Sample records for child safety seats

  1. In-vehicle vibration study of child safety seats. (United States)

    Giacomin, J; Gallo, S


    This paper reports experimental measurements of the in-vehicle vibrational behaviour of stage 0&1 child safety seats. Road tests were performed for eight combinations of child, child seat and automobile. Four accelerometers were installed in the vehicles and orientated to measure as closely as possible in the vertical direction; two were attached to the floor and two located at the human interfaces. An SAE pad was placed under the ischial tuberosities of the driver at the seat cushion and a child pad, designed for the purpose of this study, was placed under the child. Four test runs were made over a pave' (cobblestone) surface for the driver's seat and four for the child seat at both 20 km h(-1) and 40 km h(-1). Power spectral densities were determined for all measurement points and acceleration transmissibility functions (ATFs) were estimated from the floor of the vehicle to the human interfaces. The system composed of automobile seat, child seat and child was found to transmit greater vibration than the system composed of automobile seat and driver. The ensemble mean transmissibility in the frequency range from 1 to 60 Hz was found to be 77% for the child seats systems as opposed to 61% for the driver's seats. The acceleration transmissibility for the child seat system was found to be higher than that of the driver's seat at most frequencies above 10 Hz for all eight systems tested. The measured ATFs suggest that the principal whole-body vibration resonance of the children occurred at a mean frequency of 8.5, rather than the 3.5 to 5.0 Hz typically found in the case of seated adults. It can be concluded that current belt-fastened child seats are less effective than the vehicle primary seating systems in attenuating vibrational disturbances. The results also suggest the potential inability of evaluating child comfort by means of existing whole-body vibration standards.

  2. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Liu


    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group. The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4% were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3% were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3% were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the

  3. Car child safety seats use among Iranian children in Mashad. (United States)

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Jarahi, Lida


    Despite the strong evidence of child safety seats (CSSs) effectiveness in reducing injuries, it is still rarely used in some societies. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and predictors of CSS use in Mashad, Iran. Five hundred ninety kindergarten children whose parents owned a car were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked about using CSS for their children, reasons for CSS use/non-use, demographics, history of road traffic injuries and receiving any advice on CSS. Of families, 25.5% expressed that they used CSS for their child at present or any time in the past, but only 6.3% of children travelled restrained in CSS at the time of study. Age-appropriate CSS use was reported in 14.5% of infants and 2.3% of 1-5-year-old children. A significant relationship was observed between lower child age, higher maternal education and high family income with CSS use. The main reasons for CSS none-use were reported as not feeling the need (42%), followed by its high price (22%). Use of CSS was uncommon. The financial concerns and information gap about the essential need for CSS should be considered as priorities for action especially among lower socio-economic groups of society.

  4. The use of child safety seats: A survey on levels of knowledge and attitudes of university employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Palancı


    Full Text Available Child safety seats are the best practice for protecting child occupants. In western world, a significant reduction of child deaths in motor vehicle crashes has occurred over the past years. However, the use of child safety seats will be obligatory in Turkey from 2010 onwards. We aimed to determine the prevalence of safety seat use and survey the opinions of parents about children safety seat use in traffic.Materials and methods: A survey was conducted in Kars province of Turkey. A questionnaire was handed out to parents who were employees in a university. The first part of questionnaire was concerned with the personal properties of participants. The second part was designed to evaluate the level of parents’ knowledge on child safety seat.Results: Of the 600 questionnaires distributed, 516 (86% were returned and included in the final analysis. This study showed that 266 participants were having children and automobile. The ownership of child safety seat was only 13.5% among them. The parents reported that the lack of knowledge about child safety seats was the main reason for not having safety seats. Majority of parents stated that they would be more careful in the future about child safety in traffic.Conclusion: This study showed that most parents were uninformed about the necessity of child safety seats. The authorities have to develop new strategies to increase the rate of child safety seat use. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:157-60

  5. Car Seat Inspection Among Children Older Than Three: Using Data to Drive Practice in Child Passenger Safety (United States)

    Kroeker, Amber M.; Teddy, Amy J.; Macy, Michelle L.


    Background Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children ages 4-12 in the United States. Despite this high risk of injury from MVCs in this age group, parental awareness, and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections. Other variables included, if the coalition provided a new child safety seat and if the child had a sibling who underwent a car seat inspection. Chi-square statistics were used to compare change in restraint use upon arrival and at departure, the proportion of children attending a car seat inspection event by age, the age category of children by site, the proportion of children with siblings also undergoing a car seat inspection by age, and the distribution of a new child safety seat by age. Results Data were available from 1,316 Safe Kids Huron Valley and 3,215 Safe Kids Greater Grand Rapids car seat inspections. Just 10.8% of total seats inspected were booster seats. Child safety seats for infant and young children were more commonly inspected [rear-facing carrier (40.3%), rear-facing convertible (10.2%), and forward-facing (19.3%) car seats]. Few children at inspections used a seat belt only (5.4%) or had no restraint (13.8%). Children age 4 and above were found to be in a sub-optimal restraint at least 30% of the time. Conclusion Low proportions of parents use car seat inspections for children in the booster seat age group. The proportion of children departing the inspection in a more protective restraint increased with increasing age. This highlights an area of weakness in child passenger safety programs and signals an opportunity to strengthen efforts on The Forgotten Child. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26308122

  6. Performance evaluation of child safety seats in far-side lateral sled tests at varying speeds. (United States)

    Ghati, Yoganand; Menon, Rajiv A; Milone, Mary; Lankarani, Hamid; Oliveres, Gerardo


    Protection of children in Child Safety Seats (CSS) in side impact crashes has been a topic of recent studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of CSS in far-side impacts through a series of sled tests conducted at varying test speeds. Forty eight sled tests were conducted at three speeds (24 km/h, 29 km/h and 36 km/h), under two different CSS attachment conditions (LATCH and seat belt attached), using rear facing and forward facing CSS from four different manufacturers. Analyses were conducted to examine head retention within the CSS, velocity of the head as it passes an imaginary plane (cross over into other occupant space or door), lateral trajectory of the head and knee; head, chest and pelvis accelerations; neck and lumbar loads and moments. In addition to these parameters, the CSS were visually inspected for structural integrity after each test. Results from these sled tests highlighted the differential performance of CSS in far-side impacts. During the tests, all CSS experienced significant lateral movement irrespective of attachment type. In rear facing CSS tests, one of the designs failed as the seat disengaged from its base. In forward facing CSS tests, it was observed that the seat belt attached CSS experienced less rotational motion than the LATCH attached CSS. ATD head retention within the seat was not achieved with either CSS attachments at any speed. The findings from this study augment the current efforts to define regulatory sled setup procedure for far-side impact crashes involving children in CSS, which currently does not exist and will eventually further the protection of children in automobiles.

  7. Boosting safety behaviour: Descriptive norms encourage child booster seat usage amongst low involvement parents. (United States)

    Jeffrey, Jennifer; Whelan, Jodie; Pirouz, Dante M; Snowdon, Anne W


    Campaigns advocating behavioural changes often employ social norms as a motivating technique, favouring injunctive norms (what is typically approved or disapproved) over descriptive norms (what is typically done). Here, we investigate an upside to including descriptive norms in health and safety appeals. Because descriptive norms are easy to process and understand, they should provide a heuristic to guide behaviour in those individuals who lack the interest or motivation to reflect on the advocated behaviour more deeply. When those descriptive norms are positive - suggesting that what is done is consistent with what ought to be done - including them in campaigns should be particularly beneficial at influencing this low-involvement segment. We test this proposition via research examining booster seat use amongst parents with children of booster seat age, and find that incorporating positive descriptive norms into a related campaign is particularly impactful for parents who report low involvement in the topic of booster seat safety. Descriptive norms are easy to state and easy to understand, and our research suggests that these norms resonate with low involvement individuals. As a result, we recommend incorporating descriptive norms when possible into health and safety campaigns.

  8. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  9. Child Safety Seats on Commercial Airliners: A Demonstration of Cross-Price Elasticities (United States)

    Sanders, Shane; Weisman, Dennis L.; Li, Dong; Grimes, Paul, Ed.


    The cross-price elasticity concept can be difficult for microeconomics students to grasp. The authors provide a real-life application of cross-price elasticities in policymaking. After a debate that spanned more than a decade and included input from safety engineers, medical personnel, politicians, and economists, the Federal Aviation…

  10. Car Seat Safety (United States)

    ... placed in different positions depending on a child's age: They face toward the rear until a baby is ready ... on them, and in a crash the baby's face could hit the tray. How to Install ... the vehicle until 2 years of age or until reaching the maximum weight and height ...

  11. Biomechanical analysis of padding in child seats and head injury. (United States)

    Kumaresan, Srirangam; Sances, Anthony; Carlin, Fred


    Head injury is a common finding for infants and young children involved in automobile accidents. Although the child restraint seats have increased the level of safety for the pediatric population, skull fracture and/or brain injury occur during the interaction between the child's head and interior of the car seats with no padding. The introduction of effective and sufficient padding may significantly reduce the head injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the biomechanical effects of padding in child seats to reduce the potential for head injury. A head drop test of a six-month old anthropomorphic dummy was conducted. The side of the dummy head impacted the interior wing of child car seats of relatively soft and stiff materials, and a rigid metal plate at velocities of 2.2, 4.5 and 6.7 m/s. In all tests, three types of padding environments were used (no padding, comfort foam, 16 to 19 mm polypropylene padding). All data were collected at 10 kHz and filtered. A total of 39 tests were conducted. The head injury criteria (HIC), and head acceleration, and head angular acceleration were obtained. The HIC was calculated over a 36 ms interval from the resultant tri-axial acceleration. The angular accelerations were derived from the angular velocity data. The head injury biomechanical parameters decreased with the addition of padding. The HIC, peak acceleration, and angular acceleration were reduced up to 91%, 80%, and 61% respectively. The present results emphasize the importance of energy absorbing padding to provide an improved safety environment in child car seats.

  12. Car safety seat usage and selection among families attending University Hospital Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scully, P


    The safest way for children to travel within a car is by provision of a weight-appropriate safety-seat. To investigate this, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult parents who had children under 12 years, and collected information related to: car use, safety-seat legislation, and type of safety-seat employed. Data were reviewed on 120 children from 60 respondents. Ninety-eight (81.7%) children were transported daily by car. Forty-eight (81.4%) respondents were aware that current safety-seat legislation is based on the weight of the child. One hundred and seven (89.9%) children were restrained during travel using a car safety-seat. One hundred and two (96.2%) safety seats were newly purchased, installed in 82.3% (88) cases by family members with installation instructions fully read in 58 (55.2%) cases. Ninety-nine (83.2%) children were restrained using an appropriate safety-seat for their weight. The results show that four out of five families are employing the most appropriate safety-seat for their child, so providing an effective mechanism to reduce car-related injury. However, the majority of safety-seats are installed by family members, which may have child safety consequences.

  13. Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology Demonstration (United States)


    ARL-TR-7743 ● AUG 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology...AUG 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology Demonstration by Muthuvel...COVERED (From - To) 10 January 2012–29 February 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology

  14. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  15. Research on Impact Parameters of 3 Years Old Child Safety Seat Based on MADYMO%基于MADYMO的3岁儿童汽车安全座椅的安全性影响参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王枫红; 陈炽坤; 胡小强


    The security of child safety is very important. It must be past the standard collision test. The simulation collision based on MADYMO can help designers to know about influence of the main design parameters to the security of child safety seat, and improve the succeed of the design. Based on MADYMO, it carries some simulation collision tests with different coefficients of friction, analyzes the shoulder positions of the lift belt, rigidities of the lift belt and rigidities of the seat, shows the detail about the test resultsl.%儿童汽车安全座椅的安全性至关重要,必须通过相关的标准碰撞测试.基于MADYMO软件的虚拟碰撞技术,可以帮助设计师在产品设计阶段就清晰了解影响座椅主要设计参数对安全性的影响,从而提高设计的成功率.基于MADYMO,分别进行了不同座椅摩擦系数、安全带肩位位置、安全带的刚度以及座椅刚度等情况下的虚拟碰撞,并对测试结果进行了详细的分析.

  16. 智能集成式儿童安全座椅的台车正面碰撞试验研究%A Study on Frontal Crash Sled Test for Intelligent Integrated Child Safety Seat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞锋; 曹立波; 陈亚


    To study the protective effect of intelligent integrated child safety seat for children occupants, frontal crash sled tests are conducted using Q6 ATD dummy with intelligent safety seat plus three schemes of safety belt use:correct use of four-point safety belt and three-point safety belt, and misuse of four-point safety belt. The injury situation of child dummy is assessed by various injury criteria defined in regulations. The results show that the protective effects of the correct use of four-point safety belt and three-point safety belt meet the requirements of regu-lations, and the protection performance of three-point safety belt is superior to that of four-point safety belt with in-adequate tension. Finally improving measures are put forward for enhancing the restraint effects of four-point safety belt based on test situations.%为研究智能集成式儿童安全座椅对儿童乘员的保护效果,采用Q6 ATD 6岁儿童假人开展了正确使用四点式安全带和三点式安全带,以及误用四点式安全带3种情形下的正面碰撞台车试验,通过法规中要求的各项儿童假人的损伤指标来评定儿童假人损伤情况。结果表明,正确佩戴四点式安全带和三点式安全带时座椅的保护效果满足法规要求,佩戴三点式安全带的保护性能优于松弛状态下四点式安全带。最后根据试验情况提出了提高四点式安全带约束效果的改进措施。

  17. Geometry of rear seats and child restraints compared to child anthropometry. (United States)

    Bilston, Lynne E; Sagar, Nipun


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the geometry of a wide range of restraints (child restraints, booster seats and rear seats) used by children, and how these match their anthropometry, and to determine limitations to restraint size for the population of children using them. The study is motivated by the widespread premature graduation from one restraint type to another, which parents often attribute to children outgrowing their previous restraint. Currently, recommended transitions are based on a small sample of vehicles and children. Outboard rear seat and seat belt geometry (anchorage locations, sash belt angles) from 50 current model vehicles were measured using a custom-developed measuring jig. For 17 child restraints, a 3-dimensional measuring arm was used to measure the geometry of the restraint including interior size and strap slot locations (where relevant). These measurements were compared to anthropometric measurements, to determine the suitability of a given restraint for children of particular ages. The results for the rear seat geometry indicate that all seat cushions were too deep for a child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile until approximately 11.5 years, and half of vehicle seat cushions were too deep for a 15 year old child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile. Sash belt geometry was more variable, with approximately a third of vehicles accommodating 6-8 year olds who approximate the shoulder geometry measurements at the 50th percentile. Dedicated child restraints accommodated most children within recommended age groups, with two exceptions. Several high back booster seats were not tall enough for a child whose seated height is at the 50th percentile for 8 year olds (who is still too short for an adult belt according to current guidelines and the results from the rear seat geometry study), and a small number of forward facing restraints and high back boosters were too narrow for children at the upper end of

  18. Seat Interfaces for Aircrew Performance and Safety (United States)


    manikin lumbar and cervical spine loads/forces and moments, head, chest and pelvis accelerations, shoulder straps and lap belt loads, seat pan and...consisted of manikin lumbar and cervical spine loads/forces and moments, head, chest and pelvis accelerations, shoulder straps and lap belt loads, Figure 5. The manikin coordinate system used was an inverted SAE J211 system. The torques were reversed from SAE J211. Flexion was measured

  19. Keeping our children safe in motor vehicles: knowledge, attitudes and practice among parents in Kuwait regarding child car safety. (United States)

    Raman, Sudha R; Landry, Michel D; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal


    Child safety restraints can reduce risk of death and decrease injury severity from road traffic crashes; however, knowledge about restraints and their use in Kuwait is limited. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey about child car safety was used among a convenience sample of parents of children aged 18 years or younger at five Kuwaiti university campuses. Of 552 respondents, over 44% have seated a child in the front seat and 41.5% have seated a child in their lap while driving. Few parents are aware of and fewer report using the appropriate child restraint; e.g., 36% of parents of infants recognised an infant seat and 26% reported using one. Over 70% reported wearing seat belts either "all of the time" (33%) or "most of the time" (41%). This new information about parents' knowledge and practice regarding child car seat use in Kuwait can inform interventions to prevent child occupant injury and death.

  20. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clarke


    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM procedures. [b]Results[/b]. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers’ seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001 between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  1. Studies on structural and biomechanical responses in seat integrated safety belt configurations



    The common 3-point safety belt usually has some anchor points on the car body. However, it is also possible to mount all anchor points on the seat structure. In general, different studies show some advantages with seat integrated safety belts. Thus, further investigations are motivated. One safety advantage appears in the case of so-called small overlap crashes. Also, the ride-down distance of the occupant may be increased by allowing controlled energy absorbing deformation of the seat struct...

  2. Global Threats to Child Safety. (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E


    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children.

  3. Kinematics and shoulder belt position of child rear seat passengers during vehicle maneuvers. (United States)

    Bohman, Katarina; Stockman, Isabelle; Jakobsson, Lotta; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Bostrom, Ola; Arbogast, Kristy B


    Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children and previous research highlighted vehicle maneuvers prior to impact as possible contributing factors. The aim was to quantify kinematics of child occupants during swerving maneuvers focusing on the child's lateral movement and seat belt position relative to the child's shoulder. A study was conducted on a closed-circuit test track with 16 children aged 4-12, restrained in the rear seat of a modern passenger vehicle. A professional driving instructor drove at 50 km/h making sharp turns in a repeatable fashion, resulting in inboard motion of the children. The children were exposed to two turns in each of two restraint systems. Shorter children were on a booster or highback booster cushion. The taller children were seated on a booster cushion or with only a lap and shoulder seat belt. Four film cameras were fixed in the vehicle monitoring the child. Vehicle data were also collected. The seat belt slipped off the shoulder in 1 of 5 turns, varying by age and restraint type. Among shorter children, the belt slipped off in a majority of turns when seated on a booster cushion while the belt remained on the shoulder when seated on the highback booster cushion. Among taller children, the shoulder belt moved far laterally on the shoulder in half of the turns. This data provides valuable knowledge on possible pre-impact postures of children as a result of vehicle swerving maneuvers for a variety of restraint systems.

  4. Child Passenger Safety (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Using the correct car seat for your child can be a lifesaver. This podcast discusses the importance of ensuring children are buckled up in car seats or booster seats that are appropriate for their age and size until adult seat belts fit properly. .  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  5. Modeling Design of Children Car Safety Seat%儿童汽车安全座椅造型设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      本文通过对目前儿童汽车安全座椅进行系统地分析和研究,提出了产品造型设计在遵循安全性的原则下,应从人性化(使用、储放等)和审美化的方面来体现设计理念,使得儿童汽车安全座椅设计更加合理,并且能够适合不同年龄段的儿童使用。不仅对整车及零配件企业研发中心有借鉴意义,而且有利于儿童汽车安全座椅的普及推广。%Based on the systematic analysis and study of current children's car sa fety seat, the paper proposed the product design to follow the safety principle which is from the human (use, storage etc.) and aesthetic aspects to reflect the design concept, make the child car seat design more reasonable, what’s more, can be suitable for different age of the children. It not only has the reference significance to the research and development center of vehicle and parts enterprises, but also is conducive to the popularization of child safety seat in automobile.

  6. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction (United States)


    ..., 2010 (75 FR 31691). The document established a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by... published in the Federal Register of June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31691) a final rule establishing a standard for... final rule, this phrase is redundant, and the final rule, therefore eliminates it.'' 75 FR...

  7. Child passenger safety: direction, selection, location, installation. (United States)

    Agran, Phyllis F; Hoffman, Benjamin


    The most significant risk factor for death and serious injury in a car crash is the failure to use a size-appropriate restraint system. Providing accurate car safety seat anticipatory guidance to families is the standard of care. Guiding families on the best car seat for best protection can be done with the four messages, direction, selection, location, and refer, if needed, to community resources for correct installation. Addressing special issues that impact use of a car seat on each and every ride, including challenging behaviors and obesity, will transfer to many other situations. Data support a new recommendation that children stay rear-facing in size-appropriate car seats until they reach the highest weight and height allowed for rear-facing by the manufacturer of the convertible seat. Premature graduation to the next seat type/size/position increases risk of injury. A driver who is distracted by a cell phone, food, or something else, becomes a risk factor for a car crash. State laws may lag behind best practices. Advocacy for stronger laws, better enforcement, and best practices at the local, state, and national levels is a critical role for the pediatric professional community.

  8. Parental practice of child car safety in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu KI


    Full Text Available KI Ndu,1,* U Ekwochi,1,* DC Osuorah,2,* OC Ifediora,3 FO Amadi,1 IN Asinobi,1 OW Okenwa,1 JC Orjioke,1 FN Ogbuka,1 TO Ulasi4 1Department of Paediatrics, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Engu, Nigeria; 2Child Survival Unit, Medical Research Council UK, The Gambia Unit, Fajara, Gambia; 3Griffiths University Medical School, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 4Department of Paediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Child safety restraints and seat belts are regarded as the most successful safety and cost-effective protective devices available to vehicle occupants, which have saved millions of lives. This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated the practice and use of child car restraints (CCRs among 458 purposively selected respondents resident in two local government areas in Enugu State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to parents of children attending private schools who owned a car. Chi-square and multivariate analyses were used to assess the determinants of the use of car restraints in children among respondents. In all, 56% and 45% of adults and children, respectively, used car restraints regularly. The awareness of child safety laws and actual use of age-appropriate CCRs among respondents was negatively and weakly correlated (r=–0.121, P=0.310. Only respondent’s use of seat belt during driving (P=0.001 and having being cautioned for non-use of CCRs (P=0.005 maintained significance as determinants of the use of CCRs in cars on multivariate analysis. The most frequent reasons given for the non-use of CCRs included the child being uncomfortable, 64 (31%; restraints not being important, 53 (26%, and restraints being too expensive, 32 (15%. Similarly, for irregular users, exceptions for non-use included the child being asleep (29%, inadequate number of CCRs (22%, and the child being sick (18

  9. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  10. Legislation and research in The Netherlands in the field of traffic safety regarding seat belts and crash helmets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.


    Legislation on seat belts and crash helmets has been introduced since 1975. Safety belts are used by 50-75% of car drivers and passengers. Crash helmets are used by virtually all motorcyclists and moped riders. Fatalities have been reduced due to the use of seat belts by 60%, and due to the helmets

  11. Online Child Safety Law, Technology and Governance

    CERN Document Server

    Savirimuthu, Dr Joseph


    This work explores the growing convergence between youth culture and digital communication technologies and the corresponding challenges posed to policymakers, examining the current governance debate on online child safety.

  12. Transportation Safety Standards for Wheelchair Users: A Review of Voluntary Standards for Improved Safety, Usability, and Independence of Wheelchair-Seated Travelers (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence W.; Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.


    Safe transportation for wheelchair users who do not transfer to the vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles requires after-market wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) to secure the wheelchair and provide crashworthy restraint for the wheelchair-seated occupant. In the absence of adequate government safety standards,…

  13. Sanitation & Safety for Child Feeding Programs. (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…

  14. Numerical prediction of seating position in car seats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Markwijk, R. van; Verver, M.M.; Furtado, R.; Pewinsky, W.


    Two of the main design objectives for car interiors are comfort and safety. These aspects are both determined by the seating position of the occupant. Seat manufacturers use the SAE Three-Dimensional H-Point Machine™ to measure seating positions to design, audit, and benchmark seats. The seating pos

  15. Parent's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about using child car safety seat: example of ZonguldakÇocuk oto güvenlik koltuğu kullanımı konusunda ebeveynlerin bilgi, tutum ve davranışları: Zonguldak örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kürtüncü


    Full Text Available Introduction: Çocuk koltuklarının otomobillerde kullanılmasının en temel nedeni araç içinde seyahat eden çocuğun kaza sırasında oturduğu yerden fırlayıp savrulmasını önlemektir. Otomobile sabitlenen koltuklar çocukların başını ve vücudunu korumakta olup her yaş grubu çocuğun boyuna, kilosuna ve arabanın cinsine göre değişiklik göstermektedir Purpose: This study has been fulfilled to determine frequency of using child care auto safety seat, the level of knowledge of parents and opinions about this subject. Method and material: The data for this study were collected between the dates of 13 February and 30 June 2012. The group of this study consists of parents who applied to Mithat Paşa and Çatalağzı and Kilimli Family Health Centers in Zonguldak. The parents who have car and child between 0-9 ages have been included into this study. The parents who have physically and mentally defectives and prematüre children, have been excluded from the study. Results: According to the results of the study, a significant relationship has been found between parents' level of education and the number of children using CCSS. Families using thecar seatwithout knowledge (55% have remarkable. Conclusions and recommendations: All the Health Staffers and the media organizations have responsible for informing and raising awareness on CCSS of parents. Özet Giriş: Çocuk koltuklarının otomobillerde kullanılmasının en temel nedeni araç içinde seyahat eden çocuğun kaza sırasında oturduğu yerden fırlayıp savrulmasını önlemektir. Otomobile sabitlenen koltuklar çocukların başını ve vücudunu korumakta olup her yaş grubu çocuğun boyuna, kilosuna ve arabanın cinsine göre değişiklik göstermektedir Amaç: Çalışma, çocuk oto güvenlik koltuğu kullanım sıklığı ve ebeveynlerin bu koltuğu kullanımı hakkındaki bilgi düzeyini ve bu konu ile ilgili görüşlerini belirlemek amacıyla ger

  16. Child Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Nepali (नेपा ... rehausseurs - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Child Safety Checklist हिन्दी (Hindi) ...

  17. Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards (United States)

    Schneider, Larry


    This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

  18. Study of Matching Method for a Child Seat Based on Multi-objective Optimization%基于多目标优化的儿童座椅匹配方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白中浩; 卢静


    According to the adjustable restraint parameters of an integrated child safety seat,the seat height,seatback angle and force limiter value of the seat belt were chosen as optimization variables.This integrated child safety seat has obtained a national patent.The values of injury criteria of the head,the chest and the neck were chosen as optimization goals.Approximate model of polynomial regression and multi-objective evolutionary algorithm were adopted to optimize the restraint parameters of the integrated child safety for the protection of 3-year-old,6-year-old and 10-year-old child occupants.The results demonstrated that the effect of optimization was significant.Finally,an adaptive matching method for seats for 3~10-year-old children passengers was proposed on the basis of three optimal restraint parameters.%基于一款已获得国家专利的集成式儿童安全座椅约束系统参数可调的特征,选择座椅高度、靠背角度、安全带限力器限力值为优化变量,以儿童乘员头部损伤、胸部损伤、颈部损伤为优化目标,采用多项式回归近似模型和多目标进化算法相结合的方法对该集成式儿童座椅在保护3岁、6岁、10岁儿童乘员时的可调约束参数进行了多目标优化.结果表明:优化后的约束参数能对上述儿童乘员提供更好的保护作用,优化效果显著.最后在得到的3组优化约束参数的基础上,提出了一种针对3~10岁不同身材儿童的自适应匹配方法.

  19. 76 FR 71345 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Child Health Patient Safety... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... relinquishment from Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety...

  20. 75 FR 31691 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats: Final Rule (United States)


    ... use is not known. Data from a 2005 survey by the American Baby Group (2006 Baby Products Tracking... entail use with wet, naked babies. The data associated with these two incidents suggest that the unique... for bath seats, leaving the designer ample freedom to design a bath seat that allows easy entry...




    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the transport of children in automobiles and the use of child restraints systems (CRS). Methods: This is a transversal descriptive study which included 200 vehicle drivers who carried 0-10 year old children in the city of São Luis, MA, Brazil. The drivers' passengers' and children's features were properly identified. The children's transportation using CRS were analyzed according to the Resolution 277/8 of the Brazilian National Traffic Department. Results: The transportation of children was classified as inappropriate in 70.5% of the vehicles analyzed. The most common way for children transportation was free on the back seats (47%) or on the lap of passengers/drivers (17%). The main reasons to justify the improper transportation were either not understanding the importance of CRS use (64.5%) or not having financial resources to buy the devices. The child safety seat was the most used CRS (50.8 %) among vehicles with proper child transportation system. Conclusion: The transportation of children was inappropriate in most of the vehicles analyzed, reflecting the need for creating awareness among automobile drivers, including education, supervision and improvement of policies for health improvement and prevention of accidents involving children transportation. Level of Evidence III, Cross Sectional Study. PMID:28149196

  2. Child care work. Organizational culture and health and safety. (United States)

    Calabro, K S; Bright, K A; Cole, F L; Mackey, T; Lindenberg, J; Grimm, A


    A nonrandom sample of child care workers was surveyed to assess whether child care work represented an "at risk" health and safety culture and to measure the organizational dimensions contributing to the health and safety culture. The child care workers in Houston, Texas, were surveyed by mail, using an instrument developed by the research team. The sample population represented 34 child care centers (n = 240 respondents). The analysis yielded five factors related to determinants of health and safety culture. The participants had a favorable perception of the five health and safety determinants. The participants also reported high levels of injury and illness in their environments, suggesting a less than favorable situation. A culture, work, and health model was useful in examining the relationship between health and safety and organizational culture.

  3. 78 FR 68748 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Designated Seating Positions (United States)


    ... for reconsideration of the October 2008 final rule. The petitioners are SAE International (SAE), BMW North America (BMW), the Alliance of ] Automobile Manufacturers (Alliance), Volkswagen of America... paragraph (c)(2). 8. Closely Adjoining Seat Belt Buckles BMW petitioned the agency to allow two...

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety (United States)

    ... Academy of Pediatrics. Graphic design: adapted from National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Top of Page What Can Be ... 0:60 seconds] On Other Web Sites National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Parents Central National Highway Traffic Safety ...

  5. Child safety from the perspective of essential needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Falleiros de Mello


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to characterize the maternal care for children under one year of age with a view to child health promotion at home.METHOD: exploratory study with qualitative data analysis, thematic mode, based on the conceptual framework of the essential needs of children, based on interviews recorded with 16 mothers.RESULTS: the analysis of the maternal narratives showed elements that facilitate the promotion of child safety: presence and involvement of the parents, constant surveillance for physical and emotional protection, experiences to stimulate child development, support networks for childcare at home; and inhibiting elements of child safety: limited perception of characteristics of child development and of children's singularities, overprotection and difficulties to set limits.CONCLUSION: the study enhances the understanding of home care in child health promotion, directing professional actions to guarantee ongoing nurturing relationships, protection, respect for individual differences, experiences appropriate to child development, limit setting and construction of stable and supportive social networks. In addition, the relevance of considering the maternal perspective in child health care is considered, as a strategy to apprehend aspects related to the attendance of the growth and development needs, particularly for child health promotion at home.

  6. The Analysis of Growing Structural of Child Seat%儿童座椅的可成长结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝南南; 刘宗明


    本文讨论了儿童座椅“可成长”的必要性,依据中国未成年人人体成长尺寸与座椅之间的关系,分析得到了儿童座椅的尺寸范围,同时将现有的儿童座椅分为模块调节、活动板调节、伸缩调节、填充物调节四种调节结构,并对这些结构所适用的材料、稳定性、调节跨度等优缺点进行比较分析。研究结果能帮助设计师在选择材料与结构时提供一定的参考依据,使儿童座椅的设计更加人性化。%The article discusses the necessity of the adjustable structures of child seat. According to the relationships between the Chinese minors anthropometric measurements and furniture,through analyzes we obtain the child seat size range. In this article, the adjustable structures are mainly divided into module adjustment, activity board adjustment, scale adjustment, ifler adjustment. In addition, we explore the advantages and disadvantages of these four adjustment structures from the aspects of suitable material, structural stability, adjust the scale and so on. The author is expecting to provide a reference for the design of child seat and to help designers’ right choice of materials and structures, in order to make the child seat more human.

  7. Emergency Child Aid. Child Health and Safety Series (Module VI). (United States)

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…

  8. Correct use of safety belts and child restraint devices in cars among children in Goiânia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Medeiros de Sousa


    Full Text Available Objective:to conduct an observational study, by means of campaigns, regarding the use of child restraint devices in cars in Goiânia.Methods:this was a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample built up as cases arose. The data were gathered into an Excel spreadsheet and were analyzed descriptively and statistically (SPSS 16.0, using chi-square and taking p < 0.05 as significant.Results:in 2006, 410 cars were evaluated, and in 2010, 544 cars were evaluated. Around 85% of the occupants were using seat belts correctly at both times (p = 0.650. In 2006, it was observed that a total of 273 passengers were occupying the rear seats, while in 2010 there were 226. Among these, 178 and 170 were using seat belts, respectively, i.e. 65.2% and 75.22% (p = 0.001. In 2006, five children were occupying the front seat without using the seat belt, while in 2010, this number was 42 (p < 0.001. In 2010, it was observed that 458 vehicles were transporting children on the rear seats, and this was being done correctly in 214 vehicles, i.e. 46.72%. In 2006, of the 410 vehicles analyzed, only 90 of them (21.95% were transporting children correctly (p < 0.001. In addition, there was a difference in the variables within the year evaluated, in which transportation done correctly in the front seat was much more frequent than transportation done correctly in the rear seats, in both years (p < 0.001. Cars transported one to four children, while vans transported one to nine children. In 2006, one van transporting children irregularly was observed, while in 2010 it was done correctly in all cases.Conclusion:comparing these two years (2006 and 2010 in which data were gathered, we can conclude that changes in behavior among drivers in Goiânia have begun, with regard to safety when transporting children in vehicles, with an improvement of 25% (p < 0.001. A large part of this has come through changes in knowledge among this segment of the population, through campaigns that

  9. Child Safety: MedlinePlus Health Topic (United States)

    ... Information Center (Consumer Product Safety Commission) Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children (American College ... Personal Use Devices: Renaming of Pediatric Hospital... Article: School-based education programmes for the prevention of unintentional ...

  10. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger... (United States)


    ... Standards (telephone: 202-366-0247) (fax: 202-366-4921), NVS-113. For legal issues, Ms. Dorothy Nakama... 305 mm (8.5 in x 12.2 in) rigid plate be used to ``simulate the shape of a single 6-year-old'' child, and that the agency should ballast the plate to ensure an evenly-distributed 22 kg (48.4 lb) mass....

  11. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies (United States)


    ... devote resources towards this at this time. B. Preliminary Analysis of Real World Crash Data Although the petitioner did not provide data showing a real world safety problem, the agency examined its crash data as... purchase aftermarket webbing cutters. The agency reviewed its data on fatal crashes and could...

  12. Evaluation of the effectiveness of single-session school-based programmes to increase children's seat belt and pedestrian safety knowledge and self-reported behaviours. (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Kiriakou, Sophie


    Young children experience many injuries as pedestrians and as passengers in vehicles. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two single-session school programmes, one to increase pedestrian safety knowledge and behaviour among Grade 1 children and the other to increase seat belt safety knowledge and usage among Grade 2 children. In the intervention groups, assessments were conducted on three occasions: before; soon after; and 2 months after the programmes; control groups did not receive the programme. The results revealed positive effects of these single-session safety programmes, as indicated by significant improvement and long-term retention of safety knowledge for both Grade 1 and Grade 2 children and self-reported increases in safety behaviours. Implications for future research and injury-prevention programming are discussed.

  13. Traffic safety behaviour among young people in different residential settings: the use of seat belts, bicycle helmets, and reflectors by young people in Sweden. (United States)

    Wall, Erika


    This study examines if, and how, the size of the community in which people live may contribute to explaining differences in traffic safety behaviour (self-reported behaviour regarding the use of seat belts, bicycle helmets and reflectors) among young people in Sweden. The study is based on a Swedish nationwide traffic safety survey with a net sample of 2854 respondents aged 16-25. Ordered logit regressions were performed, and place of residence is shown to have an impact on traffic safety behaviour. The results are presented and discussed in relation to risk exposure and traffic safety facilities in different settings. The implications of the study are considered, and the importance of investigating the way in which young people see traffic safety behaviour is emphasised.

  14. Rear-facing car seat (image) (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  15. Buckled-up children: understanding the mechanism, injuries, management, and prevention of seat belt related injuries. (United States)

    Davies, Kimberly L


    In the United States motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in children. Although laws and public awareness campaigns have increased the use of passive restraints, many children continue to be unrestrained or improperly restrained. Age-appropriate child restraint systems are a vital means to prevent injury and death. The young school-aged child presents unique challenges to standardized vehicle restraint systems. As these children outgrow child safety seats, they frequently are placed in lap/shoulder belt systems designed for the adult. When prematurely graduated to the vehicle's restraint systems they are predisposed to injuries to the abdomen and lumbar spine known as the "seat belt syndrome" or "lap belt complex." These injuries often present subtly, and are not as obvious as the often life-threatening injuries found in the unrestrained pediatric trauma patient. However if undetected or missed these injuries can significantly impact the child's recovery and functional outcome. This article will provide a comprehensive overview of pediatric seat belt injuries. Content will explore the mechanisms responsible for producing the typical patterns of injury, recognition of these potential injuries during the trauma assessment, diagnostic evaluation and management of children with suspected or actual seat belt injuries. Prevention strategies will be discussed that will enable trauma nurses to effectively advocate the use of booster seats for the young school-aged child.

  16. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint. (United States)

    Go, Seung Je; Sul, Young Hoon; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck


    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury.

  17. NASA Standards Inform Comfortable Car Seats (United States)


    NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.

  18. Seatbelt and child-restraint use in Kazakhstan: attitudes and behaviours of medical university students. (United States)

    Nugmanova, Zhamilya S; Ussatayeva, Gainel; McNutt, Louise-Anne


    Traffic fatalities in Kazakhstan increased from 15 to more than 30 per 100 000 between 2001 and 2006. Mortality remains high compared with developed nations. Safety-restraint laws have been enacted, but little data exist regarding usage of seatbelts, particularly among children and passengers. This cross-sectional study surveyed medical university students about attitudes and behaviours regarding seatbelt and child safety-restraint usage. Seatbelts are widely used in the front seat (81%) but not in the back seat (79% 'never' or 'rarely' use a seatbelt in the back seat). Fewer than half reported 'always' or 'almost always' providing restraint for children under 7 years and 24% reported children secure the seatbelts themselves. Safety in the back seat merits attention. Adults generally do not buckle in the back seat despite a law requiring seatbelt use. Promotion of child safety restraints should be prioritised in prevention education for physicians and the community.

  19. Rear seat occupant safety: an investigation of a progressive force-limiting, pretensioning 3-point belt system using adult PMHS in frontal sled tests. (United States)

    Forman, Jason; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco; Lessley, David; Kindig, Matthew; Kent, Richard; Ridella, Stephen; Bostrom, Ola


    Rear seat adult occupant protection is receiving increased attention from the automotive safety community. Recent anthropomorphic test device (ATD) studies have suggested that it may be possible to improve kinematics and reduce injuries to rear seat occupants in frontal collisions by incorporating shoulder-belt force-limiting and pretensioning (FL+PT) technologies into rear seat 3-point belt restraints. This study seeks to further investigate the feasibility and potential kinematic benefits of a FL+PT rear seat, 3-point belt restraint system in a series of 48 kmh frontal impact sled tests (20 g, 80 ms sled acceleration pulse) performed with post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Three PMHS were tested with a 3-point belt restraint with a progressive (two-stage) force limiting and pretensioing retractor in a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant environment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan. Instrumentation included belt tension load cells, accelerometers on the head and at multiple locations on the spine, and chestbands to measure the chest deformation contours in the transverse plane. The kinematics of the subjects were quantified using off-board, high-speed video. The results of these tests were then compared to matched PMHS tests, published in 2008, performed in the same environment with a standard (not-force limited, not pretensioning) 3-point belt restraint. The FL+PT restraint system resulted in significant (pbelt tension (average +/- standard deviation: 4.4 +/- 0.13 kN with the FL+PT belt, 7.8 +/- 0. 6 kN with the standard belt) and 3 ms-resultant, mid-spine acceleration (FL+PT: 34 +/- 3.8 g; standard belt: 44 +/- 1.4 g). The FL+PT tests also produced more forward torso rotation caused by decreased forward excursion of the pelvis and increased payout out of the shoulder belt by the force-limiter. These results support the previous ATD studies that suggest that it may be possible to improve the kinematics of rear seat occupants in this type of collision using a

  20. Decision Analysis Model for Passenger-Aircraft Fire Safety with Application to Fire-Blocking of Seats (United States)


    Morrow of the Aerospace Division of UOP Inc., William Downey, Jr. of Fairchild Burns Company and Jack Putman of Weber Aircraft Company provided... Linda Gay Thompson, Seat Cushion Design User’s Manual, Unpublished Report by Informatics, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, May 22, 1982, pages not numbered. [116

  1. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  2. Seat belt sign and its significance. (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Inamadar, Praveenkumar Ishwarappa; Subrahmanyam, Bhattara Vishweswar


    Safety belts are the most important safety system in motor vehicles and when worn intend to prevent serious injuries. However, in unusual circumstances (high velocity motor vehicle collisions) these safety measures (seat belts) can be the source and cause of serious injuries. The seat belt syndrome was first described as early by Garrett and Braunste in but the term "seat belt sign" was discussed by Doersch and Dozier. Medical personnel's involved in emergency care of trauma patients should be aware of seat belt sign and there should a higher index of suspicion to rule out underlying organ injuries.

  3. Nutrition Standards for Child Care Programs: Meeting Children's Nutrition and Education Needs. Nutrition, Health and Safety. (United States)

    Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.


    Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)

  4. 汽车电动座椅与安全带的结构与控制(上)%The Structure and Control of Electric Seats and Safety Belts for Auto(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴基安; 董素荣


    This paper expounds in detail the adjustable functions of the electric seats.The structure of electronic control system and the automatic adjusting process are introduced and the distributions and functions of automatic adjustable seats and safety belts are also expounded.%详述汽车电动座椅可实现的各种调节功能,介绍其电子控制系统的结构以及自动调节的过程。简述可自动调节的座椅安全带在车上的布置及功能。

  5. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations. (United States)

    Soule, David


    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  6. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion. (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  7. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  8. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt reminde

  9. Creating the finite element models of car seats with passive head restraints to meet the requirements of passive safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Solopov


    Full Text Available A problem solution to create the car chairs using modern software complexes (CAE based on the finite elements is capable to increase an efficiency of designing process significantly. Designing process is complicated by the fact that at present there are no available techniques focused on this sort of tasks.This article shows the features to create the final element models (FEM of the car chairs having three levels of complexity. It assesses a passive safety, which is ensured by the developed chair models with passive head restraints according to requirements of UNECE No 25 Regulations, and an accuracy of calculation results compared with those of full-scale experiments.This work is part of the developed technique, which allows effective development of the car chair designs both with passive, and with active head restraints, meeting the requirements of passive safety.By results of calculations and experiments it was established that at assessment by an UNECE No 25 technique the "rough" FEM (the 1st and 2nd levels can be considered as rational (in terms of effort to its creation and task solution and by the errors of results, and it is expedient to use them for preliminary and multiple calculations. Detailed models (the 3rd level provide the greatest accuracy (for accelerations the relative error makes 10%, for movements it is 11%, while in comparison with calculations, the relative error for a model of head restraint only decreases by 5% for accelerations and for 9% for movements.The materials presented in the article are used both in research activities and in training students at the Chair of Wheel Vehicles of the Scientific and Educational Complex "Special Mechanical Engineering" of Bauman Moscow State Technical University.

  10. 30 CFR 57.14131 - Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. 57.14131... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14131 Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be...

  11. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface (United States)

    Gohmert, D. M.


    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, and crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  12. Development of a validated aircraft child restraint model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pipino, M.; Mugnai, A.; DeWeese, R.L.


    Studies conducted at the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute have shown that when used in aircraft, automotive Child Restraint Devices (CRDs) do not always provide the level of safety desired. Various factors that contribute to poor performance, such as seat belt anchor location, cushion stiffness, and

  13. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013. (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L


    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  14. Multivariate head injury threshold measures for various sized children seated behind vehicle seats in rear impacts. (United States)

    Saczalski, Kenneth; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Pozzi, Mark; Saczalski, Todd; Burton, J L; Lewis, P


    Government recommendations to place children into the rear areas of motor vehicles to avoid airbag induced injuries have been complicated by the fact that most adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear area during rear-impacts, and thus pose another potentially serious injury hazard to rear-seated children. Many variables affect whether or not a front seat occupant will collapse into the rear child, and whether that interaction could be injurious to the child. For instance, the severity of rear impact, coupled with front and rear occupant sizes (mass and stature), and the level of front seat strength, all interrelate to influence whether or not a rear seated child is likely to be impacted and possibly injured. The most common types of child injuries in these instances are head and chest injuries. In this study, a "high-low" experimental method was employed with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study "multivariate" biomechanics of child head injury potential determined from rear-seated 3 and 6 year-old child surrogates in different types of vehicle bodies mounted to a sled system. The sled-buck systems were towed rearward into crushable barriers that matched the crash pulses of the vehicle types being tested. Various sizes of adult surrogates (i.e. 50 kg up to 110 kg), seated in both the "typical" low strength "single recliner" collapsing type front seat (i.e. 3.2 kN) and a much stronger "belt-integrated" seat design (i.e. up to 14.5 kN), were tested in the two different "sled body-buck" set-ups at various impact levels (i.e. 22.5 to 50 kph). One set-up used a popular minivan vehicle body with "built-in booster" seats for the 3 year-old. The other used a 4-door family sedan vehicle body with the 6 year-old in a standard rear bench seat. The parameters of the tests enabled the experimental data to be combined into polynomial "head injury" functions of the independent variables so the "likelihood" of rear child head-injury potential could

  15. Evaluation and Improvement of Environmental Protecting & Safety Performance in Polyurethane Foam for Vehicle Seat%汽车座椅用聚氨酯泡沫环保和安全性能的评价及改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The environmental protecting & safety performance evaluation system and improvement direction of the polyurethane foam used for vehicle seat were described from the aspects of green environmental protection and the safety of flame retardant. The technical indicators and test methods of the volatile substance were introduced. The sporadic material source and the improvement direction of the polyurethane foam vehicle seat were discussed. The polyurethane foam vehicle seat flame retardant demands and improvement were given.%从绿色环保和安全阻燃两个方面详述了汽车座椅用聚氨酯泡沫环保和安全性能的评价体系和改进方向.主要介绍了各类挥发性物质的技术指标和相关试验方法、汽车座椅用聚氨酯泡沫散发性物质的来源和改进方向以及汽车座椅用聚氨酯泡沫的阻燃性要求和改进方向.

  16. Child pedestrian safety: parental supervision, modeling behaviors, and beliefs about child pedestrian competence. (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Barton, Benjamin K


    Pedestrian injuries are a significant health risk to children, particularly those 5-9 years of age. Surprisingly, few studies have explored parent-related factors that may moderate this risk. The present study used naturalistic observations of parent-child pairs crossing at uncontrolled intersections and a short interview to examine parental supervision of children during crossings, modeling of safe-crossing behaviors, beliefs about how children come to cross streets safely, and whether child attributes (age, sex) relate to parental practices and beliefs. Results revealed that parents more closely supervised younger than older children, they modeled safer crossing practices for sons more than daughters, particularly younger sons, and although over half the sample believed children need to be explicitly taught how to cross safely, few actually provided any instruction when crossing with their children. Providing parents both with guidelines for how to accurately appraise their child's readiness for crossing independently and with information about best practices for teaching children how to cross safely may facilitate parents' implementing these practices, particularly if this is coupled with public advocacy highlighting the important role they could play to reduce the risk of child pedestrian injury.

  17. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program


    Burkett, Katie M.; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan


    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second compo...

  18. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripley, Edward B


    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  19. Pinellas Plant: Child Care/Partnership School safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Albuquerque Operations Office through the Pinellas Plant Area Office is involved in a joint venture to establish a Partnership School and a Day Care Facility at the Plant. The venture is unique in that it is based on a partnership with the local county school system. The county school system will provide the teachers, supplies and classroom furnishings for the operation of the school for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first and second grade during regular school hours. The Government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. A Day Care Facility will also be available for children from infancy through the second grade for outside school hours. The day care will be operated as a non-profit corporation. Fees paid by parents with children in the day care center will cove the cost of staff, food, supplies and liability insurance. Again, the government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. Between 75 and 90 children are expected in the first year of operation. The Partnership School will consist of one class each for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade. Second grade will be added in 1990. The total estimated number of children for both the Child Care and Partnership School should not exceed 200 children. Expected benefits include reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover and thus increased productivity. The program will be an asset in recruiting and retaining the best workforce. Other benefits include improved education for the children.

  20. Poor compliance with child safety restraint use while travelling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fallon, R


    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of death of children. It is the law that all children should be appropriately secured when traveling in vehicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental conformity with these regulations and to test if advice given at a Paediatric outpatient clinic could improve compliance. Two groups were assigned, an intervention group (parents given an information leaflet and a clear explanation about appropriate restraints for their children) and a non-intervention group (received no information). They were contacted again after 2 months and asked regarding compliance. A total of 394 children from 186 families were initially given the questionnaire. Nearly one third of children (29.2%) were not using any restraint while travelling rising to 35.3% on follow up. This study concluded that once off parental education made negligible difference to an already inconsistent and haphazard approach to compliance with safety regulations.

  1. Paternal Autonomy Restriction, Neighborhood Safety, and Child Anxiety Trajectory in Community Youth. (United States)

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E; Chan, Priscilla T; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S


    Intrusive parenting, primarily examined among middle to upper-middle class mothers, has been positively associated with the presence and severity of anxiety in children. This study employed cross-sectional linear regression and longitudinal latent growth curve analyses to evaluate the main and interactive effects of early childhood paternal autonomy restriction (AR) and neighborhood safety (NS) on the trajectory of child anxiety in a sample of 596 community children and fathers from the NICHD SECYD. Longitudinal analyses revealed that greater paternal AR at age 6 was actually associated with greater decreases in child anxiety in later childhood. Cross-sectional analyses revealed main effects for NS across childhood, and interactive effects of paternal AR and NS that were present only in early childhood, whereby children living in safer neighborhoods demonstrated increased anxiety when experiencing lower levels of paternal AR. Findings further clarify for whom and when paternal AR impacts child anxiety in community youth.

  2. Would You Let Your Child Play Football? Attitudes Toward Football Safety. (United States)

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John


    An estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur each year in the United States, and many are related to football. This has generated much discussion in the media on the perceived safety of the sport. In the current study, researchers asked 230 individuals various questions about attitudes toward safety in football. Approximately 92.6% of participants indicated they would allow their child to play football; these participants were more likely to be female (χ(2) = 5.23, p > .05), were slightly younger (t= -2.52, p football, and future studies are needed to clarify factors that inform this opinion.

  3. Experimental injury study of children seated behind collapsing front seats in rear impacts. (United States)

    Saczalski, Kenneth J; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Burton, Joseph L; Lewis, Paul R


    In the mid 1990's the U.S. Department of Transportation made recommendations to place children and infants into the rear seating areas of motor vehicles to avoid front seat airbag induced injuries and fatalities. In most rear-impacts, however, the adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear occupant area and pose another potentially serious injury hazard to the rear-seated children. Since rear-impacts involve a wide range of speeds, impact severity, and various sizes of adults in collapsing front seats, a multi-variable experimental method was employed in conjunction with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study injury potential of rear-seated children. Various sizes of Hybrid III adult surrogates, seated in a "typical" average strength collapsing type of front seat, and a three-year-old Hybrid III child surrogate, seated on a built-in booster seat located directly behind the front adult occupant, were tested at various impact severity levels in a popular "minivan" sled-buck test set up. A total of five test configurations were utilized in this study. Three levels of velocity changes ranging from 22.5 to 42.5 kph were used. The average of peak accelerations on the sled-buck tests ranged from approximately 8.2 G's up to about 11.1 G's, with absolute peak values of just over 14 G's at the higher velocity change. The parameters of the test configuration enabled the experimental data to be combined into a polynomial "injury" function of the two primary independent variables (i.e. front seat adult occupant weight and velocity change) so that the "likelihood" of rear child "injury potential" could be determined over a wide range of the key parameters. The experimentally derived head injury data was used to obtain a preliminary HIC (Head Injury Criteria) polynomial fit at the 900 level for the rear-seated child. Several actual accident cases were compared with the preliminary polynomial fit. This study provides a test efficient, multi

  4. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries. (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Noomnual, Saisattha; Chishti, Shumaila; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Madrigano, Jaime


    Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H) risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990-2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3-83 countries). Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  5. Design of child's safety management system based on ontology using context information of home network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Kyoung Jeon; Jung-Hyun Lee; Kee-Wook Rim; Yang-Jae Park


    This paper presents a system to alert of dangerous a child situation of a child by applying context information collected from a home network to ontology that is capable of inference. Radio frequency Identification (RFID) and sensors were used for the configuration of a home network, to obtain the raw data to convert into context information. To express the ontology, web ontology language (OWL) was used to provide the inference of context information. Then, simple object access protocol (SOAP) messages were used to notify of the dangerous situations that a child may be involved in via mobile devices. The proposed system consists of Context Manager, Service Manager, and Notification Manager. The child's safety management system can proactively detect the context data of a child on the basis of context awareness. In the experiment, the Jena 2.0 by ontology reasoner and the OSGi(Open Service Gateway initiative) Gateway developed using open source software Knopflerfish 1.3.3 were used to implement the service frame work.

  6. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G. Shendell


    Full Text Available Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries. Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  7. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel


    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  8. Examination of adult and child bicyclist safety-relevant events using naturalistic bicycling methodology. (United States)

    Hamann, Cara J; Peek-Asa, Corinne


    Among roadway users, bicyclists are considered vulnerable due to their high risk for injury when involved in a crash. Little is known about the circumstances leading to near crashes, crashes, and related injuries or how these vary by age and gender. The purpose of this study was to examine the rates and characteristics of safety-relevant events (crashes, near crashes, errors, and traffic violations) among adult and child bicyclists. Bicyclist trips were captured using Pedal Portal, a data acquisition and coding system which includes a GPS-enabled video camera and graphical user interface. A total of 179 safety-relevant events were manually coded from trip videos. Overall, child errors and traffic violations occurred at a rate of 1.9 per 100min of riding, compared to 6.3 for adults. However, children rode on the sidewalk 56.4% of the time, compared with 12.7% for adults. For both adults and children, the highest safety-relevant event rates occurred on paved roadways with no bicycle facilities present (Adults=8.6 and Children=7.2, per 100min of riding). Our study, the first naturalistic study to compare safety-relevant events among adults and children, indicates large variation in riding behavior and exposure between child and adult bicyclists. The majority of identified events were traffic violations and we were not able to code all risk-relevant data (e.g., subtle avoidance behaviors, failure to check for traffic, probability of collision). Future naturalistic cycling studies would benefit from enhanced instrumentation (e.g., additional camera views) and coding protocols able to fill these gaps.

  9. Development of iBsafe: A Collaborative, Theory-based Approach to Creating a Mobile Game Application for Child Safety. (United States)

    Dixon, Cinnamon A; Ammerman, Robert T; Dexheimer, Judith W; Meyer, Benjamin; Jung, Heekyoung; Johnson, Boyd L; Elliott, Jennifer; Jacobs, Tom; Pomerantz, Wendy J; Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda


    Unintentional injury is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the number one cause of child death in the United States. The American Academy of Pediatrics promotes safety recommendations to decrease child injury risk, however the majority of educational programs delivering these strategies are school-based or in community campaigns. Mobile technology provides an opportune platform to deliver pediatric injury prevention programs given its massive global reach and underrepresentation within the current mobile health market. This paper describes the development of iBsafe, a novel mobile safety game application designed to prevent injury in 5- to 6- year old children. Our multidisciplinary team utilized a step-wise approach to create an innovative child game application which is based in behavioral theory and promotes evidence-based safety recommendations. Results and future directions for iBsafe aim to interactively educate children on how to be safe and ultimately improve their safety behaviors.

  10. 75 FR 4509 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... amendments to the regulations establishing the criteria for designing and conducting State seat belt use... seat belt use rates to NHTSA. NHTSA proposes these amendments so that future surveys will give...

  11. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  12. 77 FR 20550 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... implementation date for use of the revised uniform criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use.'' 76 FR 18042. That final rule amended the regulation...

  13. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate D... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. D Appendix D to Part 1240—Determination of National...

  14. Drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry for improved efficacy and safety of psychopharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fegert Jörg M


    Full Text Available Abstract Most psychotropic drugs used in the treatment of children and adolescents are applied "off label" with a direct risk of under- or overdosing and a delayed risk of long-term side effects. The selection of doses in paediatric psychiatric patients requires a consideration of pharmacokinetic parameters and the development of central nervous system, and warrants specific studies in children and adolescents. Because these are lacking for most of the psychotropic drugs applied in the Child and Adolescent and Psychiatry, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM is a valid tool to optimise pharmacotherapy and to enable to adjust the dosage of drugs according to the characteristics of the individual patient. Multi-centre TDM studies enable the identification of age- and development-dependent therapeutic ranges of blood concentrations and facilitate a highly qualified standardized documentation in the child and adolescent health care system. In addition, they will provide data for future research on psychopharmacological treatment in children and adolescents, as a baseline for example for clinically relevant interactions with various co-medications. Therefore, a German-Austrian-Swiss "Competence Network on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry" was founded 1 introducing a comprehensive internet data base for the collection of demographic, safety and efficacy data as well as blood concentrations of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents.

  15. How bipartisanship and incrementalism stitched the child health insurance safety net (1982-1997). (United States)

    Flint, Samuel S


    Today, 96.5 percent of children and adolescents either have health insurance or are uninsured but eligible for a public plan. This proportion far exceeds the most optimistic coverage projections for adults under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The child health insurance safety net was crafted from 1982 to 1997 through several incremental, bipartisan federal and state legislative actions. It began by offering and later mandating state Medicaid eligibility expansions and culminated with the enactment of the State Child Health Insurance Program. Two-thirds of the states leveraged these laws to expand coverage beyond federal requirements. As a senior executive with the American Academy of Pediatrics, the author was directly involved or closely monitored these federal and state child health insurance expansions. This case study is a participant-observer analysis of that period, an era that stands in stark contrast to today's highly partisan times. The successive expansions of publicly funded children's health insurance during this conservative period, when many other human services programs were slashed, are attributed to public sympathy for children, political acceptability by the right and the left, manageable costs, and the relative ease of state implementation as these changes came in incremental pieces over several years.

  16. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program


    Loftin, Laurel; Barlament, James; Cotton, Carol; Davidson, Steve M; Burkett, Katie M.; Stephens, James


    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was t...

  17. Beslissingsprocessen van verkeersdeelnemers : covernota bij de rapporten van W.H. Janssen: "Risk compensation and the effect of an incentive : a laboratory study" (IFZ 1988 C-26), "An experimental evaluation of safety incentive schemes" (IZF 1989 C-19), en "Seat belt wearing and driving behaviour : an empirical investigation" (IZF 1991 C-15).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.


    This cover note comments on the following three TNO Institute for Perception (IZF) Reports: (1) "Risk compensation and the effect of an incentive: a laboratory study"; (2) "An experimental evaluation of safety incentive schemes"; and (3) "Seat belt wearing and driving behaviour: an empirical investi

  18. Intelligent Seat Belt Pretension System for Active Safety%面向主动安全的智能预紧式安全带系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关志伟; 杨玲; 乔富强; 郑明锋


    Based on the analysis of the control process of intelligent occupant restraint system, it brings out the control strategy and design scheme of intelligent seat belt pretension system, designs the test method of occupant restraint system, develops the .software and hardware of intelligent occupant restraint system. It uses high-performance embedded hardware platform of 32Bit ARM for hardware system, applies the hardware core of PHILIPS LPC2290 chip based on ARM7TDMI - S to ECU,builds the system software with Nucleus PLUS system. The experimental prototype can do experiment about the match of intelligent seat belt pretension system and occupant restraint.%在分析了智能乘员约束系统的控制过程的基础上,提出了智能预紧式安全带的控制策略及设计方案,构建了乘员约束系统测试实验台方案,进行了智能预紧式安全带控制系统的软硬件设计.系统硬件平台采用高性能32位ARM嵌入式硬件平台,系统采用集成ARM7TDMI -S内核的PHILIPS的LPC2290作为系统中的电控单元(ECU),系统软件运用Nucleus PLUS嵌入式操作系统进行开发.在此基础上开发了实验样机,可以进行智能预紧式安全带与乘员约束系统匹配的相关实验.

  19. Parental Knowledge on car Safety for Children: An Israeli Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hemmo-Lotem


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the level of parental car safety knowledge and actual behavior regarding their children under the age of 15 years. This study forms part of the National Center for Child Safety and Health in Israel (Beterem program to examine awareness on child safety. Seven hundred and five Jewish families with at least one child at home younger than 15 years (a total of 1,345 children were used as a randomized sample of the Jewish population. A telephone survey was conducted by professional interviewers using a questionnaire developed by injury prevention specialists consisting of seven knowledge questions and a diagram that described the usual seating positions and restraining method of the family members in the family car. Concerning knowledge about injury prevention, the rate of incorrect answers was high,64% in regard to the proper car seats for age and 84% in regard to the age for booster seats. Sixty five per cent of parents did not know what a booster seat was and 54% did not know that the proper place for children was in the back seat. The average of incorrect answers was 4.86 out of 7 (SD=1.45 correlated with low socioeconomic status. Concerning care safety behavior 60% per cent of babies and 38% of toddlers were not restrained properly. This study should alert planners and policy makers to the need of implementation of educational prevention programs for the Israeli public of parents concerning car safety for children in order to reduce childhood injury.

  20. Clinic-based screening for domestic violence: use of a child safety questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisk Doris J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic violence affects many women during their lifetime. Children living in homes where they are or have been exposed to violence are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Practice, and the American College of Obstetrics/Gynecology have recently joined in recommending routine screening of all families for the presence of domestic violence. We present our experience with an office-based domestic violence screening questionnaire. Methods A series of four child safety questionnaires (designed for parents of infant, preschool-age, school-age, and adolescent patients, which included specific questions about domestic violence, was given to all mothers presenting to a university out-patient general pediatric clinic. The questionnaires, offered in both English and Spanish, were reviewed for the presence of domestic violence exposure, usually at the time of the clinic visit. The number of women who reported either current or past exposure to domestic violence as disclosed by this active screening process was compared to the number discovered prior to the use of these questionnaires. Results Prior to the use of active screening with a child safety questionnaire, five cases of domestic violence were identified in our clinic population of approximately 5000 children over a 3 month period. Active screening of this population with a parent questionnaire resulted in the identification of 69 cases of current domestic violence exposure (2% of those screened during each of 2 years of screening. Use of the child safety questionnaire was associated with a significantly increased odds of detecting current domestic violence (OR = 3.6, 95% CI [1.4, 9.1], P = 0.007, with 72% [26–84%] of the cases identified being attributable to the use of the questionnaire. Of children screened, 2% were currently exposed to domestic violence, and 13% had been exposed to past domestic violence

  1. 'BeSAFE', effect-evaluation of internet-based, tailored safety information combined with personal counselling on parents' child safety behaviours: study design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beeck Eduard F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries in or around the home are the most important cause of death among children aged 0-4 years old. It is also a major source of morbidity and loss of quality of life. In order to reduce the number of injuries, the Consumer Safety Institute introduced the use of Safety Information Leaflets in the Netherlands to provide safety education to parents of children aged 0-4 years. Despite current safety education, necessary safety behaviours are still not taken by a large number of parents, causing unnecessary risk of injury among young children. In an earlier study an E-health module with internet-based, tailored safety information was developed and applied. It concerns an advice for parents on safety behaviours in their homes regarding their child. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this safety information combined with personal counselling on parents' child safety behaviours. Methods/Design Parents who are eligible for the regular well-child visit with their child at child age 5-8 months are invited to participate in this study. Participating parents are randomized into one of two groups: 1 internet-based, tailored safety information combined with personal counselling (intervention group, or 2 personal counselling using the Safety Information Leaflets of the Consumer Safety Institute in the Netherlands for children aged 12 to 24 months (control group. All parents receive safety information on safety topics regarding the prevention of falling, poisoning, drowning and burning. Parents of the intervention group will access the internet-based, tailored safety information module when their child is approximately 10 months old. After completion of the assessment questions, the program compiles a tailored safety advice. The parents are asked to devise and inscribe a personal implementation intention. During the next well-child visit, the Child Health Clinic professional will discuss this tailored safety information

  2. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.M.; Lange, R. de; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Wismans, J.S.H.M.


    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could acceler

  3. Fire resistant aircraft seat program (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.


    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  4. Child pedestrian safety knowledge, behaviour and road injury in Cape Town, South Africa. (United States)

    Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan


    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings.

  5. Seat belt restraint system (United States)

    Garavaglia, A.; Matsuhiro, D.


    Shoulder-harness and lap-belt restraint system was designed to be worn by individuals of widely different sizes and to permit normal body motion except under sudden deceleration. System is divided into two basic assemblies, lap belt and torso or shoulder harness. Inertia-activated reels immediately lock when seat experiences sudden deceleration.

  6. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis. (United States)

    Verver, M M; de Lange, R; van Hoof, J; Wismans, J S H M


    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could accelerate this process. The objective of this paper is to establish a protocol for the development of seat models using numerically efficient simulation techniques. The methodology is based on multi-body techniques: arbitrary surfaces, providing an accurate surface description, are attached to rigid bodies. The bodies are connected by kinematic joints, representing the seat back recliner and head restraint joint. Properties of the seat foam and frame have been lumped together. Further, experiments have been defined to characterise the mechanical properties required for the seat model for comfort applications. The protocol has been exemplified using a standard car seat. The seat model has been validated based on experiments with rigid loading devices with human-like shapes in terms of force-deflection characteristics. The response of the seat model agrees well with the experimental results. Therefore the presented method can be a useful tool in the seat development process, especially in early stages of the design process.

  7. The Prediciton of Seat Transmissibility from Measures of Seat Impedance (United States)

    Wei, L.; Griffin, J.


    A method of predicting seat transmissibility from mathematical models of the seat and the human body is described. The complex dynamic stiffness of a seat is determined by measurement using an indenter rig, and its stiffness and damping subsequently determined by curve-fitting. By using the fitted stiffness and damping of the seat model, and a previously determined dynamic model of the human body, the seat transmissibility is predicted mathematically. The method is illustrated with data obtained with a car seat and also a rectangular sample of foam. The seat and foam transmissibilities were predicted over the frequency range 1·25-25 Hz using two alternative models of the human body (a one-degree-of-freedom model and a two-degree-of-freedom model). The predicted seat transmissibilities were close to those measured in a group of eight subjects over the entire frequency range. The two-degree-of-freedom model of the human body provided better predictions where the seat and foam showed a second resonance around 8 Hz. The need for a non-linear mathematical model of the human body and a non-linear seat model is discussed.

  8. Seat belt use during pregnancy in Iran: attitudes and practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojgan Karbakhsh; Zahra Ershadi; Ali Khaji; Fatemeh Rahimi-Sharbaf


    Objective: Seat belt use during pregnancy reduces injury to the mother and her fetus. During recent years, the use of seat belts has been mandated by law in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes and practices of pregnant women regarding seat belt use.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we asked 335 pregnant women at a hospital-based prenatal care clinic on the use of safety belt before and during pregnancy. SPSS version 13.0 was used for data analysis.Results: The mean age of study subjects was 27.3 years±5.3 years with the median of 27 years. Compared with the seat belt use before pregnancy, no change was detected in 48.7% of the women; seat belt use had increased in 17.5 %of them and decreased in 33.8 %. Eighty-one percent of women knew the correct placing of both lap belt and shoulder belt. Only 4% of women had received education on proper restraint use during pregnancy.Conclusions: The prevalence of seat belt use during pregnancy is lower than reports which are mostly from developed nations. The fact that about one-third of women have decreased their seat belt usage during pregnancy highlights the importance of education of mothers on this topic.

  9. Designing for Comfort and Reliability in an Intelligent Car Seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab


    Full Text Available Today, intelligent safety systems are installed in modern cars in view of minimising road hazards. An intelligent air bag system for example, comprised several subsystems that are integrated to include the weight sensor system, image sensor system, crash sensor system and tyre pressure monitoring system. These systems when poorly positioned into the car seat, will certainly affect comfort and reliability of the car seat. This research presents the design work on an intelligent car seat, which is equipped with a load cell type-sensory system. The load cells are used to detect the weight of a passenger for the deployment of an air bag system. The proposed design is validated against displacement and stress analysis using an 80 kg load to simulate the weight of a passenger. Results from the design validation indicated that the proposed configuration and material is appropriate for use in the intelligent car seat application.

  10. Seat Belts in School Buses: A Technical Analysis of the Literature. (United States)

    Splaine, Pam; Frankel, Steven M.

    This report, prepared for the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools superintendent and board members, identifies the questions concerning seat belt use in school buses, examines relevant literature, and draws some conclusions. According to the literature, seat belts are one of many alternative and interdependent safety devices built into…

  11. Seat Belts Don't Save Lives; Trained Drivers and Safe Vehicles Do. (United States)

    Bernard, Roscoe


    Presents five arguments against requiring seat belts on school buses, including the need for better trained drivers, the danger that students will be trapped by seat belts in emergencies, and other problems relating to practicality and cost. Included is an editorial insert indicating how safety advocates respond to such objections. (JBM)

  12. 78 FR 33150 - RECARO Child Safety, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance (United States)


    ... brand ProSport child restraint systems produced between June 16, 2010 and January 31, 2013, do not fully... approximately 39,181 RECARO brand ProSport child restraint systems produced between June 16, 2010 and January 31... , including any personal information provided. Documents submitted to a docket may be viewed by anyone at...

  13. Parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel. (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Muir, Carlyn; Budd, Laurie; Devlin, Anna; Oxley, Jennie; Charlton, Judith L; Newstead, Stuart


    This study investigated parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel following new Australian legislation regarding child restraint system (CRS) and motor vehicle restraint use for children aged 7 years and under. A questionnaire exploring attitudes, knowledge and behaviours regarding general road safety, as well as safe child occupant travel, was completed by 272 participants with at least one child aged between 3 and 10 years residing in the Australian state of Victoria. Responses to the questionnaire revealed that participants' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general were fairly positive, with most participants reporting that they restrict their alcohol consumption or do not drink at all while driving (87%), drive at or below the speed limit (85%) and 'always' wear their seatbelts (98%). However, more than half of the participants reported engaging in distracting behaviours 'sometimes' or 'often' (54%) and a small proportion of participants indicated that they 'sometimes' engaged in aggressive driving (14%). Regarding their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, most participants reported that they 'always' restrain their children (99%). However, there was a surprisingly high proportion of participants who did not know the appropriate age thresholds' to transition their child from a booster seat to an adult seatbelt (53%) or the age for which it is appropriate for their child to sit in the front passenger seat of the vehicle (20%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that parents' knowledge regarding safe child occupant travel was significantly related to their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general, such as drinking habits while driving and CRS safety knowledge. Based on the findings of this study, a number of recommendations are made for strategies to enhance parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child

  14. Simulation Analysis of Influence and Damage by Booster Seat Performance Parameters%增高座椅性能参数影响及损伤仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翔; 张学荣; 任美娟


    In order to reduce the rate that child passengers injury their chest and head in a collision,this paper analyzes the parameters of the child restraint system.It uses the multi body dynamics software MADYMO to establish the child occupant crash simulation model and verifies the validity of the model in accordance with the FMVSS213 regulations.The coefficient of friction between booster seat and car seat,car seat safety belt stiffness and influence on children injury when booster seat changes in the height direction are also analyzed.The results show that covering friction material to boost seat bottom surface in order to improve the coefficient of friction,improving safety belt stiffness and maintaining the current seat height of this booster seat can reduce the injuries on children's head and chest in collisions significantly.%为了降低儿童乘员在碰撞过程中胸部和头部的损伤率,对增高座椅儿童约束系统进行参数化分析.本文采用多体动力学软件MADYMO建立儿童乘员碰撞仿真模型,并按照FMVSS213法规验证模型的有效性.在此基础上,以头部质心合成加速度、头部损伤准则HIC36、胸部合成加速度为损伤指标,分析增高座椅与台车座椅之间的摩擦系数、汽车座椅安全带刚度、增高座椅在高度方向上变化对儿童损伤的影响,仿真结果表明:在增高座椅底面涂以摩擦材料以提高摩擦系数,适当提高安全带刚度及维持现有座椅高度可以显著减少儿童在碰撞过程中的头部和胸部损伤.

  15. Take your seats: Leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lynn Harms


    Full Text Available Despite an overall body symmetry, human behaviour is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  16. Optimization of Car Seats in the Interaction of Sitting Man on the Size of the Contact Pressure (United States)

    Martonka, R.; Fliegel, V.

    The crew vehicle, the driver and passengers are in a car in direct interaction with the car seat while driving, which affects a sitting person in many areas such as safety, comfort, a feeling of comfort and customization to individual requirements, ergonomics and variability. All these effects are caused by one or a group of elements used in the construction of the seat. Objective assessment of the requirements for the construction of car seats, regardless of the characteristics of the occupant is not possible to provide a subjective feeling of comfort for any seated person. Therefore, we include in the design of automotive seat occupant's subjective feelings. It is clear that car seats must "adapt" individual characteristics of a seated man (weight, corpulence, age, gender,…). One of the subjective feelings of a man sitting in the seat is comfortable for any seated person defined differently. Correlation was found between comfort seats and contact pressure distribution depending on the weight of a seated man. It is understandable that every sitting person has a different distribution of contact pressure. This has resulted in the same seat each person differently seems comfortable-hard. The research objective is always to ensure maximum contact area for any seated person. Parameter that must be optimized is the hardness of butt pads sitting person (usually polyurethane pad coated fabric cover).In the conventional design seat cushion hardness is fixed, without the possibility of adaptability by the individuality sitting man. This article deals with the assessment, definition and optimization of hardness of pad in the automobile seat, the contact pressure distribution and determining the regulatory range of hardness depending on the weight of a seated man.

  17. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents. (United States)

    Schichor, Aric; And Others


    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  18. Seat belt syndrome in children: a case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Durbin, D R; Arbogast, K B; Moll, E K


    Characteristic patterns of injury to children in automobile crashes resulting from lap and lap-shoulder belts have been described for many years. These injuries are known as the "seat belt syndrome." We present a typical case of seat belt syndrome involving a 4-year-old boy and review the current literature on the topic, highlighting proposed mechanisms of intra-abdominal and spine injuries. In addition, recent research findings identifying a new pattern of injuries associated with inappropriate seat belt use in young children are reviewed. Emergency physicians must consider these seat belt-related injuries in the initial evaluation of any child involved in a motor vehicle crash who was restrained with the vehicle seat belt.

  19. Responses of the Q6/Q6s ATD Positioned in Booster Seats in the Far-Side Seat Location of Side Impact Passenger Car and Sled Tests. (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Bohman, Katarina; Bussières, Alain


    Passenger car side impact crash tests and sled tests were conducted to investigate the influence of booster seats, near-side occupant characteristics and vehicle interiors on the responses of the Q6/Q6s child ATD positioned in the rear, far-side seating location. Data from nine side impact sled tests simulating a EuroNCAP AEMD barrier test were analyzed with data obtained from 44 side impact crash tests. The crash tests included: FMVSS 214 and IIHS MDB, moving car-to-stationary car and moving car-to-moving car. A Q6 or prototype Q6s ATD was seated on the far-side, using a variety of low and high back booster seats. Head and chest responses were recorded and ATD motions were tracked with high-speed videos. The vehicle lateral accelerations resulting from MDB tests were characterized by a much earlier and more rapid rise to peak than in tests where the bullet was another car. The near-side seating position was occupied by a Hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in the sled tests, and a rear or front facing child restraint or a 5th percentile side impact ATD in the crash tests. Head impacts occurred more frequently in vehicles where a forward facing child restraint was present behind the driver seat for both the low and high back booster seats. Pretensioners were found to reduce lateral head displacements in all sled test configurations but the greatest reduction in lateral excursion was obtained with a high back booster seat secured with LATCH and tested in combination with pretensioners.

  20. 76 FR 36890 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General... (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and... clarify prior interpretations of the seat belt and seating requirements of 14 CFR 91.107(a)(3). These... clarification states that the use of a seat belt and/or seat by more than one occupant is appropriate only...

  1. Comfort model for automobile seat. (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz


    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  2. Utilização de assentos de segurança por crianças matriculadas em creches Utilización de asientos de seguridad por niños matriculados en guarderías Child safety restraint use among children attending day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Lopes de Oliveira


    -sectional study using a stratified sampling conducted in the city of Maringá, Southern Brazil, between March and May 2007. Each day care center was visited at one day only. The outcome was use of child safety restraints by children under four. Vehicles (N=301 driving children under four were approached and information was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Variables regarding child and adult seat distribution, use of safety restraints by occupants and driver's gender were analyzed. Data analyses included Fisher's exact test, Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the drivers approached, 51.8% were using seat belts (60.4% among women, 44.9% among men. Among children, 36.1% were using child safety seats, 45.4% were unrestrained during traveling, 16.0% were seated on an adult lap, and 2.7% were using seat belts. The logistic regression showed the following factors affecting child safety restraint use: child age under 15 months (OR = 3.76; seat belt use by the driver (OR = 2.45; and children from socio-occupational condition with higher income and education (OR = 1.37. CONCLUSIONS: Child safety restraint use was associated to child age, seat belt use by the driver, and socio-occupational condition of day care centers. The finding of low rates of child safety restraint use poses a challenge to preventive medicine in Brazil, requiring attention and action to promote its widespread use.

  3. A Front-Row Seat at a Wheelchair Crash Test: EP Kicks Off Its Wheelchair Transportation Safety Series with a Visit to the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter


    The centerpiece of the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) Sled Lab is "the impact sled," as it is called in the business. It's the business of conducting sled impact tests, perhaps better known as crash tests, on all types of wheelchairs and wheelchair seating systems as well as wheelchair tiedowns and…

  4. Motor Vehicle Safety (United States)

    ... to prevent these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to be safer on the road: Make sure your vehicle is safe and in working order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don' ...

  5. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation) (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.


    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  6. China belting up or down? Seat belt wearing trends in Nanjing and Zhoushan. (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Li, Dan; Yu, Min; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Junhe; Tong, Zhendong; Wu, Ming; Wang, Peihua; Qin, Yu


    National seat belt wearing legislation became effective in China May 2004 and associated provincial and city regulations followed. Despite rapid motorisation seat belt studies in China have been scarce. Patterns and trends in urban seat belt wearing were observed for all driver, front and rear seating positions over the years 2005-2007 in two eastern cities Nanjing (Jiangsu Province) and Zhoushan (Zhejiang Province). There were 35,256 vehicles observed in Nanjing, 20,939 in Zhoushan and 95,933 occupants overall. Males dominated all seating positions, especially drivers. Seat belt wearing overall was significantly higher for drivers (49.9% Nanjing, 47.4% Zhoushan) than for front seat passengers (9.1% Nanjing, 1.0% Zhoushan) and virtually nonexistent for rear passengers (0.5% Nanjing, 0.2% Zhoushan). Generally levels declined significantly from year to year (drivers Nanjing 66.7%, 47.7%, 38.6%; Zhoushan 57.4%, 57.9%, 30.6%; front passengers Nanjing 19.2%, 6.6%, 3.2%). Zhoushan wearing did not initially decline, 2006 observations coinciding with anticipation of provincial regulations (July 2006). Observations revealed an absence of child restraints. Pretend wearing/belt tampering was observed almost exclusively in taxi drivers (14.2% of Nanjing taxi drivers, 11.3% of Zhoushan's). Awareness of and attitudes to urban seat belt laws should be investigated, appropriate countermeasures developed and enforcement reassessed.

  7. First Aid and Safety (United States)

    ... Playground Safety Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Safety Tips: Baseball Safety Tips: Basketball Safety Tips: Hockey Safety Tips: ... it a Medical Emergency? Knowing Your Child's Medical History Nosebleeds Seizures Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Teaching Your ...

  8. The safety and clinical outcomes of chemoembolization in child-pugh class C patients with hepatocellular carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Tae Won; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Yu, Su Jong; Kang, Beom Sik; Hur, Sae Beom; Lee, Myung Su; Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the safety and clinical outcomes of chemoembolization in Child-Pugh class C patients with hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). The study comprised 55 patients with HCC who were classified as Child-Pugh class C and who underwent initial chemoembolization between January 2003 and December 2012. Selective chemoembolization was performed in all technically feasible cases to minimize procedure-related complications. All adverse events within 30 days were recorded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). The tumor response to chemoembolization was evaluated using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. Thirty (54.5%) patients were within the Milan criteria, and 25 (45.5%) were beyond. The mortality of study subjects at 30 days was 5.5%. Major complications were observed in five (9.1%) patients who were all beyond the Milan criteria: two hepatic failures, one hepatic encephalopathy, and two CTCAE grade 3 increases in aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase abnormality. The mean length of hospitalization was 6.3 ± 8.3 days (standard deviation), and 18 (32.7%) patients were discharged on the next day after chemoembolization. The tumor responses of the patients who met the Milan criteria were significantly higher (p = 0.014) than those of the patients who did not. The overall median survival was 7.1 months (95% confidence interval: 4.4-9.8 months). Even in patients with Child-Pugh class C, chemoembolization can be performed safely with a selective technique in selected cases with a small tumor burden.

  9. I Am Your Child: Health & Nutrition [and] Literacy [and] Safety. [Videotapes]. (United States)

    I Am Your Child Foundation, Beverly Hills, CA.

    Noting the importance of early experiences for the healthy growth and development of children, these three videotapes for parents explore children's health and nutrition, literacy, and safety. Each videotape is 20-25 minutes long. The first video, "Your Healthy Baby," presents information parents need on children's health and nutrition.…

  10. Eye Safety At-A-Glance: Protecting Your Child's Vision in Sports (United States)

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2006


    Sports-related eye injuries are quite common, yet the number of children who use protective eyewear (safety glasses or goggles) is extremely low. More than 600,000 eye injuries related to sports occur each year, and approximately one-third of these injuries occur in children. When children participate in sports they not only increase their…

  11. Evaluation of the Seat Index Point Tool for Military Seats (United States)


    of less than 5 degrees, the J826 slides forward in the seat (even with the foot on braced accelerator pedal) and the back angle measurement becomes...attached to the frame , slid forward during the installation of the J826 manikin, which is probably not representative of the way a sitter would use

  12. Bathroom safety - children (United States)

    ... sure your child's daycare also follows these guidelines. Images Child safety References American Academy of Pediatrics: Committee on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention. Policy statement -- prevention of drowning. ...

  13. Seatbelt submarining injury and its prevention countermeasures: How a cantilever seat pan structure exacerbate submarining. (United States)

    Thorbole, Chandrashekhar K


    The purpose of this study and a case report was to demonstrate seat belt webbing induced injury due to seatbelt submarining during the frontal motor vehicle crash. Submarining is an undesired phenomenon during a frontal crash scenario and is dependent on design features of the seat pan and seatbelt system. The lack of adequate anti-submarining features at any seating position with three-point restraint can cause abdominal solid and hollow organ injuries. This paper reports a case of submarining and factors that exacerbated this phenomenon leading to critical occupant abdominal injury. This case report and the following injury causation analysis demonstrate the shortcomings of a cantilever seat pan design in context to the occupant safety. The inadequate seat pan anti-submarining feature in association with lack of seatbelt load-limiter and Pretensioner reduces the level of occupant protection offered by the seat belt system in the rear seat. This case report shows the dangers of cantilever seat pan design and its association with increased risk of submarining causing severe abdominal injuries.

  14. Seat-belt use still low in Kuwait: self-reported driving behaviours among adult drivers. (United States)

    Raman, Sudha R; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Landry, Michel D; Alfadhli, Jarrah; Procter, Steven; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal


    Kuwait mandated seat-belt use by drivers in 1976 and by front seat passengers in 1994. The study objectives were to identify and estimate current factors associated with seat-belt use and levels of potentially unsafe driving behaviours in Kuwait. In 2010, 741 adults were surveyed regarding driving habits and history. Only 41.6% of drivers reported always using a seat belt. Front seat passenger belt use was more common (30.5%) than rear seat belt use (6.5%). Distracted driving behaviours were common, including mobile phone use ('always' or 'almost always': 51.1%) and texting/SMS (32.4%). Logistic regression indicated that drivers who were young (18-19 years), male, Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs, drove over the speed limit, had traffic violation tickets or >1 car crashes in the last year, were less likely to use seat belts. Targeted initiatives to increase public awareness and to enforce car-safety legislation, including use of seat belts, are necessary to decrease the health burden of car crashes in Kuwait.

  15. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General... (United States)


    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 91 [Docket No. FAA-2011-0628] Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt... interpretations of FAA's seat belt and seating requirements. These prior interpretations state that the shared use of a single restraint may be permissible. This clarification states that the use of a seat belt...

  16. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.


    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables an

  17. Sociometry and Classroom Seat Selection. (United States)

    Hufman, Melody; Barbour, Alton

    Since attraction and close proxemic distances have been found to be associated throughout the study of nonverbal communication, a study was conducted that hypothesized that attraction would be a more important predictor of seat selection than any other variables. Subjects included students enrolled in introductory speech communication classes who…

  18. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont


    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  19. Development and initial validation of the Seated Posture Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Barks, PhD, ARNP


    Full Text Available Literature shows that some health outcomes (e.g., eating, breathing, and speaking are directly related to posture. Evidence of outcomes mediated by wheelchair seated posture is limited to interface pressure, physical function, and wheelchair skills and safety. This study’s purpose was to develop and validate a rapid, low-burden, paper-pencil assessment of wheelchair seated posture for research use and to test feasibility of its use with a sample of older adults. We used a prospective design and a convenience sample of older adults who were receiving rehabilitation services in a community living center. Forty-nine older wheelchair users participated. Main measures were the Seated Posture Scale (SPS, Modified Ashworth Scale, Barthel Index, Visual Descriptor Scale, scale-content validity index (S-CVI, Cronbach alpha, and test-retest reliability. Rating by six experts yielded the overall content validity score (S-CVI of 0.744. Total SPS score correlated positively with physical function (Barthel Index, r = 0.46, p < 0.001 and negatively with muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale, r = –0.44, p = 0.001, supporting SPS construct validity. Internal consistency was 0.66 (Cronbach alpha. Test-retest reliability yielded Pearson product-moment correlations of 0.89 to 0.99. We conclude that the SPS has sufficient preliminary validity and reliability to support its use as an evaluation of wheelchair seated posture in outcomes research.

  20. A game of Chinese whispers in Malaysia: contextual analysis of child road safety education. (United States)

    Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Kulanthayan, Subramaniam; Hyder, Adnan A


    In 2006, the Malaysian government began implementing road safety education (RSE) programs in primary schools, involving numerous stakeholders. We interviewed 19 stakeholders. Thematic analysis led to the identification of four themes: road traffic injuries (RTIs) among children in Malaysia, the role of RSE, factors affecting successful implementation, and intersectoral involvement. The latter was identified as a significant strength of the overall approach to implementation, and is one of the first examples in Malaysia and in the region of such an approach. Lack of official documentation surrounding ownership, funding responsibilities, and roles among the various sectors led to resistance from some groups. Although we know from scientific studies what works in terms of reducing RTIs, the more important question is how such interventions can be successfully and sustainably implemented, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The results of this study permit stronger understanding of issues surrounding the implementation of RTI interventions in LMIC.

  1. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles. (United States)

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana


    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products.

  2. Safety

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: Code A10: Code A11: Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: TIS Secretariat

  3. Development of a Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry in a Microgravity Environment (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda


    The Constellation Program's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to accommodate the full population range of crewmembers according to the anthropometry requirements stated in the Human-Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document (CxP70024). Seated height is one of many critical dimensions of importance to the CEV designers in determining the optimum seat configuration in the vehicle. Changes in seated height may have a large impact to the design, accommodation, and safety of the crewmembers. Seated height can change due to elongation of the spine when crewmembers are exposed to microgravity. Spinal elongation is the straightening of the natural curvature of the spine and the expansion of inter-vertebral disks. This straightening occurs due to fluid shifts in the body and the lack of compressive forces on the spinal vertebrae. Previous studies have shown that as the natural curvature of the spine straightens, an increase in overall height of 3% of stature occurs which has been the basis of the current HSIR requirements. However due to variations in the torso/leg ratio and impact of soft tissue, data is nonexistent as to how spinal elongation specifically affects the measurement of seated height. In order to obtain this data, an experiment was designed to collect spinal elongation data while in a seated posture in microgravity. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data that represents the amount of change that occurs in seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity environments. Given the schedule and budget constraints of ISS and Shuttle missions and the uniqueness of the problem, a methodology had to be developed to ensure that the seated height measurements were accurately collected. Therefore, simulated microgravity evaluations were conducted to test the methodology and procedures of the experiment. This evaluation obtained seat pan pressure and seated height data to a) ensure that the lap restraint provided sufficient

  4. Evaluation of legislation on seat belt use on rear seats : social persuasion as a new measure to promote seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts for front seat passengers was made compulsory in 1975, and on April 1st 1992 the use of rear seat belts, if fitted, became a legal requirement. Since 1968, an annual survey of the presence and use of seat belts on front seats - extended in 1989 to include re

  5. Factors affecting self-reported use of seat belt among commercial vehicle drivers in Gusau metropolis Zamfara State north-western Nigeria. (United States)

    Idris, Suleman Hadejia; Nasir Sambo, Mohammed; Gambo, Hilda; Hassan, Amina


    Optimal and adequate prevention of road traffic injuries in developing countries has been hampered by limitations of knowledge and poor attitude towards use of cost effective safety and preventive measures like the seat belt. The objective of the study was to determine the level of self-reported use of seat belt and the factors affecting it among commercial motor vehicle drivers. The study was cross-sectional descriptive, data was obtained using interviewer-administered, structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Knowledge of seat belt was low, (11%), more than half (55.3%) admitted that use of seat belts prevents ejection of vehicle occupants. Less than half (47%) reported use of seat belt always. Age and educational level were significantly associated with use of seat belts (p seat belts coupled with low level of use. Innovative public health education approaches with enforcement could mitigate the low level of use.

  6. Analysis and optimization of protection provided by vehicle anti-shock seat safety belt systems under vertical intensive shock loads%垂向强冲击载荷下车辆缓冲座椅的安全带系统防护性能分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彦鹏; 吕振华


    针对特种车辆受到垂向强冲击时缓冲座椅的安全带系统防护性能进行研究,建立了地板-座椅-乘员系统的有限元模型,对驾驶室地板结构施加冲击位移输入,应用数值仿真方法比较分析了缓冲座椅分别匹配两点式、三点式、四点式和六点式安全带时对乘员的约束效能。在垂向强冲击载荷下,具有六点式安全带的缓冲座椅可有效地减小腰椎轴向压力峰值,同时降低乘员与车身结构发生冲击碰撞的可能性。进一步对六点式安全带的预紧特性和限力特性参数进行了多设计方案分析和优化,具有匹配优化后的预紧特性和限力特性的六点式安全带可使乘员的腰椎轴向压力峰值比优化前降低10.7%,比三点式安全带显著地提高了缓冲座椅抗垂向强冲击的安全性。%A finite element model of a cab floor-seat occupant sub system was developed for special purpose vehicles to study the vertical shock protection provided by anti-shock seat systems with safety belts. The model inputs are a set of shock displacement-time histories experienced by the vehicle cab floor. Numerical simulations are used in a comparative study of the protection provided by safety belts anchored at two, three, four and six points during vertical intensive shock loads. The safety belts with six anchor points reduce the axial compression force on the lumbar spine and effectively prevent secondary impact between the lower limbs and the vehicle structures. The influences of the pretension and the forceqimit characteristics of the safety belts with six anchor points on occupant injuries are analyzed to optimize the pretension and force-limit parameters. The results show that the optimal safety belts with six anchor points reduce the peak axial compression force on the lumbar spine by 10. 7% compared with the initial design. The vertical shock protection provided by the anti shock seat system is effectively improved compared to

  7. Safety restraint systems in heavy truck rollover scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, P.M.A.; Coo, P.J.A. de


    Safety restraint systems have been widely applied in the passenger car industry. The heavy truck industry has followed along, integrating the seat belts in the seat system. The effectiveness of seat belts, in particular in rollover scenarios, was studied for a number of heavy truck rollover scenario

  8. Ninety five percent: an evaluation of law, policy, and programs to promote seat belt use in Washington state. (United States)

    Salzberg, Philip M; Moffat, John M


    Seat belt use in Washington state was 83% in 2001. In 2002, a series of law, policy, and program initiatives coalesced to produce a dramatic increase in seat belt use. Washington enacted a primary enforcement seat belt, the Chief of the Washington State Patrol made safety belt enforcement one of the core missions of that agency, and Washington participated in the national Memorial Day Click It or Ticket program during May 2002 and continued the program into 2003. Evaluation of these initiatives was accomplished through observation surveys of seat belt use, analysis of seat belt violation data, and analysis of data on traffic deaths of motor vehicle occupants. The major findings were that there was a two- to three-fold increase in enforcement of the seat belt law, belt use rates increased to 93% in 2002 and again to 95% in 2003, and motor-vehicle occupant fatalities decreased by 13%. IMPACT ON PRACTICE AND POLICY: The primary seat belt law and Click It or Ticket program activities were critical factors in increasing belt use in Washington state. Media and enforcement programs targeting seat belt use can be very effective in raising the belt use rate, but a long-term commitment to continuation of these program activities is essential. Other states implementing new primary seat belt laws should consider delivering a Click It or Ticket campaign prior to the effective date of the primary law and continuing these activities during subsequent months and years.

  9. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. (United States)

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G


    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats.

  10. Research on Vibration Characteristics Between Human Body and Seat, Steering Wheel, and Pedals (effects of Seat Position on Ride Comfort) (United States)



    Experimental results are presented of the vibrational characteristics of the automotive subsystem comprising the human body, seat, steering wheel and pedals. The magnitude of the vibrations transferred to a driver from the seat, steering wheel and pedals have been measured with both sinusoidal and random excitations in the vertical direction at frequencies up to 20 Hz. Measurement points were located on the surface of the head, chest, hip, thigh, shin, upper arm and lower arm. Eleven subjects were used to investigate the effect of some variable factors, such as arm angle, that may affect human dynamic behavior. It was found that arm angle in driving posture has a substantial influence on the dynamic behavior of the human body while driving. Some results are presented in the form of parametric graphs and tables. The results are useful for improving ride comfort, maneuverability and safety.

  11. Evaluation of seat and non-seat post preparation design using conventional and computational methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Subrata


    Full Text Available Background: Design of root canal preparation especially in cervical-third area of the root, is one of many factors involved in the success of post-core restoration. Seat design that is used in Prosthodontics Installation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Padjadjaran, is in the contrary to minimal preparation design. The root fracture resistance of this design has not been proven yet. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the root fracture resistance of seat compare to non-seat design, with two different research methods: experimental laboratory and computer simulation with Finite Element Method (FEM. Method: The experimental laboratory investigation used 20 upper central incisors: 10 used seat design and 10 non-seats, with the cast posts cemented in the preparation. The specimens were tested by using Universal Testing Machine with compressive force until the root fracture. The FEM used 2D digital models: seat and non-seat design of maxillary central incisors using a finite element software. The distribution of internal stress caused by static loading 110N at 135° angle with longitudinal axis of the tooth was evaluated. Result: The results of the fracture strength test showed a significant difference (p = 0.05 between the non-seat group (852.27N ± 112.6N and the seat group (495.78N ± 82.90N. The FEM showed a lower stress concentration in non-seat compare to seat group. This study proved that non-seat distributes stress better than seat design. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the FEM confirmed the result of the laboratory method. Stress concentration will cause fracture, therefore root fracture resistance in the non-seat design was higher than the seat design.

  12. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 4, July-August 2009 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  13. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 3, May-June 2010 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of this newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  14. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 4, July-August 2010 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  15. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 5, September-October 2009 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  16. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 6, November-December 2009 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  17. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 1, January-February 2010 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  18. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 2, March-April 2009 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  19. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 2, March-April 2010 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  20. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor (United States)

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert


    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  1. Lumbar load attenuation for rotorcraft occupants using a design methodology for the seat impact energy-absorbing system (United States)

    Moradi, Rasoul; Beheshti, Hamid; Lankarani, Hamid


    Aircraft occupant crash-safety considerations require a minimum cushion thickness to limit the relative vertical motion of the seat-pelvis during high vertical impact loadings in crash landings or accidents. In military aircraft and helicopter seat design, due to the potential for high vertical accelerations in crash scenarios, the seat system must be provided with an energy absorber to attenuate the acceleration level sustained by the occupants. Because of the limited stroke available for the seat structure, the design of the energy absorber becomes a trade-off problem between minimizing the stroke and maximizing the energy absorption. The available stroke must be used to prevent bottoming out of the seat as well as to absorb maximum impact energy to protect the occupant. In this study, the energy-absorbing system in a rotorcraft seat design is investigated using a mathematical model of the occupant/seat system. Impact theories between interconnected bodies in multibody mechanical systems are utilized to study the impact between the seat pan and the occupant. Experimental responses of the seat system and the occupant are utilized to validate the results from this study for civil and military helicopters according to FAR 23 and 25 and MIL-S-58095 requirements. A model for the load limiter is proposed to minimize the lumbar load for the occupant by minimizing the relative velocity between the seat pan and the occupant's pelvis. The modified energy absorber/load limiter is then implemented for the seat structure so that it absorbs the energy of impact in an effective manner and below the tolerable limit for the occupant in a minimum stroke. Results show that for a designed stroke, the level of occupant lumbar spine injury would be significantly attenuated using this modified energy-absorber system.

  2. Technical note: Spine loading in automotive seating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenk, R.; Franz, M.; Bubb, H.; Vink, P.


    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load distribu

  3. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating. (United States)


    ... this section, the suitability of each person it permits to occupy an exit seat, in accordance with this... public at all passenger loading gates and ticket counters at each airport where it conducts passenger...-holding district office. (o) Certificate holders shall assign seats prior to boarding consistent with...

  4. Structural analysis for lightweight design of a seat frame in automotive vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.G.; Cho, Y.T. [Jeonju Univ. (Korea). Div. of Mech. and Ind. Eng.; Choe, G.H. [Div. of Electronics and Information Standards Technology, Korean Agency for Technology and Standards, Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, Kyunggido (Korea); Lee, B.H. [Automation Technology Div., National Inst. of Tech. and Quality, Kyunggido (Korea)


    To achieve weight reduction at low cost, a seat frame structure in automotive vehicles made of polymer matrix composite(PMC) was developed. A sample seat frame structure was designed and analysed using finite element analysis(FEM) in order to design and manufacture. Analyses were done for several cases suggested in various safety regulations of federal motor vehicle safety standards(FMVSS). Each result was utilized to modify the actual shape to obtain a lighter, safer and more stable design. The strategy of appropriate design was used to produce a sample bottom plate of the seat structure with reinforced by X-shape frame. It was found that the substitution of material by PMC resulted in a weight reduction effect with equivalent strength and impact characteristics. Finally, the most desirable geometry for X-shaped frame was proposed to obtain the effective performance. (orig.)

  5. Active vibration attenuating seat suspension for an armored helicopter crew seat (United States)

    Sztein, Pablo Javier

    An Active Vibration Attenuating Seat Suspension (AVASS) for an MH-60S helicopter crew seat is designed to protect the occupants from harmful whole-body vibration (WBV). Magnetorheological (MR) suspension units are designed, fabricated and installed in a helicopter crew seat. These MR isolators are built to work in series with existing Variable Load Energy Absorbers (VLEAs), have minimal increase in weight, and maintain crashworthiness for the seat system. Refinements are discussed, based on testing, to minimize friction observed in the system. These refinements include the addition of roller bearings to replace friction bearings in the existing seat. Additionally, semi-active control of the MR dampers is achieved using special purpose built custom electronics integrated into the seat system. Experimental testing shows that an MH-60S retrofitted with AVASS provides up to 70.65% more vibration attenuation than the existing seat configuration as well as up to 81.1% reduction in vibration from the floor.

  6. Biomechanical considerations for abdominal loading by seat belt pretensioners. (United States)

    Rouhana, Stephen W; El-Jawahri, Raed E; Laituri, Tony R


    While seat belts are the most effective safety technology in vehicles today, there are continual efforts in the industry to improve their ability to reduce the risk of injury. In this paper, seat belt pretensioners and current trends towards more powerful systems were reviewed and analyzed. These more powerful systems may be, among other things, systems that develop higher belt forces, systems that remove slack from belt webbing at higher retraction speeds, or both. The analysis started with validation of the Ford Human Body Finite Element Model for use in evaluation of abdominal belt loading by pretensioners. The model was then used to show that those studies, done with lap-only belts, can be used to establish injury metrics for tests done with lap-shoulder belts. Then, previously-performed PMHS studies were used to develop AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ injury risk curves for abdominal interaction with seat belts via logistic regression and reliability analysis with interval censoring. Finally, some considerations were developed for a possible laboratory test to evaluate higher-powered pretensioners.

  7. Evaluation of legislation on seat belt use on rear seats : social persuasion as a new measure to promote seat belt use.



    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts for front seat passengers was made compulsory in 1975, and on April 1st 1992 the use of rear seat belts, if fitted, became a legal requirement. Since 1968, an annual survey of the presence and use of seat belts on front seats - extended in 1989 to include rear seats - has been conducted in the Netherlands. An evaluation of compliance with the law stipulating the use of rear seat belts was conducted by comparing the observation and surveys carried out ...

  8. A longitudinal study of the effectiveness of a multi-media intervention on parents' knowledge and use of vehicle safety systems for children. (United States)

    Snowdon, Anne W; Hussein, Abdul; Purc-Stevenson, Rebecca; Follo, Giovanna; Ahmed, Ejaz


    Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and serious injury for children under the age of 14 in Canada and in the United States despite mandatory use of vehicle restraints since 1977. Using a pre- and post-test design, the present study tests the effectiveness of a multi-media intervention study on parents' knowledge of car safety seat use for children (0-12 years). The sample included 201 parents from four Ontario cities. Results indicate that parents' knowledge of when to accurately and safely transition a child to the appropriate car safety seat based on child's age, weight and height was retained at the 1 year post-test for children 4-8 years of age. The rates of correct use of safety seats significantly increased 1 year following the intervention program. Other factors that influenced parent's knowledge included being a parent versus non-parents, gender, income, education, sources of information, and regional location. The results of this study can help guide the development and implementation of future intervention programs and injury prevention policy.

  9. Compliance with Use of Seat Belt among Commercial Drivers in a Nigerian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole C. Omolase


    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed at determining compliance with use of seat belt among commercial intercity drivers. METHOD: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Owo, South West Nigeria among commercial intercity drivers between June and September, 2009. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria prior to commencement of this study. The permission of the leadership of Road Transport Workers’ Union was also sought and obtained. Ninety intercity commercial drivers out of the estimated one hundred and sixty intercity commercial drivers in the community were enrolled in this study. Informed consent was obtained from each of the respondents. The data obtained was collated and analyzed with SPSS 15.0.1 statistical soft ware version. RESULTS: Ninety respondents were enrolled in this study. The driving experience of the respondents revealed that most respondents: 53 (58.9% had more than 20 years driving experience. Most respondents;78 (86.7% complied with use of seat belt .The main barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip;28 (50.9%.Most respondents; 67 (74.4%were in support of penalization of defaulters. The major source of awareness about seat belt was Federal Road Safety Corps;59 (65.6%. CONCLUSION: Most respondents complied with use of seat belt. The major barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip within the community. The Federal Road Safety Corps should enforce compliance with the use of seat belt most especially within communities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 281-286

  10. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont


    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  11. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont


      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  12. Effects of vehicle seat and belt geometry on belt fit for children with and without belt positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert-Hamilton, Sheila M; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Rupp, Jonathan D


    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of belt-positioning boosters on lap and shoulder belt fit. Postures and belt fit were measured for forty-four boys and girls ages 5-12 in four highback boosters, one backless booster, and on a vehicle seat without a booster. Belt anchorage locations were varied over a wide range. Seat cushion angle, seat back angle, and seat cushion length were varied in the no-booster conditions. All boosters produced better mean lap belt fit than was observed in the no-booster condition, but the differences among boosters were relatively large. With one midrange belt configuration, the lap belt was not fully below the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) landmark on the front of the pelvis for 89% of children in one booster, and 75% of children failed to achieve that level of belt fit in another. In contrast, the lap belt was fully below the ASIS for all but two children in the best-performing booster. Child body size had a statistically significant but relatively small effect on lap belt fit. The largest children sitting without a booster had approximately the same lap belt fit as the smallest children experienced in the worst-performing booster. Increasing lap belt angle relative to horizontal produced significantly better lap belt fit in the no-booster condition, but the boosters isolated the children from the effects of lap belt angles. Reducing seat cushion length in the no-booster condition improved lap belt fit but changing cushion angle did not. Belt upper anchorage (D-ring) location had a strong effect on shoulder belt fit in conditions without shoulder belt routing from the booster. Unexpectedly, the worst average shoulder belt fit was observed in one highback booster with a poorly positioned shoulder belt routing clip. The shoulder belt was routed more outboard, on average, with a backless booster than without a booster, but raising the child also amplified the effect of D-ring location, such that children were

  13. Comfort, experience, physiology and car seat innovation: Theory, Design and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, M.M.


    The development process of car seats is very complex and many factors have to be considered in the development, such as anthropometry, physiology, safety, design and comfort. A factor making it more complex is the fact that future cars should be more sustainable, making the need for weight reduction

  14. 75 FR 33683 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Correction In rule document 2010-13080 beginning...

  15. Technical note: spine loading in automotive seating. (United States)

    Zenk, R; Franz, M; Bubb, H; Vink, P


    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load distribution", based on the identification of a close relationship between the pressure on the seat and the discomfort felt by the person sitting. An in vivo measurement of the pressure in the spinal disc, which is an indicator of the load in the spine, was performed. For this research, a pressure sensor was implanted with a canula in the middle of the disc intervertebralis of a participant. The local pressure on the disc was established for the participant in an automobile seat set in various seat positions. The results indicate that in the seat position with the pressure distribution corresponding to the most comfortable posture the pressure in the intervertebral disc is lowest. The pressure in this position is 0.5 bar, while in the upright seated position the pressure is 1.6 bar.

  16. Safety Resources. (United States)

    Hoot, James L.; Bartkowiak, Elaine T.


    Lists 72 organizations and programs that deal with child safety, grouped by the following categories: (1) general; (2) general violence; (3) gun violence; (4) media violence; (5) drugs and alcohol; (6) child abuse and at-risk children; (7) parenting programs; (8) community service programs; (9) leadership programs; (10) peer counseling; (11)…

  17. Has Child Restraint System Use Increased among Parents of Children in Shantou, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqian Lei


    Full Text Available Objective: to examine parents’ use of child restraint systems (CRS, and determine if parents’ knowledge of, attitude toward, and use behavior of child restraint systems have improved following enactment of child restraint use laws in other cities. Design: Observations and a cross-sectional survey of drivers transporting children 17 years and under were conducted at the gate of the schools and parking lots of hospitals in Shantou. Observers recorded the seating location of child passengers, the type of restraint, and appropriate use of CRS and safety belts based on the observation. Knowledge of and attitudes towards use of CRS were reported by the driver following observation. Results: Approximately 6.6% of passengers aged 0–12 were in CRS; rate of forward-facing CRS in children aged 3–5 (9.9% was higher than rear-facing CRS for children aged 0–2 (1.1% and booster seat use among children aged 6–12 (0.1%. Children younger than four years old (OR = 3.395, 95% CI = 2.125–5.424, drivers having a college or higher lever education (OR = 2.908, 95% CI = 1.878–4.500 and drivers wearing seatbelt (OR = 3.194, 95% CI = 1.605–6.356 had greater odds of CRS use. Over half (56.6% of parents might or would use CRS if they could rent CRSs with fees. Conclusions: The rate of CRS is still low in Shantou. Comprehensive public education programs supported by legislation might be an effective way to improve child passenger safety. Renting CRSs to parents could be a new approach to encourage use.

  18. Assessing the rider's seat and horse's behavior: difficulties and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Aronsson, A.; Hartmann, K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Keeling, L.


    correct seat and position are the basis for a good performance in horseback riding. This study aimed to measure deviations from the correct seat, test a seat improvement program (dismounted exercises), and investigate whether horse behavior was affected by the rider's seat. Five experienced trainers

  19. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  20. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  1. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses. (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest


    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  2. Peltier Junction heats and cools car seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, M.A.


    Electrically heated seats may soon become heated and cooled seats. The design called the CCS module exploits the heat-pump capability of a class of semiconductor thermoelectric devices (TEDs) known as Peltier Junction. Every CCS module contain two TEDs. Heating and cooling occurs through convection and conduction. The heart of the system is the thermoelectric heat pump. This is originally conceived as the sole heating/cooling options for a prototype electric vehicle.

  3. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems. (United States)


    ... procedures specified in S5. S4.3. Restraining device for hinged or folding seats or seat backs. Except for a.... S5.1Apply the forces specified in S4.2(a) and S4.2(b) as follows: S5.1.1For a seat whose seat back... seat bench, as shown in Figure 3. S5.2Develop the moment specified in S4.2(d) as shown in Figure 4....

  4. Assessing the rider's seat and horse's behavior: difficulties and perspectives


    Blokhuis, H.J.; Aronsson, A.; Hartmann, K; Reenen, van, C.G.; Keeling, L


    correct seat and position are the basis for a good performance in horseback riding. This study aimed to measure deviations from the correct seat, test a seat improvement program (dismounted exercises), and investigate whether horse behavior was affected by the rider's seat. Five experienced trainers defined 16 seat deviations and scored the occurrence in 20 riders in a dressage test. Half the riders then carried out an individual training program; after 9 weeks, riders were again scored. The ...

  5. Seat belt use law in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.

  6. Stress analysis and design strategy for lightweight car seat frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.G. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Jeonju Univ., Jeonju (Korea)


    A seat frame structure in automotive vehicles made of polymer matrix composite(PMC) with reinforced by X-shape steel frame was developed to obtain weight reduction at low cost. The frame structure was designed and analysed using finite element analysis(FEA) and was compared with experimental impact test to verify the structural safety after fabricated. The design model based on safety was analysed with appropriate boundary conditions and loading conditions. Each result was utilized to modify the actual shape to obtain a lighter, safer and stabler design. It was found that the substitution of PMC material reinforced by an X-shaped steel frame resulted in a weight reduction effect with equivalent strength, impact characteristics and fracture property. (orig.)

  7. Utilização de automóveis familiares para o transporte de crianças: um estudo preliminar sobre o uso de dispositivos de retenção infantil Family car use for transportation of children: a preliminary study of the use of child car seats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Lopes de Oliveira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar a freqüência de utilização de automóveis familiares por usuários de creches na cidade de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. MÉTODOS: a cidade foi agrupada em seis estratos, de acordo com características sócio-ocupacionais da população e tipo de creches. Utilizando breves entrevistas com os coordenadores das creches foi mensurada a freqüência de utilização de automóveis para o transporte de crianças às creches em cada estrato. RESULTADOS: 62,4% dos usuários de automóveis familiares para o transporte de crianças concentram-se em 32 creches, de quatro estratos. CONCLUSÕES: os quatro estratos que contém a maioria dos usuários de automóveis serão exploradas por estudo futuro para determinar a freqüência de utilização de dispositivos de retenção infantil.OBJECTIVES: to investigate the frequency of use of the family car for transportation of children to day-care centers in the city of Maringá, State of Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: the city was divided into six strata according to social and occupational characteristics and the day care-center attended. Utilizing short interviews with day-care centers' coordinators it was measured the frequency of use of car for transportation of children to day-care centers to each stratum. RESULTS: 62.4% of the families that use cars for transporting children to day-care centers used 32 of the day-care centers and fell into four of the demographic strata. CONCLUSIONS: the four strata that contain the majority of car users will be explored by future investigation to determine the frequency of use of the child car seat.

  8. An Analysis of Legislative Policy from the Perspective of the Multi streams Theory---Taking the Promotion of the Child Safety Seat’s Use with Legislative means in Shanghai as an Example%多源流理论视域下的立法政策分析--以上海立法推进儿童安全座椅使用为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    借助约翰·W·金登的多源流模型,分析上海立法强推儿童安全座椅政策制定过程中的问题源流、政策源流和政治源流,并得出结论:“政策企业家”积极开展各种软化活动并善于抓住政策之窗开启的机遇,是立法强制使用儿童安全座椅最终得以实现的最为关键的要素。同时,政策企业家活跃在三股源流中,反映出多源流理论面对中国国情时,源流间的独立性被削弱。这也为我国的公共政策制定者带来了启示:应当在政策制定过程中积极重视“政策企业家”的力量。%By Resorting to John W Kingdon's theory of multiple streams to analyze the problem stream,the policy stream and the political stream in Shanghai's legislative policy making of being aimed at the popularization of the child safety seats,the study shows that it is the most critical element for the release of the latest clause of child safety seat's popularization,in which the policy entrepreneurs play an active role in"softening up phase"and are good at seizing the opportunity moment that the policy win-dow is open.Meanwhile,the independence among three streams reduces,when the multiple streams theory faces the Chinese context,since the Chinese policy entrepreneurs are active in the three streams simultaneously.This provides the enlightenment which can be given to our public policy makers:the policy entrepreneurs should receive more positive attention and their power should be taken more seri-ously in the policy making process.

  9. Modeling school bus seat belt usage: Nested and mixed logit approaches. (United States)

    Mehta, Gaurav; Lou, Yingyan


    School bus seat belt usage has been of great interest to the school transportation community. Understanding factors that influence students' decisions about wearing seat belts or not is important in determining the most cost-effective ways to improve belt usage rate, and thus the seat belt safety benefits. This paper presents a rigorous empirical analysis on data from Alabama School Bus Pilot Project using discrete choice modeling framework. In order to collect relevant information on individual student-trips, a new data collection protocol is adopted. Three choice alternatives are considered in the study: wearing, not wearing, and improperly wearing seat belts. A student's choice probabilities of these alternatives are modeled as functions of the student's characteristics and trip attributes. The coefficients of the variables in the functions are estimated first using standard multinomial logit model. Moreover, to account for potential correlations among the three choice alternatives and individual-level preference and response heterogeneity among users, nested and mixed logit models are employed in the investigation. Eight significant influence factors are identified by the final models. Their relative impacts are also quantified. The factors include age, gender and the home county of a student, a student's trip length, time of day, seat location, presence and active involvement of bus aide, and two levels of bus driver involvement. The impact of the seat location on students' seat belt usage is revealed for the first time by this study. Both hypotheses that some of the choice alternatives are correlated and that individual-level heterogeneity exists are tested statistically significant. In view of this, the nested and the mixed logit model are recommended over the standard multinomial logit model to describe and predict students' seat belt usage behaviors. The final nested logit model uncovers a correlation between improper wearing and not wearing, indicating

  10. A joint econometric analysis of seat belt use and crash-related injury severity. (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Bhat, Chandra R


    This paper formulates a comprehensive econometric structure that recognizes two important issues in crash-related injury severity analysis. First, the impact of a factor on injury severity may be moderated by various observed and unobserved variables specific to an individual or to a crash. Second, seat belt use is likely to be endogenous to injury severity. That is, it is possible that intrinsically unsafe drivers do not wear seat belts and are the ones likely to be involved in high injury severity crashes because of their unsafe driving habits. The preceding issues are considered in the current research effort through the development of a comprehensive model of seat belt use and injury severity that takes the form of a joint correlated random coefficients binary-ordered response system. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of such a model formulation and application not only in the safety analysis literature, but in the econometrics literature in general. The empirical analysis is based on the 2003 General Estimates System (GES) data base. Several types of variables are considered to explain seat belt use and injury severity levels, including driver characteristics, vehicle characteristics, roadway design attributes, environmental factors, and crash characteristics. The results, in addition to confirming the effects of various explanatory variables, also highlight the importance of (a) considering the moderating effects of unobserved individual/crash-related factors on the determinants of injury severity and (b) seat belt use endogeneity. From a policy standpoint, the results suggest that seat belt non-users, when apprehended in the act, should perhaps be subjected to both a fine (to increase the chances that they wear seat belts) as well as mandatory enrollment in a defensive driving course (to attempt to change their aggressive driving behaviors).

  11. Implementation of School Districts' Food Safety Plans and Perceptions of Support for Food Safety and Training in Child Nutrition Programs in One USDA Region (United States)

    Dawso Van Druff, Cynthia A.


    School foodservice directors (FSDs) and school business officials (SBOs) in public school districts with enrollments between 2,500 and 25,000 in the USDA Mid-Atlantic geographic region provided responses to a paper-and-pencil survey. The FSDs assessed the level of implementation of a mandated school food safety plan in their districts and…

  12. European Academy of Paediatrics Statement: Vision zero for child deaths in traffic accidents. (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Stiris, Tom; Del Torso, Stefano; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Valiulis, Arunas; Hadjipanayis, Adamos


    Road traffic accidents are the leading cause of death and disability in children throughout Europe. They remain the leading cause of death among children 5--19 years old in Europe. Children may be injured as pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists or passengers in cars. The European Academy of Pediatrics (EAP) strives to prevent morbidity and death in children. We urge policy-makers to actively work for a "vision zero", where no child is killed in traffic. EAP suggests simple measures such as, secure transport for children between home and school, speed limits, road bumps, wearing bike helmets and seat belts, using child-restraints for small children and enforcement of legislation on road safety.

  13. Seat Belt Usage Interventions for Motor Vehicle Crash Prevention on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota. (United States)

    Amiotte, Joseph; Balanay, Jo Anne; Humphrey, Charles


    Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are the leading cause of death from severe injuries on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (PRIR), averaging 16 MVC deaths per year from 2002 to 2011. The Sacred Cargo Coalition was established in PRIR in 2007 to implement intervention strategies to increase seat belt usage and reduce MVC fatalities, including seat belt law enforcement, creating a traffic court system, and educational campaigns on MVC prevention. The study described in this article examined the effectiveness of the interventions on increasing the seat belt usage rates and reducing MVC deaths. Secondary data were collected from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and other federal and local agencies. Seat belt usage rates increased an average of 6.8 percentage points from 2007 (10%) to 2012 (44%). MVC fatalities decreased by 46.7% from the preintervention to the intervention period. Maintenance and improvement of the intervention strategies may be achieved by seeking additional funding and including appropriate engineering activities in PRIR.

  14. 76 FR 77183 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention (United States)


    ... responsible for conducting defect investigations and administering safety recalls in support of NHTSA's... expensive airbag from deploying unnecessarily; how about a sensor in the driver's seat that prevents...

  15. SAFEGUARD seat/compartment evaluation methodology for vehicles with suspended seats (United States)

    Hostens, I.; Amditis, A.; Stefani, O.; Dangelmaier, M.; Bekiaris, E.; Schaerli, H.; Bullinger, A.; Ramon, H.


    Back pain is observed in a high percentage of professional drivers of heavy-duty vehicles and trucks. It was found that whole-body vibrations, prolonged sitting and posture, because of task handling and seating system, are the main factors in the development of back pain. The attenuation of vibrations and the provision of a good ergonomic posture at all times are therefore becoming more important. To achieve this a better knowledge of human behaviour towards vibrations and when seated on suspended seats is required using more appropriate evaluation techniques. The EC project SAFEGUARD aims at developing a new seat evaluation methodology where with controlled vibration tests and virtual reality simulations as many features as possible of human behaviour when seated on suspended seats are combined. The results of this combined methodology will lead to better understanding of the driver-seat-cabin system and the relation to comfort and health. They will also provide a more accurate way to interpret the efficiency of new seat features in improving comfort and health.

  16. The Safe Environment for Every Kid model: promotion of children's health, development, and safety, and prevention of child neglect. (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard


    Child neglect is by far the most prevalent form of child maltreatment. There is a need to try to prevent this problem, and pediatric primary care offers an excellent opportunity. This article describes one such approach, the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model. SEEK enables practitioners to identify and help address psychosocial problems facing many families. These include parental depression, substance abuse, major stress, intimate partner violence, harsh punishment, and food insecurity--problems that have been associated with neglect. Two large randomized, controlled trials yielded promising findings. Materials are now available to help practitioners implement this evidence-based practical model, thereby enhancing the primary care provided to children and their families.

  17. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions. (United States)

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza


    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed.

  18. The effects of local and non-local traffic on child pedestrian safety: a spatial displacement of risk. (United States)

    Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Scott, Darren M


    In most places, motor-vehicle traffic volume is associated with increased risk of child pedestrian injury; however, the burden of risk is geographically complex. In some neighbourhoods, proportionally fewer drivers may be local, meaning that the moral and practical responsibility of risk to children is displaced from one place (e.g., the suburbs) to another (e.g., downtown). Using the City of Toronto, Canada, as a case study, this research asks two related questions: 1) what is the variation in traffic volume by neighbourhood of origin and socioeconomic status and 2) what is the relationship between the geographical origin of traffic and the risk of collisions involving child pedestrians and motor-vehicles? We find that low-income downtown neighbourhoods have the highest proportion of non-local traffic. We also find that while higher local traffic activity is associated with lower risk of collision, higher flow-through traffic activity (excluding traffic from major thoroughfares) is associated with higher risk of collision. We interpret the former as very likely a proxy of parents' frequency of chauffeuring children to school, and the latter an illustration of the spatial displacement of risk between Toronto neighbourhoods. Our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to account for the externalization of harm experienced by children, particularly in low-income downtown neighbourhoods.

  19. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan


    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  20. An analysis of the value of marketing to non-profit organizations: the case of child safety. (United States)

    Razis, V; Razis, N


    This paper considers a broad spectrum of literature concerning the limitations and value of applying marketing management principles from the private sector to public or non-profit organizations. The Child Accident Prevention Foundation of Southern Africa is used as a principle case-study. The authors conclude that there is much to be gained from applying a more systematic approach, providing one adapts business strategies to more complex social environments and objectives. Since both marketing and social issues share the challenge of 'sensitivity serving and satisfying human needs,' (Kotler, 1983 p 272) there are also some instances where business can learn from the experience of social organizations in attempts to influence human behavior.

  1. Biomechanics of seat belt restraint system. (United States)

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Hock, Davis


    Seat belt system restrains and protects occupants in motor vehicle crashes and any slack in seat belt system induces additional loading on occupant. Signs of belt loading are more obvious in high-speed frontal collisions with heavy occupants. However subtle changes may occur at low speeds or with low forces from occupants during rollovers. In certain cases, the seat belt webbing is twisted and loaded by the occupant. The loading of webbing induces an observable fold/crimp on the seat belt. The purpose of the study is to biomechanically evaluate the force required to produce such marks using an anthropometric physical test dummy. Two tests were conducted to determine the amount of force required to put an observable fold/crimp in a shoulder belt. A head form designed by Voight Hodgson was used to represent the neck which interacted with the belt. The force was applied with a pneumatic pull ram (central hydraulic 89182 N) and the force was measured with a 44,000 N transducer load cell (DSM-10K). Results indicate that the force of over 1,000 N produced a fold or crimp in the belt.

  2. Injuries to Seat Occupants of Light Airplanes. (United States)


    PI-M *20 IBJIMIES TO SEAT OCCUPMuTS OF LiiUiTNZEflziE(U) ’ IFEE. IVIATION MNINISTRATION WASNINGTON OC OFFICE OF WICLSSIFED VISTIOU MEDCINE E J...Parametric Statistics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY 1956. 27. Snyder R, Crashworthiness Investigation of General Aviation Accidents, Society

  3. Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles (United States)

    Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Ganapathy


    A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

  4. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, All States (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2012 state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012....

  5. Attempting to train a digital human model to reproduce human subject reach capabilities in an ejection seat aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehner, G.F.; Hudson, J.A.; Oudenhuijzen, A.


    From 1997 through 2002, the Air Force Research Lab and TNO Defence, Security and Safety (Business Unit Human Factors) were involved in a series of tests to quantify the accuracy of five Human Modeling Systems (HMSs) in determining accommodation limits of ejection seat aircraft. The results of these

  6. A School-Hospital Partnership Increases Knowledge of Pedestrian and Motor Vehicle Safety. (United States)

    Bachman, Shelby L; Arbogast, Helen; Ruiz, Pearl; Farag, Mina; Demeter, Natalie E; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Burke, Rita V


    Pedestrian and motor vehicle-related injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Trauma centers have specialized resources to conduct interventions that improve the safety of whole communities. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a school-hospital partnership in increasing knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents in a large, urban community. Staff from a Level I pediatric trauma center conducted educational interventions in an urban public school district. Elementary school students participated in a pedestrian safety program, middle school students completed a community safety program, and high school students learned about the dangers of drunk and distracted driving. Students completed pre- and post-tests. Parents in the neighboring community received child passenger safety education at two child restraint (CR) inspection events. A total of 2203 students participated at a total of nine schools. Post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores for students in all three age groups and within each grade level. At CR inspection events, 67 CRs were inspected, 49 (73 %) of which were replaced with new age- and weight- appropriate CRs. The most common instance of improper CR use was loose CR fit in vehicle seat (33 %). All 120 observed instances of misuse were corrected by a certified Child Passenger Safety Technician. Educational interventions effectively increased knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents. We have demonstrated the utility of a school-hospital partnership for furthering knowledge of safety in an urban community.

  7. Stability analysis on Tingzikou gravity dam along deep-seated weak planes during earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The stability of a gravity dam against sliding along deep-seated weak planes is a universal and important problem encountered in the construction of dams.There is no recommended method for stability analysis of the dam on deep-seated weak planes under earthquake condition in Chinese design codes.Taking Tingzikou dam as an example,the research in this paper is focused on searching a proper way to evaluate the seismic safety of the dam against sliding along deep-seated weak planes and the probable failure modes of dam on deep-seated weak planes during earthquake.It is concluded that there are two probable failure modes of the dam along the main weak geological planes in the foundation.In the first mode,the concrete tooth under the dam will be cut and then the dam together with part foundation will slide along the muddy layer;in the second mode,the dam together with part foundation will slide along the path consist of the weak rock layer under the tooth and the muddy layer downstream the tooth.While there is no geological structure planes to form the second slip surface,the intersection of the main and the second slip surface is 40 to 80 m downstream from dam toe,and the angle between the second slip surface and the horizontal plane probably be 25 to 45 degrees.

  8. Quail egg safety and trade on beaches of Salvador (BA: a study from a child labor perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permínio Oliveira Vidal Júnior


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the trade and microbiological quality of boiled quail eggs on the waterfront of Salvador , Bahia, Brazil, from the child labor perspective. METHODS: This cross-sectional study administered semi-structured questionnaires to 40 underage vendors and performed the microbiological assessment of 40 quail egg samples as follows: mesophilic aerobic microorganism count, coagulase-positive staphylococcus count, estimation of the most probable number of total and thermotolerant coliforms/Escherichia coli, and testing for Salmonella spp.. The results were compared with the standards provided by the Resolution RDC nº 12/2001, National Sanitary Surveillance Agency. RESULTS: The vendors were mostly female (57.5% students (95.0% aged 8 to 17 years. The most common reason for working was supplementation of the family income (57.5%. The mean gross income was R$38.31/day. Most of them presented inadequate personal hygiene but they recognized that foods could cause diseases. Many (47.5% vendors reported washing their hands up to twice daily. Mean mesophilic aerobic microorganism and coagulase-positive staphylococcus counts were 2.43 and 2.01 log colony-forming unit/g, respectively, and the estimated thermotolerant coliform contamination was 0.98 log most probable number/g. Escherichia coli was found in 15.0% of the samples and none contained Salmonella spp. Most (55.0% samples were noncompliant with the legislation. CONCLUSION: The results evidenced the presence of minors selling quail eggs on beaches of Salvador and suggest risk to consumers' health because of the detected contamination and vendors' ignorance of principles of hygiene.

  9. Fire resistant resilient foams. [for seat cushions (United States)

    Gagliani, J.


    Primary program objectives were the formulation, screening, optimization and characterization of open-cell, fire resistant, low-smoke emitting, thermally stable, resilient polyimide foams suitable for seat cushions in commercial aircraft and spacecraft. Secondary program objectives were to obtain maximum improvement of the tension, elongation and tear characteristics of the foams, while maintaining the resiliency, thermal stability, low smoke emission and other desirable attributes of these materials.

  10. Patterns of correlation between vehicle occupant seat pressure and anthropometry. (United States)

    Paul, Gunther; Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François


    Seat pressure is known as a major factor of seat comfort in vehicles. In passenger vehicles, there is lacking research into the seat comfort of rear seat occupants. As accurate seat pressure measurement requires significant effort, simulation of seat pressure is evolving as a preferred method. However, analytic methods are based on complex finite element modeling and therefore are time consuming and involve high investment. Based on accurate anthropometric measurements of 64 male subjects and outboard rear seat pressure measurements in three different passenger vehicles, this study investigates if a set of parameters derived from seat pressure mapping are sensitive enough to differentiate between different seats and whether they correlate with anthropometry in linear models. In addition to the pressure map analysis, H-Points were measured with a coordinate measurement system based on palpated body landmarks and the range of H-Point locations in the three seats is provided. It was found that for the cushion, cushion contact area and cushion front area/force could be modeled by subject anthropometry, while only seatback contact area could be modeled based on anthropometry for all three vehicles. Major differences were found between the vehicles for other parameters.

  11. Combustion performance of flame-ignited high-speed train seats via full-scale tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu


    Full Text Available Determining the combustion characteristics of combustibles in high-speed trains is the foundation of evaluating the fire hazard on high-speed trains scientifically, and establishing effective active and passive fire precautions. In this study, the double seats in the compartments of CRH1 high-speed trains were used as the main research object. Under different test conditions, including the power of ignition sources and ventilation rates, full-scale furniture calorimeter tests were conducted to study important fire combustion characteristics such as the ignition characteristics of seats, heat release rate, mass loss rate, total heat release, temperature variation, and smoke release rate. The relationships among these parameters were analyzed and summarized into combustion behavior and characteristics, thus providing fundamental data and reference for the development of fire precautions and safety design of high-speed trains. The results in this test are as follows: (i The double seats of high-speed trains are relatively easy to ignite and susceptible to the fire ground environment. (ii The combustion temperature in the test apparatus exceeded 600 °C in only 2 min for the larger ignition source. (iii The heat release rate exceeded 800 kW. (iv The total heat release resulted mainly from flame combustion. (v The final mass loss rate was ∼30%. (vi The lowest light transmittance was <25%. (vii The change process of temperature with time has the same trend as the change process of heat release rate. (viii Suppressing flame combustion and controlling the smoke generated from the seat materials themselves played key roles in retarding the combustion of high-speed train seats.

  12. Should a standing or seated reference posture be used when normalizing seated spine kinematics? (United States)

    Cotter, Brendan D; Nairn, Brian C; Drake, Janessa D M


    Currently in the literature there is no consensus on which procedure for normalizing seated spine kinematics is most effective. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in the range of motion (ROM) of seated posture trials when expressed as a percent of maximum standing and seated ROM. A secondary purpose was to determine whether the typical maximum planar calibration movements (flexion, lateral-bend, and axial twist) elicited the respective maximum ROM values for each spine region versus postures with specific movement instruction. Thirteen male participants completed seven different movement trials. These consisted of the maximum planar movement trials, with the remaining four postures being combinations of specific lumbar and thoracic movements. Global and relative angles for the upper-thoracic, mid-thoracic, lower-thoracic, and lumbar regions were calculated and normalized to both a seated and standing reference posture. When normalizing both global and relative angles the standing reference appears optimal for flexion, twisting and lateral bend angles in all spine regions, with the exception of relative flexion angle in the mid-thoracic region. The maximum planar movement trials captured the greatest ROM for each global angle, relative lower-thoracic angle and relative lumbar flexion angle, but did not for all other relative angles in the upper-thoracic, mid-thoracic, and lumbar regions. If future researchers can only collect one reference posture these results recommend that a standing reference posture be collected for normalizing seated spine kinematics, although a seated reference posture should be collected if examining relative flexion angles at the mid-thoracic region.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Мukhin


    Full Text Available Women with epilepsy are referred to the special risk group due to the development of side effects of antiepileptic drugs (АED. Women’s neuroendocrinal disorders can be caused by the disease itself-epilepsy, as well as by the undertaken therapy. We have carried out a retrospective research in order to assess the safety and the tolerance of different AED at young girls and women of reproductive age. Was analyzed the data base of patients of Svt. Luka’s Institute of Child Neurology and Epilepsy, comprising all patients, who have been monitored in the period between 2000 and 2014 inclusive at the age between 15–40 years (n = 301. The research included patients, with different diagnosed forms of focal or generalized epilepsy, who were taking AED both during mono and polytherapy. Were analyzed all cases of neuroendocrinal, especially reproductive disorders, including the considerable gain of weight, menstrual disorder, sterility at AED background. Also was analyzed the result of all registered pregnancies at women with epilepsy (at the background of the antiepileptic therapy, as well as without treatment during pregnancy. The retrospective data analysis has revealed 51 сase (17 % in the group under review of expressed neuroendocrinal, reproductive and cosmetic side effects (including the menstrual disorder: dysmenorrhea, opsomenorrhea, amenorrhea, anovulatory cycles, sterility, unfavorable pregnancy outcomes, as well as cosmetic endocrinal side effects: obesity, hirsutism, hair loss. Most patients have got such combined side effects. Our research results show, that in most cases the pregnancy at women with epilepsy ends by birth of a healthy child, the pregnancy outcome depends on many factors, it also differs according to applied AED. Valproic acid drugs show the highest teratogenic risk. Also at the back ground of the therapy with valproic acid have been registered most cases of neuroendocrinal reproductive diseases at women

  14. Blast Mitigation Seat Analysis: Drop Tower Data Review (United States)


    particular seat with green or red, respectively, for the 5 th percentile female during 350 g tests . Lumbar compression is red or yellow (meaning at least...occurs, which is not common in drop tower testing unless a roof structure is installed over the seat. The 5 th percentile female was most sensitive...MODELING & SIMULATION, TESTING AND VALIDATION (MSTV) TECHNICAL SESSION AUGUST 12-14, 2014 - NOVI, MICHIGAN BLAST MITIGATION SEAT ANALYSIS – DROP TOWER

  15. Differential Effects of Seating Arrangements on Disruptive Behavior of Fifth Grade Students during Independent Seatwork (United States)

    Bicard, David F.; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C.; Baylot-Casey, Laura


    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students…

  16. Observed seat belt use in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. (United States)

    Afukaar, Francis K; Damsere-Derry, James; Ackaah, Williams


    We conducted an observational survey of seat belt use to determine the use rate of drivers and front-right passengers of vehicles in Kumasi, Ghana. Unobtrusive observations of seat belt use were made at 41 locations composed of signalized intersections and roundabouts where vehicles come to a halt or slow down considerably. The overall driver seat belt use rate was 17.6% compared to 4.9% for front-right passengers. Driver belt use was 33.2% for private cars, 9.0% for taxis, 8.3% for minibus (trotro), 13.1% for large buses and 9.7% for trucks. Overall seat belt use was higher for female drivers than for male drivers (44.8% versus 16.4%, p seat belt use rate increased with age. Passengers belted more often if drivers were belted, but about three-quarters of male passengers and 70-80% of female passengers were unbelted even when drivers were belted. In conclusion, the seat belt use rate was generally low in Kumasi, Ghana, and it is a function of occupant seating position, gender, vehicle type and usage, age group, and location setting. The results provide important preliminary data about seat belt use, particularly among male drivers and commercial vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests the need to develop effective strategies and programs that address low seat belt use in Ghana.

  17. Reduced Protection for Belted Occupants in Rear Seats Relative to Front Seats of New Model Year Vehicles (United States)

    Sahraei, Elham; Digges, Kennerly; Marzougui, Dhafer


    Effectiveness of the rear seat in protecting occupants of different age groups in frontal crashes for 2000–2009 model years (MY) of vehicles was estimated and compared to 1990–1999 model years of vehicles. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the front seat for various age groups in newer model year vehicles. The double paired comparison method was used to estimate relative effectiveness. For belted adults of the 25–49 age group, the fatality reduction effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the right front seat was 25 % (CI 11% to 36%), in the 1990–1999 model year vehicles. The relative effectiveness was −31% (CI −63% to −5%) for the same population, in the 2000–2009 model year vehicles. For restrained children 0–8 years old, the relative effectiveness was 55% (CI 48% to 61%) when the vehicles were of the 1990–1999 period. The level of effectiveness for this age group was reduced to 25% (CI −4% to 46%) in the 2000–2009 MYs of vehicles. Results for other age groups of belted occupants have followed a similar trend. All belted adult occupants of 25+ years old were significantly less protected in rear seats as compared to right front seats in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. For unbelted occupants however, rear seats were still a safer position than front seats, even in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. PMID:21050599

  18. Preliminary Results of the Effect of Microgravity on Seated Height (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda


    The new vehicle for future space travel to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond will be highly dependent on the seat layout. A primary concern with the seat layout design of the new vehicle is the amount of seated height growth that occurs in space; this could cause a major accommodation issue. The design of the seats, seat layout, suit fit, and crew accommodation are all critically affected due to the increase in height that occurs in microgravity. The increase in height due to spinal elongation caused by the absence of gravity could lead to inadequate clearances that would have implications for the ability of crewmembers to return safely or to conduct nominal operations during the mission. This study was designed to reduce the risk of inadequate design of the vehicle, environment, tools, equipment, etc. (SHFE risk and safely return crewmembers to earth from low-earth orbit travel, ISS, and beyond. In order to safely return the crewmembers, the design requirements must anticipate microgravity growth, elongation of the spine, bone and muscle loss, fluid shifts, etc. Thus, this study is to determine the amount of torso growth (spinal elongation) for a seated posture during Shuttle and ISS missions. Crewmembers seated heights were collected before, during, and after spaceflight to quantify the amount of growth that occurred as a result of microgravity. The changes in seated height will provide the designers with a design requirement which allows for change in spinal growth for a seated posture. Preliminary results have shown that , during flight, seated height increases by a range of approximately 2-6 percent compared to pre-launch seated height.

  19. Variable temperature seat climate control system (United States)

    Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.


    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  20. 76 FR 9551 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    .../Commercial Fishing seats, Heritage Tourism seat, and Economic Development seat. Applicants are chosen based... Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological Research, North Carolina Maritime Museums... Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Virginia Department of Historic Resources, the National...

  1. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.


    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The o

  2. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, B.A.


    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada wh

  3. Policy Implications from an Evaluation of Seat Belt Use Regulation. (United States)

    Desai, Anand; You, Min-Bong


    Effects of Ohio's mandatory seat belt law on seat belt use, number of car accidents, and number of fatal and severe injuries were evaluated for January 1982 through March 1988. The monthly average number of accident victims was 2,002. Implications for public policy formulation and implementation are discussed. (SLD)

  4. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign. (United States)

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  5. Hierarchical optimisation on scissor seat suspension characteristic and structure (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Zhang, Xinjie; Guo, Konghui; Lv, Jiming; Yang, Yi


    Scissor seat suspension has been applied widely to attenuate the cab vibrations of commercial vehicles, while its design generally needs a trade-off between the seat acceleration and suspension travel, which creates a typical optimisation issue. A complexity for this issue is that the optimal dynamics parameters are not easy to approach solutions fast and unequivocally. Hence, the hierarchical optimisation on scissor seat suspension characteristic and structure is proposed, providing a top-down methodology with the globally optimal and fast convergent solutions to compromise these design contradictions. In details, a characteristic-oriented non-parametric dynamics model of the scissor seat suspension is formulated firstly via databases, describing its vertical dynamics accurately. Then, the ideal vertical stiffness-damping characteristic is cascaded via the characteristic-oriented model, and the structure parameters are optimised in accordance with a structure-oriented multi-body dynamics model of the scissor seat suspension. Eventually, the seat effective amplitude transmissibility factor, suspension travel and the CPU time for solving are evaluated. The results show the seat suspension performance and convergent speed of the globally optimal solutions are improved well. Hence, the proposed hierarchical optimisation methodology regarding characteristic and structure of the scissor seat suspension is promising for its virtual development.

  6. Relationship of Assigned Classroom Seating Area to Achievement Variables. (United States)

    Wulf, Kathleen M.

    Using two university classroom groups taught by the same instructor, this study investigated the relationship of seating choice to number of verbal classroom responses, cumulative grade point average (GPA), and grade in class for both rows and "action zones" to identify classroom areas. Class 1 (where students chose seats) showed a significant…

  7. Musculoskeletal analysis of driving fatigue: The influence of seat adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majid, Noor Aliah binti Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Fareez Edzuan; Jamaludin, Mohd Syahmi


    Main causes for discomfort experienced by vehicle drivers during driving were investigated using a rigid-body model originally developed in the AnyBody Modeling System [1]. The interactions between the human body and the car-seat in various combinations of seat-pan/backrest inclinations and the e...

  8. Child Passenger Safety PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement, based on the February 2014 Vital Signs release, discusses the importance of buckling up to reduce injuries and save lives.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/4/2014.

  9. Vital Signs - Child Passenger Safety

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the February 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Over the past 10 years, more than 9,000 children 12 and under died in motor vehicle crashes, and a third who died in 2011 weren't buckled up. Buckling up is the best way to reduce injuries and save lives.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/4/2014.

  10. The Effect of Elementary Traffic Safety Programs on Out-of-School Safety Behavior. (United States)

    Miller, Deborah A.

    The Beltman multi-media traffic safety program was evaluated as an instructional tool in grades K-3. The foremost objective of the Beltman program is to develop the habit of wearing seat belts and to develop positive safety attitudes. Three study groups made up of 550 second grade students were divided into one control and two experimental groups.…

  11. ACES II Seat Roller Study: Findings of Detrimental Friction under High Windblast or Adverse Flight Conditions (United States)


    primarily the “Air Force seat”, since 1970’s) ADAMS = Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (6-DOF software , MSC Corporation) AEPS...friction, catapult thrust, net acceleration, etc.). The ADAMS Ejection Trajectory Model, built in software … 45th Space Wing, Safety...test (110E-A1-Aft; 95th percentile pilot with a man-seat mass of ~390lbm, ejection from an F-16 mockup at 600KEAS, straight-and-level). In this test

  12. The Seated Soldier Study: Posture and Body Shape in Vehicle Seats (United States)


    from testing. U.S. Patent Application: FLEXIBLE SURROGATE SPINE ASSEMBLY FOR CRASH TEST DUMMY Serial No.: 13/427,381 – Filed: March 22, 2012...Pilot testing has been conducted to compare SIP results with the SAE J826 H-point • An initial conceptual design for a back angle probe is being...tested. SIP Tool J1163 ISO 5353 J826 H-point Manikin Back Angle Probe Prototype UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 43 Accommodation Models • Seating

  13. Deprived children or deprived neighbourhoods? A public health approach to the investigation of links between deprivation and injury risk with specific reference to child road safety in Devon County, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewson Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, injuries from road traffic collisions are a rapidly growing problem in terms of morbidity and mortality. The UK has amongst the worst records in Europe with regard to child pedestrian safety. A traditional view holds that resources should be directed towards training child pedestrians. In order to reduce socio-economic differentials in child pedestrian casualty rates it is suggested that these should be directed at deprived children. This paper seeks to question whether analysis of extant routinely collected data supports this view. Methods Routine administrative data on road collisions has been used. A deprivation measure has been assigned to the location where a collision was reported, and the home postcode of the casualty. Aggregate data was analysed using a number of epidemiological models, concentrating on the Generalised Linear Mixed Model. Results This study confirms evidence suggesting a link between increasing deprivation and increasing casualty involvement of child pedestrians. However, suggestions are made that it may be necessary to control for the urban nature of an area where collisions occur. More importantly, the question is raised as to whether the casualty rate is more closely associated with deprivation measures of the ward in which the collision occurred than with the deprivation measures of the home address of the child. Conclusion Conclusions have to be drawn with great caution. Limitations in the utility of the officially collected data are apparent, but the implication is that the deprivation measures of the area around the collision is a more important determinant of socio-economic differentials in casualty rates than the deprivation measures of the casualties' home location. Whilst this result must be treated with caution, if confirmed by individual level case-controlled studies this would have a strong implication for the most appropriate interventions.

  14. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes. (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan


    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  15. Physiological responses to kayaking with a swivel seat. (United States)

    Michael, J S; Smith, R; Rooney, K


    The present study compared the physiological characteristics of flat-water kayaking utilising two seat conditions, the traditional fixed seat and novel swivel seat on an air-braked kayak simulator. The testing protocol included a submaximal warm up and one maximal ergometer paddling test. Ten elite kayakers (age 25+/-6 years, body mass 84.9+/-5.8 kg) were randomised to perform the testing protocol twice, once on each seat. During the testing protocol, expired air, heart rate (HR) and power output (PO) were continuously measured and gross efficiency (GE (kayak)) was calculated. Lactate (La) was recorded at the conclusion of each test. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated that paddling with the swivel seat generated significantly greater mean PO over the two-minute race duration compared to the fixed seat (299.1+/-24.9W and 279.8+/-19.2W respectively; p<0.05). This equated to a 6.5% increase in PO. A similar (6.9%) but non-significant difference in efficiency was generated as there was no significant difference recorded in the metabolic load over the two-minute ergometer test. No significant differences were present in any other variable measured. This greater PO generated with a swivel seat may be a significant advantage during on-water competition if the results from present ergometer test transfer.

  16. Research of Contact Stresses between Seat Cushion and Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervan Stjepan


    Full Text Available Design optimization of seat cushions is associated with the need to investigate their softness using, for this purpose, various kinds of loading pads. The aim of the investigation was: to determine seat cushion stiffness of a chair selected from a set of dining-room furniture, to determine values and distributions of contact strains on the seat surface caused by loading pad of different hardness, numerical calculation of contact strains between the seat cushion and the loading pad and to verify the results of these calculations with the results of laboratory experiments. The performed tests showed that the assessment of the seat cushion stiffness and the evaluation of contact stresses on their surface should be carried out using an equally stiff loading pad. In numerical calculations, polyurethane foams should be modeled as hyperfoam bodies of σ=f(ε characteristics determined in an axial compression test. Contact stresses between the seat cushion and the user’s body should be reduced as a result of application of a frictionless connection of thin layers of polyurethane foams with foam forming the proper elastic layer of the seat.

  17. 75 FR 30775 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    ... for the following vacant seats: Heritage Tourism seat, Citizen-at-Large seat, Recreational Diving seat...-Large, Conservation, Economic Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological Research... to provide the sanctuary manager with advice on: (1) Protecting natural and cultural resources,...

  18. Backrest Shape Affects Head–Neck Alignment and Seated Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Ukita


    Full Text Available Unstable back support against gravity results in a forward head posture and contributes to buttocks pressure ulcers. However, the association between these health problems and a wheelchair backrest is unclear. Our newly developed wheelchair (N-WC supports the back of the pelvis and thorax from obliquely underneath. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different backrest shapes on head–neck alignment and seated pressure. Data from 28 healthy subjects were analyzed. Outcome measures were head–neck alignment angles, support angles of the backrest, and pressure distributions on the supporting surfaces. Compared with a typical wheelchair that has a flat backrest, the seat pressure decreased and the center of pressure was located in the middle of both the seat and backrest in the N-WC. Moreover, the head–neck alignment when seated in the N-WC was upright. These results highlight the importance of the shape of the wheelchair backrest.

  19. Controversial Swedish science minister loses seat in reshuffle

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylawan, P


    Carl Tham, who introduced sweeping changes to higher education and research, has lost his seat in a cabinet reshuffle. As science minister for 4 years he redirected funding to applied science and established new regional universities (1 page).

  20. Nonoperative management of pediatric aortic injury with seat belt syndrome. (United States)

    Parrish, Dan W; Barnhorst, Amanda; Trebska-McGowan, Katarzyna; Amendola, Michael; Haynes, Jeffrey H


    "Seat belt syndrome" was first described by Garret and Braunstein in 1962. The syndrome involves skin and abdominal wall ecchymosis (seat belt sign) intra-abdominal solid organ and visceral injuries, as well as Chance fractures (compression and/or wedging deformity of the anterior portion of the vertebral body with disruption or fracture of the posterior elements, generally at L1-L3). We present a case of a 12-year-old male involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision wearing only a lap belt resulting in seat belt syndrome, with disruption of the abdominal wall, mesenteric avulsion with multiple intestinal perforations, abdominal aortic dissection, and an L2 Chance fracture with cord transection. Intraoperative decision making is outlined with this scenario of complex injuries, and the literature of seat belt syndrome associated with blunt aortic injuries and its management is reviewed.

  1. [Emerging deep-seated fungal infection, trichosporonosis]. (United States)

    Tokimatsu, Issei; Kadota, Jun-ichi


    Deep-seated trichosporonosis is a lethal opportunistic infection occasionally found in immunocompromised patients, particularly those who are neutropenic due to cytotoxic therapy for hematological malignancies. Trichosporon asahii is considered the principal etiologic agent of non-Candida fungemia and disseminated trichosporonosis in Japan. This infection may disseminate to multiple organs and difficult to diagnosis and treat. Because clinical findings and courses of trichosporonosis are similar to disseminated candidasis, it is impossible to distinguish these infections without fungal isolation. Monotherapy of amphotericin B is thought to be unsuccessful for this infection, and new antifungal agents echinocandins are also not active against Trichosporon species. Some clinical reports and animal models suggest that triazoles and combination therapies are most effective drugs against trichosporonosis. Recently, T. asahii isolates with reduced susceptibility in vitro to multi-antifungal agents are reported. T. asahii is the allergen of summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis and sometimes isolated from the houses environments, but it is not clear that the environmental strains directly infect to human. There is no clinical evidence that Trichosporon is the common outbreak pathogen in the hospital. However, it is necessary for a clinician to pay enough care as the lethal infections in immunocompromised patients.

  2. Child maltreatment entrenched by poverty: how financial need is linked to poorer outcomes in family preservation. (United States)

    Escaravage, Jody Hearn


    This cross-sectional secondary data analysis examined the ecological factors influencing the outcomes of families receiving services from a local department of social services to address child maltreatment risk and incidence. The results indicated that families that experienced repeated maltreatment also experienced greater poverty and material need than families with more successful outcomes. This study highlights the responsibility of the child welfare system to address deep-seated poverty issues of families experiencing child maltreatment risk and incidence.

  3. 'BeSAFE', effect-evaluation of internet-based, tailored safety information combined with personal counselling on parents' child safety behaviours: Study design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. van Scholing-van Beelen (Mirjam); T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); M.K. Struijk (Mirjam); P. den Hertog (Paul); A. Oenema (Anke); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); H. Raat (Hein)


    textabstractBackground. Injuries in or around the home are the most important cause of death among children aged 0-4 years old. It is also a major source of morbidity and loss of quality of life. In order to reduce the number of injuries, the Consumer Safety Institute introduced the use of Safety In

  4. Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program. Final rule. (United States)


    This final rule makes regulatory changes to the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) based on the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2014. These changes strengthen requirements to protect the health and safety of children in child care; help parents make informed consumer choices and access information to support child development; provide equal access to stable, high-quality child care for low-income children; and enhance the quality of child care and the early childhood workforce.

  5. Evaluation of a pilot program in rural schools to increase bicycle and motor vehicle safety. (United States)

    Floerchinger-Franks, G; Machala, M; Goodale, K; Gerberding, S


    Concerned with high bicycle-and motor vehicle-related mortality rates among children, Idaho's South Central District Health Department provided a competition to increase use of 1) seat belts, 2) motor vehicle rear seating, and 3) bicycle helmets among children attending elementary schools in the eight rural counties it serves. Nine of the 44 elementary schools in the health district chose to participate in the contest. Eight schools addressed increasing helmet use, four schools also addressed increasing seat belt use and rear seating, and one school addressed safety in general. A $1,000 prize was awarded to each of four schools judged to have the highest levels of student and community involvement, outreach, creativity, and changes in safety behavior (based on perceptions of outside judges). In 1997, baseline observations were collected for 1) seat belt use and rear seating for children in 28 schools, and for 2) bicycle helmet use among children in 25 schools. In 1998, follow up data were collected for 1) seat belt and rear seating in 42 schools, and 2) bicycle helmet use in 35 schools. Data were analyzed using SAS. Adjusting for differences in baseline rates, regression analysis was used to compare 1997 and 1998 rates for seat belt use, rear seating, and bicycle helmet use for those schools having baseline data. Results showed that although there was no significant difference between participating and non-participating schools in rear-seating behaviors, there was an increase in seat belt and bicycle helmet use for participating schools. Since schools self-selected participation, it is unknown whether those schools were fundamentally different from nonparticipating schools.

  6. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects. (United States)

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon


    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365-476 mm in height for seat pans; 429-522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance.

  7. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.


    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  9. Optimal seat suspension design based on minimum "simulated subjective response". (United States)

    Wan, Y; Schimmels, J M


    This work addresses a method for improving vertical whole body vibration isolation through optimal seat suspension design. The primary thrusts of this investigation are: (1) the development of a simple model that captures the essential dynamics of a seated human exposed to vertical vibration, (2) the selection and evaluation of several standards for assessing human sensitivity to vertical vibration, and (3) the determination of the seat suspension parameters that minimize these standards to yield optimal vibration isolation. Results show that the optimal seat and cushion damping coefficients depend very much on the selection of the vibration sensitivity standard and on the lower bound of the stiffnesses used in the constrained optimization procedure. In all cases, however, the optimal seat damping obtained here is significantly larger (by than a factor of 10) than that obtained using existing seat suspension design methods or from previous optimal suspension studies. This research also indicates that the existing means of assessing vibration in suspension design (ISO 7096) requires modification.

  10. Non-Compliance of Malaysia Motor Vehicles (Safety Seatbelts Rules 1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivasankar SAMBASIVAM


    Full Text Available Background: Seat belts have been proven as one of the most successful means of preventing or reducing injuries to occupants of cars during an accident. This paper examines the reasons behind the non-compliance of the seat belt law in Malaysia and suggests possible measures to get the percentage of seat belt usage up higher.Methods: Various databases of articles were searched for seat belt usage in Malaysia, related legislation, related accident data, type of injuries and reviewed to put forth the need for a new measure to increase the usage of seat belts in Malaysia.Results: In various studies carried out previously, car occupants (driver and front passenger used the seat belts mainly with the knowledge that seat belts prevents injuries, the fear of being fined by the authorities, comfortability of the seat belt, speed of travel, trip purpose and driving location. However, when these factors are removed, seat belts usage starts becoming lax. Other reasons were driving short distance (known location, forgetfulness and were in a hurry.Conclusion: Enforcement of seat belt usage by either the Police or Road Transport Department is only a short term solution. The relevant agencies are urged to consider making compulsory for all car makers in Malaysia to enable a system where the car would not be able to start without the seat belt being fixed first for the driver and passenger and to make auto seat belt fixing enabled in the car when the driver and or passenger enters the car. Keywords: Seat belt, Safety, Compliance, Car, Malaysia

  11. The impact of seat-belts in limiting the severity of injuries in patients presenting to a university hospital in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa Joshua Ogundele


    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic injuries are major public health problems and a leading cause of death and injury around the world. Approximately 1.2 million people are killed each year in road crashes worldwide, with up to 50 million more injured. Over 95% of these deaths and injuries occur in the low- and middle-income countries of the world. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the use of seat-belts in reducing the severity of injuries from road traffic crashes and to determine the compliance and awareness of the importance of the use of seat-belts among Nigerian motorists. Patients and Methods: The injury patterns and outcome of care in 140 patients who were seen at the emergency department of our tertiary hospital were evaluated. Initial care and resuscitation was carried out on all patients using the advanced trauma life support protocol. Results: A total of 81 (57% patients used seat-belts, while 59 (42.1% did not. Nineteen (13.6% patients died as a result of their injuries; 4 (21.1% of these had used seat-belts, while 15 (79% had not ( P = 0.001. The mortality rate of 79% for patients who did not use seat-belt was statistically significant. Conclusions: The seat-belt is an effective safety tool that not only saves lives, but also significantly reduces the severity of the injury that a vehicle occupant may have sustained if they were not wearing the device. More public enlightenment is needed to increase the awareness and compliance of use of seat-belts among Nigerian motorists.

  12. Safety belt and mobile phone usage in vehicles in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Martínez-Sánchez


    Conclusion: Our study shows noticeably high prevalence of people not wearing safety belt in the rear seats. Moreover, four out of one hundred drivers still use the mobile phone while driving during a moment of the trip.

  13. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors (United States)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves


    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  14. Effect of crash pulse shape on seat stroke requirements for limiting loads on occupants of aircraft (United States)

    Carden, Huey D.


    An analytical study was made to provide comparative information on various crash pulse shapes that potentially could be used to test seats under conditions included in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats, show the effects that crash pulse shape can have on the seat stroke requirements necessary to maintain a specified limit loading on the seat/occupant during crash pulse loadings, compare results from certain analytical model pulses with approximations of actual crash pulses, and compare analytical seat results with experimental airplace crash data. Structural and seat/occupant displacement equations in terms of the maximum deceleration, velocity change, limit seat pan load, and pulse time for five potentially useful pulse shapes were derived; from these, analytical seat stroke data were obtained for conditions as specified in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats.

  15. A finite element model of the human buttocks for prediction of seat pressure distributions. (United States)

    Verver, M M; van Hoof, J; Oomens, C W J; Wismans, J S H M; Baaijens, F P T


    Seating comfort is becoming increasingly important for the automotive industry. Car manufacturers use seating comfort to distinguish their products from those of competitors. However, the development and design of a new, more comfortable seat is time consuming and costly. The introduction of computer models of human and seat will accelerate this process. The contact interaction between human and seat is an important factor in the comfort sensation of subjects. This paper presents a finite element (FE) model of the human buttocks, able to predict the pressure distribution between human and seating surface by its detailed and realistic geometric description. A validation study based on volunteer experiments shows reasonable correlation in pressure distributions between the buttocks model and the volunteers. Both for simulations on a rigid and a soft cushion, the model predicts realistic seat pressure distributions. A parameter study shows that a pressure distribution at the interface between human and seat strongly depends on variations in human flesh and seat cushion properties.

  16. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  17. Seat inventory control methods for Chinese passenger railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包云; 刘军; 马敏书; 孟令云


    Railway seat inventory control strategies play a crucial role in the growth of profit and train load factor. The railway passenger seat inventory control problem in China was addressed. Chinese passenger railway operation features and seat inventory control practice were analyzed firstly. A dynamic demand forecasting method was introduced to forecast the coming demand in a ticket booking period. By clustering, passengers’ historical ticket bookings were used to forecast the demand to come in a ticket booking period with least squares support vector machine. Three seat inventory control methods:non-nested booking limits, nested booking limits and bid-price control, were modeled under a single-fare class. Different seat inventory control methods were compared with the same demand based on ticket booking data of Train T15 from Beijing West to Guangzhou. The result shows that the dynamic non-nested booking limits control method performs the best, which gives railway operators evidence to adjust the remaining capacity in a ticket booking period.

  18. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L van Eck


    Full Text Available In this paper the fairness of some methods of allocating seats in a proportional representation (PR voting system is investigated. Different PR systems are in use throughout the democratic world, but the primary focus here is the method used in South Africa, namely the largest remainder method with a Droop quota. It is shown that as the number of parties increases, the number of lost votes (votes not used to allocate seats increases when using this method. Other existing allocation methods are discussed and compared with each other as well as with three optimisation methods (based on mathematical programming introduced in this paper. Applying these mathematical programming methods results in allocations that are more fair than the existing methods of seat allocation, if South African voting data are used. These mathematical models attempt to minimise a number of different measures of the deviation between the actual percentage of votes received and the percentage of seats allocated to a certain party. Ideally this deviation should be zero, but due to the discrete nature of seats this is virtually impossible to achieve.

  19. Occupant safety in modern passenger cars. (United States)

    Fildes, B N; Vulcan, A P; Lenard, J


    A study was undertaken recently for the Federal Office of Road Safety in Australia of 150 modern vehicle crashes where at least one of the vehicle occupants was admitted to hospital. The types of injuries sustained by occupants of modern Australian passenger cars involved in road crashes (including points of contact within the vehicle) were assessed to provide direction for future improvements in occupant protection. Seat belt performance in all seating positions was of particular interest. While the limited number of cases did not permit a full and detailed statistical analysis of these data, the findings nevertheless show there is scope for improving occupant protection for drivers and passengers of modern passenger cars.

  20. [Current status of hyperthermia for deep-seated tumors]. (United States)

    Hiraoka, M; Abe, M


    The current status of hyperthermia for deep-seated tumor is reviewed. Heating methods include external heating, intraluminal heating and interstitial heating, all of which have inherent advantages and disadvantages. Hyperthermia alone has significant effects on deep-seated tumors. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has been widely applied, resulting in 10-15% complete regression and 10-40% partial regression in the treatment of locally advanced tumors. The response rate of thermoradiotherapy was higher than that of radiotherapy for tumors in the brain, rectum and esophagus in the non-randomized study. The clinical application of thermochemotherapy is increasing and its effect is demonstrated in the prevention and treatment of peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancers. Reports of serious complications are rare. The technology for deep-heating and thermometry, and the new criteria for the assessment of thermotherapy for deep-seated tumors seems a promising new treatment modality.

  1. Transportation of children with special seating needs. (United States)

    Paley, K; Walker, J L; Cromwell, F; Enlow, C


    As of 1986, all 50 states had implemented mandatory child restraint laws. When used correctly, restraint systems have been proven to reduce the number of fatalities, hospitalizations, and injuries. To date, there is little information regarding compliance with restraint systems for disabled children. There are no data available on fatalities of or injuries to disabled children. This study assessed the restraint system (if any) used in the transportation of disabled children with special restraint needs. We conducted a survey to determine the restraint practices used in transporting these children to school, to our outpatient clinic, and around home. Our survey found that two thirds of the handicapped children reviewed were transported unsafely in at least one mode of transportation. We recommend that health care providers review the transportation needs of their handicapped patients in order to ensure safe transportation.

  2. Intestinal stricture following seat belt injury in children. (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Albanese, C T; Meza, M P; Wiener, E S


    The most commonly reported intestinal injury from seat belts in children is perforation. A rarely reported late sequela following this type of injury is posttraumatic intestinal stricture (PTIS). A review of the literature reveals a common clinical pattern of presentation in children and adults but an apparent difference in the pathophysiologic mechanism between the pediatric and adult patient. Recently, we treated two children with PTIS. Each case is discussed, and a pathophysiological mechanism for this injury in children is proposed. Recommendations are made for the evaluation and treatment of these uncommon complications of seat belt-related blunt intestinal injury.

  3. Seat belt trauma: pectoralis muscle rupture and delayed mesh repair. (United States)

    Harvey, Kyle P; Adair, James D; Ali, M Azhar


    To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a seat belt-related rupture of the pectoralis major muscle and its successful delayed repair using mesh. We report a case of a 34-year-old white man who sustained a right pectoralis major muscle rupture from a seat belt during a motor vehicle crash. The patient presented to us 2 years after the injury. We introduce a technique using mesh that results in a successful repair of a cosmetically disfiguring chest wall defect.

  4. Optimization of Semi-active Seat Suspension with Magnetorheological Damper (United States)

    Segla, Stefan; Kajaste, J.; Keski-Honkola, P.

    The paper deals with modeling, control and optimization of semiactive seat suspension with pneumatic spring and magnetorheological damper. The main focus is on isolating vertical excitation from the cabin of a bucket-wheel excavator in order to protect the excavator driver against harmful vibration. Three different control algorithms are used to determine the desired semi-active damping force: skyhook control, balance control and combination of balance and skyhook controls. The dynamic behavior of the semi-active system is optimized using genetic algorithms. As the objective function the effective value of the seat (sprung mass) acceleration is used.

  5. Development of a Backpack Survival Kit for Ejection Seats. (United States)



  6. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Speith, H.; Trabold, E.


    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. The smoke and heat release rates of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/cm2. Abrasion tests were conducted on the decorative fabric covering and slip sheet to ascertain service life and compatibility of layers

  7. Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas


    of the complexity and dimensionality of the Dynamic Program (DP), which prohibits computation for realistic size problems. We review several DP models developed for seat-allocation and overbooking over a time span of 40 years, reflecting changed business environments. In this report we link these models together...... by means of two transformations: The marginal revenue transformation of Fiig et al. [2010] and the equivalence charging scheme of Subramanian et al. [1999]. These transformations enable us to transform the joint seat allocation and overbooking problem for fare family fare structures into an equivalent...

  8. The Off-line Group Seat Reservation Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy; Hjorth, Allan Nordlunde; Nielsen, Morten


    In this paper we address the problem of assigning seats in a train for a group of people traveling together. We consider two variants of the problem. One is a special case of two-dimensional knapsack where we consider the train as having fixed size and the objective is to maximize the utilization...... of the seats in the train. The second is a special case of two-dimensional bin packing where all requests must be accommodated while trying to minimize the number of passenger cars needed. For both variants of the problem we present a number of bounds and develop exact algorithms. Computational results...

  9. Seat adjustment--capacity and repeatability among occupants in a modern car. (United States)

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Svensson, Mats Y; Björnstig, Ulf


    Families in the Western world have a car and several family members share the same car. In this study, 154 participants have adjusted a driver's seat three times. The primary objective was to study intrapersonal repeatability and intraclass correlation (ICC) on seat; length adjustment, backrest angle, seat front edge and seat rear edge adjustment, related to participant age, sex, stature and weight. Length adjustment has the best intrapersonal repeatability within two repetitions, 49 mm and ICC-value 0.87. Females and younger participants (age < 40 years) adjust seats generally more accurately. Females adjust the seat 41 mm more forward, 120 mm compared to men 79 mm counted from 0-starting position. Females sit with more upright seat backrests, 46 degree compared to 43 degrees for males counted from 0-starting position. Females sit higher than males in both the frontal and rear part of the seat cushion.

  10. Scoliosis surgery - child (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  11. Optimum design of automobile seat using statistical design support system; Tokeiteki sekkei shien system no jidoshayo seat eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwamura, T. [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Shiratori, M.; Yu, Q.; Koda, I. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)


    The authors proposed a new practical optimum design method called statistical design support system, which consists of five steps: the effectivity analysis, reanalysis, evaluation of dispersion, the optimiza4ion and evaluation of structural reliability. In this study, the authors applied the present system to analyze and optimum design of an automobile seat frame subjected to crushing. This study should that the present method could be applied to the complex nonlinear problems such as large deformation, material nonlinearity as well as impact problem. It was shown that the optimum design of the seat frame has been solved easily using the present system. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Anterior inferior iliac spine fracture: Another component of seat belt syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paisal HUSSIN


    Full Text Available Seat belt syndrome occurs when seat belts are used improperly, and it is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The spectrum of seat belt syndrome includes spinal, intra-abdominal and vascular injury. Here, we report the case of anterior inferior iliac spine avulsion fracture in association with seat belt injuries in a 24-year old man involved in a head on motor vehicle collision. 

  13. Considerations for Classroom Seating Arrangements and the Role of Teacher Characteristics and Beliefs (United States)

    Gremmen, Mariola C.; van den Berg, Yvonne H. M.; Segers, Eliane; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.


    As a part of classroom management, teachers face the question of how and where to seat their students. However, it is far from clear what considerations teachers have when making seating arrangements. Therefore, in this study seating arrangement considerations from 50 teachers in grades 4-6 of elementary school were assessed. In Phase 1, teachers…

  14. Considerations for classroom seating arrangements and the role of teacher characteristics and beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Mariola; van den Berg, Y.H.M.; Segers, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.


    As a part of classroom management, teachers face the question of how and where to seat their students. However, it is far from clear what considerations teachers have when making seating arrangements. Therefore, in this study seating arrangement considerations from 50 teachers in grades 4–6 of eleme

  15. Modeling energy absorption in commercial airline seating with MADYMO dynamic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruitt, D.; Muller, D.W.; Marshall, R.; Altamore, P.


    Dynamic testing of aircraft seats has been incorporated to enhance the survivability of aircraft mishaps for over 10 years. This standard may be introduced into aircraft with certification basis prior to this introduction if seat loads can be limited to the structural capabilities of the seat track.

  16. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.


    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  17. 78 FR 53734 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Infant Bath Seats (United States)


    ... infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77 FR 45242. The requirements for infant bath seats are set forth... COMMISSION Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request--Infant Bath...

  18. The Mutual Impact of Personality Traits on Seating Preference and Educational Achievement (United States)

    Hemyari, Camellia; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ahrari, Iman; Tavana, Samar; Parva, Mohammad; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafari, Peyman; Sahraian, Ali


    Several studies have investigated the association between students' seating positions and their classroom performance. However, the role of personality traits on seating preference in the classroom has not been well investigated. The aim of the study was to understand how students choose their seats according to their personality traits in a…

  19. Considerations for classroom seating arrangements and the role of teacher characteristics and beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, M.C.; Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Segers, P.C.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.


    As a part of classroom management, teachers face the question of how and where to seat their students. However, it is far from clear what considerations teachers have when making seating arrangements. Therefore, in this study seating arrangement considerations from 50 teachers in grades 4-6 of eleme

  20. Seat Belt Education Program--A Model for Public Health Settings. (United States)

    Saunders, Stephen; Pine, Jeffrey


    The purpose of the study was to determine whether a brief seat belt group educational intervention could be incorporated into an existing public health program and result in increased use of seat belts. Seat belt use increased from 4.9 to 12.6 percent among 268 low-income mothers during the study. (Author/CH)

  1. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seat belt use policies and....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert the following clause: Seat Belt Use Policies and Programs (APR 2005) In accordance with Executive Order...

  2. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (a... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (United States)


    ... protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors and crawler loaders; (2) Graders; (3) Wheel... October 24, 1988, that is equipped with ROPS and seat belts that meet the installation and...

  4. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (United States)


    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on...

  5. Aircraft Seat Fire Blocking Layers. Effectiveness and Benefits under Various Scenarios. (United States)


    Observations 21 In-Flight Cabin Fires 22 Series One: Single Seat Ignition Tests 22 Series Two: Gas Fire on Seats 29 Series Three: Large-Scale In-Flight...newspapers. SERIES TWO: GAS FIRE ON SEATS. Objective of Tests. The objective of this series of tests was to study the effect of a gasoline fire on blocking

  6. Dynamic Performance Assessment of Side Facing Troop Seats During Impact (United States)


    test and on both the CV- 22 and CH-53 tests. The H-60 seat was run at 18G’s again due to complete failure of the restraint system and inertial reel...Stanaker, R. et al., "Size, Weight and Biomechanical Impact Response Requirements for Adult Size Small Female and Large Male Dummies," SAE Technical Paper

  7. Deep-seated Problems Haven't Yet Been Addressed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zuliu


    @@ China's capital market has changed remarkably in recent times, finally recovering after a long period of painful adjustment. In the depths of extreme market depression, people have profoundly experienced and understood some deep-seated problems confronting China's capital market in the last four years.

  8. Seating Position and Interaction in Triads: A Field Study (United States)

    Silverstein, C. Harris; Stang, David J.


    Relationships between seating position, length of acquaintance between subjects, observer bias toward the experimental outcome, and interaction rates are examined in a field study. Subjects with greatest visual centrality spoke most often. Length of acquaintance between subjects was unrelated to interaction rates. (Author/DEP)

  9. Numerical Simulation of Helicopter Cockpit Seat subjected to Crash Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Sulaiman


    Full Text Available Sikorsky S-61 or better known as “Nuri” had served the Malaysian aviation sector for the past four decades. It is mainly used for transportation, combat search and rescue purposes. However, there were Nuri helicopter crashes or accident cases reported during its operation period which involved loss of its occupants. The pilot survivability rate can be improved provided that the vertical impact loading on the helicopter is reduced during the crash accident. Utilization of an energy absorbing pilot seat or cockpit structure maybe one of the approaches to minimize the impact shock exerted to the occupants. However, the shock or maximum acceleration of the cockpit/pilot seat has to be first determined before a thorough design scheme can be undertaken. In this study, a vertical crash event of the Nuri pilot seat from 500 feet altitude was simulated and the maximum acceleration rate was determined using MSC PATRAN/LSDYNA. The pilot survivability was determined by comparing the result with human tolerance criteria data available in other published works. From the result, it was found that the maximum acceleration of the Nuri pilot seat was 584.4g at 19. 63 milliseconds, thus it can be concluded that the survivability aspect of the pilot is fatal when compared to other published works.

  10. Territoriality: Seat Preferences in Different Types of Classroom Arrangements (United States)

    Kaya, Naz; Burgess, Brigitte


    Students' degree of territoriality based on gender and seat preferences in different types of classroom arrangements was studied. The types of classroom arrangements included rows of tablet-arm chairs, U-shaped, clusters, and rows of tables with individual chairs. The study was carried out through a survey at a large public institution in the…

  11. Engine valve and seat insert wear study with a simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.S.Wang; S.Narasimhan


    The demands on higher performance and the increasing use of alternative fuels chal-lenge engine valves now with greater wear problems than before. A seat wear simulator was builtto evaluate the compatibility and wear of valve and seat insert. The rig test results have been suc-cessfully correlated with engine test results. In this study, intake valves made from Sil 1 materialwere treated with salt bath nitride processes and tested against six different insert materials. Wearresistance of these combinations was ranked and compared to the Sil 1 valve without nitriding.The test results demonstrate that nitriding improved valve seat wear resistance. In the total valveseat recession ranking, the combination of nitrided Sil 1 valve against T 400 insert exhibited theleast total recession among the nineteen combinations of valve and insert tested. The results indi-cate that the valve seat wear mechanisms are a complex combination of adhesion and shearstrain. The nitrides in the compound layer of nitrided valves gave strong atomic bonding, higherhardness, compressive residual stresses, and possible low friction, thus resulted in the superiorwear performance.

  12. GIS-based modelling of deep-seated slope stability in complex geology (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Marchesini, Ivan; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Cardinali, Mauro; Fiorucci, Federica; Valigi, Daniela; Santangelo, Michele; Bucci, Francesco; Guzzetti, Fausto


    We use the model r.slope.stability to explore the chances and challenges of physically-based modelling of deep-seated slope stability in complex geology over broad areas and not on individual slopes. The model is developed as a C and python-based raster module within the GRASS GIS software. It makes use of a modification of the three-dimensional sliding surface model proposed by Hovland (1977) and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers (2006). Given a digital elevation model and a set of thematic layers (lithological classes and related geotechnical parameters), the model evaluates the slope stability for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal in shape. The bottoms of soil or bedrock layers can also be considered as potential slip surfaces by truncating the ellipsoids. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a computed safety factor. For each pixel, the lowest value of the safety factor and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information can be used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable regions in the study area. The r.slope.stability model can be executed both in a soil class-based mode, where the input data are mainly structured according to horizontally defined soil classes, and in a layer-based mode, where the data are structured according to a potentially large number of layers. Here, we test the model for the layer-based mode, allowing for the analysis of relatively complex geologic structures. We test the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, central Italy, which is susceptible to landslides of different types. According to field observations in this area, morpho-structural settings (i.e., the orientation and dip of the geological layers) play a crucial role for the distribution of the deep-seated landslides. We have prepared a lithological model based on aerial photointerpretation, field survey and surface information on the

  13. Child Development (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  14. 77 FR 11625 - Child Restraint Systems (United States)


    ... they protect the children for whom the restraint is recommended, as advertised. Our increasing the cut... Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 571 and 572 Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy; Final Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 38 / Monday, February...

  15. Factors associated with seat belt use: an evaluation from the Ontario Health Survey. (United States)

    Sahai, V S; Pitblado, J R; Bota, G W; Rowe, B H


    This study examines the factors associated with seat belt use for drivers and passengers in Ontario. Using the 1990 Ontario Health Survey, a population-based survey of non-institutionalized Ontario residents, factors associated with seat belt use among drivers and passengers were identified and are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR; 95% CI). Seat belt non-use in Ontario drivers was most strongly associated with younger age (p Seat belt non-use in passengers was associated with younger age (p seat belt use has been shown to reduce injuries in the event of a crash. Any strategy to increase seat belt use in Ontario should be targeted to involve both drivers and passengers. Attention should be paid to increasing seat belt usage by younger adults, males, and especially those living in northern and rural regions.

  16. The prevalence of seat belt use in Jamaica. An observational study. (United States)

    Crandon, I W; Branday, J M; Simeon, D T; Rhoden, A; Thompson, H; Carpenter, R


    An observational cross-sectional survey showed that 21.1% of private motor vehicle drivers and 13.5% of front seat passengers voluntarily wore seat belts in Kingston, Jamaica, where there is no law requiring this. Rear passenger utilisation was not examined. Compared to males, females were significantly more likely to wear seat belts when driving but not as front seat passengers. Of all motor vehicles examined, 10.1% were not equipped with seat belts. The oldest group of vehicles were mostly not fitted with seat belts. Drivers of older vehicles were significantly less likely to use seat belts even when the vehicles were equipped with belts. Implementation of legislation can reduce mortality, morbidity and costs from road traffic accidents which are relatively frequent in Jamaica. Male drivers, drivers of older vehicles and all passengers may require specific targeting in an educational and enforcement campaign should legislation, which is highly desirable, be implemented.

  17. a Vibrational Model of Open Celled Polyurethane Foam Automotive Seat Cushions (United States)

    Patten, W. N.; Sha, S.; Mo, C.


    A mechanistic model of a seat cushion is developed. The work relates the kinematic motion of the seat to the geometric and constitutive properties of the cellular foam used in the seat. The model includes the influence of pneumatic damping caused by friction between the gas within the open-celled foam and matrix polymer. A continuous shape function is introduced to characterize the piecewise continuous stress-strain characteristic of flexible open-celled foam. After some simplification, a non-linear dynamic automotive seat cushion model is derived, which relies explicitly on the constitutive properties of polyurethane foams and on the geometry of the seat cushion. Experimental and analytical models of the two automotive seats are compared to verify the model. The comparisons indicate that the new model is able to predict the dynamic performance of an automotive seat cushion with fidelity.

  18. The transmission of vertical vibration through seats: Influence of the characteristics of the human body (United States)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.


    The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on the impedance of the seat and the apparent mass of the seat occupant. This study was designed to determine how factors affecting the apparent mass of the body (age, gender, physical characteristics, backrest contact, and magnitude of vibration) affect seat transmissibility. The transmission of vertical vibration through a car seat was measured with 80 adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with two backrest conditions (no backrest and backrest), and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Linear regression models were used to study the effects of subject physical characteristics (age, gender, and anthropometry) and features of their apparent mass (resonance frequency, apparent mass at resonance and at 12 Hz) on the measured seat transmissibility. The strongest predictor of both the frequency of the principal resonance in seat transmissibility and the seat transmissibility at resonance was subject age, with other factors having only marginal effects. The transmissibility of the seat at 12 Hz depended on subject age, body mass index, and gender. Although subject weight was strongly associated with apparent mass, weight was not strongly associated with seat transmissibility. The resonance frequency of the seat decreased with increases in the magnitude of the vibration excitation and increased when subjects made contact with the backrest. Inter-subject variability in the resonance frequency and transmissibility at resonance was less with greater vibration excitation, but was largely unaffected by backrest contact. A lumped parameter seat-person model showed that changes in seat transmissibility with age can be predicted from changes in apparent mass with age, and that the dynamic stiffness of the seat appeared to increase with increased loading so as to compensate for increases in subject apparent mass associated with increased sitting

  19. Preventive Effects of Seat Belt on Clinical Outcomes for Road Traffic Injuries. (United States)

    Kwak, Bong Hun; Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Yu Jin; Jang, Dayea Beatrice


    Proper seat belt use saves lives; however, the use rate decreased in Korea. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of seat belt on case-fatality across drivers and passengers. We used the Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) database from 17 EDs between 2011 and 2012. All of adult injured patients from road traffic injuries (RTI) in-vehicle of less than 10-seat van were eligible, excluding cases with unknown seat belt use and outcomes. Primary and secondary endpoints were in-hospital mortality and intracranial injury. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of seat belt use and driving status for study outcomes adjusting for potential confounders. Among 23,698 eligible patients, 15,304 (64.6%) wore seat belts. Driver, middle aged (30-44 yr), male, daytime injured patients were more likely to use seat belts (all P seat belt group had higher proportions of case-fatality and intracranial injury compared to seat belt group (both P seat belt group, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt group were 10.43 (7.75-14.04) for case-fatality and 2.68 (2.25-3.19) for intracranial injury respectively. In the interaction model, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt use for case-fatality were 11.71 (8.45-16.22) in drivers and 5.52 (2.83-14.76) in non-driving passengers, respectively. Wearing seat belt has significantly preventive effects on case-fatality and intracranial injury. Public health efforts to increase seat belt use are needed to reduce health burden from RTIs.

  20. "Safety pin"--a question to its safety! (United States)

    Thapa Chettri, S; Bhattarai, M; Karki, S; Regmi, S; Mathur, N N


    Foreign body ingestion is not an uncommon problem in children. They can ingest various foreign objects and one of such objects is a safety pin. The ingestion of such foreign body is not widely reported in the literature. This case highlights the risk of accidental ingestion of safety pin used on child's clothing to protect him from cold that can result in lethal complications. In a poor developing country like Nepal, this case serves to address all mothers alerting them of their ignorance while using safety pin in infants. In addition, physicians are reminded to obtain a detailed inquiry of suspected foreign body ingestion in every child with the history of dysphagia.

  1. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  2. Child Care and Child Nutrition (United States)

    Karolak, Eric


    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  3. Attributing Responsibility for Child Maltreatment when Domestic Violence Is Present (United States)

    Landsman, Miriam J.; Hartley, Carolyn Copps


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence how child welfare workers attribute responsibility for child maltreatment and child safety in cases involving domestic violence. Methods: The study used a factorial survey approach, combining elements of survey research with an experimental design. Case vignettes were…

  4. Trabajo infantil: los riesgos laborales en situaciones legalmente prohibidas y sus consecuencias para la salud y seguridad Child labor: the risks in labor conditions legally prohibited and its implications for health and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Nova Melle


    Full Text Available El trabajo infantil está prohibido por todas las legislaciones, a pesar de ello son millones de niños los que trabajan en el mundo. Si las condiciones de trabajo de los adultos son en muchos casos nocivas desde el punto de vista de la seguridad y la salud, los niños las sufren doblemente; por realizar trabajos rechazados por los adultos y por su fragilidad física. El hecho de desarrollar un trabajo impide que muchos de ellos estén escolarizados, así sus condiciones de trabajo no tienen posibilidad de mejorar y se perpetúa el círculo de la pobreza.Child labour is prohibited by all laws, despite this are millions of children who work in the world. If the working conditions of adults are often detrimental from the standpoint of safety and health, the children suffer doubly, for work rejected by adults and by his physical frailty. The fact develop a work prevents many of them attend school and their working conditions have no possibility of improving and perpetuating a cycle of poverty.

  5. Harmonizing the Interests of Free Speech, Obscenity, and Child Pornography in Cyberspace: The New Roles of Parents, Technology, and Legislation for Internet Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos O. Olagunju


    Full Text Available Inadvertent access to website addresses and spam e-mails continue to make pornography rampant on the Internet in schools, homes, and libraries. Collectively, parents, teachers, and members of the community must become more aware of the risks and consequences of open access to the Internet, and the distinction between censorship and Internet access filtering. Parental involvement is crucial for raising children with healthy Internet habits to access social and educational materials. Although generations have coped with different times and trials, technology is ushering in new trials. Parents and communities cannot ignore the present and future technology ingrained into the lives of children. This paper contends that parents armed with legislation and technological security devices for access to the Internet ought to strengthen the character of online Internet safety. The discussion is focused on the roles that parents, communities, technology, and laws should play in order to protect children from obscene and pornographic threats from cyberspace. It is argued that the roles of education and technology should outweigh the legislative interventions of governments. A critique of significant litigations and laws on obscenity and pornography is presented. The paper offers a variety of security tools and techniques for protecting children from Internet access to obscene and pornographic materials. The impacts of pornographic materials on the welfare of children, adolescents, women, and families are discussed.

  6. Harmonizing the interests of free speech, obscenity, and child pornography in cyberspace: the new roles of parents, technology, and legislation for internet safety. (United States)

    Olagunju, Amos O


    Inadvertent access to website addresses and spam e-mails continue to make pornography rampant on the Internet in schools, homes, and libraries. Collectively, parents, teachers, and members of the community must become more aware of the risks and consequences of open access to the Internet, and the distinction between censorship and Internet access filtering. Parental involvement is crucial for raising children with healthy Internet habits to access social and educational materials. Although generations have coped with different times and trials, technology is ushering in new trials. Parents and communities cannot ignore the present and future technology ingrained into the lives of children. This paper contends that parents armed with legislation and technological security devices for access to the Internet ought to strengthen the character of online Internet safety. The discussion is focused on the roles that parents, communities, technology, and laws should play in order to protect children from obscene and pornographic threats from cyberspace. It is argued that the roles of education and technology should outweigh the legislative interventions of governments. A critique of significant litigations and laws on obscenity and pornography is presented. The paper offers a variety of security tools and techniques for protecting children from Internet access to obscene and pornographic materials. The impacts of pornographic materials on the welfare of children, adolescents, women, and families are discussed.

  7. 75 FR 58340 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under... (United States)


    ... Regulation & safety requirement Action & compliance time Flammability (See Structure footnote 2) Injury (See.... Compliance (f) You are responsible for having the actions required by this AD performed within the compliance times specified, unless the actions have already been done. Determination of Compliance and Removal...

  8. Seating, Money, and Food at an Amdo Village Funeral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rin chen rdo rje


    Full Text Available Seating, food, and money are discussed in the context of funerals held in the Amdo Tibetan village of Lo khog, located in Mar khu thang Town, Gcan tsha County, Rma lho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, PR China. An analysis of these three elements, combined with an intimate personal account of the funeral of the first author's close relative in 2005, offer insights into villagers' social status, and power and gender roles in their everyday lives.

  9. Efficient design and manufacturing of the seats of the Superbus


    Terzi, A.; Ozcelik, D.; Ockels, W.J.


    The Superbus is a new public transport vehicle designed for fast, safe, comfortable, sustainable and flexible transportation. The vehicle travels at 250 km/h on its dedicated infrastructures and at conventional speed on existing roads, and transports passengers and goods from point to point, without the need to change transport during the journey. Due to the challenging vehicle operational requirements, the seat design had to be optimized with regard to comfort, weight constrains, accessibili...

  10. Biomechanics of 4-point seat belt systems in farside impacts. (United States)

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Kankanala, Sundeep V; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W


    The biomechanical behavior of a harness style 4-point seat belt system in farside impacts was investigated through dummy and post mortem human subject tests. Specifically, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inboard shoulder belt portion of a 4-point seat belt on the risk of vertebral and soft-tissue neck injuries during simulated farside impacts. Two series of sled tests simulating farside impacts were completed with crash dummies of different sizes, masses and designs to determine the forces and moments on the neck associated with loading of the shoulder belt. The tests were also performed to help determine the appropriate dummy to use in further testing. The BioSID and SID-IIs reasonably simulated the expected kinematics response and appeared to be reasonable dummies to use for further testing. Analysis also showed that dummy injury measures were lower than injury assessment reference values used in development of side impact airbags. Six post-mortem human subjects, three small females and three medium sized males, were tested under conditions similar to those used for the dummy tests. The carotid arteries were pressurized in an attempt to simulate the corresponding neck vascular response of living humans. Post-test autopsies conducted on all test subjects indicated an absence of test-induced arterial or vertebral injuries. Further, comparative analysis of kinematics confirmed the adequacy of the BioSID and SID-IIs in simulating cadaveric response in farside impacts with harness style 4-point belts. A number of issues remain to be solved before the implementation of 4-point seat belts in vehicles, including, among others, the risk of injury to a pregnant woman and her fetus in frontal crashes. The risk of fetal injury in pregnant occupants may be related to the location of the 4-point seat belt's buckle and latch junction at the centerline of the mother's abdomen.

  11. Design Optimisation and Conrol of a Pilot Operated Seat Valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard


    The paper gives an approach for optimisation of the bandwidth of a pilot operated seat valve for mobile applications. Physical dimensions as well as parameters of the implemented control loop are optimised simultaneously. The frequency response of the valve varies as a function of the pressure drop...... across the valve, and it is found to be necessary to scale the controller parameters in the optimised design as a function of pressure drop....

  12. Effect of Cognitive Load on Seating Posture in Children. (United States)

    Igarashi, Go; Karashima, Chieko; Hoshiyama, Minoru


    Although children are frequently required to sit upright, it is often difficult to maintain this posture when performing cognitive tasks. Information about the relationship between a cognitive tasks and postural seating control is important for children to complete tasks more effectively. To determine the muscle activity and body sway of children in a seated posture while performing a cognitive task, changes in muscle activity and center of pressure (COP) were recorded while 4(th) grade children performed arithmetic tasks. Electromyography was recorded from the internal oblique and lumbar multifidus muscles, and the COP was recorded using a baropodometer placed on the stool. These variables were measured during easy (EA) and difficult (DA) arithmetic tasks. EMG activity decreased during the EA and DA tasks, while the COP was displaced in the DA task. The results of the arithmetic tasks were not related to the EMG or COP changes. Attention to maintain a seated posture may be reduced when children perform cognitive tasks. Therefore, it may be better to allow children to alter their posture especially when they are performing difficult tasks. In this research, we only used arithmetic tasks as the cognitive exercise, and therefore, other types of tasks should be examined.

  13. Machine for development impact tests in sports seats and similar (United States)

    Gonçalves, R. M.


    This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome.

  14. Efficacy and safety of tazobactam/piperacillin as an empirical treatment for the patients of adult and child with febrile neutropenia in Japan. (United States)

    Tamura, Kazuo; Akiyama, Nobu; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Saito, Masahiro


    Tazobactam/piperacillin (4.5 g for adults and 90 mg/kg body weight for children, every 6 h) was administered to Japanese patients with febrile neutropenia to evaluate its defervescence and clinical efficacy and safety. The pharmacokinetics in children were also examined. Defervescence efficacy at day 4 of the treatment was achieved in 50.0% of 94 adult and 62.5% of 8 pediatric patients, respectively. The defervescence efficacy rate in relation to the neutrophil count in adults was 37.5% for the patients with a neutrophil count of less than 100/μL and 62.5% for that between 100 and 500/μL. The clinical efficacy rate at day 7 and at the end or discontinuation of the treatment was 79.6% and 59.1% in adult patients, respectively, and 57.1% and 75.0% in pediatric patients, respectively. Fifteen strains of causative bacteria were isolated in 13 adult patients at baseline. All strains were eradicated within 4 days of the treatment. The side effects that occurred in adult and pediatric patients during the treatment were all known and not specific to febrile neutropenia patients. The pharmacokinetics profiles of tazobactam/piperacillin in children with febrile neutropenia are unlikely to be different from those in children with a common bacterial infection and without any immunosuppressive conditions. The study results in Japanese patients with febrile neutropenia demonstrate that tazobactam/piperacillin treatment is efficacious and safe in adults. As for pediatric patients, given the limited number of cases studied, further investigation is needed (Clinical trial number: Japic CTI-121728).

  15. Seat Belts Pay Off. The Use of Economic Incentives and Public Education to Increase Seat Belt Use in a Community. Final Report. (United States)

    Campbell, B. J.; And Others

    A six-month campaign to increase seat belt use in Chapel Hill and Carrboro, North Carolina centered around the idea of giving out economic incentives for seat belt wearing. The approach was to stop vehicles at random and give all belted vehicle occupants a small prize and a chance for a large cash prize. Precampaign activities involve collecting…

  16. Seat belt use among rear passengers: validity of self-reported versus observational measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schievano Elena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of seat belt laws and public education campaigns on seat belt use are assessed on the basis of observational or self-reported data on seat belt use. Previous studies focusing on front seat occupants have shown that self-reports indicate a greater seat belt usage than observational findings. Whether this over-reporting in self reports applies to rear seat belt usage, and to what extent, have yet to be investigated. We aimed to evaluate the over-reporting factor for rear seat passengers and whether this varies by gender and under different compulsory seat belt use conditions. Methods The study was conducted in the Veneto Region, an area in the North-East of Italy with a population of 4.7 million. The prevalence of seat belt use among rear seat passengers was determined by means of a cross-sectional self-report survey and an observational study. Both investigations were performed in two time periods: in 2003, when rear seat belt use was not enforced by primary legislation, and in 2005, after rear seat belt use had become compulsory (June 2003. Overall, 8138 observations and 7902 interviews were recorded. Gender differences in the prevalence of rear seat belt use were examined using the chi-square test. The over-reporting factor, defined as the ratio of the self-reported to the observed prevalence of rear seat belt use, was calculated by gender before and after the rear seat belt legislation came into effect. Results Among rear seat passengers, self-reported rates were always higher than the observational findings, with an overall over-reporting factor of 1.4. We registered no statistically significant changes over time in the over-reporting factor, nor any major differences between genders. Conclusion Self-reported seat belt usage by rear passengers represents an efficient alternative to observational studies for tracking changes in actual behavior, although the reported figures need to be adjusted using an

  17. Retractor-Based Stroking Seat System and Energy-Absorbing Floor to Mitigate High Shock and Vertical Acceleration (United States)


    III 50th Male Dummy Parts Catalogue, Rev. 4, July 2013 [8] Seat Belt Retractor Performance Evaluation in Rollover Crashes. Klima, M., Toomey, D., and...Weber, M., " Seat Belt Retractor Performance Evaluation in Rollover Crashes," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1702, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-1702 [9...restrained with a standard automotive seat belt system. A retractor-based seat belt system is attached to the seat structure with varying load

  18. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights


    Amon, Joseph J.; Jane Buchanan; Jane Cohen; Juliane Kippenberg


    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and envi...

  19. Evaluation of a brief intervention for increasing seat belt use on a college campus. (United States)

    Pastò, L; Baker, A G


    The authors evaluated a brief intervention for increasing seat belt use among the front seat occupants of cars at a junior college, in a jurisdiction with a mandatory belt use law. The intervention included public posting of performance feedback and distribution of an informational flyer to cars in target parking lot. Feedback was the display of the proportion of drivers observed wearing seat belts on the previous observation day. Seat belt use among drivers increased from 64% during the baseline phase to 71% during the intervention phase. Seat belt use among front passengers increased from 49% during the baseline phase to 67% during the intervention phase. In both cases, seat belt use at follow-up was comparable to seat belt use during the intervention phase, although a trend toward decreasing belt use was noted. Also found was higher seat belt use among females as compared with males irrespective of their front seat occupant status (driver or passenger). Effects of the intervention are discussed in the context of increasing seat belt use in a hardcore nonuser population of predominantly young adults.

  20. The effects of Maine's change to primary seat belt law on seat belt use and public perception and awareness. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Neil K; Tison, Julie; Casanova, Tara


    Maine upgraded its seat belt law to primary enforcement on September 20, 2007. Belt observations during the day and night were conducted along with awareness surveys in state licensing offices. Both daytime and nighttime observed belt use increased in the months following implementation of the law (daytime 77-84%; night 69-81%). Although daytime belt use was generally higher, nighttime belt use showed a greater increase than daytime belt use. Awareness surveys indicated that Maine motorists were clearly aware of the law change and its consequences. Survey respondents also indicated having heard both messages about enforcement and messages encouraging belt use. Primary seat belt laws may have a stronger effect on belt use at night--when risk is higher--than during the day.

  1. Mechanism of sound absorption by seated audience in halls. (United States)

    Nishihara, N; Hidaka, T; Beranek, L L


    Four methods are explored for predicting the reverberation times in fully occupied halls for music as related to the sound absorption by their audiences. The methods for providing audience absorptions include two that use reverberation chambers, namely, the ISO 354 method (and other similar standards) (ISO) and Kath and Kuhl's method (K & K) [Acustica 15, 127-131 (1965)], and two that use average data from halls, i.e., Beranek's method (COH) [Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound (Acoustical Society of America, Melville, NY, 1996)], and the average audience power-per-seat absorption which in practice is multiplied by the number of seats (AA). These methods are applied to the calculation of reverberation times in six existing halls, fully occupied, and the results were compared with actual measurements. The COH method was best for predictions over the entire frequency range. The K & K method showed the highest accuracy at mid-frequencies. Both the ISO and the K & K methods yielded wide differences for the measurements in the 125- and 250-Hz bands. The AA method was as good as the COH method when the measurements for the six halls were averaged, but showed a wide spread in the predictions around the average because it does not consider the degree of upholstering of the seats. It was hypothecated by the authors that the principal reasons for the ISO and K & K discrepancies at low frequencies were (a) differences between the degree of sound diffusion in actual halls and that in reverberation chambers, and (b) lack of information on the mechanisms of absorption of sound by people seated side-by-side in rows, particularly for near-grazing incidence sound fields. First, this article explores the sound diffusivity in a reverberation chamber and in the halls using CAD models. A probability density function of the incident angles of the sound rays that impinge on the audiences is defined and was measured for each case. Using a unique method, the sound absorption

  2. A program to increase seat belt use along the Texas-Mexico border. (United States)

    Cohn, Lawrence D; Hernandez, Delia; Byrd, Theresa; Cortes, Miguel


    A school-based, bilingual intervention was developed to increase seat belt use among families living along the Texas-Mexico border. The intervention sought to increase seat belt use by changing perceived norms within the community (i.e., making the nonuse of seat belts less socially acceptable). The intervention was implemented in more than 110 classrooms and involved more than 2100 children. Blind coding, validity checks, and reliability estimates contributed to a rigorous program evaluation. Seat belt use increased by 10% among children riding in the front seat of motor vehicles in the intervention community, as compared with a small but nonsignificant decline in use among control community children. Seat belt use among drivers did not increase.

  3. Multi-leg Seat Inventory Control Based on EMSU and Virtual Bucket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan


    Full Text Available Expected marginal seat revenue (EMSR is a well-known method for airline seat inventory control airlines. However, this method employs a static model to study the dynamic reservation process, and does not take into account the risk tolerance of policy makers. Expected marginal seat utility (EMSU replaces revenue by utility, which addresses the real situation of seat inventory control. However, there is still a lack of multi-leg seat control algorithms based on EMSU. Therefore, using EMSU and bucket algorithms, this paper applies the Markov decision-making process to simulate the flight reservation process and builds a dynamic multi-leg seat inventory control model. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Training toddlers seated on mobile robots to drive indoors amidst obstacles. (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Ragonesi, Christina; Galloway, James C; Agrawal, Sunil K


    Mobility is a causal factor in development. Children with mobility impairments may rely upon power mobility for independence and thus require advanced driving skills to function independently. Our previous studies show that while infants can learn to drive directly to a goal using conventional joysticks in several months of training, they are unable in this timeframe to acquire the advanced skill to avoid obstacles while driving. Without adequate driving training, children are unable to explore the environment safely, the consequences of which may in turn increase their risk for developmental delay. The goal of this research therefore is to train children seated on mobile robots to purposefully and safely drive indoors. In this paper, we present results where ten typically-developing toddlers are trained to drive a robot within an obstacle course. We also report a case study with a toddler with spina-bifida who cannot independently walk. Using algorithms based on artificial potential fields to avoid obstacles, we create force field on the joystick that trains the children to navigate while avoiding obstacles. In this "assist-as-needed" approach, if the child steers the joystick outside a force tunnel centered on the desired direction, the driver experiences a bias force on the hand. Our results suggest that the use of a force-feedback joystick may yield faster learning than the use of a conventional joystick.

  5. Mandatory seat belt laws in the states. A study of fatal and severe occupant injuries. (United States)

    Houston, D J; Richardson, L E; Neeley, G W


    This study examines the impact of mandatory seat belt laws on fatal and incapacitating injury rates in the states. Annual data for all 50 states for the period 1975-1991 are used. Pooled time series analysis is employed. The general conclusion that emerges from this analysis is that seat belt laws significantly impact state fatal injury rates. Primary enforcement and all-seat coverage provisions appear to be particularly effective in reducing fatality rates.

  6. Active control of an innovative seat suspension system with acceleration measurement based friction estimation (United States)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Hongyi; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua


    In this paper, an innovative active seat suspension system for vehicles is presented. This seat suspension prototype is built with two low cost actuators each of which has one rotary motor and one gear reducer. A H∞ controller with friction compensation is designed for the seat suspension control system where the friction is estimated and compensated based on the measurement of seat acceleration. This principal aim of this research was to control the low frequency vibration transferred or amplified by the vehicle (chassis) suspension, and to maintain the passivity of the seat suspension at high frequency (isolation vibration) while taking into consideration the trade-off between the active seat suspension cost and its high frequency performance. Sinusoidal excitations of 1-4.5 Hz were applied to test the active seat suspension both when controlled and when uncontrolled and this is compared with a well-tuned passive heavy duty vehicle seat suspension. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm within the tested frequencies. Further tests were conducted using the excitations generated from a quarter-car model under bump and random road profiles. The bump road tests indicate the controlled active seat suspension has good transient response performance. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) method and ISO 2631-1 standards were applied to analyse the seat suspension's acceleration under random road conditions. Although some low magnitude and high frequency noise will inevitably be introduced by the active system, the weighted-frequency Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration shows that this may not have a large effect on ride comfort. In fact, the ride comfort is improved from being an 'a little uncomfortable' to a 'not uncomfortable' level when compared with the well-tuned passive seat suspension. This low cost active seat suspension design and the proposed controller with the easily measured feedback signals are very practical for real

  7. Pattern of seat belt use by drivers in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odekunle Abayomi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Trinidad and Tobago, the law on the mandatory use of seat belts was passed in 1995, but this law is hardly enforced. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and predictors of seat belt use by motor vehicle drivers in the country. Findings A cross-sectional study of 959 motor vehicle drivers using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Pearson Chi square test and multinomial logistic regression analysis in order to determine the possible predictors of seat belt use by the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago. A majority of the drivers sometimes (51.8% or always (31.6% use a seat belt. About 16.7%, 29% and 54.2% of the drivers perceived that the other drivers use their seat belts more frequently, with the same frequency and less frequently respectively compared to themselves. The main reason for not using seat belt by the drivers was given as frequent stops (40.7% and the main motivation to use seat belt by the drivers was given as stiffer penalties for non-compliance with the seat belt law (44.5%. The predictors of seat belt use were male driver, no formal or lower level of education, driving for less than 10 years, and the perception that the other drivers use seat belts with the same or higher frequency compared to the respondents. Conclusion Only a small proportion of the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago always use a seat belt when driving. There is the need to enforce the seat belt legislation in the country.

  8. How would increasing seat belt use affect the number of killed or seriously injured light vehicle occupants? (United States)

    Høye, Alena


    The expected effects of increasing seat belt use on the number of killed or seriously injured (KSI) light vehicle occupants have been estimated for three scenarios of increased seat belt use in Norway, taking into account current seat belt use, the effects of seat belts and differences in crash risk between belted and unbelted drivers. The effects of seat belts on fatality and injury risk were investigated in a meta-analysis that is based on 24 studies from 2000 or later. The results indicate that seat belts reduce both fatal and non-fatal injuries by 60% among front seat occupants and by 44% among rear seat occupants. Both results are statistically significant. Seat belt use among rear seat occupants was additionally found to about halve fatality risk among belted front seat occupants in a meta-analysis that is based on six studies. Based on an analysis of seat belt wearing rates among crash involved and non-crash involved drivers in Norway it is estimated that unbelted drivers have 8.3 times the fatal crash risk and 5.2 times the serious injury crash risk of belted drivers. The large differences in crash risk are likely to be due to other risk factors that are common among unbelted drivers such as drunk driving and speeding. Without taking into account differences in crash risk between belted and unbelted drivers, the estimated effects of increasing seat belt use are likely to be biased. When differences in crash risk are taken into account, it is estimated that the annual numbers of KSI front seat occupants in light vehicles in Norway could be reduced by 11.3% if all vehicles had seat belt reminders (assumed seat belt wearing rate 98.9%), by 17.5% if all light vehicles had seat belt interlocks (assumed seat belt wearing rate 99.7%) and by 19.9% if all front seat occupants of light vehicles were belted. Currently 96.6% of all (non-crash involved) front seat occupants are belted. The effect on KSI per percentage increase of seat belt use increases with increasing

  9. Application of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing for sharp corner and tangent contact lens seats (United States)

    Hopkins, C. L.; Burge, J. H.


    This paper outlines methods for dimensioning and tolerancing lens seats that mate with spherical lens surfaces. The two types of seats investigated are sharp corner and tangent contact. The goal is to be able to identify which seat dimensions influence lens tilt and displacement and develop a quantifiable way to assign tolerances to those dimensions to meet tilt and displacement requirements. After looking at individual seats, methods are then applied to multiple lenses with examples. All geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is according to ASME Y14.5M - 1994.

  10. Reducing whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal injury with a new car seat design. (United States)

    Makhsous, M; Hendrix, R; Crowther, Z; Nam, E; Lin, F


    A new car seat design, which allows the back part of the seat (BPS) to lower down while a protruded cushion supports the lumbar spine, was quantitatively tested to determine its effectiveness and potentials in reducing whole-body vibration (WBV) and musculoskeletal disorders in automobile drivers. Nine subjects were tested to drive with the seat in: 1) the conventional seating arrangement (Normal posture); and 2) the new seating design (without BPS (WO-BPS) posture). By reducing contact between the seat and the ischial tuberosities (ITs), the new seating design reduced both contact pressure and amplitude of vibrations transmitted through the body. Root-mean-squared values for acceleration along the z-axis at the lumbar spine and ITs significantly decreased 31.6% (p spine and ITs by 43.0% (p < 0.05) and 34.5% (p < 0.01). This reduction in WBV allows more sustained driving than permitted by conventional seating devices, by several hours, before sustaining unacceptable WBV levels. Such seating devices, implemented in large trucks and other high-vibration vehicles, may reduce the risk of WBV-related musculoskeletal disorders among drivers.

  11. Development of Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry Data in a Microgravity Environment (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda


    The Constellation Program is designing a new vehicle based off of new anthropometric requirements. These requirements specify the need to account for a spinal elongation factor for anthropometric measurements involving the spine, such as eye height and seated height. However, to date there is no data relating spinal elongation to a seated posture. Only data relating spinal elongation to stature has been collected in microgravity. Therefore, it was proposed to collect seated height in microgravity to provide the Constellation designers appropriate data for their analyses. This document will describe the process in which the best method to collect seated height in microgravity was developed.

  12. A new landing impact attenuation seat in manned spacecraft biologically-inspired by felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hui


    Full Text Available When manned spacecraft comes back to the earth, it relies on the impact attenuation seat to protect astronauts from injuries during landing phase. Hence, the seat needs to transfer impact load, as small as possible, to the crew. However, there is little room left for traditional seat to improve further. Herein, a new seat system biologically-inspired by felids’ landing is proposed. Firstly, a series of experiments was carried out on cats and tigers, in which they were trained to jump down voluntarily from different heights. Based on the ground reaction forces combined with kinematics, the experiment indicated that felids’ landing after self-initial jump was a multi-step impact attenuation process and the new seat was inspired by this. Then the construction and work process of new seat were redesigned to realize the multi-step impact attenuation. The dynamic response of traditional and new seat is analyzed under the identical conditions and the results show that the new concept seat can significantly weaken the occupant overload in two directions compared with that of traditional seat. As a consequence, the risk of injury evaluated for spinal and head is also lowered, meaning a higher level of protection which is especially beneficial to the debilitated astronaut.

  13. Improving Automotive Safety: The Role of Industry, the Government, and the Driver, (United States)


    not have a predictable payoff. We have illustrated that total risk may remain unchanged ( recall the 40 passenger bus accident versus the 40 individual...4: Stronger anti-drunk laws -about 200 averted deaths Case 5: Child car seat -about 100 averted deaths Case 6 Install airbags - about 12 averted

  14. Association between thrombophilia and seated immobility venous thromboembolism. (United States)

    Siniarski, Aleksander; Wypasek, Ewa; Fijorek, Kamil; Gajos, Grzegorz; Undas, Anetta


    Prolonged work and recreation-related seated immobility increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Little is known about links of thrombophilia and prolonged immobility. We sought to determine factors associated with the occurrence of seated immobility venous thromboembolism (SIT). Four hundred and ninety-three consecutive outpatients with a history of first-ever VTE, aged up to 65 years were referred for evaluation of suspected thrombophilia. Exclusion criteria were provoked VTE unless family history of VTE was positive, arterial thrombosis, cancer, infection and chronic inflammatory diseases. The prolonged immobility group was defined as being seated at least 8 h daily and at least 3 h daily without getting up, or 10 h daily and 2 h daily without getting up, or 12 h daily and 1 h daily without getting up during 12 weeks prior to VTE onset. SIT was observed in 115 patients (24.5%). Inherited thrombophilia was more common among SIT patients than in the remainder [Odds ratio (OR) 3.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.55-6.25], with a major impact of factor V Leiden mutation (FVL) (OR 4.86, 95% CI 2.95-8.05). In multivariate analysis, FVL (OR 5.43, 95% CI 3.23-9.15), trauma (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.30-4.99), current smoking (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.06-2.67) and varices (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.27-3.40) were independent predictors of SIT. Moreover, FVL (OR 4.05, 95% CI 2.12-7.76), prothrombin G20210A variant (OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.47-10.05) and computer use (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.43-5.63) were independent predictors of unprovoked VTE in the SIT group. Inherited thrombophilia, current smoking and varices characterize patients with SIT.

  15. Selected Design Parameters for Reclining Seats Based on Engineering Anthropometry (United States)


    Height 21.8 0.92 Not available Sitting Cervicale Height 25.5 0.86 Not available Sitting Knee Height 21.8 0.83 21.97 0.94 * All linear dimensions in...proper targets were affixed on these landmarks. *A horizontal line at the level of the spinous process of T-4 (4th thoracic vertebra ) was drawn on the... vertebra at upright seated position. Point #13 is the body point of contact with the subject’s back and the back rest. T-4 mark t Tý) 1- 419-- 0 t si g


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  17. Prevent Child Abuse America (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  18. Beveiligingsmiddelen in personenauto's in 1995 : aanwezigheid en gebruik van gordels, kinderzitjes en hoofdsteunen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.A.G.


    Surveys on the presence and use of seat belts by drivers and front-seat car passengers are almost yearly conducted by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research since the year 1968. The surveys were extended to seat belts on the back seats and to child restraint systems since 1989. This study discu

  19. Aanwezigheid en gebruik van autogordels en kinderzitjes op de voor- en achterzitplaatsen van personenauto' in 1991 : een onderzoek naar de aanwezigheid en het gebruik van beveiligingsmiddelen door bestuurders en passagiers van personenauto's op wegen binnen en buiten de bebouwde kom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.J.G. & Mulder, J.A.G.


    During October 1991, a combined survey was done into the presence and use of safety belts and child seats on the back seats of cars. Contrary to previous years, it also looked at the belt use by both drivers and front seat passengers. The use of seat belts by car drivers in 1991 was practically the

  20. Preventing head injuries in children (United States)

    ... when they are in a car or other motor vehicle. Use a child safety seat or booster seat that is best ... Helmet Helmets help to ... baseball or softball games Riding a horse Riding a bike Sledding, skiing, ...

  1. Safety in paediatric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, D.; Filice, I.; Murray, D.; Thomas, K. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    Those of us working in a dedicated paediatric environment are aware of the important safety issues with regard to paediatrics. Our goal when working with paediatric patients, the goal is to obtain the best quality images while keeping patients safe and their distress to a minimum. This article will discuss some of the issues regarding paediatric safety in a diagnostic imaging department, including radiation doses and the risk to paediatric patients, reducing medication errors, safe sedation practice and environmental safety. Also discussed are some conditions requiring special consideration to maintain patient safety such as epiglottitis and suspected child abuse. Promotion of a patient/family-centered care system will create an environment of trust where parents or guardians will know that their children are being well cared for in a safe, effective environment. (author)

  2. Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment (Spinal) (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen


    The primary objective of this project is to provide information pertaining to changes in seated height due to spinal elongation in a microgravity environment. The proposed experiment aims to collect seated height data for subjects exposed to microgravity environments, provide information relating to seated height rate of change over time, and feed new information regarding the elongation of the spine forward into the design of Constellation systems. Historical data indicates that spinal elongation occurs when crewmembers are subjected to microgravity. In as little as two days, the typical crewmember will exhibit increases in stature of up to 3 percent. However, data has been collected only for crewmembers in standing postures, and a limited pool of subjects was available. Due to the criticality of seated height in the design of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Small changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the CEV. The proposed study will directly measure changes in seated height for crewmembers in the Shuttle cockpit. An anthropometer will be used to record measurements to the top of the head of a seated subject, and an orthogonal photograph will be taken in order to measure seated height based on scaling references of known sizes as well as verify the posture and positioning remained consistent throughout the study. Data gained from this study will provide better information to CEV designers. Accurate measurements of crew seated height will be valuable for vehicle and habitation designers for future programs as well.

  3. Improved Seat, Console, and Workplace Design: Annotated Bibliography, Integration of the Literature, Accommodation Model, and Seated Operator Reach Profiles (United States)


    1.1 in.). (6) The backrest is most effective within the range of the 2nd to the 5th lumbar vertebrae . Th., distance of the backrest to the seat of...made. SIGIICANT RESULTS Measurement Mean S.D. Weight 171.40 lbs. 19.09 lbs. Stature 69.94 in. 2.33 in. Cervicale height 59.51 in. 2.18 in. Sitting...trouble between the 5th lumbar and the lst sacral vertebrae . The mean age for males wea 55 years and for females 59 years. APPARATUS: A reat was used

  4. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  5. Restaurant No. 1 seating capacity increases by 240

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso


    These days you need patience when looking for a seat in Restaurant No. 1 to eat your lunch. The opening of the new dining room, which will increase the restaurant’s seating capacity by 240, should alleviate the problem and improve service.   The new restaurant area. For the past several years the number of people using Restaurant No. 1 has grown steadily. Now, for a change, the restaurant itself is growing. Luz Lopez-Hernandez, leader of the project in the GS Department, explains: “Enlarging the restaurant has been on the GS Department's agenda for several years, but the project really got off the ground in 2009. Once it was approved and the design completed, construction itself only took seven months.” Seven months later, the restaurant extension is indeed on the verge of opening. One of the people who will be particularly happy is Joël Nallet, who manages the Novae restaurant: “I am thrilled, because until now, even if we managed to increase...

  6. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)


    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  7. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages. (United States)


    ... centerline of the vehicle for forward and rear facing seats, and in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal... Figure 3, in a plane parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle for forward and rear facing seats, and in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle for side facing...

  8. Optimization of geometry of annular seat valves suitable for Digital Displacement fluid power pumps/motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    work an annular seat valve suitable for use in Digital Displacement units is considered, and the ring geometry is optimized using finite element analysis including non-linear material behaviour, contact elements and fluid pressure penetrating load, closely reflecting the actual load of the seat valve...

  9. Increasing Seat Belt Use on a College Campus: An Evaluation of Two Prompting Procedures (United States)

    Clayton, Michael C.; Helms, Bridgett P.


    Seat belt use is an important factor in the prevention of automobile accidents involving injuries and fatalities. The current study used a multielement design to compare the "Click It or Ticket" and "Please Buckle Up--I Care" procedures. Results indicate that the Click It or Ticket prompt resulted in a 20-percentage-point increase in seat belt…

  10. Seat Adjustment Design of an Intelligent Robotic Wheelchair Based on the Stewart Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Er Hsu


    Full Text Available A wheelchair user makes direct contact with the wheelchair seat, which serves as the interface between the user and the wheelchair, for much of any given day. Seat adjustment design is of crucial importance in providing proper seating posture and comfort. This paper presents a multiple‐DOF (degrees of freedom seat adjustment mechanism, which is intended to increase the independence of the wheelchair user while maintaining a concise structure, light weight, and intuitive control interface. This four‐axis Stewart platform is capable of heaving, pitching, and swaying to provide seat elevation, tilt‐in‐space, and sideways movement functions. The geometry and types of joints of this mechanism are carefully arranged so that only one actuator needs to be controlled, enabling the wheelchair user to adjust the seat by simply pressing a button. The seat is also equipped with soft pressure‐sensing pads to provide pressure management by adjusting the seat mechanism once continuous and concentrated pressure is detected. Finally, by comparing with the manual wheelchair, the proposed mechanism demonstrated the easier and more convenient operation with less effort for transfer assistance.

  11. Effect of seat surface inclination on postural control during reaching in preterm children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; van der Heide, Jolanda C.; Fock, Johanna M.; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth; van Eykern, Leo A.; Otten, Bert


    Background and Purpose Because it is debatable whether seat surface inclination improves motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP), the effect of seat surface tilting on postural control and quality of reaching was studied. Subjects The subjects were 58 children with CP aged 2 to 11 years

  12. Practical and medical aspects of the use of car seat belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, A. & Kampen, L.T.B. van


    An analysis is made of the influence of use and non-use of seat belts on type and severity of injuries to drivers and of the influence of seat belt type on type and severity of injuries to drivers. Users of lap belts and users of 3-point belts enjoy a comparable and considerable reduction of injury

  13. Vibration control of electrorheological seat suspension with human-body model using sliding mode control (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Han, Young-Min


    This paper presents vibration control performance of a semi-active electrorheological (ER) seat suspension system using a robust sliding mode controller (SMC). A cylindrical type of ER seat damper is manufactured for a commercial vehicle seat suspension and its field-dependent damping force is experimentally evaluated. A vertical vibration model of human-body is then derived and integrated with the governing equations of the ER seat suspension system. The integrated seat-driver model featured by a high order degree-of-freedom (dof) is reduced through a balanced model reduction method. The SMC is then designed based on the reduced model and the state observer is formulated to estimate feedback states which cannot be directly measured from sensors. By imposing a semi-active actuating condition, the synthesized SMC is experimentally realized. In the experimental implementation, a driver directly sits on the controlled seat. Both vertical displacement and acceleration are measured at seat frame and driver's head, respectively. Control performances are evaluated under various road conditions and compared with those obtained from conventional passive seat suspension system.

  14. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats (United States)


    ... modifications to reduce further the risk of injury associated with infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77 . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of August 30, 2013 (78 FR 53734),...

  15. Increasing Seat Belt Use in Service Vehicle Drivers with a Gearshift Delay (United States)

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard


    This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of…

  16. Seat Belt Law Experience in Four Foreign Countries Compared to the United States. (United States)

    Campbell, B. J.; Campbell, Frances A.

    This report examines the process of enacting laws requiring the use of seat belts in the United States. It assesses these laws against the perspective of benefits realized from such mandates in other nations. Chapter one is an introduction; chapter two provides background on seat belt installation in U.S. vehicles, introduction of belt use laws,…

  17. Gender Differences in Student Attitude for Seating Layout in College Classrooms (United States)

    Burgess, Brigitte; Kaya, Naz


    This study examined whether gender influenced college students' attitudes regarding classroom seating layout. Seating layouts included: a) rows of tablet-arm chairs, b) U-shaped, c) clusters, and d) rows of tables with individual chairs. The sample consisted of 912 college students. Factor analysis yielded two dimensions: "Feeling at Ease" and…

  18. Nonsanction seat belt law enforcement: a modern day tale of two cities. (United States)

    Hunter, W W; Stewart, J R; Stutts, J C; Marchetti, L M


    This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a nonsanction seat belt law enforcement program in two experimental communities of contrasting size in a state with a mandatory belt law. The main ingredients of the program were seat belt "salutes," public information and education, and limited use of inexpensive economic incentives. Driver shoulder belt use data collected before, during, and after the experimental programs, compared to similar data collected in a comparison community, showed the approach to be effective. While standard seat belt enforcement activities without incentives have been shown to be effective, many police departments, especially in smaller communities, are reluctant to make wholesale increases in seat belt citations. Although requiring some additional level of manpower and resources, a nonsanction approach to seat belt law enforcement can provide an alternate way of increasing belt use in these communities.

  19. Effect of Therapy Ball Seating on Learning and Sitting Discomforts among Saudi Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einas Al-Eisa


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of therapy ball seating as an alternative for typical chair seating in a classroom. We evaluated the effect of ball seating on the student's sitting discomfort and academic performance using Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire and problem-based learning scales, respectively. A sample of convenience was taken. Data was collected and analyzed using t-test. Subjects experienced a major discomfort at neck and a minor discomfort at knee joint. Results showed that there was a significant improvement (P≤0.05 in sitting discomfort and student's performance when seated on therapy balls compared to typical classroom chairs. This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of therapy balls as a classroom seating for students who exhibit sitting discomfort and problem-based learning.

  20. Effect of a Dynamic Seating Surface on Postural Control and Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Erna Rosenlund; Trew, Lisa

    Purpose: The purpose was to investigate if a seating system involving a dynamic material covering the seat back and base improves postural control, alignment and function in children with cerebral palsy and to investigate consequences of adapting The Seated Postural Control Measure to a target...... group with multifunctional disabilities. Relevance: Developing sitting systems for disabled persons is of great importance to avoid sitting problems, to increase the level of functioning and postural control which will have an impact on their daily living and activities. This project takes its starting...... Ethical Committee. Outcome measures were Seated Postural Control Measure (SPCM), which was modified to meet the children’s needs, was used to measure alignment and function. Force Sensitive Applications (FSA) on the seat surfaces was used to measure postural movements and interface pressure. All tests...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts for surface equipment. (United States)


    ....14130 Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts for surface equipment. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors..., that is equipped with ROPS and seat belts that meet the installation and performance requirements of...

  2. Under-Body Blast Mitigation: Stand-Alone Seat Safety Activation System (United States)


    INTRODUCTION The challenge of protecting occupants during an underbody blast is being able to sense and activate systems (such as pyrotechnic...As such Constant-Flux Magnetostrictive Sensors shall be evaluated in a self-contained environment to provide the output during these events. By...Constant-Flux Magnetostrictive Sensors shall be evaluated in a self-contained environment to provide the output during these events. By activating the

  3. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference (United States)


    ... Male Dummy,'' Volume 2, UMTRI, DOT HS 806 716. NHTSA developed the specifications for the FAD2, the... and the FAD2, and, for comparison purposes, the dimensions of the Hybrid III (HIII) test dummies... submitted to the docket electronically by logging into . Follow the...

  4. Design and Evaluation Methods for Optimizing Ejection Seat Cushions for Comfort and Safety (United States)


    THE COMMANDER HENNI VON GIERKE Director Biodynamics and Bionics Division Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory LIMd SUMMARY [ A method for...investigation was initiated by the Vibration and Impact Branch, Biodynamics and Bionics Division, Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson...subject’s eyes were aligned with a present mark on the head rest. The foot rests were also checked to insure that the subject’s knees were slightly

  5. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (United States)


    ... combination of structural analysis and static load tests to limit load; or (3) Static load tests to ultimate... resulting from the ultimate static load factors prescribed in § 23.561(b)(2) of this part. Each occupant... resulting from the ultimate static load factors prescribed in § 23.561(b)(2) of this part, or they...

  6. Evaluation of Aircraft Ejection Seat Safety When Using Advanced Helmet Sensors (United States)


    survivability and equipment airworthiness requirements for pilots and aircrew wearing helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), night vision goggles (NVGs), or airworthiness requirements for pilots and aircrew wearing helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), night vision goggles (NVGs), or both during ejection...and equipment airworthiness requirements for pilots and aircrew wearing helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), night vision goggles (NVGs), or both during

  7. Simulation of Adaptive Seat Energy Absorber for Military Rotorcraft Crash Safety Enhancement (United States)


    body biodynamic response. The stiffness and damping properties of the cervical spine are represented by k1 and c1, those of the thoracic spine by k2 and...the human body segments. Stiffness Damping Source Cervical spine (k1, c1) 310.0(kN/m) 400.0(N·s/m) (4) Thoracic spine (k2, c2) 183.0(kN/m... Flexion (N·m/rad): 53.2·Exp(0.98×θ2)-53.2 100.0 (N·m·s/rad) (6) Knee joint (k6, c6) Extension (N·m/rad): 90.5·Exp(2.0×θ3)−90.5 Flexion (N·m/rad

  8. Sliding Threshold Identification of a Deep-Seated Potential Landslide (United States)

    Wang, K.-L.; Liao, J.-T.; Chen, C.-W.; Lin, M.-L.; Lin, H.-H.


    The process for a creep landslide to rapid landslide is quite difficult to solve owing to each landslide is unique. The initiation of landslide probably results from heavy rainfall, seismic force, or even cut off at toe. However, the sliding deformation can be monitored once the sliding is still happening. The index to identify sliding usually uses displacement especially one directional displacement. Thus the design of landslide warning system usually includes displacement across stale part and sliding part, GPS, and rainfall. A deep-seated potential landslide site is selected to develop a relationship between rainfall, groundwater level, 3-D deformation, tilting. Monitored data was documented from 2005 to 2011, including at least three heavy rainfall events. Measured deformation data such as GPS data, slope indicators, scar displacement, in-hole displacement, terrestrial LiDAR, and photogrammetry are summed to discuss sliding process. Threshold indexes such as 3-D deformation and tilting angle under extreme conditions will be proposed in this study.

  9. Hardfacing materials used in valves for seating and wear surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, W.G.


    Most valves and essentially all critical service valves utilize hardfacing materials for seating and wear surfaces to minimize wear and galling. The type of hardfacing materials used, the methods of deposition, and the quality of the final product all contribute to the wear characteristics, required operating force, and life of the final product. Over the last forty years the most prevalent hardfacing materials furnished to the commercial nuclear industry consisted of cobalt base and nickel base materials. In the last several years there has been extensive development and evaluation work performed on iron base hardfacing materials. This presentation will address the wear characteristics of the various materials and the importance of consistent quality of deposited materials necessary to achieve optimum product performance and longevity.

  10. Effect Of Vibration Amplitude Level On Seated Occupant Reaction Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amzar Azizan


    Full Text Available The past decade has seen the rapid development of vibration comfort in the automotive industry. However little attention has been paid to vibration drowsiness. Eighteen male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Before commencing the experiment total transmitted acceleration measured at interfaces between the seat cushion and seatback to human body was adjusted to become 0.2 ms-2 r.m.s and 0.4 ms-2 r.m.s for each volunteer. Seated volunteers were exposed to Gaussian random vibration with frequency band 1-15 Hz at two level of amplitude low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude for 20-minutes in separate days. For the purpose of drowsiness measurement volunteers were asked to complete 10-minutes PVT test before and after vibration exposure and rate their subjective drowsiness by giving score using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale KSS before vibration every 5-minutes interval and following 20-minutes of vibration exposure. Strong evidence of drowsiness was found as there was a significant increase in reaction time and number of lapse following exposure to vibration in both conditions. However the effect is more apparent in medium vibration amplitude. A steady increase of drowsiness level can also be observed in KSS in all volunteers. However no significant differences were found in KSS between low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude. The results of this investigation suggest that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human alertness level and more pronounced at higher vibration amplitude. Taken together these findings suggest a role of vibration in promoting drowsiness especially at higher vibration amplitude.

  11. Protecting children: a survey of caregivers’ knowledge of Georgia’s child restraint laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Strasser


    Full Text Available Sheryl Strasser1, Laurie Whorton2, Amanda J Walpole3, Sarah Beddington11Institute of Public Health, Partnership for Urban Health Research, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2WellStar Corporate and Community Health, Marietta, GA, USA; 3Cobb and Douglas Public Health, Marietta, GA, USAIntroduction: The leading cause of injury and death among children in the United States is motor vehicle crashes. Even though restraint laws are in place and public awareness campaigns and educational interventions have increased, many children are still improperly restrained or not restrained at all. When correctly used, child restraints significantly reduce risk of injury or death.Methods: The purpose of the study was to elicit caregiver baseline knowledge of car seat installation and regulation before receiving car seat education from certified technicians at Inspection Station events. Inspection Station is a program whereby staff assists parents in correctly positioning car seats in participants’ vehicles. Over an 8-week period, Safe Kids Cobb County Car Seat Technicians distributed a 16-item survey, with 10 knowledge-based questions and six demographic questions to Inspection Station participants. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted to assess relationships between participant age, ethnicity, and gender with overall knowledge scores. Regression analysis was run to determine the association between participant education level and total child restraint knowledge.Results: One hundred sixty-nine surveys were completed. Participant knowledge of vehicular child restraint ranged from 0% to 90% on all items. Only 29.6% of caregivers understood the proper tightness of the harness system. Less than half of the caregivers (43.8% were aware of the Georgia law requiring children aged 6 years and younger to be in some type of child restraint. Only 43.2% of caregivers surveyed knew that children need to ride in a rear-facing child restraint until 1

  12. Safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, L.J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  13. Foundations of Child Psychiatry. (United States)

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  14. Seat belt syndrome: Delayed or missed intestinal injuries, a case report and review of literature (United States)

    Al-Ozaibi, Labib; Adnan, Judy; Hassan, Batool; Al-Mazroui, Alya; Al-Badri, Faisal


    Introduction Seat belt injuries are not uncommon. The use of seat belts is associated with a unique injury profile collectively termed “the seat belt syndrome”. The aim is to aid in the early diagnosis of seat belt injuries. Case presentation Two different patients presented to the emergency after sustaining a motor vehicle accident. Both were the drivers, restrained and had a frontal impact. On presentation they were hemodynamically stable with mild tenderness on the abdomen and the abdominal computed tomography (CT) did not show any signs of bowel or mesenteric injuries. The signs of peritonitis became obvious after 24 h in one case and after 3 days in the other. Discussion Early diagnosis provides better outcomes for patients with seat belt injuries, but this remains a challenge to trauma surgeons. The typical findings of peritonitis might not be present initially. The presence of abdominal wall ecchymosis (seat belt sign) increases the chance of intraabdominal injuries by eight folds. Conclusion Clinical signs of intestinal injuries might not be obvious on presentation. In the presence of seat belt sign the possibility of bowl injury must be suspected. Admit the patient for observation even if no clinical or radiological findings are present at presentation. PMID:26826929

  15. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. (United States)

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S


    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt.

  16. Using a pneumatic support to correct sitting posture for prolonged periods: a study using airline seats. (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Fenwick, Chad M J


    Prolonged sitting with spine flexion has been linked to low back disorders. A variety of mechanisms account for this based on biomechanical and neurological variables. Airline seats typically cause pronounced lumbar flexion due to their hollowed seat back design. A pneumatic support, placed between the seat back and the lumbar spine, was tested to see if lumbar flexion was reduced. Results showed that when the seats were positioned in the upright position, 15 of 20 participants experienced reduced lumbar flexion (by 15 degrees on average) with the support. The study was repeated on the five non-responders with the seatback set in the reclined position. This resulted in another four experiencing less lumbar flexion. Since seated flexion is associated with disc stress, reducing flexion with the support reduced lumbar stress. Spine flexion that results from prolonged sitting is associated with disc stress and pain. The pneumatic support tested here reduced spine flexion. While it is not known why airline seats are designed with no lumbar support, which causes excessive lumbar flexion while seated, the pneumatic support corrected this deficit. Reclining the seatback enhanced this effect.

  17. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. (United States)

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J


    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations.

  18. Bidet toilet seats with warm-water tanks: residual chlorine, microbial community, and structural analyses. (United States)

    Iyo, Toru; Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Yamada, Mutsuko; Omae, Kazuyuki


    Despite the reported health-related advantages of the use of warm water in bidets, there are health-related disadvantages associated with the use of these toilet seats, and the bacterial research is sparse. We conducted a survey on the hygienic conditions of 127 warm-water bidet toilet seats in restrooms on a university campus. The spray water from the toilet seats had less residual chlorine than their tap water sources. However, the total viable microbial count was below the water-quality standard for tap water. In addition, the heat of the toilet seats' warm-water tanks caused heterotrophic bacteria in the source tap water to proliferate inside the nozzle pipes and the warm-water tanks. Escherichia coli was detected on the spray nozzles of about 5% of the toilet seats, indicating that the self-cleaning mechanism of the spray nozzles was largely functioning properly. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on about 2% of the toilet seats. P. aeruginosa was found to remain for long durations in biofilms that formed inside warm-water tanks. Infection-prevention measures aimed at P. aeruginosa should receive full consideration when managing warm-water bidet toilet seats in hospitals in order to prevent opportunistic infections in intensive care units, hematology wards, and other hospital locations.

  19. Research and implementation of a shaking seat system for flight simulator (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolin; Yu, Youzhi; Shen, Weiqun; Song, Zishan


    To a helicopter the shaking seat system can simulate the vibration caused by the main rotor, tail rotor, engine, weapon firing, landing, etc. This paper focuses on the research and analysis of the shaking system of a helicopter flight simulator. The vibration model of the seat is built and the system is also developed. According to different flight states of the helicopter the vibration states of the seat are classified based on real measurement data, and the spectra of the vibration are interpolated to model the vibration of the seat. An electro-hydraulic servo system is used to drive the seat to shake along the direction that is parallel to the vertical body axis. The seat is shaken under the instructions at reference height with position close-loop control method, and the control law is PID algorithm. Running parameters of the system are configured by the software. The motional states of the shaking seat are displayed to the user through the visualization software. The main parts of the system and some key technologies of the implementation are also presented in the paper. The system can generate the special vibration environment in the helicopter flight process, and is successfully applied to the flight simulator. So the pilots' immersion feelings are increased.

  20. Whole body vibration exposures in forklift operators: comparison of a mechanical and air suspension seat. (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Ploger, James D; Johnson, Peter W


    Using a repeated measures design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures when 12 forklift operators drove the same forklift with a mechanical suspension and an air suspension seat. A portable PDA-based WBV data acquisition system collected and analysed time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV measurement standards. Tri-axial measurements of weighted vibration (A(w)), crest factor, vibration dose values, time-weighted average-peak, raw (+) peak, raw (-) peak and static compression dose (S(ed)) were compared between seats. There were significant differences in z-axis WBV exposures with the air suspension seat, yielding lower WBV exposures. In addition, there were differences between seats in how they attenuated WBV exposures based on the driver's weight. In the mechanical suspension seat, WBV exposures were weight-dependent, with lighter drivers having higher WBV exposures, whereas with the air suspension seat, the same trends were not as prevalent. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study contributes to the understanding of how different seat suspensions can influence WBV transmission and how some components of vibration transmission are dependent on the weight of the driver. Additional systematic studies are needed to quantify how various factors can influence WBV exposures.

  1. Effects of heated seat and foot heater on thermal comfort and heater energy consumption in vehicle. (United States)

    Oi, Hajime; Yanagi, Kotaro; Tabata, Koji; Tochihara, Yutaka


    Subjective experiments involving 12 different conditions were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal sensation and thermal comfort. The experimental conditions involved various combinations of the operative temperature in the test room (10 or 20°C), a heated seat (on/off) and a foot heater (room operative temperature +10 or +20°C). The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. The room operative temperature at which the occupants felt a 'neutral' overall thermal sensation was decreased by about 3°C by using the heated seat or foot heater and by about 6°C when both devices were used. Moreover, the effects of these devices on vehicle heater energy consumption were investigated using simulations. As a result, it was revealed that heated seats and foot heaters can reduce the total heater energy consumption of vehicles. Statement of Relevance: Subjective experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal comfort. The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. These devices can reduce the total heater energy consumption in vehicles.

  2. Preliminary Results of the Effect of Spinal Elongation in Microgravity on Seated Height (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda


    The Constellation Program is designing a new vehicle for future space travel to the International Space Station and to the Moon and beyond. One major accommodation and design issue that needs to be addressed with the current seat layout design is spinal elongation. Spinal elongation is the spinal growth that occurs due to straightening of the spinal curve and expansion of the inter-verbal discs in microgravity. Spinal elongation is critical to the design of the seats, seat layout, suit fit, and crew accommodation because of the implications it can have on the a safe return of the crewmembers or during the mission. Inadequate clearance between crewmembers and/or between crewmember hardware interfaces may potentially result in injury during the mission or upon returning to earth. Therefore, design requirements need to be determined that will allow for the elongation of the spine. The current requirement as specified in the Human Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document states that a 3% increase in standing height must be accommodated. However, it cannot be assumed that the amount of standing height growth is equivalent to the amount of spinal elongation because of the variation in body proportions between the lower body and torso. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the amount of spinal elongation for a seated posture for 6 Shuttle and 7 ISS missions. Crewmembers seated heights were collected before, during, and after spaceflight to determine the change in seated height and the amount of spinal growth that occurs due to microgravity. The changes in seated height will provide the designers with a design requirement that will allow for change in spinal growth for a seated posture. Preliminary results have shown that increase in seated height is greater than the 3% increase currently stated in the requirement.

  3. Learning Road Safety Skills in the Classroom (United States)

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan


    This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…

  4. A QR Code Based Processing For Dynamic and Transparent Seat Allocation in Indian Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Mohan Swarup


    Full Text Available Indian Railway is worlds largest human transport system, is currently dealing with a lot of problems, such as availability of confirming seat to waiting list passengers after its departure. However there is no such system that presently in Indian railway gives accommodation to waiting list passengers during their journey. This paper proposes the Dynamic Seat Allocation (DSA system considering the advantage of QR code processing along with one of the standards of wireless communication. Moreover, dynamic authentication to the wireless device is incorporate which is passenger specific. Through this research paper our approach is to make fair processing in seat reservation or allocation in Indian Railway.

  5. Airline seat inventory control benefiting from currency differentials to enhance revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Love


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop an airline seat inventory control model which will capitalise on currency differentials that exist between city pairs. The approach taken here is to maximise Expected Marginal Seat Revenues as proposed by Belobaba for non-nested fare classes. the basic Expected Marginal Seat Revenue model is extended to explicitly include the effects of overbooking. Data from the South African Airways return flight between Cape Town and London is utilised to demonstrate the model.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德明; 王省身


    Because of the difficulties of describing the process of combustion of underground mine fires, usually the fire seat is considered as a fixed point in the methods of mine fire computer simulation, however this is not in keeping with the feature of the distribution of the combustibles and the process of combustion in mine fires. A conception about movable linear fire seat is put forward first by the authors, together with the calculated models of the thermal decomposition rate, flame spreading velocity and the steady burning length of a linear fire seat etc. The paper also introduces the results of the application of these models.

  7. Optimal protruding node length of bicycle seats determined using cycling postures and subjective ratings. (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Liu, Yi-Nan


    This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p optimal reference for bicycle seat designs.

  8. Office of Child Care (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  9. 76 FR 10637 - Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint Systems (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint... consumer information program, as part of the New Car Assessment Program, to help caregivers find a child.... Addressing Vehicle-CRS Compatibility A. Consumer Information B. LATCH VI. Considerations for Development of...

  10. Seat Belts in School Buses: A Study by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction Prepared for the Wisconsin Legislature: S.B.7. Bulletin No. 9078. (United States)

    Richards, William T.

    The hypothesis of this study was that installation and use of seat belts in all large school buses are needed to prevent injuries and deaths to children in accidents as a result of no seat belts. Basic questions and summary arguments for and against the use of seat belts are listed. An analysis of research studies done on seat belts in school…

  11. Study on the situation of seat belt wearing among drivers and front-seat passengers of vehicles in Nanjing in 2005 - 2007%南京市2005-2007年机动车驾乘人员安全带佩戴情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃玉; Virginia Routley; JoanOzanne-Smith; 武鸣; 杨婕; 周金意; 向全永; 陶然; 韩仁强; 潘晓群; 林萍


    目的 调查道路安全法或条例出台3年后南京市机动车驾乘人员安全佩戴情况.方法 在市区内选取4个观察点,在不同时间段对出租车、小轿车(8座以内)、厢式小货车和"皮卡"4种车型的司机和前排乘车人安全带的佩戴情况进行观察.结果 2005-2007年共观察35 256辆车辆和司机,以及15 772名前排乘车人.其中司机安全带佩戴率为49.9%,不佩戴率和假戴率分别为44.1%和4.6%;乘车人安全带佩戴率为9.1%,不佩戴率90.9%.在调整了性别、车型等因素后,3年来无论是司机还是前排乘车人安全带佩戴率均呈现下降趋势(P<0.01),司机不佩戴安全带会增加前排乘车人不佩戴的风险(OR=8.10,P<0.01).结论 现有法律或条例在司机和乘牟人佩戴安全带方面并无具体的规定,妨碍了法律或条例的有效执行.%Objective To find out the situation of seat belt wearing among drivers and passengers in Nanjing after the National Road Traffic Safety Law and its Ordinance had been issued for 3 years, in Jiangsu province. Methods Situation on seat belt wearing among drivers and front passengers on four types of vehicles including taxi, cars (below 8 seats), vans and pickups was studied during different time blocks at 4 sites in the city. Results A total number of 35 256 vehicles, their drivers and another 15 772 passengers sitting in the front, were observed. The prevalence rates of seat belt wearing, not wearing and pretend wearing among drivers were 49.9%, 44.1%, and 4.6% respectively while among front-seat passengers were 9.1% and 90.9% respectively. There were significantly declining trends in seat belt wearing among both drivers and front-seat passengers during the 3-years of observation, after adjustment by sex, types of vehicles and other factors (P<0.01). Risk of not wearing among front seat passengers was higher for those 'not-wearing' drivers (OR=8.10, P<0.01). Conclusion Neither the current law nor ordinance in Jiangsu

  12. Child Poverty in Perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries


    Adamson, P.; Bradshaw, J; Hoelscher, P; Richardson, D.


    This report builds and expands upon the analyses of Report Card 6 which considered relative income poverty affecting children and policies to mitigate it. Report Card 7 provides a pioneering, comprehensive picture of child well being through the consideration of six dimensions: material well-being, health and safety, education, family and peer relationships, subjective well-being, behaviours and lifestyles informed by the Convention on the Rights of the Child and relevant academic literature.

  13. Child Poverty in Perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries


    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre


    This report builds and expands upon the analyses of Report Card No. 6 which considered relative income poverty affecting children and policies to mitigate it. Report Card 7 provides a pioneering, comprehensive picture of child well being through the consideration of six dimensions: material well-being, health and safety, education, family and peer relationships, subjective well-being, behaviours and lifestyles informed by the Convention on the Rights of the Child and relevant academic literat...

  14. Pilot study of strap-based custom wheelchair seating system in persons with spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Ferguson, John E; Wittig, Becky L; Payette, Mark; Goldish, Gary D; Hansen, Andrew H


    Custom wheelchair seats can be used to help prevent pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury. In this study, a strap-based system was evaluated in three Veterans with spinal cord injury. Interface pressure distributions were measured after transfers, wheeling, and pressure relief maneuvers and after fittings by three different therapists. We found that pressure distribution measures were not generally affected after transfers and wheeling using the strap-based wheelchair and that pressure relief maneuvers were able to be performed. Additionally, all therapists were able to customize the wheelchair seat to clinically acceptable levels in 4 to 40 min for the three subjects. Future studies can test the long-term effects of using the strap-based wheelchair seat and identifying individuals that would most benefit from a rapidly customizable wheelchair seat.

  15. 77 FR 27185 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory... (United States)


    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  16. Can Pelvis Angle be Monitored From Seat Support Forces in Healthy Subjects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van Paul; Veltink, Peter H.; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.


    Individuals who cannot functionally reposition themselves often need dynamic seating interventions that change body posture from automatic chair adjustments. Pelvis alignment directly affects sitting posture, and systems that adjust and monitor pelvis angle simultaneously might be applicable to cont

  17. Using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to design a comfortable automotive driver seat. (United States)

    Kolich, Mike


    Given enough time and use, all designs will fail. There are no fail-free designs. This is especially true when it comes to automotive seating comfort where the characteristics and preferences of individual customers are many and varied. To address this problem, individuals charged with automotive seating comfort development have, traditionally, relied on iterative and, as a result, expensive build-test cycles. Cost pressures being placed on today's vehicle manufacturers have necessitated the search for more efficient alternatives. This contribution aims to fill this need by proposing the application of an analytical technique common to engineering circles (but new to seating comfort development), namely Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA). An example is offered to describe how development teams can use this systematic and disciplined approach to highlight potential seating comfort failure modes, reduce their risk, and bring capable designs to life.

  18. Sediment Transportation Induced by Deep-Seated Landslides in a Debris Flow Basin in Taiwan (United States)

    Lin, Meei Ling; Chen, Te Wei; Chen, Yong Sheng; Sin Jhuang, Han


    Typhoon Morakot brought huge amount of rainfall to the southern Taiwan in 2009 and caused severe landslides and debris flow hazard. After Typhoon Morakot, it was found that the volume of sediment transported by the debris flow and its effects on the affected area were much more significant compared to previous case history, which may due to the huge amount of rainfall causing significant deep-seated landslides in the basin. In this study, the effects and tendency of the sediment transportation in a river basin following deep-seated landslides caused by typhoon Morakot were evaluated. We used LiDAR, DEM, and aerial photo to identify characteristics of deep-seated landslides in a debris flow river basin, KSDF079 in Liuoguey District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Eight deep-seated landslides were identified in the basin. To estimate the potential landslide volume associated with the deep-seated landslides, the stability analysis was conducted to locate the critical sliding surface, and the potential landside volume was estimated based on the estimation equation proposed by the International Geotechnical Societies' UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory (WP/WLI, 1990). The total potential landslide volume of the eight deep-seated landslides in KSDF079 basin was about 28,906,856 m3. Topographic analysis was performed by using DEM before and LiDAR derived DEM after typhoon Morakot to calculate the landslide volume transported. The result of erosion volume and deposition volume lead to a run out volume of 5,832,433 m3. The results appeared to consist well with the field condition and aerial photo. Comparing the potential landslide volume and run out volume of eight deep-seated landslides, it was found that the remaining potential landslide volume was about 80%. Field investigation and topographic analysis of the KSDF079 debris flow revealed that a significant amount of sediment deposition remained in the river channel ranging from the middle to the downstream

  19. Musculoskeletal model of trunk and hips for development of seated-posture-control neuroprosthesis


    Lambrecht, Joris M.; Audu, Musa L.; Triolo, Ronald J.; Kirsch, Robert F.


    The paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury severely limits voluntary seated-posture control and increases predisposition to a number of health risks. We developed and verified a musculoskeletal model of the hips and lumbar spine using published data. We then used the model to select the optimal muscles for—and evaluate the likely functional recovery benefit of—an 8-channel seated-posture-control neuroprosthesis based on functional electrical stimulation (FES). We found that the model-pre...

  20. The effects of a combined enforcement and public information campaign on seat belt use.



    It is generally agreed that seat belt use is effective in preventing (fatal) driver injuries, and that legislation is an effective measure for increasing their use. Nevertheless, legislation alone rarely proves sufficient to achieve anything near universal usage. Policy makers can reach for a number of measures to bolster seat belt use. This paper presents some of the results of an evaluation of a combined enforcement and public information campaign that was conducted in 1984 in Friesland.

  1. Increasing Seat Belt Use on a College Campus: An Evaluation of Two Prompting Procedures



    Seat belt use is an important factor in the prevention of automobile accidents involving injuries and fatalities. The current study used a multielement design to compare the “Click It or Ticket” and “Please Buckle Up—I Care” procedures. Results indicate that the Click It or Ticket prompt resulted in a 20-percentage-point increase in seat belt use, and Please Buckle Up—I Care resulted in a 14-percentage-point increase.

  2. Initial rollover effectiveness evaluation of an alternative seat belt design for agricultural tractors. (United States)

    Rains, G C


    A test program was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a seat belt restraint in preventing occupant movement in a rollover accident. A baseline type-2 seat belt (pelvic and torso restraint), and an improved type-2 seat belt restraint, both designed to restrict occupant motion in a rollover accident, were tested in a rollover restraints tester (RRT). Each seat belt was placed on a H-III 50th percentile male dummy and testing conducted at a single roll rate and two D-ring adjustment positions. Each test simulated what was approximately a 260 degrees per second rollover parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tractor with the top of the ROPS impacting the ground after 180 degrees of roll. Forces on the dummy's head and neck were measured, and video was taken to measure the head motion in the x-, y-, and z-axis of the dummy. The average vertical, forward, and lateral head movement in the baseline seat belt was 144, 222, and 184 mm, respectively, when the adjustable D-ring anchorage supporting the shoulder belt was in its lowest position. At the lowest D-ring height, the shoulder belt became ineffective and the seat belt performance became similar to a type-1 restraint (required for tractors with ROPS) resulting in increased vertical, forward, and lateral movement. The improved restraint reduced vertical head movement by as much as 75% without increasing head and neck loads above established injury criteria. Testing seat belts for rollover effectiveness will become increasingly important as seat belt usage on tractors with ROPS increases.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Seat Comfort in Aircrafts (United States)

    Ciloglu, Hakan

    This research focuses on the dynamic seat comfort in aircrafts specifically during takeoff, landing and cruise through turbulence flight conditions. The experiments are performed using a multi axis shaker table in the Automotive Centre of Excellence (ACE) at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology subjected to sample takeoff, landing and cruise vibration recordings obtained onboard of an actual flight. The input vibrations introduced to the aircraft seats during actual flight conditions and during the experiments in the ACE are compared and it is concluded that the given flight conditions were successfully replicated for the interest of this thesis. The experiments are conducted with two different aircraft seats, economy class and business class. Furthermore, to investigate the importance of seat cushion characteristics in addition to economy and business class seat cushions, three laboratory made cushions were included in the investigation as well. Moreover, the effect of passenger weight is also discussed by conducting the experiments with 1 and 2 identical dummies. It is concluded that static seat properties play a significant role in the comfort perception level as well as flight conditions. Among the three flight condition, landing appeared to be the most uncomfortable case comparing to takeoff and cruise. In addition to experimental work, a numerical study to simulate the flight conditions is undertaken with the initial work of CAD modelling. The simulated responses of the seat is partially matching with experimental results due to unknown parameters of the cushion and the connections of the aircraft seat that cannot be created in the CAD model due to unknown manufacturing processes.

  4. Combustion velocity of coal in seat of an underground fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanchenko, G.A.; Kuzyaev, L.S.; Serra-Suares, L.Kh.


    Using the example of an underground fire in a very long coal channel, analyzes the processes of energy interchange between the gas phase and the coal surface in the channel and explains that calculations to assess the duration of burning (and hence assist in extinguishing or containing the fire) need to be able to account for the speed of transition of the coal from the solid phase (burning mass) to the gaseous phase in conditions of oxygen (in the form of products of complete combustion), reduction and dry distillation (in the form of products of incomplete combustion). Demonstrates in formulaic form the correlation between the mass velocity of the coal burning, the volume velocity of the arrival of air at the seat of the fire, the excess oxidant coefficient and the volume of air which is theoretically required to completely burn 1 kg of coal and presents the coefficients of excess oxygen and a generalized, statistical coefficient averaged for eight basic coal groups in tabular form. 1 ref.

  5. Investigating a persistent odor at an aircraft seat manufacturer. (United States)

    Broadwater, Kendra; de Perio, Marie A; Roberts, Jennifer; Burton, Nancy C; Lemons, Angela R; Green, Brett J; Brueck, Scott E


    An aircraft seat manufacturing company requested a NIOSH health hazard evaluation to help identify a strong odor that had persisted throughout the facility for over a year. Employees reported experiencing health effects thought to be related to the odor. We collected and analyzed area air samples for volatile organic compounds, endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and metalworking fluid aerosol. Bulk metalworking fluid samples were analyzed for endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and viable bacteria and fungus. We also evaluated the building ventilation systems and water diversion systems. Employees underwent confidential medical interviews about work practices, medical history, and health concerns. Based on our analyses, the odor was likely 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine. This pyrazine was found in air samples across the facility and originated from bacteria in the metalworking fluid. We did not identify bacteria known to produce the compound but bacteria from the same Proteobacteria order were found as well as bacteria from orders known to produce other pyrazines. Chemical and biological contaminants and odors could have contributed to health symptoms reported by employees, but it is likely that the symptoms were caused by several factors. We provided several recommendations to eliminate the odor including washing and disinfecting the metalworking machines and metalworking fluid recycling equipment, discarding all used metalworking fluid, instituting a metalworking fluid maintenance program at the site, and physically isolating the metalworking department from other departments.

  6. Patient satisfaction with telerehabilitation assessments for wheeled mobility and seating. (United States)

    Schein, Richard M; Schmeler, Mark R; Saptono, Andi; Brienza, David


    Wheeled mobility and seating assessments for individuals with mobility impairments living in rural or distant locations are problematic due to the lack of expertise and available resources. The objective of this study was to measure satisfaction based on one's evaluation and prescription as well as comfort level when being evaluated by telerehabilitation (TR). Patient satisfaction data from real-time interactive TR clinical consultations between an expert practitioner located at least 125 miles away and four remote wheelchair clinics set up by the research team were collected and evaluated. The results revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between participants' pre- and postevaluation scores, t(39) = -13.92, p < .05, as well as pre- and postprescription scores, t(39) = -13.15, p < .05. In addition, all mean scores were significantly higher than the scale midpoint of3.5 on a TR survey. The study's findings are consistent with those of previous telemedicine satisfaction studies. Overall, the results indicate a high level of patient satisfaction using TR.

  7. Comparative biomechanical evaluation of different wheelchair seat cushions. (United States)

    Ferrarin, M; Andreoni, G; Pedotti, A


    The aim of the present study was to perform a comparative biomechanical analysis of four antidecubitus wheelchair cushions. Thirty wheelchair users were considered divided into three groups: paraplegic subjects (with no cutaneous sensation), neurologic subjects (with intact cutaneous sensation), and elderly subjects. The biomechanical evaluation was performed using a piezoresistive sensor matrix system to quantify parameters referred to pressure distribution, seating surface and posture. Dedicated software was developed for the automatic elaboration of the raw data and the computation of the parameters of interest. Differences among cushion types and subject groups were analyzed. An analysis of time-transient behaviors was also performed. Results showed that no significant differences in pressure peak reduction were found among the four cushions. Moreover, no time-transient behavior was shown by any cushions. However, both the location of pressure peaks and posture were dependent on cushion types. Comparison of the three subject groups showed that elderly subjects had the highest mean pressure and the lowest contact surface, while paraplegics presented the highest pressure peaks. This procedure appears indicated for individualizing the prescription of a wheelchair cushion and even for customizing a cushion to induce a specific posture.

  8. Managing moose harvests by the seat of your pants. (United States)

    Boyce, Mark S; Baxter, Peter W J; Possingham, Hugh P


    Moose populations are managed for sustainable yield balanced against costs caused by damage to forestry or agriculture and collisions with vehicles. Optimal harvests can be calculated based on a structured population model driven by data on abundance and the composition of bulls, cows, and calves obtained by aerial-survey monitoring during winter. Quotas are established by the respective government agency and licenses are issued to hunters to harvest an animal of specified age or sex during the following autumn. Because the cost of aerial monitoring is high, we use a Management Strategy Evaluation to evaluate the costs and benefits of periodic aerial surveys in the context of moose management. Our on-the-fly "seat of your pants" alternative to independent monitoring is management based solely on the kill of moose by hunters, which is usually sufficient to alert the manager to declines in moose abundance that warrant adjustments to harvest strategies. Harvests are relatively cheap to monitor; therefore, data can be obtained each year facilitating annual adjustments to quotas. Other sources of "cheap" monitoring data such as records of the number of moose seen by hunters while hunting also might be obtained, and may provide further useful insight into population abundance, structure and health. Because conservation dollars are usually limited, the high cost of aerial surveys is difficult to justify when alternative methods exist.

  9. Prevalence of Sensor Saturation in Wheelchair Seat Interface Pressure Mapping. (United States)

    Wininger, Michael; Crane, Barbara A


    Pressure mapping is a frequently used tool with great power to provide information about the forces between a patient and a wheelchair seat. One widely recognized limitation to this paradigm is the possibility of data loss due to sensor saturation. In this study, we seek to quantify and describe the saturation observed in the measurement of interface pressures of wheelchair users. We recorded approximately two minutes of interface pressure data from 22 elderly wheelchair users (11M/11F, 80 ± 10 years) and found that 4.7% of data frames had 1 saturated sensor, and 9.0% had more than one saturated sensor, for a total of 13.7% of all frames of data. Data from three of the 22 subjects (13.6%) were substantially affected by the persistent presence of saturated sensors. We conclude that for this population of elderly wheelchair users, sensor saturation may be a concern and should be factored properly into study design a priori.

  10. Comparison of Biodynamic Responses in Standing and Seated Human Bodies (United States)



    The dynamic responses of the human body in a standing position and in a sitting position have been compared. The apparent mass and transmissibilities to the head, six locations along the spine, and the pelvis were measured with eight male subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration. In both postures, the principal resonance in the apparent mass occurred in the range 5-6 Hz, with slightly higher frequencies and lower apparent mass in the standing posture. There was greater transmission of vertical vibration to the pelvis and the lower spine and greater relative motion within the lower spine in the standing posture than in the sitting posture at the principal resonance and at higher frequencies. Transmissibilities from the supporting surface (floor or seat) to the thoracic region had similar magnitudes for both standing and sitting subjects. The lumbar spine has less lordosis and may be more compressed and less flexible in the sitting posture than in the standing posture. This may have reduced the relative motions between lumbar vertebrae and both the supporting vibrating surface and the other vertebrae in the sitting posture. The characteristics of the vibration transmitted to the pelvis may have differed in the two postures due to different transmission paths. Increased forward rotation of the pelvis in the standing posture may have caused the differences in responses of the pelvis and the lower spine that were observed between the two postures.

  11. 76 FR 53102 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; School Buses (United States)


    ... belt use, the effects on bus discipline, the attitudes of other stakeholders, the loss of capacity... the past 34 years that compartmentalization and the school bus safety standards have been in effect... requiring seat belts on large school buses would protect passengers against an unreasonable risk of death...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The possibility of pressure control with the structural change of a safety valve is investigated. Safety valve is commonly used as safety devices for numerous applications which include boilers,ships,industrial plants,and piping.Setting and stopping pressures of a safety valve,pset and psto,are traditionally adjusted with a fine tuning of seat ring and valve ring heights, hsr and hvr. However, it is not easy to achieve the proper setting and stopping pressures of a safety valve in practice. The depth of inside and outside grooves in a valve, di and do are modified and their effects on setting and stopping pressures of a safety vlave are tested. The most appropriate values appear 1.0 mm in di and 0.5~1.0 mm in do,respectively. The valve ring height, hvr,shows that the best results can be achieved at 2.3 mm for setting pressures of 0.1~0.4 MPa and 1.0 mm for setting pressures of 0.5~1.0 MPa. The stopping pressures increases with the increase of seat ring height,hsr, upto certain hsr value and then becomes independent to the seat ring height. This implies that there exists the optimum hsr,which provides the largest flow rate and the proper stopping pressure. Stopping pressures of a safety valve are adjusted with the seat ring and valve ring heights. This study,however,demonstrated that the modification of value grooves also changes setting and stopping pressures of a safety valve.Therefore,the proper selection in dimensions of the inside and outside grooves should be considered for the safety valve design.

  13. The influence of tractor-seat height above the ground on lateral vibrations. (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martin-de-Leon, Rebeca


    Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i) lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii) lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii) in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv) vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.

  14. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gomez-Gil


    Full Text Available Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.

  15. Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants. (United States)

    Freeman, Michael D; Eriksson, Anders; Leith, Wendy


    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR = 3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (≥0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections.

  16. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use. (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M


    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users.

  17. Full-scale crash test and FEM simulation of a crashworthy helicopter seat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Da-yong; ZHANG Xiang


    Crashworthy seat structure with considerable energy absorption capacity is a key component for aircraft to improve its crashworthiness and occupant survivability in emergencies. According to Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) regulations, seat performance must be certified by dynamic crash test which is quite expensive and time-consuming. For this reason, numerical simulation is a more efficient and economical approach to provide the possibility to assess seat performances and predict occupant responses. A numerical simulation of the crashworthy seat structure was presented and the results were also compared with the full-scale crash test data. In the numerical simulation, a full-scale three-dimensional finite element model of the seat/occupant structure was developed using a nonlinear and explicit dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA3D. Emphasis of the numerical simulation was on predicting the dynamic response of seat/occupant system,including the occupant motion which may lead to injuries,the occupant acceleration-time histories, and the energy absorbing behavior of the energy absorbers. The agreement between the simulation and the physical test suggestes that the developed numerical simulation can be a feasible substitute for the dynamic crash test.

  18. Auto Safety (United States)

    ... placed in different positions depending on a child's age: They face toward the rear until a baby is ready ... child's shoulder, staying clear of the neck and face. Shoulder and lap belts should always lie flat, never twisted. Kids this age can begin to understand the importance of buckling ...

  19. Children and Youth Camp Safety Act, 1978. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Child and Human Development of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, 95th Congress, 2nd Session on S. 258--To Provide for the Development and Implementation of Programs for Children and Youth Camp Safety (March 21, 1978). (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    The product of some 10 years of work directed toward federal legislation addressing and defining youth camp safety, the Youth Camp Safety Act (S. 258), as presented in these hearings, calls for the federal government to assume a role in the development of state health and safety standards for children attending youth camps in any state in the…

  20. French approval procedures for pyrotechnical automotive safety equipments


    Aufauvre, Lionel; Branka, Ruddy


    International audience; Pyrotechnical articles for civil uses may be subject to national procedures before placing on the market According to the French decree n°90-153, 16 February 1990 as modified; explosives that are dispensed with EC marking and that are not excluded of the decree application have to conform to approved types. Pyrotechnical automotive safety equipments such gas generators for airbag modules or seat-belt pretensioners, pyrotechnie relay compositions and/or igniters inside ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Aljuaid


    Full Text Available This study presents a Child Video Dataset (CVDS that has numerous videos of different ages and situation of children. To simulate a babysitter’s vision, our application was developed to track objects in a scene with the main goal of creating a reliable and operative moving child-object detection system. The aim of this study is to explore novel algorithms to track a child-object in an indoor and outdoor background video. It focuses on tracking a whole child-object while simultaneously tracking the body parts of that object to produce a positive system. This effort suggests an approach for labeling three body sections, i.e., the head, upper and lower sections and then for detecting a specific area within the three sections and tracking this section using a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM algorithm according to the labeling technique. The system is applied in three situations: Child-object walking, crawling and seated moving. During system experimentation, walking object tracking provided the best performance, achieving 91.932% for body-part tracking and 96.235% for whole-object tracking. Crawling object tracking achieved 90.832% for body-part tracking and 96.231% for whole object tracking. Finally, seated-moving-object tracking achieved 89.7% for body-part tracking and 93.4% for whole-object tracking.

  2. Safety Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  3. Water Safety (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety Print A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ensuring safety while peacefully utilizing nuclear energy is a top priority for China A fter a recent earthquake in Japan caused radioactive leaks at a nuclear power plant in Tokyo, the safety of nuclear energy has again aroused public attention.

  5. Hand Safety (United States)

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  6. Cultural considerations and child maltreatment: in search of universal principles. (United States)

    Kolhatkar, Gauri; Berkowitz, Carol


    Cultural diversity poses challenges within the health care setting, particularly regarding the question of how health professionals can resolve the tension between respecting cultural norms or child-rearing practices and the importance of determining what constitutes harm and child maltreatment. Cultural competency and respect for cultural diversity does not imply universal tolerance of all practices. The United Nations provides a standard of universal child rights, protecting them from harmful practices. Pediatric providers must respect cross-cultural differences while maintaining legal and ethical standards of safety and wellbeing for children, promoting evidence-based prevention of maltreatment, and advocating for child wellness across all cultures.

  7. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights. (United States)

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane


    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm.

  8. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights (United States)

    Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane


    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  9. Effect of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work. (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu


    [Purpose] We assessed the effects of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work. [Subjects] Ten males were recruited. [Methods] The suspension seat support was developed to prevent abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture during computer work. The gluteal pressure was measured with a TekScan system and the trunk flexion angle was measured with a video camera, to compare the differences between a general chair and the suspension seat support. [Results] The gluteal peak pressures were decreased significantly in the suspension seat support versus the general chair. The trunk flexion angle was also decreased significantly in the suspension seat support compared with the general chair. [Conclusions] This study suggests that the suspension seat support chair contributes to preventing abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture.

  10. Evaluation of Primary Safety Belt Laws in California, Louisiana, and Georgia



    This study evaluated three states that changed to primary enforcement of safety belt laws, collecting statewide seat belt observation data for several years and conducting monthly seat belt observations for 6 months after passage of the primary law in 6 California cities, 5 Louisiana cities, and 5 Georgia cities (average 1,000–6,000 vehicles a month); monthly motorist surveys at DMVs for 6 months in these sites (n=7,061); focus groups with law enforcement officers and supervisors in each site...

  11. Water Safety (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... diaper. Wash hands after using the bathroom or changing diapers. Avoid swallowing or getting water in your ...

  12. Seat-belt use among drivers and front passengers: an observational study from the Islamic Republic of Iran. (United States)

    Sadeghnejad, F; Niknami, S; Hydarnia, A; Montazeri, A


    Although seat-belts are the most effective means of preventing severe injuries and deaths from road accidents, drivers and passengers in many developing countries neglect to wear them. This study aimed to measure the rate of use of seat-belts and factors affecting their use in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. In direct observations of 7718 vehicles at randomly selected sites in Tehran, 77.9% of drivers and 43.7% of front passenger had seat-belts fastened. More women used seat-belts than did men while driving but fewer as front-seat passengers. Rates of seat-belt wearing among both drivers and front passengers of vans and pick-up vehicles was low. In a separate interview study of 666 citizens, 62.4% stated that they always wore seat-belts while driving. The most frequently reported reasons for using seat-belts were avoiding fines, fear of injuries and respecting the law. To improve seat-belt use, it is recommended that law enforcement accompanied by public education should be a priority.

  13. Numerical human model for impact and seating comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de; Verver, M.M.


    This paper presents a detailed numerical model of the human body that can be used to evaluate both safety and comfort aspects of vehicle interiors. The model is based on a combination of rigid body and finite element techniques to provide an optimal combination of computational efficiency and accura

  14. Three-wheeled scooter taxi: A safety analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mukherjee; D Mohan; T R Gawade


    The rollover propensity of a three-wheeled scooter taxi used extensively on SE Asian roads is analysed in this report. A rigid body mathematical model was used to simulate increasing steer, NHTSA -turn, and Road Edge Recovery maneuvers. The anomaly between public perception of the rollover susceptibility and available crash data has been resolved through finite element (FE) simulation. The optimum configuration of the vehicle and seating arrangement for varying numbers of passengers was determined. The safety of occupants and pedestrians in impact events was analysed through simulation in MADYMOTM, and cost effective solutions to improve safety were identified.

  15. Role of telehealth in seating clinics: a case study of learners' perspectives. (United States)

    Khoja, Shariq; Casebeer, Ann; Young, Sybil


    We conducted a qualitative case study of the introduction of telehealth in a seating clinic, which was an existing outreach service between two hospitals in Alberta, approximately 300 km apart. Interviews were conducted with the staff who were involved in planning and implementing the telehealth initiative. The study showed that, from the perspective of the staff (who were learners), implementation of telehealth in seating clinics differs from other less tactile telehealth applications in certain ways: (1) the importance of multidisciplinary teams in the procedures, (2) the importance of proper visualization and communication among the staff to convey the pressure changes and measurements to the technicians at the major centre to help them build or adjust the seating devices and (3) the reluctance of staff to trust others' judgements. Planning of service provision and telelearning for seating clinics requires the involvement of staff at all stages. Thus, the implementation of telehealth should be a stepwise process, allowing a highly interactive approach, without affecting the multidisciplinary nature of seating clinics.

  16. Experimental Investigation of a Temperature-Controlled Car Seat Powered by an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator (United States)

    Du, H.; Wang, Y. P.; Yuan, X. H.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.


    To improve the riding comfort and rational utilization of the electrical energy captured by an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG), a temperature-controlled car seat was constructed to adjust the temperature of the car seat surface. Powered by the ATEG and the battery, the seat-embedded air conditioner can improve the riding comfort using a thermoelectric device to adjust the surface temperature of the seat, with an air duct to regulate the cold side and hot side of the thermoelectric device. The performance of the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and theoretical analysis on the optimum state of the TEC device are put forward. To verify the rationality of the air duct design and to ensure sufficient air supply, the velocity field of the air duct system was obtained by means of the finite element method. To validate the reliability of the numerical simulation, the air velocity around the thermoelectric device was measured by a wind speed transmitter. The performance of the temperature-controlled car seat has been validated and is in good agreement with bench tests and real vehicle tests.

  17. Validation of the Swedish translation of eating assessment tool (S-EAT-10). (United States)

    Möller, Riitta; Safa, Stephanie; Östberg, Per


    Conclusion The Swedish Eating Assessment Tool (S-EAT-10) is a reliable and valid self-administered tool in assessment of dysphagia in adult Swedish patients with high internal consistency, reliability, and discriminative validity. The normative data show that a score of 3 or more is abnormal. S-EAT-10 is recommended to be used in preliminary diagnostics of dysphagia. Objective To translate and adapt the EAT-10 for use in the Swedish patient population, and to present norms and measures of discriminative validity and reliability of a Swedish version of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (S-EAT-10). Methods Prospective consecutive clinical study. In total, 134 community-dwelling adult respondents/controls without dysphagia completed the S-EAT-10, as did 119 patients referred for fiberendoscopic evaluation of swallowing at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Patient vs control status was used as the criterion for discriminative validity assessment by logistic regression analysis. Results The mean S-EAT-10 score was 0.2 (range = 0-3) for controls and 18 (range = 0-38) for patients. Based on a cut-off score of ≥ 3 which was considered to be reflective of abnormalities, sensitivity was 98.5% and specificity 94.1%. Internal consistency reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88), as was test-re-test reliability (ICC = 0.90).

  18. The effect of visual and auditory cues on seat preference in an opera theater. (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Kim, Yong Hee; Cabrera, Densil; Bassett, John


    Opera performance conveys both visual and auditory information to an audience, and so opera theaters should be evaluated in both domains. This study investigates the effect of static visual and auditory cues on seat preference in an opera theater. Acoustical parameters were measured and visibility was analyzed for nine seats. Subjective assessments for visual-only, auditory-only, and auditory-visual preferences for these seat positions were made through paired-comparison tests. In the cases of visual-only and auditory-only subjective evaluations, preference judgment tests on a rating scale were also employed. Visual stimuli were based on still photographs, and auditory stimuli were based on binaural impulse responses convolved with a solo tenor recording. For the visual-only experiment, preference is predicted well by measurements taken related to the angle of seats from the theater midline at the center of the stage, the size of the photographed stage view, the visual obstruction, and the distance from the stage. Sound pressure level was the dominant predictor of auditory preference in the auditory-only experiment. In the cross-modal experiments, both auditory and visual preferences were shown to contribute to overall impression, but auditory cues were more influential than the static visual cues. The results show that both a positive visual-only or a positive auditory-only evaluations positively contribute to the assessments of seat quality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Seat vibration is one of the major causes of discomfort in moving vehicle. Tyre, engine, drivetrain and aerodynamic forces excite the cabin and interior through various pathways. In this paper, the contributions of tyre and engine vibration to seat excitations are studied. Virtual Source Analysis (VSA is implemented to decompose the source signals into incoherent phenomena. Studying these phenomena (virtual sources shows the amount and frequency bands that physical sources affect the seat vibration as the response channel. Experiment is conducted while riding on smooth and bumpy roads. Road roughness is characterized using International Roughness Index (IRI. VSA technique approve that tyre is the main source of seat vibration for the moving vehicle. Seat vibration has significant values below 400 Hz and tyre is found to be the dominant source of excitations for both smooth and bumpy roads. For smooth road, strong engine harmonics below 200 Hz also has some involvements. But in bumpy road, tyre vibration rise up and become the dominant broadband source of excitations. Tyre damper and engine mount Frequency Response Function (FRF analysis show that these parts are designed to be highly efficient below 1400 Hz and 200 Hz, respectively. These ranges are identical with those that were found as the critical operational frequency spans in VSA.

  20. Seat Belt Use and its Effect on Abdominal Trauma: A National Trauma Databank Study. (United States)

    Nash, Nick A; Okoye, Obi; Albuz, Ozgur; Vogt, Kelly N; Karamanos, Efstathios; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios


    We sought to use the National Trauma Databank to determine the demographics, injury distribution, associated abdominal injuries, and outcomes of those patients who are restrained versus unrestrained. All victims of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) were identified from the National Trauma Databank and stratified into subpopulations depending on the use of seat belts. A total of 150,161 MVC victims were included in this study, 72,394 (48%) were belted. Young, male passengers were the least likely to be wearing a seat belt. Restrained victims were less likely to have severe injury as measured by Injury Severity Score and Abbreviated Injury Score. Restrained victims were also less likely to suffer solid organ injuries (9.7% vs 12%, P belted victims with adjusted mean difference: -1.36 (-1.45, -1.27) and -0.96 (-1.02, -0.90), respectively. Seat belt use was associated with a significantly lower crude mortality than unrestrained victims (1.9% vs 3.3%, P seat belts have a significant reduction in the severity of injuries in all body areas, lower mortality, a shorter hospital stay, and decreased length of stay in the intensive care unit. The nature of abdominal injuries, however, was significantly different, with a higher incidence of hollow viscous injury in those wearing seat belts.

  1. Modeling of a seated human body exposed to vertical vibrations in various automotive postures. (United States)

    Liang, Cho-Chung; Chiang, Chi-Feng


    Although much research has been devoted to constructing specific models or to measuring the response characteristics of seated subjects, investigations on a mathematical human model on a seat with a backrest to evaluate vehicular riding comfort have not yet attracted the same level of attention. For the responses of a seated body to vertical vibrations, mathematical models of the mechanisms must be at least two-dimensional in the sagittal plane. In describing the motions of a seated body, two multibody models representative of the automotive postures found in the literature were investigated, one with and the other without a backrest support. Both models were modified to suitably represent the different automotive postures with and without backrest supports, and validated by various experimental data from the published literature pertaining to the same postural conditions. On the basis of the analytical study and the experimental validation, the fourteen-degrees-of-freedom model proposed in this research was found to be best fitted to the test results; therefore, this model is recommended for studying the biodynamic responses of a seated human body exposed to vertical vibrations in various automotive postures.

  2. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  3. Adjustable safety relief valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W.L.


    This patent describes a pressure relief valve having a relief set pressure. It comprises: a valve body having a fluid inlet and outlet, a spherical, metal valve seat associated with the inlet and a valve member comprising at least a portion of a spherical,metal ball attached to a ball holding element, the valve member being biased against the valve seat and thus providing a metal-to-metal seal preventing the passage of fluids past the valve seat when the fluid pressure in the inlet is below the relief pressure setting of the valve.

  4. [Ingestion of an open safety pin--challenging treatment]. (United States)

    DeRowe, Ari; Fishman, Gadi; Avni, Hadas; Reider, Ivgeny; Ogorek, Daniel


    A 9 month old girl at the emergency room appeared with an acute onset of restlessness, drooling and suspected foreign body ingestion. An X-Ray revealed an open safety pin in the child's upper aero-digestive tract. The source of the safety pin was a "Hamsah" good luck charm that was attached to her bed. Open safety pins in the aero-digestive tract are difficult to manage and great care must be taken during removal to prevent further injury. Parents should be counseled regarding the presence of safety pins in the child's surroundings in order to prevent such hazards.

  5. 正面碰撞时轿车后排乘员的保护%Protection of Rear Seat Passenger in Front Crash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田金鑫; 吴云腾; 何新


    为提高轿车后排乘员在发生正面碰撞时的安全性,文章利用碰撞仿真分析软件MADYMO,建立包括某轿车车体、安全带和假人的乘员约束系统正面碰撞模型,并与碰撞试验结果进行对比,验证了模型有效性。利用该模型对安全带形式和座垫角度对乘员的HIC、胸部3ms加速度和左右大腿力等损伤值的影响进行了比较,表明使用3点式安全带同时匹配座垫倾角25。的方法,能使头部损伤下降59%,胸部伤害下降20%,腿部损伤下降70%.有效提高后排乘员的安全性。%In order to improve the safety of rear occupants when front crash happens, an occupant restraint system model consisting of car bodies, safety belts and a dummy was established and its validity was verified by contrasting with the vehicle impact test based on the software MADYMO for impact simulation analysis. The effect of design parameters including belts and cushion angles on passenger injury values was researched by using this model. With the improvement of decreasing the HIC, T3ms, as well as the head injury, chest injury and leg injury by 59%, 20%, and 70% respectively, the method of using three- point seat belts and seat cushions at the angle of 25° was proposed so that the safety of the rear seat occupants can be effectively improved.

  6. Semi-active variable stiffness vibration control of vehicle seat suspension using an MR elastomer isolator (United States)

    Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Nong


    This paper presents a study on continuously variable stiffness control of vehicle seat suspension using a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator. A concept design for an MRE isolator is proposed in the paper and its behavior is experimentally evaluated. An integrated seat suspension model, which includes a quarter-car suspension and a seat suspension with a driver body model, is used to design a sub-optimal H_{\\infty } controller for an active isolator. The desired control force generated by this active isolator is then emulated by the MRE isolator through its continuously variable stiffness property when the actuating condition is met. The vibration control effect of the MRE isolator is evaluated in terms of driver body acceleration responses under both bump and random road conditions. The results show that the proposed control strategy achieves better vibration reduction performance than conventional on-off control.

  7. Farm tractors, and the use of seat belts and roll-over protective structures. (United States)

    Kelsey, T W; May, J J; Jenkins, P L


    Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) on farm tractors could significantly reduce the rate of fatal occupational injury on farms, but comparatively few tractors have them. Many of the policy discussions have focused on trying to identify the percentage of tractors that do not have ROPS, even though such a focus probably does not accurately represent effective protection by ROPS. This study investigates whether including differences in hours of usage, tractor activities, and seat belt use affects estimates of farm operators' protection by ROPS. In general, tractors used more hours a year were more likely to have ROPS. ROPS status also varied by tractor activity. When adjusting for seat belt use, effective ROPS protection is much less than when considering just ROPS status. Measures of the effective coverage of ROPS and policy responses should reflect these differences in hours, activities, and seat belt use.

  8. Concepts and embodiment design of a reentry recumbent seating system for the NASA Space Shuttle (United States)

    Mcmillan, Scott; Looby, Brent; Devany, Chris; Chudej, Chris; Brooks, Barry


    This report deals with the generation of a recumbent seating system which will be used by NASA to shuttle astronauts from the Russian space station Mir. We begin by examining the necessity for designing a special couch for the returning astronauts. Next, we discuss the operating conditions and constraints of the recumbent seating system and provide a detailed function structure. After working through the conceptual design process, we came up with ten alternative designs which are presented in the appendices. These designs were evaluated and weighted to systematically determine the best choice for embodiment design. A detailed discussion of all components of the selected system follows with design calculations for the seat presented in the appendices. The report concludes with an evaluation of the resulting design and recommendations for further development.

  9. Fracture Detection: Interpretation of Well Logs to Select Packer Seats and Locate Injection Intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesen, D.S.; Burns, K.L.; Chavez, P.; Dash, Z.V.; Kelkar, S.; Kolar, J.; Levy, S.S.


    A wireline and mud logging program has been conducted in conjunction with redrilling operations in well EE-3 at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) site near Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The trajectory for the new bore, EE-3A, penetrated a fractured zone stimulated from adjacent well EE-2 and thereby established hydraulic communication. To test and stimulate selected zones in EE-3A inflatable open hole packers designed for high temperature service were used. Proper identification and selection of packer seats was crucial to the success of the project. The logging program successfully identified five competent packer seats in six attempts. Wireline temperature, caliper, sonic televiewer and natural gamma ray logs were used in conjunction with mud logs, drill cuttings and drilling parameter data to locate fractures, out-of-gage hole, temperature anomalies and mineralized zones which were avoided in selection of the packer seats.

  10. Oil Stiction in Fast Switching Annular Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Fluid Power Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    valves suitable for DD applications based on the Reynolds equation and considers contact surface curvature and attack angle. A dynamic cavitation zone is included in the stiction model, and cavitation is found to be present even for seat valves surrounded by high pressure levels....... to the dynamic behaviour of the seat valves must be considered to optimize the machine efficiency. A significant effect influencing the valves switching performance is the presence of oil stiction when separating the contact surfaces in valve opening movement. This oil stiction force is limited by cavitation...... for low pressure levels, e.g. valves connected to the low pressure manifold, however for valves operated at higher pressure levels, the oil stiction force is dominating when the separating surfaces are close to contact. This paper presents an analytic solution to the oil stiction force for annular seat...

  11. Combining psychophysical measures of discomfort and electromyography for the evaluation of a new automotive seating concept. (United States)

    Kolich, Mike; Taboun, Salem M


    The purpose of this study was to determine if the advantages and disadvantages of a new automotive seating concept, known as the micro-adjuster control system, could be reliably evaluated using both a physiological assessment technique (i.e., electromyography [EMG]) and a subjective questionnaire. The results indicate that psychophysical measures of discomfort and the root mean squared (RMS) activity of the EMG are statistically related, r (8) = -.788, p =.020. More specifically, subjective perceptions of comfort were found to improve with decreasing levels of muscle activity. This implies that seat comfort can be evaluated on the basis of physiological as well as subjective responses to prolonged driving. This finding should drastically improve automobile seat design efforts.

  12. A wireless lingual feedback device to reduce overpressures in seated posture: a feasibility study

    CERN Document Server

    Chenu, Olivier; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan; 10.1371/journal.pone.0007550


    BACKGROUND: Pressure sores are localized injuries to the skin and underlying tissues and are mainly resulting from overpressure. Paraplegic peoples are particularly subjects to pressure sores because of long-time seated postures and sensory deprivation at the lower limbs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report outcomes of a feasibility trial involving a biofeedback system aimed at reducing buttock overpressure whilst an individual is seated. The system consists of (1) pressure sensors, (2) a laptop coupling sensors and actuator (3) a wireless Tongue Display Unit (TDU) consisting of a circuit embedded in a dental retainer with electrodes put in contact with the tongue. The principle consists in (1) detecting overpressures in people who are seated over long periods of time, (2) estimating a postural change that could reduce these overpressures and (3) communicating this change through directional information transmitted by the TDU. Twenty-four healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. CON...

  13. FPG Child Development Institute (United States)

    ... Early Childhood Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero ... Children with Disabilities October 12, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North ...

  14. Well-child visits (United States)

    ... who has questions about issues such as feeding, circumcision , and general child health issues. After the baby ... deep tendon reflexes as the child gets older Neonatal jaundice -- first few visits only Palpation Percussion Standard ...

  15. Cholesterol and Your Child (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  16. Child abuse - physical (United States)

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  17. Child Dental Health (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  18. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia. (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S


    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  19. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal


    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  20. Child poverty and changes in child poverty. (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles


    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  1. Civil Aircraft Side-Facing Seat Research Summary (United States)


    cranium and brain) 2. Face, including eye and ear 3. Neck 4. Thorax 5. Abdomen and pelvic contents 6. Spine ( cervical , thoracic, and lumbar) 7. Upper...currently no criteria relating the amount of lateral flail to a specific risk of injury, if lateral flexion is limited to the normal static range...lateral flexion does not create a significant injury risk is consistent with the goal of providing an equivalent level of safety to a forward- or aft

  2. Safety; Avertissement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  3. Medication safety. (United States)

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W


    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  4. Visit safety

    CERN Multimedia


    Experiment areas, offices, workshops: it is possible to have co-workers or friends visit these places.     You already know about the official visits service, the VIP office, and professional visits. But do you know about the safety instruction GSI-OHS1, “Visits on the CERN site”? This is a mandatory General Safety Instruction that was created to assist you in ensuring safety for all your visits, whatever their nature—especially those that are non-official. Questions? The HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Write to   The HSE Unit

  5. Ergonomic Analysis of Tricycle Sidecar Seats: Basis for Proposed Standard Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Godoy


    Full Text Available Ergonomics (also called human factors engineering is the study of human characteristics for the appropriate design of the living and work environment. It is applied in various industrial areas which includes transportation.Tricycle being one of the most common means of public transportation in Lipa City has various adaptations to suit the culture, and environment. The purpose of this study is to analyze the variability in design of the tricycles in Lipa City, Philippines and propose a standard ergonomically designed tricycle sidecar seat for a greater population. The study was conducted at 26 tricycle terminals with 232 tricycle samples within Lipa City proper including the public market area where 400 commuters were given questionnaires to determine the risk factors associated with the existing tricycle sidecar seat design. Anthropometric measurements of 100 males and 100 female commuters were obtained together with the sidecar dimensions of 232 tricycles to substantiate the observed variations in design. Using the design for the average and design for the extremes, it was found out that most of the tricycles in Lipa City, Philippines have inappropriate inclined seat and lowered sidecar seat pan height which can result to leg and abdominal pain; narrowed seat pan depth which caused pressure on buttocks and legs; narrowed backrest width which can cause upper and low back pain; low backrest height that can pose upper back pain; which can also result to abdominal pain; inclined backrest and limited vertical clearance which can cause upper back pain and neck pain. The researcher proposed a sidecar seat design standard which can be used by the Land Transportation Office, and Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board to provide ease, comfort, and convenience to the passengers.

  6. Explaining state-to-state differences in seat belt use: A multivariate analysis of cultural variables. (United States)

    Molnar, Lisa J; Eby, David W; Dasgupta, Kohinoor; Yang, Yang; Nair, Vijayan N; Pollock, Stephen M


    There is considerable variation in seat belt use within the United States despite extensive evidence that the use of seat belts saves lives. Previous studies have identified some important factors that affect belt use rates, including gender, age, race, vehicle type, seat-belt enforcement laws, and amount of fine for belt-use law violation. In this study, we examined the influence of additional socio-demographic factors on state-level use rates: education (percentage of high school educated population), racial composition (percentage White), median household income, political leaning (percentage Democrat), and a measure of religiosity. These variables, which collectively characterize the 'culture' of a state, have received little attention in seat-belt studies. The paper reports results from a multiple regression analysis of data from the 2008 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Many of the use rate patterns in FARS data were consistent with those found in other data sets, suggesting that conclusions based on FARS data are likely to hold for the population-at-large. Of the five cultural factors considered in the study, three were identified as important in explaining the differences in seat belt use at the state level: religiosity, race (percentage White), and political leaning (percentage Democrat). The other two variables - income and education - were not significant. Hold-out analyses confirmed that this conclusion was consistent across different subsets of data. The findings from this study are preliminary and have to be confirmed on other data sets. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the potential usefulness of cultural factors in explaining state-to-state variation in seat belt use rates. If factors such as religiosity are indeed important, they can be used to develop culturally appropriate programs for increasing belt use.

  7. Food Safety. Nourishing News. Volume 3, Issue 10 (United States)

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2009


    Serving safe food is a critical responsibility for maintaining quality foodservice programs and healthy environments at schools and child care facilities. Child Nutrition Programs hopes you find this newsletter of assistance when reviewing the food safety program you have at each serving site. The articles contained in this issue are: (1) A…

  8. Design and Clinical Application of Additional Type Wheelchair Seat Belts%附加式轮椅安全带的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芳; 张洪霞


    Objective To design a homemade additional type wheelchair seat belt and to investigate its ifxation effect.Methods The seat belt was made by using the cotton fabric with good water absorption and quality. Then, 300 patients who used a wheelchair for 15~20 min in a single time were divided into two groups: Control Group (140 cases) and Experiment Group (160 cases). Patients in Control Group were ifxed with conventional wheelchair seat belts; while, the additional type one was used for Experiment Group so as to observe the fixation effect and comfort degree for patients.Results The incidence of physical movement in Experiment Group during the use of wheelchairs was signiifcantly lower; while the physical comfort was signiifcantly improved compared with Control Group (P<0.05). Conclusion The homemade additional type wheelchair seat belts could attain excellent effect on physical ifxation, improve the physical comfort of wheelchair users, and enhance the safety of wheelchair activities.%目的:设计附加式轮椅安全带并探讨其固定效果。方法采用吸水性能佳、材质结实柔软的棉布制作附加式轮椅安全带,将单一时间内使用轮椅15~20 min的300例患者分为对照组(140例)和观察组(160例),对照组采用常规轮椅安全带进行固定,观察组采用附加式轮椅安全带进行固定,观察两组的固定效果及患者舒适度。结果观察组患者使用轮椅时的身体移动发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。身体舒适度明显优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论附加式轮椅安全带能够起到良好的身体固定效果,能改善轮椅使用者的舒适度,提高轮椅活动的安全性。

  9. Your Child's Immunizations (United States)

    ... the number of shots a child receives. The Vaccines Your Child Needs The following vaccinations and schedules are recommended ... are developed. Your doctor will determine the best vaccinations and schedule for your child. Recommended vaccinations: Chickenpox (varicella) vaccine Diphtheria, tetanus, and ...

  10. Supporting Each Child's Spirit (United States)

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Buchanan, Teresa


    In using developmentally appropriate practices, teachers should intentionally address all aspects of a child's being, the spiritual along with the physical and the cognitive. Because spirituality is a vital part of human nature, a whole-child teaching approach must include the part of the child some call spirituality. Many have attempted to…

  11. Child Care Services Handbook. (United States)

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  12. [Autism and child protection]. (United States)

    Coron, Guillaume


    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  13. An overview of evaluation for wheelchair seating for people who have had strokes. (United States)

    Taylor, Susan Johnson


    For many clients who have had strokes, the seating and mobility system provides access to and the ability to perform in all of their environments. It allows performance of all or most of their functional and activities of daily living (ADL) skills. Without appropriate and stable positioning, the client is at risk of developing postural deformities or bad postural habits, which can interfere with accomplishment of ADL and functional skills. A thorough evaluation must be performed to determine the optimal seating and mobility system.

  14. Experimental study on wear failure course of gas-valve/valve-seat in engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yun-cai; YAN Hang-zhi


    The wear failure course of gas-valve/valve-seat in engine was investigated with a simulating tester. The results show that the failure of the contact conical surface is mainly caused by the elastic and plastic deformation and the fatigue micro-crack and spalling. The creep-deformation and corrosion atmosphere accelerated wear failure course at the high temperature. The wear failure course of the gas-valve/valve-seat in engine follows general wear rules of mechanical elements, but the rate of wear in the sharp wear stage is faster.

  15. Modeling study of seated reach envelopes based on spherical harmonics with consideration of the difficulty ratings. (United States)

    Yu, Xiaozhi; Ren, Jindong; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Qun; Liu, Honghao


    Reach envelopes are very useful for the design and layout of controls. In building reach envelopes, one of the key problems is to represent the reach limits accurately and conveniently. Spherical harmonics are proved to be accurate and convenient method for fitting of the reach capability envelopes. However, extensive study are required on what components of spherical harmonics are needed in fitting the envelope surfaces. For applications in the vehicle industry, an inevitable issue is to construct reach limit surfaces with consideration of the seating positions of the drivers, and it is desirable to use population envelopes rather than individual envelopes. However, it is relatively inconvenient to acquire reach envelopes via a test considering the seating positions of the drivers. In addition, the acquired envelopes are usually unsuitable for use with other vehicle models because they are dependent on the current cab packaging parameters. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct reach envelopes for real vehicle conditions based on individual capability data considering seating positions. Moreover, traditional reach envelopes provide little information regarding the assessment of reach difficulty. The application of reach envelopes will improve design quality by providing difficulty-rating information about reach operations. In this paper, using the laboratory data of seated reach with consideration of the subjective difficulty ratings, the method of modeling reach envelopes is studied based on spherical harmonics. The surface fitting using spherical harmonics is conducted for circumstances both with and without seat adjustments. For use with adjustable seat, the seating position model is introduced to re-locate the test data. The surface fitting is conducted for both population and individual reach envelopes, as well as for boundary envelopes. Comparison of the envelopes of adjustable seat and the SAE J287 control reach envelope shows that the latter

  16. Development and Evaluation of Masterbody Forms for 3- and 6-Year-Old-Child Dummies (United States)


    report was performed under Task AM-B 5-5PRS-25 in cooperation with the Natiunal Highway Traffic Safety Adminit ation 16. , Al ’ his study definas and... principal anatomical Planes (sagit tml. transverse. plan~es: and horizontal) for the seated position of the Icda. A compountd cut seCpalatedl thle head...Foot breadth Table 5 presents the mathematical model esti- Foot depth mates of the principal moments of inertia as a The standard mathematical

  17. The risk of whiplash-induced medical impairment in rear-end impacts for males and females in driver seat compared to front passenger seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Jonsson


    Females had a relative risk of medical impairment of 3.1 compared to men after adjustment for the average increased risk in the driver position. The driver position had a doubled relative risk compared to the front passenger position. As a conclusion it may be of value to take risk differences between male and female occupants and between driver and front passenger positions into account in future automotive car and seat construction.

  18. Partial reactivation of a huge deep-seated ancient rock slide: recognition, formation mechanism, and stability (United States)

    Tang, Minggao; Xu, Qiang; Li, Yusheng; Huang, Runqiu; Rengers, Niek; Zhu, Xing


    About 18 years ago, a large-scale discontinuous layer in properties and colour was found in the new Fengjie town at the shore of the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China. There are many resettled residents and buildings on the sloping area, the safety of which is potentially affected by this layer, so it has become the focus of attention. Before this study started there were two viewpoints regarding the origin of this layer. One was that is was from a huge ancient slide and the other was that is was from a fault graben. In order to find out how it was formed and to be able to carry out a stability analysis of the slope the authors have carried out a research program, including geological field investigations and mapping, a deep drilling hole, a geotechnical centrifuge model test, and a simulation analysis. The results of the research led to the conclusion that the layer is the sliding plane of a huge deep-seated ancient rock slide, which we called the Sanmashan landslide. An important argument for the conclusion is the recognition of a regional compressive tectonic stress field in this area, which cannot lead to the formation of a fault graben because it needs a tensional tectonic stress field. Moreover, numerous unique geological features, sliding marks, and other relics of the ancient slide have been discovered in the field. The formation process of the ancient slide could be repeated in a large geotechnical centrifuge model test. The test shows that a deformation and failure process of "creep-crack-cut" has occurred. The type of the ancient slide can be classified as a "successive rotational rock slide". Finally, the role of seepage in the stability of the Sanmashan landslide has been analysed. Our final conclusions are that, during rainfall and filling-drawdown cycles in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the Sanmashan landslide as a whole is dormant and stable and the secondary landslides in the toe area of the slope are presently stable but can be reactivated. This

  19. Moisture penetration in a chair seat as a response to daily RH variations in the indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennberg, Kaisa; Claesson, Johan; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard


    properties and calculation models describing the response to moisture variations in the ambient climate for these material combinations are limited. In this project the moisture properties for a chair seat with a wool fabric and plastic foam padding were determined. The moisture penetration in the chair seat...

  20. Interference of Different Types of Seats on Postural Control System during a Forward-Reaching Task in Individuals with Paraplegia (United States)

    de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho; Takara, Kelly; Metring, Nathalia Lopes; Reis, Julia Guimaraes; Cliquet, Alberto, Jr.


    We aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of wheelchair seats on paraplegic individuals' postural control using a maximum anterior reaching test. Balance evaluations during 50, 75, and 90% of each individual's maximum reach in the forward direction using two different cushions on seat (one foam and one gel) and a no-cushion condition…

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Need for Seating Intervention and Mobility for Persons in Long-Term Care (United States)

    Bourbonniere, Melissa C.; Fawcett, Laura M.; Miller, William C.; Garden, Jennifer; Mortenson, William B.


    A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to (a) determine the prevalence of need for wheel-chair seating intervention in two long-term care facilities in Vancouver, BC, (b) determine the extent of the residents' independent mobility within these facilities, and (c) explore the relationship between proper wheel-chair seating and…

  2. Nutrient dynamics and N-anomaly at the SEATS station (United States)

    Wong, George T. F.; Tseng, Chun-Mao; Wen, Liang-Saw; Chung, Shi-Wei


    The distributions of nitrate+nitrite, or (N+N), and soluble reactive phosphate, or SRP, at the SouthEast Asian Time-series Study (SEATS) station in the northern South China Sea (SCS) at 18°N and 116°E were determined in 19 cruises between September 1999 and October 2003. In the deep water below 1500 m, the concentrations of (N+N) and SRP stayed constant with depth and time at 38.4±0.3 and 2.84±0.03 μM, respectively. The variability could be accounted for by the analytical uncertainties in the measurements alone. In contrast, variations in the upper water were significantly larger and far exceeded the analytical uncertainties. In the mixed layer, unlike what has been widely reported in other low-latitude waters, there was a distinct seasonal pattern. During most of the year, the concentrations were low and hovered around the detection limits. In the winter, readily detectable concentrations were found as a result of enhanced vertical mixing. In the deep water below 1500 m, the average (N+N)/SRP molar ratio, 13.6±0.2, was noticeably lower than the Redfield ratio of 16. The corresponding N-anomaly, N *, was -4.0±0.6 μM. In the upper nutricline, high (N+N)/SRP and N *, even exceeding 16 and 2 μM, were found. These elevated values are suggestive of the remineralization of nitrogen-rich organic matter in the upper nutricline. Temporally, while there were considerable inter-annual variations, higher (N+N)/SRP and N * were found mostly between September and April during the period of higher depositional fluxes of atmospheric dust. In the Tropical Water, which was situated within the upper nutricline at 150 m, the average N * were 1.9 and -0.3 μM, and the average (N+N)/SRP were 15.0 and 12.6 in September-April and May-August, respectively. These seasonal patterns suggest that the nitrogen-rich organic matter could have originated from nitrogen fixation, which was enhanced by the availability of iron during seasons of high dust-depositions. A box model calculation

  3. Safety Instructions

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that the Safety Instructions N0 37 rev. 3 (IS 37 rev. 3) entitled ""LEVEL-3" SAFETY ALARMS AND ALARM SYSTEMS" Is available on the web at the following URL: Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: TIS Secretariat

  4. Safety Systems (United States)

    Halligan, Tom


    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  5. 76 FR 17332 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A.; Model EMB 500; Single-Place Side-Facing Seat Dynamic Test... (United States)


    ... airplanes, the pass/fail criteria developed in Amendment 23-36 focused primarily on these seats. Since the... or furnishing that will contact the pelvis, upper arm, chest, or head of an occupant seated next...

  6. Child Labor - Moral Choice


    Lagasse, Caitlin


    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  7. Hand-movement-based in-vehicle driver/front-seat passenger discrimination for centre console controls (United States)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Langnickel, Mirko; Kraetzer, Christian


    Successful user discrimination in a vehicle environment may yield a reduction of the number of switches, thus significantly reducing costs while increasing user convenience. The personalization of individual controls permits conditional passenger enable/driver disable and vice versa options which may yield safety improvement. The authors propose a prototypic optical sensing system based on hand movement segmentation in near-infrared image sequences implemented in an Audi A6 Avant. Analyzing the number of movements in special regions, the system recognizes the direction of the forearm and hand motion and decides whether driver or front-seat passenger touch a control. The experimental evaluation is performed independently for uniformly and non-uniformly illuminated video data as well as for the complete video data set which includes both subsets. The general test results in error rates of up to 14.41% FPR / 16.82% FNR and 17.61% FPR / 14.77% FNR for driver and passenger respectively. Finally, the authors discuss the causes of the most frequently occurring errors as well as the prospects and limitations of optical sensing for user discrimination in passenger compartments.

  8. From child to child: children as communicators. (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J


    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  9. Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Adolescent School Functioning


    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert


    This study examined the association between adolescents’ perceptions of their neighborhoods’ safety and multiple elements of their functioning in school with data on 15 year olds from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 924). In general, perceived neighborhood safety was more strongly associated with aspects of schooling that were more psychosocial in nature (e.g., school attachment) than those that were more cognitive (e.g., test scores). Examination of neighborhoo...

  10. Optimal design of a seat belt restraint system based on approximate model management%基于近似模型管理的汽车安全带约束系统优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫; 吴钢; 尹来荣


    In order to improve the protection capability of seat belt restraint systems,a numerical model of seat belt restraint systems was calibrated by vehicle crash experiments and an approximation model was constructed according to the radial basis function.The IP-GA genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the key parameters of the seat belt restraint system dynamic characteristics.To reduce the error from the approximate model,the management framework was used to update the approximate model and control the error in the optimization process.The optimal solutions with errors in given range can be treated as solutions to the problem.It was demonstrated that the proposed method could effectively find the optimal parameters of seat belt restraint systems and ensure their safety.%为提高汽车安全带约束系统的安全防护能力,通过实车碰撞实验对安全带约束系统数值模型进行校正;基于径向基函数建立安全带约束系统的近似模型,运用 IP -GA 遗传算法对安全带约束系统的动态特性参数进行优化。优化中为控制由近似模型所致误差,通过模型管理更新近似模型,并将误差达到允许范围内优化解作为实际问题的解。结果表明,该方法能快速有效获得安全带约束系统的最佳匹配参数,确保汽车乘员的安全性。

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.117 - May I keep compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled... (United States)


    ... an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline... compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline asks for volunteers? Yes: (a) If voluntarily vacating your seat will not interfere with...

  12. Wheelchair Seating Assessment and Intervention: A Comparison between Telerehabilitation and Face-to-Face Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid G Barlow


    Full Text Available This study compared outcomes of wheelchair seating and positioning interventions provided by telerehabilitation (n=10 and face-to-face (n=20; 10 in each of two comparison groups, one urban and one rural. Comparison clients were matched to the telerehabilitation clients in age, diagnosis, and type of seating components received. Clients and referring therapists rated their satisfaction and identified if seating intervention goals were met. Clients recorded travel expenses incurred or saved, and all therapists recorded time spent providing service. Wait times and completion times were tracked. Clients seen by telerehabilitation had similar satisfaction ratings and were as likely to have their goals met as clients seen face-to-face; telerehabilitation clients saved travel costs. Rural referring therapists who used telerehabilitation spent more time in preparation and follow-up than the other groups. Clients assessed by telerehabilitation had shorter wait times for assessment than rural face-to-face clients, but their interventions took as long to complete. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehealth, Videoconferencing, Wheelchair Seating, Outcomes, Rehabilitation

  13. RESNA Position on the Application of Seat-Elevating Devices for Wheelchair Users (United States)

    Arva, Julianna; Schmeler, Mark R.; Lange, Michelle L.; Lipka, Daniel D.; Rosen, Lauren E.


    This document, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) Board of Directors in September 2005, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of seat-elevating devices for wheelchair users. Wheelchair mobility is often only considered from…

  14. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia


    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  15. Musculoskeletal model of trunk and hips for development of seated-posture-control neuroprosthesis. (United States)

    Lambrecht, Joris M; Audu, Musa L; Triolo, Ronald J; Kirsch, Robert F


    The paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury severely limits voluntary seated-posture control and increases predisposition to a number of health risks. We developed and verified a musculoskeletal model of the hips and lumbar spine using published data. We then used the model to select the optimal muscles for-and evaluate the likely functional recovery benefit of-an 8-channel seated-posture-control neuroprosthesis based on functional electrical stimulation (FES). We found that the model-predicted optimal muscle set included the erector spinae, oblique abdominals, gluteus maximus, and iliopsoas. We mapped muscle excitations to seated trunk posture so that the required excitations at any posture could be approximated using a static map. Using the optimal muscle set, the model predicted a maximum stimulated range of motion of 49 degrees flexion, 9 degrees extension, and 16 degrees lateral bend. In the nominal upright posture, the modeled user could hold almost 15 kg with arms at sides and elbows bent. We discuss in this article the practicality of using FES with the oblique abdominals. A seated-posture-control neuroprosthesis would increase the user's bimanual work space and include several secondary benefits.

  16. Impact of the Illinois Seat Belt Use Law on Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries. (United States)

    Rock, Steven M.


    The impact of the 1985 Illinois seat belt law is explored using Box-Jenkins Auto-Regressive, Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) techniques and monthly accident statistical data from the state department of transportation for January-July 1990. A conservative estimate is that the law provides benefits of $15 million per month in Illinois. (SLD)

  17. The effects of a combined enforcement and public information campaign on seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundy, C.M.


    It is generally agreed that seat belt use is effective in preventing (fatal) driver injuries, and that legislation is an effective measure for increasing their use. Nevertheless, legislation alone rarely proves sufficient to achieve anything near universal usage. Policy makers can reach for a number

  18. Using Accelerator Pedal Force to Increase Seat Belt Use of Service Vehicle Drivers (United States)

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian


    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in…

  19. The Front Seat Passenger: How to Transfer Qualitative Findings into Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Osswald


    Full Text Available While the field of automotive HCI research abounds in driver-focused design and studies of driver distraction, relatively little attention has been directed to the front seat passengers. A challenge for designers and researchers is the ideation through exploration of passenger experiences and needs and the question of how to integrate them in design solutions. In this paper, we ground an ideation exercise based on results of a probing study conducted at two petrol stations. A probing package for front seat passengers was designed and distributed in cooperation with a petrol station company. Approximately 700 customers were approached randomly and 90 probe packages were handed out. 30 probing packages were returned and a segment clustering and a qualitative analysis were performed. The results gave insights into the activities and needs of front seat passengers and were then used in a design workshop together with a group of industrial designers. A set of ideas for novel interface solutions for front seat passengers were developed such as the invisible engine (look through the motor block with a display-based camera system. We further discuss the challenges and shortcomings of how to interpret and express ideas when transferring qualitative research findings into design.

  20. Deep seating of six French guiding catheters for delivery of new Palmaz-Schatz stents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanBoven, AJ; denHeijer, P; Tio, RA; Lie, KI; Crijns, HJGM


    The delivery of new Palmaz-Schatz stents in native coronary arteries can be facilitated by using the technique of deep seating of a 6 French guiding catheter. Two patient histories are described to illustrate this new technique. (C) 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.