WorldWideScience

Sample records for child skeletal fluorosis

  1. Child Skeletal Fluorosis from Indoor Burning of Coal in Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghui Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We assess the prevalence and pathogenic stage of skeletal fluorosis among children and adolescents residing in a severe coal-burning endemic fluorosis area of southwest China. Methods. We used a cross-sectional design. A total of 1,616 students aged between 7 and 16 years in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China in late 2004 were selected via a cluster sampling of all 9-year compulsory education schools to complete the study questionnaire. Any student lived in a household that burned coal, used an open-burning stove, or baked foodstuffs over a coal stove was deemed high-risk for skeletal fluorosis. About 23% (370 of students (188 boys, 182 girls were identified as high-risk and further examined by X-ray. Results. One-third of the 370 high-risk participants were diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis. Overall prevalence of child skeletal fluorosis due to indoor burning of coal was 7.5%. Children aged 12–16 years were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis than children aged 7–11 years (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.90; = .0082. Four types of skeletal fluorosis were identified: constrictive (60.7%, raritas (15.6%, mixed (16.4%, and soft (7.4%. Most diagnosed cases (91% were mild or moderate in severity. In addition, about 97% of 370 high-risk children were identified with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis was highly correlated with skeletal fluorosis in this study. Conclusions. Skeletal fluorosis among children may contribute to poor health and reduced productivity when they reach adulthood. Further efforts to reduce fluoride exposure among children in southwestern of China where coal is burned indoors are desperately needed.

  2. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  3. Skeletal fluorosis in immobilized extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, J B

    1975-11-01

    The effect of immobilization on skeletal fluorosis was studied in growing rabbits. One hind leg was immobilized by an external fixation device extending below the wrist joint and above the knee joint, the extremity being in a straight position after severance of the sciatic nerve. The animals, aged 7 weeks at the beginning of the experiment, were given 10 mg of fluoride per kg body weight and day during 12 weeks. In the tibiae, development of the skeletal fluorosis was more irregular than that observed in previous studies of normally active animals, being most excessive in the mobile bone. The immobilization effect was most profound in the femora as the cortical thickness and the femur score were significantly higher than those in the mobile femora. It was suggested that an altered muscular activity was the reason for the observed changes. PMID:1189918

  4. Skeletal fluorosis from indoor burning of coal in southwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T.; Kondo, T.; Asanuma, S.; Ando, M.; Tamura, K.; Sakuragi, S.; Ji, R.D.; Liang, C.K. [Saku Central Hospital, Nagano (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The effects of airborne fluoride from unvented indoor burning of fluoride-rich coal on the bones and teeth of residents of two rural villages in SW China were investigated and compared. In the highly polluted village of Xaochang in Sichuan Province, stage HI skeletal fluorosis was found in 43 (84%) of 51 examinees. In the moderately polluted village of Minzhu in Guizhu Province, this stage was seen in 25 (51%) of 49 examinees. In the nonpolluted control village of Shucai in Jiangxi Province in SE China, none of 47 examinees showed any evidence of skeletal fluorosis. In Minzhu, but not in Xaochang, significantly more males than females were afflicted with stage III skeletal fluorosis. In contrast with Xaochang, some examinees in Minzhu had serious skeletal effects but normal teeth or minor dental fluorosis, A high frequency of extremital transverse bone growth lines was observed in Xaochang but not in Minzhu, These findings suggest that greater exposure to fluoride occurred during infancy and early childhood in Xaochang than in Minzhu.

  5. SKELETAL FLUOROSIS- AN EPIDIMIO-CLINICO-RADIOLOGICA L STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Skeletal fluorosis is endemic problem in many part s of world including India as well as West Bengal effecting mainly low socio-econ omic group of populations. This study is to detect the epidemiological and clinical as well as r adiological survey to detect and help to prevent the morbidity and mortality of the people fro m the so called slow environmental poison

  6. Lung X-ray changes in skeletal fluorosis caused by coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.K. [Hubei Sanitary-Epidemiological Station, Wuhan (China)

    1996-02-01

    Lung X-ray findings are reported in 45 cases with skeletal fluorosis in an area contaminated by coal combustion. The findings include chronic bronchitis, with diffuse interstitial fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema. The degree of pulmonary pathological findings and skeletal fluorosis is correlated with patient age. Among the 45 cases were 5 with cardio-pulmonary disease and 5 with tuberculosis.

  7. Epidemiological and radiological study of skeletal fluorosis of Minzhu Town, Longli County, Guizhou Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.S.; Duan, R.X.; Wang, S.Q.; He, G.Y.; Li, P.; Nie, Z.X.; Wen, T.G. [Guizhou Province Health and Antiepidemiology Station, Guiyang (China)

    1999-05-01

    A study was carried out on an area of endemic fluorosis based on the relation between detection rate or incidence, classification and severity of skeletal fluorosis, and sex-age distribution. The results show that Minzhu Town of Longli County is a moderate and typical epidemic area of endemic fluorosis resulting from coal-burning pollution in Guizhou Province, China. Five features characterize the skeletal fluorosis of the residents: Osteosclerosis is significantly more prevalent than osteoporosis; no mixed type of skeletal fluorosis and no osteomalacia were found in the subjects examined; no cases with moderate or severe osteoporosis were found; the severity of osteosclerosis in females was significantly milder than in males; and the rate of osteoporosis caused by fluoride in females showed no difference from that in males. These observations provide new parameters for assessing collective conditions of epidemic regions of endemic fluorosis resulting from coal-burning pollution.

  8. A comparative study of skeletal fluorosis among adults in two study areas of Bangarpet taluk, Kolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Shruthi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skeletal fluorosis is a crippling disease resulting from excessive exposure to high fluoride from different sources. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis in Bangarpet taluk of Kolar, to compare various epidemiological factors influencing the occurrence of skeletal fluorosis among the two groups with differential water fluoride levels, and to estimate fluoride levels in all the sources of drinking water in study areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adults of three randomly selected villages of Bangarpet taluk, Thimmasandra, Batavarahalli, with high (>1.5 mg/L and Maddinayakanahalli with normal (<1.0 mg/L fluoride levels. A house-to-house survey was conducted by administering a semi-structured questionnaire. Skeletal fluorosis was assessed by three simple physical tests in the field followed by radiological confirmation among the positives. Fluoride levels of drinking water sources were estimated by the ion-electrode method. Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests were used as tests of association. Results: The prevalence of skeletal fluorosis at field level in both high and normal fluoride groups was 5.0%. Water fluoride levels in Thimmasandra, Batavarahalli, and Maddinayakanahalli were 4.13 mg/L, 2.59 mg/L, and 0.61 mg/L, respectively. Among the subjects with skeletal fluorosis, a significant difference was observed between socioeconomic status and prevalence of skeletal fluorosis in both high and normal fluoride groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Skeletal fluorosis is a threat among elderly in Bangarpet taluk, Kolar district.

  9. A STUDY ON SPIROMETRIC EVALUATION OF LUNG VOLUME RESTRICTION IN PREDIAGNOSED CASES OF SKELETAL FLUOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis is an important public health problem in India. Skeletal changes and mottled enamel may result when drinking water contains excess fluoride. Due to involvement of ribcage skeletal fluorosis causes restrictive lung disease causing reduction in vital capacity. This cross sectional observational study has been done on 55 pre diagnosed patients of skeletal fluorosis, they have been classified according to MMRC dyspnea grading & lung volume has been measured. Among 55 patients, 43 patients (78.18% have shortness of breath, it also has been seen that 13.95% patients have MMRC grade 4 dyspnea, i.e. too breathless to leave the home & 21.81% of cases have FVC < 34% of predicted, i.e. very severe lung volume restriction.

  10. Assessment of skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluoridated areas of Vidharbha Region, India: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlani Sudhir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis in patients living at endemic fluoridated areas and also the morphological changes in red blood cells (R.B.C.′s. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Vidharbha region of Maharashtra, India. An ethical clearance was obtained from the concerned authorities. Fifty families were screened and 204 subjects who had dental/skeletal fluorosis were included in the study. The aims and objectives were explained to the study subjects of the village and biochemical, hematological and radiological assessment was done. The main source of drinking water in this area was tube well. The concentrations of fluoride in two different areas of same village were 4 and 4.5 ppm. Results: Prevalence of skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis in male patients was 56.87% (116 and in female patients (88 it was 43.13%. RBC count in male patients was 5.03 ± 0.49 while in female patients it was 4.70 ± 0.47. With significant difference between male and female patients, P value was 0.003. Hb% in male patients was 12.44 ± 1.76 and in female patients it was 11.31± 1.34, showing significant difference between male and female patients P value 0.038. Alkaline phosphate level in male patients was 289.68 ± 149.09 and in female patients it was 276.68 ± 164.97. ESR count in male patients was found 11.41 ± 8.75 and in female patients it was 13.29 ±7.37. Radiological finding of fluorosis patients shows thickening of inner and outer tables of skull bone in 83.92% of patients and only 7.84% of the patients were suffering from barrowing of long bone.

  11. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aweke Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F in drinking water (~5 mg F/L. The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60 and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220. Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  12. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed. PMID:27472351

  13. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-07-26

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  14. Clinical Effect of Acupuncture on Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jincao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on endemic skeletal fluorosis (ESF through the randomized controlled trial. Methods. Ninety-nine cases were divided into the treatment group (68 cases and the control group (31 cases randomly. Normal acupuncture combined with electroacupuncture was used in treatment group, while Caltrate with vitamin D tablets were applied in control group. After 2 courses, the VAS, urinary fluoride, serum calcium, and serum phosphate were evaluated before and after treatment. Results. Both of these two methods could relieve pain effectively and the effect of acupuncture was better (P<0.05. In treatment group, the content of urinary fluoride after treatment was higher than before (P<0.05, while the content of serum calcium and phosphate was lower (P<0.05. Conclusion. The effect of acupuncture on relieving pain and promoting discharge of urinary fluoride is better than that of western medicine. Acupuncture can reduce the content of serum calcium and phosphate.

  15. Fluorosis... causing paraplegia... mutilating life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Tasnim; Jabeen, Rakhshanda; Hashim, Saba; Bano, Zeenat; Ghafoor, Subheen

    2016-02-01

    Fluorosis is thought to be rare in Pakistan but endemic in various parts of the world, especially in India and China. In Pakistan only a few cases have been reported from Thar, Sibbi and Manga Mandi, with probability of fluorosis on MRI findings, supported by high drinking waterfluoride content. Neurological manifestations of skeletal fluorosis may vary from radiculo-myelopathy to neuropathy. A case of 26 years old female from Thul, Sindh, who presented with paraplegia, is reported here. Her MRI showed extensive classical degenerative changes throughout the spine, consistent with fluorosis, leading to cord compression at multiple levels. No such case with confirmed fluorosis has been previously reported from Pakistan. PMID:26819172

  16. Investigation on prevalent condition of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis after Water-improvement Projects in the endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City%青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后氟斑牙及氟骨症患病调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜玲; 周进才

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后氟斑牙及氟骨症患病情况,以评价其改水防治效果.方法 采用流行病学抽样调查的方法,对青铜峡市2006年已改水的高氟重病区叶盛镇叶盛5队,高氟轻病区大坝镇新桥5队(原高桥4队),未改水的大坝镇滑石沟5队共670名儿童和1 400名25岁以上成人分别进行了氟斑牙和氟骨症的调查.结果 改水与未改水地区儿童氟斑牙患病率差异有统计学意义(x2=9.954,P<0.05);改水与未改水地区氟骨症患病率差异有统计学意义(x2=13.098,P<0.05);改水后水氟浓度为0.24~0.32 mg/L.结论 青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区经改水降氟后,饮用水符合卫生要求,但氟斑牙及氟骨症尚存在一定程度的流行,还未达到完全控制.%OBJECTIVE The survey is conducted to evaluate the result of water-improvement project aimed in eliminating the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City.METHODS By applying epidemiological sample survey method,some 670 children and 1 400 adults (> 25 years) had been examined in dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in Yesheng 5th team of Yesheng Township,where endemic fluorosis was seriously prevailed and had become water-improvement area in 2006; in Xinqiao 5th team Daba Township,endemic fluorosis mild prevailed; and Huashigou 5th team in Daba Township was not included in water-improvement area.RESULTS There was an evident difference in the dental fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the places without sater-improvement projects (x2 =9.954,P< 0.05).There was an evident difference in skeletal fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the places without water-improvement projects areas (x2 =13.098,P< 0.05).Since the drinking water improvement,the fluoride content in drinking water was 0.24-0.32 mg/L.CONCLUSION After water-improvement projects in the endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City

  17. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoride content as biomarkers of excess fluoride exposure in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death, Clare; Coulson, Graeme; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Morris, William K; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2015-11-15

    Particulate and gaseous fluoride emissions contaminate vegetation near fluoride-emitting industries, potentially impacting herbivorous wildlife in neighboring areas. Dental fluorosis has been associated with consumption of fluoride-contaminated foliage by juvenile livestock and wildlife in Europe and North America. For the first time, we explored the epidemiology and comparative pathology of dental fluorosis in Australian marsupials residing near an aluminium smelter. Six species (Macropus giganteus, Macropus rufogriseus, Wallabia bicolor, Phascolarctos cinereus, Trichosurus vulpecula, Pseudocheirus peregrinus) demonstrated significantly higher bone fluoride levels in the high (n=161 individuals), compared to the low (n=67 individuals), fluoride areas (pfluorosis in eutherian mammals. Within the high-fluoride area, 67% of individuals across the six species showed dental enamel lesions, compared to 3% in the low-fluoride areas. Molars that erupted before weaning were significantly less likely to display pathological lesions than those developing later, and molars in the posterior portion of the dental arcade were more severely fluorotic than anterior molars in all six species. The severity of dental lesions was positively associated with increasing bone fluoride levels in all species, revealing a potential biomarker of excess fluoride exposure.

  18. Investigatetion of Skeletal Fluorosis of the Adult in High Fluoride Region of Paotaizhen in Shihezi from 2010~2011%某镇2010~2011年高氟地区成人氟骨症的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪建军; 王天霆; 郑军; 徐江

    2012-01-01

      目的了解2010~2011年石河子炮台镇高氟地区成人氟骨症的流行现状,为本地氟骨症防治提供科学依据.方法采用随机抽样的方法,按照《地方性氟骨症诊断标准》(WS 192-2008)中临床氟骨症的检查方法和标准,对本地区25岁以上成年人进行了临床症状与体征及 X 线检查.2010年调查625人,2011年调查342人.结果2010~2011年成人氟骨症患病率依次为7.04%、17.25%,χ2=24.219,P <0.05,2010、2011年成人氟骨症患病率有显著差异性.结论石河子炮台镇病区成人氟骨症尚存在一定程度的流行,地方性氟中毒尚未达到完全控制;不同地方连队人群患病率有差异性.%  Objective  To investigate skeletal fluorosis of the adult in the population in high fluoride region of Paotaizhen in Shihezi from 2010 to 2011,and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of skeletal fluorosis. Methods By using random sampling method, such indexes of clinical symptom, sign and X-ray of endemic fluorosis among the adult aged above 25 years old were investigated in Paotaizhen . The status of skeletal fluorosis was assessed according to adults skeletal fluorosis by the National Standard for Diagnosis of endemic skeletal fluorosis(WS 192-2008).625 people in the 2010 survey,342 people in the 2011survey. Results From 2010 to 2011,the prevalence rates of skeletal fluorosis were 7.04%,17.25%.χ2=24.219, P<0.05, Skeletal fluorosis prevalence differences from 2010 to 2011. Conclusion From 2010 to 2011,skeletal fluorosis of adult is still a certain degree of popular in Paotaizhen .And endemic fluorosisis still out of control. Prevalence rate of different parts is differences in Paotaizhen.

  19. Pronounced reduction of fluoride exposure in free-ranging deer in North Bohemia (Czech Republic) as indicated by the biomarkers skeletal fluoride content and dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Bahelková, Petra; Sedláček, František; Kierdorf, Horst

    2012-01-01

    Wild deer have been recommended as bioindicators of fluoride pollution. We compared bone fluoride concentrations and prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in free-ranging European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from five counties in the northwestern part of the Czech Republic that had been collected by hunters and whose mandibles were presented at trophy exhibitions in the years 1996/1997 ("early period") and 2009 ("late period"). Data on atmospheric fluoride deposition suggested that the deer from the early period had been exposed to markedly higher fluoride levels than those from the late period. We therefore predicted a decline in skeletal fluoride levels and prevalence of dental fluorosis for both species from the early to the late period. Fluoride concentrations were determined in the coronoid process of the mandible, and assessment of dental fluorosis was performed on the permanent cheek teeth. A pronounced drop in fluoride concentrations from the early period (roe deer (n = 157), median: 3147 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone; red deer (n = 127), median: 1263 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone) to the late period (roe deer (n = 117), median: 350 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone; red deer (n = 72), median: 288 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone) was recorded. Prevalence of dental fluorosis also markedly declined from the early to the late period (roe deer: from 93% to 12%, red deer: from 87% to 28%). The reduction of fluoride deposition in the study area and, in consequence, fluoride exposure of the resident deer populations, is attributed largely to the implementation of emission control devices in the brown coal-fired power plants located in North Bohemia from the mid 1990s onwards. The findings of the present study demonstrate that wild deer are well suited for monitoring temporal changes in fluoride pollution of their habitats. PMID:22137477

  20. 黑龙江省氟中毒病区居民生活方式与氟骨症关系的调查%Study of the relationship between lifestyle and skeletal fluorosis for residents in fluorosis area of Heilongjiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国杰; 林平; 高学琴; 李玲; 赵振娟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨黑龙江省氟中毒病区居民生活方式对氟骨症发生的影响.方法 采用半定量食物频率问卷(SQFFQ)、自制的生活习惯问卷和一般资料调查表对黑龙江省氟中毒病区289例居民进行调查,同时按照地方性氟骨症诊断标准(WS 192-2008)诊断出氟骨症人群和非氟骨症人群,采用广义估计方程对氟骨症发生的影响因素进行分析.结果 男性居民易患氟骨症;氟骨症的保护因素有:饮用开水、用陶瓷水缸储水、水果类、维生素A、硫胺素;危险因素有:BMI >24.9、水氟浓度、水氟摄入量、饮用茶水、不储水、油脂类、磷.结论 氟骨症的发生与生活方式有着密切关系,改善氟中毒病区居民的生活方式可以减少氟骨症的发生或减轻其病损程度.%Objective To investigate the influence of lifestyle on skeletal fluorosis in fluorosis area of Heilongjiang province.Methods A total of 289 residents in the endemic fluorosis area of Heilongjiang province were all investigated with Smei-qanatiattive Food Frequency Questionnaire,self-designed Habits and Customs Questionnaire and General Information Questionnaire and divided for sketetal fluorosis patients and non-patients according to the criteria for the diagnosis of endemic skeletal fluorosis (WS 192-2008).All the data were analyzed by SAS statistical software,the influencing factors were analyzed by Generalized Estimating Equation.Results Male morbidity was higher than female,drinking boiled water,water storage in ceramic water tanks,fruits,Vitamin A,thiamine were the protective factors for skeletal fluorosis.BMI > 24.9,concentration of drinking water,water fluoride intake,drinking tea,not storage well water,oil,phosphor were the risk factors of skeletal fluorosis.Conclusions Lifestyle plays an important role in the development of skeletal fluorosis.Improving the lifestyle of the residents in the endemic fluorosis area can reduce the occurrence of skeletal

  1. Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offiah, Amaka [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Perez-Rossello, Jeanette Mercedes; Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

  2. Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

  3. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of Craniofacial Morphology of Children with Dental Fluorosis in Early Permanent Dentition Period

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Alev Aksoy; Bolpaca, Pinar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives High intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg/L) for a prolonged period may lead to skeletal fluorosis as well as dental fluorosis. The aim of this study was to compare the craniofacial characteristics of children with dental fluorosis in early permanent dentition period to those without fluorosis. Methods Two hundred and sixteen children in early permanent dentition (girls:121, boys:95) were included in the study. Study group was composed of 124 children with dental fluorosis who was born and ...

  5. Follow-up skeletal survey use by child abuse pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nancy S; Lewis, Terri; Eddleman, Sonja; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal survey is frequently used to identify occult fractures in young children with concern for physical abuse. Because skeletal survey is relatively insensitive for some abusive fractures, a follow-up skeletal survey (FUSS) may be undertaken at least 10-14 days after the initial skeletal survey to improve sensitivity for healing fractures. This was a prospectively planned secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study of 2,890 children who underwent subspecialty evaluation for suspected child physical abuse at 1 of 19 centers. Our objective was to determine variability between sites in rates of FUSS recommendation, completion and fracture identification among the 2,049 participants who had an initial SS. Among children with an initial skeletal survey, the rate of FUSS recommendation for sites ranged from 20% to 97%; the rate of FUSS completion ranged from 10% to 100%. Among sites completing at least 10 FUSS, rates of new fracture identification ranged from 8% to 28%. Among completed FUSS, new fractures were more likely to be identified in younger children, children with higher initial level of concern for abuse, and those with a fracture or cutaneous injury identified in the initial evaluation. The current variability in FUSS utilization is not explained by variability in occult fracture prevalence. Specific guidelines for FUSS utilization are needed. PMID:26342432

  6. 氟骨症对腰椎间盘突出患者腰椎骨密度的影响%Effect of skeletal fluorosis on the bone mineral density of patients with lumbar disc herniation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗平; 王兴国; 王长海

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the status of bone mineral density ( BMD) in skeletal fluorosis patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, in order to provide scientific basis for early prevention of lumbar disc herniation and osteoporosis in fluorosis patients.Methods BMD between patients with lumbar disc herniation ( 61 patients with fluorosis and 1149 patients without fluorosis) and 400 healthy controls were compared.Results BMD in disc herniation patients with fluorosis was significantly different comparing to that in healthy controls.BMD decreased in disc herniation patients without fluorosis comparing to that in healthy controls, but the difference was not statistically significant.Conclusion Early diagnosis and treatment of fluorosis is important for prevention of lumbar disc herniation and osteoporosis.%目的:研究氟骨症患者的腰椎间盘突出及其腰椎骨密度状况,为氟骨症患者早期预防腰间盘突出及骨质疏松提供科学的依据。方法对61例合并有氟骨症和1149例无氟骨症的腰椎间盘突出患者腰椎骨密度与400例健康对照组腰椎骨密度进行比较。结果合并有氟骨症的腰椎间盘突出患者与健康对照组腰椎骨密度差异有显著性,具有统计学意义,不合并有氟骨症的腰椎间盘突出患者较健康对照组腰椎骨密度减少,但差异无统计学意义。结论氟骨症的早期诊治对预防腰椎间盘突出及骨质疏松有重要意义。

  7. Dental fluorosis and its influence on children's life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Marques, Lívia Bino; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Saliba, Nemre Adas

    2015-01-01

    This study verified the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old children and its association with different fluoride levels in the public water supply, and evaluated the level of perception of dental fluorosis by the studied children. To assess fluorosis prevalence, clinical examinations were performed and a structured instrument was used to evaluate the self-perception of fluorosis. The water supply source in the children's area of residence since birth was used as the study criterion. In total, 496 children were included in the study. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 292 (58.9%) children; from these, 220 (44.4%) children were diagnosed with very mild fluorosis, 59 (11.9%) with mild fluorosis, 12 (2.4%) with moderate fluorosis, and 1 (0.2%) child with severe fluorosis. A significant association (p = 0.0004) was observed between the presence of fluorosis and areas with excessive fluoride in the water supply. Among the 292 children that showed fluorosis, 40% perceived the presence of spots in their teeth. The prevalence of fluorosis was slightly high, and the mildest levels were the most frequently observed. Although most of the children showed fluorosis to various degrees, the majority did not perceive these spots, suggesting that this alteration did not affect their quality of life.

  8. Dental fluorosis and its influence on children’s life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old children and its association with different fluoride levels in the public water supply, and evaluated the level of perception of dental fluorosis by the studied children. To assess fluorosis prevalence, clinical examinations were performed and a structured instrument was used to evaluate the self-perception of fluorosis. The water supply source in the children’s area of residence since birth was used as the study criterion. In total, 496 children were included in the study. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 292 (58.9% children; from these, 220 (44.4% children were diagnosed with very mild fluorosis, 59 (11.9% with mild fluorosis, 12 (2.4% with moderate fluorosis, and 1 (0.2% child with severe fluorosis. A significant association (p = 0.0004 was observed between the presence of fluorosis and areas with excessive fluoride in the water supply. Among the 292 children that showed fluorosis, 40% perceived the presence of spots in their teeth. The prevalence of fluorosis was slightly high, and the mildest levels were the most frequently observed. Although most of the children showed fluorosis to various degrees, the majority did not perceive these spots, suggesting that this alteration did not affect their quality of life.

  9. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of thei...

  10. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  11. Plasma fluoride and enamel fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angmar-Månsson, B; Ericsson, Y; Ekberg, O

    1976-11-24

    It is postulated that tissue fluid F concentrations are the primary determinants of flouride effects on bones and developing teeth and that these concentrations are dependent on, or mirrored by, blood plasma F. It has earlier been shown that the plasma F levels are dependent on the dietary F supply as well as on skeletal F concentration. Fasting and post-ingestion or postinjection plasma F levels have been determined in rats on F doses that cause different degrees of enamel fluorosis. The results indicate that temporary peak values rather than elevated fasting values are responsible for the occurrence of enamel fluorosis and that the peak values must approach about 10 muM in order to block enamel formation by the ameloblasts. The diagnostic and prognostic importance of plasma F determinations is discussed.

  12. Study of Prevalence of fluorosis in endemic village of Kankar district of Chhattisgarh State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil V Gitte, K M Kamble, Ramanath N Sabat

    2014-01-01

    Results: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 24.8 % and skeletal fluorosis was 6.0%. Both the types were more common in males. Dental fluorosis was higher in the age group of 13 to19 years. The prevalence of skeletal fluorosis increased with increasing age. Common skeletal deformities were genu varum (12.2% and genu valgum (0.7 %. Water fluoride levels in different localities ranged from 0.5 to 2.8 ppm. Conclusions: This study has shown the relation of fluorosis to high fluoride levels of prime water sources. Change in water source from deep tube well and a hand pump with health education to the community is needed to reduce in order to reduce the problem."

  13. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  14. Retrospective review to determine the utility of follow-up skeletal surveys in child abuse evaluations when the initial skeletal survey is normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachelmeyer Andrea

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The AAP recommends that a follow-up skeletal survey be obtained for all children Methods A retrospective review of radiology records from September 1, 1998 - January 31, 2007 was conducted. Suspected victims of child abuse who were Results Forty-seven children had a negative initial skeletal survey and were included for analysis. The mean age was 6.9 months (SD 5.7; the mean number of days between skeletal surveys was 18.7 (SD 10.1 Four children (8.5% had signs of healing bone trauma on a follow-up skeletal survey. Three of these children (75% had healing rib fractures and one child had a healing proximal humerus fracture. The findings on the follow-up skeletal survey yielded forensically important information in all 4 cases and strengthened the diagnosis of non-accidental trauma. Conclusion 8.5 percent of children with negative initial skeletal surveys had forensically important findings on follow-up skeletal survey that increased the certainty of the diagnosis of non-accidental trauma. A follow-up skeletal survey can be useful even when the initial skeletal survey is negative.

  15. Guidelines for skeletal surveys in Suspected Child Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo

    Purpose/Objective Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in the demands for low noise. The consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if the images are not adequate....... If head trauma or fractures are overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. If no abuse has taken place, and the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, it may result in prolonged hospitalization of an innocent family....... In many cases supplement images or a complete reexamination of the child were needed in order to state a second opinion, resulting in unnecessary excess radiation dose. Materials and methods A literature review was performed and the results were discussed at an initial meeting at Odense University...

  16. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Fan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  17. Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Alison M; Dunstan, Frank; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Mann, Mala; Rolfe, Kim; Datta, Shalini; Thomas, D Phillip; Sibert, Jonathan R; Maguire, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types. Design Systematic review. Data sources All language literature search of Medline, Medline in Process, Embase, Assia, Caredata, Child Data, CINAHL, ISI Proceedings, Sciences Citation, Social Science Citation Index, SIGLE, Scopus, TRIP, and Socia...

  18. Clinical treatment effect of acetaminophen on endemic skeletal fluorosis%对乙酰氨基酚治疗地方性氟骨症的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长青; 张海涛; 王成海; 韩昌; 张晓东; 王献斌; 乔校; 王中海; 杨德民

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察对乙酰氨基酚治疗地方性氟骨症临床效果,为氟骨症治疗提供有效药物.方法 分为1期和2期进行临床效果观察.1期临床观察46例患者,2期临床观察812名患者.治疗药品为市售非处方药对乙酰氨基酚片(Paracetamol Tablets),每片0.5g,饭后口服,1次1片,1日3次,连服5d,停药2d后继续服用,疗程为1个月.观察治疗前颈、腰、四肢大关节休息痛症状和治疗后变化,及治疗前后关节活动受限和肢体功能障碍体征变化.按照卫生部“新药临床研究指导原则”中的标准,对所观察指标进行总体疗效判定.从治疗开始,观察并记录患者服药物后症状减轻或体征出现改善的起始时间、不良反应及对药物的耐受性.结果 1期临床疗效结果显示,对乙酰氨基酚的总有效率为84.8%(39/46),无效率为15.2% (7/46).其中轻度患者全部有效(100%,26/26),中度患者有效率为66.7%(12/18);重度患者2人,有效1人.2期临床总有效率为81.0%(658/812),无效率为19.0%(154/812).在治疗的812名患者中,轻度患者有效率占53.2%(432/812),中度患者占24.0%(195/812),重度患者有效率占3.8%(31/812).这些患者的耐受性评分为3,即无不良反应.服药3d后,患者可感关节疼痛减轻,服药7d后多数患者关节疼痛症状明显减轻.结论 对乙酰氨基酚片可以缓解地方性氟骨症的关节疼痛症状,使疼痛症状减轻或消失,也可以缓解或减轻患者的关节活动受限改变,对轻度患者临床表现改善的作用更明显,副作用小,耐受性好.%Objective To observe clinical treatment effect of acetaminophen on endemic skeletal fluorosis,so as to find operative medicine for treatment of endemic skeletal fluorosis.Methods The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of observation period,46 patients were observed in the first phase and 812 patients were observed in the second phase.Paracetamol Tablets (OTC) was used as

  19. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores. Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F. A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p  Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  20. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdi, Madhuri S

    2016-03-01

    Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease. PMID:27053777

  1. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S Kurdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease.

  2. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdi, Madhuri S

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease. PMID:27053777

  3. Endemic fluorosis:prevalence and prevention in Liaoning Province%辽宁省地方性氟中毒的流行和防治现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健辉; 郑照霞; 刘微; 刘羽; 高嵘; 李子荣; 赵伟光; 王思茜; 刘万洋

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of control of endemic fluorosis in Liaoning Province.Methods To investigate the prevalence rate of endemic fluorosis and water fluoride content in regions with different extent of endemic fluorosis,dental fluomsis among 8-12 years old children and clinical fluorosis at adult above 16 years old were extensively surveyed,urinary fluoride among 8-12 years old children was detected.Results We surveyed 842 undefluorided drinking water in endemic fluorosis villages and 1234 projects of improving drinking water in 1829 endemic fluorosis viflages.Water fluoride content was 0.01-7.10 mg/L in unimproved drinking water in endemic fluorosis resions,averaging(0.96±0.64)mg/L;29.2%(246/842)of the endemic fluorosis regions had a fluoride content more than 1.2 mg/L In 1234 projects of improving drinking water.drinking water fluoride content was between 0.06-7.67 mg/L.The project normally operated and having a fluoride content≤1.2 mg/L accounted for 68.31%(843/1234),while 31.69%(391/1234)of the projects did not function well.The prevalence of dental fluomsis in 8-12 years old child ren in endemic fluorosis regions was 24.4%(2960/12 127),the prevalence of clinical fluorosis among adults was 2.22%(1900/85 636).The prevalente of dental fluorosis in slight,moderate and serious fluorosis regions had remarkable statistics differences(X2=19.25,P<0.01).The prevalence of dental fluorosis of children in serious fluorosis regions was the highest,reaching 100%,while the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis wns 18.03%(97/538).The median of urinary fluoride was 2.01.2.00mg/L in serious and slight fluomsis regions,respectively.Conclusions Endemic fluorosis is still serious.so we need urgently to improve water in serious fluorosis regions without defluoridaton of drinking water.Endemic fluomsis resions where worn-out and closed defluoriding projects exist need defluoriding management.%目的 了解辽宁省地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)流行现状和防

  4. Endemic Fluorosis &Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia in J&K State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Gupta, M.Kjyoti, Shashi Kant

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of endemic fluorosis in J&K State andcause of non-ulcer dyspepsia. A total of 1,61790 individuals in the age range of 5 to 70 years werestudied. In district, Doda 90% of the population studied were suffering from dental fluorosis, 12%were having skeletal deformities as well as bony pains and 60% ofthe population above the age of25 years were suffering from dyspepsia. In other districts only 26% of the population studied werehaving dental fluorosis, 7% had skeletal deformities and 42% were suffering from dyspepsia. Thenuoride content in water of different sources ranged from 1.153 to 27.216 PPM.Two hundred patients suffering from dental and skeletal fluorosis, having severe symptoms ofupper gastrioilllcstinal tract like retrosternal burning distention ofabdomen, pain epigastrium, soureructations and excessive flatulence or constipation were studied alongwith 10 control normalsubjects. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy studies showcd that 82 patients had mild to moderateantritis and pyloritis, 35 had multiple erosions in stomach, 36 had duodenitis and 47 had normalstudy. Histopathological examination of biopsies of stomach and jejunum revealed non-specificchanges but scanning electron microscopic examination showed scanty microvilli or bald epitheliumof the nlucosa, surface abrasions, desquamated epithelium and classical cracked clay appearance.This study concludes that fluorosis is in endemic form in J&K State and non-ulcer dyspepsia'is very common in these patients because of drinking of highly fluoridated waler.

  5. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in association with different water fluoride levels in Mysore district, Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Shibu Thomas Sebastian; Rino Roopak Soman; S. Sunitha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fluoride intake at optimal level decreases the incidence of dental caries. However, excessive intake, especially during developmental stages can cause adverse effects such as dental and skeletal fluorosis. Aim: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary school children born and raised in three villages of Mysore District. The three selected villages have different water fluoride concentrations. Materials and Methods: Three villages namely, Nerale (w...

  6. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... dentist or hygienist to see. Because most infant formulas contain low levels of fluoride, regularly mixing powdered ...

  7. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez

    2000-06-01

    estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition of a San Luis Potosi children population, and its association to fluoride concentration in drinking water and urine. An additional objective was, to develop, validate, and test a specific index for dental fluorosis in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May 1997, to January 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. Study subjects were 100 children aged 3-6 years, selected at random from three kindergartens in three risk areas of San Luis Potosi. The specific index of dental fluorosis for primary dentition (Dental Fluorosis for Primary Dentition Index-DFPDI was validated by estimating fluoride concentrations in enamel of teeth with and without dental fluorosis. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the association between fluoride concentrations in drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis; the association between risk area and dental fluorosis was assessed with the Mantel-Haenszel chi² test. RESULTS: . The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was 78%; primary molars were most affected in both maxillae and the predominant color was a non-glossy white appearance. We found a strong direct correlation (r=0.93 between fluoride concentrations in primary teeth and the DFPDI. Associations were found between fluoride concentrations of drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis (Kruskal-Wallis p=0.00001, and between risk area and dental fluorosis (Mantel-Haenszel chi² p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: DFPDI allowed adequate identification and grading of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. It is important to detect the initial toxic effects of fluoride exposure to predict dental fluorosis in permanent dentition and skeletal fluorosis.

  8. Mitigation of Fluorosis - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Khairnar, Mahesh R.; Arun S Dodamani; Jadhav, Harish C.; Naik, Rahul G.; Manjiri A. Deshmukh

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is required for normal development and growth of the body. It is found in plentiful quantity in environment and fluoride content in drinking water is largest contributor to the daily fluoride intake. The behaviour of fluoride ions in the human organism can be regarded as that of “double-edged sword”. Fluoride is beneficial in small amounts but toxic in large amounts. Excessive consumption of fluorides in various forms leads to development of fluorosis. Fluorosis is major health probl...

  9. DENTAL FLUOROSIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Some children of Borazjan area have minute white flecks, yellow or brown spot areas scattered irregularly over the tooth surface, the causative factor was attributed to excess of fluoride in water. To verify this matter short chemical examination of water samples from endemic area was carried out. The results of water analysis by colorimetric method, using zirconium a1izarin reagent after distillation the samples, showed that the average mount of fluoride of Borazjan and the mixture of treated. Water of Boshigan River with water piped of Borazjan wells were 4 and 2 times respectively more than recommended control limits for fluoride and confirmed that this was the causative agent of mottled, teeth (Dental Fluorosis.

  10. Modifying Role of GSTP1 Polymorphism on the Association between Tea Fluoride Exposure and the Brick-Tea Type Fluorosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Wu

    Full Text Available Brick tea type fluorosis is a public health concern in the north-west area of China. The association between SNPs of genes influencing bone mass and fluorosis has attracted attention, but the association of SNPs with the risk of brick-tea type of fluorosis has not been reported.To investigate the modifying roles of GSTP1 rs1695 polymorphisms on this association.A cross-sectional study was conducted. Brick-tea water was tested by the standard of GB1996-2005 (China. Urinary fluoride was tested by the standard of WS/T 89-2006 (China. Skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed by X-ray, the part we scheduled was forearm, shank, and pelvic, then diagnosed the skeletal fluorosis by the standard of WS/192-2008 (China. Gene polymorphism was tested by Sequenom MassARRAY system.The prevalence rate in different ethnical participants was different: Tibetan individuals had the highest prevalence rate of skeletal fluorosis. There were significant differences in genotype frequencies of GSTP1 Rs1695 among different ethnical participants (p<0.001: Tibetan, Mongolian and Han subjects with homozygous wild type (GSTP1-AA genotype were numerically higher than Kazakh and Russian subjects (p<0.001. Compared to Tibetan participants who carried homozygous A allele of GSTP1 Rs1695, Tibetan participants who carried G allele had a significantly decreased risk of skeletal fluorosis (OR = 0.558 [95% CI, 0.326-0.955]. For Kazakh participants, a decreased risk of skeletal fluorosis among carriers of the G allele was limited to non high-loaded fluoride status (OR = 0. 166 [95% CI, 0.035-0.780] vs. OR = 1.478 [95% CI, 0.866-2.552] in participants with high-loaded fluoride status. Neither SNP-IF nor SNP-age for GSTP1 Rs1695 was observed.The prevalence rate of the brick tea type fluorosis might have ethnic difference. For Tibetan individuals, who had the highest prevalence rate, G allele of GSTP1 Rs1695 might be a protective factor for brick tea type skeletal fluorosis.

  11. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, se...

  12. Bovine calves as ideal bio-indicators for fluoridated drinking water and endemic osteo-dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L

    2014-07-01

    Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5 ppm F) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7 %) and 322 (36.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2 % mature and 10.7 % immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2 %) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed.

  13. Relationships between daily total fluoride intake and dental fluorosis and dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanyong Xiang; Minghao Zhou; Ming Wu; Xinya Zhou; Li Lin; Jiuning Huang; Youxing Liang

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationships between the dally total intake of fluoride,dental fluorosis and dental caries.Methods:An epidemiological method was used to investigate the daily total intake of fluoride,dental fluorosis,and dental caries among 236 and 290 children aged 8-13 years in a severe endemic area and in a non-fluorosis control area,respectively.The children were divided into eight subgroups according to each child's estimated dally total intake of fluoride.The prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in each group was calculated.Results:As expected,elevated levels of fluoride intake were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dental fluorosis and an increasing amount of more severe defect dental fhiorosis.When the dally total F intake was 2.78 rag/child/day,the prevalence of dental fluorosis was nearly 100%,with the prevalence of defect dental fluorosis increasing with increasing fluoride intake.There was also a significant negative(inverse) dose-response relationship between the dally total intake of fluoride and the overall preva-lence of dental caries,the prevalence of which decreased when the daily total intake of fluoride increased up to 3.32 mg/child/day.However,at higher levels of daily total intake of fluoride the prevalence of dental caries increased,giving rise to a U-shaped dose-response relationship curve.Conclusion:It is important to monitor total fluoride exposure and protect children from excessive fluoride intake,especially during the years of tooth development.

  14. Fluorosis as an Environmental Disease and its Effect on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simge Varol

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is a halogene found in earth, water, rocks, air, plants and animal tissue in various amounts. In normal conditions, people daily take fluoride compounds in amounts without any harmful effects this cause fewer dental caries and the formation of stronger bones. However, if the amount of fluoride taken daily exceeds the safety threshold, chronic fluoride intoxication, known as fluorosis, arises. As a result of fluorosis, pathological changes appear in tooths, skeletal system, liver, kidney, heart, gastrointestinal system and endocrin system. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 233-238

  15. Compressive myelopathy in fluorosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.K. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Agarwal, P. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Kumar, S. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Surana, P.K. [Department of Neurology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow-226014 (India); Lal, J.H. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Misra, U.K. [Department of Neurology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow-226014 (India)

    1996-05-01

    We examined four patients with fluorosis, presenting with compressive myelopathy, by MRI, using spin-echo and fast low-angle shot sequences. Cord compression due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) and ligamentum flavum (LF) was demonstrated in one and ossification of only the LF in one. Marrow signal was observed in the PLL and LF in all the patients on all pulse sequences. In patients with compressive myelopathy secondary to ossification of PLL and/or LF, fluorosis should be considered as a possible cause, especially in endemic regions. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition, skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. Materials and Methods: This survey was conducted among the middle school students (VI th -VIII th studying in three government schools of Sangam Vihar, South Delhi. Students were examined for dental fluorosis by experts. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data regarding age, source of drinking water, toothpaste used, etc. Height, weight, and hemoglobin were recorded. Two repeat visits were made. Out of 432 students enrolled in these schools, 413 students were examined. Statistics: Descriptive and chi-square statistics were used. Results: Dental fluorosis was prevalent in 121 (29.3% study subjects. It was significantly more in children of age 13 years or above, in those who used fluoridated toothpaste for dental cleaning (P=0.033 and in anemic children (P<0.001. However, there was no significant association of disease with gender (P=0.02, source of drinking water (P=0.417, and with BMI (P=0.826. Conclusion: As dental fluorosis is very common (in about one-fourth among the middle school children, in this resettlement colony of Delhi, various control measures e.g. discouraging the fluoridated toothpastes, educating parents about fluorosis, de-fluoridation of water in the high risk areas, etc may help to tackle this situation.

  17. Mitigation of Fluorosis - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Mahesh R; Dodamani, Arun S; Jadhav, Harish C; Naik, Rahul G; Deshmukh, Manjiri A

    2015-06-01

    Fluoride is required for normal development and growth of the body. It is found in plentiful quantity in environment and fluoride content in drinking water is largest contributor to the daily fluoride intake. The behaviour of fluoride ions in the human organism can be regarded as that of "double-edged sword". Fluoride is beneficial in small amounts but toxic in large amounts. Excessive consumption of fluorides in various forms leads to development of fluorosis. Fluorosis is major health problem in 24 countries, including India, which lies in the geographical fluoride belt. Various technologies are being used to remove fluoride from water but still the problem has not been rooted out. The purpose of this paper is to review the available treatment modalities for fluorosis, available technologies for fluoride removal from water and ongoing fluorosis mitigation programs based on literature survey. Medline was the primary database used in the literature search. Other databases included: PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, WHO, Ebscohost, Science Direct, Google Search Engine, etc. PMID:26266235

  18. 贵州燃煤型地方性氟中毒重病区总摄氟量调查分析%Analysis of total intake of fluoride in severe endemic fluorosis regions of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李达圣; 安冬; 何平; 梁音; 靳争京

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of the total intake of fluoride in severe fluorosis - endemic regions of Guizhou Province. Methods 4 historic severe endemic villages and 2 mild villages ( control) were investigated by ways of random sampling in the present and retrospect epidemiological study. Results The total detection rate of dental fluorosis in the children aged 8 to 12 years was above 90% , defect type was above 40% , clinic skeletal fluorosis was above 40% , and the sever type above 5%. But the detection rate of dental fluorosis of the age group of 8 and 9 years old was significantly decreased, and the rate of skeletal fluorosis in the group of 16 years old was also decreased obviously. No child cases with the deformity of bone were seen. The daily mean total intake of fluoride was above 30 mg before the 1980s, and below 18 mg in 2006. The order of the constitution of intake is as follows; chilipepper > corn > rice > vegetables > drinking water > air, which is quit different from that of 10 years ago. The time distribution for mild control villages is the same as the severe villages, but severity of fluorosis was significantly lower than that of severe villages. Conclusions The daily mean total intake of fluoride in the severe fluorosis regions of Guizhou is significantly decreased, which resulted in control of the development and prevalence of endemic fluorosis. However, the situation of the severe endemic regions is still worse, and the total intake of fluoride is still higher. The intake path of fluoride through chilipepper need much regard although the constitution of food changed.%目的 探讨贵州燃煤型地方性氟中毒(地氟病)重病区总摄氟量变化.方法 采用随机分层抽样方法,对地氟病重病区村作了流行病学现况和回顾性调查.结果 4个历史重病区村儿童氟斑牙总体检出率达90%以上,缺损型达40%以上,临床氟骨症检出率达40%以上,其中重度检出率达5%以上,但8、9岁

  19. Study of thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in subjects with dental fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hosur, Mahadevi B.; Puranik, R S; Vanaki, Shrinivas; Surekha R Puranik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Apart from its well-known deleterious dental and skeletal effects, fluoride excess can have toxic effects on many other tissues. Fluoride, when in excess, is known to interfere with thyroid gland function. Fluoride-induced thyroid disturbances similar to those observed in iodine deficiency state in spite of adequate iodine intake have been documented. Similar thyroid disturbances in individuals with dental fluorosis have not been well studied in populations with endemic fluorosis. ...

  20. 青海省僧侣饮茶型氟中毒现况分析%Brick-tea type fluorosis in monks in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏生英; 鲁青; 杨萍; 陈萍; 李生梅; 喇翠玲; 姜泓; 何多龙; 吴海坤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To know the distribution and harm of brick-tea type fluorosis in monks in Qinghai Province.Methods Twenty-eight temples were selected as survey sites from 28 counties of Qinghai Province.The amounts of drinking tea-water of each monk and the brick tea capita consumption per temple each year were recorded.Drinking water,tea water and urine samples of monks were collected and fluorine content was tested; dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 years and of adult monks over the age of 16 were examined; clinical skeletal fluorosis of monks 16 years of age and older and X-ray skeletal fluorosis of all adult monks in the temple were examined.Fluorine content in drinking water,brick tea and urine was tested using F-ion selective electrode.Dental fluorosis was checked using the dental fluorine diagnostic criteria (WS/T 208-2001),and skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed based on the endemic skeletal fluorosis diagnosis standard (WS 192-1999).Results A total of 28 copies of drinking water samples were tested,and mean water fluoride was (0.26 ± 0.13) mg/L; in the 69 copies of brick tea,the mean fluoride value was 667.12 mg/kg; a total of 777 adult monks,the average daily drinking water of brick tea was (1 943.93 ± 1 078.93)ml; a total of 224 children monks,the average daily drinking water of brick tea was (795.09 ± 389.81)ml; annual per capita consumption of brick was 5.30 kg; adult daily fluoride intake was 4.47 mg,child was 1.83 mg; the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis was 29.07%(291/1 001),the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis of 8-12 years old children was 39.74%(93/234),the adult was 26.00%(202/777); the prevalence rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 4.76%(37/775); and the prevalence rate of X-ray skeletal fluorosis was 4.88%(2/41).The geometric mean of adult urinary fluoride was 1.11 mg/L(0.15-10.00 mg/L) of the 777 copies of urine samples tested,and that value of children was 1.23 mg/L(0.08-6.62 mg/L) of the 224 copies of samples

  1. Fluorosis in a dairy herd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, W.G.

    1972-04-29

    Investigation of a high incidence of hip arthritis in a herd of Ayrshires resulted in the discovery of abnormal levels of fluorine in samples of bone. Suspicion of fluorosis was not aroused earlier as the area is not contaminated by industrial fall-out. In addition, many affected animals had no lesions in their teeth; this was because their dentition was complete before ingesting fluorine from a mineral supplement. Only cows receiving toxic levels of fluorine during their first lactation showed lesions, and these were confined to the fourth pair of incisors. Two metabolic profile tests were caried out to establish that the input-output balance in the main metabolites was normal. Analysis of various constituents of the diet revealed significant levels of fluorine in the mineral supplement only. Arthritis was the most prominent feature. This led to debility, with loss of milk and carcase value. Confirmation of fluorosis was obtained by analysis of bone and urine.

  2. Dental enamel, fluorosis and amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ciarrocchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most used antibiotics among pediatric patients for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections and specially for acute otitis media (AOM, a common diseases of infants and childhood. It has been speculated that the use of amoxicillin during early childhood could be associated with dental enamel fluorosis, also described in literature with the term Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH, because they are generally situated in one or more 1st permanent molars and less frequently in the incisors. The effect of Amoxicillin seems to be independent of other risk factors such as fluoride intake, prematurity, hypoxia, hypocalcaemia, exposure to dioxins, chikenpox, otitis media, high fever and could have a significant impact on oral health for the wide use of this drug in that period of life. Objective: The aim of this work was to review the current literature about the association between amoxicillin and fluorosis. Methods and Results: A literature survey was done by applying the Medline database (Entrez PubMed; the Cochrane Library database of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL. The databases were searched using the following strategy and keywords: amoxicillin* AND (dental fluorosis* OR dental enamel* AND MIH*. After selecting the studies, only three relevant articles published between 1966 and 2011 were included in the review. Conclusion: The presence of several methodological issues does not allow to draw any evidence-based conclusions. No evidence of association was detected, therefore, there is a need of further well-designed studies to assess the scientific evidence of the relationship between amoxicillin and fluorosis and to restrict the prescription of this drug for recurrent upper respiratory tract infections especially acute otitis media (AOM during the first two years of life. When it is possible can be opportune to use an alternative antibiotic treatment.

  3. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Eneide Leitão de; Teixeira, Ana Karine Macedo; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral), Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  4. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eneide Leitão de Almeida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral, Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  5. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries; Kindesmisshandlung. Radiologische Diagnostik skelettaler Verletzungsfolgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie

    2012-06-15

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  6. Neighbourhood fluorosis in people residing in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants near Udaipur city of Rajasthan (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2015-08-01

    Chronic industrial fluoride toxicosis in the forms of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis was investigated in 162 villagers (94 males and 78 females) above 15 years of age living in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants located approximately 12 km south of Udaipur city of Rajasthan, India. Out of these villagers, 90 (55.5%) and 29 (18.0%) were found to be afflicted with mild to severe dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Dental fluorosis characterized with light to deep-brownish bilaterally striated horizontal lines, pits or patches and fine dots or granules was noted on incisor teeth of villagers. Irregular wearing, excessive corrosions (abrasions), dark-brownish pigmentation of exposed cementum and dentine material, diastem as between teeth, pronounced loss of tooth supporting bone with recession and bulging of gingiva (gum) were also present in subjects of older age group (>55 years). Among 29 (18.0%) individuals, mild to moderate manifestations of skeletal fluorosis such as crippling, kyphosis, invalidism and genu-varum syndrome were found. In these fluorotic subjects pain/rigidity in major joints viz. neck, back, hip, knee and shoulder was also found. None of the fluorotic subjects showed evidence of genu-valgum syndrome. Other signs of chronic industrial fluoride intoxication in soft tissues (non-skeletal fluorosis) included colic, intermittent diarrhoea or constipation, bloating, polyuria and polydipsia. These findings indicate that surrounding environment of superphosphate fertilizer plants is contaminated with fluoride emission, which in turn is causing diverse ill health effects in humans which are discussed. PMID:26160742

  7. 云南省富源县燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒病情调查分析%An investigation of coal-burning type endemic fluorosis in Fuyuan County of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄开莲; 王安伟; 彭昌艳; 史亮晶; 赵志花; 郭玉熹; 张海涛

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the prevailing status of coal-burning type endemic fluorosis in Fuyuan County of Yunnan Province, and to provide a scientific basis for fluorosis control and prevention. Methods In 2013, five towns were selected from the villages and towns which the defluoridation stove project was implemented and by the end of 2007 defluoridation stove rate was higher than 95%(including 95%), and two natural villages were selected in each township to carry out the investigation. Dental fluorosis was examined of all children aged 8 to 12 of survey points. At least 20 people were selected in each village. At the same time, 20 copies of instant urine samples were collected from these children of half male and half female, and urinary fluoride was determined. Then five natural villages were sampled from all survey points, and permanent residents were divided into"25-","35-","45-","55-"and"≥65"groups according to age. Six people were selected from each group with male and female in half who were conducted examination of adult skeletal fluorosis by X-ray. Dental fluorosis diagnosis was based on the"Dental Fluorosis Diagnosis"(WS/T 208-2011). Urinary fluoride determination was done in accordance with"Urine-Determination of Fluoride-Ion Specific Electrode Method"(WS/T 30-1996). Skeletal fluorosis diagnosis was carried out according to "Diagnostic Criteria for Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis" (WS 192-2008). Results A total of 556 children aged 8 to 12 were monitored, the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 41.55%(231/556), the dental fluorosis index was 0.78. The very mild, mild, moderate and severe proportions of children's dental fluorosis were 20.50%(114/556), 17.09%(95/556), 3.60%(20/556) and 0.36%(2/556), respectively, given priority to very mild. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in children was increased with increasing age (χ2=74.27, P<0.05). One hundred and ninety-three copies of child urine samples were tested, the geometric mean of urinary fluoride was 0

  8. Analysis of monitoring results of drinking-tea borne endemic fluorosis in Lhasa of Tibet%西藏拉萨市饮茶型氟中毒流行现状调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    格桑卓嘎

    2012-01-01

    .Four townships in each county were selected(including 2 villages in Chengguan county),and 2 administrative villages in each township were selected as monitoring villages.By using Dean method,dental fluorosis of every child aged 8 - 12 in the monitoring villages was examined.At the same time,urine samples were randomly collected in each age group in the above-mentioned villages.The content of fluoride in urine was determined by F-ion selective electrode (WS/T 30-1996) and evaluated according to “The Normal Concentration of Uriary Fluride of Population” (WS/T 256-2005).Over 18 years old in the monitoring counties were divided into five age group as - 25,- 35,- 45,- 55 and 56 -,at least 10 ment were randomly selected in each age group to be examined clinical skeletal fluorosis,and the diagnosis was based on the endemic skeletal fluorosis standard(WS 192-2007 ).At the same time,adult dental fluorosis diagnosis and urinary fluoride examination were done.Drinking water samples in each survey point were collected and water fluoride was determination by ion selective electrode method.Results ①Dental fluorosis:a total of 723 children aged 8 to 12 were examined,91 cases of dental fluorosis were detected,and detection rate was 12.58%,dental fluorosis index was 0.34; ②adult dental fluorosis:a total of 2626 adults were examined,998 cases of dental fluorosis were detected,and detection rate was 38.00%,dental fluorosis index was 0.71; ③Adult clinical skeletal fluorosis:a total of 2626 adults were examined,15 degree Ⅱ clinical skeletal fluorosis patients were detected,and the detection rate was 0.57% ; ④Child urine fluoride:a total of 700 child urine samples were collected.The geometric mean was 1.97 mg/L,ranged 0.01 to 17.56 rng/L; ⑤Adult urine fluoride:a total of 2626 adults were examined,geometric mean 2.16 mg/L,ranged 0.01 to 56.87 mg/L; ⑥Water fluoride:52 water samples were tested in survey sites,and fluoride content of 15 water samples exceeded the

  9. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of Chidambaram taluk, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean′s fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997. Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ′borderline′ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6. A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors

  10. The new characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in some areas in North-Western Guizhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wua, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, A.M. [CAS, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride contents in coal, drinking water, corn and chili, were assayed, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis and fluoride levels in urine in the local inhabitants were investigated. Fluoride content in coal of Hualuo, Majiazhuang and Pianpozhai (China) is 107.8, 104.1 and 117.6 mg/kg, respectively, in drinking water of the three villages is 0.12, 0.14 and {lt} 0.05 mg/l, respectively; in corn of the three villages is 30.6,33.4 and 49.8 mg/kg, respectively; in chili of the three village is 513.2, 342.6 and 281.0 mg/kg. Fluorosis is serious in the areas. It is concluded that fluoride levels in urine and coal is relatively low to the serious fluorosis and the high fluoride contents in foodstuff, it is the new characteristics in the endemic fluorosis area. Further study should be made.

  11. Osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia: a skeletal dysplasia that may mimic lead poisoning in a child with hypotonia and seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the case of a 23-month-old male with hypotonia, developmental delay, and complex seizures. Radiographs revealed profound sclerosis of the metaphyses and epiphyses of the long and short bones in the extremities, with a unique pattern of distribution. Sclerosis also involved the anterior ribs, iliac crests, talus, and calcaneus. The skull and vertebral bodies appeared unaffected. Blood lead levels were normal. We believe that this constellation of clinical and radiographic abnormalities closely resembles osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia (OMD) due to an autosomal recessive defect. Characteristic skeletal findings were instrumental in determining the diagnosis. OMD is a very rare sclerosing bone disorder, first described in 1993. The syndrome is characterized clinically by developmental delay of a progressive nature, hypotonia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and late-onset spastic paraplegia. We encountered a young child with these neurologic symptoms who displayed sclerotic metaphyseal changes on hand radiographs obtained to determine the bone age. Lead poisoning, a known cause of metaphyseal sclerosis, was initially suspected. Careful analysis of the metaphyseal bone changes helped to distinguish this bone dysplasia from lead poisoning and other causes of metaphyseal sclerosis. (orig.)

  12. Barrier formation: potential molecular mechanism of enamel fluorosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Lyaruu; J.F. Medina; S. Sarvide; T.J.M. Bervoets; V. Everts; P. Denbesten; C.E. Smith; A.L.J.J. Bronckers

    2014-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. We hypothesized that fluorosis is associated with excess release of protons during formation of hypermineralized lines in the mineralizing enamel matrix. We tested

  13. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  14. Use of fluoride tablets and effect on prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, H.; Verrips, E.; Dirks, O.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was executed to investigate the relation between the use of fluoride tablets by children in the age period 1.5-6 yr on the one hand and the caries experience at the age of 6 and 15 yr and the prevalence of fluorosis at the age of 15 yr on the other hand. The year of birth of the child, the m

  15. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children

    OpenAIRE

    Sabokseir, Aira; Golkari, Ali; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childh...

  16. 2010年陕西省燃煤污染型氟中毒监测结果分析%Analysis of monitoring results of coal-burning borne endemic fluorosis in Shanxi province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范中学; 李跃; 李晓茜; 白广禄; 李平安; 刘晓莉; 白爱梅; 杨晓栋

    2012-01-01

    in each of the nine monitoring points and every chosen village,and a survey on the stove using and related behavior changes was carried out.By using Dean method,the dental fluorosis of every child aged 8 - 12 in the monitoring villages was examined.Meanwhile 10 copies of urine samples were randomly collected in each age group in the above-mentioned villages.The content of fluoride in urine was determined by F-ion selective electrode(WS/T 30-1996) and evaluated according to “The Normal Concentration of Urinary Fluoride of Population” (WS/T 256-2005).Twenty men over 25years old in the monitoring counties were randomly selected in each age group to be examined skeletal fluorosis by X-rays,and diagnosis was based on “The Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis Standard”(WS 192-2007).Results The proper utilization rate and the qualified households of iron stoves and improved stoves,the correct drying rate and the correct storage rate of peppers and coms were all low.The washing rate of corns and peppers before eating was higher than 95%.Of the 350 children being examined of dental fluorosis in the 9 monitoring villages,the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 59.71% (209/350).A total of 871 adults over the age of 25 were examined,and the detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 17.22% (150/871).A total of 350 copies of children urine samples were tested and the fluoride content were between 0.07 - 2.02 mg/L,the geometric mean value of fluoride content was 0.66 mg/L.Conclusions The coal-burning borne endemic fluorosis in Shanxi is in a growth phase,many defluoridation stoves are out of order,and the formation of healthy behaviors is low.To strengthen the disease surveillance,health education and management of defluoridation stoves are keys to prevent coal-burning borne endemic fluorosis in the future.

  17. Calcium metabolism in fluorosis and endemic genu valgum using radioactive tracer, whole body counting and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endemic fluorosis with extensive skeletal changes has been reported from several parts of India. In recent years a new condition, endemic genu valgum, has been recognized in one of these areas. In both conditions osteosclerosis, particularly of the spine, has been observed, but in genu valgum the most distinctive pathology is osteoporosis in bones of the extremities and presumably as a result the ''knock knees'' that give the syndrome its name. In this project certain aspects of calcium metabolism were investigated in endemic fluorosis and genu valgum and in appropriate control subjects. Calcium kinetics were studied by intravenously injecting a tracer dose of 47Ca and following for 10 days thereafter the concentration of the tracer in serum and excreta, as well as its total retention in the body (the latter measured by whole body counting). In addition calcium balance was measured on some of the subjects while resident in a metabolic ward. Statistical analysis of the results showed in general a higher metabolic activity of calcium in the fluorosis and genu valgum cases than in the controls (specifically, higher ''turnover'' of calcium in the blood pool and an apparently elevated bone mineralization rate). Whole body retention was somewhat greater in the patients than in the controls. Several measurements were also performed relative to blood chemistry, and in particular the serum concentration of 25-OHD3 (a metabolite of vitamin D) was measured. There was no evidence that vitamin D deficiency played a significant role in the causation of genu valgum

  18. Occurrence and management of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpata, E S

    2001-10-01

    The prevalence of dental fluorosis is on the increase in different parts of the world, even in areas with fluoride-deficient public water supplies. This may be due to increased use of fluoride in preventive dentistry. In some countries, exposure to apparently low fluoride concentrations in drinking water has resulted in severe dental fluorosis in some children. This underscores the importance of taking into consideration all sources of fluoride intake in a community before prescribing fluoride supplements or recommending appropriate fluoride concentration for the public water supply. Preventive management of dental fluorosis includes de-fluoridation of drinking water in endemic areas, cautious use of fluoride supplements and supervision of the use of fluoride toothpaste by children aged below 5 years. Aesthetically objectionable discolouration of fluorosed teeth may be managed by bleaching, micro-abrasion, veneering or crowning. The choice between these treatments depends on the severity of the fluorosis and this may be satisfactorily determined by the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index. PMID:11697585

  19. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.;

    2006-01-01

    0977   Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years A. RICHARDS1, M. LARSEN1, L. MAARE2, and H. HEDEBOE2, 1Aarhus University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark, 2Præstø School Dental Service, Denmark Objectives: To describe the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among all...... fluorosis was recorded in 2004. Teeth were isolated with cotton wool rolls and dried before scoring fluorosis using the system developed by Thylstrup and Fejerskov (1978) for all schoolchildren (n=74, age 12-15 yrs) living in the area. The results were compared with data recorded in the same way in 39...... children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...

  20. Investigation on fluoride content in well water and prevalent state of fluorosis in endemic fluorosis area of Yangyuan County Hebei Province%河北省阳原县高氟区水氟含量和地方性氟中毒病情调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀平; 王志祥; 杨富花; 韩国毅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the fluoride contents of well water and prevalent state of fluorosis in endemic fluorosis area of Yangyuan County in Hebei Province. Method Randomly selecting 2 villages as objects, including one endemic area named Nanwa and one non — endemic area named Dongbu. Detemination fluoride content in well water and, investigation of dental fluorosis prevalence rate and deformed skeletal fluorosis in these villages. Results The fluoride content in well water of Nanwa was obviously higher than that in Dongbao (P < 0. 01), contents at the range of 2. 20 to 2. 91mg/L, which were higher than the limit of Sanitary Standard for Drinking Water Quality (2001) . The urine fluoride and dental fluorosis rate of children in Nanwa were obviously higher than that in Dongbao (P <0. 01), the dental fluorosis rate was 81.4%. There were 26 deformed skeletal fluorosis patients in Nanwa. Conclusions The fluoride contents in well water of endemic fluorosis area were seriously higher than the sanitary standard and people in endemic area still had severe fluorosis.%目的 了解河北省阳原县地方性氟中毒病区水氟含量以及人群氟中毒患病情况.方法 选择阳原县地方性氟中毒病区南洼村和非病区东堡村为调查点,测定井水氟含量、儿童尿氟含量,并进行儿童氟斑牙患病率及人群残废型氟骨症情况调查.结果 南洼村井水氟含量明显高于东堡村(P<0.01),井水氟含量范围为2.20~2.91mg/L,均超过《生活饮用水卫生规范》(2001),南洼村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率为81.4%,其氟斑牙患病率和尿氟含量均明显高于东堡村(P<0.01);南洼村仍存在成人残废型氟骨症患者.结论 阳原县地方性氟中毒病区南洼村井水氟含量超标严重,病区人群仍存在严重的氟中毒流行.

  1. Coal burning induced endemic fluorosis in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Cao, S.R. [Chinese Academy of Preventative Medicine, Beijing (China). Inst. of Environmental Health and Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Wide-spread coal-burning in China is caused by indoor combustion of high fluoride (F) containing coal. The incidence of fluorosis increases with increase in the F content of coal. Indoor airborne F of fluorosis-afflicted areas exists mainly in a gaseous form (SiF{sub 4} and HG) with some co-existing aerosol forms. Gaseous F contributes about 40-84% of total inorganic F emission. Total airborne inorganic F was in the range of 11-155 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, several times higher than the National Hygienic Standards. Total F intake by adults in disease areas was found to be about 10 mg/day as compared to 0.8 mg/day in nondisease areas.

  2. Surveillance on Fluorosis of Brick Tea Type in Ruoergai County, 2011%2011年若尔盖县饮茶型氟中毒监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 为及时掌握若尔盖县饮茶型氟中毒病区居民户合格砖茶普及情况,动态评价病区人群饮茶型地氟病流行趋势,为采取针对性干预措施提供依据.方法 2011年对5个监测村50个居民户采集砖茶并测定茶氟含量,检测8 ~ 12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况及成人氟骨症X线患病情况.结果 检测村民砖茶氟含量最小值为502.05 mg/kg,最大值为1 513.4 mg/kg;平均值为990.28 mg/kg,无合格份数,日人均摄氟量达5.23 mg;检查137名8~12岁儿童,共检出极轻度及以上氟斑牙病例15例,检出率为10.95%;共X线拍摄成人氟骨症111名,检出49例氟骨症患者,检出率为44.14%.结论 若尔盖县属于饮茶型氟中毒高流行区,农牧民群众处于高摄氟状态;成人氟骨症病情重,呈现慢性氟中毒蓄积.%Objective To master the situation of the household eligible brick tea in tea type fluorosis area of Ruoergai county, dynamically evaluate the epidemic trend of brick tea fluorosis and provide evidence for the targeted intervention. Methods Brick tea from 50 villages in 5 surveillance sites were collected to examine fluoride content. Dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 and X - ray of adult skeletal fluorosis were examined. Results The minimum value of brick tea fluoride content was 502. 05 mg/kg, while the maximum value was 1 513. 4 mg/kg, and the average was 990. 28 mg/kg. There was no qualified copies. The daily incept of fluoride was 5. 23 mg per capita; 137 children aged 8 - 12 were checked, in which 15 cases with dental fluorosis were checked out, the detection rate was 10. 95% ; 111 skeletal fluorosis cases were got X - ray photoed, 49 cases with skeletal fluorosis were checked out, with the detection rate 44. 14%. Conclusions Ruoergai county is a tea type fluorosis endemic area, farmers and herdsmen in the highly fluoride incept status; the illness of adult skeletal fluorosis is severe, showing the accumulation of chronic fluorosis.

  3. Quantitative Light Fluorescence (QLF and Polarized White Light (PWL assessments of dental fluorosis in an epidemiological setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pretty Iain A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine if a novel dual camera imaging system employing both polarized white light (PWL and quantitative light induced fluorescence imaging (QLF is appropriate for measuring enamel fluorosis in an epidemiological setting. The use of remote and objective scoring systems is of importance in fluorosis assessments due to the potential risk of examiner bias using clinical methods. Methods Subjects were recruited from a panel previously characterized for fluorosis and caries to ensure a range of fluorosis presentation. A total of 164 children, aged 11 years (±1.3 participated following consent. Each child was examined using the novel imaging system, a traditional digital SLR camera, and clinically using the Dean’s and Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF Indices on the upper central and lateral incisors. Polarized white light and SLR images were scored for both Dean’s and TF indices by raters and fluorescence images were automatically scored using software. Results Data from 164 children were available with a good distribution of fluorosis severity. The automated software analysis of QLF images demonstrated significant correlations with the clinical examinations for both Dean’s and TF index. Agreement (measured by weighted Kappa’s between examiners scoring clinically, from polarized photographs and from SLR images ranged from 0.56 to 0.92. Conclusions The study suggests that the use of a digital imaging system to capture images for either automated software analysis, or remote assessment by raters is suitable for epidemiological work. The use of recorded images enables study archiving, assessment by multiple examiners, remote assessment and objectivity due to the blinding of subject status.

  4. 氟中毒患者COLIXA3基因多态性观察%Observation on COLIXA3 polymorphism of patients with fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐莉; 王三祥; 钟近洁; 张跃新; 白生宾; 张亚楼; 刘开泰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the COLIXA3 gene polymorphism of patients with fluorosis and to explore the pathogenesis of COLIXA3 gene in endemic fluorosis.Methods Fifty one cases of patients with drinking-water borne fluorosis were selected as the case group in Xinzhou city,Shanxi province and 28 cases of healthy people were as the control group.Dental fluorosis was detected by Dean method and skeletal fluorosis was examined by X-ray.COLIXA3 of exon 5 gene product of 103 points was amplified by PCR and the gene locus genotype was sequenced.Results Ten cases of mild dental fluorosis,14 cases of moderate dental fluorosis,15 cases of severe dental fluorosis were detected among the 51 patients.The control group was free of dental fluorosis.All the 51 cases of patients with fluorosis had varying degrees of skeletal fluorosis,mainly osteosclerosis lesions,accounting for 86.27%(44/51 ),and mild skeletal fluorosis patients were all osteosclerosis lesions,and osteosclerosis lesions and multiple skeletal lesions were found among moderate and severe skeletal fluorosis patients in the case group,while control group had no skeletal fluorosis.The differences between genotypes of frequency distribution of AA,Aa,aa of COLIXA3 of case and control groups were not statistically significant [96.08%(49/51 ),3.92%(2/51 ),0.00%(0/51) and 96.43%(27/28),3.57%(1/28),0.00%(0/28),x2 =0.94,P > 0.05].Conclusions COLIXA3 gene polymorphism is not significantly correlated to fluorosis.%目的 观察氟中毒患者COLIXA3基因多态性,探讨COLIXA3基因在地方性氟中毒发病机制中的作用.方法 在山西省忻州市,选取51例饮水型氟中毒患者作为病例组,28例健康居民作为对照组,用Dean法检测氟斑牙,X线拍片检测氟骨症,PCR法扩增血清COLIXA3第5外显子103位点基因产物,测序后分析该基因位点的基因型.结果 病例组51例患者中检出轻度氟斑牙10例,中度氟斑牙14例,重度氟斑牙15例,对照组

  5. PREVALENCE AND CAUSATIVE FACTORS OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS IN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Excessive consumption of fluoride leads to toxic manifestations in man, collectively referred to as Fluorosis. Latest estimates suggest that around 200 million people from among 25 nations the world over, are under the dreadful fate of Fluorosis. In India, 20 states are under fluoride attack. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and causative factors of dental fluorosis among children in the age group of 10-15 years in Kerala. METHODOLOGY: Two endemic districts and two neighboring non endemic districts were selected for this study. Sample size of 980 was calculated and adequate sample was selected from the school going children. A pretested modified questionnaire was used to collect the data. The fluorosis status was assessed by dental specialists. The information regarding the fluoride content of the water was also obtained. The data was entered and analyzed. The prevalence of fluorosis was calculated in percentages. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the endemic districts of Alappuzha and Palakkad were 37.4% and 39.2% respectively. The prevalence in the neighboring non endemic districts of Kollam and Thrissur were 4.4 % and 2.2% respectively. The community fluorosis index was 0.61 in Alappuzha and 0.63 in Palakkad. The prevalence was higher among boys than among girls

  6. Dental Fluorosis. Impact on Quality of Life and Treatment Need among Adolescents with Dental Fluorosis in an Endemic Area, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Dental fluorosis is the hypomineralization of dental enamel caused by chronic ingestion of fluoride during the formative stages of the dental hard tissues. Fluoride in excess of 1.5 mg/L in water is the principle cause of endemic dental fluorosis. Other causes of dental fluorosis are fluoride supplements (e.g. toothpaste) and food additives like traditional salt "trona". Dental fluorosis has social and psychological effects, whereby individuals affected even with the mild form demonstrate sig...

  7. Factors Associated to Endemic Dental Fluorosis in Brazilian Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9 or absence (TF = 0 of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure. Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073 and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060 in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05. More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5 was only associated with age group (p < 0.05. No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05 to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  8. Dental fluorosis: prevalence and associated factors in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Goiânia, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of dental fluorosis, to investigate its association with individual and contextual variables among 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to determine whether there were changes in the prevalence of this condition from 2003 to 2010.METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, in 2010 (n = 2,075, and secondary data from the files of the local health authority. Clinical data were collected through oral examinations in public and private schools. The dependent variable was the presence of dental fluorosis, assessed using the Dean Index. The independent individual variables were sociodemographic characteristics (the child's gender and race, and the mother's level of schooling and those related to clinical conditions (caries experience, evaluated using Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth index; and presence of periodontal calculus and/or bleeding, evaluated using Community Periodontal Index. The contextual variables were linked to the school (type and existence of toothbrushing program and its geographic location in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test was performed, and the percentage difference between the prevalences in the period from 2003 to 2010 was calculated.RESULTS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 2010 was 18.7%, being distributed as very mild (11.2%, mild (4.4%, moderate (2.6%, and severe (0.5%. No significant association was found between prevalence of dental fluorosis and the investigated variables. The prevalence of fluorosis increased 230% from 2003 to 2010, and such difference was significant.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was low, predominantly of the very mild degree, has increased over a 7-year period, and was not associated with the individual or contextual factors studied.

  9. Co-occurrence of arseniasis and fluorosis due to indoor combustion of high fluorine and arsenic content coal in a rural township in northwest China: epidemiological and toxicological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guo-fang; Gong, Shi-you; Wei, Cheng; Chen, Ji-gang; Golka, Klaus; Shen, Jian-hua

    2012-06-01

    A large number of fluorosis and arseniasis cases appeared in a mountainous area in northwest China. The residents relied on local inferior coal ("bone coal") of high fluorine and arsenic content for domestic heating and cooking. For deep-inside information about this rare case of co-endemia of fluorosis and arseniasis in the population in this special exposure scenario, a field investigation in one of the hyperendemic townships was conducted. The resident population registered (n = 27,713) was enrolled in the investigation. All cases were diagnosed and assigned to three symptom severity groups, that is severe, medium, and mild according to Chinese National Standard Criteria GB 16396-96 and to the technical guideline WS/T208-01 or WS/T211-01 issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Gender difference was analyzed by standardized incidence ratio. Age trend and severity trend were tested by χ(2) analysis. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 56.7% of the residents. Over 95% of the diagnosed arseniasis cases were simultaneously diagnosed with fluorosis symptoms. Combined fluorosis-arseniasis represented 11.9% of the total fluorosis cases and 6.7% of the local population. No gender-related differences in the prevalence of skeletal, dental, or dermal symptoms inside all severity groups were detected. Symptom severity increased with age. The high frequency of superposition of arseniasis with fluorosis might be due to the fact that the local resident population has been exposed to very high levels of fluorine and arsenic via the same exposure route.

  10. Co-occurrence of arseniasis and fluorosis due to indoor combustion of high fluorine and arsenic content coal in a rural township in northwest China: epidemiological and toxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guo-fang; Shen, Jian-hua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai (China); Gong, Shi-you [County Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Ziyang, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Cheng [Township Clinics of Haoping, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Ji-gang [Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control of Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Golka, Klaus [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    A large number of fluorosis and arseniasis cases appeared in a mountainous area in northwest China. The residents relied on local inferior coal (''bone coal'') of high fluorine and arsenic content for domestic heating and cooking. For deep-inside information about this rare case of co-endemia of fluorosis and arseniasis in the population in this special exposure scenario, a field investigation in one of the hyperendemic townships was conducted. The resident population registered (n = 27,713) was enrolled in the investigation. All cases were diagnosed and assigned to three symptom severity groups, that is severe, medium, and mild according to Chinese National Standard Criteria GB 16396-96 and to the technical guideline WS/T208-01 or WS/T211-01 issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Gender difference was analyzed by standardized incidence ratio. Age trend and severity trend were tested by {chi}{sup 2} analysis. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 56.7% of the residents. Over 95% of the diagnosed arseniasis cases were simultaneously diagnosed with fluorosis symptoms. Combined fluorosis-arseniasis represented 11.9% of the total fluorosis cases and 6.7% of the local population. No gender-related differences in the prevalence of skeletal, dental, or dermal symptoms inside all severity groups were detected. Symptom severity increased with age. The high frequency of superposition of arseniasis with fluorosis might be due to the fact that the local resident population has been exposed to very high levels of fluorine and arsenic via the same exposure route. (orig.)

  11. Fluoride in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with fluorosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y H; Wu, S S

    1988-01-01

    The CSF fluoride level of individuals drinking water with normal fluoride content and of patients with endemic fluorosis were studied. For the purpose of studying the relationship between the dynamic equilibrium of the CSF fluoride and other body fluids, urine and blood fluoride were examined simultaneously. Fluoride was revealed in every CSF sample of the control group and its mean value was lower than that of the blood. The CSF fluoride concentration of patients with fluorosis was slightly ...

  12. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokseir, Aira; Golkari, Ali; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childhood Events Life-grid method (ECEL). Methods. A study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children from areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of Fars province, Iran. Fluorosis cases were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using Dean's and TF (Thylstrup and Fejerskov) Indices by calibrated dentists. Agreements between examiners were tested. Early childhood health-related data collected retrospectively by ECEL method were matched with the position of enamel defects. Results. Using both Dean and TF indices three out of four dentists diagnosed that 31.3% (115) children had fluorosis, 58.0%, 29.1%, and 10.0% in high (2.12-2.85 ppm), optimal (0.62-1.22 ppm), and low (0.24-0.29 ppm) fluoride areas respectively (p fluorosis, 31 (8.4%) of children had fluorosis which could be matched with their adverse health-related events. This suggests that what was diagnosed as fluorosis were non-fluoride related DDEs that resemble fluorosis. Discussion. The frequently used measures of fluorosis appear to overscore fluorosis. Use of ECEL method to consider health related events relevant to DDEs could help to differentiate between genuine fluorosis and fluorosis-resembling defects. PMID:26966672

  13. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokseir, Aira

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childhood Events Life-grid method (ECEL). Methods. A study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children from areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of Fars province, Iran. Fluorosis cases were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using Dean’s and TF (Thylstrup and Fejerskov) Indices by calibrated dentists. Agreements between examiners were tested. Early childhood health-related data collected retrospectively by ECEL method were matched with the position of enamel defects. Results. Using both Dean and TF indices three out of four dentists diagnosed that 31.3% (115) children had fluorosis, 58.0%, 29.1%, and 10.0% in high (2.12–2.85 ppm), optimal (0.62–1.22 ppm), and low (0.24–0.29 ppm) fluoride areas respectively (p fluorosis, 31 (8.4%) of children had fluorosis which could be matched with their adverse health-related events. This suggests that what was diagnosed as fluorosis were non-fluoride related DDEs that resemble fluorosis. Discussion. The frequently used measures of fluorosis appear to overscore fluorosis. Use of ECEL method to consider health related events relevant to DDEs could help to differentiate between genuine fluorosis and fluorosis-resembling defects. PMID:26966672

  14. Thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of ligamentum flavum of which fluorosis as an etiology factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jing

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the clinical feature, operative method and prognosis of thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum caused by skeletal fluorosis. Methods All the patients with thoracic OLF, who underwent surgical management in the authors' hospital from 1993–2003, were retrospectively studied. The diagnosis of skeletal fluorosis was made by the epidemic history, clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, and urinalysis. En bloc laminectomy decompression of the involved thoracic levels was performed in all cases. Cervical open door decompression or lumbar laminectomy decompression was performed if relevant stenosis existed. The neurological statuses were evaluated with the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA scoring system preoperatively and at the end point of follow up. Also, the recovery rate was calculated. Results 23 cases have been enrolled in this study. Imaging study findings showed all the cases have ossification of ligamentum flavum together with ossification of many other ligaments and interosseous membranes, i.e. interosseous membranes of the forearm in 18 of 23 (78.3%, of the leg in 14 of 23 (60.1% and of the ribs in 11 of 23 (47.8%. Urinalysis showed markedly increased urinary fluoride in 14 of 23 patients (60.9%. All the patients were followed up from 12 months to 9 years and 3 months, with an average of 4 years and 5 months. The JOA score increased significantly at the end of follow up (P = 0.0001. The recovery rate was 51.83 ± 32.36%. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the preoperative JOA score was an important predictor of surgical outcome (p = 0.0022, r = 0.60628. ANOVA analysis showed that patients with acute onset or too long duration had worse surgical result (P = 0.0003. Conclusion Fluorosis can cause ossification of thoracic ligamentum flavum, as well as other ligaments. En bloc laminectomy decompression was an effective method. Preoperative JOA score was the most important predictor of surgical

  15. Microabrasion as treatment of enamel fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Caroline Brito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a trend in favor of using fluoride as a coadjuvant in reducing caries indexes, as much in underdeveloped as in developedcountries. However, simultaneously the indexes of dental fluorosis seem to grow in an inverse proportion. This is brought about by chronic ingestion of fluoride for a prolonged length of time or in high concentration. Enamel microabrasion is an effective method to remove superficial stains caused by this condition, which affects esthetics of that tissue. The use of 18% hydrochloric acid in association with pumice, despite being a simple and low cost method, has been gradually replaced due to its potential of causing damage to periodontal tissues. Thus, this article reports the treatment of a fluorosis clinical case solved with microabrasion using phosphoric acid 37%, because its costbenefit is supposedly better than with chloridric acid. The deliberate ingestion of toothpaste was the probable cause of the tooth stains. Due to the location of the teeth and to the patient’s smile, only the six upper anterior teeth were selected to receive the proposed treatment. Four clinical sessions, with a seven days interval between each other, were carried out using 37% phosphoric acid and pumice. Under rubber dam isolation, the two first sessions consisted of rubbing the acid-pumice mix on enamel surface using a rubber cup on slow speed, and abrasive paper strips on the interproximal tooth surfaces. On the two final sessions, only finishing touches were performed using a wooden spatula to manually rub the acid-pumice paste.

  16. 2010年山东省地方性氟中毒病情调查%Investigation on endemic fluorosis condition of Shandong province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 李亨祥; 刘源

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the status of endemic fluorosis condition in Shandong province at present, and to provide the scientific evidence for making strategies for the prevention and control. Methods In accordance with the national "Technology Implementation Plan for Endemic Disease Control Project in 2009" and "drinking water endemic fluorosis monitoring program (trial) ", Ten counties were chosen to carry out the investigation, three villages were chosen in each county , to determine fluoride content of drinking water, check the 8 to 12 years old childrens dental fluorosis and ≥ 25 -year -old adult skeletal fluorosis. Water fluoride content was determined by fluoride ion selective electrode method, children aged 8 to 12 were diagnosed with dental fluorosis Dean s method and adults skeletal fluorosis by the National Standard for "Diagnosis of endemic skeletal fluorosis" (WS 192 -2008). Results Twenty - six improved water quality villages and four yet no improve - water quality villages were investigated in 10 counties. In the 26 improved water quality villages, 15 villages had water fluoride mean ≤ 1.20 mg / L and accounted for 57. 69% , 11 villages had water fluoride mean > 1. 20 mg / L and accounted for 42. 31%, with the maximum water fluoride mean as 5. 58 mg/ L. In the 4 yet no improve - water quality villages, 1 village had water fluoride mean ≤ 1. 20 mg / L and accounted for 25. 00%, 3 villages had water fluoride mean > 1.20 mg / L and accounted for 75.00% , with the maximum water fluoride mean as 2.92 mg/ L. 1 331 children aged 8 to 12 years old were checked in the 26 improved water villages, with the detection rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8 to 12 years old was 59. 73%, the index of dental fluorosis as 1. 17 and the rate of dental damage as 10. 14%. 138 children aged 8 to 12 years old were checked in 4 yet no improve - water quality villages, with the detection rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8 to 12 years old was 51. 45

  17. Dental fluorosis associated with chronic ingestion of dentifrices – what health professionals should know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Virginia Dutra de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on two cases of dental fluorosis caused by inadvertent ingestion of fluoridated dentifrice. An eight-year-old child showed whitish spots and loss of dental enamel in first permanent molars and whitish spots without structure loss in permanent incisors and primary second molars, whereas a fourteen-year-old teenager showed whitish spots in all permanent teeth. In both cases, homologue teeth were affected similarly and mothers did not report on the use of fluoride supplements during pregnancy or children’s infancy. The water fluoridation of the city where they live is considered optimal. Both patients reported eating dentifrice frequently during tooth brushing and in other occasions. Mothers also stated that they did not receive instructions about oral hygiene or about the fact that chronic ingestion of dentifrice could contribute to the development of dental fluorosis. It is believed that the cooperative work between dentists and other health professionals is a way to prevent the occurrence of this condition.

  18. Study on the Situation of the Endemic Fluorosis Control Efficiency after the Water Improvement in Qingtongxia City%青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后防治效果调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕楠; 赵红梅; 李小军; 李胜玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of water improvement aimed at eliminating the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia, Ningxia. Methods By applying epidemiological sample survey melhuds, 670 children were examined in dental fluorosis and 1 400 adults (>25 years) were examined in skeletal fluorosis in Yesheng of Yesheng township, the water-mprovement area where endemic fluorosis was seriously prevailed, Xinqiao of Daba township which was mild endemic fluorosis area, and Huashigou of Daba township which was non-water-improvement area. Results The fluoride content in drinking water of Yesheng,Xinqiao and Huashiguu were (0.24±0.05) , (0.32±0.07) and (1.03±0.19) mg/L. The dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in water-improvenment areas increased significantly than that in non-water-improvement area (P<0.05). Conclusion After water improvement,drinking water fluoride levels decrease, dental fluorosis is still prevalent in certain degree in the endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia, Ningxia.%目的 了解青铜峡市饮水型地方性氟中毒病区改水后儿童氟斑牙及成人氟骨症的患病情况.方法 选择已改水的高氟重病区叶盛镇叶盛5队(改水区1)、高氟轻病区大坝镇新桥5队(改水区2)和未改水的高氟轻病区大坝镇滑石沟5队(未改水区).于2011年3-4月,对全部670名儿童进行氟斑牙诊断并对所有25岁以上成人共1400名进行氟骨症诊断.结果两个改水区水氟浓度分别为(0.24±0.05)、(0.32±0.07) mg/L,均合格;未改水区水氟浓度为(1.03±0.19)mg/L.改水地区儿童氟斑牙患病率和成人氟骨症患病率均低于未改水地区,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区经改水降氟后,饮用水符合卫生要求,但氟斑牙及氟骨症尚存在一定程度的流行.

  19. Fluoride Exposure Effects and Dental Fluorosis in Children in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Gaona, Enrique; Angulo, Marina; Sánchez Pérez, Leonor; González González, Rogelio; Nevarez Rascón, Martina; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-11-26

    BACKGROUND The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and to evaluate exposure to fluoridated products in students in the southwest part of the Federal District (Mexico City). MATERIAL AND METHODS Students between 10 and 12 years of age who were born and raised in the study zone were evaluated. The level of dental fluorosis was determined using the modified Dean index (DI) using criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). A bivariate analysis was performed with the χ2 test, and odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between dental fluorosis and the independent variables. RESULTS A total of 239 students were evaluated. Their mean age was 11±0.82 years, and there were 122 (51%) males. Overall, dental fluorosis was found in 59% of participants; 29.3% had very mild fluorosis, 20.9% had mild fluorosis, 6.7% had moderate fluorosis, and 2.1% had severe fluorosis. The mean fluorosis score was 0.887±0.956. In the final logistic regression model, dental fluorosis was significantly associated with frequency of brushing (OR: 0.444; 95% CI: 0.297-0.666) and with the absence of parental supervision (OR: 0.636; 95% CI: 0.525-0.771). CONCLUSIONS The association found with frequency of brushing and lack of parental supervision may be contributing to the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis.

  20. Enamel microabrasion for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Moda, Preeti; Yadav, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Fluorosis has increased in recent times due to fluoridation of drinking water and addition of fluoride to various edible items, which leads to unaesthetic appearance of teeth visible at close quarters. The enamel microabrasion technique is a conservative method that improves the appearance of the teeth by restoring bright and superficial smoothness, without causing significant structural loss. The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing mild to moderate dental fluorosis using Opalustre (Ultradent Products) microabrasion slurry. This conservative approach may be considered an interesting alternative to more invasive prosthetic techniques like composite resin restorations, ceramic veneers or crown fabrications. PMID:24121810

  1. Enamel microabrasion for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Moda, Preeti; Yadav, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Fluorosis has increased in recent times due to fluoridation of drinking water and addition of fluoride to various edible items, which leads to unaesthetic appearance of teeth visible at close quarters. The enamel microabrasion technique is a conservative method that improves the appearance of the teeth by restoring bright and superficial smoothness, without causing significant structural loss. The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing mild to moderate dental fluorosis using Opalustre (Ultradent Products) microabrasion slurry. This conservative approach may be considered an interesting alternative to more invasive prosthetic techniques like composite resin restorations, ceramic veneers or crown fabrications.

  2. Surveillance analysis of drinking water borne fluorosis in Tibet autonomous region in 2009%2009年西藏自治区饮水型氟中毒病情监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何风珍; 郭敏; 旦增桑布; 尼玛仓决; 白玛央金

    2011-01-01

    functioning of water improvement projects, drinking water fluoride content, children's dental fluorosis and adult skeletal fluorosis were investigated. Water fluoride was detected by the "standard examination methods for drinking water the non-metallic targets"(GB/T 5750.6-2006) determination of fluoride; urinary fluoride was tested by ion selective electrode (WS/T 89-1996); dental fluorosis was diagnosed using Deans method; adult skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed by "endemic skeletal fluorosis clinical diagnostic criteria" (WS 192-2008). Results Mean water fluoride was 0.18 - 0.34 mg/L in drinking water changed areas, and 0.70 - 2.13 mg/L in not changed areas; prevalence of dental fluorosis of children 8 - 10 was 50.78% (65/128), dental fluorosis index was 1.04,mean urinary fluoride was 1.64 mg/L in drinking water changed areas; prevalence of dental fluorosis of children 8 -10 years old was 80.65%(25/31 ) in not changed areas, dental fluorosis index was 1.50, mean urinary fluoride of children was 2.08; adult clinical skeletal fluorosis was 38.7%(104/269) in drinking water changed areas, the mean urinary fluoride was 1.61 mg/L, prevalence of skeletal fluorosis was 15.4% (18/117) in not changed areas, mean urinary fluoride was 3.54 mg/L. Conclusions The method of change the water to reduce fluoride decreases dental fluorosis to control levels, and severity is also reduced, urinary fluoride is decreased. However, the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis is higher than that of drinking water not changed areas.

  3. Investigation of children's intelligence quotient and dental fluorosis in drinking water-type of endemic fluorosis area in Pucheng county Shaanxi province before and after drinking water change%陕西省蒲城县饮水型地方性氟中毒病区改水前后儿童智商及氟斑牙患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺明侠; 张崇农

    2010-01-01

    Objective To further understand the effect of anti-fluoride water on intellectual development of children and dental fluorosis in drinking water-type of endemic fluorosis area Pucheng county Shaanxi province.Methods Two hundred 8 to 12 years old children were randomly selected in endemic fluorosis area with changed water or unchanged water, in 2009 in Pucheng county Shaanxi province. Intelligence quotient(IQ) of children was measured by Raven's test. Children's dental fluorosis was examined by Dean's classification scheme. Results The rates of child dental fluorosis in changed water and unchanged water endemic fluorosis areas were 28.50%(57/200), 87.88%(203/231) , respectively, the difference was statistically significant(x2 = 159.19, P< 0.01),while dental fluorosis indices were 0.57,1.97, was marginal, moderate epidemic. Children with IQ above 90 was accounted for 89.5% (179/200), 91.5% (183/200) in changed water and unchanged water endemic fluorosis area,respectively, the difference was not significant (x2 = 0.46, P > 0.05). Conclusions Changed water may decrease the incidence of child dental fluorosis, but has no obvious effect on children's IQ development in endemic fluorosis area.%目的 了解防氟改水前后陕西省蒲城县饮水型地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)病区儿童智力发育和氟斑牙患病情况.方法 2009年,在陕西省蒲城县饮水型地氟病病区中,从改水与未改水病区各抽取8~12岁儿童200名,采用瑞文测验进行儿童智商测定,Dean法进行儿童氟斑牙检查.结果 改水和未改水病区儿童氟斑牙检出率分别为28.50%(57/200)、87.88%(203/231),两者比较差异有统计学意义(x2=159.19,P<0.01);氟斑牙指数分别为0.57、1.97,呈边缘、中等流行.改水病区智商≥90的儿童占89.5%(179/200),而未改水病区占91.5%(183/200),两者比较差异无统计学意义(x2=0.46,P>0.05).结论 防氟改水明显降低病区儿童氟斑牙的发生,但对儿童智力发育作用不明显.

  4. Determination of fluorosis prevalence in rural communities  of East Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour Feizi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intake of high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water can cause dental fluorosis. In this study, the prevalence of dental fluorosis in rural communities of East Azerbaijan Province was studied. Materials and Methods: 3 villages of Bashsizkooh, Bostanabad (fluoride concentration in drinking water = 0.12 mg/L, Nagharehkub,  Ahar (current water resource = 0.6 mg/L, old water resource = 1.1-1.2 mg/L, and Gharehbolaq, Jolfa (current water resource = 0.35 mg/L and old water resource = 2.4 mg/L old source were selected as low, medium, and high exposure to fluoride respectively. All village residents above 6 years old were visited by physician. Quality of water resources was determined by referring to the records archived and through conducting new analysis.Results: Dental fluorosis was observed in 62.7 % of the people visited. In 31.5% of participants, fluorosis Grade 1; in 22.4 % of participants, fluorosis grade 2; in 7.7 % of participants, fluorosis grade 3; and finally fluorosis grade 4 was observed in 4 patients. Different levels of fluorosis were observed in residents of the villages of Gharebolaq, Nagharehkub, and Bashsizkooh (83.3%, 70.5 %, and 32.5 % respectively. There was a significant difference in prevalence of fluorosis between villages (P < 0.001. Fluorosis was observed in both permanent and temporary teeth. Mean cumulative fluoride index (MCFI in people with and without fluorosis was 22660.2 and 4743.2 mg, respectively. There was a correlation between this index and fluorosis (R =0.413. Conclusion: In all three villages studied, even Bashsizkooh, different grades of fluorosis were endemic. It is recommended that the responsible authorities take a  new measure and approach  for the intake of fluoride from drinking water.

  5. Dental fluorosis severity in a group of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Yukie Fujibayashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in a group of school children in the city of Campo do Tenente (Parana, Brazil in order to compare the mean fluoride concentration in public water supply and discuss the effective values for fluoridation of water supply, as well as, the need of control of fluoride concentration within the water consumed by population. Material and methods: Firstly, 362 children enrolled in regular public schools, at elementary level, were examined by a single researcher, previously calibrated for Dean’s index application. From these, 90 children were affected by some degree of fluorosis, but only 40 returned the signed free and clarified consent form for participating in the research. Results: It was found that 42.5% of the children presented mild fluorosis and 32.5% moderate fluorosis. Moreover, it was observed that the average fluoride concentration in public water supply, in 2004, was 1.7 ppm of fluoride. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the need of a closer supervision of the city situation, by the inclusion of fluoridation external control and constant monitoring of the oral health status of the population.

  6. Endemic fluorosis in Jilin province: analysis of surveillance data for 2006 - 2010%2006-2010年吉林省地方性氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 卢振明; 唐红艳; 张秀丽; 房联营

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify changes in the occurrence of endemic fluorosis in order to provide scientific basis for making countermeasures. Methods Five villages from 14 counties of mild, moderate and severe fluorosis affected areas were selected by stratified cluster sampling every year in the whole province during 2006 - 2010. Water and urinary fluorine were determined by ion selective electrode method(GB/T 8538-1995); dental fluorosis of children 8-12 years old was diagnosed with Dean method; skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed according to "clinical indexing standards of endemic skeletal fluorosis "(GB 16396-1996), between 2006 and 2008, and "clinical diagnosis standard of endemic skeletal fluorosis"(WS 192-2008) between 2009 and 2010. Results A total of 25 diseased villages were surveyed, 14 with water sources changed, covered a resident population of 8005 people, beneficiary population 7154, and accounting for 89.37% of the resident population; not changed villages 11. In accordance with the "State drinking water health standards", in the 14 changed villages the fluoride in drinking water was qualified (≤ 1.20 mg/L), there were 3 schools whose water fluorine content exceeded the standard; among the 11 villages that did not change water sources 7 drinking water samples fluorine content exceeded the standard. Of the 8 to 12 years old children in villages with changed water sources, 363 of them were checked and 142 dental fluorosis were found, the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 39.12% (142/363); in villages with water sources not changed, 303 children were checked, the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 43.89%(133/303). Of sixteen and elder adults in water source changed villages, 6424 people were checked and 403 skeletal fluorosis were found, skeletal fluorosis detection rate was 6.27% (403/6424); 3572 people were checked in not changed villages, the detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 13.89%(496/3572). In water sources changed areas, geometric mean

  7. Dental fluorosis in Chilean children: evaluation of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, A E; Guerrero, S; Icaza, G; Villalobos, J; Anabalón, M

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to determine the association between very-mild-to-moderate enamel fluorosis and exposure during early childhood to fluoridated water, mainly through ingestion of powdered milk. Analysis was performed on 136 residents of the optimally fluoridated community of San Felipe in the Chilean Fifth Region, who were categorised into one of three groups according to their age when water fluoridation was introduced in 1986: Group I was born after 1986; Group II was 16-24 months old in 1986; and Group III was >24 months of age. The case and control subjects were selected on the basis of a clinical examination given in July 1996. Dean's scoring system was used to determine fluorosis status. Risk factor exposure was ascertained by a questionnaire used in interviews with mothers of participating children. Logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for confounding variables, revealed that very-mild-to-moderate enamel fluorosis of permanent central maxillary incisors (CMI) was strongly associated both with the age of the subjects when water fluoridation began and with breast-feeding duration for children belonging to Group I. Subjects in Group I were 20.44 times more likely (95% CI: 5.00-93.48) to develop CMI fluorosis than children who were older than 24 months (Group III) when fluoridation began. Subjects who were between 16 and 24 months old when water fluoridation began were 4.15 times more likely (95% CI: 1.05-16.43) to have CMI fluorosis than children older than 24 months. An inverse association was found with breastfeeding duration (OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.75-0.98) among Group I subjects but not in Groups II and III. Results obtained suggest that the current fluoride concentration in drinking water may be contributing to fluorosis. Further studies will be necessary to determine the relative competing risks of dental fluorosis and dental caries in Chilean children in order to establish the most appropriate water fluoridation level in

  8. Monitoring result of drinking water-born endemic fluorosis in Jiaozuo City during 2009-2012%2009-2012年焦作市饮水型地方性氟中毒监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小利; 冉伟霞; 毋燕; 马敏英

    2013-01-01

    questionnaire. 10 water improvement projects were randomly sampled from Wuzhi County every year, so as to survey the operation condition. One water sample was collected from each project to detect the concentration of fluoride in drinking water. 5 fluorosis villages were randomly sampled, in order to monitor the general condition, incidence rate of dental fluorosis among students aged 8-12 years old and skeletal fluorosis among people over 25 years old. The collection and preservation of water samples were conducted based on the Standard examination methods for drinking water (GB/T 5750.2 -2006). The concentration of fluoride in drinking water was tested according to the Standard examination methods for drinking water ( GB/T 5750.5 -2006). Dean's method was applied on the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. The clinical and x-ray diagnosis for skeletal fluorosis was based on the Diagnosis standard of endemic fluorosis (WS 192-2008). [Results]The rate of water improvement in fluorosis villages was 80.48% , and 637 000 people have benefited from it. 30 water improvement projects were monitored, all of them run well. The concentrations of fluoride in 25 projects were qualified with the qualified rate of 83. 33% . The detection rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8-12 years showed a downward trend, but the difference in detection rate was statistically significant in only one village ( x2 =9. 92 ,P <0.05). 40 cases of skeletal fluorosis were found with the detection rate of 26. 67% , and all were mild cases. [ Conclusion] The progress of water improvement projects in drinking water-born endemic fluorosis areas in Jiaozuo City should be accelerated. The cooperation of health department and water resources department need to be strengthened, and it is important to ensure the qualified rate of water improvement projects. The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8-12 years had an unobvious decrease, so it is necessary to improve the monitoring, pay attention to

  9. Relation between dental fluorosis and intelligence quotient in school children of Bagalkot district

    OpenAIRE

    P K Shivaprakash; Kushagra Ohri; Hina Noorani

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted on 160 children, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka state between August and October 2010, with the aim of finding out if there is a relation between dental fluorosis status and Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Children were categorized as, those suffering from dental fluorosis and those not suffering from dental fluorosis and for all children in both categories, Intelligence testing was done using the Raven′s Coloured Progressive Matrices. The following observations we...

  10. The investigation of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Hebei province in 2009%2009年河北省饮水型地方性氟中毒病情调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽辉; 徐栋; 马景; 杜永贵; 马东瑞; 姚光俊; 梁索理; 张津旗; 种振水; 赵君

    2011-01-01

    random sampling in Hebei in 2009. All affected villages in every county were divided into mild, moderate and severe endemic fluorosis areas and a village was randomly selected from each category of the area to carry out the monitoring of endemic fluorosis. Dental fluorosis of children aged 8 - 12 were examined and 6 copies of urine samples were randomly collected in each age group in the above-mentioned villages. Clinical skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed among adults aged 16 and over and 20 copies of urine samples were tested for fluorosis in every village.Results A total of 112 affected villages were investigated, among which the drinking water quality of 66 villages were improved and 46 villages were not improved. A total of 236 copies of water samples from the 66 villages were measured and the fluoride content ranged from 0.1 to 4.3 mg/L, among which 20 copies of water samples exceeded the fluorine standard of 1.2 mg/L, accounting for 33.3%. A total of 230 copies of water samples were collected in the 46 villages and the fluoride content ranged from 0.2 to 4.6 mg/L, among which 76.1% (35/46) of the water samples exceeded the fluorine standard of 1.2 mg/L. A total of 5169 children aged 8 - 12 were examined of dental fluorosis, the dental fluorosis rate was 36.43%(1883/5169) and the dental fluorosis index was 0.81. A sum of 71 497 adults aged over 16 years were examined, and the rate of skeletal fluorosis was 4.81%(3438/71 497), moderate or severe clinical detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 1.56%( 1114/71 497). A total of 2876 copies of children urine samples and 2021 copies of adult urine samples were tested and the geometric mean of fluoride content was 2.30,3.32 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of dental fluorosis of children in the areas with improved water is less than 30% and the rate of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis decline gradually with time.The rate of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis increases with the increase of water

  11. Analysis of coalsmoke-borne endemic fluorosis control in Ziyang County, Shaanxi Province from 1991 to 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiao Li; Bai Guang Lu; Ma Chang An; Fan Zhong Xue [Shaanxi Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Research, Xi' an (China)

    2004-07-01

    The monitoring data of coal-burning fluorosis during 1991-95, obtained from Ziyang county, Shaanxi, China, were analysed. The level of fluorosis in indoor air and food was still higher than the national standard. 2 ref.

  12. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  13. The control of coal-burning fluorosis in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, P.S. [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China)

    1997-11-01

    The distribution and main causes of the coal-burning type of endemic fluorosis in China have been identified from epidemiological investigations. Local residents absorb high doses of fluoride through the respiratory and/or digestive tract because of the incorrect use of high-fluoride coal in cooking, heating and drying of food. Effective preventive measures have been taken to minimise the harm, but more needs to be done.

  14. Fluoride Exposure Effects and Dental Fluorosis in Children in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Gaona, Enrique; Angulo, Marina; Sánchez Pérez, Leonor; González González, Rogelio; Nevarez Rascón, Martina; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and to evaluate exposure to fluoridated products in students in the southwest part of the Federal District (Mexico City). MATERIAL AND METHODS Students between 10 and 12 years of age who were born and raised in the study zone were evaluated. The level of dental fluorosis was determined using the modified Dean index (DI) using criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). A bivariate analysis was performed with the χ2 test, and odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between dental fluorosis and the independent variables. RESULTS A total of 239 students were evaluated. Their mean age was 11±0.82 years, and there were 122 (51%) males. Overall, dental fluorosis was found in 59% of participants; 29.3% had very mild fluorosis, 20.9% had mild fluorosis, 6.7% had moderate fluorosis, and 2.1% had severe fluorosis. The mean fluorosis score was 0.887±0.956. In the final logistic regression model, dental fluorosis was significantly associated with frequency of brushing (OR: 0.444; 95% CI: 0.297-0.666) and with the absence of parental supervision (OR: 0.636; 95% CI: 0.525-0.771). CONCLUSIONS The association found with frequency of brushing and lack of parental supervision may be contributing to the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. PMID:26609898

  15. Diagnosing dental caries in populations with different levels of dental fluorosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvad, Bente; Machiulskiene, Vita; Fejerskov, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    concentrations of 0.3 and 1.1 ppm (0.3 and 1.1 mg/l) fluoride, respectively, 150 children were clinically examined twice, 2 wk apart, for dental fluorosis, using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TF index), and for dental caries using the Nyvad visual-tactile caries criteria. The prevalence of dental fluorosis...

  16. Role of stanniocalcin1 in brain injury of coal-burning-borne fluorosis rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭义

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the change of stanniocalcin 1(STC1) and calcium content in brain of coal-burning-borne fluorosis rats,and to explore the role of STC1 in brain injury of coal-burning-borne fluorosis.Methods Twenty four male SD rats were randomly divided into control,low,medium,

  17. Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and dental trauma amongst school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga de; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Rafael Inácio Pompeu; Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; Oliveira, Carolina de Castro; Lima, Carolina Veloso; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether there is an association with the different levels of dental fluorosis and the presence of dental trauma amongst school children. A transversal study was conducted amongst school children from the age of 12. Dental examinations were conducted by 24 well trained and fully qualified dental surgeons. Data was collected from 36 randomly selected public schools amongst 89 schools in a municipality. The criteria used to diagnose dental fluorosis was based on the Dean's fluorosis Index and for diagnosing dental trauma we looked for clinical signs of crown fractures and dental avulsions. Multiple descriptive analysis, which was bivariate, was carried out. Amongst the 2,755 school children that took part in the study 1,089 (39.6%) were diagnosed with dental fluorosis and 106 (3.8%) had one tooth or more with dental trauma. We noted a high prevalence of dental fluorosis, independent of the level of severity, amongst individuals with one tooth or more who had dental trauma. This association was even more evident where there were severely high levels of fluorosis. We also noted that the presence of fluorosis was greater amongst those that actively paid more attention to discoloration on their teeth and who received treatment from a dental professional at their schools. Nevertheless dental fluorosis was associated with the presence of dental trauma, independent of its severity. PMID:26960108

  18. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur City, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to find the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur city, Uttar Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1343 school children, residing in the city since childhood and consuming the groundwater, in the age group of 7-17 years was selected from various schools. Schools were selected from all four directions of the city. Children were categorized in five age groups and were examined for dental fluorosis. Dean′s criteria for assessment of dental fluorosis were used, and observations were recorded on a study specific performa. Results: Among the 1343 children examined, 243 (18% were found to be having dental fluorosis, among which number of males (131 was more than females (112. Among the different grades of fluorosis observed, mild dental fluorosis was observed in most of the cases (158. It was observed that the southern part of the city had a maximum number of cases of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: It was evident from the results that the city had a good number of cases of dental fluorosis and that the groundwater in certain areas had more than normal quantity of fluoride. Since this study was the first attempt in this area, more studies can be undertaken to substantiate our findings.

  19. Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and dental trauma amongst school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga de; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Rafael Inácio Pompeu; Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; Oliveira, Carolina de Castro; Lima, Carolina Veloso; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether there is an association with the different levels of dental fluorosis and the presence of dental trauma amongst school children. A transversal study was conducted amongst school children from the age of 12. Dental examinations were conducted by 24 well trained and fully qualified dental surgeons. Data was collected from 36 randomly selected public schools amongst 89 schools in a municipality. The criteria used to diagnose dental fluorosis was based on the Dean's fluorosis Index and for diagnosing dental trauma we looked for clinical signs of crown fractures and dental avulsions. Multiple descriptive analysis, which was bivariate, was carried out. Amongst the 2,755 school children that took part in the study 1,089 (39.6%) were diagnosed with dental fluorosis and 106 (3.8%) had one tooth or more with dental trauma. We noted a high prevalence of dental fluorosis, independent of the level of severity, amongst individuals with one tooth or more who had dental trauma. This association was even more evident where there were severely high levels of fluorosis. We also noted that the presence of fluorosis was greater amongst those that actively paid more attention to discoloration on their teeth and who received treatment from a dental professional at their schools. Nevertheless dental fluorosis was associated with the presence of dental trauma, independent of its severity.

  20. The impact of fluoride on ameloblasts and the mechanisms of enamel fluorosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.J.J. Bronckers; D.M. Lyaruu; P.K. Denbesten

    2009-01-01

    Intake of excess amounts of fluoride during tooth development cause enamel fluorosis, a developmental disturbance that makes enamel more porous. In mild fluorosis, there are white opaque striations across the enamel surface, whereas in more severe cases, the porous regions increase in size, with ena

  1. 2010年河北省饮水型地方性氟中毒监测结果分析%Analysis of an investigational result of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Hebei Province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽辉; 马景; 杜永贵; 马东瑞; 梁索理; 周朝辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the status of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis and the effect of preventive measures in Hebei Province,so as to provide a basis to prevent and cure fluorosis.Methods One affected county (city,district) with drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis was sampled in every city and 10 water improvement projects were investigated in that county.Three villages were taken out in every county.The operating state of the projects,the water fluoride content,and the dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 and skeletal fluorosis of adults were investigated in these villages.Results A total of 93 projects were investigated,among which 94.6%(88/93) were operating properly and the qualified rate(fluoride content ≤ 1.2 mg/L) of the projects was 54.84%(51/93).Among the 9 large projects,the water fluoride content of 7 projects exceeded 1.2 mg/L.A total of 23 villages with water improvement projects were investigated and only 43.4% (10/23) of them water fluoride content were lower than 1.2 mg/L.The dental fluorosis rate,the dental fluorosis index and the rate of skeletal fluorosis were 33.2% (532/1601),0.74 and 5.7% (66/1155),respectively.In the 7 villages without water improvement projects,2 of them exceeded 2.0 mg/L,but lower than and equal to 4.0 mg/L of water fluorosis and 5 of them were normal(< 1.2 mg/L).The dental fluorosis rate,the dental fluorosis index and the rate of skeletal fluorosis were 33.4% (111/332),0.72 and 2.9% (10/350),respectively.Conclutions The qualified rate of water improvement projects of fluoride content ≤ 1.2 mg/L is low and the endemic fluorosis is still comparatively serious in Hebei Province.The progress of water improvement projects in the areas with endemic fluorosis should be accelerated and the quality of water improvement projects should be increased.%目的 了解饮水型地方性氟中毒的病情动态,评价防治措施的落实效果,为及时调整防治策略提供科学依据.方法

  2. Skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  3. DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, PARENTS' KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AMONG 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOL CHILDREN IN QUETTA, PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its relationship to socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness among 12-year-old school children in Quetta, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among 349 school children aged 12 years in Quetta, Pakistan. By interviewing children and questionnaire for parents, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness of fluorosis were collected. Dental fluorosis was examined using Dean's Index and Community Fluorosis Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was high (63.6%) among children with a majority of moderate and mild degree at 32.1% and 27.5%, respectively. The community fluorosis index was 1.6. While most children and parents had low-to-moderate levels of fluorosis knowledge, the majority of them worried about dental fluorosis. Most parents (84.8%) were uncertain about the condition of fluorosis in their children, and 87.4% did not know about fluorosis before. Dental fluorosis was found significantly associated with gender, family income, and parents' awareness (p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, and parent's awareness significantly predicted children's dental fluorosis. Knowledge and basic information regarding dental fluorosis is lacking in the community. Efforts in dissemination and communication about dental fluorosis should be increased in order to raise awareness and prevent the dental fluorosis in Pakistan. PMID:26513940

  4. DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, PARENTS' KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AMONG 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOL CHILDREN IN QUETTA, PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its relationship to socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness among 12-year-old school children in Quetta, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among 349 school children aged 12 years in Quetta, Pakistan. By interviewing children and questionnaire for parents, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness of fluorosis were collected. Dental fluorosis was examined using Dean's Index and Community Fluorosis Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was high (63.6%) among children with a majority of moderate and mild degree at 32.1% and 27.5%, respectively. The community fluorosis index was 1.6. While most children and parents had low-to-moderate levels of fluorosis knowledge, the majority of them worried about dental fluorosis. Most parents (84.8%) were uncertain about the condition of fluorosis in their children, and 87.4% did not know about fluorosis before. Dental fluorosis was found significantly associated with gender, family income, and parents' awareness (p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, and parent's awareness significantly predicted children's dental fluorosis. Knowledge and basic information regarding dental fluorosis is lacking in the community. Efforts in dissemination and communication about dental fluorosis should be increased in order to raise awareness and prevent the dental fluorosis in Pakistan.

  5. Renal proteome in mice with different susceptibilities to fluorosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Guimarães Carvalho

    Full Text Available A/J and 129P3/J mouse strains have different susceptibilities to dental fluorosis due to their genetic backgrounds. They also differ with respect to several features of fluoride (F metabolism and metabolic handling of water. This study was done to determine whether differences in F metabolism could be explained by diversities in the profile of protein expression in kidneys. Weanling, male A/J mice (susceptible to dental fluorosis, n = 18 and 129P3/J mice (resistant, n = 18 were housed in pairs and assigned to three groups given low-F food and drinking water containing 0, 10 or 50 ppm [F] for 7 weeks. Renal proteome profiles were examined using 2D-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. Quantitative intensity analysis detected between A/J and 129P3/J strains 122, 126 and 134 spots differentially expressed in the groups receiving 0, 10 and 50 ppmF, respectively. From these, 25, 30 and 32, respectively, were successfully identified. Most of the proteins were related to metabolic and cellular processes, followed by response to stimuli, development and regulation of cellular processes. In F-treated groups, PDZK-1, a protein involved in the regulation of renal tubular reabsorption capacity was down-modulated in the kidney of 129P3/J mice. A/J and 129P3/J mice exhibited 11 and 3 exclusive proteins, respectively, regardless of F exposure. In conclusion, proteomic analysis was able to identify proteins potentially involved in metabolic handling of F and water that are differentially expressed or even not expressed in the strains evaluated. This can contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic susceptibility to dental fluorosis, by indicating key-proteins that should be better addressed in future studies.

  6. 农安县地方性氟中毒病情调查结果分析%Research result of the prevalent state of endemic fluorosis area of in Nongan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾华

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unde(Changchun City Center for Disease Control and prevention of rstand the prevatent state of endemic fluorosis in Nongan County,advance of work in prevention and cure of endemic fluorosis,and to provide science basis to deep going of prevention and treatment of endemic fluorosis.Methods The place of research was selected in slight,medium,serious areas and non-disease area of whole county used to method of flock lay-ering sampling,10%of the samples were extracted to investigate water fluoride content were detected , dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis clinical examination.Results The farmers were detected in 30 wards County resident and non-endemic fluoride content of drinking water , in line with the national drinking water standard for fluoride content in only three villages , accounting for 10%, 90%of the survey area than the national standard . Light ward where the fluorine content 0.63-1.77 (mg/L), the fluorine content in the ward 0.75-1.96 (mg/L), illness district fluorine content of 0.87-2.46 (mg/L);each survey area aged 7-12 ages dental fluorosis result of the comparison data , the detection rate of dental fluorosis 26.44%, P=0.042,*P<0.05;each survey area skeletal fluorosis data comparison of results of skeletal fluorosis detection rate of 28.28%, P=0.032,*P<0.05, explain differences were statistically significant.Conclusion As the county's water improvement work , Ward masses mostly on low-fluoride drinking water , fluoride content of the water reached the national standard , lower detection rate of dental fluorosis , skeletal fluorosis prevalence of clinical reduced effective control Nong'an endemic fluorosis occurrence and development.%目的:调查了解农安县地方性氟中毒病情现状及防治方法,为深入开展地方性氟中毒的防治提供依据。方法采用分层随机抽样方法,在全县的轻病区、中病区、重病区和非病区分别抽取10%的样本进行调查,分别进行水中氟含量检测、氟斑牙

  7. Características generales de la fluorosis dental

    OpenAIRE

    Josefa Calderón Betancourt; Naise López Larquin; Ana María Dobarganes Coca

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, utilizando los recursos disponibles desde la red infomed, con el objetivo de describir las características generales de la fluorosis dental. Esta es la hipomineralización del esmalte dental y tiene tres formas de presentación: leve, moderada y severa. Su cuadro clínico esta dado principalmente por manchas blanquecinas que cubre una mínima superficie del diente, hasta manchas de color café oscuro y su complicación más temida es la fractura que causa una a...

  8. Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in Chinese rural adults with dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Cheng, R; Cheng, G; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) among residents of rural China with dental fluorosis aged 30-69 years. A village located in northern China in which dental fluorosis was common was selected. Some 1250 residents with fluorosis ranging in age from 30 to 69 years completed a structured questionnaire and underwent clinical examination. Diagnosis of DH was based on the combination of the subject's self-evaluation and clinical examination. Dental fluorosis was evaluated using Dean's index (DI). In the village, the fluoride concentration in drinking water was 1.15-1.50 mg L(-1) . The community fluorosis index was 1.47, and 74 (9.7%) of the participants with dental fluorosis were diagnosed with DH. There was no significant difference between men and women. DH was most commonly observed in the lower incisors, and the most common cause of DH was cold stimulation. Logistic regression analysis showed acid reflux to be the only risk factor for DH in the current study. Among subjects with DH, none took treatment measures, visited a hospital or clinic, or used antisensitivity toothpaste. The prevalence of DH in the selected subjects with dental fluorosis was 9.7%. Acid reflux was found to be a risk factor for DH in the current study.

  9. Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in Chinese rural adults with dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Cheng, R; Cheng, G; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) among residents of rural China with dental fluorosis aged 30-69 years. A village located in northern China in which dental fluorosis was common was selected. Some 1250 residents with fluorosis ranging in age from 30 to 69 years completed a structured questionnaire and underwent clinical examination. Diagnosis of DH was based on the combination of the subject's self-evaluation and clinical examination. Dental fluorosis was evaluated using Dean's index (DI). In the village, the fluoride concentration in drinking water was 1.15-1.50 mg L(-1) . The community fluorosis index was 1.47, and 74 (9.7%) of the participants with dental fluorosis were diagnosed with DH. There was no significant difference between men and women. DH was most commonly observed in the lower incisors, and the most common cause of DH was cold stimulation. Logistic regression analysis showed acid reflux to be the only risk factor for DH in the current study. Among subjects with DH, none took treatment measures, visited a hospital or clinic, or used antisensitivity toothpaste. The prevalence of DH in the selected subjects with dental fluorosis was 9.7%. Acid reflux was found to be a risk factor for DH in the current study. PMID:24484047

  10. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in the district of Salem, Tamil Nadu, South India: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Ramesh; Shankar, R.; Ramesh Krishnan; Narasimhan Malathi; Rita Mary Aruna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tamil Nadu is one of the 18 states affected by fluorosis in India. The maximum tolerance limit of fluoride in drinking water specified by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1984) is 1.5 mg/l while it is proved to be above in many areas of Salem. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the following study is to identify the prevalence of dental fluorosis among children in the district of Salem. To compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis between different sexes and age groups. Materials...

  11. Analysis of a survey results on drinking brick-tea type fluorosis in Hainan Prefecture of Qinghai Province in 2013%2013年青海省海南州饮茶型氟中毒流行现况调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喇翠玲; 魏生英; 陈萍; 杨萍; 姜泓; 李生梅; 赵元博; 马静; 张强

    2016-01-01

    investigation in four countries,Gonghe,Tongde,Guinan and Xinghai,3 townships and 1 town in each county were selected,and 2 villages were selected from each townships.Dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12was examined,and their urine samples were collected,urine fluorine content was determined at each site;the situation of the dental fluorosis and the skeletal fluorosis of adults over 16 years old were examined,and their urine samples were collected,urine fluorine content was determined at each site;the samples of brick-tea water and the samples of drinking water were collected from the residents of each sits,and fluoride contents was detected.Dental fluorosis was determined by Dean method according to the "Diagnostic Criteria of Dental Fluorosis" (WS/T 208-2011);skeletal fluorosis wvas determined by "Diagnostic Criteria of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis" (WS 192-1999);the content of urinary fluorine was determined by "Determination of Fluoride in Urine-Ion Selective Electrode Method"(WS/T 89-1996);the content of water fluoride and tea water fluorine were determined by fluoride ion selective electrode method.Results ①Children dental fluorosis and the mean of urinary fluoride:A total of 1 824 children aged 8 to 12 were examined,238 cases were dental fluorosis,the rate of dental fluorosis was 13.05% (238/1 824),and the index of dental fluorosis was 0.27;1 824 urine samples of children were determined and geometric mean of urinary fluorine was 1.02 mg/L,the range was 0.09-5.77 mg/L.②Adult dental fluorosis,clinical skeletal fluorosis and the mean of urinary fluoride:a sum of 1 384 adults were examined,266 cases of dental fluorosis were detected,the rate of dental fluorosis was 19.22% (266/1 384),and the index of dental fluorosis was 0.45,clinical examination of skeletal fluorosis found degree Ⅰ patient 1 case,degree Ⅱ 3 cases and degree Ⅲ case,and the rate of skeletal fluorosis was 0.36% (5/1 384);1 384 adult urine samples were tested,and the geometric mean of urinary

  12. 2005-2007年陕西省饮用水含氟量和地方性氟中毒病情调查%Investigation of drinking water fluoride and fluorosis in Shaanxi Province from 2005 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱参胜; 陈彦菲

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate fluoride in drinking waters and fluorosis status and evaluate the effectiveness of fluoride-reducing projects in Shaanxi Province from 2005 to 2007. Methods In the Shaanxi province-wide, the 10 endemic areas of fluorosis were chosen according to historical data as focusing areas for investigation. The village was considered as investigation spot, 5 water samples were collected from each village for investigating of fluoride content. Four water samples were collected from each fluoride-reducing project for evaluating its effectiveness. Fluoride concentrations in drinking water were measured by fluoride-selective electrode method or speetrophotometry. When fluoride content in drinking water was greater than 1.00 mg/L, the epidemical study wasd conducted to investigate fluorosis patients, focusing on investigating of dental fluorosis prevalence in 8 to 12-year-old children and skeletal fluorosis prevalence in adults. Dental fluorosis of children was diagnosed by using Dean's method, and adult skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed according to National Standard for Clinical Diagnosis of Endemic Skeletal Fiuorosis(GB 16396-1996). Results The fluoride content in drinking water from 6390 villages was measured. The fluoride content of drinking water of 2619 villages ranged from 1.0 to1.00 mg/L的人群中进行地方性氟中毒流行病学调查,采用Dean法进行8~12岁儿童氟斑牙诊断,成人氟骨症按(GB16396-1996)诊断.结果 共测定6390个村的水源水含氟量,其中水氟在1.00~1.00 mg/L,为高氟水集中分布的地区.共检测了3115个改水工程水氟,其中水氟在1.00~<2.00 mg/L的有1269个,暴露人口为1 415 877人;水氟在2.00~<4.00 mg/L的有120个,暴露人口为43 888人:水氟≥4.00 mg/L的有14个,暴露人口为5960人.44 081名8~12岁儿童进行氟斑牙临床检查,检出16 489例氟斑牙患者,检出率为37.4%(16 489/44 081);对310 993名成人进行氟骨症临床检查,检出15 877例Ⅱ度

  13. Life history dictates fluorosis risk in a small mammal community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental lesions, due to fluorosis, previously have been reported in wild, male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) on an abandoned oil refinery located at the Oklahoma Refining Company in Cyril, Oklahoma. This study was expanded to include examinations of the fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), house mouse (Mus musculus), prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius), least shrew (Cryptotis parva), shorttailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), and deer mouse (Peromyscus spp.) at this same site. A sample of each species was collected form the contaminated refining site and a reference site with no known contamination. The authors grossly scored dentition of lower and upper incisors, microscopically examined cellular aberrations in ameloblasts and ondontoblasts, and quantified femur fluoride levels. Alterations in the lower and upper incisors were common in prairie voles, whose incisors possessed striations and erosion of the enamel and appeared chalky white. Incisors of animals taken from the reference site were normal. Patterns in occurrence of fluorosis and degree of enamel erosion was examined relative to the life history characteristics of the species

  14. 山西省临猗县饮水型地方性氟中毒与尿氟关系的研究%Study on relationship between drinking water endemic fluorosis and urine fluorine in Linyi county, Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁妍; 王素萍; 罗宏; 周继华; 王建武; 饶华祥; 柴冰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence for endemic fluorosis of drinking water type and to discuss the relationship between endemic fluorosis and urinary fluorine in Linyi county, Shanxi province. Methods In 2006, three counties were selected as heavy, medium and control areas according to the distributing feature of the disease. The dental fluorosis in each spots was examined by Dean method. The levels of urinary fluorine were determined by fluorine selective ion electrode. The skeletal fluorosis of adults were examined by X-ray. Results There was evident differences of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoresis among the heavy and the medium endemic fluorosis and control areas(X~2 = 410.945, P < 0.01 ), the prevalence of dental fluoresis in the medium area and the heavy area were 92.34% (253/274), 90.09% ( 291/323), significantly higher than in the control area[23.27% (64/275), X~2 = 274.927,268.287, all P < 0.01]. The heavy area had the highest rate of the skeletal fluorosis rate [59.75% (141/236) ], the medium area had the middle-level of the skeletal fluorosis rate[24.76%(52/210), X~2 = 183.578, P< 0.01]. Urine fluorine contents in both beavy[ (4.69 ± 0.17)mg/L] and medium areal (4.86 ± 0.13)mg/L] were higher than that in the control areas[ (1.75 ± 0.04)mg/L, H = 411.197, P< 0.01], and there was linear relevance between the different degree of skeletal fluorosis and urine fluorine contents (r = 0.508, P < 0.01). Conclusions The local fluoresis condition of Linyi county in Shanxi province was serious. The degree of skeletal fluorosis is associated with the fluoride content in urine.%目的 了解山西省临猗县饮水型地方性氟中毒的患病情况,探讨氟中毒与尿氟之间的关系,为当地饮水型地方性氟中毒的防治提供依据.方法 2006年在临猗县饮水型地方性氟中毒重、中病区和非病区各选取1个村作为调查点,采用Dean法和离子选择电极法对当地居民进行氟斑牙和尿氟检查,对病区30岁

  15. Multifocal Skeletal Tuberculosis Mimicking Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a Child: a Case Report With a Long-Term Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Jafroodi, Yousef; Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Pourghorban, Ramin; Sadeghian Dehkordy, Afarin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multifocal skeletal tuberculosis is a rare condition that may masquerade as Langerhans cell histiocytosis, especially in children. Case Presentation: We report a case of multifocal osseous tuberculosis in a 5-year-old female patient admitted to our hospital with a complaint of low back pain but no history of respiratory symptoms or malaise. Radiological findings included vertebra plana and multiple lytic lesions in both the frontal and pelvic bones. An initial diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis was made based on imaging findings; however, the patient underwent further evaluation for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and histopathologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The patient showed a nearly complete response after receiving a course of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is required for the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of patients with osseous tuberculosis. Given the high prevalence of tuberculosis in developing countries, tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multifocal lytic lesions and vertebra plana, especially in children. PMID:26744631

  16. 山东省济宁市地方性氟中毒防治现状调查%An survey of endemic fluorosis in Jining City, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘源; 郭瑞娟; 黄居梅; 王欣; 杨芳; 孙国栋

    2014-01-01

    included drinking water fluorine level; dental fluorosis of children,adults' clinical skeletal fluorosis and urinary fluorine levels; water and urinary fluoride content were determined by the method of fluoride ion selective electrode; dental fluorosis of children was diagnosed by Deans method and clinical diagnosis was based on the "Diagnostic Criteria of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis" (WS 192-2008).Results Sixty-one water samples from 15 villages of five counties (districts) were tested.Fluoride levels of 9 out of the 61 samples were exceeded the national standard (> 1.0 mg/L),and the rate was 14.75%; 1 sample > 2.0 mg/L,and the maximum water fluoride was 2.25 mg/L.Seven hundred and seventeen people's real time urinary fluoride was detected in the 15 villages,including 420 children and 297 adults,and the geometric mean were 1.53 and 1.69 mg/L,respectively.Clinical examination of 755 children aged 8 to 12 showed that the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 26.89% (203/755); defect rate was 9.12%(29/755) and dental fluorosis index weres 0.65.The detection rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis of 11 565 adults was 4.76%(550/11 565),including 303 moderate or serious cases.Conclusions The situation of excessive water fluorine in outside environment in Jining City has been controlled at a certain degree; groups urinary fluoride level is closed to the normal upper limit; the prevalence of dental fluorosis or skeletal fluorosis has been suppressed at a certain degree,therefore,the results of control should be further consolidated and expanded,in order to completely eliminate the fluoride hazard.

  17. Prevalence of dental caries in fluorosis areas of Shantou City Guangdong Province after water improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏源

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the relationship between children urine fluoride level,time of water supply improvement and detection rate of dental caries in fluorosis areas after water supply improvement.Methods The following

  18. Study on the association between environmental chemical elements and fluorosis caused by coal-fire pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦永卓

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the distribution of chemical elements in soil,to investigate the differences between patients under different state of fluorosis and normal population after preventive measurement was implemented to get rid of some chemical elements and to lower

  19. Osteo-dental fluorosis in relation to chemical constituents of drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L

    2012-01-01

    Study was conducted in 17 fluoride endemic villages to find out association between the prevalence and severity of osteo-dental fluorosis with different chemical constituents of drinking waters. These villages were arranged in 7 sets, each containing 2 to 3 villages with identical mean fluoride (F) concentrations in the range 1.0 to 5.8 mg/L but having different mean values of total hardness, alkalinity and nitrate (NO3) content in drinking water sources. A close association or relationship was found between the prevalence of fluorosis and the total hardness and alkalinity of potable waters. A low prevalence of fluorosis was found at low alkalinity and at high total hardness. But no specific association was observed between the prevalence figures of fluorosis with pH and NO3 levels which is also discussed in the present communication.

  20. Prevalence and Severity of Dental Fluorosis in the United States, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... community water fluoridation programs were developed to add fluoride to drinking water to reach an optimal level for preventing tooth ... dental fluorosis ( 4 , 5 ), paralleling the expansion of water ... of ingested fluoride, such as fluoride toothpaste (if swallowed) and fluoride ...

  1. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in school children of Bangarpet taluk, Kolar district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Narayanamurthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is an endemic disease resulting due to excess ingestion of fluoride. Ground water has been a significant water source for domestic, irrigating, and industrial purposes in India. India is placed in a geographical fluoride belt. Kolar, a drought prone area with semiarid climate, is one among 16 fluorosis endemic districts of Karnataka. Aims: To study the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children and to estimate the fluoride levels in drinking water sources. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school-going children. Materials and Methods: School-going children from two randomly selected schools of two randomly selected Panchayat areas of Kyasamballi and Gollahalli were studied in August 2011. All the children in these schools were evaluated for dental fluorosis based on Dean′s index. Fluoride levels of drinking water sources in these communities were estimated by ion-electrode method. Statistical analysis: The data were analyzed with Epi-info 7 statistical software and expressed in proportions. Chi-square test was employed to test the significance. Results: A total of 380 children in the age group of 6-15 years were studied. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 31.05%, predominant in females. The community fluorosis index was 0.718 indicating slight public health importances. The fluoride levels in drinking water sources exceeded 1.5 mg/L. Conclusion: Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kolar. High fluoride content in the sources of drinking water is the main reason for dental fluorosis, suggesting an urgent need for defluoridation of water sources with sustainable long-term measures in Kolar.

  2. Dental caries and endemic dental fluorosis in rural communities, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Melo Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227, 10 to 12 years (n = 153, 13 to 15 years (n = 92, 16 to 22 years (n = 39. For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF, dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0 and severity (TF 5. In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p 0.05. The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.

  3. Validation of fingernail fluoride concentration as a predictor of risk for dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalaf, M A R; Massaro, C S; Rodrigues, M H C; Fukushima, R; Pessan, J P; Whitford, G M; Sampaio, F C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the use of fingernail fluoride concentrations at ages 2-7 years as predictors of the risk for developing dental fluorosis in the permanent dentition. Fifty-six children of both genders (10-15 years of age) had their incisors and premolars examined for dental fluorosis using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index. Fingernail fluoride concentrations were obtained from previous studies when children were 2-7 years of age. Data were analyzed by unpaired t test, ANOVA, and Fisher's exact test when the fingernail fluoride concentrations were dichotomized (≤ 2 or >2 µg/g). Children with dental fluorosis had significantly higher fingernail fluoride concentrations than those without the condition, and the concentrations tended to increase with the severity of fluorosis (r(2) = 0.47, p fluorosis. The high positive predictive value indicates that fingernail fluoride concentrations should be useful in public health research, since it has the potential to identify around 80% of children at risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  4. Surface Structure Study of Crystal Hydroxy-Apatite from Fluorosis Enamels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdillah Imron Nasution

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis is a condition due to ingestion of excessive amounts of fluor which can cause the change in tooth structure and strength. However, there is still lack of explanation on the surface structure of crystal hydroxyapatite that influences the microscopic characteristic of fluorosis enamel. Objectives: To investigate the surface structure of crystal hydroxy-apatite in fluorosis enamel. Materials and Methods: Determination of fluor concentration and the surface structure of normal and fluorosis enamel specimen were carried out by using Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Disperse X-Ray (SEM/EDX. Results: Fluor concentration of fluorosis enamel was significantly higher with increased surface roughness and porosity than normal enamel. SEM observation also showed gaps areas between enamel rods and visible aprismatic zone in some regions. Conclusion: High level of fluor concentration on fluorosis enamel indicated the subtitution of OH- by F- increasing the surface roughness of enamel surface.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i3.100

  5. 2006年和2007年陕西省安康市燃煤污染型氟砷中毒及相关性调查%Investigation on fluorosis and arsenism caused by coal-burning and relevant study in Ankang city of Shaanxi province in the year of 2006 and 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李跃; 白广禄; 白爱梅; 虞江萍; 范中学; 杨晓栋

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of the disease of the fluorosis and arsenism caused by coal-burning in Ankang city of Shaanxi. Methods Nine survey spots were chosen to carry out the epidemiological investigation of adult skeletal fluorosis and arsenism in the coal-polluted areas of Ankang, respectively using Determination of Fluorine in Coal (GB/T 4633-1997) to determine the coal fluorine and using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry(HCAFS) to determine coal arsenic. The diagnose of the adult skeletal fluorosis followed the Diagnosis of Clinical Classification for Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis Standard(GB 16396-1996), that of arsenism using Standard of Diagnosis for Endemic Arsensim (WS/T 211-2001). Results Totally 569 adults were investigated over the age of 16, among which 121 cases were skeletal fluorosis, with a total detection rate of 21.27%. Four cases of II degree and higher skeletal fluorosis patients were identified, accounting for 0.70% of the number of subjects. One hundred and thirty-two cases of arsenic poisonin were detected, in a rate of 23.20%. Ninety-five patients were identified with moderate or severe arsenic poisoning, accounting for 16.69% of subjects. A positive correlation was found between the detection rates of the skeletal fluorosis and the arsenism(r = 0.816, P (GB/T 4633-1997),煤炭砷采用氢化物原子荧光光度法测定,成人氟骨症诊断采用(GB 16396-1996),砷中毒诊断采用(WS/T211-2001).结果 共调查16岁以上成人569人,检出氟骨症121例,总检出率为21.27%,查出Ⅱ度以上氟骨症病人4例,占受检人数的0.70%;检出砷中毒132例,总检出率为23.200/%,查出中度以上砷中毒病人95例,占受检人数的16.69%.氟骨症与砷中毒检出率间呈正相关(r=0.816,P<0.01);氟骨症检出率与煤炭含氟量有密切关系(r=0.775,P<0.05);砷中毒检出率与煤炭含砷量间也有密切关系(r=0.761,P<0.05).40~、50~、60~岁组[27.20%(34/125)、29.27%(36/123

  6. A survey of epidemic situation on endemic fluorosis in Heze city of Shandong province%山东省菏泽市地方性氟中毒流行现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国栋; 高红旭; 卢晓娣

    2012-01-01

    prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults and urine fluoride content in population. [Results] Among 69 water samples collected from IS villages of 5 county (district), water fluoride content of 56 samples exceeded the national standard ( >1.0 mg/L) , and the over standard rate was 81. 16%. In over standard samples, there were 26 of water fluoride content > 2.0 mg/L and 3 of >4.0 mg/L, and the maximum value of the water fluoride was 7. 76mg/L. 728 people were tested for the urine fluoride content, and the geometric mean of children (435 cases) and adults (293 cases) was 2. 73 mg/L and 2. 92mg/L respectively. 679 children aged 8-12 years old received dental fluorosis examination. The detection rate of dental fluorosis was 50.81% (345/679) , the rate of default type was 4.57% (31/679) , and dental fluorosis index was 1.16. 7 956 adults were examined for clinical symptoms and signs of endemic fluorosis, the detection rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 7.69% (612/7 956) , and there were 175 medium and severe cases. [Conclusion] The over standard rates of water fluoride content is serious in Heze city, especially in villages without water improvement (including water improvement projects are abandoned). The urine fluoride content maintains at a high level, the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis are high, and there still exist the harm of high level of fluorine. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the effective and scientific measures of water improvement to reduce fluoride projects, so as to control the endemic fluorosis.

  7. Investigation of drinking water-born endemic fluorosis in Henan province in 2010%河南省2010年饮水型地方性氟中毒的现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 余波; 郝宗宇

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the current status of drinking water-born endemic fluorosis and the effect of preventive measures in Henan province,so as to provide a basis to prevent and cure the disease.METHODS Ten counties with drinking water-born endemic fluorosis were selected.Ten defluoridation projects were sampled by random sampling in every county for surveillance,all affected villages in every county were divided into mild,moderate and severe monitoring of endemic fluorosis areas and a village was randomly selected from each category of the area to carry out the monitoring of endemic fluorosis.Dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 were diagnosed in the above-mentioned villages and skeletal fluorosis diagnosed by X-rays.RESULTS Among 100 water improvement projects investigated,all were running normally.Fluoride level of 15 source water exceeded the standard,accounting for 15%.A total of 30 affected villages were investigated,among which the drinking water quality of 7 villages were improved,and all the fluoride content of 7 villages were normal.In the 7 villages,detection rate of dental fluorosis of 847 children aged 8 to 12 was 50.53%,defect rate was 6.38%,detection rate of skeletal fluorosis by X-ray among 352 adults over 25 years were 5.68%.The monitoring was also carried out in 23 non-waterimproving villages,among which 11 villages had water fluoride content > 2.0mg/L and ≤4.0mg/L,12 villages had water fluoride content > 2.0mg/L.In the 23 villages,detection rate of dental fluorosis of 2 240 children aged 8 to 12 was 54.33%,defect rate was 15.80%,detection rates of skeletal fluorosis by X-ray among 1 162 adults over 25 years were 5.85%,in which 3.01% moderate osteofluorosis.CONCLUSION The fluoride level of defluoridation projects exceeding the standard is serious,the endemic fluorosis is still comparatively serious in Henan,so the defluoridation project should be fulfilled as soon as possible and the acceptability of water should be

  8. 山东省黄河下游冲积平原地区地方性氟中毒流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation on endemic fluorosis along the Yellow River alluvial plain of Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 马爱华; 刘源; 李亨祥

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current prevalent status of endemic fluorosis in the floodplain area of the lower Yellow River in Shandong province. Methods According to "The National Technical Scheme for Endemic Disease Control in 2008", 16 counties were chosen to carry out the epidemiological survey of endemic fluorosis. Three villages were chosen in each county, to determine the fluoride content of drinking water and to check the dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 year old, the skeletal fluorosis of adults over 16 years of age. Both children and adults were tested for urine fluoride. The content of fluoride in drinking water and urine was determined by F-ion selective electrode while dental fiuorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years old was diagnosed by Dean's method and adults skeletal fluorosis by the National Standard for "Diagnosis of endemic skeletal quality' villages in 16 counties, among which 19 villages had water fluoride content ≤ 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 73.08% ( 19/26), 7 villages had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and accounted for quality' villages in 16 counties, 5 villages had water fluoride content ≤ 1.00 mg/L (accounted for 22.73% ), 17 villages had water fluoride content >1.00 mg/L(accounted for 77.27% ), with the highest water fluoride content as 3.38 mg/L. The overall rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8to 12 years old was 52.18% (1042/1997), with the index of dental fluorosis as 1.17 and the rate of dental damage as 8.01% (160/1997). The urinary fluoride values above 1.40 mg/L were found in 65.00% (845/1300) of children aged 8 to 12 years old, with the highest urinary fluoride concentrations as 18.53 mg/L. The rate of skeletal fiuorosis by clinic and X-rays in adults older than 16 years old were 4.35% ( 1121/25 781 ) and 11.36%(5/44), respectively. The urinary fluoride values above 1.60 mg/L were found as 63.92%(606/948) in adults older than 16 years old, with the highest urinary fluoride concentrations as 21

  9. An evaluation of the prevention and control measures on coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis in Shaanxi Province in 2014%2014年陕西省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒防治效果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓉; 杨晓栋; 李晓茜; 任宇飞; 范中学; 杜怡; 崔成宝

    2015-01-01

    12周岁儿童氟斑牙总体检出率为12.52% (87/695),氟斑牙指数为0.24,尿氟范围为0.04~ 7.00mg/L,几何均数为0.61 mg/L.病区无新发重度氟骨症患者.结论 陕西省地方性氟中毒病区防治效果明显,今后应继续加强健康教育、健康促进和病情监测工作并强化防氟炉具后期管理工作.%Objective To investigate the usage of defluoridation stove and the formation of related behavior in the disease affected areas and the current situation of coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis,to evaluate the control effect,so as to provide a theoretical basis for superior department to adjust the control strategy in time.Methods According to "The Implementation Plan for Prevention and Treatment of Coal-burning-borne Endemic Fluorosis in Shaanxi Province",Ziyang and Langao in Ankang City were chosen for epidemiological survey.Using stratified sampling method,according to the degree of disease situation,each county was divided into 3 layers and then 5% from each layer was extracted to carry out an investigation,respectively.The number of investigated village was at least 1,up to 30.The number in a non-endemic area was 1-3.Questionnaire survey of all residents was carried out to ask of the changes of cooking and heating fuel;the correct usage of the improved stove;the changes of life behavior related to the corn and pepper for human consumption and the development of prevention and treatment of post management.In endemic areas and in non-endemic areas,according to the "Determination of Fluoride in Foods" (GB/T 5009.18-2003),fluoride levels of corn (or rice) and chili which collected from 10 families were determined.Meanwhile,the criteria for "Diagnosis of Dental Fluorosis" (WS/T 208-2011) was used to diagnose dental fluorosis and the criteria of "Urine-determination of Fluoride-ion Specific Electrode Method" (WS/T 89-1996) was used to evaluate urine fluoride;dental fluorosis of every child aged 8-12 was examined and 10 copies of

  10. Accuracy of the Simplified Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index in Rural Communities with Endemic Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the values of the Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (TF index for the determination of the prevalence of dental fluorosis using either all teeth (gold standard or six upper anterior teeth (simplified TF index. The sample was made up of 396 individuals aged six to 22 years from three Brazilian cities with endemic fluorosis caused by the ingestion of water with high fluoride concentration. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was evaluated by a single trained examiner with excellent intraexaminer agreement (kappa = 0.95. Intraexaminer reproducibilities were calculated at tooth level. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the simplified TF compared to gold standard were 90.6 (95%CI: 86.6 to 93.6, 100 (95%CI: 95.3 to 100, 100 (95%CI: 98.3 to 100 and 77.5 (95%CI: 69.8 to 83.5, respectively. The ROC value was 0.953 (95%CI: 0.933 to 0.973. The simplified TF index proved suitable for determining the prevalence of dental fluorosis in regions with endemic fluorosis caused by the ingestion of water with high concentrations of fluoride.

  11. Evaluating the use of fluorescent imaging for the quantification of dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of fluorosis using fluorescence imaging (QLF hardware and stain analysis software has been demonstrated in selected populations with good correlation between fluorescent image metrics and TF Index scores from photographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of QLF to quantify fluorosis in a population of subjects (aged 11–13 participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities in Northern England. Methods Fluorescent images of the maxillary incisors were captured together with standardized photographs were scored blind for fluorosis using the TF Index. Subjects were excluded from the analysis if there were restorations or caries on the maxillary central incisors. Results Data were available for 1774 subjects (n=905 Newcastle, n=869 Manchester. The data from the fluorescence method demonstrated a significant correlation with TF Index scores from photographs (Kendall’s tau = 0.332 p Conclusions Despite confounding factors the fluorescence imaging system may provide a useful objective, blinded system for the assessment of enamel fluorosis when used adjunctively with photographic scoring.

  12. Epidemiological investigation of endemic fluorosis of Shandong province in 2010%2010年山东省地方性氟中毒流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 尹玉岩; 李亨祥; 刘源

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of endemic fluorosis in Shandong province,and to provide a scientific basis for the development of preventive strategies.Methods In accordance with the requirements of the national "Technical Implementation Plan for Endcmic Disease Control Project in 2009" and "Drinking-Water-Borne Endemic Fluorosis Monitoring Program (trial)",ten counties were selected to carry out the epidemiological investigation,to understand the progress and the effect of the water improvement projects; three villages were selected in each county,to determine fluoride content of drinking water,to check dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 and skeletal fluorosis of adults over the age of 25.Water fluoride content was determined by fluoride ion selective electrode method,children dental fluorosis was diagnosed with Dean method and adults skeletal fluorosis by the National Standard for "Diagnosis of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis" (WS 192-2008).Results There were a total of 687 improved-water defluoridation projects of the 10 counties,the improved-water rate was 83.34% (3247/3896).The investigation was taken place in 84 improved-water projects of the 10 counties,the projects running normally accounted for 98.81% (83/84); 41 projects had water fluoride concentration ≤1.20 mg/L,and the pass rate was 48.81%(41/84),with the maximum water fluoride as 5.76 mg/L.In the 26 villages with improved-water projects of the 10 counties,villages with a mean water fluoride ≤ 1.20 mg/L were 15,which accounted for 57.69% (15/26),> 1.20 mg/L were 11,which accounted for 42.31% (11/26),with the maximum water fluoride as 5.58 mg/L.In the 4 yet to improve water quality villages of the 10 counties,1 village had mean water fluoride ≤ 1.20 mg/L,3 villages had mean water fluoride > 1.20 mg/L,with the maximum water fluoride as 2.92 mg/L.A total of 1331 children aged 8 to 12 were checked in the 26 improved water villages,the detection rate of dental fluorosis

  13. Environmental epidemic characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis and the safety threshold of coal fluoride in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.H.; Wang, W.Y.; Yang, L.S.; Li, H.R. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2003-05-01

    Data on coal-burning endemic fluorosis throughout China and on the exposure-response relationship between concentrations of fluoride determined in coal samples and the prevalence of dental fluorosis reported from 17 representative surveillance stations in Southwest China were used to estimate the safety threshold for coal fluoride. Coal-burning endemic fluorosis occurs mainly in the mountainous areas of this part of China, where the prevalence of the disease is closely linked to geochemical parameters of the local environment. In these regions the incidence of dental fluorosis has a significant positive correlation with the concentration of fluoride in coal. The safety threshold of coal fluoride is estimated to be 190 mg/kg by the criterion of 0% incidence of dental fluorosis.

  14. Analytical surveys for epidemiological prevalence of fluorosis of brick-tea type in Sichuan Province in 2006%2006年四川省饮茶型氟中毒病情调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小静; 杨定焯; 杨小明; 邓佳云; 周定友; 陈敬; 梁代华; 王再跃; 胡志林; 陈开华; 齐艳凤

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析四川省饮茶型氟中毒病情现状.方法 按,在四川省的饮砖茶区,选择10个县,每个县按不同方位选择10个乡镇,每个乡选择2个行政村和1所中心小学,对8~12岁儿童和20岁以上成人开展氟斑牙、氟骨症、尿氟调查.氟斑牙诊断采用Dean法,氟骨症采用临床和X线检查,尿氟测定采用氟离子选择电极法.结果 调查儿童5044名、成人4053名,氟斑牙检出率分别为55.69%(2809/5044)、60.41%(4053/6709),病损以轻度为主;成人氟骨症X线总检出率、Ⅱ度临床检出率分别为44.64%(167/1241)、38.94%(3883/9973).儿童和成人尿氟平均水平分别为1.88、2.78 mg/L,超出正常范围.儿童尿氟各年龄组间差别不大,而成人尿氟高年龄段高于低年龄段.尿氟水平与氟骨症间呈正相关(r=0.74).农区、牧区和半农半牧区氟骨症临床检出率分别为31.70%(1369/4318)、50.04%(1228/2454)、40.17%(1286/3201).以牧区最高.氟骨症X线检出率男性[49.57%(229/462)]高于女性[41.72%(325/779)],性别比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=11.72,P<0.05).结论 四川省调查区饮茶型氟中毒流行严重.%Objective To find out the status of brick-tea type fluorosis in the epidemic areas.Methods Based on "Scheme for Epidemiological Brick-tea Type Fluorosis in Sichuan Province",ten counties were selected in Sichuan brick-tea areas and ten towns were selected in every county,then the epidemicologic survey was performed in children of 8~12 year-old and adults aged above 20 years old.Results 5044 children and 4053 adults were selected from brick-tea areas.The rates of dental fluorosis in children and adults were 55.69%(2809/5044)and 60.41%(4053/6709)respectively.The dental fluorosis was mainly of mild damage.The skeletal fluorosis found in X-ray film was 44.64%(167/1241)and in clinical examination,38.94%(3883/9973).The levels of urine fluoride in children and adults were 1.88 and 2.78 mg/L.The level of urine fluoride was not

  15. Características generales de la fluorosis dental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Calderón Betancourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, utilizando los recursos disponibles desde la red infomed, con el objetivo de describir las características generales de la fluorosis dental. Esta es la hipomineralización del esmalte dental y tiene tres formas de presentación: leve, moderada y severa. Su cuadro clínico esta dado principalmente por manchas blanquecinas que cubre una mínima superficie del diente, hasta manchas de color café oscuro y su complicación más temida es la fractura que causa una agresiva y acentuada pérdida de la estructura dentaria. Es causada por el acumulo excesivo de flúor en el diente. Su prevención está encaminada a la administración de flúor sistémico en las diferentes edades y entre las recomendaciones para evitarla se encuentra: usar en lo posible agua con el nivel adecuado de flúor, utilizar pastas de dientes con los contenidos óptimos de flúor, excepto en las zonas con aguas fluoradas y no aplicar las lacas fluoradas a estos niños

  16. Severe dental fluorosis in juvenile deer linked to a recent volcanic eruption in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Werner T; Smith-Flueck, Jo Anne M

    2013-04-01

    The Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic eruption deposited large amounts of tephra (ashes) on about 36 million ha of Argentina in June of 2011. Tephra was considered chemically innoxious based on water leachates, surface water fluoride levels were determined to be safe, and livestock losses were attributable to inanition and excessive tooth wear. To evaluate effects on wild ungulates, we sampled wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at 100 km from the volcano in September-November 2012. We show that tephra caused severe dental fluorosis, with bone fluoride levels up to 5,175 ppm. Among subadults, tephra caused pathologic development of newly emerging teeth typical of fluorosis, including enamel hypoplasia, breakages, pitting, mottling, and extremely rapid ablation of entire crowns down to underlying pulp cavities. The loss of teeth functionality affected physical condition, and none of the subadults was able to conceive. Susceptibility to fluorosis among these herbivores likely resides in ruminant food processing: 1) mastication and tephra size reduction, 2) thorough and repeated mixing with alkaline saliva, 3) water-soluble extraction in the rumen, and 4) extraction in the acidic abomasum. Although initial analyses of water and tephra were interpreted not to present a concern, ruminants as a major component of this ecosystem are shown to be highly susceptible to fluorosis, with average bone level increasing over 38-fold during the first 15.5 mo of exposure to tephra. This is the first report of fluorosis in wild ungulates from a volcanic eruption. The described impact will reverberate through several aspects of the ecology of the deer, including effects on population dynamics, morbidity, predation susceptibility, and other components of the ecosystem such as scavenger and plant communities. We anticipate further impact on livestock production systems, yet until now, existence of fluorosis had not been recognized.

  17. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyola-Rodríguez Juan Pablo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaron 100 niños de edades entre tres y seis años. El índice específico de fluorosis para dientes temporales fue validado mediante la cuantificación de concentraciones de flúor en esmalte de dientes con y sin fluorosis. Para estimar la asociación entre las concentraciones de flúor en agua y orina y el grado de fluorosis dental se utilizó la prueba estadística Kruskal-Wallis. En el caso de la asociación entre el área de riesgo y el desarrollo de fluorosis dental se utilizó ji2 de Mantel-Haenszel. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de fluorosis en dentición temporal fue de 78%, la cual tuvo patrones diferentes de presentación, siendo los dientes posteriores los más afectados en ambos maxilares y la coloración predominante fue blanco mate. Se encontró una correlación (r=0.93 entre la concentración de flúor en esmalte de dientes temporales y el índice de fluorosis para dentición temporal (IFDDT. Se encontraron asociaciones entre la concentración de flúor en el agua de consumo y orina con el grado de fluorosis dental (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.00001 y entre el área de riesgo y el grado de fluorosis (ji² de Mantel-Haenszel p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONES: El IFDDT identifica y gradúa adecuadamente la fluorosis en dentición temporal. Es importante detectar el primer efecto tóxico de exposición a flúor para ser usado como predictor de fluorosis en dentición permanente y fluorosis esquelética.

  18. Influencia de los tratamientos microabrasivos sobre la resistencia adhesiva en dientes con fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mena Silva; Ana del Carmen Armas

    2015-01-01

    La búsqueda de tratamientos mínimamente invasivos y altamente estéticos para pacientes con fluorosis, ha llevado a buscar mecanismos para solucionar esta problemática, mediante la utilización de resinas como la primera opción. Sin embargo el principal problema del tratamiento, se centra en la poca adhesión debido a las características estructurales del esmalte fluorótico, en grados de fluorosis TF 1 al 3, el ácido no actúa correctamente, causando ausencia de grabado principalmente entre las e...

  19. 山东省鲁西南地区地方性氟中毒流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of endemic fluorosis in the southwestern region of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 马爱华; 刘源; 李亨祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of an illness of endemic fluorosis in the southwestern region of Shandong province at present, and to provide the scientific evidence for making strategies for the prevention and control. Methods To adopt the method of Epidemiological investigation, 11 counties were chosen to carry out the investigation of endemic fluorosis. The content of fluoride in drinking water and urine was determined by F - ion selective electrode, dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years old was diagnosed by Dean's method and diagnosed skeletal fluorosis by clinic and X -rays. Results The investigation was used in 20 water - improving villages in 11 counties, among which 14 villages had water fluoride content ≤ 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 70.00% ( 14/20), 6 villages had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 30.00% ( 6/20 ), the highest water fluoride content was 3.73 mg/L. The investigation was used in 13 non -water- improving villages in 11 counties , among which 3 villages had water fluoride content ≤ 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 23.08% ( 3/13 ), 10 villages had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 76.92% ( 10/13 ), the highest water fluoride content was 3.38 mg/L. The total rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years old was 39.17% ( 597/1 524), the index of dental fluorosis was 0. 75 and the rate of dental damage was 3.94% (60/1 524 ). The urinary fluoride values above 1.40 mg/L were found in 42.13% ( 642/ 947 ) of children aged 8 to 12 years old, with the highest urinary fluoride concentrations was 18.53 mg/L. The rate of skeletal fluorosis by clinic and X - rays in adults older than 16 years old were 5.88% ( 1 235/20 980 ) and 8.00% ( 2/25 ), respectively. The urinary fluoride values above 1.60 mg/L were found in 65.34% ( 1 130/2 023 ) of adults older than 16 years old, with the highest urinary fluoride concentrations was 13.97 mg/L. Conclusions The status of an illness of

  20. Endemic fluorosis in northwestern region of Shandong province%山东省鲁西北地区地方性氟中毒流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 马爱华; 刘源; 李亨祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of endemic fluorosis in the northwestern region of Shandong province and to provide scientific evidence for making strategies for the prevention and control of the disease. Methods Eleven counties were chosen to carry out the investigation of endemic fluorosis. The content of fluoride in drinking water and urine was determined with F-ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years was diagnosed with Dean' s method and skeletal fluorosis were diagnosed with clinic examination and X-rays. Results The investigation was conduct in 17 water-improvement villages of 11 counties,among which 12 villages(70. 59% ) had water fluoride oontent ≤1. 00 mg/L,5 villages(29. 41% ) had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and the highest water fluoride content was 4. 46 mg/L. The investigation was also condcuted in 16 non-water-improvement villages in 11 counties,among which 5 villages(31,25/% )had water fluoride content ≤1.00 mg/L, 11 villages(68. 75%) had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and the highest water fluoride content was 4. 09 mg/L. The total prevalence of dental fluorosis among the children was 51.51%(701/1 361 ). The index of dental fluorosis was 1.05 and the rate of dental damage was 6. 25% ( 85/1 631 ). Tne urinary fluoride values above 1.40 mg/L were found in 60. 86% (510/838)of the children,with the highest urinary fluoride concentration of 15.20 mg/L. The rate of skeletal fluorosis among the adults older than 16 years were 2. 49% (454/18 257) and 15. 79% (3/19) with clinic and x-ray examination,respectively. The urinary fluoride values above 1.60 mg/L were found in 62. 27% (406/652) of the adults,with the highest urinary fluoride concentration of 25.44 mg/L. Conclusion The endemic fluorosis is not effectively controlled and the preventive situation for endemic fluorosis control is still very severe in the northwestern region of Shandong province. So preventive measures for

  1. Report on the surveillance results of endemic fluorosis in Qinghai Province in 2007%2007年青海省地方性氟中毒国家监测点监测报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏生英; 丁萍; 丁生荣; 张海燕; 李淑帮; 张秀丽; 陈文贵; 鲁青; 李有福

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the fulfillment of improved water measures for endemic fluomsis and to find out the trend of prevalence in Qinghai Province in order to provide scientific basis and technical support for the government to formulate control strategies for endemic fluorosis.Methods Usage and management of reforming water facilities in Huzhu County were generally surveyed.Yanya Village,Caijiabu Town,Huzhu County was chosen as the surveillance spot.The household drinking water was surveyed.The dental fluorosis and urine fluoride content of children aged 8-12 years and adult above 16 years were examined.Skeletal fluorosis of adult was checked.The fluomsis content in drinking water and urine was determined with F-ion selective electrode method.The dental fluowsis was examined with Dean index.Skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed according to eountry standard(GB 16396-1996.WS 192-1999).Results The rate of water-improving was 60%(36/60)in Huzhu County.The mean of fluoride content in drinking water Was 1.25 mg/L The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 years was 90.20%(46/51);that of adult was 88.89%(48/54).The dental fluorosis index of children was 1.77,that of adult was 2.95.The prevalence rate of skeletal fluorosis was 98.15% indicated by clinical data,18.87% by X-ray.The ufine fluorosis content of children was 2.27 mg/L,that of adult was 2.00 mg/L.Conclusion The disease condition of endemic fluorosis in Qinshai is serious,defluofidation is slow in effect.%目的 掌握青海省地方性氟中毒病区改水降氟措施落实进度和病情现状及发展趋势,为政府部门制订防治措施提供依据.方法 在青海省互助县普查改水防氟工程使用情况,同时以互助县蔡家堡乡岩崖村作为监测点,检测该村生活饮用水,8-12岁儿童及16岁以上成人氟斑牙和尿氟,成人临床及X线氟骨症.水氟和尿氟测定采用氟离子电极法,氟斑牙诊断用Dean法,氟骨症诊断按国标(GB 16396-1996,WS 192

  2. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez; Amaury de Jesús Pozos-Guillén; Juan Carlos Hernández-Guerrero; Juan Francisco Hernández-Sierra

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaro...

  3. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 6 a 12 años

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Dobarganes Coca; Naisé López Larquin; Magda Lima Álvarez; Josefa Calderón Betancourt; Miriam Elina García Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis y la caries dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de estas enfermedades. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en niños de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, con el objetivo de caracterizar la fluorosis y la caries dental, desde septiembre de 2011 hasta septiembre de 2012. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por 67 escolares, a los que se les determinó la presencia de fluorosis dental y los índice...

  4. Analysis of an investigational result of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Hebei Province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find out the status of drinking-waterborne endemic fluorosis and the effect of preventive measures in Hebei Province,so as to provide a basis to prevent and cure fluorosis.Methods One affected county(city,district)with drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis was sampled in every city and 10 water improvement projects were investigated in that county.Three villages were taken out in every county.The operating state of the projects,the water fluoride content,

  5. Knowledge of dental fluorosis of undergraduate dental students at a private university in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana De Oliveira Ferla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The understanting of the dental fluorosis process, that begins with enamel maturation, is important to Dentistry students, since fluoride has drastically decreased the incidence of caries in several population groups, with a resultant increase in fluorosis prevalence and severity, as shown in literature. Aims: The objective of this paper is to report the changes in the level of knowledge about dental fluorosis of undergraduate Dentistry students at Guarulhos University. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty-four undergraduate students enrolled in the first and second semester (2008 and seventh semester (2008 were evaluated. The data was obtained through questionnaires with dichotomic questions (true and false and an alternative to evaluate whether the subject had been presented in the classroom. The data obtained was submitted to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test (α=0.05. Results: When evaluating the first semester students, differences were verified in numbers of the questions assigned with the alternatives true or false, when compared with seventh semester students (p<0.001. However, there were no differences when the same questionnaire was applied to the first semester students after six months (p=0.358. Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that the six months period was insufficient to increase the level of knowledge about dental fluorosis, and when the students beginning and concluding the dentistry course were compared, there was an increase in the number of correctly assigned true or false questions in the latter group.

  6. The cause of endemic fluorosis in western Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shifeng Dai; Deyi Ren; Shimin Ma [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2004-10-01

    The endemic fluorosis in western Guizhou Province, southwest China is usually attributed to a high-fluorine content in Late Permian coals. This study found that the average fluorine content in 50 coal channel samples from western Guizhou Province ranges from 16.6 to 500 {mu}g/g, with an average of 83.1 {mu}g/g, which is close to the world average (80 {mu}g/g) and that of Chinese coals (82 {mu}g/g). Additionally, the fluorine content of drinking water and fresh corn is too low to lead to fluorosis in western Guizhou Province. However, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binder in briquette-making by local residents has a very high content of fluorine, ranging from 100.8 to 2455.7 {mu}g/g, with an average of 1027.6 {mu}g/g. The endemic fluorosis is likely caused by fluorine in the clay. Therefore, in areas where unhealthy traditional coal-burning habits and customs are kept and furnaces without chimneys are used, the more clay used for a coal-burning additive and as a binder for briquettes, the more serious the fluorosis problem is. Short communication. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Direct Esthetic Rehabilitation of Teeth with Severe Fluorosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiei F.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an esthetic rehabilitation of a case of severe fluorosis associated with tooth mobility and gingival recession. Direct composite technique was applied to improve the color, shape and alignment of the teeth using direct composite veneering and replacement of the missing tooth by fiber-reinforced composite bridge. One year follow up have displayed acceptable outcomes and esthetic appearance.

  8. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ramires

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in scholars aging 12 to 15 years old, residents in the city of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 1318 volunteers were enrolled in this study and examined in 18 public schools of the State of São Paulo. The examinations were performed in the schools' court by three dentists (with a Master's degree in Public Health, after toothbrushing supervised by another dentist. The teeth were dried with cotton pellets and examined under natural light by visual inspection, using an explorer as recommended by the WHO, a plane mirror and a tongue depressor. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF index was used for rating fluorosis. Intra and inter-examiner reproducibility was calculated and data were submitted to descriptive analysis. RESULTS: Approximately 36% of the children presented dental fluorosis, of which 28% was diagnosed as TF1 while the remaining received scores between TF2 and TF4. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bauru is within the expected range, based on previous studies. Although fluoride is an important resource for caries control, its use must be adequate to the needs of each specific population.

  9. 1991-2007年广东省丰顺县地方性氟中毒重点监测结果分析%Analysis on sentinel surveillance outcome of endemic fluorosis in Guangdong Province from 1991 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锦权; 戴昌芳; 杨通; 吴和岩; 冯光辉; 杜国歆

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate and master the outcome of endemic fluorosis surveillance, the use and management situation of the facilities for decreasing fluorine in water-related endemic fluorosis in Fengshun County, Guangdong Province. Methods The surveillance was carried out according to The National Surveillance Scheme of Endemic Fluorosis in 1991 - 2007. Dazhai, Hupo and Anquan Villages in Fengshun County of Guangdong Province were selected as monitoring spots. The dental fluorosis of 8 - 12 years old children was examined with Dean index, the fluoride contents in urine and drinking water were determined with fluoride selective ion electrode method. Clinical and X-ray skeletal fluorosis of adults over 16 years of age were examined every 3 to 5 years. Results The fluoride contents in water almost reached the hygienic requirements (1.0 mg/L) in Dazhai (0.83 mg/L in 2007) and Anquan Villages(0.27 mg/L in 2007) after improving water and decreasing fluorine. The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis of students aged 8 - 12 years old fluctuated and decreased gradually, especially prevalence rate of mederate and severe fluorosis decreased obviously and reached the hygienic requirements (30%) after altering water source(20.8% in Dazhai, 3.8% in Anquan in 2007). But the fluoride contents in water were in relatively high level (1.01~2.30 mg/L), and the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis of students aged 8-12 years old(44.3% in 2007) was above the hygienic requirements in Hupo Village after improving water and decreasing fluorine. The dental fluorosis index in Daizai, Hupo and Anquan Villages dropped from 1.5, 3.0 and 1.3 in 1991 to 0.30, 0.80 and 0.10 in 2007, respectively. Epidemic strength reached respectively the criteria in mild and non-endemic areas. Fluoride contents in urine of children aged 8-12 years old in the three villages all were under the limit of 1.50 mg/L after 2002. The prevalence rate of adult clinical fluorosis [31.8% (84/264), 34.4% (131/381), 44.1% (89

  10. Fluorosis dental en escolares de una zona rural de Camagüey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naise López Larquin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de esta enfermedad. Determinar su severidad y evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados fue el objetivo de esta investigación, para lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo en los consultorios 46 y 64 de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, en el período comprendido entre julio de 2011 y febrero de 2012. El universo estuvo constituido por 84 niños de seis a doce años y la muestra por 67 escolares. La fluorosis dental se clasificó en: leve, moderada y grave. Las concentraciones de flúor natural en el agua de consumo, la exposición a altas concentraciones del elemento y el tiempo de exposición al mismo, fueron los factores de riesgo asociados a la fluorosis dental estudiados. Al concluir el estudio, se observó un predominio de la fluorosis dental leve (52,9 %, seguido de la moderada (38,2 %. Las concentraciones de flúor natural encontradas en las aguas de consumo fueron óptimas (0,7 y 1,2 ppm en el 44,8 % de los casos y altas (1,7 y 2,0 ppm en el 55,2 %. El 81,8 % de los casos sin fluorosis han estado expuestos a la acción del flúor solamente de uno a tres años, mientras que todos los niños con fluorosis dental lo han recibido por más de cuatro años, aumentando la severidad en la medida en que se incrementa el tiempo de exposición. El 36,4 % de los niños que ingirieron flúor antes de los seis años no presentaron fluorosis dental

  11. Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, as a clinical study. The purpose of this study is to determine the periodontal status using CPITN index in a population aged between 15 and 74 years residing in the high-fluoride areas of Davangere district. The possible reasons for the susceptibility of this population to periodontal disease are discussed. Materials and Methods: 1029 subjects, aged between 15 and 74 years suffering from dental fluorosis were assessed for their periodontal status. Clinical parameters recorded were OHI-S to assess the oral hygiene status, Jackson′s fluorosis index to assess the degree of fluorosis and CPITN index to assess the periodontal status where treatment need was excluded. Results: Gingivitis and periodontitis were more common in females (65.9% and 32.8%, respectively than in males (75.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Periodontitis was significantly more common in females. As the age advanced from 15 to 55 years and above, gingivitis reduced from 81.0 to 42.9% and periodontitis increased steadily from 18.0 to 57.1%, which was significant. Periodontitis was high in subjects with poor oral hygiene (81.3%, compared to those with good oral hygiene (14.5%, which was significant. As the degree of fluorosis increased, severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased, i.e., with A degree fluorosis, gingivitis was 89.4% and periodontitis 8.5%, but with F degree fluorosis the former was 64% and the latter 35.8%, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results

  12. The Skeletally Immature and Newly Mature Throwing Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Kiery A; Marshall, Kelley W

    2016-09-01

    Injuries to the shoulder and elbow in the pediatric and adolescent throwing athlete are common. Both knowledge of throwing mechanics and understanding of normal bone development in the immature skeleton are key to the diagnosis, treatment, and potential prevention of these common injuries. Pathologic changes from chronic repetitive trauma to the developing shoulder and elbow manifest as distinctly different injuries that can be predicted by the skeletal maturation of the patient. Sites of vulnerability and resulting patterns of injury change as the child evolves from the skeletally immature little league player to the skeletally mature high school/college athlete. PMID:27545423

  13. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and exposure to fluoride in drinking water: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Fatemeh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Hosseini, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Parvizishad, Mina; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background. Regarding the lack of comprehensive systematic review on the efficacy of water fluoridation and prevalence of dental fluorosis, the aim of the current research was to systematically study the prevalence of dental fluorosis at different levels of water fluoride in the world and lay emphasis on the amount of fluoride in drinking water. Methods. Studies were searched in PubMed, Scopus, SID, and IranMedex, with regard to inclusion criteria. Study validity was assessed with some checklists, and analyses were performed to ascertain the prevalence of dental fluorosis among individuals categorized in age groups. Results. Investigation of the heterogeneity and analysis of the subgroups revealed that in the 6-18 year age group, when water fluoride level was less than 0.7 ppm and there was exposure to water fluoride in the first 6-8 years of life, no significant heterogeneity was detected among the studies in this subgroup. Thus, the pooled estimation of dental fluorosis prevalence in this subgroup was 12.9% (95% CI: 7.5-18.3%). Furthermore, meta-regression indicated that the exposure time to fluoride in drinking water, or exposure to fluoride in supplements, diets, air, etc as well as the quality of studies had a significant relation to the difference in the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion. The results revealed no heterogeneity in just 2 subgroups, and the results of subgroups could be pooled in them. Furthermore, the number of studies included in this review considerably decreased by considering all the detected confounding factors, whereas other similar systematic reviews mentioned at most 2 factors.

  14. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and exposure to fluoride in drinking water: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Fatemeh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Hosseini, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Parvizishad, Mina; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background. Regarding the lack of comprehensive systematic review on the efficacy of water fluoridation and prevalence of dental fluorosis, the aim of the current research was to systematically study the prevalence of dental fluorosis at different levels of water fluoride in the world and lay emphasis on the amount of fluoride in drinking water. Methods. Studies were searched in PubMed, Scopus, SID, and IranMedex, with regard to inclusion criteria. Study validity was assessed with some checklists, and analyses were performed to ascertain the prevalence of dental fluorosis among individuals categorized in age groups. Results. Investigation of the heterogeneity and analysis of the subgroups revealed that in the 6-18 year age group, when water fluoride level was less than 0.7 ppm and there was exposure to water fluoride in the first 6-8 years of life, no significant heterogeneity was detected among the studies in this subgroup. Thus, the pooled estimation of dental fluorosis prevalence in this subgroup was 12.9% (95% CI: 7.5-18.3%). Furthermore, meta-regression indicated that the exposure time to fluoride in drinking water, or exposure to fluoride in supplements, diets, air, etc as well as the quality of studies had a significant relation to the difference in the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion. The results revealed no heterogeneity in just 2 subgroups, and the results of subgroups could be pooled in them. Furthermore, the number of studies included in this review considerably decreased by considering all the detected confounding factors, whereas other similar systematic reviews mentioned at most 2 factors.

  15. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and exposure to fluoride in drinking water: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Fatemeh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Hosseini, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Parvizishad, Mina; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background. Regarding the lack of comprehensive systematic review on the efficacy of water fluoridation and prevalence of dental fluorosis, the aim of the current research was to systematically study the prevalence of dental fluorosis at different levels of water fluoride in the world and lay emphasis on the amount of fluoride in drinking water. Methods. Studies were searched in PubMed, Scopus, SID, and IranMedex, with regard to inclusion criteria. Study validity was assessed with some checklists, and analyses were performed to ascertain the prevalence of dental fluorosis among individuals categorized in age groups. Results. Investigation of the heterogeneity and analysis of the subgroups revealed that in the 6-18 year age group, when water fluoride level was less than 0.7 ppm and there was exposure to water fluoride in the first 6-8 years of life, no significant heterogeneity was detected among the studies in this subgroup. Thus, the pooled estimation of dental fluorosis prevalence in this subgroup was 12.9% (95% CI: 7.5-18.3%). Furthermore, meta-regression indicated that the exposure time to fluoride in drinking water, or exposure to fluoride in supplements, diets, air, etc as well as the quality of studies had a significant relation to the difference in the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion. The results revealed no heterogeneity in just 2 subgroups, and the results of subgroups could be pooled in them. Furthermore, the number of studies included in this review considerably decreased by considering all the detected confounding factors, whereas other similar systematic reviews mentioned at most 2 factors. PMID:27651877

  16. Exposure to high-fluoride drinking water and risk of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Ashokkumar, B R; Dhingra, Sonal; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying levels of fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted among 3007 school children in the age group of 12 to 16 years in 2 districts of Haryana having varying fluoride levels in drinking water. Type III examination for dental caries according to the WHO index and dental fluorosis estimation according to Dean's index was done. The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 48.02% to 28.07% as fluoride levels increased from 0.5 to 1.13 ppm, but as the fluoride level increased further to 1.51 ppm, there was no further reduction in caries prevalence, but there was a substantial increase in fluorosis prevalence. The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water was found to be 1.13 ppm, at which there was maximum caries reduction with minimum amount of esthetically objectionable fluorosis.

  17. Analysis of monitoring results of endemic fluorosis in Shandong province in 2009%2009年山东省地方性氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 陈培忠; 边建朝; 王玉涛; 高杰; 马爱华; 刘源; 李亨祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of endemic fluorosis in Shandong province, and to provide the scientific evidence for making strategies for prevention and control of the disease. Methods According to "The National Technical Scheme for Endemic Disease Control in 2008", thirty-four counties were divided into mild, moderate and severe endemic fluorosis areas and a village was randomly selected from each category of the area to carry out the monitoring of endemic fluorosis. The content of fluoride in drinking water and urine was determined by F-ion selective electrode, dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 was diagnosed by Dean method and skeletal fluorosis diagnosed by clinic and X-rays. Results The monitoring was done in 70 water-improving villages in 34 counties, among which 54 villages had water fluoride content ≤ 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 77.14%(54/70), 16 villages had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 22.86%(16/70), the highest water fluoride content was 4.46 mg/L. The monitoring was also carried out in 32 non-water-improving villages in 34 counties, among which 9 villages had water fluoride content ≤ 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 28.12%(9/32), 23 villages had water fluoride content > 1.00 mg/L and accounted for 71.88% (23/32), the highest water fluoride content was 4.09 mg/L. The total rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 was 45.81%(1988/4340), the index of dental fluorosis was 0.97 and the rate of dental damage was 6.91%(300/4340). The urinary fluoride values above 1.40 mg/L were found in 55.33%(1417/2657) of children aged 8 to 12, with the highest urinary fluoride concentrations was 18.53 mg/L. The rate of skeletal fluorosis by clinic and X-rays in adults older than 16 years were 4.25% (2462/57 968) and 28.40%(23/81 ), respectively. The urinary fluoride values above 1.60 mg/L were found in 55.86% (1130/2023) of adults older than 16 years, with the highest urinary fluoride concentrations was 25.44 mg

  18. Prevalence of gingival diseases, malocclusion and fluorosis in school-going children of rural areas in Udaipur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar V

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of dental diseases has been recorded in Rajasthan, however, not much work has been done to ascertain the prevalence of dental diseases in Udaipur district. This study was conducted among 1,587 government school children of Udaipur district in the age group of 5-14 years for recording the prevalence of gingival diseases, fluorosis and malocclusion. Gingivitis was found in 84.37% of children, malocclusion in 36.42% and fluorosis in 36.36%.

  19. "Borderline" fluorotic region in Serbia: correlations among fluoride in drinking water, biomarkers of exposure and dental fluorosis in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Evica; Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Djukic-Cosic, Danijela; Milicevic, Nemanja; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Carevic, Momir; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2016-06-01

    This study explores relation between dental fluorosis occurrence in schoolchildren, residents of Ritopek, a small local community near Belgrade, and fluoride exposure via drinking water. Additionally, fluoride levels were determined in children's urine and hair samples, and efforts were made to correlate them with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence were examined in a total of 52 schoolchildren aged 7-15 years (29 boys and 23 girls). Fluoride levels in three types of samples were analyzed using composite fluoride ion-selective electrode. Results showed high prevalence of dental fluorosis (34.6 %) and low prevalence of dental caries (23.1 %, mean DMFT 0.96) among children exposed to wide range of water fluoride levels (0.11-4.14 mg/L, n = 27). About 11 % of water samples exceeded 1.5 mg/L, a drinking-water quality guideline value for fluoride given by the World Health Organization (2006). Fluoride levels in urine and hair samples ranged between 0.07-2.59 (n = 48) and 1.07-19.83 mg/L (n = 33), respectively. Severity of dental fluorosis was positively and linearly correlated with fluoride levels in drinking water (r = 0.79). Fluoride levels in urine and hair were strongly and positively correlated with levels in drinking water (r = 0.92 and 0.94, respectively). Fluoride levels in hair samples appeared to be a potentially promising biomarker of fluoride intake via drinking water on one hand, and severity of dental fluorosis on the other hand. Based on community fluorosis index value of 0.58, dental fluorosis revealed in Ritopek can be considered as "borderline" public health issue. PMID:26423526

  20. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Kumar, Y Anil; Suman, S V; Balaga, Ramesh Naidu

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the Prevalence and self perception of dental fluorosis among 15 - year old school children. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 840, 15 - year old school children from 12 schools of Prakasam district. After taking informed consent from their parents or legal representatives, an interview was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to collect the data regarding self perception of dental fluorosis, dental behaviour, and source of water ...

  1. A Quantitative Look at Fluorosis, Fluoride Exposure, and Intake in Children Using a Health Risk Assessment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    ERDAL, Serap; Buchanan, Susan N.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the United States has increased during the last 30 years. In this study, we used a mathematical model commonly employed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to estimate average daily intake of fluoride via all applicable exposure pathways contributing to fluorosis risk for infants and children living in hypothetical fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities. We also estimated hazard quotients for each exposure pathway and hazard indices for expos...

  2. "Borderline" fluorotic region in Serbia: correlations among fluoride in drinking water, biomarkers of exposure and dental fluorosis in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Evica; Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Djukic-Cosic, Danijela; Milicevic, Nemanja; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Carevic, Momir; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2016-06-01

    This study explores relation between dental fluorosis occurrence in schoolchildren, residents of Ritopek, a small local community near Belgrade, and fluoride exposure via drinking water. Additionally, fluoride levels were determined in children's urine and hair samples, and efforts were made to correlate them with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence were examined in a total of 52 schoolchildren aged 7-15 years (29 boys and 23 girls). Fluoride levels in three types of samples were analyzed using composite fluoride ion-selective electrode. Results showed high prevalence of dental fluorosis (34.6 %) and low prevalence of dental caries (23.1 %, mean DMFT 0.96) among children exposed to wide range of water fluoride levels (0.11-4.14 mg/L, n = 27). About 11 % of water samples exceeded 1.5 mg/L, a drinking-water quality guideline value for fluoride given by the World Health Organization (2006). Fluoride levels in urine and hair samples ranged between 0.07-2.59 (n = 48) and 1.07-19.83 mg/L (n = 33), respectively. Severity of dental fluorosis was positively and linearly correlated with fluoride levels in drinking water (r = 0.79). Fluoride levels in urine and hair were strongly and positively correlated with levels in drinking water (r = 0.92 and 0.94, respectively). Fluoride levels in hair samples appeared to be a potentially promising biomarker of fluoride intake via drinking water on one hand, and severity of dental fluorosis on the other hand. Based on community fluorosis index value of 0.58, dental fluorosis revealed in Ritopek can be considered as "borderline" public health issue.

  3. Adolescents' perceptions of the aesthetic impact of dental fluorosis vs. other dental conditions in areas with and without water fluoridation

    OpenAIRE

    McGrady Michael G; Ellwood Roger P; Goodwin Michaela; Boothman Nicola; Pretty Iain A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of fluorides for caries prevention is well established but is linked with an increased risk of dental fluorosis, some of which may be considered to be aesthetically objectionable. Patient opinion should be considered when determining impact on aesthetics. The aim of this study was to assess participant rating of dental aesthetics (from photographic images) of 11 to 13 year olds participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in a fluoridated and a n...

  4. Assessment of Fluoride Level in Groundwater and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in Didwana Block of Nagaur District, Central Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem.Objective: To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India.Methods: The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis.Results: The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%–72.1% had dental fluorosis—252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis.Conclusion: High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  5. Drinking-water type of fluorosis in Shaanxi province in 2009: an analysis of surveillance results%2009年陕西省饮水型氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范中学; 李跃; 李晓茜; 白广禄; 刘晓莉; 白爱梅; 李平安; 杨晓栋

    2011-01-01

    . Methods Forty-eight villages of 16 counties in Xi'an, Baoji, and Yulin cities of Shaanxi province were monitored in 2009. Five water samples were collected randomly in water unimproved monitoring villages by the position of east, west, south, north, and center parts. In water improved monitoring villages, 3 tap water and one source water samples were collected. Water fluoride was tested using fluoride ion selective electrode method according to the "Standard Testing Methods for Drinking Water" (GB/T 5750-2006). All school children aged 8 to 12 in monitored villages were examined their dental fluorosis using Dean criteria. All people over 16 years old were examined clinical skeletal fluorosis, and 30% of the project counties were randomly selected, then randomly selected one village among these counties, clinically diagnosed patients with skeletal fluorosis were examined again by X-ray using "Diagnostic Criteria of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis"(WS 192-2007). Urine samples of 30 children aged 8 to 12 and of 20 adults over the age of 16 were randomly collected, urinary fluoride was tested according to "the Determination of Urinary Fluoride by Ion Selective Electrode Method" (WS/T 89-19%). Results Of the 22 water improvement projects that in normal operation, fluoride level of 8 source waters exceeded the standard, accounting for 36.36%(8/22), and projects scrapped 5. Two hundred and two water samples were tested. In water improved historical diseased areas, the median of water fluoride of source water and tap water were 0.72,0.62 mg/L, respectively, and the average rate of water fluoride exceeded the standard ere 36.36%(8/22) and 31.94%(23/72), respectively. In water unimproved historical diseased areas, the median of water fluoride was 1.00 mg/L, and the average rate of water fluoride exceeded the standard was 39.81%(43/108). Detection rate of dental fluorosis among children aged 8 to 12 was 16.06% (367/2285), dental fluorosis index was 0.30, and the prevalence was negative

  6. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  7. Study on the sources of endemic fluorosis in Weixin, Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G.; Tian, J.; Qin, Y. [Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China). Institute of Sedimentary Geology

    2007-03-15

    The sources of endemic fluorosis in Weixin, Zhaotong of Yunnan Province has been studied using ion selective electrode (ISE) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results show that the main workable channel coal seams contain an average fluorine content of 67.8 x 10{sup -6}, which is much lower than that of Chinese and American common coals. The contents in the clay and the mixture of coal and clay reach to 2239 x 10{sup -6} and 863.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. (The mixture of clay and coal is the primary fuel in the local families.) The volatile yield of the mixture of coal and clay during combustion is about 89%. The fluorine in the clay is the main source of the endemic fluorosis. The high content of fluorine is closely related to the mixed-layer minerals of illite and smectite, apatite, hornblende, and K-feldspar. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Dental and Skeletal Maturity- A Biological Indicator of Chronologic Age

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Vivek; Saha, Sonali; Yadav, Gunjan; Tripathi, Abhay Mani; Grover, Kavita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Precise evaluation of the developmental stage of a child is not only an integral part of both diagnosis and treatment of paediatric patients; it is also essential in Forensic Medicine and Dentistry. Physiologic age can be estimated by somatic, sexual, skeletal and dental maturity.

  9. High cadmium concentrations in areas with endemic fluorosis: A serious hidden toxin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Xiao, T.F.; Wang, S.J.; Lei, J.L.; Zhang, M.Z.; Gong, Y.Y.; Li, H.J.; Ning, Z.P.; He, L.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Institute of Geochemistry

    2009-07-15

    Environmental contamination with cadmium (Cd) and fluorine (F) and the associated health impacts on humans have raised significant concerns in the literature, but the additional health risks created by Cd have not been investigated in areas with endemic fluorine intoxication (fluorosis). Here, we report for the first time that naturally occurring Cd in areas where endemic fluorosis is related to coal combustion is a serious hidden toxin. The high Cd levels in rocks and soils of these areas may increase health risks to epidemiological level, irrespective of fluorine levels. We implemented a pilot study in a fluorosis-affected rural area within China's Three Gorges region, and revealed enrichment of Cd in local bedrock (4.48-187 mg kg{sup -1}), coal (11.5-53.4 mg kg{sup -1}), and arable soils (1.01-59.7 mg kg{sup -1}). Cadmium was also observed to concentrate in local food crops (0.58-14.9 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the urine of local residents (1.7-13.4 {mu} g L{sup -1}). A routine epidemiological investigation revealed that the two major Cd exposure pathways were through crop consumption and inhalation of emissions from coal combustion. Therefore, the naturally occurring Cd in areas with endemic fluorosis related to coal combustion represents a previously unrecognized toxin that must be addressed as part of efforts to control the endemic problem. The biogeochemical processes of Cd and the associated environmental effects will require additional in-depth study.

  10. Content and distribution of fluorine in rock, clay and water in fluorosis area Zhaotong, Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.; Li, H.; Feng, F. (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-04-15

    About 160 samples of coal, pyritic coal balls, coal seam gangue, clay, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin county, China to determine the fluorine content, distribution pattern and source in this fluorosis area. The study shows that the average fluorine content in the coal samples collected from 3 coal mines of the Late Permian coals in Zhenxiong and Weixin county, Zhaotong City, which are the main mining coals there, is 77.13 mg/kg. The average fluorine content coals collected form thee typical fluorosis villages in 72.56 mg/kg. Both of them are close to the world average and little low than the Chinese average. The fluorine content of drinking water is lower than 0.35 mg/L, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binfer in briquette-making by local residents has a high content of fluorine, ranging from 367-2,435 mg/kg, with the majority higher than 600 mg/kg and an average of 1,084.2 mg/kg. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Indermitte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.

  12. 低氟青砖茶预防饮茶型氟中毒效果观察%Role of brick tea with low-fluoride level in prevention of tea type fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆斌; 田淑彩; 刘晓波; 王树君; 刘学慧; 于冰; 姜志立; 王在君; 周明仁; 璋显坤

    2012-01-01

    预防效果更为可靠.%Objective To investigate the effect of drinking brick tea with low-fluoride level on prevention of tea type fluorosis.Methods Handahangacha,Hadayinggegacha,Dalainuoyi town,in Keshiketengqi Inner Mongolia endemic fluorosis area were selected as test points,and brick tea with fluoride [(204.5 ± 10.2),(308.2 ±15.4)mg/kg] was given for 12 months.Dental fluorosis,clinical skeletal fluorosis,and X-ray diagnosis of skeletalfluorosis [according to “Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis Diagnostic Criteria” (WS 192-2008)] of adults 20 to 70 years of age were examined and level of fluoride before and after the prevention trial,in brick tea,drinking water,milk tea and urine were tested (fluoride ion selective electrode method),and fluoride intake through tea was calculated.Results Detection rate of adult dental fluorosis in Handahangacha was 68.89% (62/90),clinical detection of skeletal fluorosis was 55.32% (52/94),and X-ray detection of skeletal fluorosis was 65.17% (58/89); adult dental fluorosis detection rate in Hadayinggegacha was 54.84%(51/93),clinical detection of skeletal fluorosis was 65.69%(67/102),and X-ray detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 61.36% (54/88).Brick tea fluoride was (831.4 ±138.9),(864.3 ± 134.6)mg/kg before the prevention trial in Handahangacha and Hadayinggegacha,respectively,drinking water fluoride content was (0.27 ± 0.05),(0.54 ± 0.24)mg/L,fluoride content of milk tea was (216 ± 1.12),(2.82 ± 1.38)mg/L,adult urine fluoride content was (2.78 ± 1.57),(2.96 ± 1.80)mg/L,and fluoride intake through milk tea was (8.12 ± 5.84),(6.42 ± 5.04)mg/d,respectively; after the prevention trial the fluoride content of brick tea was (204.5 ± 10.2),(308.2 ± 15.4)mg/kg,fluoride content of drinking water (0.34 ± 0.11),(0.62 ± 0.30)mg/L,fluoride content of milk tea(0.97 ± 0.33),(1.83 ± 0.66)mg/L,fluoride content in urine(1.29 ± 0.55),( 1.47 ±0.62)mg/L,fluoride intake through milk tea (3.45 ± 2.05),(3.71 ± 2.07)mg/d,respectively; in Handahan and

  13. 重庆市渝东北燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒流行因素调查%A survey of epidemiological factors of coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis in northeast of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫菊; 钟朝晖; 王应雄; 王力; 雍开文; 张茂忠; 罗兴建; 晏维

    2012-01-01

    (endemic fluorosis) and to provide a scientific basis for making prevention and control strategy.Methods One hundred children with dental fluorosis and 30 adults with skeletal fluorosis who lived in Wushan county and Fengjie county,the endemic fluorosis regions northeast of Chongqing were randomly selected as the case group in 2010.One hundred healthy children and 30 healthy adults were selected from the population where the cases were selected from as the control group and 30 healthy external adults control were selected from Yubei district,a non-endemic fluorosis area.Fasting venous blood was draw from all subjects and the content of zinc (Zn),copper(Cu),calcium (Ca),magnesium(Mg),and ferrum(Fe) in venous blood was measured by atomic spectrophotometric.Instant urine was collected from all subjects and urinary fluorine was measured by fluorine selective electrode.We also did questionnaire survey to 100 dental fluorosis children and 100 control children about their situation of fluorine pollution and knowledge related to endemic fluorosis.Results Children's blood Zn of the ease group[(70.88 ±9.28) μmol/L] was lower than that of the control group [(75.53 ± 10.78)μmol/L],and the difference was statistically significant(P < 0.05).But the average blood Cu content[(30.28 ± 2.58)μ mol/L] and the average urinary fluorine of the case group [(0.74 ± 0.36)mg/L] were significantly higher than that [Cu (28.45 ± 4.05)μmol/L and urinary fluorine (0.48 ± 0.21)mg/L] of the control group in children,respectively,and the differences was statistically significant(P < 0.05).The average blood Zn content of adults in the case group[(91.13 ± 10.29)μ mol/L] was lower than that of the control group[(99.57 ± 11.73)μmol/L],and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).The average content of Mg[(1.57 ± 0.19)mmol/L],Fe[(8.17 ± 1.01) mmol/L] and urinary fluorine[(2.37 ± 1.01)mg/L] in the case group were higher than that [Mg(1.46 ± 0.16) mmol/L,Fe(7.72 ± 0.96) mmol

  14. Control status quo of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in the disease affected areas in Shandong Province in 2012:an analysis of survey results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the schedule and effectiveness of water-improving defluoridation projects comprehensively of control of fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Shandong Province,and to provide a scientific basis for making strategies for prevention and control of the disease.Methods In accordance

  15. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) presenting with skeletal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2-year-old child presenting with bone pain and bone lesions was found to have sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML). SHML presenting with skeletal symptoms is unusual. Management has been conservative and the child has been symptom free for 30 months, although the bone lesions have not completely regressed. (orig.)

  16. [Epidemiological surveillance of dental fluorosis in a city with a tropical climate with a fluoridated public drinking water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Barbosa, Pablo Renan Ribeiro; Nunes-Dos-Santos, Danila Lorena; Dantas-Neta, Neusa Barros; Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; de Lima, Marina de Deus Moura

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among 11 to 14-year-old schoolchildren in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, which is a tropical city with a fluoridated public drinking water supply. It involved a cross-sectional observational study on a sample of 571 students in public and private schools. Informed Consent forms were approved for the data collection and the exams were conducted at the schools. Data were recorded on a questionnaire answered by the parents, regarding the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits of the sample. The dental exam was performed qualified dental sugeons. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index was used. The prevalence of fluorosis was 77.9%, and only 12.5% of the affected children had TF ≥ grade 3 (with aesthetic damage). The premolars were the teeth most affected by fluorosis. Among the students with the highest severity of fluorosis, 98.6% belonged to the lowest social bracket (> B2), 91.5% were born and had always lived in Teresina, 94.4% consumed water from the fluoridated public supply, 76% used toothpaste for children and 64% of mothers reported that they swallowed toothpaste. The prevalence of fluorosis was high, though the severity was low in individuals exposed to fluoridation since birth. PMID:27076023

  17. The relationship of PTH Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shibao; Li, Anqi; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Qi; Chen, Hongyang; Guo, Xiaoyi; Luo, Yixin; Hao, Qianyun; Hou, Jiaxiang; Ba, Yue

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association of parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children. A case-control study was conducted in two counties (Kaifeng and Tongxu) in Henan Province, China in 2005-2006. Two hundred and twenty-five children were recruited and divided into three groups including dental fluorosis group (DFG), non-dental fluorosis group (NDFG) from high fluoride areas, and control group (CG). Urine fluoride content was determined using fluoride ion selective electrode; PTH Bst BI were genotyped using PCR-RFLP; osteocalcin (OC) and calcitonin (CT) levels in serum were detected using radioimmunoassay. Genotype distributions were BB 85.3% (58/68), Bb 14.7% (10/68) for DFG; BB 77.6% (52/67), Bb 22.4% (15/67) for NDFG; and BB 73.3% (66/90), Bb 27.7% (24/90) for CG. No significant difference of Bst BI genotypes was observed among three groups (P > 0.05). Serum OC and urine fluoride of children were both significantly higher in DFG and NDFG than in CG (P 0.05). Serum OC level of children with BB genotype was significantly higher compared to those with Bb genotype in high fluoride areas (P fluorosis and PTH Bst BI polymorphism. Serum OC might be a more sensitive biomarker for detecting early stages of dental fluorosis, and further studies are needed.

  18. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children in Sarada tehsil of Udaipur district, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B U Sarvaiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean′s index in school children of selected villages. The drinking water samples of all the selected villages were collected in polyethylene bottles and the fluoride content of these samples was determined by fluoride ion selective method using Orion microprocessor analyser. Results: The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 69.84%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI with corresponding increase in water fluoride content was found. Conclusion: There was an increase in prevalence of dental fluorosis with a corresponding increase in water fluoride content from 0.8 ppm to 4.1 ppm. A significantly strong positive correlation was found between CFI and fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  19. Prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in 11-15 year old school children of Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India: A cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaradoss Jagan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study presents data on the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 11-15-years-old school children of Kanyakumari district, TamilNadu, India, and also the relationships between prevalence of dental fluorosis and selected risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 1800 children, from all the nine blocks of Kanyakumari district, studying in classes 6-10 were examined using type III examination. The assessment form designed specifically for this study was used while examining each student. Results: Dental fluorosis was present in 15.8% (285 children of the study population and the community fluorosis index was calculated to be 0.27. The prevalence of dental fluorosis varied from as low as 1.4% in some blocks to as high as 29.4% in some others. There was a significant difference in the level of dental fluorosis between rural and urban residents ( P < 0.001. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was higher in children who consumed pipe water as compared to children who consumed ground water. 65% of the children with dental fluorosis had no caries, indicating the positive effects of fluoride. Conclusions: The prevalence of dental fluorosis can be attributed to the level of fluoride in the drinking water as it exhibited a step-wise increase when the water fluoride levels increased from 1.5-1.7 ppm. Measures for defluoridation of drinking water before distribution has to be taken in the high prevalence blocks to lower the burden of dental fluorosis in this community.

  20. Synthesis and performance evaluation of Al/Fe oxide coated diatomaceous earth in groundwater defluoridation: Towards fluorosis mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuagie, Anthony A; Gitari, Wilson M; Gumbo, Jabulani R

    2016-08-23

    The quest to reduce fluoride in groundwater to WHO acceptable limit of 1.5 mg/L to prevent diseases such as teeth mottling and skeletal fluorosis was the motivation for this study. Al/Fe oxide-modified diatomaceous earth was prepared and its defluoridation potential evaluated by batch method. The sorbent with pHpzc 6.0 ± 0.2 is very reactive. The maximum 82.3% fluoride removal attained in 50 min using a dosage of 0.3 g/100 mL in 10 mg/L fluoride was almost attained within 5 min contact time; 81.3% being the percent fluoride removal at 5 min contact time. The sorbent has a usage advantage of not requiring solution pH adjustment before it can exhibit its fluoride removal potential. A substantial amount of fluoride (93.1%) was removed from solution when a sorbent dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL was contacted with 10 mg/L fluoride solution for 50 min at a mixing rate of 200 rpm. The optimum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 7.633 mg/g using a solution containing initially 100 mg/L fluoride. The equilibrium pH of the suspensions ranged between 6.77 and 8.26 for 10 and 100 mg/L fluoride solutions respectively. Contacting the sorbent at a dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL with field water containing 5.53 mg/L at 200 rpm for 50 min reduced the fluoride content to 0.928 mg/L-a value below the upper limit of WHO guideline of 1.5 mg/L fluoride in drinking water. The sorption data fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms but better with the former. The sorption data obeyed only the pseudo-second-order kinetic, which implies that fluoride was chemisorbed. PMID:27220558

  1. 2010年山东省地方性氟中毒重点调查结果与分析%Analysis of surveillance outcome of endemic fluorosis in Shandong province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培忠; 云中杰; 李亨祥; 高红旭; 王玉涛; 高杰; 尹玉岩

    2012-01-01

    urinary fluoride were determined by ion selective electrode and examination of dental fluorosis was done by using Dean method.Results A total of 288normal operated water improvement projects were examined in the 4 counties,the qualified rate of water fluoride (≤ 1.00 mg/L) of the projects was 51.39%(148/288),mean water fluoride was 1.35 mg/L and the maximum value was 6.27 mg/L.A total of 26 copies of drinking water samples were measured,the fluoride content ranged from 0.62mg/L to 4.36 mg/L,and mean water fluoride was 2.02 mg/L.A total of 685 children aged 8 to 12 were examined in the major investigated villages,the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 80.14% (549/685),detectable rate of the defective dental fluorosis was 15.33% (105/685),and dental fluorosis index was 1.56.Three hundred and seventynine copies of child urine samples were tested,the geometric mean of urinary fluoride were 0.66 - 13.28 mg/L,and the average was 3.04 mg/L.Conclusions Nearly 50% of the water fluoride level of the water improvement project exceeds the standard ( > 1.00 mg/L) in the 4 countries.The detection rate of dental fluorosis exceeds 80% and urinary fluoride is significantly exceeds the standard in the major investigated villages.The endemic fluorosis is still serious and the situation of prevention and control of the disease is still grim.

  2. An analysis of monitoring data of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Shanxi Province in 2014%2014年山西省饮水型地方性氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段虎顺; 王三祥; 贾清珍; 王正辉; 吴赵明; 李鹏飞; 程晓天; 武敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To dynamically monitor the implementation progress and the quality of the water quality improvement project in drinking water type of endemic fluorosis areas,to learn the condition change tendency,and to evaluate the effect of control measures.Methods According to "The Plan of Surveillance on Drinking-water-borne Endemic Fluorosis in China",18 villages in 6 counties were selected as monitoring sites in Yanggao,Dingxiang,Xiaodian,Taigu,Xiangfen,Linyi counties.Water fluoride content in residents' drinking water samples was determined in monitoring counties and villages,and the operation of water supply projects was investigated.The fluorine content in water samples was determined according to the standard testing methods for drinking water (GB/T 5750.5-2006).All children aged 8 to 12 of the survey villages were examined and determined dental fluorosis using "Diagnostic of Dental Fluorosis" (WS/T 208-2011).People of over 25 years old in monitoring counties were selected to be examined skeletal fluorosis by X-ray and the content of urinary fluoride was determined,and they were examined by X-ray according to "Diagnostic Criteria of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis"(WS 192-2008),and the urinary fluoride content was determined by fluoride ion selective electrodemethod.Results A total of 18 villages were monitored,16 had changed the water,2 had not changed the water.In water changed villages,small water projects were 15,accounted for 93.75% (15/16);large water project was 1,accounted for 6.25% (1/16);all projects were in normal operation,10 of the projects provided water with normal fluoride,the range of water fluoride content was 0.11-1.00 mg/L,the qualified rate of water fluoride content was 62.50%(10/16);6 of the projects provided water with fluoride exceeded the standard,the range of water fluoride content was 1.69-2.91 mg/L,the rate of water fluoride content exceeded was 37.5% (6/16).Water fluoride content of the two villages which water had not changed

  3. Investigation of status in coal-burning fluorosis areas in Luoyang city of Henan in 2006%2006年河南省洛阳市燃煤污染型氟中毒病区现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付书霞; 杨芳丽; 康建山; 马娟; 乔玉朋; 姚巧玲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution status of coal-burning fluorosis (endemic fluorosis) areas in Luoyang and to provide scientifc evidence for making strategies in prevention and control. Methods In 2006, a household per village was chosen to carry the general survey so as of disease condition, living habits and housing structure among 941 coal-burning pollution fluorine sickness natural villages in Yanshi, Mengjin, Xin'an, Luanchuan counties and Geely area which were under the jurisdiction of Luoyang. In the general survey, the sampled village having a population of more than 500 person was considered as a major survey village, and water fluoride, 8 - 12 year-old child fluorine spot on tooth and the urinary fluoride were surveyed. Water fluoride and the child urinary fluoride determination used the fluoride ion selective electrode method, and the children's dental fluorosis used Dean method. Results The endemic fluorosis of Luoyang existed 742 in endemic fluomsis villages, compared with history, a decrease of 199 in number. Ninety-six point seven per cent( 142 543/147 419) of the households were consuming smoke-free coal. Households using intact kitchens accounted for 93.6%( 137 919/147 419). Of which 63.0%(86 889/137 919) of kitchens were mixed up with bedrooms. Total 125 060 people were using coal- fired furnace for heating, of which 87.8%(109 802/125 060) had smoke-free facilities, 12.2%(15 258/125 060) had none. Among 52 endemic villages with population of more than 500 people surveyed, a total of 183 water samples were collected, 2 had water fluoride exceeding 1.0 rag/L, the highest water fluoride being 1.04 rag/L, averaging 0.39 mg/L Sixteen villages had a prevalence rate of dental fluorosis for children less than 30.00%, accounting for 30.8% (16/52), 36 endemic villages the prevalence of dental fluorosis detection rate of more than 30.00%, accounting for 69.2%(36/52). Twenty-thrce villages had a dental fluorosis index greater than 0.6, severe dental

  4. 古蔺县高中生地氟病相关知识知晓情况及影响因素分析%The Survey of Risk Factors and Related Knowledge about Endemic Fluorosis of High School Students in Gulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖晋锋; 刘娅; 陈君; 陈建国; 王从林; 陈映翰; 叶运莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective :To understand the health education present situation and the demand about the Endemic Fluoro‐sis Prevention in Gulin county which could provide the basis for controlling endemic fluorosis .Methods :A total of 748 High school students in Gulin ,were chosen under Stratified cluster random sampling and had completed a question‐naire survey related with fluorosis knowledge .Results:The awareness rate of endemic fluorosis of the participants was 57 .95% .The awareness of the lowest three points“the performance of severe skeletal fluorosis (7 .6% )” ,“the height of health stoves above the roof (21 .8% )” ,“the main performance of the endemic fluorosis (26 .3% )”;Students of en‐demic fluorosis prevention knowledge sources accounts are publicity column ,leaflets (62 .3% ) ,radio/TV (38 .4% ) , the school teachers (34 .5% ) . The hopeful way for the top three are doctors (64 .9% ) ,publicity column ,flyer (55.8% ) ,radio/TV (47 .1% ) .Conclusion:The high school students in Gulin county of Sichuan endemic fluorosis pre‐vention knowledge awareness rate is very low ,less access to health knowledge ,and there is an urgent need to strength‐en the publicity health education and the popularization work .%目的:了解古蔺县地氟病区高中生燃煤型地氟病防治健康教育现状及需求,为地氟病进一步防治提供依据。方法:通过分层整群随机抽样的方法抽取古蔺县地氟病区748名高中生,对其进行问卷调查。结果:调查对象地氟病防治知识总知晓率为57.95%;知晓率最低的三个知识点分别是“严重氟骨症引起的表现(7.6%)”、“卫生炉灶高出屋脊的高度(21.8%)”、“地氟病主要表现(26.3%)”;调查对象目前地氟病防治知识来源占前三位的分别是宣传栏、宣传单(62.3%),广播/电视(38.4%),学校老师(34.5%)。学生希望获得地氟病的防治

  5. Adolescents' perceptions of the aesthetic impact of dental fluorosis vs. other dental conditions in areas with and without water fluoridation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of fluorides for caries prevention is well established but is linked with an increased risk of dental fluorosis, some of which may be considered to be aesthetically objectionable. Patient opinion should be considered when determining impact on aesthetics. The aim of this study was to assess participant rating of dental aesthetics (from photographic images of 11 to 13 year olds participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in a fluoridated and a non-fluoridated community in Northern England. Methods Consented participants were invited to rank in order of preference (appearance a collage of 10 computer generated images on a touch-screen laptop. The images comprised an assortment of presentations of teeth that included white teeth, a spectrum of developmental defects of enamel and dental caries. Data were captured directly and exported into SPSS for analysis. Results Data were available for 1553 participants. In general, there were no significant differences in the rank positions between the fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities, with the exception of teeth with caries and teeth with large demarcated opacities. Very white teeth had the highest rating in both localities. Overall, there was a trend for teeth with fluorosis to be ranked more favourably in the fluoridated community; for TF 1 and TF 2 this preference was significant (p Conclusions The results of this study suggest teeth that are uniformly very white have the highest preference. The rankings suggest teeth with a fluorosis score of TF 1 may not be considered aesthetically objectionable to this population and age group. The image depicting a tooth with caries and the image with large demarcated opacities were deemed to be the least favoured. Participant preference of images depicting fluorosis falls with increasing severity of fluorosis.

  6. Analysis of the dri nking water type endemic fluorosis surveillance in Bozhou City, Anhui Province,2010%2010年安徽亳州市饮水型地方性氟中毒监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐慧文

    2013-01-01

    目的 掌握亳州市饮水型地方性氟中毒病情及降氟改水工程等防治措施落实情况,为进一步开展防治地氟病工作提供科学依据.方法 2010 年在市辖3 个县(区)谯城区、涡阳县、蒙城县的地氟病监测点,对所有改水工程运行情况、水氟含量进行了调查.对每县区的3 个固定监测村的人口学资料、水氟含量、8~12 岁儿童氟斑牙、25 岁以上成人氟骨症等情况开展了调查工作.结果 共调查了134 个集中式改水设施,无经费运行或损坏的有14 个,水氟>1.0mg / L 的有93 个.共采集9 个病区村的48 份水样,全市水氟浓度检测结果 的算术平均值范围为1.37mg / L,最大值为4.91mg / L.726 名8~12 岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为21.26%(158 / 726),缺损率为1.24%(9 / 726),氟斑牙指数为0.74;25 岁以上成人X 线氟骨症检出率为15.4%(69/448).结论 亳州市饮水型地氟病病情尚未完全控制,防控形势仍很严峻,需进一步加强降氟改水监管力度,使群众能够饮用低氟水.%Objective To understand the situation of drinking water type endemic fluorosis and the implement status on proj ects of lowing fluoride content in drinking water in Bozhou City, and provide scientific basis to carry out control work of the disease. Methods In 2010, the operation situation of projects of lowing fluoride content in drinking water in surveillance sites in Qiaocheng District, Guoyang County and Mengcheng County of Bozhou City were investigated, and the fluoride content in water was detected, and the demographic data, water fluoride content, dental fluorosis of children aged 8 — 12, skeletal fluorosis of adults aged over 25 in 3 fixed monitoring villages were investigated. Results A total of 134 centralized water facilities were investigated, 14 of which didn′t run or damaged, 93 of which were found that the water fluoride were all over 1.0mg/ L. A total of 48 water samples from 9 villages were collected, and the

  7. Esthetic improvement of white spot lesions and non-pitted fluorosis using resin infiltration technique: Series of four clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gugnani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available White opacities have always been a major concern of esthetics for patients and can have varying etiology. In general, white discolorations of enamel might be due to dental fluorosis, early caries (white spot lesions, developmental defects etc. Conventional treatment options available for such opacities include non-invasive and invasive approaches. Recently, a new "micro-invasive" technique has been introduced as an alternative therapeutic approach that improves such opacities esthetically, in a single sitting, is painless and exhibits no complications. This case series illustrates the use of resin infiltration to treat fluorosis stains and WSLs, exhibiting significant improvement in esthetics.

  8. Early detection of dental fluorosis using Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, José Luis; Martínez-Cano, Evelia; Magaña-López, Yolanda

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectroscopic technique has the potential to provide vibrational spectra of minerals by analyzing scattered light caused by monochromatic laser excitation. In this paper, recent applications of Raman spectroscopy in the study of dental hard tissues are reported. Special attention is given to mineral components in enamel and to calcium fluoride formed in/on enamel. The criteria used to classify the dental hard samples were according to the Dean Index (DI), which consists into healthy or control, mild, moderate, and severe, indicating the amount of dental fluorosis observed on enamel. A total of 39 dental samples (9 control, 9 mild, 10 moderate, and 11 severe) were analyzed in the study. Dental samples were positioned under an Olympus microscope, and around 10 points were chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected by a Horiba Jobin-Yvon LabRAM HR800 Raman Spectrometer with a laser of 830-nm and 17-mW power irradiation. Raw spectra were processed by carrying out baseline correction, smoothing, and normalization to remove noise, florescence, and shot noise and then analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). In the spectra of dental samples, we observed the main bands as the broad band due to CO[Formula: see text] (240-300 cm (-1)), CaF 2 (322 cm (-1)), PO[Formula: see text] vibrations (437 and 450 cm (-1)), PO[Formula: see text] vibrations (582, 598, and 609 cm (-1)), PO[Formula: see text] vibrations (960 cm (-1)), PO[Formula: see text] vibrations (1,045 cm (-1)), and CO[Formula: see text] vibration (1,073 cm (-1)). Nevertheless, the intensity of the band at 960 cm (-1) associated to symmetric stretch of phosphate, PO[Formula: see text], decreases as the amount of dental fluorosis increases, suggesting that the intensity of this band could be used to quantitatively measure the level of fluorosis on a dental sample. On the other hand, PCA allowed to identify two large clusters discriminating between control, and severe and moderate samples

  9. 2008年青海省饮水型地方性氟中毒病情调查分析%Outcome analysis on drinking-water type endemic fluorosis in Qinghai in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏生英; 刘秋香; 王兴; 万玛; 鲁青; 丁萍; 丁生荣; 浦广兰; 陈萍; 何多龙; 张海燕; 司文江

    2010-01-01

    groups. The fluorine content in urine was determined with F-ion selective electrode. The situation of clinical skeletal fluorosis of adults over 16 years of age was examined,and 20 adults in the villages of medium and heavy levels were filmed for skeletal fluorosis. Results The detectable rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 years old was 43.59% (245/562),that of skeletal flurosis of adults aged above 16 years was 50.32% (1582/3144) and detectable rate of X-ray was 29.45% (48/163). Fluoride content in urine was 1.52 mg/L. Conclusions Endemic fluorosis is still very serious in Qiaghai province in a rising trend,so the control measures need to be strengthen.

  10. The sources, pathway, and preventive measures for fluorosis in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, S.F.; Li, W.W.; Tang, Y.G.; Zhang, Y.; Feng, P. [China University of Mining Technology, Beijing (China)

    2007-05-15

    The F content of several materials from households of Zhijin County, one of the most severe endemic fluorosis-stricken areas in western Guizhou, was determined using the pyrohydrolysis/fluoride ion-selective electrode method to determine the sources of F and the pathways causing the disease. The average F content of the coal burned is 237 {mu} g/g, the clay used as a binder for fine coal is 2262 {mu} g/g, with 828 {mu} g/g in the mixed coal and clay, while the F content of corn is 1419 {mu} g/g, with 110 {mu} g/g in chilies. The binder clay is found to be the main F source for the endemic fluorosis. Fluorine in the clay not only occurs in apatite and hornblende, but also is associated with illite and mixed-layer clay minerals of smectite and illite. About 80% of the F is released during combustion of the mixture. The F content of corn and chilies is about 1000 and 110 times higher, respectively, than the permitted level of F in foodstuffs according to the Chinese Standard GB 4809-84. Most of the F in corn and chilies probably occurs either in smoke dusts attached to the surface or is adsorbed onto the outer peel, rather than being absorbed by the inner part. Thus, in addition to developing F-sequestration technologies, changing the living habits of the residents in the endemic area, for example, washing corn and chilies before cooking and peeling corn before being pulverized into corn flour, will remove a large proportion of the F, and thus it can play an important role in endemic fluorosis prevention.

  11. Perinatal lethal skeletal dysplasia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Dubey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The word dysplasia originates from ancient Greek words dys (anomalous and plasia (formation. Skeltal dysplasia (SD is a heterogeneous group of congenital anomalies characterized by abnormalities in the development of the bone and cartilage tissue. This results in mark disproportion of the long bones, the spine and fetal head relation to the trunk. Perinatal lethal skeletal dysplasia leads to still birth or early neonatal death due to pulmonary hypoplasia. 30 yrs old G3P3L2 at 32 weeks presented with leaking per vaginum. Her serial scan was done as she had previous stillborn male child with short limbs. Her antenatal scan revealed short limbs from 24 weeks. From18 weeks to 24 weeks she did not underwent any sonography. She went into spontaneous labor and delivered still born male baby with clinical and radiological features suggestive of skeletal dysplasia. Skeletal dysplasia can be diagnosed on antenatal 2 D ultrasound from 14 - 16 weeks onwards. Prenatal genetic testing should be done to diagnose the genetic anomaly and patient should be referred to higher institute for this test. Even if genetic test not done even then termination of pregnancy should be considered based on ultrasound diagnosis especially with family history because of poor fetal prognosis and long term morbidity if survived. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 224-229

  12. Influencia de los tratamientos microabrasivos sobre la resistencia adhesiva en dientes con fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mena Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda de tratamientos mínimamente invasivos y altamente estéticos para pacientes con fluorosis, ha llevado a buscar mecanismos para solucionar esta problemática, mediante la utilización de resinas como la primera opción. Sin embargo el principal problema del tratamiento, se centra en la poca adhesión debido a las características estructurales del esmalte fluorótico, en grados de fluorosis TF 1 al 3, el ácido no actúa correctamente, causando ausencia de grabado principalmente entre las estrías de Retzius, en las rugosidades y espacios adamantinos ocupados por detritus de materia orgánica y cúmulos de placa dentobacteriana, siendo necesario efectuar técnicas microabrasivas y desproteinizantes como paso previo a los procesos adhesivos. Así, el presente estudio pretendió determinar la resistencia adhesiva en dientes con fluorosis grados TF 2 y 3, empleando tres diferentes técnicas de abrasión adamantina, se seleccionaron 48 dientes divididos en 3 grupos de 16 muestras cada uno, 8 con grado TF2 y 8 con grado TF3. Las superficies del esmalte fueron preparadas mediante la técnica “microabrasión modificada”, la “técnica de microabrasión” y “Opalustre”, todos los grupos recibieron desproteinización con hipoclorito de sodio al 5% por un minuto. Posterior a lo cual fueron realizados los procesos adhesivos mediante sistema adhesivo y resina compuesta, sometiéndose posteriormente a pruebas de cizallamiento. Los resultados analizados mediante testes de ANOVA y T de Student no determinaron una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos, la facilidad en los protocolos de aplicación debe ser considerada en la elección de la técnica, sin embargo resulta importante su ejecución en dientes afectados por fluorosis.

  13. [Fluoride content in potable water and drinks. Connection with dental caries prevention and dental fluorosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Rumiantsev, V A; Borinskaia, E Iu; Beliaev, V V

    2009-01-01

    Content of fluoride by ion selective electrode in potable water (municipal water supply, bottled, from draw-wells and springs), in juices of industrial and compotes of domestic preparation, in drinks of various grades of the tea made by water with unequal contents of fluorine was analyzed. Fluoride entered organism of the population in non-control mode more often in minimum quantities that explained, in certain measures a wide caries incidence. Granting of the information upon concentration of fluorides in potable water, juices and drinks used by population would allow people to adjust this microelement intake in the organism with the purpose of preventing of dental caries and fluorosis.

  14. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in ''battered child syndrome'' and brain injuries in ''shaken baby syndrome''. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.)

  15. 昆明市儿童龋病和氟牙症流行状况调查%Epidemiology survey of dental caries and fluorosis of children in Kunming city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆; 刘娟; 张灿华; 张石楠; 李艳红

    2011-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of water fluoridation to prevent caries in Kunming by investigating the epidemiological status of dental caries and dental fluorosis of children, and to provide the longitudinal reference data for the long-term epidemiology survey of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Kunming city. Methods Through stratified cluster sampling method, 212 5-year-old children and 1 149 12-year-old children were recruited in the survey. Dental caries condition of each child was clinically examined, dental fluorosis was examined in 12-year-old group. Results The prevalence of dental caries of primary teeth in 5-year-old group was 73.6%, mean value was 4.47± 4.39. The values of permanent teeth in 12-year-old group were 53.5% and 1.42±1.83. The prevalence of dental fluo- rosis in 12-year-old group was 4.1% and the average community fluorosis index was 0.03. Conclusion Based on the high prevalence of dental caries and the low prevalence of dental fluorosis, it is suggested that using water fluoridation to prevent caries is feasible and necessary in Kunming city.%目的 通过对昆明市儿童龋病和氟牙症的流行病学调查,为该区开展饮水加氟预防龋齿提供可行性依据,并为昆明市龋病和氟牙症长期流行病学研究提供基础数据.方法 采用分层、整群随机抽样方法,调查5、12岁2个年龄组儿童各212、1 149人,调查内容包括5、12岁儿童龋病患病现状以及12岁儿童氟牙症流行现状.结果 昆明市5岁儿童乳牙患龋率73.6%,龋均4.47+4.39; 12岁儿童恒牙患龋率53.5%,龋均1.42±1.83; 12岁儿童氟牙症患病率4.1%,社区氟牙症指数为0.03.结论 昆明市属于龋病患病状况较严重和氟牙症非流行区,从流行病学角度认为该地区具有调节水氟浓度预防龋齿的必要性及可行性.

  16. The skeletal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkels, PGJ

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a group of disorders with a disturbance in development and/or growth of cartilage and/or bone. Epiphysis, metaphysis, and diaphysis of long bones are affected in a generalized manner with or without involvement of membranous bone of the skull. A dysostosis affects one or some

  17. Outcome analysis of surveillance on endemic fluorosis during thr period of 1991 to 2006 in Jilin Province%1991-2006年吉林省地方性氟中毒病情监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长青; 王成海; 张晓东; 许宏伟; 唐红艳; 卢振明; 张爱君; 张玉林

    2009-01-01

    Objective To unveil the changes of endemic fluorosis in order to provide the scientific basis for making countermeasure. Methods Seven villages was selected as monitoring points in Qianan County of Jilin Province where drinking water was improved or was going tobe improved. Dental fluorosis was surveyed with Dean method and for urine fluoride content was tested using fluoride ion-selective electrode analysis in 8 - 12 years old children. Clinical skeletal fluorosis was detected in all residents of aged 16 and over in the beginning of the monitor and every 3 years. X-ray films were taken in those over 16 years old at the beginning of the monitor and every 5 years. Results Detectable rate of dental fluorosis was decreased compared with before(Weizi: 11.3% to 2.2%, Danzi: 16.3% to 12.1%, Houqi: 53.7% to 37.5%, Houju: 38.6% to 33.3%), and severity was declining, for example, in Dongnanjing, rate of being moderate was dropping from 11.3% to 7.8%, severe rate from 2.8% to 0;in Houqi: moderate rate from 16.7% to 0, severe rate from 1.9% to 0;in Houju, moderate rate from 1.4% to 0,severe rate from 1.4% to 0. However, detectable rate of dental fluorosis rose in Dabin from 61.7% to 70.0% and in Dongbin-donju from 52.7% to 71.1% due to increased fluorides in drinking water. Urine fluorides content in 8 - 12 years old children was decreased to normal level(1.5 mg/L) in most of monitoring spots, but in Dabin it still remained at a high level, being 4.03 and 4.57 mg/L before and after respectively. Detectable rate clinical skeletal fluorosis was between 11.1% - 25.7% among those aged 16 and over in 7 monitoring point in 1991 - 2006, however it increased year after year in Dabin (15.9%, 21.6% and 25.7% in 1991, 1993 and 1995). Positive X-ray rate for skeletal fluorosis was decreased from 54.9% to 24.0% in Dabin, from 40.7% to 23.5% in Dongbin-donju and from 28.6% to 20.4% in Dangnanjing. Conclusions Endemic fluorosis has been controlled attributed to improved drinking water and

  18. The distribution of drinking-tea-borne fluorosis in the six ethnics in Qinghai Province%饮茶型氟中毒在青海省6个民族人群中的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁青; 魏生英; 何多龙; 杨萍; 李生梅; 姜泓; 陈萍; 蒲光兰; 吴海坤; 喇翠玲

    2014-01-01

    毒防治的重点人群。%Objective To find out the distribution of drinking-tea-borne fluorosis in the six ethnics in Qinghai Province, and to provide basic data for prevention and control of the disease. Methods In 2010, according to the requirement of “The National Surveillance Program of Drinking-Tea-borne Fluorosis”, six ethnics accounted for 99.59% of total population in Qinghai Province were investigated in 28 counties having brick-tea drinking habit. Three townships and a town in each county, two administrative villages(residents’ committee) in each township and town were chosen and 50 adults in each administrative village and residents ’ committee were selected to check skeletal fluorosis, dental fluorosis, urine fluoride and daily drinking amount of tea water. Five to six samples of drinking tea water were determined. Dental fluorosis was examined by Deans method; the fluoride content of brick-tea and urine were determined by fluoride ion selective electrode; the skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed based on “Endemic Osteofluorosis Clinical Indexing Diagnosis Standard”( WS 192-2008 ) . Results A total of 10 335 adults were surveyed, the number of Tibetan, Han, Hui, Mongolian, Tu and Salar ethnics were 4 972, 3 063, 1 196, 634, 235 and 235, respectively. The daily drinking amounts of tea water in Mongolian, Tibetan, Hui, Tu, Han and Salar ethnics were 2.53, 2.19, 1.74, 1.63, 1.22 and 1.07 L, respectively. Daily fluoride intakes in Tibetan, Mongolian, Tu, Hui, Han and Salar ethnics were 3.99, 2.78,2.27, 2.16, 1.78 and 1.28 mg, respectively. The medians of urinary fluoride concentration of the Tibetan, Tu, Hui, Han, Mongolian and Salar ethnics were 1.46, 1.19, 1.12, 0.98, 0.93 and 0.81 mg/L, respectively. The prevalence rates of dental fluorosis of the Hui, Han, Tibetan, Tu, Mongolian and Salar ethnics were 34.53%(413/1 196), 27.07%(829/3 063), 21.60%(1 074/4 972), 20.00%(47/235), 17.98%(114/634) and 6.38%(15/235), respectively. The incidence rates of clinical skeletal fluorosis of the

  19. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become ...

  20. Perceptions of adolescents and young people regarding endemic dental fluorosis in a rural area of Brazil: psychosocial suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castilho, Lia Silva; e Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Perini, Edson

    2009-11-01

    Severe dental fluorosis is endemic in some rural areas of Brazil. This paper describes the psychosocial consequences of this condition and how it has affected the self-esteem of adolescents and young people in a rural area in Brazil. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 23 adolescents and young people affected by severe dental fluorosis and 14 of their teachers. The study revealed the affected individuals were embarrassed to smile at strangers due to a presumed association between fluorosis and a lack of dental hygiene. Further findings include conflicts between affected and non-affected students at school, problems in pursuing a romantic relationship and uncertainties regarding a professional future. Disbelief and scepticism were observed regarding the ethical position that science can offer a solution to the problems stemming from the disease. Lesions from severe dental fluorosis appear to be a stigmatizing factor and have contributed toward suffering and self-exclusion among an entire generation of adolescents and young people.

  1. Expression of mitochondrial fission protein locus Fisl and ultrastructural changes in the renal cells of rats with chronic fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦双立

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of mitochondrial fission protein locus Fis1 and ultrastructural changes in the renal cells of rats with chronic fluorosis,and to reveal the mechanism in mitochondrial damage of the renal cells.Methods Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups according

  2. POLLUTION OF DRINKING WATER DUE TO FLUORIDE AND DENTAL FLUOROSIS AT HUNAGUND TALUK OF BAGALKOT DISTRICT, KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.Kugali

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground water quality in Hunagund taluk of Bagalkot district has been studied with special reference to the presence of fluoride. The main purpose is to draw attention to the presence and the severity of dental fluorosis. Out of 3000 people aged 8-50 years 1275 (42.5% had dental fluorosis of some degree. The well being of humans depends on quality of drinking water. Consumption of water containing excess fluoride over over long period results in fluorosis. Currently, fifteen states of India are endemic for fluorosis. The presence of fluoride in exceeding limits and its related problems of drinking water prevailing in many parts of India is well documented. Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. Many solutions to these problems were also suggested. Fluoride from water or waste water can be removed by an ion exchange/ adsorption process or by coagulation. Precipitation process. The paper presents the current information on defluoridation

  3. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Bælum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental defects of non-fluoride origin in Lithuanian children born and raised in regions with 1.1 ppm (1.1 mg/l F) and 0.3 ppm (0.3 mg/l F) water fluoride levels, respectively. All permanent surfaces/t...

  4. Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo BUZALAF

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the overall apatite crystals profile in the enamel matrix of mice susceptible (A/J strain or resistant (129P3/J strain to dental fluorosis through analyses by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Material and Methods: Samples from the enamel matrix in the early stages of secretion and maturation were obtained from the incisors of mice from both strains. All detectable traces of matrix protein were removed from the samples by a sequential extraction procedure. The purified crystals (n=13 per strain were analyzed qualitatively in the AFM. Surface roughness profile (Ra was measured. Results: The mean (±SD Ra of the crystals of A/J strain (0.58±0.15 nm was lower than the one found for the 129P3/J strain (0.66±0.21 nm but the difference did not reach statistical significance (t=1.187, p=0.247. Crystals of the 129P3/J strain (70.42±6.79 nm were found to be significantly narrower (t=4.013, p=0.0013 than the same parameter measured for the A/J strain (90.42±15.86 nm. Conclusion: enamel crystals of the 129P3/J strain are narrower, which is indicative of slower crystal growth and could interfere in the occurrence of dental fluorosis.

  5. Guidelines for Skeletal Surveys in Suspected Chils Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo; Poulsen, Mette Ramsdal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in that there is exceptional necessity for high quality images. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if imaging is sub-optimal. The consequences...... child. The second meeting resulted in consensus on the necessary projections required for follow-up skeletal surveys. Conclusion Common protocols for child abuse imaging have been established and fully implemented in the Region of Southern Denmark. Annual meetings have also been established where legal...... of misdiagnosis are serious. Should head trauma or fractures be overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. Conversely, where no abuse has taken place, but the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, the unnecessary...

  6. The effectiveness of low-fluoride brick tea on brick-tea-type fluorosis%低氟砖茶干预饮茶型氟中毒效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓波; 刘庆斌; 刘学慧; 姜志立; 英殿双; 张晓明; 田淑彩; 盖长城; 王革

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effectiveness of low-fluoride brick tea on brick-tea-type fluorosis.Methods From 2007 to 2010,a 3-year-intervention trial,using low-fluoride brick tea without additives(fluorine content of 94.8-128.0 mg/kg),was carried out in Cuogang Township,Hulunbeier City of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,and resident from 35 Mongolia pastoralists households were involved in the trial.The followings were compared before and after the intervention trial:fluorine levels in brick tea,milk tea,blood,urine,daily fluoride intake through brick tea,the changes of X-ray,bone density and blood biochemistry indexes.Fluorine content in brick tea,milk tea,blood and urine was determined by ion selective electrode method; dental fluorosis was diagnosed by Dean method; clinical osteofluorosis was diagnosed using the reference of "Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis Diagnosis of Clinical Classification" (GB 16396-1996) ; X-ray skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed based on the reference of "Skeletal Fluorosis X-ray Diagnosis" (WS 192-1999); bone density was determined according to the reference standard of diagnosis of osteoporosis of WHO.Results Before the intervention trial fluorine content of tea[(4.38 ± 2.43)mg/L] was higher than that after the trial[(1.00 ± 0.41)mg/L,t =6.56,P < 0.01] ; blood fluorine content in the population[(0.068 ± 0.018)mg/L] was higher than that after the trial[(0.054 ± 0.025)mg/L,t =3.24,P < 0.01]; urinary fluoride content [(3.17 ± 1.97)mg/L] was higher than that after the trial [(1.57 ± 0.77)mg/L,t =5.78,P < 0.01]; fluoride intake through milk tea [(7.89 ± 6.76)mg/d] was higher than that after the trial[(1.71 ± 1.42)mg/d,t =7.62,P < 0.01].The skeletal fluorosis rate was 32.79%(20/61),no new patient was found after the trial; bone mineral density was improved,and the value before the trial(-0.74 ± 1.18) was lower than that after the trial(-0.56 ± 1.18,t =2.14,P < 0.05).Blood biochemistry:cholesterol and low density lipoprotein

  7. Comparison of radiographic and radionuclide skeletal surveys in battered children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of 13 cases of suspected child abuse in which radionuclide (RN) scans, radiographic skeletal surveys, and sufficient follow-up were available showed that the RN scans were insensitive, even though fractures were more than 48 hours old at the time of the scan. Frequently missed lesions included skull and extremity fractures. Furthermore, soft tissue and visceral abnormalities that were identified on radiographic examination went undetected on RN scan. We conclude that, although the RN scan may augment the radiographic examination, it should not be used alone to screen for the battered child

  8. Studies on geological background and source of fluorine in drinking water in the North China Plate fluorosis areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, K.; Feng, F.; Li, H.; Chou, C.-L.; Feng, Z.; Yunshe, D.

    2008-01-01

    Endemic fluorosis in northern China is usually produced by high fluorine (F) content in drinking water. Thirty-one samples of drinking waters, mainly well waters and nearly 200 samples of rocks, loess, and coal were analyzed for F content using the combustion hydrolysis-fluoride-ion selective electrode (ISE) method. The geologic cross sections of two well-known fluorosis basins were studied. The solubility of F in different rock types collected from fluorosis areas was determined. Results showed that areas of endemic fluorosis in northern China are located in coal-bearing basins which are comprised of three stratagraphic portions. The lowest portion is Precambrian granitic rocks or Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates. The middle portion consists of Permo-Carboniferous or Jurassic coal-bearing sequences. The upper portion is 0-400 m Pleistocene loess. Flourine content in the Precambrian granite-gneiss contained (a) 1090-1460 ppm, in the Cambrian-Ordovician limestone and dolomite, (b) 52-133 ppm, in black shales and coal gob of Permo-Carboniferous coal-bearing strata, (c) 200-700 ppm, and (d) Pleistocene loess 454-542 ppm. The solubility of F in black shales of coal-bearing sequences was higher than in Precambrian granitic rocks, and both were more soluble than loess. F solubility from Precambrian granitic rocks was moderate, but Precambrian granitic rocks have high F content and thus contribute an appreciable amount of ion to the shallow groundwater (well water). Varying F content in shallow groundwater is controlled by geological conditions. The sources of F in the shallow groundwater from fluorosis areas in northern China are mainly derived from black shales of coal-bearing sequences and Precambrian granitic basement in the basins of northern China. ?? 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  9. Surveillance Results of Coal-Burning Induced Fluorosis in Sichuan, 2006-2010%2006-2010年四川省燃煤型地氟病监测报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敬; 杨小静; 邓启才; 梁代华; 袁萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of coal-burning induced endemic fluorosis,and to provide scientific basis for formulating control strategies of endemic fluorosis in China.Methods The annual incidence of dental fluorosis among children,the level of urinary fluoride,corn fluoride and capsicum fluoride were detected at the 4 surveillance spots; meanwhile,the performance of kitchen transformation was investigated.Results From 2006 to 2010,the prevalence of dental fluorosis dropped from 49.21% to 21.52%,with a 27.69% average annual decline.The dental fluorosis index fell by 71.82% and the urine fluoride presented a downward trend,with a geometric mean ranged from 0.73 to 1.13 ; the average detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 13.03 % ; the mean corn fluoride content decreased by 72.05 % and average fluoride content in capsicum decreased by 86.07 %,yet with a serious exceeding content of 3309.3 mg/kg.The transformation rate of cooking stoves was 65.38% among the 4 counties,and the perfectness rate of which was 81.88%,resulting in remarkable decline of fluorine pollution in air and qualifying the national standard.Conclusion Through 2006 to 2010 in Sichuan,the coal-burning induced endemic fluorosis remarkable decreased,yet the control measures as following should be abidingly implemented:stove maintenance work,pepper drying method improvement,health education and so on.%目的 了解四川省2006-2010年燃煤污染型地氟病的现况、变化趋势和防治措施落实情况,为制定地氟病防治防治策略提供科学依据.方法 每年1次对4个监测县监测病区8 ~12岁儿童氟斑牙、儿童尿氟、玉米、辣椒氟含量及病区改灶降氟措施完成和使用情况进行调查.结果 2006-2010年监测县燃煤污染型地氟病儿童氟斑牙患病率由49.21%下降到21.52%,年平均患病率下降了27.69%,氟斑牙指数下降了71.82%;尿氟呈下降趋势,尿氟几何均值在0.73 ~1.13之

  10. Skeletal Manifestations of Scurvy: A Case Report from Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Shahryar Noordin; Naveed Baloch; Muhammad Sohail Salat; Abdul Rashid Memon; Tashfeen Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Nutritional deficiencies are rarely reported in developed countries. We report a child of Pakistani origin brought up in Dubai who developed skeletal manifestations of scurvy due to peculiar dietary habits. Case Presentation. A 4.5 year old boy presented with pain and swelling of multiple joints for three months and inability to walk for two months. Dietary history was significant for exclusive meat intake for the preceding two years. On examination the child’s height and weight...

  11. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid;

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  12. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied.

  13. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analysis of Serum Proteins in Wistar Rats Treated with Sodium Fluoride: Insight into the Potential Mechanism and Candidate Biomarkers of Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis induced by exposure to high level fluoride is quite widespread in the world. The manifestations of fluorosis include dental mottling, bone damage, and impaired malfunction of soft tissues. However, the molecular mechanism of fluorosis has not been clarified until now. To explore the underlying mechanisms of fluorosis and screen out serum biomarkers, we carried out a quantitative proteomics study to identify differentially expressed serum proteins in Wistar rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF by using a proteomics approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. We fed Wistar rats drinking water that had 50, 150, and 250 mg/L of dissolved NaF for 24 weeks. For the experimental duration, each rat was given an examination of the lower incisors to check for the condition of dental fluorosis (DF. By the end of the treatment, fluoride ion concentration in serum and lower incisors were detected. The results showed that NaF treatment can induce rat fluorosis. By iTRAQ analysis, a total of 37 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between NaF-treated and control rats. These proteins were further analyzed by bioinformatics, out of which two proteins were validated by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISA. The major proteins were involved in complement and coagulation cascade, inflammatory response, complement activation, defense response, and wound response, suggesting that inflammation and immune reactions may play a key role in fluorosis pathogenesis. These proteins may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of fluoride toxicity, and may serve as potential biomarkers for fluorosis.

  14. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  15. Skeletal surveys in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three patients with multiple myeloma were studied with serial skeletal surveys, serum immunoglobulin levels, and postabsorptive urinary hydroxyproline (Spot-HYPRO) determinations. Twenty receiving chemotherapy were also followed with skeletal surveys in order to evaluate bone response to treatment. A close association was found between skeletal findings and changes in immunoglubulin levels with positive correlation in 71% of the patients. A similar association was found between skeletal disease and Spot-HYPRO level changes in 65%. Five of 12 patients (42%) with partial or complete clinical response to chemotherapy, demonstrated improvement in the appearance of skeletal lesions. Positive correlation between the roentgenographic changes and clinical markers of myeloma as well as therapeutic response, indicates that skeletal surveys are useful and effective in monitoring patients with multiple myeloma. (orig.)

  16. [Regeneration capacity of skeletal muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernig, A

    2003-07-01

    while the other is free to divide. Divide how often? Important for the human cells since the cell ages and proliferates slower and slower till it stops to divide at all, at least in culture. The same is true for the new satellite cell. This we know from recent experiments in which human biopsies derived myogenic cells were grown in vitro and in vivo (by implanting them into skeletal muscles of immunoincompetent mice): Growth correlates negatively with age of the donor. Between age 2 and some 70 years, about two divisions are performed by each satellite cell in human vastus lateralis and biceps brachii muscle in 10 years in the average. Most important for the older among us: at age 76 there are still some 13 divisions left before complete exhaustion. However, there are diseases like Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in which muscle fibers lack a structural protein with the effect of enhanced vulnerability to mechanical stress. There the enhanced use of the satellite cell pool makes the remaining growth capacity in an 8-years-old child as low as otherwise found at age 80. Some time ago, implantation of genetically intact myoblasts obtained from healthy relatives has been proposed as a treatment of DMD. Every logic would have predicted that some local implantation of whatever numbers of cells was bound to fail rescue the complete masculature or at least the muscles for breathing. The human as guinea pig? Now, even years later, we still collect the basic information on growth of human myoblasts and start thinking of ways for systemic application and quantitatively relevant incorporation of the myogenic stem cell or other--possibly pluripotent--stem cells derived from bone marrow. PMID:12956031

  17. X-ray analysis of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis caused by coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.P.; Yuan, M.B.; Liu, G.F. [Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China)

    1996-05-01

    Radiographs of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis of coalburning type (CBFF) - 49 males and 31 females aged 30 to 70 years - were analysed to examine the changes to the bone substance, peripheral structure of bone, and joints. The changes to bone substance were: (1) osteosclerosis type, 62 cases (77.5%); (2) mixed type, 16 cases (21.25%); (3) osteoporosis type, one case (1.25%); (4) osteomalacia type, one case (1.25%). The changes to the joints were found in the hips and elbows in 79 cases (98.75%), and in the knees in 75 cases (93.75%). When combinations of the above three changes occur, the classification of the disease is according to the most severe one of the three. Our findings can increase the accuracy of X-ray diagnosis, making it more consistent with clinical diagnosis, thus improving prevention and treatment of CBEF.

  18. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  19. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  20. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton. PMID:26205852

  1. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There are various regions in India that have high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. Many people residing in such places suffer from dental fluorosis (DF. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of DF in children residing in Salem and also to find any correlation between DF and other related factors. Materials and Methods: One school from each block of Salem (total 21 blocks was selected for the study. A single examiner had evaluated untreated caries, lesions, and DF (for permanent anterior teeth and molars using the Dean's fluorosis index, in all children. Water fluoride level determination at each school was done using the Tamil Nadu Water Fluoridation and Drainage Board field kit. Other factors that may have contributed to DF were assessed using a questionnaire, which was provided to each student. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 11.5. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: DF was present in 56.9% of the children examined. It was mostly seen in 9 years old (72% and male (59% children. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of DF and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content, consumption of borewell water (64%, the parts per million of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of black tea (59%. However, no correlation was found between DF, dental caries, consumption of milk, or consumption of foods cooked in aluminum vessels. Conclusion: There was a correlation between DF and factors such as male gender, bore well water consumption, black tea consumption and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content.

  2. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Maya; Narasimhan, Malathi; Krishnan, Ramesh; Chalakkal, Paul; Aruna, Rita Mary; Kuruvilah, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Context: There are various regions in India that have high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. Many people residing in such places suffer from dental fluorosis (DF). Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of DF in children residing in Salem and also to find any correlation between DF and other related factors. Materials and Methods: One school from each block of Salem (total 21 blocks) was selected for the study. A single examiner had evaluated untreated caries, lesions, and DF (for permanent anterior teeth and molars) using the Dean's fluorosis index, in all children. Water fluoride level determination at each school was done using the Tamil Nadu Water Fluoridation and Drainage Board field kit. Other factors that may have contributed to DF were assessed using a questionnaire, which was provided to each student. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 11.5. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: DF was present in 56.9% of the children examined. It was mostly seen in 9 years old (72%) and male (59%) children. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of DF and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content, consumption of borewell water (64%), the parts per million of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of black tea (59%). However, no correlation was found between DF, dental caries, consumption of milk, or consumption of foods cooked in aluminum vessels. Conclusion: There was a correlation between DF and factors such as male gender, bore well water consumption, black tea consumption and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content. PMID:27307668

  3. Skeletal manifestations of scurvy: a case report from dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordin, Shahryar; Baloch, Naveed; Salat, Muhammad Sohail; Rashid Memon, Abdul; Ahmad, Tashfeen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Nutritional deficiencies are rarely reported in developed countries. We report a child of Pakistani origin brought up in Dubai who developed skeletal manifestations of scurvy due to peculiar dietary habits. Case Presentation. A 4.5 year old boy presented with pain and swelling of multiple joints for three months and inability to walk for two months. Dietary history was significant for exclusive meat intake for the preceding two years. On examination the child's height and weight were below the 5th percentile for his age. He was pale and tachycardic. There was significant swelling and tenderness over the wrist, knee and ankle joints, along with painful restriction of motion. Basic blood workup was unremarkable except for anemia. However, X-rays showed delayed bone age, severe osteopenia of the long bones, epiphyseal separation, cortical thinning and dense zone of provisional calcification, suggesting a radiological diagnosis of scurvy. The child was started on vitamin C replacement therapy. Over the following two months, the pain and swelling substantially reduced and the child became able to walk. Repeat X-rays showed improvement in the bony abnormalities. Conclusion. Although scurvy is not a very commonly encountered entity in the modern era, inappropriate dietary intake can lead to skeletal abnormalities which may be confused with rickets. A high index of suspicion is thus required for prompt diagnosis of scurvy in patients with bone and joint symptoms.

  4. The skeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The joy of diagnostic radiology is derived in great measure in its neverending variety including the unveiling of new diagnostic entities and new information concerning known disease processes. This year is no exception in the fascinating documentation of skeletal disease. In the study of disorders of the joints, CT investigation of the temporomandibular joint and arthotomography of the shoulder are gaining in popularity. New observations concerning cyst-like osseous lesions in lupus erthematosis, destructive joint lesions in renal osteodystrophy, and intra- and periarticular calcifications secondary to steroid injections have come forward. Articles discussing interesting observations concerning chondrosarcoma are included as well as one that describes the demonstration of fluid levels in aneurysmal bone cysts by CT. Ossification in soft tissues following resection of giant cell tumors as evidence of residual neoplasm is an important new sign. Marrow transplantation for treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis represents a new therapeutic breakthrough. Some of the skeletal manifestions of hypomagnesemia, 13-cis-retinoic acid, and aluminum are elucidated in this year's articles on metabolic disease. Further studies of methods of measuring bone density are also included

  5. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola-Rodríguez Juan Pablo; Pozos-Guillén Amaury de Jesús; Hernández-Guerrero Juan Carlos; Hernández-Sierra Juan Francisco

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaro...

  6. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  7. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 6 a 12 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Dobarganes Coca

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis y la caries dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de estas enfermedades. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en niños de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, con el objetivo de caracterizar la fluorosis y la caries dental, desde septiembre de 2011 hasta septiembre de 2012. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por 67 escolares, a los que se les determinó la presencia de fluorosis dental y los índices de dientes cariados, perdidos y obturados, en la dentición temporal y en la permanente (ceo-d y COP-D, respectivamente. Los factores de riesgo asociados a la caries dental que se tomaron en consideración fueron: susceptibilidad del esmalte, dieta cariogénica e higiene bucal deficiente. Se detectó la presencia de higiene bucal deficiente (71,6 % y dieta cariogénica (82,1 %, sin embargo, el 29,8 % y el 41,8 % de los niños, respectivamente, aunque estuvieron sometidos a estos factores de riesgo no desarrollaron caries dental. El mayor por ciento de los niños sin caries (70,3 % presentó esmalte resistente. Se observó un índice ceo-d de 1,50 y COP-D de 0,20. De los pacientes sin fluorosis, el 60,6 % no presentó caries dental

  8. Impact of aesthetic restorative treatment on anterior teeth with fluorosis among residents of an endemic area in Brazil: intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Endemic dental fluorosis has already been described in some regions of the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and psychosocial impact of direct aesthetic restorative treatments in endemic fluorosis patients in the northern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Was a quasi-experimental intervention study. Methods The reference population consisted of individuals between 9 and 27 years of age that were served by a project intended to recover the smiles of patients with severe fluorosis. The questionnaires were administered on two occasions, 24 months apart (before and after dental treatment). Initially, descriptive analyses were conducted. Prevalence and severity, as well as the extent of the functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders were estimated based on the Oral Health Impact Profile instrument (OHIP-14). Comparisons between baseline and follow-up and between treatment techniques were carried out using the McNemar, Wilcoxon, and Mann–Whitney tests. Results The study involved 53 individuals, with a mean age of 15.9 years, treated with microabrasion, dental composite, or a combination of both techniques. The treatments performed proved to be competent for reducing the functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders as measured by the OHIP-14, pointing to the possibility of establishing protocols to be used in programs aimed at restoring the aesthetics and functionality of the anterior teeth in large populations. Conclusions After performing the direct aesthetic restorative treatments in patients with endemic fluorosis, a significant improvement was observed in the prevalence and severity, as well as the extent of the functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders. PMID:24886223

  9. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  10. Fluoride concentration of drinking water and dental fluorosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Goodarzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, a number of studies have investigated the impact of fluoride concentration of drinking water on dental fluorosis. These Studies should be reviewed to provide a new outlook on the analysis of the causes and effects of dental fluorosis in specific regions. The objective of this study was to systematically review the fluoride concentration of drinking water and investigate its relation to the frequency of dental fluorosis in Iran. Materials and Methods: Dean′s index was used to classify data, and a meta-analysis was conducted to obtain summary measure with 95% confidence interval (CI. In this regard, Stata/SE 11.1 was employed for data analysis based on random effect models for reporting the results. In this systematic review, Scientific Information Database (SID and IranMedex databases were searched and studies were included based on specific criteria. Data validity was assessed using the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE checklist adapted for cross-sectional study designs. Furthermore, a series of predefined keywords were used, and the combination of these keywords were considered using operators. The inconsistency was examined using the χ2 test at a significance level of 10%. In addition, heterogeneity was quantified across studies using the І2 statistic. The difference between study variance was analyzed based on τ2 statistic. Results: In the age group of 6-18 years old based on the fluoride level in drinking water and exposure time, there was significant heterogeneity among the studies in all subgroups for determining the frequency of dental fluorosis and assessing the effect of other variables. Conclusions: The variables, water fluoride exposure time, and any exposure to fluoride are considered as confounding factors. Analyzing the subgroups and examining the heterogeneity showed that the results of the studies in all subgroups cannot be pooled.

  11. Analysis of the survey result of the coal-burning endemic fluorosis in Hongya County of Sichuan Province in 2006%2006年四川省洪雅县燃煤污染型氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良; 杨志明; 伍子江; 罗志宇; 颜琼; 张健

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of coal-burning endemic fluorosis and the fluoride content in foods and drinking water in Hongya County,Sichuan Province.Methods Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride were suveyed in children of 8~12 years old in two schools which repectively located in Gaomiao and Wawushan Town.The adults above 20 years old underwent clinical examination.At the same time,fifty adults above 20 years old in Garden Village were chosen to take forearm and calf X-ray films to find out the evidence of skeletal fluorosis.The content of fluoride in food such as bacon,corn,dry capsicum in Sanxing Village in Gaomiao Town and Futian Village in Wawushan Town as well as drinking water in five families in Sanxing Village were determined.Results The dental fluorosis rate of children was 40.76%(161/395),the dental fluorosis index was 0.86 in Gaomiao Town.The dental fluorosis rate of children was 14.36%(82/571),the dental fluorosis index was 0.31 in Wawushan Town.The medium value of the urine fluoride was 0.81 mg/L.ranged 0.16~3.89 mg/L.The positive rate oi the clinical examination of skeletal fluorosis was 5.27%(27/512),the X-rays detective rate was 4.00%(2/50).The medium value in bacon,corn,dry capsicum were 6.00,0.64,1.49 mg/kg.The averaged content of the fluoride in drinking water(0.14±0.06)mg/L of local household was within the eligible limitation.Conclusions It is currently a mild endemic disease in Hongya Country,its incidence is reduced apparently,pathogenetic environmental fluoride content is reduced.The main source of fluoride is from the preserved ham contaminated with fluoride,which is epidemiologically significant in endemic area of Hongya County.Defluoriding countermeasures should be taken in the endemic areas.%目的 了解四川省洪雅县燃煤型地方性氟中毒病区病情现况及食物、饮水含氟量.方法 对高庙镇和瓦屋山镇两所中心小学8~12岁儿童进行氟斑牙检查和尿

  12. Changes of learning and memory ability and brain nicotinic receptors of rat offspring with coal burning fluorosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, C.Z.; Ran, L.Y.; Li, J.P.; Guan, Z.Z. [Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang (China). Dept. of Pathology

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of the investigation is to reveal the mechanism of the decreased ability of learning and memory induced by coal burning fluorosis. Ten offspring SD rats aged 30 days, who were born from the mothers with chronic coal burning fluorosis, and ten offspring with same age from the normal mothers as controls were selected. Spatial learning and memory of the rats were evaluated by Morris Water Maze test. Cholinesterase activity was detected by photometric method. The expressions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at protein and mRNA levels were detected by Western blotting and Real-time PCR, respectively. The results showed that in the rat offspring exposed to higher fluoride as compared to controls, the learning and memory ability declined; the cholinesterase activities in the brains were inhibited; the protein levels of alpha 3, alpha 4 and alpha 7 nAChR subunits were decreased which showed certain significant correlations with the declined learning and memory ability; and the mRNA levels of alpha 3 and alpha 4 nAChRs were decreased, whereas the alpha 7 mRNA increased. The data indicated that coal burning fluorosis can induce the decreased ability of learning and memory of rat offspring, in which the mechanism might be connected to the changed nAChRs and cholinesterase.

  13. 氟中毒致机体损伤及其机制%Injuries caused by fluorosis and its mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薛燕; 黄文丽

    2015-01-01

    地方性氟中毒简称地氟病,是由氟导致的全身慢性蓄积性中毒。地氟病不仅给患者带来精神和肉体上的痛苦,而且加重家庭经济负担,同时严重影响病区的经济发展。本文将主要从氟对机体各器官系统的损伤作用及其发病机制加以阐述,以期为氟中毒相关研究提供参考。%Endemic fluorosis is a systemic chronic chemical poisoning caused by fluorine . Fluorosis not only imposes mental and physical harm to patients ,but also increases their financial burdens while adversely affecting the economical developments in the area .This article summarizes the injuries on various body organs caused by fluorosis and its pathogenesis ,in hopes of providing references for future fluorosis‐related studies .

  14. 2008年重庆市燃煤型氟中毒病区环境氟调查分析%Analysis of environmental fluoride of the coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 肖邦忠; 晏维; 周倩如; 张洁; 王正虹; 赵舰; 郭小琳; 罗兴建

    2009-01-01

    Objective To find out the distribution pattern of environmental fluoride in the coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas to provide scientific evidence for establishing prevention and remedial measures in Chongqing. Methods According to historical data in Chongqing In 2008, 4 endemic villages(Lingyun and Lizi Villages of Wushan County, and Taiping and Daqing Villages of Pengshui County) and 2 non-endemic villages (ShuangLou and XianLong Villages of Yongchuan County) were investigated. Dental fluorosis of children in 8 to 12 year old and residents over 16 years of age for clinical skeletal fluorosis were examined in four endemic villages. Five households from each of 6 villages were taken, where 500 g of coal, mixed clay with coal, mixed coal of soil, coal cinder, soil were sampled; 15 people were taken in each village, each household gathering 500 g of corn, rice, potatoes, vegetables, grain and vegetable, 100 g of dried pepper and 250 ml of drinking water were sampled from 15 families of each village. Household drinking water samples were collected 1, each 250 ml. For those having tea-drinking habit, each household was collected 50 g of tea and 600 ml of drinking tea, the amount of fluoride were determined. Indoor and outdoor air was collected and measured in 5 households in each village. Results The detected rate of dental fluorosis of children in endemic areas was 74.65% (736/986). The detected rate of skeletal fluorosis of adult was 7.20%(736/986). The average fluoride content of coal, mixed clay with coal, mixed coal of soil, cinder coal, soil in the endemic villages was (310.56±209.46), (360.51±224.96), (293.62±65.15), (186.59±133.66), (497.54±294.70)mg/kg. The average fluoride content in non-endemic villages was (48.68±10.62), (275.66±62.69), (152.20±34.43), (209.14±188.66),269.98±58.21)mg/kg. The fluoride content level of endemic villages was significantly higher than that of non-endemic villages(t=7.67,31.54,5.82, 5.82, all P0.05]. The amount of

  15. Dental Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proper amount of fluoride helps prevent and control tooth decay in children and adults. Fluoride works both while ... more sources of fluoride became available to prevent tooth decay. These sources include drinking water with fluoride, fluoride ...

  16. Axial skeletal CT densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of the Roentgen ray a precise and accurate assessment of bone mineral content has been a challenge to many investigators. A number of methods have been developed but no one satisfied. Considering its technical possibilities computed tomography is very promising in determination of bone mineral content (BMC). The new modality enables BMC estimations in the axial skeletal trabecular bone. CT densitometry can be performed on a normal commercially available third generation whole body CT scanner. No dedicated device in a special clinical set-up is necessary. In this study 106 patients, most of them clinically suspected of osteoporosis, were examined. The new method CT densitometry has been evaluated. The results have been correlated to alternative BMC determination methods. (Auth.)

  17. Who are we missing? Too few skeletal surveys for children with humeral and femoral fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine the potential shortfall in skeletal survey referral for children presenting with an acute non-supracondylar humeral or femoral fracture. Materials and methods: Plain radiograph reports were reviewed retrospectively using the radiology information system database over a 5 year study period (May 2008–2013) in children under 18 months of age who presented with an acute fracture. Subsequent skeletal survey referral was used as a surrogate marker for further investigation of child abuse. Application of robust meta-analysis derived probability data regarding likelihood of child abuse as a cause of non-supracondylar humeral or femoral fracture was applied. An estimation of the expected number of cases of abuse, with shortfall in skeletal survey referrals, was then calculated. Results: There were 288 fractures in 281 children. Three children presented with multiple fractures and were considered separately in the present data. The mean patient age was 10.5 months. Nine (3%) non-supracondylar humeral fractures were identified of which four cases may have been due to non-accidental injury (NAI). One (11%) of these patients was referred for a skeletal survey indicating a potential shortfall of three referrals. Twenty-five (9%) femoral fractures were identified of which 13 cases may have been due to NAI, with six (24%) referrals for skeletal surveys generated. This indicates a potential shortfall of seven referrals. Conclusion: The present study serves as a current analysis of practice within a tertiary paediatric referral centre. There appeared to be local under-investigation of NAI. Improved child protection education and awareness programmes have now been introduced. - Highlights: • Long bone fractures in non-ambulatory children carry high probability for child abuse. • Suspicion for child abuse should trigger a referral for a skeletal survey. • We examine the potential shortfall in skeletal survey referrals in such patients. • Only 11% and 24% of

  18. Pediatric aspects of skeletal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Keiichi; Namba, Noriyuki; Kubota, Takuo; Kitaoka, Taichi; Miura, Kohji; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Fujiwara, Makoto; Miyoshi, Yoko; Michigami, Toshimi

    2012-10-01

    Skeletal dysplasia is a disorder of skeletal development characterized by abnormality in shape, length, a number and mineral density of the bone. Skeletal dysplasia is often associated with manifestation of other organs such as lung, brain and sensory systems. Skeletal dysplasias or dysostosis are classified with more than 400 different names. Enchondral bone formation is a coordinated event of chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and exchange of terminally maturated chondrocyte with bone. Impaired enchondral bone formation will lead to skeletal dysplasia, especially associated with short long bones. Appropriate bone volume and mineral density are achieved by balance of bone formation and bone resorption and mineralization. The gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 is responsible for achondroplasia, representative skeletal dysplasia with short stature. The treatment with growth hormone is approved for achondroplasia in Japan. Osteogenesis imperfecta is characterized by low bone mineral density and fragile bone. Data on the beneficial effect of bisphosphonate for osteogenesis imperfecta are accumulating. Osteopetrosis has high bone mineral density, but sometimes show bone fragility. In Japan as well as other countries, pediatrician treat larger numbers of patients with skeletal dysplasia with short stature and fragile bones compared to 20 years ago.

  19. Influence of high-fluorine environmental background on crops and human health in hot spring-type fluorosis-diseased areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN De; WU Daishe; LI Ping; WANG Tengsheng; CHEN Chengguang; WANG Wuyi

    2008-01-01

    Drinking water-type fluorosis is the most harmful endemic disease in China with the largest number of sufferers. Although the implementation of the policy to alter water sources to lower fluoride level has effectively controlled the spread of this kind of endemic disease, its prevalence could not thoroughly be stopped because the high-fluoride environmental background in these endemically diseased areas could still do harm to human health through food chain. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a more deep-going study on the drinking water-type fluorosis. To investigate the effect of high fluorine environmental background on crops and human health in the hot spring-type fluorosis-diseased areas, local water, paddy soil, rice, whole vegetables and soils around their roots were sampled for analysis. The results were compared with those of the control groups in fluorosis-free areas which are similar to the fluorosis-diseased areas both in natural background and in social background. It is indicated that rice and vegetables can accumulate water-soluble fluorine either in soils or in irrigating water, and different crops have different abilities of fixing fluorine. The contents of fluorine in different parts of vegetables in the fluorosis-diseased and fluorosis-free areas were statistically categorized. The results showed that the fluorine contents of roots, tubers, leaves and flowers of vegetables in the fluorosis-diseased areas are 3.56, 1.17, 3.07 and 3.23 mg/kg, respectively. However, comparisons showed that in the fluorosis-free areas, the fluorine contents are 2.17, 0.70, 1.91 and 2.52 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, different parts of a crop also show significantly different fluorine fixation abilities. It is demonstrated that the fluorine contents of the strongly metabolic parts are relatively high. For example, the fluorine contents of roots, leaves and flowers of vegetables are much higher than those of stems. The fluorine fixation ability of seeds is very

  20. An atlas of normal skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This atlas was compiled to provide the neophyte as well as the experienced radiologist and the nuclear medicine physician with a reference on normal skeletal scintigraphy as an aid in distinguishing normal variations in skeletal uptake from abnormal findings. Each skeletal scintigraph is labeled, and utilizing an identical scale, a relevant skeletal photograph and radiograph are placed adjacent to the scintigraph

  1. Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the use of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  2. Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drubach, Laura A. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Sapp, Mark.V. [School of Osteopathic Medicine, Child Abuse Research Education and Services (CARES) Institute University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey (United States); Laffin, Stephen [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    We describe the use of {sup 18}F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  3. The yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Pediatric Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States); Wilson, Celeste R. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of General Pediatrics, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-06

    Skeletal surveys are routinely performed in cases of suspected child abuse, but there are limited data regarding the yield of high-detail skeletal surveys in infants. To determine the diagnostic yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse. We reviewed the high-detail American College of Radiology standardized skeletal surveys performed for suspected abuse in 567 infants (median: 4.4 months, SD 3.47; range: 4 days-12 months) at a large urban children's hospital between 2005 and 2013. Skeletal survey images, radiology reports and medical records were reviewed. A skeletal survey was considered positive when it showed at least one unsuspected fracture. In 313 of 567 infants (55%), 1,029 definite fractures were found. Twenty-one percent (119/567) of the patients had a positive skeletal survey with a total of 789 (77%) unsuspected fractures. Long-bone fractures were the most common injuries, present in 145 children (26%). The skull was the site of fracture in 138 infants (24%); rib cage in 77 (14%), clavicle in 24 (4.2%) and uncommon fractures (including spine, scapula, hands and feet and pelvis) were noted in 26 infants (4.6%). Of the 425 infants with neuroimaging, 154 (36%) had intracranial injury. No significant correlation between positive skeletal survey and associated intracranial injury was found. Scapular fractures and complex skull fractures showed a statistically significant correlation with intracranial injury (P = 0.029, P = 0.007, respectively). Previously unsuspected fractures are noted on skeletal surveys in 20% of cases of suspected infant abuse. These data may be helpful in the design and optimization of global skeletal imaging in this vulnerable population. (orig.)

  4. The yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal surveys are routinely performed in cases of suspected child abuse, but there are limited data regarding the yield of high-detail skeletal surveys in infants. To determine the diagnostic yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse. We reviewed the high-detail American College of Radiology standardized skeletal surveys performed for suspected abuse in 567 infants (median: 4.4 months, SD 3.47; range: 4 days-12 months) at a large urban children's hospital between 2005 and 2013. Skeletal survey images, radiology reports and medical records were reviewed. A skeletal survey was considered positive when it showed at least one unsuspected fracture. In 313 of 567 infants (55%), 1,029 definite fractures were found. Twenty-one percent (119/567) of the patients had a positive skeletal survey with a total of 789 (77%) unsuspected fractures. Long-bone fractures were the most common injuries, present in 145 children (26%). The skull was the site of fracture in 138 infants (24%); rib cage in 77 (14%), clavicle in 24 (4.2%) and uncommon fractures (including spine, scapula, hands and feet and pelvis) were noted in 26 infants (4.6%). Of the 425 infants with neuroimaging, 154 (36%) had intracranial injury. No significant correlation between positive skeletal survey and associated intracranial injury was found. Scapular fractures and complex skull fractures showed a statistically significant correlation with intracranial injury (P = 0.029, P = 0.007, respectively). Previously unsuspected fractures are noted on skeletal surveys in 20% of cases of suspected infant abuse. These data may be helpful in the design and optimization of global skeletal imaging in this vulnerable population. (orig.)

  5. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  6. Skeletal Manifestations of Scurvy: A Case Report from Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Noordin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nutritional deficiencies are rarely reported in developed countries. We report a child of Pakistani origin brought up in Dubai who developed skeletal manifestations of scurvy due to peculiar dietary habits. Case Presentation. A 4.5 year old boy presented with pain and swelling of multiple joints for three months and inability to walk for two months. Dietary history was significant for exclusive meat intake for the preceding two years. On examination the child’s height and weight were below the 5th percentile for his age. He was pale and tachycardic. There was significant swelling and tenderness over the wrist, knee and ankle joints, along with painful restriction of motion. Basic blood workup was unremarkable except for anemia. However, X-rays showed delayed bone age, severe osteopenia of the long bones, epiphyseal separation, cortical thinning and dense zone of provisional calcification, suggesting a radiological diagnosis of scurvy. The child was started on vitamin C replacement therapy. Over the following two months, the pain and swelling substantially reduced and the child became able to walk. Repeat X-rays showed improvement in the bony abnormalities. Conclusion. Although scurvy is not a very commonly encountered entity in the modern era, inappropriate dietary intake can lead to skeletal abnormalities which may be confused with rickets. A high index of suspicion is thus required for prompt diagnosis of scurvy in patients with bone and joint symptoms.

  7. Aneuploidy and Skeletal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakar, Archana; Harris, John R.; McKelvey, Kent D.; Suva, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The normal human chromosome complement consists of 46 chromosomes comprising 22 morphologically different pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Variations in either chromosome number and/or structure frequently result in significant mental impairment, and/or a variety of other clinical problems, among them, altered bone mass and strength. Chromosomal syndromes associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities are classified as either numerical or structural and may involve more than one chromosome. Aneuploidy refers to the presence of an extra copy of a specific chromosome, or trisomy, as seen in Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21), or the absence of a single chromosome, or monosomy, as seen in Turner syndrome (a single X chromosome in females: 45, X). Aneuploidies have diverse phenotypic consequences, ranging from severe mental retardation and developmental abnormalities to increased susceptibility to various neoplasms and premature death. In fact, trisomy 21 is the prototypical aneuploidy in humans, is the most common genetic abnormality associated with longevity and is one of the most widespread genetic causes of intellectual disability. In this review, the impact of trisomy 21 on the bone mass, architecture, skeletal health and quality of life of people with Down syndrome will be discussed. PMID:24980541

  8. Current public health perspective of fluorosis mitigation project in Pavagada taluk, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halappa Mythri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride has become a recurring theme in discussing water issues in India. In Karnataka, where groundwater sources are concentrated with fluorides the impact is devastating. Dental and spine-related ailments are showing up in many cities and villages. Several villages in Pavagada taluk in Tumkur district have fluoride concentration 5 times more than the permissible level. The different aspects to the problem are many defluoridation interventions were failure. Objective: To determine and compare fluoride level in water samples from Fluorosis mitigation project area. Materials and Methods: Samples of municipal water were collected in sterile containers in an unannounced visit. All the samples of water were assigned a code so that those undertaking analysis would be blind to the source. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode (Orion 94-09 method. Results: Mean fluoride level in the water samples collected in the project was 0.8 which was within the normal range. Conclusion: Even though the fluoride level was within the normal limits after implementation of flourosis mitigation project, ground reality was numbers of beneficiaries were less. Hence, proper planning and monitoring always becomes essential for any project to be successful.

  9. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  10. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholamhossein; Valaie, Nasser; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water fluoride level is unknown in many regions of Iran. Besides, only few non-controlled studies world-wide have assessed the effect of water fluoride on dental fluorosis and caries. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of 76 water supplies in 54 cities and evaluate the effect of fluoride on dental caries and fluorosis in a large multi-project study. Materials and Methods: In the first phase (cross-sectional), fluoride levels of 76 water tanks in 54 cities/villages in five provinces of Iran were randomly evaluated in five subprojects. In the second phase (retrospective cohort), 1127 middle school children (563 cohort and 564 control subjects) in the high and low ends of fluoride concentration in each subproject were visited. Their decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and fluorosis states were assessed. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and independent-samples t-test (α = 0.05). Results: Mean fluoride level was 0.298 ± 0.340 mg/L in 54 cities/villages. Only eight water tanks had fluoride levels within the normal range and only one was higher than normal and the rest (67 tanks) were all at low levels. Overall, a significant association was observed between fluoride level and fluorosis. However, this was not the case in all areas, as in 2 of 5 provinces, the effect of fluoride on fluorosis was not confirmed. In 4 of the 5 areas studied, there was a significant link between fluoride level and DMFT. Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied. PMID:25709672

  11. Study on the association between environmental chemical elements and fluorosis caused by coal-fire pollution%环境化学元素与燃煤型氟中毒的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦永卓; 牟李红; 王应雄; 晏维; 钟朝晖; 李立

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the distribution of chemical elements in soil.To investigate the differences between patients under different state of fluorosis and normal population after preventive measurement was implemented to get rid of some chemical elements and to lower the urine fluoride levels so as to illustrate the pathogenesis of the disease.Methods Both ecological and comparative studies had been used to analyze the rates and levels of chemical elements.Teeth and skeletal from the patients with fluorosis and controls were taken and florin ion-selective-electrode method was used to determine urine the content of fluorine.Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to determine the copper,zinc,calcium,magnesium and iron contents in the whole blood.Differences of contents were analyzed.Results In Wushan county,the soil contents of nickel (r=0.553,P=0.050),iodine (r=0.571,P=0.041),fluorine (r=0.303,P=0.005),pH value (r=0.304,P=0.005) and the rates of fluorosis showed weaker positive relationship.In Fengjie county,the soil contents of mercury (r=0.285,P=0.001),nickel (r=0.212,P=0.00) and the rates of fluorosis also showed weaker positive relationship.In Wushan county,the urine fluoride level in the patients group [(0.64 ± 0.34) mg/L] was higher than that in the control group [(0.44 ± 0.59) mg/L],(P < 0.05).In Fengjie county,copper [(29.63 ± 3.32)μmol/L] and urine fluoride [(0.83 ±0.37)mg/L] levels in the patients group showed higher than that in the control group [(26.76 ± 3.63) μmol/L,(0.53±0.23)mg/L],(P<0.05).zinc (Zn) [(76.13 ± 11.24)μmol/L],calcium (Ca) [(1.87± 0.25)mmol/L],magnesium (Mg)[(1.41 ±0.18)mmol/L] and fluoride [(0.83 ±0.37)mg/L] levels in urine of the patients in children were higher in Fengjie than that in Wushan [(71.95 ± 7.53) μmol/L,(1.43 ±1.34) mmol/L,(1.34±0.15) mmol/L,(0.64 ±0.34)mg/L],(P<0.05).Mg [(1.56± 1.96)mmol/L],ferrum [(8.15 ± 1.00)mmol/L] and fluoride [(2.17 ± 0.99)mg/L] levels among adult

  12. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  13. Neonatal skeletal fractures. Birth trauma or child abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, W A

    1979-03-01

    When a fracture is discovered in a newborn infant, it is important to decide whether it occurred at birth or after birth. Calcification around the fracture site gives a useful estimate of the age of the fracture. We reviewed films of 23 patients with fractures resulting from delivery. The fractures occurred at three different sites: the clavicle, the humerus, and the femur. Calcification could be seen as early as seven days after birth and was absent for as long as 11 days after birth. Six of seven femoral fractures occurred in infants with neuromuscular problems. Fracture at an unusual site or absence of calcification after 11 days should alert the radiologist to the possibility of abuse.

  14. Alex in the Middle: Inclusion of a Child with Severe Disabilities and Complex Health Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A.

    This case study describes the 2-year process of moving a young child with severe disabilities and complex medical needs from a special school setting to a special class in a regular education setting. The child had Marshall-Smith Syndrome, characterized by respiratory, pulmonary, and skeletal abnormalities, and developmental delays due to the…

  15. Expression of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts and nuclear factor κB in brain hippocampus of rat with chronic fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expressions of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts(RAGE)and nuclear factorκB(NF-κB)in brain hippocampus of rat with chronic fluorosis,and to reveal the mechanism of brain damage resulted from chronic fluorosis.Methods Sixty clean grade SD rats were randomly divided to three groups(20 rats in each group,10 female and 10 male)fed with different contents of fluoride,control group with normal tap-water(<0.5 mg/L fluoride),

  16. Fluorosis dental en niños y fluor en el agua de consumo humano. Mexticacán, Jalisco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa de Jesús Pérez Patiño; Rosa Leticia Scherman Leaño; René Juan Hernández Gutiérrez; Genoveva Rizo Curiel; Martha Patricia Hernández Guerrero

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en los niños de 6 a 12 años y su relación con la concentración de flúor en agua para consumo humano de Mexticacán, Jalisco. Material y métodos: Estudio Ecológico Exploratorio. Se estudiaron 355 niños para diagnosticar fluorosis dental. Se determinaron las concentraciones de flúor en las fuentes de agua de consumo de la población, por espectrofotometría SPADN utilizando las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (NMX-AA-077 y NOM127, NOM041) Resultad...

  17. 燃煤型氟中毒仔鼠大脑皮质超微结构改变%Ultrastructure changes in cerebral cortex of offspring rats with coal burning fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂传枝; 冉龙艳; 官志忠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To duplicate the animal model with coal burning fluorosis and to observe the influence of fluo-rosis on the ultrastructure changes of cerebral cortex. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were randomly divided into a control group and a high-fluoride exposed group. The exposed group were fed with the corn polluted in drying processes by burning coal containing high level of fluoride from the endemic fluorosis area to produce the animal model of fluorosis. After six months,the rats mated and their filial generation were observed at age of 30 days and fluoride contents in urine,bone, and brain of the offspring rats were detected by fluorine ion choose electrode. The ultrastructure of cerebral cortex of offspring rats were examined by H-7650 transmission electronic microscope. Results Compared with the offspring rats in the control group,the rats in high-fluoride exposed group had significantly increased fluoride contents in urine (8. 52 ±1.61 vs 0. 98 ±0. 26 mg/L) ,bone( 1874 ±544 vs 1 124 ±395 mg/kg) ,and brain(0. 74 ±0. 26 vs 0. 36 ±0. 12 mg/kg) (P <0. 05 or P < 0. 01). But the weight of body mass and brain tissue, and the organosomatic index of the brain of the rats of the exposed group were significantly decreased(P < 0. 15 or P<0. 01). The nerve cell nuclear envelope local absence,amalgamation of synaptic cleft,and nebulousness of mitochondria in presynaptic membrane and synaptic structure were observed in the high-fluoride exposed rats. Conclusion Chronic fluorosis could be induced in rats feeding with the corn polluted with high level of fluoride and result in increases of urinary fluoride,skeletal fluoride,and fluoride in brain tissue,decreases of the weight of body and brain tissue,and changes of ultrastructure of cerebral cortex in offspring rats with maternal fluoride exposure.%目的 复制燃煤型氟中毒仔鼠模型并观察其对大脑皮质超微结构影响.方法 32只SD大鼠随机分为对照组、高氟组;高氟组以地氟病区燃

  18. Effects of high fluoride intake on child mental work capacity: preliminary investigation into the mechanisms involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Li, X.J.; Wei, S.Q. [Child & Adolescent Hygiene Teaching Research Station, Chengdu (China)

    2008-10-15

    A study was carried out on 157 children, age 12-13, from a coal-burning fluorosis endemic area together with an experiment looking into the effect of high fluoride intake in animals. The results showed that early, prolonged high fluoride intake causes a decrease in a child's mental work capacity and that prolonged high uptake of fluoride causes a child's levels of hair zinc to drop. A multifactoral correlative analysis demonstrated a direct correlation between hair zinc and mental work capacity. The decrease of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and the increase of norepinephrine in animal brains exposed to high levels of fluoride suggest a possible mechanism for mental work capacity deficits in children. However, further research is necessary.

  19. Disobedient Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of their parents' rules and of their own self-control. Sometimes, however, these conflicts are more than occasional ... a timeout until he calms down and regains self-control. When your child is obedient and respectful, compliment ...

  20. Fluoride concentrations in the water of Maringá, Brazil, considering the benefit/risk balance of caries and fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmara Tatiely Pedroso BERGAMO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current Brazilian law regarding water fluoridation classification is dichotomous with respect to the risks of and benefits for oral diseases, and fluoride (F concentrations less than 0.6 or above 0.8 mg F/L are considered outside the normal limits. Thus, the law does not consider that both caries and fluorosis are dependent on the dosage and duration of fluoride exposure because they are both chronic diseases. Therefore, this study evaluated the quality of water fluoridation in Maringá, PR, Brazil, considering a new classification for the concentration of F in water the supply, based on the anticaries benefit and risk of fluorosis (CECOL/USP, 2011. Water samples (n = 325 were collected monthly over one year from 28 distribution water networks: 20 from treatment plants and 8 from artesian wells. F concentrations were determined using a specific ion electrode. The average F concentration was 0.77 mg F/L (ppm F, ranging from 0.44 to 1.22 mg F/L. Considering all of the water samples analyzed, 83.7% of them presented from 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L, and according to the new classification used, they would provide maximum anticaries benefit with a low risk of fluorosis. This percentage was lower (75.4% in the water samples supplied from artesian wells than from those distributed by the treatment plant (86%. In conclusion, based on the new classification of water F concentrations, the quality of water fluoridation in Maringá is adequate and is within the range of the best balance between risk and benefit.

  1. Skeletal muscle involvement in cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongelli, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Maddaloni, Valeria; Rea, Alessandra; Sarkozy, Anna; McKenna, William J

    2013-12-01

    The link between heart and skeletal muscle disorders is based on similar molecular, anatomical and clinical features, which are shared by the 'primary' cardiomyopathies and 'primary' neuromuscular disorders. There are, however, some peculiarities that are typical of cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders. Skeletal muscle weakness presenting at any age may indicate a primary neuromuscular disorder (associated with creatine kinase elevation as in dystrophinopathies), a mitochondrial disease (particularly if encephalopathy, ocular myopathy, retinitis, neurosensorineural deafness, lactic acidosis are present), a storage disorder (progressive exercise intolerance, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa, as in Danon disease), or metabolic disorders (hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonaemia or other specific biochemical abnormalities). In such patients, skeletal muscle weakness usually precedes the cardiomyopathy and dominates the clinical picture. Nevertheless, skeletal involvement may be subtle, and the first clinical manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder may be the occurrence of heart failure, conduction disorders or ventricular arrhythmias due to cardiomyopathy. ECG and echocardiogram, and eventually, a more detailed cardiovascular evaluation may be required to identify early cardiac involvement. Paediatric and adult cardiologists should be proactive in screening for neuromuscular and related disorders to enable diagnosis in probands and evaluation of families with a focus on the identification of those at risk of cardiac arrhythmia and emboli who may require specific prophylactic treatments, for example, pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and anticoagulation. PMID:24149064

  2. Case study of the public relations program of U. S. Steel's Utah fluorosis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuiddy, A.R.

    1958-01-01

    In the 1950s, fluoride emissions were determined to be a problem at US Steel's Geneva Steel Works in Utah. Neighboring farms were affected, in that fluorosis was found in cattle. The problem was settled in litigation, and US Steel installed state-of-the-art pollution control technology on the steel mill in order to eliminate recurrence. The investigations that led to the elucidation of fluorides as the problem, the installation of pollution control equipment, and the public relations efforts on the part of the company are described. 22 references.

  3. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a herbal compound made for treatment of discolorations caused by dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mohammdi Basir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was research on a new herbal compound (Seidlitzia Rosmarinus made by Traditional Medicine Research Group, University of shahed to find a safer alternative to HCL-Pumice compound technique.   Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial seventy two anterior teeth from 9 patients were divided in to three groups according to fluorosis severity: mild (34 teeth, moderate (14 teeth, and sever (24 teeth. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with “Shahed” compound and other half treated with HCL-Pumice compound. Before and after treatment, photographs were taken in both groups. HCL-Pumice treatment compound was applied for 30 seconds periods and continued for 10 minutes if necessary. In case of herbal Shahed compound the time was determined by clinical symptoms or when labial contour was dismissed, If the result was not esthetistically acceptabale for the patient, HCL-Pumice compound was applied on teeth. NaF was applied after mouth washing. The photographs of the teeth before and after treatment were reviewed by two experienced observer unaware of the treatment modality. The results were analyzed using willcoxon’s, kruskal-wallis and scheffe test.   Results: There was over 81.3% acceptance between two observers and no significant differences in intraobservers evaluation (P>0.05. Improvement in beauty indexes were observed in all degrees of dental fluorosis by 18% with HCL-Pumice compound application, but “Shahed” herbal compound induced significant reduction in the amount of white spots in mild fluorosis and stain intensity of moderate fluorosis (P<0.05 , while the reduction in the severity of discoloration in group 2, these two techniques were statistically equivalent but in the remainder, HCL-Pumice compound was more significantly effective (P<0.05 .   Conclusion: HCL-Pumice compound reduces the severity of the discoloration of the teeth. Shahed herbal compound

  4. Skeletal complications of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Abigail A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  5. 氟斑牙检出率与病区土壤化学元素含量相关性研究%Correlation between prevalence of dental fluorosis and soil chemical elements in endemic fluorosis areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫菊; 钟朝晖; 黄巧; 王力; 雍开文; 张茂忠; 罗兴建; 晏维

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between chemical elements in soil and dental fluorosis and to provide a scientific basis for prevention of endemic fluorosis.Methods In 2011,using cluster sampling,totally 38 of 55 townships (towns) in Fengjie and Wushan Counties were selected as investigation spots.Dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 were examined with Dean index in all individuals from the sampled townships (towns).We also detected the content of fluorine(F),zinc(Zn),copper(Cu),iodine(I),selenium(Se),cadmium (Cd),chromium (Cr),arsenic (As),nickel (Ni),mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in topsoil of sampled townships (towns).Using Spearman rank correlation analysis the correlation between dental fluorosis prevalence and the content of chemical elements in the topsoil of selected townships (towns) was analyzed.Results Children's dental fluorosis prevalence was positively correlated with surface soil F and Cd content in Wushan County,but negatively correlated with the content of Cu,Zn and Se,and the correlation coefficients were 1.0000,0.9053,-0.6617,-0.7353 and-0.5143,respectively (P < 0.05).Children's dental fluorosis detection rate was also positively correlated with the surface soil content of F and Cd in Fengjie County,but also negatively correlated with the content of Cu,Zn and Se,and the correlation coefficients were 0.9959,0.9298,-0.5728,-0.8308 and-0.6533,respectively(P <0.05).Conclusions The relationship between detection rate of children's dental fluorosis and the content of F,Cd,Cu,Zn and Se in topsoil was positively or negatively correlated in Fengjie and Wushan Counties.And the relationship between these elements and endemic fluorosis should be further studied.%目的 探索土壤中的化学元素与氟斑牙的关系,为地方性氟中毒的防治提供科学依据.方法 2011年,在巫山县与奉节县的55个乡(镇)中,采取整群随机抽样方法,选择38个乡(镇),采用Dean法对所有8~ 12岁儿童进行氟斑牙检查,并检测

  6. Imaging in pediatric skeletal trauma. Techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a comprehensive textbook on imaging of pediatric skeletal trauma. It provides a detailed description of the techniques used and the imaging findings, detailing their clinical relevance. Emphasis is placed on those injuries and their radiological features which are important to the orthopedic surgeon and the successful management of the child. In the first part of the book, the various techniques and procedures needed to successfully image both acute and more chronic skeletal injuries are discussed in depth. Individual chapters are devoted to radiography, CT, MRI, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine. The second part of the book documents the different types of skeletal injury, and the chapters are arranged according to anatomical site. In addition, chapters are included on growth plate injuries, non-accidental injuries, and normal variants that can imitate fractures. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field and a wealth of illustrative material is included. This book is designed to be of value to all radiologists who are involved with pediatric trauma, whether trainees or consultants, and also to orthopedic surgeons. (orig.)

  7. Skeletal stem cells in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-15

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice and demonstrate its role in skeletal tissue maintenance and regeneration.

  8. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  9. Influence of chronic fluorosis on the expression of mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related 1 in the cortical neurons of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼迪栋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of protein expression of mito-fission gene dynaminrelated 1 (Drp 1) in the cortical neurons of rats with chronic fluorosis.MethodsA total of 120 one-month-old SD rats (each weighing approximately 100—120 g at the beginning of the

  10. Differences of serum parathyroid hormone levels and its gene polymorphism in different ethnic groups in drinking brick-tea-borne endemic fluorosis areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study,the differences of serum parathyroid hormone(PTH)and its gene polymorphism in different ethnic groups in drinking brick-tea-borne endemic fluorosis areas were investigated.Methods Inhabitants over the age of 16 years old in Inner Mongolia,Qinghai and Xinjiang were investigated.The questionnaire survey included basic information,dietary survey

  11. Effects of health education and stove improvement in preventing coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis in Pingba County of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯友

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of health education and installation of improved stove in control of coal-burn-ing-borne endemic fluorosis in Pingba County of Guizhou Province.Methods Two towns (Shizi and Qibo) of Pingba County that had implemented the health education and

  12. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Jarquín-Yañez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean’s index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF index. Results. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect.

  13. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  14. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  15. Establishment of animal model of dental fluorosis by drinking in SD rat%饮水型SD大鼠氟斑牙模型的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长城; 刘晓利; 刘克俭; 崔彩岩; 刘芸; 余立凯; 黄安斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立饮水型大鼠氟斑牙模型,为深入研究氟性骨损伤发病机制提供科学依据.方法 采用饮水加氟的方法复制大鼠氟斑牙模型,染氟剂量采用日测体重然后按体重(mg/kg)给予及尿氟、血氟监测的方法进行,尿氟、血氟采用微量氟法测定,血清中碱性磷酸酶(ALP)采用全自动生化分析仪测定,氟斑牙采用数码相机拍照,按照氟斑牙观测标准进行诊断及分度.结果 90d末,高、中剂量组大鼠均出现明显氟斑牙,尿氟、血氟及血ALP含量与对照组相比均明显升高(P<0.05).染氟剂量与尿氟水平显著相关(r =0.924,P=0.038);染氟剂量与血氟水平呈显著相关(r =0.948,P=0.026);高、中剂量组大鼠氟负荷水平明显高于对照组;氟斑牙发生率与染氟剂量呈正相关(r=0.983,P=0.017).结论 染氟剂量与氟斑牙的发生存在明显的剂量-反应关系:16 mg/kg和32 mg/kg的染氟剂量,14 d即可发生Ⅰ度氟斑牙,35 d即可发生典型氟斑牙.%Objective To establish a rat model of dental fluorosis by drinking thereby provide a scientific basis (or researching the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. Methods The animal model of dental fluorosis was made by adding fluoride in drinking water for rats, the dose was adjusted with the daily body weight ( mg/kg), the urine and blood fluoride were monitored everyday by micro determination of fluoride; meanwhile, the serum ALP was also detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. At last, the dental fluorosis was documented by photographing with digital camera and diagnosis was made according to the dental fluorosis criteria. Results The results showed that all the rats exposed to middle and high doses of fluorine developed significant dental fluorosis 90 days later after exposure, the urinary fluoride, blood fluoride and serum ALP also increased compared with those of control group (P < 0.05). The urine fluorine and blood fluorine were all markedly associated with

  16. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions. PMID:18711953

  17. Child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  18. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  19. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  20. Study on the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the influencing factors in fluorosis ill districts in Gulin county Sichuan province%古蔺县地氟病区居民氟斑牙患病及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶运莉; 刘娅; 张青碧; 杨超; 陈建国; 周显刚

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解古蔺县地氟病区居民氟斑牙患病状况及其影响因素,为改进地氟病防治策略提供根据.方法 采用多阶段分层抽样的方法抽取古蔺县地氟病区的部分居民进行调查.结果 居民氟斑牙患病率为84.97%,1998年后出生的居民(8~12岁儿童)CFI为(0.84±0.86),氟斑牙患病率44.59%,1981年后出生居民的氟斑牙患病率明显降低(x2趋势=85.08,P< 0.001). “12岁前家里煮饭和取暖用煤”是氟斑牙发生的主要危险因素,OR值(95%CI)为3.08 (2.12~4.47). “12岁前家中参加了改良炉灶、家庭经济年收入高”是氟斑牙发生的保护因素,OR值(95%CI)分别为0.45(0.29 ~0.69)、0.72 (0.58~0.88).结论 该地区的地氟病防制措施取得了显著的成效,但儿童氟斑牙患病率仍然较高,应进一步分析居民降氟炉灶的使用情况及其影响因素,改进防治方案,促进地氟病防治工作的可持续发展.%OBJECTIVE To study local people's prevalence and the influencing factors of dental fluorosis in fluorosis ill districts in Gulin county Sichuan province, and provide the the scientific basis for improving the control strategies. METHODS Multi-stage stratified sampling method was used to select some residents in fluorosis ill districts in Gulin, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the related factors were surveyed. RESULTS The prevalence rate of residents' dental fluorosis was 84.97% in Gulin county. The CFI of people born after 1998 (children aged 8-12) was (0.84 ± 0.86) and their dental fluorosis prevalence was 44.59%. The people's prevalence of dental fluorosis decreased significantly (X2tend = 85.08, P< 0.001) born after 1981. The results showed that "home cooking and warming with coal before 12 years old" was a major risk factor for the occurrence of dental fluorosis, OR (95%CI) =3.08 (2.12-4.47), and "people took part in the improved stoves before 12 years old and high families income" were the protective

  1. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  2. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and15 year-old school children in an endemic fluoride area of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeeswara Rao Sukhabogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The published literature on the prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis in Nalgonda district, an endemic fluoride belt in India was scanty. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in Nalgonda district. Materials and Methods: Stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration. The oral examination for dental caries and fluorosis among children who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using mouth mirror and CPI (Community Periodontal Index probe under natural daylight. The data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among 12 and 15 year old school children was 42.6% and 48.6% respectively. The prevalence was more among females (56.9% than males (34.2%. The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (67% followed by very high fluoride area (56.1%. The lowest prevalence was in medium fluoride area (20.5%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in the gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Defluoridation of water in areas where the concentration of fluoride is more than optimal is an immediate need as dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in these areas.

  3. JianPingXian drinking water type fluorosis monitoring problem analysis%建平县饮水型氟中毒监测问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文杰

    2013-01-01

    目的:掌握建平县饮水型氟中毒改水工程运行情况以及监测效果,为饮水型氟中毒的防治工作提供科学依据。方法:对建平县2004年~2013年的氟斑牙病情监测情况、水氟检测情况以及饮水工程运行情况进行分析研究。结果:2004年~2013年建平县氟斑牙病检出率逐年递减,水氟检测情况也有所改善,饮水工程的运行情况每年都保持平稳态势。结论:建平县饮水型氟中毒病区通过改水降氟病情得到了一定的控制,但还需要各相关部门加大监测和防治工作的力度。%objective: to master the JianPingXian drinking water type fluorosis improvement of water project operation and monitoring effect, for drinking water type fluorosis will provide a scientific basis for prevention and control work. Methods: the JianPingXian in 2004 ~ 2013 years of dental fluorosis illness monitoring, fluorine water detection and water engineering operation situation analysis. Results: 2004 ~ 2013 JianPingXian dental fluorosis was decreasing year by year, water fluoride detection is improved, the operation of water engineering maintained steady momentum every year. Conclusion: JianPingXian drinking water type fluorosis ward through the change of water decreasing fluorine disease got some control, but also need each related department to strengthen monitoring and prevention and control work.

  4. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirthika Muthukumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results.

  5. CHILD TRAFFICKING

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Chincholkar

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is the third biggest beneficial industry on the planet. Child trafficking unlike many other issues is found in both developed and developing nations. NGOs evaluate that 12,000 - 50,000 ladies and kids are trafficked into the nation every year from neighboring states for the sex exchange.

  6. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  7. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  8. Skeletal Fragility in Endogenous Hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Delgado, Adriano; Maffezzoni, Filippo; Formenti, Annamaria; Giustina, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal fragility is a frequent complication of endogenous hypercortisolism, and fragility fractures may be the first clinical manifestation of the disease. Fractures involve more frequently the vertebrae and may occur in 30-50% of the patients exposed to glucocorticoid excess, in close relationship with severity and duration of hypercortisolism. Although improvement of bone mineral density was reported after resolution of hypercortisolism, there are patients with persistently high fracture risk after the cure of hypercortisolism, and other patients in whom the resolution of hypercortisolism may take a long time, implying a multistep therapeutic approach. Since vertebral fractures tend to occur early during the natural history of disease, a skeletal-specific approach should be undertaken in these patients; however, the cost-effectiveness of this approach is still largely unknown since data on effectiveness and safety of bone-active drugs in endogenous hypercortisolism are scarce. PMID:27210111

  9. Skeletal muscle: an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, Alessandra; Tarantini, Francesca; Di Bari, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and efficiency of skeletal muscle depend on the complex balance between anabolic and catabolic factors. This balance gradually deteriorates with aging, leading to an age-related decline in muscle quantity and quality, called sarcopenia: this condition plays a central role in physical and functional impairment in late life. The knowledge of the mechanisms that induce sarcopenia and the ability to prevent or counteract them, therefore, can greatly contribute to the prevention of disability and probably also mortality in the elderly. It is well known that skeletal muscle is the target of numerous hormones, but only in recent years studies have shown a role of skeletal muscle as a secretory organ of cytokines and other peptides, denominated myokines (IL6, IL8, IL15, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and leukaemia inhibitory factor), which have autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions and are deeply involved in inflammatory processes. Physical inactivity promotes an unbalance between these substances towards a pro-inflammatory status, thus favoring the vicious circle of sarcopenia, accumulation of fat - especially visceral - and development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, dementia and depression, according to what has been called "the diseasome of physical inactivity". PMID:23858303

  10. Child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Zoran S.; Petković, Nikola; Matijašević Obradović, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of children for pornographic purposes is a serious sociological, criminological and victimological problem of today which, despite all preventive and restrictive activities on an international level, shows a tendency of global expansion. The fact that the Republic of Serbia has only recently actively joined the fight against child pornography on the Internet indicates the need for critical analysis of the existing national, penal, and legal solutions and their harmonization with the...

  11. The association between social deprivation and the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in populations with and without water fluoridation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the association between social deprivation and the prevalence of caries (including caries lesions restricted to enamel and enamel fluorosis in areas that are served by either fluoridated or non-fluoridated drinking water using clinical scoring, remote blinded, photographic scoring for caries and fluorosis. The study also aimed to explore the use of remote, blinded methodologies to minimize the effect of examiner bias. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 11–13 years. Clinical assessments of caries and fluorosis were performed on permanent teeth using ICDAS and blind scoring of standardized photographs of maxillary central incisors using TF Index (with cases for fluorosis defined as TF > 0. Results Data from 1783 subjects were available (910 Newcastle, 873 Manchester. Levels of material deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation were comparable for both populations (Newcastle mean 35.22, range 2.77-78.85; Manchester mean 37.04, range 1.84-84.02. Subjects in the fluoridated population had significantly less caries experience than the non-fluoridated population when assessed by clinical scores or photographic scores across all quintiles of deprivation for white spot lesions: Newcastle mean DMFT 2.94 (clinical; 2.51 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 4.48 (clinical; 3.44 (photo and caries into dentine (Newcastle Mean DMFT 0.65 (clinical; 0.58 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 1.07 (clinical; 0.98 (photo. The only exception being for the least deprived quintile for caries into dentine where there were no significant differences between the cities: Newcastle mean DMFT 0.38 (clinical; 0.36 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 0.45 (clinical; 0.39 (photo. The odds ratio for white spot caries experience (or worse in Manchester was 1.9 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for caries into dentine in Manchester was 1.8 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for developing fluorosis in Newcastle was 3.3 relative

  12. Molecular mechanisms of dental fluorosis%氟斑牙发生的分子机制的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭睿; 李玲; 管晓燕; 吴家媛; 刘建国

    2016-01-01

    Endemic dental fluorosis has been reported in some regions of the world. China seemed to have high prevalence of endemic dental fluorosis, especially in southwest China. It is now most likely that excessive fluoride intake during enamel development play a key role in the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. However, excessive intake of fluoride-induced cellular and molecular mechanisms of dental fluorosis are not entirely conclusive. Scholars at home and abroad have made a lot of research on pathogenesis of enamel fluorosis by using various experimental techniques. More recent studies mainly suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress and calcium overload-associated apoptotic pathway may participate in fluoride excess-evoked pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. Furthermore, the functional changes of enamel matrix protein and protease activity may be involved in the pathological event. This paper summarized the recent research progress on this topic.%氟斑牙是一种世界范围内多个国家流行的地方病,我国是地方性氟中毒发生最严重的国家之一,尤其在西南地区分布更为广泛。牙胚发育过程中机体摄入过量氟而导致釉质发育障碍是氟斑牙的发病原因,但氟斑牙发生的具体机制尚不完全清楚。国内外学者应用多种方法对氟斑牙的分子发病机制进行了研究,近几年来研究重点主要集中在氟对釉基质蛋白及蛋白酶的影响以及通过内质网应激、钙超载引起的细胞凋亡途径等方面。现就上述分子机制研究现状进行以下综述。

  13. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth;

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity......-body insulin sensitivity increased by ~24% and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose disposal increased by ~30% concomitant with a ~20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake...... the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point towards the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes....

  14. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  15. The 'Battered-Child-Syndrome': The view of the pediatric radiologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of the Battered-Child-Syndrome (BSC) is made by the pediatrician and the radiologist. The recognition of this entity by the radiologist is possible because of the high frequency of the typical skeletal lesions. This skeletal changes are illustrated by X-ray pictures and bone scans. Not only skeletal trauma can be discovered but also visceral injuries may be combined and diagnosed in the BCS. For the detection of all changes in the BCS nowadays all possible imaging procedures should be used. Some forensic problems in this field are added. (orig.)

  16. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olfert, I Mark; Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva;

    2016-01-01

    during health, but poorly controlled in disease - resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact...... on 1) the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity, and 2) highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes and ultrastructural...

  17. Cerebellar medulloblastoma presenting with skeletal metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Barai Sukanta; Bandopadhayaya G; Julka P; Dhanapathi H; Haloi A; Seith A

    2004-01-01

    Medulloblastomas are highly malignant brain tumours, but only rarely produce skeletal metastases. No case of medulloblastoma has been documented to have produced skeletal metastases prior to craniotomy or shunt surgery. A 21-year-old male presented with pain in the hip and lower back with difficulty in walking of 3 months′ duration. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction were present hence a diagnosis of cerebellar neoplasm or skeletal tuberculosis with cerebellar abscess formation was consid...

  18. Nutrient and energy sensing in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Atul S.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient overload and physical inactivity often leads to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Acute over-nutrition can induce insulin resistance, while physical exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Like every living cell, skeletal muscle senses nutrient and energy signals and to adjust metabolic flux. This thesis focuses on some of the key nutrient and energy sensing (exercise/contraction-induced) pathways in skeletal muscle that regulate metabol...

  19. The Effects of Lactate on Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Willkomm, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise and physical activity are cornerstones in the prevention and treatment of numerous chronic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and age-related sarcopenia. The associated health benefits arise from a number of tissues but due to its high plasticity skeletal muscle plays a pivotal role. The resident stem cells of skeletal muscle tissue, so called Satellite cells (SCs), contribute significantly to skeletal muscle adaptation and hence, maintenance of heal...

  20. Exploration of Clinical Whitening Procedure for Dental Fluorosis Bleaching%氟斑牙临床有效治疗方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晖; 张英

    2015-01-01

    目的 将氟斑牙的治疗手段有序结合,探讨氟斑牙最佳临床美白治疗方法.方法 选取2013年1月至2014年12月本科室就诊且诊断为氟斑牙患者90例,患者均知情同意并签署知情同意书.按照症状(轻度、中度、重度)将患者随机均分为A、B、C组.A组患者(30例,180颗患牙)采取微打磨—酸处理(35%磷酸酸蚀牙面)—冷光美白(Beyond美白凝胶8 h)治疗;B组(30例,175颗患牙)采取微打磨—冷光美白(Beyond美白凝胶8 h)治疗;C组(30例,180颗患牙)采取酸处理—冷光美白(Beyond美白凝胶8 h)治疗.各组患者治疗前后利用Vita比色板进行比色,计算色阶提高值和有效率.结果 3组轻度氟斑牙患者的色阶提高值和治疗有效率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);A组中、重度氟斑牙患者色阶提高值和有效率与B组、C组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);结论 中重度氟斑牙采取微打磨—酸处理—美白有序结合治疗可以取得满意效果.%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of combination of Beyond cold light whitening and fluoride removing material bleaching sys-tem for treatment of dental fluorosis. Methods Ninety patients with light,medium and heavy dental fluorosis were recruited for the study and ran-domly divided into three groups. Thirty patients with 180 dental fluorosis from the A group were treated with microbrasion and etch and Beyond cold light bleaching. Thirty patients with 175 dental fluorosis from the B group were treated with microbrasion and beyond cold light bleaching. Thirty pa-tients with 180 dental fluorosis from the C group were treated with etch and Beyond cold light bleaching. The effects of whitening were evaluated by Vita shade guide matching after treatment. Results Good lightening efficacy and 100%bleaching efficacy was achieved in the light dental fluorosis subjects from all the three groups. The Shade value improvement and overall efficacy of observer group were better than the

  1. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to determine the depth of demineralization of dental fluorosis in enamel microabrasion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Young; Choi, Han-Sol; Ku, Hee-Won; Kim, Hyun-Su; Lee, Yoo-Jin; Min, Jeong-Bum

    2016-08-01

    Enamel microabrasion has become accepted as a conservative, nonrestorative method of removing intrinsic and superficial dysmineralization defects from dental fluorosis, restoring esthetics with minimal loss of enamel. However, it can be difficult to determine if restoration is necessary in dental fluorosis, because the lesion depth is often not easily recognized. This case report presents a method for analysis of enamel hypoplasia that uses quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) followed by a combination of enamel microabrasion with carbamide peroxide home bleaching. We describe the utility of QLF when selecting a conservative treatment plan and confirming treatment efficacy. In this case, the treatment plan was based on QLF analysis, and the selected combination treatment of microabrasion and bleaching had good results. PMID:27508165

  2. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to determine the depth of demineralization of dental fluorosis in enamel microabrasion: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Young; Choi, Han-Sol; Ku, Hee-Won; Kim, Hyun-Su; Lee, Yoo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Enamel microabrasion has become accepted as a conservative, nonrestorative method of removing intrinsic and superficial dysmineralization defects from dental fluorosis, restoring esthetics with minimal loss of enamel. However, it can be difficult to determine if restoration is necessary in dental fluorosis, because the lesion depth is often not easily recognized. This case report presents a method for analysis of enamel hypoplasia that uses quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) followed by a combination of enamel microabrasion with carbamide peroxide home bleaching. We describe the utility of QLF when selecting a conservative treatment plan and confirming treatment efficacy. In this case, the treatment plan was based on QLF analysis, and the selected combination treatment of microabrasion and bleaching had good results. PMID:27508165

  3. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) defines ... person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime to ...

  4. My Child Is Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might do so anyway because they lack enough self-control . Preteens and teens know they're not supposed ... About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood Stress Nine Steps to ...

  5. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, P. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Donner, R. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Birngruber, E. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Thodberg, H.H. [Visiana Aps, Sollerodvej 57C, DK-2840 Holte (Denmark); Kainberger, F. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Langs, G. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: georg.langs@meduniwien.ac.at

    2009-11-15

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  6. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  7. 氟中毒大鼠骨组织中内质网应激实验研究%Study on endoplasmic reticulum stress in bone tissue of fluorosis rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐辉; 赵志涛; 井玲; 李广生

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察内质网应激在氟中毒大鼠骨组织中的变化,探索内质网应激在氟骨症发病机制中的可能作用.方法 48只Wistar大鼠,按体质量分成4组,每组12只.对照组和低钙组分别饲以常食饲料(含钙量为0.790%)和自制低钙饲料(含钙量为0.063%),饮用自来水(含NaF<1 mg/L);高氟组和低钙高氟组分别饲以常食饲料和自制低钙饲料,饮用加氟(NaF,221 mg/L)自来水.实验期间动物自由进食、进水,每周测体质量1次.实验期3个月.生化方法检测大鼠血清氧化应激酶、尿酸(URIC)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性.抽提大鼠一侧股骨骨干的总RNA,利用RT-PCR技术分析内质网应激相关基因BIP、Xbp1、CHOP和PDI的表达水平.结果 低钙高氟组血清丙二醛(MDA)水平高于对照组[(14.74±3.11)μmol/L比(10.15±1.96)μmol/L,P<0.05];高氟组血清谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPx)的活性高于对照组[(3.87±0.41)×103 U/L比(2.85±0.55)×103U/L,P<0.05];高氟组和低钙高氟组的尿酸(URIC)分别低于对照组和低钙组[(73.95±9.52)μmol/L比(110.43±25.48)μmol/L,(54.32±22.09)μmol/L比(101.71±17.01)μmol/L/L,P<0.05].低钙高氟组大鼠的ALP活性高于对照组[(24.77±4.57)×103 U/L比(12.91±3.97)×103 U/L,P<0.01)].低钙组和低钙高氟组BIP/GAPDH的表达高于对照组(1.38±0.24、1.35±0.12比1.14±0.06,P<0.05).低钙高氟组的Xbp1/GAPDH的表达高于对照组和低钙组(1.48±0.20比1.02±0.25、1.07±0.25,P<0.01);低钙高氟组的CHOP/GAPDH的表达高于对照组(0.84±0.18比0.52±0.07,P<0.05).结论 氟中毒大鼠机体内氧化应激态和骨形成有明显的增强,并伴有骨组织细胞的内质网应激.说明内质网应激与氧化应激很可能都参与了氟骨症的发病机制.%Objective To observe endoplagmic reticulum stress in bone tissue of fluomsis rats and further explore the pathogenesis of skeletal fluorosis.Methods 48 Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups according to their body

  8. Expression of Gla proteins during fish skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaia, Paulo J.

    2006-01-01

    Senegal sole skeletal development; Skeletal malformations; Skeletal malformation in mediterranean species; Senegal sole skeletal deformities; Zebra fish as model system: skeletal development; Identification of bone cells / skeletal development; Spatial - temporal pattern of bgp expression; Single cell resolution: localization of bgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Bgp; Single cell resolution: localization of mgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Mgp; An i...

  9. Relationship between the Contents of MDA, the Activity of SOD in Serum of the Milk Goat with Fluorosis and the Erythrocytic Membrane Liquidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To research the relation among the erythrooytic membrane liquidity and the contents of MPA, the activity of SOD in serum of the milk goat with fluorosis. An animal model with fluorosia was constructed, and the fluorescent probe technique of DPH was used to measue the erythrocytic membrane liquidity. At the same time, the contents of MPA and the activity of SOD in serum were measured. The results showed that the erythrocytic membrane liquidity in the control group and flurosis group were 5.6742 ± 0.4417 and 3.7248 ± 0.4521 (P <0.01) respectively, the contents of MPA in serum were 2.0408 ± 0.198 and 4.494± 0.438 (P <0.01) respectively, the activities of SOD were 175.638 ± 22.201 and 113.714 ± 34.258 (P <0.01) respectively. The correlation analysis indicated that the relation between the activity of SOD and the liquidity of erythrocytic membrane was positive correlation ( r=0.7321, P <0.05), whereas the relation between the contents of MPA and the liquidity of erythrocytic membrane was negative correlation (r = -0.6438, P <0.01). The erythrocytio membrane liquidity decreased in milk goat with fluorosis, which played a role in the occurrence and development of the fluorosis. There was correlation among the erythrocytic membrane liquidity and the contents of MDA, the activity of SOD.

  10. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  11. Skeletal stem cells in space and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice ...

  12. Early prenatal diagnosis of skeletal anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Khalil; E. Pajkrt; L.S. Chitty

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review experience of early prenatal diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias, and to explore diagnostic accuracy and improve management. Methods A retrospective review of fetal medicine unit (FMU) records was performed to identify cases where a skeletal dysplasia was suspected by 14 weeks' gest

  13. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Bart Jochem Julius Joost

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  14. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  15. Assessment of mandibular growth by skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate assessment of facial skeletal growth remains a major problem in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Current methods include: (1) comparisons of chronologic age with growth histories of the patient and the family, (2) hand-wrist radiographs compared with a standard, and (3) serial cephalometric radiographs. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate into bone is a reflection of current metabolic activity and blood flow. Therefore, scintigraphy with this radiopharmaceutical might serve as a good method of assessing skeletal growth. Thirty-four patients, ranging in age from 15 months to 22 years, who were undergoing skeletal scintigrams for acute pathologic conditions of the extremities, were used to develop standards of uptake based on age and skeletal maturation. The results indicate that skeletal scintigraphy may be useful in evaluation of mandibular growth

  16. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I;

    2014-01-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial function. Therefore, this study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in the smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cardiac......, skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), pmitochondrial density, also fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (222±13; 115±2; 48±2 umol•g(-1)•min(-1), p

  17. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  18. An analysis of the incidence of dental Fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years in endemic fluorosis villages that changed water in Lianyungang city%连云港市降氟改水氟病区村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建梅; 周晓梅; 吴同浩; 单建声; 李永久

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解连云港市降氟改水措施对氟病区村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率的影响.方法 对连云港市部分已改水的氟病区村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况进行调查,并检测居民饮水氟含量.结果 (1)8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率由改水前的74.91%降至44.26%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);(2)降氟改水工程一直正常运行的氟病区村儿童氟斑牙患病率为23.32%(<30.00%),达到了地方性氟中毒病区控制标准要求;(3)居民饮水氟含量均值为0.71 mg/L,范围为0.19~3.04 mg/L.结论 连云港市降氟改水有一定成效,病情呈现下降趋势但未得到完全控制,需要加强对降氟改水工程的管理与维护,确保有效控制病情.%Objective To understand the measures of changing water to lower the fluoride content in impacting on the incidence of dental Fluorosis of children aged 8 tol2 years in endemic fluorosis villages in Lianyungang city. Methods Investigated the incidence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 tol2 years in some endemic fluorosis villages that changed water and measured the fluoride content in drinking water for residents in Lianyungang City. Results (1) The incidence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years was 74. 91% in the villages before water changed and decreased to 44. 26% after water changed. And the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ). (2) The incidence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years was 23. 32% in the villages that projects had been running since completed. And it reached the endemic fluorosis control standards. (3)The average content of water fluoride for residents living in endemic fluorosis villages was 0.71 mg/L, and fluoride contents ranged from 0. 19 mg/L to 3.04 mg/L. Conclusions There is a certain effect of the measures that change water to lower the fluoride content to control endemic fluorosis in Lianyungang City. And the disease state is declining, but still out of

  19. Prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de 12 anos de idade, Ouro Preto/MG - 2003 Prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12 year-old schoolchildren, Ouro Preto/MG - 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Fioravante Braga Barros

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência da fluorose dentária em escolares de 12 anos de idade em Ouro Preto. METODOLOGIA: estudo seccional incluindo 248 crianças selecionadas aleatoriamente em 11 escolas do município. A amostra foi calculada de acordo com a metodologia descrita no Projeto SB2000. Os exames foram realizados por cirurgião-dentista treinado e calibrado. Os índices utilizados para medir a fluorose foram: índice de Dean e índice comunitário de fluorose. RESULTADOS: De 248 crianças selecionadas, 159 (64,1% participaram deste estudo. A prevalência de fluorose (índice de Dean encontrada foi de 11,4%, sendo composta pela condição muito leve (10,1% e leve (1,3%. A condição moderada e severa de fluorose não foi encontrada. Os dentes mais acometidos por fluorose foram os pré-molares, molares, incisivos e caninos. Não houve diferença entre os sexos quanto ao grau de fluorose, e o índice comunitário de fluorose foi de 0,29. CONCLUSÃO: a fluorose em crianças de 12 anos não é um problema de saúde pública em Ouro Preto, dado que a prevalência não é alta e quase todos os casos encontrados são muito leves.OBJECTIVE: to find out the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Ouro Preto. METHODOLOGY: cross-sectional study including 248 children randomly selected from 11 schools in the town. The sample was calculated according to the methodology described in Project SB2000. Exams were undertaken by a trained and calibrated dentist. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by the Dean index and index of community fluorosis. RESULTS: 159 (64.1% children, among the 248 who were selected, participated in the study. The prevalence of fluorosis (Dean index found was 11.4%, and it was found to be a very mild (10.1% or mild (1.3% condition. Moderate and severe fluorosis were not found. The teeth most affected by fluorosis were pre-molars, molars, incisors and canines. There was no difference between genders as to the

  20. 氟对大鼠股骨生物力学性质改变的影响%Changes of the femur biomechanics in fluorosis rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景岩; 梁子平; 马洪顺

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察氟对大鼠股骨生物力学性质改变的影响.方法 30日龄Wistar大鼠50只,体质量90~100 g,按体质量随机分为氟中毒组和对照组,每组25只.氟中毒组饮用含氟(NaF,100 mg/L)的自来水,对照组饮用自来水.饲养期间观察大鼠牙齿生长状态,6个月后处死大鼠,对大鼠股骨进行拉伸强度、冲击韧性、剪切和弯曲强度实验.结果 氟中毒组氟斑牙检出率[92%(23/25)]高于对照组[0(0/25)],组间比较差异有统计学意义(X2=38.97,P<0.01);氟中毒组大鼠总拉伸强度、冲击韧性、剪切和弯曲强度[(225.67±11.81)Mpa、(1.94±0.15)J/mm2、(76.62±6.10)Mpa、(39.96.3±3.90)Mpa]均低于对照组[(244.70±13.38)Mpa、(2.39±0.19)J/mm2、(87.72±7.05)Mpa、(45.75±3.75)Mpa],组间比较差异有统计学意义(t值分别为3.372、5.879、3.756、3.383,P<0.01).结论 氟影响大鼠的骨代谢,氟中毒大鼠股骨生物力学性质发生了改变.%Objective To observe the changes of femur biomechanical properties in fluorosis rats. Methods Fifty Wistar rats of thirty-day old, weighing 90-100 g, were randomly divided according to body mass into fluorosis and control group of 25 each. Fluorosis group drank tap water containing 100 mg/L of fluoride, the control group drank tap water. The rats were observed of dental growing status and killed after feeding 6 months. Their femurs underwent tensile strength, impact, shear, bending experiments. Results The deteetable rate of dental fluorosis was significantly higher in fluorosis group[92%(23/25)] than control group[0(0/25),X2=38.97, P<0.01]. Biomeehanical data in fluorosis group(225.67±11.81,1.94±0.15,76.62±6.10,39.96.3±3.90) were lower than those of the control group(244.70±13.38,2.39±0.19,87.72±7.05,45.75±3.75) in experiments of tensile strength (MPa), impact toughness (J/mm2), shear and bending strength (MPa). The difference was statistically significant(t=3.372,5.879,3.756 and 3383, respectively, P<0.01) between the

  1. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci, S. Erhan; Açık, Yasemin

    2003-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors.

  2. Toilet Training Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  3. Fluoride exposure from groundwater as reflected by urinary fluoride and children's dental fluorosis in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Jeuland, Marc; Tekle-Haimanot, Redda; Weinthal, Erika; Kravchenko, Julia; Paul, Christopher; McCornick, Peter

    2014-10-15

    This cross-sectional study explores the relationships between children's F(-) exposure from drinking groundwater and urinary F(-) concentrations, combined with dental fluorosis (DF) in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) Valley. We examined the DF prevalence and severity among 491 children (10 to 15 years old) who are life-long residents of 33 rural communities in which groundwater concentrations of F(-) cover a wide range. A subset of 156 children was selected for urinary F(-) measurements. Our results showed that the mean F(-) concentrations in groundwater were 8.5 ± 4.1 mg/L (range: 1.1-18 mg/L), while those in urine were 12.1±7.3 mg/L (range: 1.1-39.8 mg/L). The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe DF in children's teeth was 17%, 29%, and 45%, respectively, and the majority (90%; n=140) of the children had urinary F(-) concentrations above 3 mg/L. Below this level most of the teeth showed mild forms of DF. The exposure-response relationship between F(-) and DF was positive and non-linear, with DF severity tending to level off above a F(-) threshold of ~6 mg/L, most likely due to the fact that at ~6 mg/L the enamel is damaged as much as it can be clinically observed in most children. We also observed differential prevalence (and severity) of DF and urinary concentration, across children exposed to similar F(-) concentrations in water, which highlights the importance of individual-specific factors in addition to the F(-) levels in drinking water. Finally, we investigated urinary F(-) in children from communities where defluoridation remediation was taking place. The lower F(-) concentration measured in urine of this population demonstrates the capacity of the urinary F(-) method as an effective monitoring and evaluation tool for assessing the outcome of successful F(-) mitigation strategy in relatively short time (months) in areas affected with severe fluorosis. PMID:25084227

  4. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) decarboxylates pyruvate into acetyl-CoA and links glycolysis with the Krebs cycle. Because PDH is the only step where carbohydrate-derived substrate can enter the mitochondria and become completely oxidized, PDH activity can potentially determine if glycogen / glucose...... is oxidized completely, or whether pyruvate is converted to lactate. Activity of PDH in the active form (PDHa) is overall determined by the degree of PDH-E1? phosphorylation, where PDH-E1? dephosphorylation activates PDH, while PDH-E1? phosphorylation inactivates PDH. The PDH-E1? phosphorylation state...... in mouse skeletal muscle at rest and in response to fasting and during recovery from exercise. The studies indicate that the content of PDH-E1? in human muscle follows the metabolic profile of the muscle, rather than the myosin heavy chain fiber distribution of the muscle. The larger lactate accumulation...

  5. A cross-sectional investigation of drinking brick-tea fluorosis of children aged 8-12 in Qinghai Province%青海省8~12岁儿童饮茶型氟中毒现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萍; 何多龙; 魏生英; 蒲光兰; 喇翠玲; 姜鸿; 李生梅; 鲁青; 赵元博

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the epidemiological situation of drinking brick-tea fluorosis in Qinhai Province.Methods According to the survey results of drinking brick-tea fluorosis in Qinghai Province in 2006,an investigation was carried out inchildren aged 8-12 in 28 counties of Qinghai Province by the method of field epidemiology in 2010.In the 28 counties,three townships and one town were selected in each county; a primary school was selected in each township (town).Fluoride content of water,brick-tea and urine was determined by using a fluoride ion-selective electrode; dental fluorosis was diagnosed by Deans method.Results In 28 counties of Qinghai Province,the mean of water fluoride concentration was 0.26 mg/L and the rang was 0-1.00 mg/L; the mean of brick-tea fluoride concentration was 1.96 mg/L and the rang was 0.14-12.59 mg/L.Chidren's geometric mean of urinary fluorine concentration was 1.14 mg/L and the rang was 0.03-9.84 mg/L; the average amount of brick-tea water drank daily by each child was (587.09 ± 237.02)ml and the rang was 0-7 000 ml; children's daily fluoride intake from brick-tea was 1.15 mg and the rang was 0-13.65 mg.Chidren's detection rate of dental fluorosis was 24.38%(3 012/12 355),and the index of dental fluorosis was 0.44.Conclusions Drinking brick-tea fluorosis of children aged 8-12 in Qinghai Province has a epidemic trend.Although the state of the disease is not serious,it is widely distributed.The intake from brick-tea water has showed an increasing trend with increasing age,we should strengthen monitoring.%目的 了解青海省儿童饮茶型氟中毒流行病学特征.方法 依据青海省2006年饮茶型氟中毒病区基础资料调查结果,于2010年采用现场流行病学调查方法,在青海省的28个县中,每个县抽取3个乡、1个镇,每个乡(镇)抽取1所小学,每所小学抽取全部8~ 12岁儿童进行调查,同时采集当地居民生活饮用水、砖茶水检测氟含量.水、尿、茶中氟含量采用

  6. Xinjiang production and construction corps car row son agricultural areas endemic fluorosis prevention water effect evaluation%新疆兵团第七师车排子垦区地方性氟中毒防病改水效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚爱琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understand the seventh division of xinjiang production and construction corps car row of endemic fluorosis prevention and control measures of child land reclamation area and the improvement of water effect.Methods In October 1984, October 2009, in October 2014, respectively, in the row son agricultural areas, affected the heavier 123 regiment, establishment of 9 years old children as the research object, for dental fluorosis prevalence survey work.Results Improvement of water before 1984, 9 years old children's dental fluorosis prevalence was 72.7% (109/150); For the first time in 1986 after the completion of the improvement of water to 2009 - December 2010, 9 years old children's dental fluorosis prevalence was 7.17% (19/265); Between December 2010 and in 2014 the second water source relocate to 61 kilometers of the water supply after da zi temple area, 9 years old children's dental fluorosis prevalence was 0.54% (1/184);There are significant differences. Content of fluorine in water directly influence, children's dental fluorosis prevalence, and is proportional to the relationship. The test was highly significant difference (P < 0.01).Conclusions Change water source address and the depth of the water source well, engineering is the implementation of the effective methods of preventing water, used to correct or reduce the occurrence of endemic fluorine, arsenic poisoning disease has obtained the good effect, is worth promoting.%目的:为了解新疆兵团第七师车排子垦区地方性氟中毒防治措施和改水效果。方法:1984年10月、2009年10月、2014年10月,分别在车排子垦区(123团、127团、126团、128团),受影响较重的123团,确立9周岁儿童为研究对象,进行氟斑牙患病情况的普查工作。结果:改水前的1984年,9周岁儿童氟斑牙患病率为72.7%(109/150);1986年第一次改水完成后至2009-2010年12月,9周岁儿童氟斑牙患病率为7.17%(19/265);然而,2010

  7. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-01-01

    Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

  8. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund;

    2012-01-01

    was unaltered. During saline infusion the adipose tissue release averaged 0.8 ± 0.3 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1) whereas skeletal muscle release was 0.5 ± 0.1 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1). In young healthy humans, skeletal muscle contribution to whole body leptin production could be substantial given the greater...... mass of muscle compared to fat. An understanding of the role that leptin plays in skeletal muscle metabolism may prove important in light of several late-phase trials with recombinant leptin as an anti-obesity drug...

  9. SPECT/CT diagnostics for skeletal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal infections are often a diagnostic and clinical challenge. Nuclear imaging modalities used in the diagnostic workup of acute and chronic skeletal infections include three-phase bone scintigraphy and scintigraphy with labelled leucocytes. The introduction of hybrid technologies, such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) has dramatically changed nuclear medical imaging of infections. In general SPECT/CT leads to a considerably more accurate diagnosis than planar or SPECT imaging. Given the integrated acquisition of metabolic, functional and morphological information, SPECT/CT has increased in particular the specificity of three-phase skeletal scanning and scintigraphy with labeled leucocytes. (orig.)

  10. Multifocal skeletal tuberculosis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, LIANG; WANG, JINGCHENG; FENG, XINMIN; TAO, YUPING; YANG, JIANDONG; ZHANG, SHENFEI; CAI, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) of the musculoskeletal system is a rare clinical condition. Multifocal bone involvement is extremely rare and difficult to recognize. Thus, due to the diverse and atypical clinical manifestations of multifocal skeletal TB, the disease is easy to misdiagnose. In the present study, a rare case of atypical disseminated multifocal skeletal TB was reported, which exhibited uncommon findings in radiological images that were more suggestive of a hematological malignancy or metastatic disease. In conclusion, the diagnosis of this condition by conventional diagnostic methods is challenging. The importance of CT-guided needle biopsy and open biopsy in the diagnosis of skeletal TB was emphasized. PMID:27073438

  11. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water in an endemic fluoride belt of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The published literature on the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis among school going children in Nalgonda district - An Endemic Fluoride belt was lacking . Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water . Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study, done in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India (endemic fluoride belt . Materials and Methods: 5 of the 59 mandals in the district of Nalgonda were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 3 schools from each of these selected mandals were chosen at random. All the eligible 6 th and 9 th standard children were considered for final analysis. The demographic and other relevant information was collected by 3 trained and calibrated dentists, using a structured questionnaire. Dental caries were recorded using dentition status and treatment needs and fluorosis were recorded by Dean′s fluorosis index. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among children was 56.3% with the highest in below optimal fluoride area (71.3% and lowest in optimal fluoride area (24.3%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 71.5%. The prevalence was 39.7% in below optimal fluoride area and 100% in high and very fluoride areas. The prevalence and severity of fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration. The caries experience was more among boys than girls. Conclusion: There was a negative correlation between dental caries and fluoride concentration for the entire study population. However, in high fluoride areas, there was a positive correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. Water defluoridation on an urgent basis is a priority here than water fluoridation, because the prevalence and severity of dental flurorosis is very high.

  12. Clinical application and evaluation of the home-made dental fluorosis shade guide%自制氟斑牙比色板临床使用效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王屹; 杨敏; 刘晔; 黄宴斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of the home-made dental fluorosis shade guide. Methods Color matching was performed by three prosthodontists with the home-made dental fluorosis shade guide and VITA16 shade guide respectively in 30 patients with dental fluorosis. According to the results, two sets of crowns were fabricated for each patient, and the satisfactory degree of the dentists and patients was calculated and compared respec tively. Results According to the survey of satisfactory degree, the dentists and patients were more satisfactory with the dental fluorosis shade guide than the VITA16 shade guide. Conclusion In dental fluorosis patients' color matching, home-made dental fluorosis shade guide was more timesaving and efficient than VITA16 shade guide.%目的 研究自制氟斑牙比色板的临床使用效果.方法 由3名口腔修复专业医生,分别采用自制氟斑牙比色板及VITA16色比色板对30例氟斑牙患者在自然光下进行比色,按照2种比色结果分别制作修复体,根据医生及患者满意度对疗效进行评价.结果 通过对修复体的满意度调查,医生及患者对根据自制氟斑牙比色板制作的修复体满意度明显高于根据VITA16色比色板制作的修复体.结论 在对氟斑牙患者比色中,自制氟斑牙比色板较VITA16色比色板省时、高效.

  13. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik A.

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  14. Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is manifested by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and results from impaired insulin signaling and multiple post-receptor intracellular defects including impaired glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation, and reduced glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Insulin resistance is a core defect in type 2 diabetes, it is also associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have reported a mitochondrial defect in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in variety of insulin resistant states. In this review, we summarize the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  15. Inflammation induced loss of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londhe, Priya; Guttridge, Denis C

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathology of diseases implicated in skeletal muscle dysfunction. A number of diseases and disorders including inflammatory myopathies and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) are characterized by chronic inflammation or elevation of the inflammatory mediators. While these disease states exhibit different pathologies, all have in common the loss of skeletal muscle mass and a deregulated skeletal muscle physiology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are key contributors to chronic inflammation found in many of these diseases. This section of the review focuses on some of the known inflammatory disorders like COPD, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and inflammatory myopathies that display skeletal muscle atrophy and also provides the reader an overview of the mediators of inflammation, their signaling pathways, and mechanisms of action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions".

  16. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M;

    2016-01-01

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes cau...

  17. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth; Brand, Christian Lehn; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindqvist, Anna Kaufmann; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-12-15

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. Therefore, we investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle-specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 33), whereas 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-wk prazosin treatment, which ensured that prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole body insulin sensitivity increased by ∼24%, and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose disposal increased by ∼30% concomitant with an ∼20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was enhanced independent of improvements in skeletal muscle insulin signaling to glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suggesting that the improvement in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake could be due to improved diffusion conditions for glucose in the muscle. The prazosin treatment did not affect the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point toward the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25352432

  18. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  19. Multifocal skeletal tuberculosis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Jingcheng; Feng, Xinmin; Tao, Yuping; Yang, Jiandong; ZHANG, SHENFEI; Cai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) of the musculoskeletal system is a rare clinical condition. Multifocal bone involvement is extremely rare and difficult to recognize. Thus, due to the diverse and atypical clinical manifestations of multifocal skeletal TB, the disease is easy to misdiagnose. In the present study, a rare case of atypical disseminated multifocal skeletal TB was reported, which exhibited uncommon findings in radiological images that were more suggestive of a hematological malignancy or metastat...

  20. Initial development and chromatic value analysis of customized dental fluorosis shade guide%氟斑牙体瓷层比色板的初步研制及颜色分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛岭; 刘炜; 廖健; 吴兰; 王永

    2012-01-01

    目的 为解决个别牙缺失及缺损的氟斑牙患者烤瓷修复中的比色及颜色调配问题,定制氟斑牙金属基底体瓷层比色板来模拟氟斑牙的基色调.方法 采用牙本质修饰瓷和牙本质瓷粉按一定比例混合后烧制而成氟斑牙体瓷层比色板.分别模拟轻、中、重度氟斑牙基色调.采用松风Shade eye NCC电脑比色仪测定其色度学各要素(L*a*b*)值.结果 (1)比色板各组颜色分布具有一定规律性.(2)各组比色板色差及分布区域明显不同.(3)定制比色板的色度值范围绝大多数在氟斑牙色度值范围内,说明定制比色板的颜色能模拟一部分氟斑牙颜色.结论 定制氟斑牙金属基底体瓷层比色板对于临床氟斑牙比色有一定意义,但其精度有待于进一步提高.%Objective In order to resolve the problems of shade selection and color matching in porcelain for the patients with a-part of odontoptosis dental fluorosis. Customized dental fluorosis shade guide simulate dental fluorosis dentinal primary colour. Methods Vita dentinal porcelain powders and Vita dentine modifier porcelain powders were selected in special prescription to mix and shade guide tabs were made,Which simulate the lightly degree,the midrange degree and weight degree dental fluorosis dentinal primary color. Chromaticity element valueCL * , a * , b * ) were measured by a computer-aided Shade Eye NCC. Results (l)The color distribution in each group of customized dental fluorosis shade guide showed regular pattern. (2) The arrangement order of chroma of the each group color guide marked different color stage in chrome and diffeange. (3) The majority chromatic value rent ramplitude of customized shade guide was simulated the chromatic value amplitude of dental fluorosis. Conclusion The customized metal dental fluorosis shade guide have a special meaning in clinical dental fluorosis shade guide, but its precision need to be improved in the future.

  1. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown. PMID:26912035

  2. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown.

  3. Fluorose dentária em crianças de Princesa Isabel, Paraíba Dental fluorosis in children from Princesa Isabel, Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Delano Soares FORTE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversas localidades da Paraíba possuem níveis moderados ou elevados de fluoreto in natura nas águas de abastecimento. Nas áreas onde os níveis de fluoretos são considerados "ótimos" para a região (0,6 ppm, já constatou-se uma moderada prevalência de fluorose dentária (30-40%. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo observar a prevalência de fluorose dentária na cidade de Princesa Isabel, com níveis "subótimos" de fluoretos (0,4 ppm. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 142 escolares de 10 a 15 anos para o levantamento de fluorose dentária pelo índice TF (de Thylstrup e Fejerskov. Os exames foram realizados por três examinadores previamente calibrados, sob luz natural indireta e após escovação supervisionada e secagem dos elementos dentários. Cerca de 20% dos escolares examinados apresentaram fluorose dentária, sendo que 70% com TF 1 e outros 30% distribuídos em diversos graus (TF 2 a 5. Fluorose foi mais prevalente no sexo masculino e em dentes pré-molares. Embora a fluorose dentária observada esteja dentro dos níveis esperados para o teor de fluoretos (0,4 ppm, outras fontes sistêmicas de fluoretos devem ser controladas. A prevalência de fluorose dentária observada não é problema de saúde pública nesta localidade.Several communities in Paraíba have moderate or high levels of fluoride naturally present in the drinking water. A moderate prevalence of dental fluorosis (30-40% has been observed in some areas where the levels of fluoride are regarded as "optimal" for the region (0.6 ppm. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Princesa Isabel, a city with "sub-optimal" fluoride levels (0.4 ppm. The sample comprised 142 schoolchildren (10- to 15-year-old subjects randomly selected and examined by means of the TF (Thylstrup & Fejerskov index. The clinical exams were carried out under indirect natural light by three calibrated examiners. Prior to the examination the teeth were

  4. Child Abuse in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  5. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  6. The progress in the study for the risk factor of dental fluorosis%氟斑牙的危险因素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 徐洪兰

    2001-01-01

    氟斑牙的危害因素除与水中氟化物的含量、氟化物的应用、营养及饮食、氟化物的暴露时间有关外,还与母乳喂养时间、居住地的海拔高度、环境污染、父母所受教育的程度、社区健康保健服务等水平有关 。另外,牙医的学识水平、个人卫生生活习惯、家庭经济状况等因素对氟斑牙的发病也有一定的影响。随着社会的发展,氟化物的暴露因素日趋增多,对氟化物应用的卫生政策应因地制宜。%The risk factor of dental fluorosis are mainly related to the cancen tration of fluoride in the drinking water,the supplements of fluoride,nutrition states and regime,the time of fluoride exposure.Other factor such as the period of mother's milk feeding,the altitude of resident,the environmental pollution,the education degree of parents,and the level of health service of the community are also contributed to the development of dental fluorosis.Besides,the knowledge of dentists,the health habits of individual,the condition of economic,and so on is somehow the risk factor of dental fluorosis.The chances of fluoride exposure will become more often as the prosperous of the society.Thus any health policy of the complement of fluoride should be adapted to local conditions.

  7. THE EFFECT OF BEYOND FLUORIDE-REMOVING MATERIAL ON BLEACHING DENTAL FLUOROSIS%Beyond祛氟剂治疗氟斑牙的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孟博; 邓婧

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察Beyond祛氟剂治疗氟斑牙的临床疗效.方法 将20例着色型氟斑牙病人的左、右侧氟斑牙分别作为该研究的实验组和对照组,实验组用Beyond祛氟剂漂白治疗,对照组采用Beyond祛氟剂联合Beyond冷光美白治疗.用Vita比色板进行美白治疗前后颜色的对比.结果 实验组与对照组的脱色显效率有显著性差异(χ2=4.556,P0.05).结论 Beyond祛氟剂对治疗着色型氟斑牙有较好的美白效果,并且无明显副作用.Beyond祛氟剂联合冷光美白治疗的疗效更显著.%Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of fluoride-removing material on bleaching dental fluorosis. MethodsThe left teeth of 20 patients treated with fluoride-removing material served as experimental group, and the right teeth of the same patients treated with fluoride-removing material combined with Beyond cold light-bleaching technique as controls. The changes of tooth color were evaluated by VITA shade guide matching after treatment. Results The effective rate of experimental group was higher than that of the controls (χ2= 4.556,P0.05). Conclusion Beyond fluoride-removing material is proved to be effective and safe for bleaching discolored dental fluorosis. A combination of Beyond fluoride-removing material and Beyond cold light-bleaching technique is better than using Beyond fluoride-removing material alone for bleaching dental fluorosis.

  8. Epidemiological study of endemic fluorosis in Xinbarhuzuoqi Hulunber inner Mongolia%呼盟新巴尔虎左旗地方性氟中毒调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学慧; 董秀梅; 刘晓波; 李树海

    2001-01-01

    Objective Understand recent condition of ten drinking water type of endemic fluorosis and drinking tea type of endemic fluor osis.Methods The fluoride content in drinking water and drin king tea were determind with FSIE method.The dental fluorosis of children was ex amined with Dean's Index.Results Only the median water fluoride content in Asumu was (2.12±0.74)mg/L,other sumu water fluorsis content under normal level.Milk tea fluoride content was within 0.55~4.1 mg/L.Fluoride content in brick tea was 0.6 mg/g.The dental fluorosis of children detectable rate more than 30% was only one sume.Conclusions If we regard Xinbarhuzuoqi as a endemic fluorosis area,we need careful and deep research.%目的 了解饮水型氟中毒病区 范围及饮茶型氟中毒病区。方法 采用氟电极法测定水氟、茶氟含量,用Dean氏分度 法进行儿童氟斑牙诊断。结果 只有阿苏木水氟含量为(2.12±0.74)mg/L, 其它苏木水氟含量均在正常标准以下;奶茶氟含量在0.55~4.1 mg/L之间;砖茶含氟量在(1.37±1.20)mg/g;儿童氟斑牙检出率超过30%的仅有1个苏木。结论 新巴尔虎左旗如果视为氟中毒病区,尚需做深入细 致调查研究。

  9. Surveillance of coal-burning endemic fluorosis prevailing status in Henan Province%河南省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒流行现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余波; 刘洋; 原春生; 康健山; 黄河秋; 魏建军; 胡留安; 李爱茹

    2009-01-01

    目的 掌握河南省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)流行现状,为地氟病的防治工作提供依据.方法 2006、2007年对河南省13个县(市、区)的1832个历史燃煤污染型地氟病病区村燃煤情况、生活习惯、主食、住房结构、水氟等因素进行普查,对仍使用高氟煤的216个村进行重点抽样调查,每村对8~12岁全部儿童进行氟斑牙检查,并采集30份即时尿样检测尿氟.结果 所有历史病区村饮水含氟量30.0%,全部集中在洛阳市;77.8%(168/216)的病区村儿童尿氟≤1.50 mg/L.结论 河南省燃煤污染型地氟病病区范围已大大缩小,危害程度明显减轻.其中8个县(市、区)历史病区村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙病情已经达到了病区控制标准,有5个县(市、区)未达到控制标准,集中分布在洛阳市.%Objective To understand the prevailing status of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in Henan, and to provide scientific grounds for endemic fluorosis prevention. Methods Undertook general surveillance on factors such as coal using, living habit, main foods, the structure of the houses and the fluoride content in drinking-water among 1832 historical coal-burning endemic fluorosis villages within 13 counties in 2006 and 2007, and conducted focal point sampling survey on 216 villages which still using local high-fluoride. For all children aged 8-12 years of each village, conducted dental fluorosis examination and collected 30 immediate urinary samples for fluoride content determination. Results The fluoride content in drinking-water of all historical fluorosis villages was below 1.0 mg/L. Households having individual kitchens accounted for 93.7%(241 281/257 393), those with stoves having smoke evacuation devices accounted for 41.9% (107 917/257 393), those using local high-fluoride coal for cooking accounted for 28.6%(73 686/257 393), those using local high-fluoride coal for heating accounted for 24.1%(61 924/257 393). Villages with serf

  10. Ultrastructural observation of rat maxillary incisors with varied severity of dental fluorosis%大鼠切牙不同程度氟牙症的超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓转云; 郭永利; 陈明霞; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察大鼠饮用不同剂量氟水后发生中、重度氟斑牙的下颌切牙超微结构.方法 给SD雄性大鼠分别自由饮用0、25、50、100m g/L的含氟水,于不同的时间点用数码相机对大鼠下颌切牙进行唇侧正位照相,将中、重度氟斑牙的左、右侧下颌切牙分别进行扫描电镜及透射电镜的超微结构观察.结果 正常鼠切牙的釉质是一层由成釉细胞形成的棕色色素薄层,呈橘黄色、棕黄色;中度氟斑牙表面呈现不同程度棕、白色相间的水平状条纹,透光度降低;重度氟斑牙牙面出现白垩色外观,不透明.扫描电镜显示正常大鼠下颌切牙牙面平整、致密,仅在颈部有小的点窝;中、重度氟斑牙牙面粗糙,点窝在牙冠和牙颈部都明显存在,颈部甚至出现堆积的无釉柱状突起.透射电镜显示随着氟斑牙严重程度加重成釉细胞呈现一系列细胞凋亡的迹象.结论 不同程度的氟斑牙分泌期成釉细胞呈现一系列细胞凋亡迹象,且氟斑牙越严重,细胞凋亡的改变越明显.%Objective To observe the ultrastructural changes of rat maxillary incisors with varied severity of dental fluorosis induced by different concentration of fluoride in their drinking water. Methods Male SD rats drank water containing graded doses of fluoride (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L), respectively. At different time points the labial tooth surface of the maxillary incisors in each rat was taken a picture. Each side of the maxillary incisors with moderate or severe fluorosis was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope, respectively. Results The enamel of rat normal incisors, of an orange-yellow or brown-yellow color, was a film of brown pigment layer formed by ameloblasts. Enamel changes in the rat incisor teeth with fluorosis occurred as brown and white horizontal marks (moderate fluorosis) and progressively developed into a white chalky appearance (severe

  11. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Education October 4, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  12. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  13. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  14. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or working on a craft. Reward and praise self-control . For example, allow your little girl to use ... Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can I Stop My Child ...

  15. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  16. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  17. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  18. What makes a child a 'competent' child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, Amanda; Water, Tineke; Rasmussen, Shayne; Diesfeld, Kate

    2015-12-01

    Competence is a vital component of the informed consent process. The perceived level of a child's competence may influence their degree of participation in health decisions that affect them. It is the responsibility of the health professional to gauge a child's level of competence. Child competence, however, is not a static attribute that is linked to age. Rather, it is dynamic, changing in nature and dependent on a child's previous experiences, personal attributes, network of relationships around them and cultural and environmental context. Consequently, there is no single verified assessment tool to assist in the recognition of competence for New Zealand children. Adding to this complexity are the unclear interpretations of New Zealand health legislation and policy regarding whether or not a child can legally consent or refuse healthcare advice and treatment without the consent of a legal guardian. Under the Care of Children Act 2004 and the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights 1996, the Health and Disability Commissioner states "a child may consent themselves [to health treatment] if and when the child achieves sufficient understanding and maturity to understand fully what is proposed". This paper poses the question: What is 'competency' and how is this decided? For the purpose of this article, 'child' pertains to those under the age of 16 years. PMID:26913912

  19. Economics of child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima, Ambreen

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation aims to explore the supply and demand side determinant of child labour at macro, meso and micro level. At macro level it explores the effect of globalization (defined as openness to trade and inflow of foreign direct investment) and credit market imperfections on child labour. At meso level it explores the effect of labour market conditions on child labour. As the above two levels of analysis are mainly concerned with the demand for child labour, the micro level analysis expl...

  20. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    S. Erhan Deveci; Yasemin Acik

    2003-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000): 396-405

  1. Causes of Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Erhan Deveci

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 396-405

  2. Disciplining Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are ways to ease frustration and avoid unnecessary conflict with your child. Be Aware of What Your Child Can and ... moment, wait to cool down, apologize to your child, and explain how you will handle the situation in the future. Be sure to keep your ...

  3. [Autism and child protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coron, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  4. Analysis of monitoring results of children dental fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Liaoning province in 2011%2011年辽宁省饮水型地方性氟中毒病区儿童氟斑牙病情监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩来; 郑照霞; 刘微; 王健辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查辽宁省饮水型地方性氟中毒病区儿童氟斑牙的流行现况,评价改水措施的防病效果.方法 2011年9月,在辽宁省海城市、凌海市、法库县、阜蒙县、辽阳县、建平县6个地方性氟中毒病区县(市),每个县抽取3个已改水病区村,共18个病区村作为调查点.各调查村普查8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况.每个调查村采集1份末梢水样,进行水氟测定.结果 共检查8~12岁儿童786人,检出氟斑牙患者110人,氟斑牙检出率为14.0%,无缺损型氟斑牙病例,氟斑牙指数为0.27.其中,极轻度76例,检出率为9.7%;轻度33例,检出率为4.2%;中度1例,检出率为0.1%;重度0例.8岁组病例4例,占3.6%;9岁组病例20例,占18.2%; 10岁组病例26例,占23.6%;11岁组病例32例,占29.1%; 12岁组病例28例,占25.5%.各年龄组儿童氟斑牙检出率比较差异有统计学意义(x2=13.57,P<0.05).采集的18份改水工程末梢水样水氟范围为0.34~ 2.03 mg/L.77.8%(14/18)的改水病区达到了地方性氟中毒病区控制标准.结论 饮水氟含量高的病区儿童氟斑牙患病率仍较高,改水措施还有待于加强.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of children dental fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Liaoning province and to evaluate the disease prevention effects of water improvement measures.Methods Haicheng city,Linghai city,Faku county,Fumeng county,Liaoyang county and Jianping county six endemic fluorosis diseased counties (cities) of Liaoning province were included in the study in September 2011.In each county,3 water improvement villages were selected as survey points.In each surveyed village,children aged 8-12 were generally surveyed the prevalence of dental fluorosis.One tap water sample was collected in each surveyed village for determination of water fluorine.level.Results A total of 786 children aged 8-12 were examined; 110 of them were found with dental

  5. The relat ionship between denta l fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentrat ion – A study in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Daniel Grynpas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9 and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15 and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20, nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65 and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56. Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]. When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DFseverity, only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67. Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a goodpredictor/indicator of DF severity.

  6. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  7. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  8. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Pradeep; Kumar, Naveen; Shingh, Shishir; Ahuja, N.K.; Ghalaut, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis of skeletal class I, class II and class III malocclusion, each comprising of 38 subjects with equal number of males and females. Lip prints of all the individuals were recorded and digital soft copies of lateral cephalograms were taken. Lip prints were compared between different skeletal malocclusions. Results: It was found that branched lip pattern was most common in North Indian adult population with no sexual dimorphism. The Z-test for proportion showed that the prevalence of vertical lip pattern was significantly higher in subjects having skeletal class III malocclusion. Conclusion: A definite co-relation of vertical lip patterns with skeletal class III malocclusion was revealed. PMID:24255559

  9. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Raghav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis of skeletal class I, class II and class III malocclusion, each comprising of 38 subjects with equal number of males and females. Lip prints of all the individuals were recorded and digital soft copies of lateral cephalograms were taken. Lip prints were compared between different skeletal malocclusions. Results: It was found that branched lip pattern was most common in North Indian adult population with no sexual dimorphism. The Z-test for proportion showed that the prevalence of vertical lip pattern was significantly higher in subjects having skeletal class III malocclusion. Conclusion: A definite co-relation of vertical lip patterns with skeletal class III malocclusion was revealed.

  10. Health assessment fluoride levels above the parametric value in water for human consumption in relation to the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis in school children 12 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macrina María Martín Delgado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Real Decreto 140/2003 of February 7, provides the opportunity to request approval of a temporary exception to the parametric value for the parameter B of Annex I, including fluoride. The work presented aims at testing the effect of water with fluoride levels above the parametric value on the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis, total and by grade, in the permanent dentition of schoolchildren in 12 years in order to establish the basis for the valuation of non-compliance and health decisions to applications for permits for temporary emergency situations and new parametric value. Sixty students were explored in a municipality of Tenerife where the concentration of fluoride in the water for human consumption has remained at 2,7 ± 0,5 mg / L, ie around the value ± 0,5 considered adequate to prevent dental caries and minimize the occurrence of dental fluorosis. The methodology used is standardized by the WHO. The examination included the recording of caries and dental fluorosis measured by the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF. There was a prevalence of dental caries of 38,33%, with a CAOD 0,87 and 81,67% of dental fluorosis: 35% for TF1-2, a 31,67% for TF3-4 and 15 % for grades TF5-9.Passing the values established requires the establishment of measures for health protection by restricting the use and consumption of water for children up to 8 years old.

  11. From child to child: children as communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J

    1993-01-01

    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  12. Fluoride Levels in Urine, Blood Plasma and Serum of People Living in an Endemic Fluorosis Area in the Thar Desert, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluoride (F/sup -/) levels in the urine, blood plasma and serum samples of people living in a village in the Thar Desert have been analysed where fluorosis is endemic and groundwater contains fluoride as high as 9.76 mg/L. Average values of fluoride levels in these human specimens i.e. urine, blood plasma and serum have been found to be 12.98 mg/L, 0.61 mg/L and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. These values are much higher than the normal values reported from other parts of the world. It was observed that urinary fluoride levels increase with age of an individual but with an insignificant correlation (r = 0.116), however, fluoride levels in plasma and serum samples did not vary considerably with age in male and female subjects. It has been found that after the age of 50 years the urinary fluoride decreases with its concomitant increase in serum fluoride level. Since groundwater is the only available source of water for human consumption and it contains higher fluoride (av. 7.09 mg/L) than WHO limit (1.5 mg/L), therefore, it is the main cause of fluorosis in the area. (author)

  13. A fluorose dentária no Brasil: uma revisão crítica Dental fluorosis in Brazil: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Teixeira Cangussu

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se neste trabalho a pertinência de se considerar a fluorose dentária como um problema de saúde pública no Brasil, utilizando como método a revisão dos estudos epidemiológicos publicados no país sobre prevalência e severidade da doença e dos seus possíveis fatores de risco. Os resultados sugerem que já são encontradas freqüências mais altas que as esperadas, embora com poucos casos de maior severidade. São necessárias, então, medidas de vigilância à saúde bucal.This paper discusses dental fluorosis as a relevant public health problem, using a review of epidemiological studies published in the last 10 years on the disease's prevalence, severity, and risk factors. The results suggest that there are already more cases than expected, although few studies refer to major severity. Thus, measures are needed for the prevention and surveillance of dental fluorosis.

  14. Analysis and surveillance of coal-burning type endemic fluorosis in Hubei province%湖北省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒病区防治现况调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧云; 李明健; 熊培生; 周芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 掌握湖北省燃煤污染型氟中毒病区流行现状,为防治工作提供科学依据.方法 对燃煤地区的燃煤方式、食物干燥与保存方法和8 ~ 12岁儿童氟斑牙等情况进行横断面调查.结果 8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率9.89%;氟斑牙患病率大于30%的病区村51个,主要分布在恩施市、建始县、巴东县、宣恩县、竹山县和竹溪县;主食结构以大米为主,98%的调查户能采取正确的方式干燥和保存玉米和辣椒.结论 湖北省燃煤污染型氟中毒病情危害程度已明显减轻,但仍应继续坚持以改炉降氟为主的综合防治措施,以达到持续消除燃煤污染型氟中毒危害的目的.%Objectives To study the prevailing status of coal - burning type endemic fluorosis in Hubei Province, and to provide scientific basis for fluorosis control and prevention. Methods A cross - section survey was conducted to investigate the ways of coal combustion, food dehydration and storage and dental fluorosis status in children aged from 8 to 12. Results The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis in children aged from 8 to 12 was 9. 89% ; There were 51 villages with dental fluorosis detection rate was higher than 30% , which were mainly distributed in Enshi city, Jianshi county, Badong county, Xuanen county, zhushan county and Zhuxi county; staple food is given priority to rice, 98% of investigation families could take the right way to dry and preserve corn and pepper. Conclusion The coal - burning type fluorosis hazard degree has been significantly reduced in Hubei province. But in order to achieve the sustainable elimination of coal - burning fluorosis, the comprehensive prevention and treatment measures mainly including furnace modification and defluoridation should be adhere to in the future.

  15. The benefits of coffee on skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2015-12-15

    Coffee is consumed worldwide with greater than a billion cups of coffee ingested every day. Epidemiological studies have revealed an association of coffee consumption with reduced incidence of a variety of chronic diseases as well as all-cause mortality. Current research has primarily focused on the effects of coffee or its components on various organ systems such as the cardiovascular system, with relatively little attention on skeletal muscle. Summary of current literature suggests that coffee has beneficial effects on skeletal muscle. Coffee has been shown to induce autophagy, improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate glucose uptake, slow the progression of sarcopenia, and promote the regeneration of injured muscle. Much more research is needed to reveal the full scope of benefits that coffee consumption may exert on skeletal muscle structure and function.

  16. Intraurethral Injection of Autologous Minced Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intraurethral injection of in vitro expanded autologous skeletal muscle derived cells is a new regenerative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. We examined the efficacy and safety of a simpler alternative strategy using freshly harvested, minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue with...... its inherent content of regenerative cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 and 15 women with uncomplicated and complicated stress urinary incontinence, respectively, received intraurethral injections of minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue and were followed for 1 year. Efficacy was assessed...... events were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Intraurethral injection of minced autologous muscle tissue is a simple surgical procedure that appears safe and moderately effective in women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence. It compares well to a more complicated regenerative strategy using in vitro...

  17. Pannexin 1 channels in skeletal muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Cea, Luis A.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Vargas, Anibal A.; Urrutia, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Normal myotubes and adult innervated skeletal myofibers express the glycoprotein pannexin1 (Panx1). Six of them form a “gap junction hemichannel-like” structure that connects the cytoplasm with the extracellular space; here they will be called Panx1 channels. These are poorly selective channels permeable to ions, small metabolic substrate, and signaling molecules. So far little is known about the role of Panx1 channels in muscles but skeletal muscles of Panx1−/− mice do not show an evident ph...

  18. Vasodilatory mechanisms in contracting skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifford, Philip S.; Hellsten, Ylva

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscle blood flow is closely coupled to metabolic demand, and its regulation is believed to be mainly the result of the interplay of neural vasoconstrictor activity and locally derived vasoactive substances. Muscle blood flow is increased within the first second after a single contraction...... and stabilizes within 30 s during dynamic exercise under normal conditions. Vasodilator substances may be released from contracting skeletal muscle, vascular endothelium, or red blood cells. The importance of specific vasodilators is likely to vary over the time course of flow, from the initial rapid rise...

  19. Shangqiu drinking water type fluorosis monitoring village children aged 8 to 12 dental fluorosis prevalence survey analysis%商丘市饮水型氟中毒监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔雪梅; 史宏凤; 邢艳平

    2014-01-01

    objective to understand the shangqiu drinking-water type endemic fluorosis monitoring village 8 to 12 years old children's dental fluorosis illness,as the improvement of water decreasing fluorine,provide a scientific basis for prevention and treatment of endemic fluorosis. Method choose HuiYangOu without changing water digoxin town-ship,Liu Qiaocun HouZhuang village,the ancient song township Xu Loucun;Have to change water to rein in town-ship JiaoZhuang zhuang village, township LinHeDian ShuangMiaoCun east ShuangMiaoCun. MinQuanXian BeiGuanZhen Jin Zhuang village;Garden township double Wells village,zhao village,ward building village,a total of eight as the infested,detection of residents drinking water fluoride concentration,8 and 12 years old children's den-tal fluorosis prevalence survey. Fluorine spot tooth diagnosis according to the dental fluorosis in accordance with the (Dean fluorine spot tooth diagnosis methods,sample collection and preservation and water fluoride detection using the standard test methods for domestic and drinking water (GB/T 5750-5750). Results The results of shangqiu drinking-water type endemic fluorosis monitoring village 8 to 12 years old children's dental fluorosis detection rate of 67.8%in 2011;34.8%in 2012. Dental fluorosis patients suspected,extremely light and mild accounted for most of the pa-tients,and patients with moderate and severe accounts for only a few. In 8 monitoring village water fluoride which in 2011 was 100.0%,87.5%in 2012. Conclusion exercises of endemic fluorosis monitoring village high fluoride drink-ing water is the direct cause of endemic fluorosis popularity,improvement of water decreasing fluorine,is urgently needed.%目的:了解商丘市饮水型地方性氟中毒监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况,为降氟改水,防治地方性氟中毒提供科学依据。方法选择睢阳区未改水的高辛乡候庄村、刘桥村,古宋乡许楼村;已改水的勒马乡集庄村焦庄、临河

  20. Relationship between dental fluorosis and serum chemical element levels of 8-12 year-old children in endemic fluorosis areas and non-diseased areas%地方性氟中毒病区与非病区8-12岁儿童氟斑牙及与血清化学元素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓红; 梁妍; 冯永亮; 王素萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children aged 8 - 12 years, and to explore the relationship between dental fluorosis and serum chemical elements. Methods The cross-sectional study was used to investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis. The dental fluorosis was diagnosed according to Dean method. The contents of serum calcium ( Ca ),copper ( Cu ),iron ( Fe ),magnesium ( Mg ),phosphorus ( P ),zinc ( Zn ) were determined using IRIS Intrepid Ⅱ XSP ICP spectrometer. Results The prevalence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 - 12 years in severe endemic fluorosis areas, the wards, the control areas were 93.0% , 81.5% and 11.8% , respectively. Serum levels of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, P, and Zn in the children of severe endemic fluorosis areas, the wards, the control areas were different( Fca= 12. 150,P < 001; FCu= 3. 326, P < 0.05; FFe= 11. 893, P < 001; FMg= 13. 053, P < 001; FP= 3. 131,P < 0.05 ;Fzn= 28. 019,P < 001 ). Content of calcium in the wards was lower than that in the control areas ( P < 0.001 ). Iron content in the wards was higher than that in the control areas ( P < 0. 001 ). Magnesium content was lower in the severe areas and the wards than that in the control areas ( P < 0.001 ). Phosphorus content in severe areas was lower than that in the control zone ( P < 0.05 ). Zinc content in seriously ill areas was higher than that in the control areas, while it was lower in the wards than that in the control areas ( P < 0.05 ). Level of magnesium in dental fluorosis patients was higher than that in normal children( t= 2.14, P < 0.05 ), but there was no significant difference in the rest chemical elements between them. Conclusion The higher the concentration of fluoride in drinking water is, the higher the detection rate of dental fluorosis is. Calcium and magnesium can be antagonistic with dental fluorosis.%目的 了解8-12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况,探讨化学元素与氟斑牙的关系.方法

  1. Prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de Brasília - Distrito Federal Prevalence of dental fluorosis in school children from Brasília - Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Lopes CAMPOS

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de avaliar a prevalência de fluorose dentária, foi realizado levantamento epidemiológico em Brasília, Distrito Federal, comunidade na qual o teor de flúor na água de abastecimento público é de 0,8 ppm. Foram examinadas 833 crianças de ambos os sexos com idades variando entre 8 e 12 anos, escolares e residentes em Brasília desde o nascimento. Os exames foram realizados em escolas públicas, em cadeira comum, sob luz natural e campo seco obtido com auxílio de gaze. Por meio do exame dos dentes permanentes anteriores superiores foi levantado o índice de fluorose entre os sexos. O percentual de crianças livres de fluorose apresentou-se elevado (85,36%, enquanto 14,64% mostraram níveis de fluorose dentária entre muito leve e moderado.An epidemiologic study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Brasilia - Federal District, a community where fluoride concentration is 0.8 ppm in drinking water. The sample consisted of 833 school children of both sexes, aged between 8 and 12, who have been living in Brasilia since birth. The anterior upper permanent teeth were examined and HOROWITZ fluorosis index was applied to evaluate pathological occurrences. No sex differences were observed in dental fluorosis prevalence. The authors found a high number of dental fluorosis free children (85.36% and 14.64% of the sample showed light and moderate levels of fluorosis.

  2. Beyond冷光美白在治疗氟斑牙和四环素牙中的临床应用%Clinical application of Beyond cold light whitening in treatment of dental fluorosis and minocvcline teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周吉武; 夏惠丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe clinical effects of Beyond cold light whitening agent on the bleaching treatment of minocycline teeth and dental fluorosis. Methods Beyond cold light whitening instrument and Beyond the cold light whitening agent were used for bleaching treatment for 11 patients with different degrees of dental fluorosis and 8 patients with minocycline teeth. Before bleaching, VITA-3 D MASTER colorimetric plate (VITA Toothguide-MASTER, hereinafter referred to as " VITA colorimetric plate" ) was used to compare the teeth' color and records were made. Observe bleaching treatment effect. Results Beyond cold light whitening were used in the treatment of 11 cases with dental fluorosis and 8 cases with minocycline teeth. As a result, dental fluorosis disappeared, color on the surfaces of the teeth was close to normal. Conclusions Reliable bleaching treatment effects can be achieved in the treatment of dental fluorosis and minocycline teeth with Beyond cold light whitening agent.%目的 观察Beyond冷光美白剂对氟斑牙和四环素牙患者的漂白效果.方法 对11例不同程度氟斑牙及8例四环素牙患者,采用Beyond冷光美白仪及配套的冷光美白剂进行漂白治疗,分别于漂白前用VITA - 3D MASTER比色板(VITA Toothguide - MASTER,以下简称Vita比色板)对牙齿比色并记录,观察漂白效果.结果 使用Beyond冷光美白治疗氟斑牙11例,四环素牙8例,氟斑消失,牙面颜色接近正常.结论 Beyond冷光美白剂对氟斑牙及四环素牙患者的漂白效果可靠.

  3. Prevalence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 in coal-burning type of endemic fluorosis areas in Guizhou Province%贵州省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒病区8~12岁儿童氟斑牙病情调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯友; 李达圣; 高静; 张念恒; 张锐智; 胡小强; 叶红兵; 姚丹成; 王晓明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 in coalburning type of endemic fluorosis areas in Guizhou Province and to provide a scientific basis for assessment and acceptance of the diseased areas.Methods According to the "Diagnosis of Dental Fluorosis" (WS/T 208-2011),dental fluorosis of all children aged 8-12 were examined in historic diseased areas of 13 counties (districts) from 2013 to 2014.The date of dental fluorosis of all children aged 8-12 was collected in 13 countries (districts) in 1986 and 2000.The date of 1986 was compared with that of 2000; the survey results were compared with those of 2000,and assessed by the standards for "Control Criteria for Endemic Fluorosis Areas" and "Elimination of Coalburning Type of Endemic Fluorosis".Results The total detectable rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 was 5.42% (12 446/229 428),and the total dental fluorosis index was 0.094 that covered 229 428 children from 1 673 villages of 166 towns of 13 counties (districts) in the province.The detection rate and dental fluorosis index in every county (district) ranged from 2.83% to 9.39% and from 0.037 to 0.174,respectively.The ratio of dental fluorosis detection rate ≤15% and > 15-30% was accounted for 98.09% (1 641/1 673) and 1.91% (32/1 673),respectively in the 1 673 villages.Compared with that of 2000 in each county (district),the difference was statistically significant (all P < 0.01).Compared between 2000 and 1986,the differences were not statistically significant in Zunyi County,Meitan County and Baiyun District (x2 =0.045,0.067,3.420,all P > 0.05),but the prevalence was significantly lower in Huishui County,Wudang District and Huaxi District (x2 =537.70,352.03,374.84,all P < 0.01).The prevalence was increased to varying degrees in counties (districts) including Honghuagang,Zhenning,Changshun,Pingba,Longli,Xifeng and Kaiyang (x2 =9.48,219.97,116.93,288.24,626.39,272.38,14.35,all P < 0

  4. Role of microRNAs in skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Hitachi, Keisuke; Tsuchida, Kunihiro

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of body weight, and is important for locomotion, as well as for metabolic homeostasis. Adult skeletal muscle mass is maintained by a fine balance between muscle protein synthesis and degradation. In response to cytokines, nutrients, and mechanical stimuli, skeletal muscle mass is increased (hypertrophy), whereas skeletal muscle mass is decreased (atrophy) in a variety of conditions, including cancer cachexia, starvation, immobilization, aging, and n...

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Jeromson; Gallagher, Iain J.; Stuart D. R. Galloway; D. Lee Hamilton

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscl...

  6. 2012年江苏省饮水型地方性氟中毒病情监测结果分析%Outcome analysis of drinking-water type endemic fluorosis in Jiangsu in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶云杰; 夏玉婷; 汪旸; 王培桦; 王彩生

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解江苏省饮水型地方性氟中毒病情及降氟改水工程使用情况,为及时调整地方性氟中毒防治措施提供科学依据.方法 2012年,在江苏省选择9个地方性氟中毒防治重点县(区)作为调查点,每个调查点选择3个病区村作为调查村,了解调查村改水降氟工程进度和运行情况,采集调查村水样检测水氟含量;对所有调查村8~12岁儿童进行氟斑牙检查.水氟测定采用《地方性氟中毒病区饮水氟化物的测定方法》(WS/T 106-1999);氟斑牙诊断采用Dean法.结果 共监测了27个村,其中已改水村26个,占96.30%(26/27);未改水村1个,占3.70%(1/27).26个改水工程中,正常运转21个,占80.77%(21/26);间歇运转2个,占8.70%(2/26);报废3个,占11.54%(3/26).改水工程正常运转且水氟合格的监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为22.74%(380/1 761),氟斑牙指数为0.45;改水工程水氟超标或工程不能正常运转的监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为66.51%(143/215),氟斑牙指数为1.45;未改水村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为42.86%(12/28),氟斑牙指数为0.86.结论 江苏省降氟改水工程对儿童氟斑牙的预防有一定效果,但改水工程仍然有报废或者水氟超标的情况.%Objective To know the state of endemic fluorosis,running state of water improvement project in Jiangsu Province,and to provide a scientific basis for adjusting control measures against the disease.Methods Nine key counties were selected from the endemic fluorosis areas as survey spots in Jiangsu in 2012.Three villages in each spot were selected as survey villages.To known the progress and running conditions of water facilities,water samples were collected to determine the fluorosis level.All children aged 8 to 12 were tested for dental fluorosis at the survey villages.The fluorine content in water was determined with F-selective electrode (WS/T 106-1999).Dental fluorosis was diagnosed byased on the Dean

  7. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process. PMID:22171534

  8. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process.

  9. Interleukin-6 myokine signaling in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura; Scheele, Camilla; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a cytokine with pleiotropic functions in different tissues and organs. Skeletal muscle produces and releases significant levels of IL-6 after prolonged exercise and is therefore considered as a myokine. Muscle is also an important target of the cytokine. IL-6 signaling has b...

  10. Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

  11. Training induced adaptation in horse skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, K.G. van

    2006-01-01

    It appears that the physiological and biochemical adaptation of skeletal muscle to training in equine species shows a lot of similarities with human and rodent physiological adaptation. On the other hand it is becoming increasingly clear that intra-cellular mechanisms of adaptation (substrate transp

  12. Engineering skeletal muscle tissue in bioreactor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Yang; Li Dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) related to skeletal muscle and kinds of bioreactor environment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection A total of 106 articles were selected from several hundred original articles or reviews.The content of selected articles is in accordance with our purpose and the authors are authorized scientists in the study of engineered muscle tissue in bioreactor.Results Skeletal muscle TE is a promising interdisciplinary field which aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss.Although numerous studies have indicated that engineering skeletal muscle tissue may be of great importance in medicine in the near future,this technique still represents a limited degree of success.Since tissue-engineered muscle constructs require an adequate connection to the vascular system for efficient transport of oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products.Moreover,functional and clinically applicable muscle constructs depend on adequate neuromuscular junctions with neural calls.Third,in order to engineer muscle tissue successfully,it may be beneficial to mimic the in vivo environment of muscle through association with adequate stimuli from bioreactors.Conclusion Vascular system and bioreactors are necessary for development and maintenance of engineered muscle in order to provide circulation within the construct.

  13. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  14. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity. : AMPK in skeletal musclemetabolic adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Treebak, Jonas,; Pehmøller, Christian; Sanz, Nieves; Sakakibara, Iori; Saint-Amand, Emmanuelle; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Maire, Pascal; Marette, André; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Ferry, Arnaud; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen,

    2014-01-01

    : AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle exercise capacity, mitochondrial function, and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Exercise performance was significantly reduced in the mdKO mice, with a reduction in maximal force production an...

  15. Skeletal Stability after Large Mandibular Advancement (> 10 mm) with Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy and Skeletal Elastic Intermaxillary Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Kristoffer; Rodrigo, Maria; Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the skeletal stability after large mandibular advancement (> 10 mm) with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation and to correlate the skeletal stability with the vertical facial type. MATERIAL AND METHO...... to distraction osteogenesis in large mandibular advancements....

  16. Dental caries and dental fluorosis in 7-12-year-old schoolchildren in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil Cárie e fluorose dentária em escolares de 7 a 12 anos de idade em Catalão, Goiás, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Ariede Petinuci Bardal; Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf; José Roberto Magalhães Bastos

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Over the last two decades, the prevalence of dental caries in children has decreased and the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased. Knowledge on the epidemiologic conditions of a population is fundamental for the planning of health programs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren, in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: A random sample of 432 schoolchildren aged 7-12-years old was obtained. WHO (1997) criteria for de...

  17. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  18. Measuring child marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Cong Nguyen; Quentin Wodon

    2012-01-01

    Child or early marriage is recognized as an important development and human rights issue that affects girls especially in many developing countries. The practice has been linked to psychological, health, and education risks. These negative impacts explain why in many countries child marriage has been prohibited by law but often with little effect. While child marriage has been recognized as a major issue, its measurement has remained unsophisticated. Existing studies tend to simply report the...

  19. Child Labor and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Dinopoulos; Laixun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper embeds child labor in a standard two-sector general-equilibrium model of a small open economy facing perfectly competitive markets, efficiency wages, and free-trade. The modern sector produces a homogeneous good using skilled adult labor and capital, and offers effort-based efficiency wages. The agrarian (traditional) sector produces a homogeneous good using unskilled (child and adult) labor and skilled adult labor, and offers nutritional efficiency wages to child workers. Nutrition...

  20. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  1. Towards understanding child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Inés Carreño; Alicia Rey

    2010-01-01

    This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatm...

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the skeletal musculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre (ed.) [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Intverventional Radiology

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. Presents research findings in respect of the role of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques. Provides examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases. Although muscular diseases are a huge and heterogeneous group, in most cases of progressive disease the result is focal or general muscular weakness that presents as an unspecific symptom. Imaging techniques that offer differential diagnostic clues are therefore urgently needed. Despite this, MRI has to date often been assigned a subsidiary role in the diagnostic work-up of these diseases owing to the frequent inability of routine MRI protocols to detect pathognomonic findings. This situation is changing with the advent of modern MRI techniques that offer deeper insights into surrogate pathophysiologic parameters, such as muscular microcirculation, sodium homeostasis, energy and lipid metabolism, and muscle fiber architecture. Much higher levels of acceptance and demand by clinicians can be anticipated for these new techniques in the near future, and radiologists will have to face up to the increasing value of MRI of the skeletal musculature. In this book, recognized experts from around the world provide a comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. A range of aspects are covered, from the general role of MRI in imaging the skeletal musculature, including in comparison with ultrasonography, through to the current value of MRI in the diagnostic work-up of different diseases. In addition, several chapters present research findings in respect of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques for assessment of the skeletal musculature and provide examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases.

  3. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  4. Estudo sobre a fluorose dentária num município do sul do Brasil Study on the dental fluorosis in a Southern city of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Rigo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a frequência e a severidade da fluorose dentária, bem como verificar possíveis associações com cárie dentária, sexo, idade, etnia e localização geográfica das escolas, nos escolares de doze e de quinze a dezenove anos de idade do município de Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul. A população estudada foi constituída por 633 escolares, de ambos os sexos, matriculados em vinte e seis escolas municipais de ensino fundamental, nas idades índices citadas. Os exames foram realizados por três examinadores previamente calibrados para a aplicação do Índice de Dean. A prevalência de fluorose dentária no grupo estudado foi de 32,8%. O grau predominante foi o muito leve (78,4%, seguido pelos graus leve (11,1%, questionável (8,7% e moderado (1,9%. A prevalência de fluorose dentária na população estudada foi expressiva, embora com um baixo grau de severidade. Os fatores idade e índice de cárie dentária mostraram-se relacionados à variável resposta.The objective of this article is to determine the frequency and severity of dental fluorosis, as well as to verify possible associations with dental caries, gender, age, ethnicity and geographic location of schools in schoolchildren of 12 years old and from 15 to 19 years in the city of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A total of 633 schoolchildren of both genders at the cited ages, enrolled in 26 public schools of fundamental teaching were involved in the epidemiological study. The inspection was performed by three examiners previously trained to apply Dean's Index. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the studied group was of 32.8%. Predominant degree was the very light (78.4%, followed by light (11.1%, questionable (8.7% and moderate (1.9%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was expressive in this population, however, with a low degree of severity. Factors such as age and dental caries index showed to be related to the variable response.

  5. Quality of life and its determinants among residents in endemic fluorosis areas with integrated intervention program%氟中毒干预病区人群生命质量及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梨丽; 黄文湧; 杨敬源; 官志忠; 于燕妮

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quality of life and its influencing factors among local residents in endemic fluorosis areas under integrated intervention program for controlling endemic fluorosis.Methods By using the MOS 36-Item Short Form Health Survey(SF-36),666 residents from 453 households in 4 towns were interviewed to assess the quality of life of the residents after implementing the integrated intervention program for controlling endemic fluorosis in Bijie city of Guizhou province.The determinants of the quality of life were analyzed with multiple linear regression models.Results The rates of dental fluorosis in all residents and children aged 8-15 years were 84.2% and 53.2%,respectively.The rate of endemic fluorosis was 32.5 %.The degree of the fluorosis of bone was related to 8 dimensions on quality of life.Age,two-week disease prevalence,extent of the fluorosis of bone,dental fluorosis,and baking food with coal fire were inversely correlated with the quality of life (P < 0.05) ; higher education,higher family income,improved stoves,and the stretched out chimney were positively correlated with the quality of life (P < 0.05).Conclusion The health attitude of local residents has been raised gradually with continuous implemention of the integrated intervertion program and the establishment of a long-term management mechanism.The change of unhealthy life style in the residentsalso has a significant importance to improve the quality of life among the residents in edemic fluorosis areas.%目的 了解贵州省毕节市氟中毒综合治理干预病区人群的生命质量状况,分析该病区居民生命质量的影响因素.方法 对病区4个乡镇453户共666人进行问卷调查,采用自编量表及生命质量量表(SF-36)评价研究对象综合干预措施实施情况及生命质量状况,生命质量各维度影响因素分析采用多元线性回归分析.结果 氟斑牙检出率为84.2%,8~15岁儿童氟斑牙患病率为53.2

  6. Effects of drinking water defluoride in endemic fluorosis areas in Shantou city of Guangdong province%广东省汕头市地方性氟中毒病区改水降氟效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军义; 李伯灵; 赵新华; 黄奕祥; 陈俊凯; 陈思湖; 欧汉宏; 陈少贤

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对汕头市地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)病区水氟及氟中毒状况的调查,为进一步改水工作提供依据.方法 于2001、2009年,对4个地氟病病区村(仙港村、范溪村、义英村、溪北村)和一个非地氟病病区村(上南村)检测水氟,每个村抽取约100名(男女各半)8~ 12岁儿童检查氟斑牙及采集尿样.水氟及尿氟测定采用氟离子选择电极法,按照Dean法进行儿童氟斑牙诊断.结果 4个地氟病病区村改水后饮用水氟含量均< 1.0 mg/L.2001年儿童氟斑牙检出率[63.29%(1505/2378)]高于2009年[14.12%(462/3271),x2=1466.48,P< 0.01].在2009年,与上南村[5.88%(77/1309)、(0.54±0.25)mg/L]相比,仙港村儿童氟斑牙检出率[30.95%(321/1037)]和尿氟水平[(0.75±0.58)mg/L]均较高(x2=258.20,t=17.40,P均<0.05).结论 汕头市改水降氟效果显著,管理部门仍应坚持地氟病病区的定期监测工作.%Objective To provide a scientific basis for drinking-water improvement and defluoridation by survey water fluoride level and situation of fluorosis in the endemic fluorosis areas of Shantou city.Methods Four endemic fluorosis villages and a non-fluorosis village were detected of water fluoride in 2001 and 2009.Randomly selected subjects of about 100 children(men and women in equal,aged 8 to 12) were checked dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride in each village.Fluoride content in water was determined by fluoride selective ion electron.And diagnosis of dental fluorosis of children was made according to Deans method.Results Through monitoring drinking water in 4 villages of the fluorosis areas after water improvement,we found that fluoride content in water source was under the standardlimitation of 1.0 mg/L,and prevalence of dental fluorosis decreased from 63.29%(1505/2378) in 2001 to 14.12%(462/3271) in 2009,the difference was significant(x2 =1466.48,P < 0.01).But compared with Shangnan village[5.88%(77/1309),(0.54 ± 0.25) mg/L] in

  7. Epidemiologic Survey of Dental Fluorosis and Caries in School Students in Wensu Cotmty in Xinjiang%新疆温宿县中小学生氟牙症与龋病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程竑; 梁爱喜; 艾力·阿不都如苏里; 林自强; 李存荣

    2000-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the dental fluorosis and caries, and their prevalence features in school students in Wensu county in Xinjang. Methods The study groups consisted of 1 527 Weuer and Han students at the age of 6 to 16. Dental fluorosis and caries diseases were assessed strictly by Dean' s Classification Standard and WHO ”Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods” (the 3rd ed). The concentration of fluorine in water and urine was measured by using selective electrod. Results The prevalence and index of dental fluorosis in Weuer and Han students were 73.70%, 64.67 %, 1.647,1.303, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries and DMFT were 61.19%, 42.66%, 1. 648, 1. 023 respectively. The corresponding values were 51. 94% ,52.99% ,1,305,1. 449 for students of fluorosis group and non-fluorosis group, respectively. The fluorine degree of water was 2~5mg/L,the average value of fluorine in urine was 3.64mg/L in Han students,and 5.28mg/L in Weuer students. Conclu- sions The prevalence of dental caries didn' t decrease, eventhough the prevalence of fluorosis was high in Wensu county. The prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in Weuer students were significantly higher than those in Han students. It showed no signifi- cant different between the group of fluorosis and the group of non-fluorosis in the prevalence of dental caries, perhaps due to thehigh fluorine intake, poor oral hygiene, and unqualified medicalservice.%了解新疆温宿县中小学生氟牙症和龋病发病特点及相互关系。方法按Dean分度标准和WHO第 3版《口腔健康调查基本方法》对1527名6~16岁维、汉族学生进行氟牙症和冠龋流行病学调查,并以电极法进行水 和尿氟含量测定。结果维、汉族氟牙症患病率和指数分别为73.70%、64.67%和1.647、1.303;维、汉族患龋率和 龋均分别为61.19%、42.66%和1.648、1.023;氟牙症组与非氟牙症组患龋率和龋均分别为51.94%、52.99%和 1.305、1

  8. 青铜峡市8~12岁学龄儿童氟斑牙防治效果分析%Preventive efficacy of dental fluorosis among 8-12 school-age children in Qingtongxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕楠; 周进才; 李胜玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后儿童氟斑牙患病情况及其防治效果,为指导地方性氟中毒的防治工作提供科学依据.方法 采取整群随机抽样的方法,对青铜峡市2006年已改水的改水队1(高氟重病区叶盛镇叶盛5队)、改水队2(高氟轻病区大坝镇新桥5队)、未改水队(大坝镇滑石沟5队)670名8~12岁儿童进行氟斑牙患病情况调查,根据病变程度进行分型分度,计算患病率.结果 2011年改水队1和改水队2儿童氟斑牙患病率均低于未改水队,差异有统计学意义(x2值分别为5.012,20.676,P值均<0.05).儿童氟斑牙临床分度与水氟质量浓度间显著相关(r=0.638,P<0.05).2个改水队改水后水氟质量浓度分别为(0.24±0.05) mg/L、(0.32 ±0.07) mg/L,已达到国家正常标准.结论 青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水降氟防治措施取得了一定成效.但儿童氟斑牙尚存在一定程度的流行,未达到完全控制.%Objective To evaluate the results of water improvement project aimed in eliminating the prevalence of dental fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City. Methods By using epidemiological sample survey methods, 670 children (8-12 years) had been examined in dental fluorosis in Yesheng 5th team Yesheng Township, where endemic fluorosis was seriously prevailed and had become water-improvement area in 2006; Daba township, where endemic fluorosis mild prevailed; and Huash-igou 5th team, which was not included in water-improvement area. And according to the degree of disease classification indexing, prevalence rate was calculated. Results There was evident differences of the dental fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the place was not in the water-improvement Projects areas(x2 =5.012, 20.676, P<0.05). There was significant correlation between water fluorine concentration and Childrens dental fluorosis clinical dividing(r = 0. 638, P <0. 05 ). The fluoride content in drinking

  9. 江西省2009年燃煤污染型氟中毒病区现状调查%Investigation of the current situation in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Jiangxi province in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊小玲; 刘玮; 李志宏; 万建平; 裘海清; 陈都; 上官俊

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To find out the prevalence and distrbution of endemic fluorosis in coal-burning pollution areas,provide the basis for formulating prevention and control measures.METHODS An administrative village for the unit,the population,households and dental fluorosis in children aged from 8 to 12 years were surveyed generally in study areas.During the investigation,sampling test of fluoride levels in drinking water and urine of children were carried out and the prevalent factors were surveyed in epidemic fluorosis villages where the prevalence of children's dental fluorosis was over 30%.RESULTS In this survey,the number of children aged from 8 to 12 years was 218 763,the number of children with dental fluorosis was 25 899,the prevalence of children's dental fluorosis was 11.84%.The conditions of dental fluorosis gave priority to extremely light and mild; the ratios were 49.56% and 43.62% respectively.The number of epidemic fluorosis villages where the prevalence of children dental fluorosis over 30% was 371,accounting for 24.25% of the total survey villages,and the epidemic fluorosis villages where the prevalence of children dental fluorosis over 30% weren't found only in Fengcheng city.2 588 children's urine samples and 346 resident drinking water samples were collected,the geometric mean of fluoride concentration in urine was 0.87 mg/L,and its scopes were 0.10 mg/L to 10.44 mg/L.The number of villages where the geometric mean of fluoride concentration in urine over 1.40 mg/L was 13,accounting for 14.94%.The fluoride concentrations in resident drinking water were from 0.01 mg/L to 0.92 mg/L,the mean was 0.15 mg/L,the fluoride concentration in all samples were under the sanitary standard for drinking water.The percentage of houses with masonry structure was 95.85% of total survey households,97.39% of the residents still used coal as the main fuel,98.75% of the residents in coal-burning households used open burn ovens,the percentage of households

  10. Comparative study of X-ray photographic feature in bone injuries between industrial and endemic fluorosis%工业性和地方性氟病骨损伤X线征象的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文朋; 徐建; 刘克俭; 李长城; 刘晓利; 崔彩岩

    2012-01-01

    Objective Through the skeleton X-ray detection on industrial and endemic fluorosis patients, to explore the differences and its reasons of X-ray photographic features in two different types of fluorosis. Methods All 60 cases of industrial fluorosis from a large aluminum plant in Hubei province and 39 cases of endemic fluorosis in fluorosis high-risk region of Enshi area in Hubei province were selected as the subjects. The questionnaire was used for investigation of general situation, past history, present illness history, etc. , biological saimples were also taken, meantime, the X-ray examination on the forearms of the patients was made as well. The data was analyzed with SPSS software system, version 18.0 (SPSS Inc, 2003 ). Results The results showed that the fluorine levels in blood and urine of industrial fuorosis patients were higher than that of endemic fluorosis patients (P < 0. 05 ) ; the clinical manifestations of industrial fluorosis were lighter mainly were joint pain and stiffness while endemic fluorosis always had heavier manifestations, might appear limb-joints activities limitation and limbs slight deformation. The X-ray examination showed that there mainly were osteosclerosis and peripheral osseous ossification, osteoporosis and osteomalacia were seldom, but three types all could be seen in endemic fluorosis (P <0. 01). As for scale division in X-ray examination , there were only slight or mild degree in industrial fluorosis, no severe could be seen, while endemic fluorosis were severe relatively (P <0. 01). Conclusion The results showed that there were some differences in X-ray photographs between two types of fluorosis, the bone injuries in industrial fluorosis mainly were the mild osteosclerosis and peripheral osseous ossification types, however, the endemic fluorosis, bone injuries mianly were mixed types.%目的 通过对工业性和地方性氟病患者进行骨骼X线检测,探究两种不同类型骨损伤X线的

  11. Loss of a child - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  12. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  13. Multifocal tuberculosis of long bones in an immunocompetent child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Taghi; Shirazi, Mehdi Ramezan; Daneshjoo, Khadijeh

    2016-05-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) is prevalent in many parts of the world, multifocal TB involvement of bones is rare. It is believed that less than 5% of skeletal TB is multifocal. We report a case of multifocal TB of long bones in an immunocompetent child. We describe the radiological and diagnostic features of TB osteomyelitis and outline its therapy and prognosis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, such a case with multiple long bone involvement without articular sequel and visceral involvement/constitutional symptoms has not been reported previously in the literature. PMID:26600081

  14. Analysis the monitoring results of endemic fluorosis by lowering fluoride in drinking water in Yu County Hebei province%河北省蔚县地方性氟中毒改水降氟监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀平; 王志祥; 郝冬梅; 韩国毅; 杨富花

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握河北省蔚县地方性氟中毒病区的改水现状及防治措施、控制效果.方法 选取蔚县55个病区村,对8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率及改水设施运行情况进行调查.儿童氟斑牙检查采用Dean氏法,水氟含量检测采用氟离子选择电极法.结果 正常使用的改水工程为29个,受益人口达56 751人,管网末梢水氟含量均值为0.80mg/L,范围为0.2~2.1mg/L.氟斑牙患病率为15.92%,氟斑牙指数为0.27.结论 蔚县地氟病防治取得较好效果,但病区改水降氟的防病措施尚须加强.%Objective To master the drinking water defluoridation current state, preventive measures and control effects in endemic fluorosis areas of Yu County Hebei province. Method Selected 55 endemic villages and investigated the dental fluorosis prevalence rate of 8 to 12 old children and the operation status of drinking water defluoridation facilities. Children's dental fluorosis was examined by Deans, fluoride content in drinking water was determined by fluorion selective electrodes. Results Total of 56 751 people were profited from 29 drinking water defluoridation projects. The average value of fluorides content in water of end pipe network was 0. 80mg/ L (0. 2 ~2. Lmg/L) . The dental fluorosis prevalence rate was 15. 92% and dental fluorosis index was 0. 27. Conclusions Endemic fluorosis prevention and control work received good effect in Yu County, but we still need to improve the drinking water defluoridation projects in endemic areas.

  15. The Census Analysis of Dental Fluorosis of 1660 Students Aged 7-14%1660名7~14岁在校学生氟斑牙患病的调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荣; 吴金荣

    2013-01-01

      Objective The objective is to understand the state of dental fluorosis of students aged 7 to 14 in 133 mission, research the preventive treatment of students’ chronic fluorosis and formulate appropriate intervention measures. To perfect oral diseases prevention and control network in schools and strengthen oral health care of students are important. Method The state of dental fluorosis of 1660students aged 7 to 14 from No1 and No2 Middle School in 133 mission in 2012 has been investigated. Result The number of students is 1660 and 410 of them have dental fluorosis. The rate of this disease is 24.7%. Conclusion In order to know the situation of regional chronic fluorosis to achieve early discovery and early prevention, regular inspection of students’ dental fluorosis is necessary. It is also contribute to improving students’ health level and prevent the occurrence of chronic endemic disease.%  目的为了解一三三团7~14岁学生氟斑牙患病情况,探讨学生慢性氟中毒的防治工作,制定相应的干预措施。健全学校口腔疾病防治网,加强学校学生口腔保健工作。方法对2012年一三三团一中、二中1660名7~14岁在校学生进行了氟斑牙患病情况调查。结果受检人数1660人,患氟斑牙410例,患病率达24.7%。结论定期开展学生氟斑牙患病情况的检查,以掌握本地区性慢性氟中毒的情况,以做到早发现,早预防,对提高学生的健康水平,预防慢性地方病的发生有重要的意义。

  16. Your Child's Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Vision KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Vision Print A A A Text Size What's in ... La vista de su hijo Healthy eyes and vision are a critical part of kids' development. Their ...

  17. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Piotrowski; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by revi

  18. Child Wellness and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  19. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... example, by a friend, neighbor, child care person, teacher, or stranger. When sexual abuse has occurred, a child can develop many distressing ... t tell children to 'always do everything the teacher or baby-sitter tells you to ... of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. ...

  20. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  1. Choosing Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a parent, you want to ensure that your child is safe and happy in a childcare environment that is fun, educational, and nurturing. Here are ... person or program? Do you believe that your child will be happy and have the ... in this environment? If none of the caregivers or childcare centers ...

  2. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  3. Weaning Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby and makes it possible to leave your child with a caregiver. It's important to remember that infants over 6 months should have solid foods as well as breast milk. After 1 year, breast milk alone does not provide all the nutrients a growing child needs; solid foods must become a regular part ...

  4. Divorce Child Custody Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlgate, Laurence D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines ethical issues in making policy decisions regarding divorce child custody disputes. Suggests dilemma occurs when legislator must decide between discretionary standard promoting best interest of child and nondiscretionary arbitrary assignment of custody. Advocates normative analysis of various types of dispute-settling processes and…

  5. Child Care at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN, Child Care Initiative

    2008-01-01

    This is a document summarizing a survey of child care needs of CERN staff and users which was performed in February 2008 by the CERN Child Care Initiative. The document presents the analysis of this data. Conclusions on the minimal facilities size are derived and possible funding source at the European Union are discussed.

  6. Ileostomy and your child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now your child has an opening called a stoma in their belly. Waste will pass through the stoma into a pouch that collects it. You and ... child will need to take care of the stoma and empty the pouch many times a day. ...

  7. Headstart for Every Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Annie L.

    An early learning kit provides a booklet of ten articles on educational head starts for children along with an activity packet for classroom use. The articles deal with: the crucial early school years; emotional preparation of the child; broadening a child's background; selecting toys and games; reading readiness; mathematical skills; learning to…

  8. The battered child syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.)

  9. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  10. Estudo da prevalência de fluorose dentária em Aracaju Study of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Aracaju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wathson Feitosa de Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência de fluorose dentária em Aracaju (SE, 196 escolares foram submetidos a exame clínico bucal, utilizando o índice de Dean. Pôde ser concluído que a prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de cinco a quinze anos do município de Aracaju (SE foi de 8,16%, não implicando risco à saúde pública. Porém, estudos semelhantes devem ser realizados com periodicidade regular, além de orientação aos órgãos responsáveis pela fluoretação da água, para que os níveis considerados ótimos para essa região sejam respeitados, prevenindo assim o surgimento de tal ocorrência.With the aims of determining the prevalence dental fluorosis in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe State, 196 students were submitted to an oral exam, utilizing the Dean's index. It was concluded that the prevalence of dental fluorosis in students ranging from 5 to 15 years old in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe State was of 8.16%, not implying in a risk to public health. However, similar studies must be done regularly, besides orientation to governmental departments responsible for water fluoridation, so that the level considered excellent for this area can be respected, avoiding such problem to occur.

  11. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. 氟宁抗氟作用机制的初步研究%The mechanism study of Funing antagonizing fluorosis function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩鹏; 吕惠茹; 贺西京; 上官存民; 王栋

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨氟宁抗氟的作用机 制。方法 采用随机分组,A组为氟宁组,B组为试验对照组 ,C组为空白对照组,观察各组动物血、尿、粪、器官组织的含氟量及血清酶活性变化。结果 A组骨、牙齿中含氟量显著低于B组(P<0.05 ),血和尿含氟量显著高于B组(P<0.05),碱性磷酸酶(AKP)及肌酸磷酸激酶( CPK)活性显著低于B组(P<0.05)。结论 氟宁可促进氟的排泄,减少氟在组织中的沉积, 具有明显的抗氟作用%Objective To probe into the mechanism of Fun ing antagonizing fluorosis function.Methods Animals were classified randomly into three groups:group A were given Funing.group B was experiment control group and group C was blank control group.After treated by a respective process,we tested the fluor ine in the animals blood,urine dung and organ,and the vary of serumase.Results Fluorine content in bone and tooth of group A was notable lower than that of group B (P<0.05) and more in blood and urine than group B.AKP and CPK was lower than group B too.Conclusions Funing can promote the excreting of florine and reduce its depositing in organs,so it is effective to antagonizing fluorosis.

  13. Analysis of the monitoring results of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province in 2011%2011年山东省地方性氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰; 高杰; 尹玉岩; 边建朝; 陈培忠; 张本政

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解山东省地方性氟中毒的病情现状.方法 按照国家《饮水型地方性氟中毒监测方案(试行)》和《山东省饮水型地方性氟中毒监测方案(试行)》的要求,在山东省选择10个县(市、区),每个县(市、区)抽取10个改水工程,调查改水工程运行效果,每个工程采集末梢水水样1份,检测水氟含量;每个县(市、区)选择3个病区村作为固定监测村,在已改水村,采集末梢水水样1份;在未改水村,按照东、西、南、北、中5个方位各采集水样1份,检测水氟含量;对监测村的全部8~12岁学生进行氟斑牙检查.水氟检测采用氟离子选择电极法;氟斑牙诊断采用Dean法.结果 ①在10个县(市、区)中,共监测改水工程85个,均正常运转;水氟合格工程47个,合格率为55.29%,水氟最大值为4.74 mg/L.②30个固定监测村中,已改水村27个,水氟合格村19个,合格率为70.37%,水氟最大值为4.77 mg/L;未改水村3个,其中水氟≤1.20 mg/L的村有2个,>1.20mg/L的村1个,水氟最大值为1.55 mg/L.③在19个改水工程运转正常且水氟含量合格的监测村中,儿童氟斑牙检出率为52.37%(508/970),缺损型氟斑牙检出率为6.39%(62/970),氟斑牙指数为1.02;在8个改水工程运转正常而水氟含量超标的监测村中,儿童氟斑牙检出率为62.39%(297/476),缺损型氟斑牙检出率为8.82%(42/476),氟斑牙指数为1.67;在3个未改水村中,儿童氟斑牙检出率为49.45%(90/182),缺损型氟斑牙检出率为7.14%(13/182),氟斑牙指数为1.25.结论 山东省改水降氟工程的水氟超标严重,改水工程的水质质量还需改善;有效改水对控制病区氟斑牙病情起到了一定的作用,但儿童氟斑牙病情仍较严重,需进一步加大防控力度.%Objective To understand the status of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province.Methods In accordance with the requirements of the "National Surveillance Scheme of Drinking

  14. Surveillance of fluorosis through water drinking in Dingxiang county, Shanxi province, 2009%2009年山西省定襄县饮水型氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周集慧; 赵俊兰; 牛志宏

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解和评价山西省定襄县氟中毒流行现状和改水降氟防治效果.方法 按照山西省2008年度《中央补助地方公共卫生专项资金饮水型地方性氟中毒防治项目技术方案》,水氟测定采用地方性氟中毒病区饮水氟化物的测定方法(WS/T 106);尿氟测定采用离子选择电极法( WS/T 89);氟斑牙诊断采用Dean,s法,并记录牙齿缺损情况;临床氟骨症诊断采用地方性氟骨症诊断及分度标准( WS 192-2007).结果 3个监测点水氟含量均超标;8~12岁儿童氟斑牙检出率为60.7%,缺损型氟斑牙检出率为12.1%,氟斑牙指数为1.23;儿童尿氟均值为5.66 mg/L,标准差为1.94 mg/L,范围值3.11~12.4 mg/L;成年人尿氟均值为7.31 mg/L,标准差为2.41 mg/L,范围值4.07~ 19.5 mg/L;成年人氟骨症临床检出率为8.9%.结论 监测显示氟中毒病情总体呈下降趋势,但3个监测点水氟、儿童氟斑牙患病率、尿氟含量仍高于正常值.降氟改水工程在80年代末建成,由于年久失修,井管破损严重,氟水向井内渗透,造成水氟含量回升,应加大改水降氟力度,提高防治效果.%Objective To understand the prevalence of fluorosis through water drinking and evaluate the effects of the prevention project by reducing fluorine in water in Dingxiang county. Methods The fluorine in water was detected by detection methods of fluorine in water in endemic fluorosis area( WS/T 106), the fluorine in urine was detected by ion selective electrode method( WS/T 89), the dental fluorosis was diagnosed by Dean's method( tooth defect was recorded) and the clinical fluorosis of bone was diagnosed according to diagnosing and grading standard of endemic fluorosis of bone(WS 192-2007) specified in the technical protocol of prevention and treatment of endemic fluorosis through water drinking. Results The content of fluorine in water in 3 surveillance areas exceeded limit; The detection rate of dental fluorosis was 60

  15. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy: an 18 Months Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hartlev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion. One group (n = 13 were treated postoperatively with skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation (IMF while the other group (n = 13 where threated without skeletal elastic IMF. Results: The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.44 mm and 7.22 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.74 mm and -0.29 mm at Pog. The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the no skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.30 mm and 6.45 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.97 mm and -0.86 mm at Pog. There was no statistical significant (P > 0.05 difference between the skeletal IMF group and the no skeletal group regarding advancement nor relapse at B-point or Pog. Conclusions: Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy is characterized as a stable treatment to correct Class II malocclusion. This study demonstrated no difference of relapse between the skeletal intermaxillary fixation group and the no skeletal intermaxillary fixation group. Because of selection-bias and the reduced number of patients it still remains inconclusive whether to recommend skeletal intermaxillary fixation or not in the prevention of relapse after mandibular advancement.

  16. Skeletal scintigraphy in benign and malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper begins with a discussion of the technical factors in skeletal scintigraphy, including collimation, the use of three-phase bone scan, and single-photon emission computed tomography. Skeletal scintigraphy for benign conditions is commonly indicated for the patient presenting with pain (trauma, sports-related injury, posttraumatic pain syndrome, painful orthopedic prosthesis) and for the patient with abnormal laboratory test results (metabolic bone disease, Paget disease). For malignant conditions, the bone scan is useful in the evaluation of metastases in patients with extraosseous malignancies and primary bone tumors. The discussion addresses the various scan patterns seen in the more common tumors, such as prostate carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and lung carcinoma. Bone scintigraphy is an exquisitely sensitive modality. With some understanding of the techniques necessary for obtaining the optimal bone scan, and of the patterns that can be seen in various clinical conditions, the radiologist will find the bone scan a very specific tool for evaluating both benign and malignant diseases

  17. YAP-mediated mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eFischer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is not only translating chemical energy into mechanical work, it is also a highly adaptive and regenerative tissue whose architecture and functionality is determined by its mechanical and physical environment. Processing intra- and extracellular mechanical signaling cues contributes to the regulation of cell growth, survival, migration and differentiation. Yes-associated Protein (YAP, a transcriptional coactivator downstream of the Hippo pathway and its paralogue, the transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ, were recently found to play a key role in mechanotransduction in various tissues including skeletal muscle. Furthermore, YAP/TAZ modulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration and abnormal YAP activity has been reported in muscular dystrophy and rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of mechanosensing and -signaling in striated muscle. We highlight the role of YAP signaling and discuss the different routes and hypotheses of its regulation in the context of mechanotransduction.

  18. Tractography of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, C; Budzik, J F; Kermarrec, E; Balbi, V; Le Thuc, V; Cotten, A

    2010-12-01

    The assessment of human peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles by means of diffusion tensor imaging and tractograpy has been a recent area of research. These techniques have been successfully applied in both volunteers and patients, providing non-invasively, quantitative microstructural parameters (mainly mean fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient) and offering a three-dimensional visualization tool of nerves and muscles fibers. DTI and tractography may reveal abnormalities that are beyond the resolution of conventional MR techniques and hence open the way to potential clinical applications. In this article, we will first summarize the current state of DTI and tractography in the evaluation of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles as well as their potential future clinical applications. Then, we will address important technical considerations, which understanding is necessary to appropriately apply DTI and tractograhy, and in order to understand the current limitations of these innovative and promising techniques. PMID:20392583

  19. Tractography of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of human peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles by means of diffusion tensor imaging and tractograpy has been a recent area of research. These techniques have been successfully applied in both volunteers and patients, providing non-invasively, quantitative microstructural parameters (mainly mean fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient) and offering a three-dimensional visualization tool of nerves and muscles fibers. DTI and tractography may reveal abnormalities that are beyond the resolution of conventional MR techniques and hence open the way to potential clinical applications. In this article, we will first summarize the current state of DTI and tractography in the evaluation of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles as well as their potential future clinical applications. Then, we will address important technical considerations, which understanding is necessary to appropriately apply DTI and tractograhy, and in order to understand the current limitations of these innovative and promising techniques.

  20. Cytokine Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Liu, Bin; Liang, Chun; Li, Yangxin; Song, Yao-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in a variety of diseases including diabetes, cancer, Crohn's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disuse, and denervation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in mediating the wasting effect. To date, a causal relationship between TNF-α signaling and muscle wasting has been established in animal models. However, results from clinical trials are conflicting. This is partly due to the fact that other factors such as TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are also involved in skeletal muscle wasting. Because muscle wasting is often associated with physical inactivity and reduced food intake, therapeutic interventions will be most effective when multiple approaches are used in conjunction with nutritional support and exercise. PMID:27025788

  1. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Kirsten F; McGee, Sean L

    2016-07-01

    Normal skeletal muscle metabolism is essential for whole body metabolic homoeostasis and disruptions in muscle metabolism are associated with a number of chronic diseases. Transcriptional control of metabolic enzyme expression is a major regulatory mechanism for muscle metabolic processes. Substantial evidence is emerging that highlights the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in this process. This review will examine the importance of epigenetics in the regulation of muscle metabolism, with a particular emphasis on DNA methylation and histone acetylation as epigenetic control points. The emerging cross-talk between metabolism and epigenetics in the context of health and disease will also be examined. The concept of inheritance of skeletal muscle metabolic phenotypes will be discussed, in addition to emerging epigenetic therapies that could be used to alter muscle metabolism in chronic disease states. PMID:27215678

  2. Skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment on skeletal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone mediates growth and development of the skeleton through its direct effects and through its permissive effects on growth hormone. The effect of hypothyroidism on bone is well described in congenital hypothyroidism, but the impact of thyroid hormone deficiency on a growing skeleton, as it happens with juvenile hypothyroidism, is less defined. In addition, the extent to which the skeletal defects of juvenile hypothyroidism revert on the replacement of thyroid hormone is not known. A study was undertaken in 29 juvenile autoimmune hypothyroid patients to study the skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment of hypothyroidism on the skeletal system of juvenile patients. Hypothyroidism has a profound impact on the skeletal system and delayed bone age, dwarfism, and thickened bands at the metaphyseal ends being the most common findings. Post treatment, skeletal findings like delayed bone age and dwarfism improved significantly, but there were no significant changes in enlargement of sella, presence of wormian bones, epihyseal dysgenesis, vertebral changes and thickened band at the metaphyseal ends. With the treatment of hypothyroidism, there is an exuberant advancement of bone age, the catch up of bone age being approximately double of the chronological age advancement.

  3. Treatment of Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Bossche, L. C.; Vanderstraeten, G; Almqvist, K.F.; Rimbaut, S.; Witvrouw, E.; Philips, N.; Van den Steen, E; Baoge, L

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are the most common sports-related injuries and present a challenge in primary care and sports medicine. Most types of muscle injuries would follow three stages: the acute inflammatory and degenerative phase, the repair phase and the remodeling phase. Present conservative treatment includes RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and physical therapy. However, if use improper, NSAIDs may suppress an essential inflammator...

  4. Multiple myeloma: imaging evaluation of skeletal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Crichlow, Candice; Sexton, Carlton

    2013-01-01

    This patient is a 56-year-old woman with a history of IGG k multiple myeloma diagnosed 15 years prior to admission. She had widespread lytic bone lesions and pathological fractures, which remarkably had not been accompanied by significant pain, but were mostly refactory to chemotherapy.Keywords: multiple myeloma; skeletal; pathological fracture; imaging(Published: 5 July 2013)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2013, 3: 21419 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/jchi...

  5. Impaired skeletal muscle microcirculation in systemic sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Partovi, Sasan; Schulte, Anja-Carina; Aschwanden, Markus; Staub, Daniel; Benz, Daniela; Imfeld, Stephan; Jacobi, Björn; Broz, Pavel; Jäger, Kurt A; Takes, Martin; Huegli, Rolf W; Bilecen, Deniz; Walker, Ulrich A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Muscle symptoms in systemic sclerosis (SSc) may originate from altered skeletal muscle microcirculation, which can be investigated by means of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods After ethics committee approval and written consent, 11 consecutive SSc patients (5 men, mean age 52.6 years, mean SSc disease duration 5.4 years) and 12 healthy volunteers (4 men, mean age 45.1 years) were included. Subjects with peripheral arterial occlusi...

  6. Skeletal Muscle Autophagy: A New Metabolic Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Neel, Brian A.; Lin, Yuxi; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy classically functions as a physiological process to degrade cytoplasmic components, protein aggregates, and/or organelles, as a mechanism for nutrient breakdown, and as a regulator of cellular architecture. Proper autophagic flux is vital for both functional skeletal muscle, which controls support and movement of the skeleton, and muscle metabolism. The role of autophagy as a metabolic regulator in muscle has been previously studied; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms that...

  7. Collagen quantification across human skeletal muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Evie Ya Hui

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular connective tissue provides structural stability and facilitates force transmission in skeletal muscle. Additionally, it contains extracellular matrix that is crucial for muscle development and regeneration¹. Alterations of collagen content within intramuscular connective tissue have been associated with aging or diseased muscle ²,³. Data of baseline collagen content among different muscles, to provide deeper understanding of normal muscular functions, does not exist. Hence the a...

  8. Pannexin 1 channels in skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, Luis A.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Vargas, Anibal A.; Urrutia, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Normal myotubes and adult innervated skeletal myofibers express the glycoprotein pannexin1 (Panx1). Six of them form a “gap junction hemichannel-like” structure that connects the cytoplasm with the extracellular space; here they will be called Panx1 channels. These are poorly selective channels permeable to ions, small metabolic substrate, and signaling molecules. So far little is known about the role of Panx1 channels in muscles but skeletal muscles of Panx1−/− mice do not show an evident phenotype. Innervated adult fast and slow skeletal myofibers show Panx1 reactivity in close proximity to dihydropyridine receptors in the sarcolemma of T-tubules. These Panx1 channels are activated by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. Panx1 channels play a relevant role in potentiation of muscle contraction because they allow release of ATP and uptake of glucose, two molecules required for this response. In support of this notion, the absence of Panx1 abrogates the potentiation of muscle contraction elicited by repetitive electrical stimulation, which is reversed by exogenously applied ATP. Phosphorylation of Panx1 Thr and Ser residues might be involved in Panx1 channel activation since it is enhanced during potentiation of muscle contraction. Under denervation, Panx1 levels are upregulated and this partially explains the reduction in electrochemical gradient, however its absence does not prevent denervation-induced atrophy but prevents the higher oxidative state. Panx1 also forms functional channels at the cell surface of myotubes and their functional state has been associated with intracellular Ca2+ signals and regulation of myotube plasticity evoked by electrical stimulation. We proposed that Panx1 channels participate as ATP channels and help to keep a normal oxidative state in skeletal muscles. PMID:24782784

  9. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B;

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... chemically permeabilized with saponin, which selectively perforates the sarcolemma and facilitates the loss of cytosolic content without altering mitochondrial membranes, structure, and subcellular interactions. High-resolution respirometry was performed on permeabilized muscle biopsy preparations. By use...

  10. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Raghav; Naveen Kumar; Shishir Shingh; N K Ahuja; Priyanka Ghalaut

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis...

  11. Ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    von Walden, Ferdinand

    2014-01-01

    Muscle adaptation to chronic resistance exercise (RE) is the result of a cumulative effect on gene expression and protein content. Following a bout of RE, muscle protein synthesis increases and, if followed by consecutive bouts (training), protein accretion and muscle hypertrophy develops. The protein synthetic capacity of the muscle is dictated by ribosome content. Therefore, the general aim of this thesis is to investigate the regulation of ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertr...

  12. Training induced adaptation in horse skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    van Dam, K.G.

    2006-01-01

    It appears that the physiological and biochemical adaptation of skeletal muscle to training in equine species shows a lot of similarities with human and rodent physiological adaptation. On the other hand it is becoming increasingly clear that intra-cellular mechanisms of adaptation (substrate transport, enzyme activity, etc) differ considerably between species. The major drawbacks in equine training physiological research are the lack of an appropriate training model and the lack of control o...

  13. Skeletal muscle HIF-1 and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Rundqvist, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Regular physical activity prevents and improves a number of disease conditions and reduces the risk for premature death substantially. From a clinical as well as a basic science point of view it is important to create a more fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the improved functional capacity induced by regular physical activity. Skeletal muscle tissue exhibits a remarkable ability to adapt to altered demands. Training adaptations include...

  14. Craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome: Radiological observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience with craniocerebral trauma in 712 physically abused children is reviewed. Ninety-three (13%) had evidence of head trauma (cranial and/or intracranial). Seventy-seven of these patients had computed tomography (CT) of the head, and 47 had CT evidence of intracranial injury. Extracerebral fluid collections, predominantly convexity subdural hemorrhage, were the most common acute intracranial lesions. Concurrent intracranial and skeletal trauma (cranial and/or ectracranial) was present in 33 of the 47 patients (70%) with intracranial injury. A high incidence of skull fractures (45%) in those children with intracranial lesions suggest a significant role for impact head injuries (''battering'') in the pathogenesis of craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome. Greater emphasis on CT examination in evaluation of the abuse infant and child is recommended. (orig.)

  15. Child labor, schooling, and child ability

    OpenAIRE

    Akresh, Richard; Bagby, Emilie; de Walque, Damien; Kazianga, Harounan

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected in rural Burkina Faso, this paper examines how children's cognitive abilities influence households' decisions to invest in their education. To address the endogeneity of child ability measures, the analysis uses rainfall shocks experienced in utero or early childhood to instrument for ability. Negative shocks in utero lead to 0.24 standard deviations lower ability z-sc...

  16. CT findings in skeletal cystic echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the CT findings of skeletal cystic echinococcosis. Material and Methods: CT findings of 7 patients with pathologically confirmed skeletal cystic echinococcosis were evaluated. Results: There were 4 men and 3 women, aged 36-75 years. Hydatid cysts were located in the spine (n=2), a rib (n=3), the pelvis and a vertebra (n=1), the pelvis and the left femur (n=1). The size of the lesions varied from 1 cm to 15 cm. CT showed well defined, single or multiple cystic lesions with no contrast enhancement, no calcification, no daughter cysts, and no germinal membrane detachment. The cystic lesion had a honeycomb appearance in 2 cases, there was pathologic fracture in 2 cases, bone expansion in 5 cases, cortical thinning in 6 cases, cortical destruction in 6 cases, bone sclerosis in 1 case, and soft tissue extension in 6 cases. Conclusion: Preoperative differential diagnosis of skeletal cystic lesions should include cystic echinococcosis, especially in endemic areas, since this diagnosis may easily be missed unless kept in mind

  17. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype.

  18. Redox characterization of functioning skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZuo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle physiology is influenced by the presence of chemically reactive molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS. These molecules regulate multiple redox-sensitive signaling pathways that play a critical role in cellular processes including gene expression and protein modification. While ROS have gained much attention for their harmful effects in muscle fatigue and dysfunction, research has also shown ROS to facilitate muscle adaptation after stressors such as physical exercise. This manuscript aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of redox signaling in skeletal muscle. ROS-induced oxidative stress and its role in the aging process are discussed. Mitochondria have been shown to generate large amounts of ROS during muscular contractions, and thus are susceptible to oxidative stress. ROS can modify proteins located in the mitochondrial membrane leading to cell death and osmotic swelling. ROS also contribute to the necrosis and inflammation of muscle fibers that is associated with muscular diseases including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. It is imperative that future research continues to investigate the exact role of ROS in normal skeletal muscle function as well as muscular dysfunction and disease.

  19. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  20. 2006年呼和浩特市饮水型地方性氟中毒监测结果分析%The Analysis on the Result of 2006 Drinking-water Endemic Fluorosis in Huhhot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 梁秀芬; 王永强; 宋原; 武玉根; 王刚

    2009-01-01

    目的:了解掌握呼和浩特市地方性氟中毒病情现状.方法:按照"2005年中央补助地方公共卫生专项资金地方性氟中毒调查项目实施方案",对我市所涉及的高氟病区村检查8~12周岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况,儿童氟斑牙检查采用Dean氏法.水氟检测采用氟离子选择电极法.结果:在4个县239个村庄检查8~12周岁儿童8 092人,检出氟斑牙患者2 779人,检出率为34.34%,其中可疑患者1 108人(检出率为13.69%),极轻患者1 113人(检出率为13.75%),轻度患者436人(检出率为5.39%),中度患者104人(检出率为1.29%),重度患者18人(检出率为0.22%).结论:儿童氟斑牙检出率大于30%,说明我地区氟中毒患病率较高,病情未被控制,防治措施没有到位,今后应采取对策改善现况,从而有效地控制地方性氟中毒的流行.%Objective: To investigated and master the status of endemic fluorosis in Huhhot. Methods: According to the national government investigation program with special subsidize of endemic fluorosis for public health in 2005, the dental teeth of children aged 8~12 years at school was examined with Dean's index in Huhhot. The fluoride content in drinking-water was determined by the fluoride selective ion electrode. Results: The dental fluorosis of 8092 children aged 8~12 years were examined in 239 villages of 4 counties, the total detectable was 2779. The detectable rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8~12 years was 34.34 %. Including suspicious patients 1108 (the prevalence rate is 13.69 %), tiny patients 1113 (the prevalence rate is 13.75%), light patients 436 (the prevalence rate is 5.39 % ), moderate patients 104 (the prevalence rate is 1.29 %), severe patients 18 (the prevalence rate is 0.22 % ). Conclusions: The total detectable rate of children dental fluorosis was above 30 %, and the prevalent rate of fluorosis was high and endemic fluorsis was not be controlled. From now on, we must take the way to deal with a

  1. Epidemiological Factors for Dental Fluorosis among 12-year-old Age Goup in Industrial Zone of Baiyin City%白银市工业区域12岁人群氟牙症的行因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素萍; 彭晓泽; 王鸿玉; 赫永虎

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the oral health status and the prevalence of dental fluorosis for industrial region in Baiyin Cit-y, to analyze prevalence factors, and to explore prevention and treatment measures in order to provide information support to oral health care in Baiyin city.[Methods]Selected 480 people of 12-year-old residents of industrial region in Baiyin City with random, multi-stage, stratified sampling method, male and female are half-and-half. Inspection for fluorosis cases was conducted in accordance with the clinical inspection methods and standards for dental fluorosis of " The Third National Oral Health Epidemiology Survey Program". By using of SAS software to make statistics, the prevalence rate comparing was conducted by x2 te8t-[Results]Fluorosis prevalence rate of 12-year-old crowd was 31. 88% , fluorosis index was 0. 3, and dental fluorosis is in the prevalence edge.[Conclusion]Fluorosis prevalence rate and fluorosis index of industrial region in Baiyin city are higher than the national level, which are at the edge of prevalence and related to industrial region fluorine pollution and environmental fluorine pollution.%目的 了解白银市工业区域人群口腔健康状况及恒牙氟牙症流行状况,分析流行因素,探讨防治对策,为白银市口腔卫生保健工作提供信息支持.方法 采用多阶段、分层、等容量、随机抽样的方法,抽取白银市工业区域城乡12岁常住人口480人,男女各半.按照《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》中临床氟牙症的检查方法和标准,检查全口恒牙牙冠氟牙症情况.数据采用SAS软件统计,患病率比较采用x2检验.结果 12岁人群氟牙症患病率为31.88%,氟牙症指数为0.3,氟牙症处于流行边缘.尿和水的中氟含量均在正常范围.结论 白银市工业区域氟牙症患病率和氟牙症指数均高于全国水平,处于流行边缘,推测与工业区域空气氟污染和环境氟污染有关.

  2. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury; Kindesmisshandlung. Nicht akzidentelle Kopfverletzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg [Universitaetsklinik Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-12-15

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  3. 饮水型地方性氟中毒病区改水后儿童尿氟与氟斑牙和龋齿的关系%Relationship between urinary fluoride level, incidences of dental fluorosis and caries of children in fluorosis areas after change of water sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翠婵; 李伯灵; 赵新华; 黄奕祥; 陈俊凯; 陈思湖; 张桂松; 欧汉宏; 陈少贤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess and analyze the relationship between urinary fluoride level,incidences of dental fluorosis and caries of children in fluorosis areas after change of water sources,and to provide a basis for health risk assessment of children in fluorosis areas after change of water sources.Methods From 2009 to 2012,Xiangang,Fanxi,Yiying,Xibei Villages in fluorosis areas with water improvement project and Shangnan Village in a non-fluorosis area were selected randomly as investigation subjects.Dental fluorosis and caries of children aged 6-12 in the 5 villages were examined and 600 children among them were chosen based on ages to measure their urinary fluoride.Results Water sources were changed for 6,14,15,17 years in Xiangang,Fanxi,Yiying and Xibei villages,respectively.Urinary fluoride levels of children between the 5 villages were significantly different (F=44.29,P < 0.05),urinary fluoride level of children in Xiangang village (0.62 mg/L) was higher than that of children in Shangnan Village (0.48 mg/L,P < 0.05),but all other three villages,Fanxi,Yiying and Xibei(0.51,0.36,0.27 mg/L) were lower or near that of Shangnan Village.The incidences of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 in Xiangang,Fanxi,Yiying,Xibei and Shangnan Villages were 31.0%(321/1037),7.8%(22/283),7.5% (88/1166),3.9%(31/785),and 5.9% (77/1309),respectively,and the differences were statistically significant (x2 =481.89,P < 0.05).The incidences of caries of children in Xiangang,Fanxi,Yiying and Xibei Villages were 32.0% (332/1037),65.0% (184/283),56.3% (657/1166) and 45.2% (355/785),respectively,Shangnan Village was 49.7%(651/1309),and the differences were statistically significant(x2 =109.21,P < 0.05).The incidence difference of children dental fluorosis with different urinary fluoride were statistically significant between groups (x2 =32.05,P < 0.05) ;but the incidence difference of caries was not statistically significant(x2 =8.28,P > 0.05),and it was

  4. Skeletal dysplasias: A radiographic approach and review of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananya; Panda; Shivanand; Gamanagatti; Manisha; Jana; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are not uncommon entities and a radiologist is likely to encounter a suspected case of dysplasia in his practice. The correct and early diagnosis of dysplasia is important for management of complications and for future genetic counselling. While there is an exhaustive classification system on dysplasias, it is important to be familiar with the radiological features of common dysplasias. In this article, we enumerate a radiographic approach to skeletal dysplasias, describe the essential as well as differentiating features of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias and conclude by presenting working algorithms to either definitively diagnose a particular dysplasia or suggest the most likely differential diagnoses to the referring clinician and thus direct further workup of the patient.

  5. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders. PMID:18822999

  6. Observation on the clinical curative effect of porcelain fused to metal crown restoration of dental fluorosis%金属烤瓷冠修复氟斑牙临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春科

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical application effect of porcelain fused to metal crown for restoration of dental fluorosis and the appearance of anterior teeth repair.Methods:16 patients with dental fluorosis were required aesthetics of anterior teeth.They were taken porcelain fused metal crown to restorate 98 dental fluorosis of cosmetic repair,then followed-up for 3 years and comprehensive evaluated the therapy effect.Results:After 3 years of follow-up,the shape and color of all the 98 teeth did not change,and also kept a good function.Conclusion:Using porcelain fused to metal crown restoration of anterior teeth can provide beautiful appearance,vivid color,smooth and wear characteristics,so we can concluded that metal porcelain crown has a good effect on the restoration of dental fluorosis cosmetic repair.%目的:探讨金属烤瓷冠用于修复氟斑牙的临床应用效果及对前牙的美观修复情况。方法:16例氟斑牙患者要求前牙美观,采用金属烤瓷冠对98颗氟斑牙进行美容修复,进行3年随访,综合评价。结果:随访3年,98颗金属烤瓷冠修复后色泽形态良好,功能良好。结论:金属烤瓷冠修复前牙具有美观、色泽逼真、光滑耐磨等特点,金属烤瓷冠对氟斑牙美容修复有着良好的修复效果。

  7. Father-Child Play Behaviors and Child Emotion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the father-child activation theory, which identifies the father-child relationship as a source for self-regulation learning. Father-child play behaviors during toddlerhood were examined for their contribution to self-regulation skills, specifically emotion regulation and aggression. This study examined father-child play behaviors of emotion amplification, intrusiveness, positive regard, and child emotion regulation seeking in the National Early Head Start (EHS) Evaluation. Fat...

  8. Health assessment fluoride levels above the parametric value in water for human consumption in relation to the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis in school children 12 years of age Valoración sanitaria de la superación del valor paramétrico de fluoruro en agua de consumo humano en relación con la prevalencia de caries y fluorosis dental en escolares de doce años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Gómez Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Real Decreto 140/2003 of February 7, provides the opportunity to request approval of a temporary exception to the parametric value for the parameter B of Annex I, including fluoride. The work presented aims at testing the effect of water with fluoride levels above the parametric value on the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis, total and by grade, in the permanent dentition of schoolchildren in 12 years in order to establish the basis for the valuation of non-compliance and health decisions to applications for permits for temporary emergency situations and new parametric value. Sixty students were explored in a municipality of Tenerife where the concentration of fluoride in the water for human consumption has remained at 2,7 ± 0,5 mg / L, ie around the value ± 0,5 considered adequate to prevent dental caries and minimize the occurrence of dental fluorosis. The methodology used is standardized by the WHO. The examination included the recording of caries and dental fluorosis measured by the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF. There was a prevalence of dental caries of 38,33%, with a CAOD 0,87 and 81,67% of dental fluorosis: 35% for TF1-2, a 31,67% for TF3-4 and 15 % for grades TF5-9.Passing the values established requires the establishment of measures for health protection by restricting the use and consumption of water for children up to 8 years old.El R. D. 140/2003, de 7 de febrero, contempla la posibilidad de solicitud de autorización de excepción temporal al valor paramétrico establecido para parámetros de la parte B del anexo I, entre los que se encuentra el fluoruro. El trabajo que se presenta tiene como objeto la comprobación del efecto del consumo de agua con niveles de fluoruro superiores al valor paramétrico sobre la prevalencia de caries y fluorosis dental, total y por grados, en la dentición permanente de escolares de doce años con el fin de establecer las bases para la valoración sanitaria del incumplimiento y la toma

  9. Radionuclide imaging in skeletal inflammatory and ischemic disease in children. [/sup 99m/Tc tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majd, M.; Frankel, R.S.

    1976-04-01

    Sixty-five children were evaluated for presence of skeletal inflammatory and ischemic disease with bone scans and roentgenograms. Several characteristic scintigraphic patterns were observed. Bone scans were significantly more sensitive than roentgenograms in early diagnosis of osteomyelitis and its differentiation from cellulitis, septic arthritis, and bone infarction. The child with possible inflammatory bone disease now is benefited by this important refinement in diagnosis. Faced with the difficult dilemma of choosing appropriate therapy in these frustratingly similar problems, the physician can integrate the clinical findings with nuclear imaging to arrive at early appropriate diagnosis and management.

  10. Primary sacrococcygeal chordoma with unusual skeletal muscle metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Vu, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordomas are rare neoplasms that do not often metastasize. Of the small percent that do metastasize, they very infrequently involve skeletal muscle. Only a few cases of skeletal muscle metastases have been reported in the literature. We report an unusual case of a patient with a primary sacrococcygeal chordoma who experienced a long period of remission but who subsequently developed recurrence and multiple metastatic lesions to skeletal muscles including the deltoid, triceps, and pectineus.

  11. Primary sacrococcygeal chordoma with unusual skeletal muscle metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lisa; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2015-01-01

    Chordomas are rare neoplasms that do not often metastasize. Of the small percent that do metastasize, they very infrequently involve skeletal muscle. Only a few cases of skeletal muscle metastases have been reported in the literature. We report an unusual case of a patient with a primary sacrococcygeal chordoma who experienced a long period of remission but who subsequently developed recurrence and multiple metastatic lesions to skeletal muscles including the deltoid, triceps, and pectineus. PMID:27190554

  12. ORTHOGNATIC SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SKELETAL CLASS III MALOCLUSION: CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNGÖR, AHMET YALÇIN; Turkkahraman, Hakan; Baykul, Timucin; Aydın, Asım

    2012-01-01

    In this case report a case is presented with skeletal class III malocclusion which were treated with proper planned orthognatic surgery and orthodontic treatment. Our patient was a girl with 16 years, 3 months of chronologic and Ru period of skeletal age. A concave soft tissue profile and Class III molar relation was detected in extraoral and intraoral examination. Cephalometric evaluation revealed a significant Class III skeletal discrepancy (ANBº= -6). Presurgical orthodontics involved deco...

  13. Skeletal muscle regeneration - mechanisms, satellite cells, factors involved

    OpenAIRE

    Marš, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant of the human body's tissues and it represents a substantial percentage of body mass. Its main function is contraction, which produces force for different types of movement. It also includes the contraction of skelet al muscles that enables locomotion, joint stabilization, posture maintenance and production of body heat. Overall, skeletal muscles play an important role in the body's long-term survival and are crucial for fast and efficient response to chang...

  14. Calpain-10 and insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Luke

    2007-01-01

    Variation in the calpain-10 gene has been linked to a three-fold increased risk for type 2 diabetes in Pima Indian and some European populations. Furthermore, reduced skeletal muscle expression of calpain-10 is associated with reduced insulin mediated glucose disposal and carbohydrate oxidation. The skeletal muscle specific calpain-3 plays a key role in skeletal muscle integrity and has also been linked to insulin resistance in humans and rodents. The major aims of this thesis were to...

  15. A metabolic link to skeletal muscle wasting and regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    René eKoopman; C. Hai eLy; Ryall, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to its essential role in movement, insulating the internal organs, generating heat to maintain core body temperature, and acting as a major energy storage depot, any impairment to skeletal muscle structure and function may lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality. In the context of skeletal muscle, altered metabolism is directly associated with numerous pathologies and disorders, including diabetes, and obesity, while many skeletal muscle pathologies have secondary changes in m...

  16. Skeletal muscle adaptation in response to exercise(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Li; Zhen Yan

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Skeletal muscles of adult mammalian species, including humans,are the source of power for locomotion and other daily activities essential for survival. Loss of skeletal musclecontractile function is a major cause of falling,morbidity and mortality,especially in elderly populations [1]. More importantly,skeletal muscles collectively influence total body metabolism of glucose, fat and protein, abnormalities of which are associated with a variety of common diseases[2-3].

  17. Working around the clock: circadian rhythms and skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, XIPING; Dube, Thomas J.; Esser, Karyn A.

    2009-01-01

    The study of the circadian molecular clock in skeletal muscle is in the very early stages. Initial research has demonstrated the presence of the molecular clock in skeletal muscle and that skeletal muscle of a clock-compromised mouse, Clock mutant, exhibits significant disruption in normal expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. In light of the growing association between the molecular clock, metabolism, and metabolic disease, it will also be important to ...

  18. Regulatory mechanisms of skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle protein turnover is a relatively slow metabolic process that is altered by various physiological stimuli such as feeding/fasting and exercise. During exercise, catabolism of amino acids contributes very little to ATP turnover in working muscle. With regards to protein turnover...... with available and new techniques will undoubtedly reveal the functional significance and signaling mechanisms behind changes in skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise. Key words: Exercise, skeletal muscle, protein metabolism, translation....

  19. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Zant, Gary Van; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overl...

  20. Autopercepção da fluorose pela exposição a flúor pela água e dentifrício Self-perception of fluorosis due to fluoride exposure to drinking water and dentifrice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Maria Bezerra de Menezes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A percepção da fluorose dental e seu impacto em escolares de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil, expostos ao uso de flúor pela água e dentifrício, foram avaliados. O problema foi encontrado em 72% das crianças, mas o grau de alteração decorrente não provocou nenhum impacto na satisfação das crianças com seus dentes. Embora a fluorose dental, devido à ingestão de flúor pela água e ao uso de dentifrício fluoretado, não tenha comprometido a estética da amostra populacional avaliada, estudo mais abrangente deve ser realizado.The impact of dental fluorosis in children exposed to fluoride in drinking water and dentifrice was evaluated. Dental fluorosis was found in 72% of the children, but the children's well-being was not affected. It was concluded that although dental fluorosis due to the intake of optimally fluoridated drinking water and dentifrice did not affect the dental aesthetics of this studied population sample, there is a need of further studies on the subject.