this position, which is confirmed by their parents. The children can describe how ‘the good child’—in their eyes—should behave. They prefer consensus and not being embarrassing or embarrassed. The study concludes that the children are strongly immersed in social norms...... and family practices, and that the Danish national/cultural context probably reinforces these children as independent consumers, who are well aware of the requirements of the consumer role. Childing practices are a standard with know-how and rules that these children argue they live by—at least most...

  11. Radionuclide imaging in skeletal inflammatory and ischemic disease in children. [/sup 99m/Tc tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majd, M.; Frankel, R.S.

    1976-04-01

    Sixty-five children were evaluated for presence of skeletal inflammatory and ischemic disease with bone scans and roentgenograms. Several characteristic scintigraphic patterns were observed. Bone scans were significantly more sensitive than roentgenograms in early diagnosis of osteomyelitis and its differentiation from cellulitis, septic arthritis, and bone infarction. The child with possible inflammatory bone disease now is benefited by this important refinement in diagnosis. Faced with the difficult dilemma of choosing appropriate therapy in these frustratingly similar problems, the physician can integrate the clinical findings with nuclear imaging to arrive at early appropriate diagnosis and management.

  12. Skeletal dysplasias: A radiographic approach and review of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananya; Panda; Shivanand; Gamanagatti; Manisha; Jana; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are not uncommon entities and a radiologist is likely to encounter a suspected case of dysplasia in his practice. The correct and early diagnosis of dysplasia is important for management of complications and for future genetic counselling. While there is an exhaustive classification system on dysplasias, it is important to be familiar with the radiological features of common dysplasias. In this article, we enumerate a radiographic approach to skeletal dysplasias, describe the essential as well as differentiating features of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias and conclude by presenting working algorithms to either definitively diagnose a particular dysplasia or suggest the most likely differential diagnoses to the referring clinician and thus direct further workup of the patient.

  13. A epidemiological study of children's dental fluorosis in coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas of three counties in Guizhou Province%贵州省3个县燃煤型地方性氟中毒病区8~12岁儿童氟斑牙流行变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯友; 李达圣; 张念恒; 何平; 胡小强; 王晓明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of children's dental fluorosis before and after implementation of comprehensive prevention and control intervention in coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas of Guizhou Province,and to provide a scientific basis for making corresponding prevention and control measures.Methods In 2010,according to a simple random cluster sampling method,1/5 of the villages out of 1/5 of the towns of Zunyi,Kaiyang and Longli Counties,were selected as investigation sites for inspection of dental fluorosis in 8-12 years old children and a longitudinal comparison was done with historical related dental fluorosis (year 1986 and 2000).Dental fluorosis of children was diagnosed by Dean method.Results In Zunyi,Kaiyang and Longli Counties,the detection rates of 8-12 years old children's dental fluorosis were 23.76%(202/850),15.77% (79/501) and 11.17%(42/376),respectively.The detection rates of dental fluorosis in the 8,9,10,11 and 12 years old age group of children were 11.52%(19/165),17.19%(44/256),20.20% (81/401),18.61% (75/403) and 20.72% (104/502),respectively,and there was no significant difference between groups (x2 =2.90,P > 0.05).The survey results of this investigation in the three counties in 2000 were 34.20%(7 805/22 821),39.77%(1 782/ 4 481),60.88%(2 806/4 609),and the differences were statistically significant between the results of 2010 and 2000(x2 =37.81,110.91,350.76,all P < 0.01).And compared with the results of 1986[34.29% (9 463/27 596),36.30% (2 708/7 460),35.72% (1 896/5 308)],the difference of Zunyi County was not statistically significant (x2 =0.045,P > 0.05),but for Kaiyang and Longli the differences were statistically significant(x2 =14.35,626.39,all P < 0.01).Conclusions The effect of comprehensive prevention and control intervention is very obvious.In the 3 counties,the incidence rates of 8-12 years old children's dental fluorosis are already dropped to below 30% of the control standard

  14. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  15. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  16. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  17. Regulation of PDH, GS and insulin signalling in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup

    The aims of the present thesis were to investigate 1) The impact of physical inactivity on insulinstimulated Akt, TBC1D4 and GS regulation in human skeletal muscle, 2) The impact of exercise training on glucose-mediated regulation of PDH and GS in skeletal muscle in elderly men, 3) The impact...... of inflammation on resting and exercise-induced PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle and 4) The effect of IL-6 on PDH regulation in mouse skeletal muscle. Study I demonstrated that bed rest–induced insulin resistance was associated with reduced insulinstimulated GS activity and Akt signaling as well...... as decreased protein level of HKII and GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. Iαn addition, the ability of acute exercise to increase insulin-stimulated glucose extraction was maintained after 7 days of bed rest. However, acute exercise after bed rest did not fully normalize the ability of skeletal muscle to extract...

  18. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... All parents and those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they ...

  19. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  20. When Your Child Has Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You When Your Child Has Tinnitus When Your Child Has Tinnitus Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... and public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Tinnitus is a condition where the patient hears a ...

  1. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... To prevent and treat vaginal irritation, your child should: Avoid colored or perfumed toilet tissue and bubble bath. Use plain, unscented soap. Limit bath time to 15 minutes or less. Ask ...

  2. Parent and Child Living Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushaw, David R.

    1978-01-01

    Parent and child living centers offer a program to improve parenting skills with areas of learning including child growth and development, family management, home care and repair, and personal growth and development. (MM)

  3. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

  4. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoever, B. [Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Abteilung Paediatrische Radiologie, CC6, Diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in 'battered child syndrome' and brain injuries in 'shaken baby syndrome'. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.) [German] In der Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung ist die Bildgebung ein wesentlicher Faktor. Trotz scheinbar leerer Anamnese gelingt es, typische Verletzungsmuster als Misshandlungsfolge zu erkennen, sowohl im Bereich des Skeletts, der Weichteile, des Abdomens ('battered child syndrome', heute: 'non accidental injury', NAI) als auch im ZNS ('shaken baby syndrome'). Den klinischen Symptomen entsprechend, wird im Verdachtsfall ein adaequates diagnostisches Verfahren eingesetzt, das erwartete charakteristische Befunde nachweist, den Mechanismus der Verletzung aufzeigt und das Alter der Laesionen annaehernd festlegt. Radiologische Skelettbefunde werden hinsichtlich ihrer Spezifitaet fuer eine Misshandlung bewertet. Alle Resultate der Bildgebung sind zusammen mit Anamnese und klinischen Befunden zu deuten. Bei schwerer Misshandlung ohne aeussere Verletzungszeichen ist das rechtzeitige Erfassen einer ZNS

  5. Measurement of skeletal muscle collagen breakdown by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, B F; Ellis, D; Robinson, M M;

    2011-01-01

    Exercise increases the synthesis of collagen in the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle. Breakdown of skeletal muscle collagen has not yet been determined because of technical limitations. The purpose of the present study was to use local sampling to determine skeletal muscle collagen breakdown...... collagen breakdown 17–21 h post-exercise, and our measurement of OHP using GC–MS was in agreement with traditional assays....

  6. Archform comparisons between skeletal class II and III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wu, JiaQi; Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects.

  7. Skeletal muscle adaptation in response to exercise(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Li; Zhen Yan

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Skeletal muscles of adult mammalian species, including humans,are the source of power for locomotion and other daily activities essential for survival. Loss of skeletal musclecontractile function is a major cause of falling,morbidity and mortality,especially in elderly populations [1]. More importantly,skeletal muscles collectively influence total body metabolism of glucose, fat and protein, abnormalities of which are associated with a variety of common diseases[2-3].

  8. CT findings in diffuse skeletal sclerotic hemangiomatosis: a difficult diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, A. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Arias, M. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Larrea, J.A. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Lecumberri, F.J. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Radiology

    1995-12-31

    The CT findings in an unusual case of diffuse skeletal nonvisceral hemangiomatosis with radiologic appearance of purely sclerotic lesions are described. To our knowledge, only two cases of diffuse skeletal nonvisceral hemangiomatosis with purely sclerotic lesions and splenic involvement have been reported in the radiologic literature. Our case is the first description of this benign form of skeletal hemangiomatosis with purely sclerotic lesions and without splenic involvement. (orig.)

  9. 渭南市2015年度饮水型氟中毒监测结果分析%Monitoring results of drinking-water fluorosis in Weinan City in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭世红; 侯兴佑; 王月皎; 石梁; 惠秋芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:掌握渭南市饮水型氟中毒监测点改水工程运行情况及降氟效果,为渭南市上级部门在制定饮水型地方性氟中毒防治工作提供参考。方法2015年对我市大荔县新丰、连家和蔡庄村3个国家级监测点8~12周岁所有在校儿童采用Deans法进行氟斑牙检查,诊断采用Dean氏法。对未改水监测点按东、西、南、北、中随机采集至少5份水样,已改水的监测村随机采集3份末梢水,按照GB/T 5750‐2006《生活饮用水标准检验方法》中的氟化物离子选择电极法检测水氟含量,依据GB 5749‐2006《生活饮用水卫生标准》进行评价。对改水降氟的运行情况进行调查。结果连家村未改水,水氟含量均值为3.7mg/L,覆盖人口2189人。新丰村和蔡庄村已改水,为大型改水工程,工程正常运转,水氟含量为1.2 m g/L ,覆盖人口为50.69万,3个监测村水氟含量均超标。2个改水村共计检查113名8~12周岁儿童,检出氟斑牙患者65例,氟斑牙检出率为57.52%,氟斑牙指数为1.0,流行程度中等。1个未改水村检查8~12周岁儿童58人,检出氟斑牙患者45例,氟斑牙检出率为77.58%,氟斑牙指数为1.9,流行程度中等。结论渭南市3个监测村均为饮水型氟中毒病区,未改水村病情程度尤为严重,防治任务还很艰巨。进一步加大病区改水力度,加强病情监测,寻找低氟水源,确保病区百姓喝上安全的饮用水,使其早日脱离饮水型氟中毒危害。%Objective:To investigate the monitoring results of drinking‐water fluorosis in Weinan City and to provide scientific guidance for the prevention and control of drinking‐water fluorosis .Methods In 2015 , all school children aged 8‐12 years in the 3 national monitoring points of Dali ,Xinfeng Village ,Lianjia Village and Caizhuang Village in Dali County received dental fluorosis examination by Dean

  10. Intracellular compartmentalization of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats Gavalda, Clara; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The interest in skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signalling has increased exponentially in recent years as a consequence of their role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite this, the exact mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism...... compartmentalization in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling. As a result, a hypothetical regulatory mechanism is proposed by which cells could direct glycogen resynthesis towards different pools of glycogen particles depending on the metabolic needs. Furthermore, we discuss...... the role of skeletal muscle transverse tubules as potential modulators of tissue insulin responsiveness....

  11. Cryopreservation of human skeletal muscle impairs mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S; Wright-Paradis, C; Gnaiger, E;

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated if cryopreservation is a viable approach for functional mitochondrial analysis. Different tissues have been studied, and conflicting results have been published. The aim of the present study was to investigate if mitochondria in human skeletal muscle maintain...... functionality after long term cryopreservation (1 year). Skeletal muscle samples were preserved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for later analysis. Human skeletal muscle fibres were thawed and permeabilised with saponin, and mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry. The capacity...... loss from the mitochondria. The results from this study demonstrate that normal mitochondrial functionality is not maintained in cryopreserved human skeletal muscle samples....

  12. CHILD PORNOGRAPHY ON THE INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Negredo; Óscar Herrero

    2016-01-01

    Downloading, exchanging and producing child pornography is a criminal behaviour of growing relevance. The cruel exploitation of minors and its link with child sexual abuse raise great social and academic concern. The current paper approaches the nature of the phenomenon, the characteristics of the materials labelled as “child pornography”, the psychological traits of the users and the existing treatment programs

  13. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  14. CURRICULUM GUIDE, CHILD CARE CENTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    CALIFORNIA CHILD CARE CENTERS WERE ESTABLISHED IN 1943 TO SUPPLY SERVICES TO CHILDREN OF WORKING MOTHERS. THE CHILD CARE PROGRAM PROVIDES, WITHIN NURSERY AND SCHOOLAGE CENTERS, CARE AND EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION FOR PRESCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN. THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE CHILD CENTER PROGRAM IS BASED UPON THE BELIEF THAT EACH CHILD…

  15. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  16. Identification of two fire victims by comparative nuclear DNA typing of skeletal remains and stored umbilical tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calacal, Gayvelline C; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Delfin, Frederick C; Lara, Myra C; Magtanong, Danilo L; Fortun, Raquel

    2003-06-01

    We describe here our collaborative efforts in identifying 2 fatalities of a fire disaster by using a variety of identification techniques. Postmortem findings in both cases were reinforced using Short Tandem Repeat (STR) DNA technology to establish with a high degree of certainty the identities of 2 child victims. STR markers used in the present study include HUMAMEL, HUMCSFIPO, HUMTHO1, HUMvWA, HUMFES/FPS, HUMF13A01, HUMFOLP23, D8S3O6, HUMFGA, and HUMTPOX. Unambiguous identification was made possible through matching DNA profiles generated from skeletal remains with those from umbilical tissues. These tissues were kept by their mothers in accordance with a Philippine tradition and were submitted for DNA analysis. Of the DNA profiles generated from exhumed bone samples of 21 child victims, comparison with the genetic profiles of children A and B obtained from umbilical tissues showed consistent DNA matches with remains 1756 and 1758, respectively.

  17. Treatment for Child Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.

    1974-01-01

    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  18. Child Nutrition Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志强

    2005-01-01

    The Child Nutrition Program invites all students to participate in the school breakfast and lunch program at school. Our goal is to improve the health and education of students by providing nutritious meals that promote food choices for a healthy diet. Failure to eat balanced meals increases the risk of illness including obesity ,

  19. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    child mortality but the same morbidity pattern as in other Western societies was found. Negative health behaviour is frequent in schoolchildren. The influence of rapid cultural changes, and familial and societal factors related to social ill health, together with socioeconomic inequity, are of major...

  20. Measuring Child Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar

    2012-01-01

    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and has a…