WorldWideScience

Sample records for child resistant packaging

  1. 40 CFR 157.30 - Voluntary use of child-resistant packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... packaging. 157.30 Section 157.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.30 Voluntary use of child-resistant packaging. A registrant whose product is not required to be in...

  2. Child-Resistant Packaging for E-Liquid: A Review of US State Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Leslie T; Tilburg, William C

    2016-02-01

    A growing number of states have introduced or enacted legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for e-liquid containers; however, these laws involve varying terms, packaging standards, and enforcement provisions, raising concerns about their effectiveness. We evaluated bills against 4 benchmarks: broad product definitions that contemplate future developments in the market, citations to a specific packaging standard, stated penalties for violations, and express grants of authority to a state entity to enforce the packaging requirements. Our findings showed that 3 states meet all 4 benchmarks in their enacted legislation. We encourage states to consider these benchmarks when revising statutes or drafting future legislation.

  3. 77 FR 73294 - Requirements for Child-Resistant Packaging: Products Containing Imidazolines Equivalent to 0.08...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... pediatric poisoning, chemical burn, or ingestion case reported from a NEISS hospital, as well as data on... milligrams or more of imidazolines in a single package. 77 FR 3646. The Commission received five comments in... the Children and Poisoning (CAP) system, a subset of NEISS records containing additional...

  4. Improvements in child resistant containers.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibert, J R; Clarke, A J; Mitchell, M P

    1985-01-01

    The numbers of children under 5 years in South Glamorgan admitted to hospital because of accidental poisoning have been analysed for 1980-4. There has been no significant fall in those taking solid dose, prescribable medications since the voluntary agreement between the government and the pharmaceutical profession in 1981 on child resistant containers. Most children still take these poisons from containers of an ordinary, non-child resistant type. Aspirin poisoning has remained at the same lo...

  5. Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

    This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

  6. Post-irradiation protection from infestation by insect resistant packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foods that are susceptible to insect infestation can be irradiated to destroy the infestation; however, the food must be kept insect-free until consumed, or it must be disinfested again, perhaps repeatedly. Insect-resistant packages can be used to prevent infestation, but certain requirements must be fulfilled before a package can be made insect resistant. These include the use of insect tight construction and packaging materials that resist boring insects. The relative insect resistance of various packages and packaging materials is discussed, as are behaviour traits such as egressive boring that enables insects to escape from packages, and the ability of insects to climb on to various packaging materials. Successful and unsuccessful attempts to make various types of package insect resistant are discussed, as are factors that must be considered in the selection or development of insect resistant packages for radiation-disinfested foods. The latter factors include the biological and physical environments, the length of storage periods, the stress on packages during shipment, the types of storage facility, the governmental regulations, health requirements, etc. (author). 21 refs

  7. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight in Guatemala is now becoming a public health concern. Child-oriented marketing contributes to increase children’s food preference, purchase and consumption. This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used in child-oriented snack food packages and to classify the snacks as “healthy” or “less-healthy”. Methods We purc...

  8. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide...

  9. Resistance study of packaging materials to rice insects pest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resistance of several packaging materials to penetration by 4 species of rice insect pests was determined. Five insects of adult or larval stage were confined in pouches made from 9 different packaging materials with or without irradiated rice. It was observed that both adults and larvae of species Tribolium castaneum Herbst., Sitophilus zeamais L., Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. and Cocyra cephalonica Stainton, were incapable of penetrating pouches made from white polyvinychloride of 0.175mm thickness, low density polyethylene of 0.130mm thickness and 0.150mm thick low density polyethylene. However, penetrations marks were found in pouches made from hard paper with a thickness of 0.155mm, clear polivinylchloride of 0.130mm thickness, low density polyethylene of 0.085mm thickness, low density polyethylene 0.100mm thick, high density polyethylene of 0.06mm thickness and 0.080mm thick polypropylene. Tribolium castaneum could be considered as a weak penetrator whilst Cocyra cephalonica was the main pouch penetrator. Penetrations of pouches mostly occured within the first week. This study showed that gamma irradiation at a dose of 1.0 kGy was effective in inhibiting egg development and killing larvae of insects found in rice within this study period

  10. 76 FR 8942 - Poison Prevention Packaging Requirements; Proposed Exemption of Powder Formulations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1700 Poison Prevention Packaging Requirements; Proposed Exemption of Powder...'') is proposing to amend its child-resistant packaging requirements to exempt powder formulations of two... proposed rule would exempt these prescription drug products on the basis that child-resistant packaging...

  11. Rugged Packaging for Damage Resistant Inertial Fusion Energy Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelmack, Larry

    2003-11-17

    The development of practical fusion energy plants based on inertial confinement with ultraviolet laser beams requires durable, stable final optics that will withstand the harsh fusion environment. Aluminum-coated reflective surfaces are fragile, and require hard overcoatings resistant to contamination, with low optical losses at 248.4 nanometers for use with high-power KrF excimer lasers. This program addresses the definition of requirements for IFE optics protective coatings, the conceptual design of the required deposition equipment according to accepted contamination control principles, and the deposition and evaluation of diamondlike carbon (DLC) test coatings. DLC coatings deposited by Plasma Immersion Ion Processing were adherent and abrasion-resistant, but their UV optical losses must be further reduced to allow their use as protective coatings for IFE final optics. Deposition equipment for coating high-performance IFE final optics must be designed, constructed, and operated with contamination control as a high priority.

  12. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic...

  13. Thermal resistance investigations on new leadframe-based LED packages and boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardo, B.; Gasse, A.; Fargeix, A.; Jakovenko, J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Perpiñà, X.; Jordà, X.; Vellhevi, M.; Weelden, T. van; Bancken, P.

    2013-01-01

    In Solid State Lighting, thermal management is a key issue. Within the C-SSL consortium, we have developed an advanced leadframe based package to reduce the thermal resistance of the component. Numerical simulations have been implemented using Ansys® software and thermal measurements have been carri

  14. Design of radioactive material shipping packaging for low-velocity puncture resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); May, R.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1983-02-01

    Both the standards developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and those contained in the U.S. federal regulations stipulate that transport packagings containing large quantities of radioactive material, such as spent fuel from a nuclear power reactor or waste by-products from nuclear weapons programs, should be designed to resist a sequence of impact, puncture, fire, and water immersion conditions without harmful release of contents. A recent paper has offered a perspective on the design of such packagings relative to the impact event - a 30 ft (9m) drop onto an essentially unyielding target. In this paper the second event in the accident design sequence is addressed - the 40 in (1 m) drop of the packaging, after primary impact, onto a mild steel cylindrical punch.

  15. Amoeba-resisting bacteria found in multilamellar bodies secreted by Dictyostelium discoideum: social amoebae can also package bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Valérie E; Charette, Steve J

    2016-03-01

    Many bacteria can resist phagocytic digestion by various protozoa. Some of these bacteria (all human pathogens) are known to be packaged in multilamellar bodies produced in the phagocytic pathway of the protozoa and that are secreted into the extracellular milieu. Packaged bacteria are protected from harsh conditions, and the packaging process is suspected to promote bacterial persistence in the environment. To date, only a limited number of protozoa, belonging to free-living amoebae and ciliates, have been shown to perform bacteria packaging. It is still unknown if social amoebae can do bacteria packaging. The link between the capacity of 136 bacterial isolates to resist the grazing of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and to be packaged by this amoeba was investigated in the present study. The 45 bacterial isolates displaying a resisting phenotype were tested for their capacity to be packaged. A total of seven isolates from Cupriavidus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium and Rathayibacter genera seemed to be packaged and secreted by D. discoideum based on immunofluorescence results. Electron microscopy confirmed that the Cupriavidus and Rathayibacter isolates were formally packaged. These results show that social amoebae can package some bacteria from the environment revealing a new aspect of microbial ecology.

  16. Child consumers' perception of colour and graphics in cereal box packaging design / Sophia Dorathea Visser

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Sophia Dorathea

    2006-01-01

    Literature addressing South African children as consumers is limited. Considering the growing importance of this young emerging market, a study addressing some aspects of the South African child as a consumer might provide valuable information and guidelines to marketers and manufacturers, in particular, a way to attract these young consumers' attention to products that will possibly better serve their needs. Colour and graphics can be highlighted as a method to reach these con...

  17. Child-resistant containers: are we kidding ourselves?

    OpenAIRE

    Greig, A D; Ewing, P D; Kenny, S B

    1981-01-01

    A 20-month-old child was accidentally poisoned after biting through the bottom of a medicine container and ingesting the tablets inside. Consequently a study was carried out to determine the force required to fracture 20 randomly selected 25 and 32 ml polystyrene containers to see whether this exceeded the bite force of a child's jaw. Tests were performed at displacement rates of 0.5 and 10 cm/min. All the containers failed at well below the bite force recorded for children, which is 392 N. A...

  18. Reconceptualising the "Child": Power and Resistance within Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This article reconceptualises the postmodern "Child" through the lens of Havel's work on ideology, power and subject formations. Set in an any ideologically charged early childhood setting, it analyses Havel's claim that all citizens, including children, are instrumental in maintaining the ideology of the establishment, and…

  19. Strategies to improve the mechanical strength and water resistance of agar films for food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana M M; Gonçalves, Maria P

    2015-11-01

    Agar films possess several properties adequate for food packaging applications. However, their high cost-production and quality variations caused by physiological and environmental factors affecting wild seaweeds make them less attractive for industries. In this work, native (NA) and alkali-modified (AA) agars obtained from sustainably grown seaweeds (integrated multi-trophic aquaculture) were mixed with locust bean gum (LBG) to make 'knife-coated' films with fixed final concentration (1 wt%) and variable agar/LBG ratios. Agar films were easier to process upon LBG addition (viscosity increase and gelling character decrease of the film-forming solutions observed by dynamic oscillatory and steady shear measurements). The mechanical properties and water resistance were optimal for films with 50 and/or 75% LBG contents and best in the case of NA (cheaper to extract). These findings can help reduce the cost-production of agar packaging films. Moreover, the controlled cultivation of seaweeds can provide continuous and reliable feedstock for transformation industries. PMID:26256341

  20. The corrosion rate of copper in a bentonite test package measured with electric resistance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosborg, Bo [Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Kosec, Tadeja; Kranjc, Andrej; Kuhar, Viljem; Legat, Andraz [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-12-15

    LOT1 test parcel A2 was exposed for six years in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, which offers a realistic environment for the conditions that will prevail in a deep repository for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden. The test parcel contained copper electrodes for real-time corrosion monitoring in bentonite ring 36, where the temperature was 24 deg C, and copper coupons in bentonite rings 22 and 30, where the temperature was higher. After retrieval of the test parcel in January 2006, a bentonite test package consisting of bentonite rings 35 - 37 was placed in a container and sealed with a thick layer of paraffin. Later the same year new copper electrodes were installed in the test package. In January 2007 electric resistance (ER) sensors of pure copper with a thickness of 35 {mu}m were also installed in the test package mainly to facilitate the interpretation of the results from the real-time corrosion monitoring with electrochemical techniques. The ER measurements have shown that the corrosion rate of pure copper exposed in an oxic bentonite/ saline groundwater environment at room temperate decreases slowly with time to low but measurable values. The corrosion rates estimated from the regularly performed EIS measurements replicate the ER data. Thus, for this oxic environment in which copper acquires corrosion potentials of the order of 200 mV (SHE) or higher, electrochemical measurements provide believable data. Comparing the recorded ER data with an estimate of the average corrosion rate based on comparing cross-sections from exposed and protected sensor elements, it is obvious that the former overestimates the actual corrosion rate, which is understandable. It seems as if electrochemical measurements can provide a better estimate of the corrosion rate; however, this is quite dependent on the use of proper measuring frequencies and evaluation methods. In this respect ER measurements are more reliable. It has been shown that real-time corrosion

  1. Evaluation of thermal resistance constitution for packaged AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by structure function method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guang-Chen; Feng Shi-Wei; Zhou Zhou; Li Jing-Wan; Guo Chun-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of thermal resistance constitution for packaged AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) by structure function method is proposed in this paper. The evaluation is based on the transient heating measurement of the AlGaN/GaN HEMT by pulsed electrical temperature sensitive parameter method. The extracted chip-level and package-level thermal resistances of the packaged multi-finger AlGaN/GaN HEMT with 400-μn SiC substrate are 22.5 K/W and 7.2 K/W respectively, which provides a non-invasive method to evaluate the chip-level thermal resistance of packaged AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. It is also experimentally proved that the extraction of the chip-level thermal resistance by this proposed method is not influenced by package form of the tested device and temperature boundary condition of measurement stage.

  2. Novel water-resistant UV-activated oxygen indicator for intelligent food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Chau Hai Thai; Won, Keehoon

    2013-09-01

    For the first time, alginate polymer has been applied to prevent dyes from leaching out of colorimetric oxygen indicator films, which enable people to notice the presence of oxygen in the package in an economic and simple manner. The dye-based oxygen indicator film suffers from dye leaching upon contact with water. In this work, UV-activated visual oxygen indicator films were fabricated using thionine, glycerol, P25 TiO2, and zein as a redox dye, a sacrificial electron donor, UV-absorbing semiconducting photocatalyst, and an encapsulation polymer, respectively. When this zein-coated film was immersed in water for 24h, the dye leakage was as high as 80.80±0.45%. However, introduction of alginate (1.25%) as the coating polymer considerably diminished the dye leaching to only 5.80±0.06%. This is because the ion-binding ability of alginate could prevent the cation dye from leaching into water. This novel water-resistant UV-activated oxygen indicator was also successfully photo-bleached and regained colour fast in the presence of oxygen. PMID:23578614

  3. Radiation effects evaluation for electrons sheaf in packages resistance in a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella and Sitophilus zeamais

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plagues of stored products consist of a man problem, depreciating products and causing economical damages. Among these curses we have Lasioderma serricorne (F. 1792), Sitophilus zeamais (M. 1855) and Plodia interpunctella (H. 1813) known by infesting stored products as: grains, brans, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits and spices. These curses perforate and penetrate the packages, ovipositing over the substratum. In this context the package plays a fundamental part, preventing the contact and curses' proliferation in the packed product. So, to protect the packed product and to prolong its shelf life, the package should have good mechanical resistance to tension and perforation, good sealing, good barrier properties and should not transfer odors nor strange flavors to the packed product. The ionizing radiation can cause structural changes in polymer packages, these changes are caused by the scission processes and reticulation of the polymers chains. These are concurrent processes and the predominance of one over the other depends on the chemical structure of the polymer, the irradiation conditions and specific factors of the material that will absorb the energy. This work had the objective to evaluate the changes in mechanical properties of package structures used to store granola, cereal bar and pasta, as well as its resistance to perforation by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais, when submitted to electrons sheaf radiation. In this methodology were used five structures of commercially utilized packages to store granola, cereal bar and pasta composed by (Polypropylene bi-oriented metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - BOPPmet/BOPP 50 μm), (Polypropylene bi-oriented/Polypropylene - BOPP/PP 50 μm), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - PETmet/BOPP 32 μm), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) /Polypropylene - PET/PP1 72 μm), Poli (ethylene terephthalate)/Polypropylene - PET/PP2 32 μm). The structures

  4. 21 CFR 800.12 - Contact lens solutions and tablets; tamper-resistant packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottle with a shrink band could say “For your protection, this bottle has an imprinted seal around the neck.” (d) Requests for exemptions from packaging and labeling requirements. A manufacturer or...

  5. Effects of gold plating on the resistance to high temperature discoloration of the cavity for ceramic packages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanhua Wang; Zhuoshen Shen; Daobin Mu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of thickness and types of gold plating on the resistance to high temperature discoloration of gold plating on cavity surface of ceramic package were investigated. It was found that the thicker gold plating, the less discoloration degree for ceramic packages. Non-cyanide gold plating performed better resistance to high-temperature aging than cyanide gold plating. The relationship between the gold plating thickness and the amount of diffused Ni to the gold plating of ceramic packages with Au/Ni and Au/Ni-Co platings after heating at 420℃ for 15 min was also studied. When the gold plating thickness reach 2.0 μm and 1.6 μm for Au/Ni and Au/Ni-Co plating systems, respectively, no discoloration was observed on the gold plating surface of cavity, and the corresponding diffused Ni amounts (mass fraction) are 1.0% and 0.4%, while the diffused Co to the gold plating is 0.04%.

  6. A Video-Based Package to Teach a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Write Her Name

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, D.W.; Anderson, A.; Treccase, F.; Deppeler, J.; Furlonger, B.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to trial a procedure involving point-of-view video modeling, backward chaining and reinforcement to teach a child with ASD to write her name. Video modeling and reinforcement were used to teach letter writing, and backward chaining to produce the complete name. A multip

  7. Evaluation of thermal resistance constitution for packaged AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by structure function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of thermal resistance constitution for packaged AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) by structure function method is proposed in this paper. The evaluation is based on the transient heating measurement of the AlGaN/GaN HEMT by pulsed electrical temperature sensitive parameter method. The extracted chip-level and package-level thermal resistances of the packaged multi-finger AlGaN/GaN HEMT with 400-μm SiC substrate are 22.5 K/W and 7.2 K/W respectively, which provides a non-invasive method to evaluate the chip-level thermal resistance of packaged AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. It is also experimentally proved that the extraction of the chip-level thermal resistance by this proposed method is not influenced by package form of the tested device and temperature boundary condition of measurement stage. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Evaluation of the effects of electron-beam irradiation on the puncture resistance by Lasioderma serricorne in flexible packaging of granola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Vitor M.; Alves, Juliana N.; Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B., E-mail: vmiranda@ipen.b, E-mail: julianaabc@ig.com.b, E-mail: bia.ribnog@gmail.co, E-mail: eabmoura@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ortiz, Angel V., E-mail: angel.ortiz@unipacnet.com.b [UNIPAC Embalagens Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Potenza, Marcos R., E-mail: potenza@biologico.sp.gov.b [Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo/APTA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Lasioderma serricorne is a beetle that infests stored and industrialized dry foods such as cereal bars, granola, flour and pasta, amongst others, depreciating the products and causing economic losses. It is therefore critical for these products a packaging that presents, in addition to good mechanical, barrier and machinability properties, a good resistance to puncture by insects, in order to prevent the contact and spread of pests in the packaged food. This study evaluates the changes on mechanical properties and puncture resistance by L. serricorne in BOPP/PP structure, used commercially as granola packaging after electron-beam irradiation. The irradiations were performed using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, dose rate of 11.22 kGy/s, at room temperature in presence of air, doses up to 120 kGy. After irradiation the BOPP/PP samples were subjected to tests of puncture resistance by L. serricorne, tensile strength, friction coefficient, penetration and seal strength. Results showed decreases in the original mechanical properties of the structure according to the radiation doses applied and effective resistance against punctures by L. serricorne (p<0.05). The results indicate that the irradiated and non-irradiated BOPP/PP structure, in the conditions studied in this work, is resistant against L. serricorne, however the decreases observed in the mechanical properties of the irradiated structure may turn it inappropriate for packaging granola. (author)

  9. The Bi-Directional Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Treatment Outcome in Treatment-Resistant Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon M.; Hilton, Robert; Porta, Giovanna; He, Jiayan; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent-child discord and treatment outcome for adolescent treatment-resistant depression. Method: Depressed youth who had not responded to an adequate course of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were randomized to either a switch to another SSRI or venlafaxine, with or…

  10. Effects of electron beam radiation on mechanical properties and on the resistance to punctures caused by Plodia interpunctella in cereal bar packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana N.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.; Oliveira, Vitor M., E-mail: julianaabc@usp.b, E-mail: eabmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: volmiranda@gmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Potenza, Marcos R., E-mail: potenza@biologico.sp.gov.b [Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo/APTA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Plodia interpunctella is an important pest in stored products in the tropical and subtropical regions, infesting grains and flours. The adult of P. interpunctella is a small butterfly with about 15 - 20mm of spread and the female places separately of 100 the 400 eggs in groups on the grains whose hard incubation some days. This insect infesting diverse types of food packaging, depreciating the products and causing economic losses. It is therefore critical for these products a packaging that presents, in addition to good mechanical, barrier and machinability properties, a good resistance to puncture by insects, in order to prevent the contact and spread of pests in the packaged food. This study evaluates the changes on mechanical properties and puncture resistance by P. interpunctella in BOPPmet/BOPP structure, used commercially as cereal bar packaging, after electron beam irradiation. The material samples were irradiated up to 120 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electrostatic accelerator, at room temperature, in air, dose rate 11.22 kGy/s. Irradiation doses were measured using cellulose triacetate film dosimeters 'CTA-FTR-125' from Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd. After irradiation the BOPPmet/BOPP samples were subjected to tests of puncture resistance by P. interpunctella, tensile tests and penetration resistance. The results showed significant decreases (p<0.05) in the original mechanical properties of the structures according to the radiation doses applied and effective resistance against punctures by P. interpunctella for irradiated and nonirradiated BOPPmet/BOPP samples. These results indicate that non-irradiated and irradiated BOPPmet/BOPP structure presents puncture resistance against P. interpunctella and that electron-beam irradiation, in conditions studied in this work, may turn the structure inappropriate for cereal bar packaging, due to high reduction its mechanical properties after irradiation. (author)

  11. Effects of electron beam radiation on mechanical properties and on the resistance to punctures caused by Plodia interpunctella in cereal bar packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodia interpunctella is an important pest in stored products in the tropical and subtropical regions, infesting grains and flours. The adult of P. interpunctella is a small butterfly with about 15 - 20mm of spread and the female places separately of 100 the 400 eggs in groups on the grains whose hard incubation some days. This insect infesting diverse types of food packaging, depreciating the products and causing economic losses. It is therefore critical for these products a packaging that presents, in addition to good mechanical, barrier and machinability properties, a good resistance to puncture by insects, in order to prevent the contact and spread of pests in the packaged food. This study evaluates the changes on mechanical properties and puncture resistance by P. interpunctella in BOPPmet/BOPP structure, used commercially as cereal bar packaging, after electron beam irradiation. The material samples were irradiated up to 120 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electrostatic accelerator, at room temperature, in air, dose rate 11.22 kGy/s. Irradiation doses were measured using cellulose triacetate film dosimeters 'CTA-FTR-125' from Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd. After irradiation the BOPPmet/BOPP samples were subjected to tests of puncture resistance by P. interpunctella, tensile tests and penetration resistance. The results showed significant decreases (p<0.05) in the original mechanical properties of the structures according to the radiation doses applied and effective resistance against punctures by P. interpunctella for irradiated and nonirradiated BOPPmet/BOPP samples. These results indicate that non-irradiated and irradiated BOPPmet/BOPP structure presents puncture resistance against P. interpunctella and that electron-beam irradiation, in conditions studied in this work, may turn the structure inappropriate for cereal bar packaging, due to high reduction its mechanical properties after irradiation. (author)

  12. Heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in vacuum packaged pasteurized fish fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Embarek, P K; Huss, H H

    1993-11-01

    The heat resistance of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes in sous-vide cooked fillets of cod and salmon was investigated. Fish sticks of 5 g were inoculated, vacuum-packed and heated at different combinations of time and temperature (58-80 degrees C). Time-temperature combinations allowing survival and time-temperature combinations at which the bacteria were destroyed, were used to determine D- and z-values. D-values were in the range of what has been published for other food products. D60-values were between 1.95 and 4.48 min depending on the strain and the fish. Both strains were one-four-times more heat resistant in salmon than in cod, showing the importance of the heating menstruum. This difference may be due to the higher fat content in salmon as compared to cod. Z-values were calculated to be 5.65 and 6.4 degrees C, respectively, for the two strains. The suitability of methods for heat resistance experiments and the survival of L. monocytogenes in sous-vide cooked fish fillets are discussed. PMID:8268058

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factor Analysis for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization in Children Attending Child Care Centers▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Melissa B.; David J. Weber; Goodrich, Jennifer S.; Popowitch, Elena B.; Poe, Michele D.; Nyugen, Viet; Shope, Timothy R.; Foster, David T.; Miller, James R; Kotch, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Children attending child care centers (CCCs) are at increased risk for infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nasal colonization often precedes infection, and MRSA colonization has been associated with increased infection risk. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has caused increased MRSA infections in the general population, including children. Little is known about the frequency of MRSA nasal colonization in young children, particularly in ...

  14. Packaging and Labeling of Pharmaceutical Products Obtained from the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Veronin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background For patients, the prescription container label may be the only source of instructions on how to take their medicines. In the United States, the legal requirements for a prescription label are set by federal law and state statutes. The container should be comparable to that which manufacturers use to package drug products and should preserve a product’s identity, strength, quality, and purity and prevent contamination. Safety features such as a child-resistant closure should be prov...

  15. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with idiopathic Fanconi′s syndrome in a child who presented as vitamin D resistant rickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Patra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi′s syndrome is a complex of multiple tubular dysfunctions of proximal tubular cells occurring alone or in association with a variety of inherited (primary or acquired (secondary disorders. It is characterized by aminoaciduria, normoglycaemic glycosuria, tubular proteinuria without hematuria, metabolic acidosis without anion gap and excessive urinary excretion of phosphorous, calcium, uric acid, bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Whereas diabetes insipidus is a disease of collecting tubules and child mainly presents with dehydration and hypernatremia. Though all the cases published till date were secondary to drugs, myeloma, hematological disorders, etc., we are reporting the first case of idiopathic Fanconi′s syndrome along with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a child who presented to us as resistant rickets. Medline search did not reveal any case of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus associated with idiopathic Fanconi syndrome. We hypothesized that the NDI may be due to of severe hypokalemia induced tubular dysfunction.

  16. Children of Rebellion : Socialization of Child Soldiers within the Lord's Resistance Army

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Why do child soldiers remain with rebel groups? What exactly induces these children to live under such severe conditions faced when being part of a rebel group? The answers to these questions are far from obvious and appear to be a complex mixture of various motivating factors. As child soldiering is a global phenomenon, scholars have written extensively about the topic. Yet, these studies tend to focus on the processes concerning the recruitment of children as well as on recovering and reint...

  17. "Halal-ing" the Child: Reframing Identities of Resistance in an Urban Muslim School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Na'ilah Suad Nasir expands the literature on resistance theory by exploring the institutional response to classic "resistant" or "oppositional" student behavior. Using the case of one boy in an urban Muslim school who displays these resistant behaviors, she shows how the ideational artifacts of family and spirituality are enacted…

  18. FlexiChip package: an universal microarray with a dedicated analysis software for high-thoughput SNPs detection linked to anti-malarial drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dondorp Arjen M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of molecular tools have been developed to monitor the emergence and spread of anti-malarial drug resistance to Plasmodium falciparum. One of the major obstacles to the wider implementation of these tools is the absence of practical methods enabling high throughput analysis. Here a new Zip-code array is described, called FlexiChip, linked to a dedicated software program, which largely overcomes this problem. Methods Previously published microarray probes detecting single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP associated with parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs (ResMalChip were adapted for a universal microarray FlexiChip format. To evaluate the overall sensitivity of the FlexiChip package (microarray + software, the results of FlexiChip were compared to ResMalChip microarray, using the same extension probes and with the same PCR products. In both cases, sequence results were used as gold standard to calculate sensitivity and specificity. FlexiChip results obtained with a set of field isolates were then compared to those assessed in an independent reference laboratory. Results The FlexiChip package gave results identical to the ResMalChip results in 92.7% of samples (kappa coefficient 0.8491, with a standard error 0.021 and had a sensitivity of 95.88% and a specificity of 97.68% compared to the sequencing as the reference method. Moreover the method performed well compared to the results obtained in the reference laboratories, with 99.7% of identical results (kappa coefficient 0.9923, S.E. 0.0523. Conclusion Microarrays could be employed to monitor P. falciparum drug resistance markers with greater cost effectiveness and the possibility for high throughput analysis. The FlexiChip package is a promising tool for use in poor resource settings of malaria endemic countries.

  19. Packaging-radiation disinfestation relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foods that are susceptible to insect infestation can be irradiated to destroy the infestation; however, the food must be kept essentially insect-free until consumed, or it must be disinfested again, perhaps repeatedly. Insect-resistant packages can be used to prevent reinfestation, but there are certain requirements that must be fulfilled before a package can be made insect resistant. These include the use of insect-light construction and packaging materials that resist boring insects. The relative insect resistance of various packages and packaging materials is discussed, as are behavior traits such as egressive boring that enables insects to escape from packages and the ability of insects to climb on various packaging materials. Some successful and unsuccessful attempts to make various types of packages insect resistant are discussed, as are factors that must be considered in the selection or development of insect-resistant packages for radiation disinfested foods. The latter factors include biological and physical environments, length of storage periods, stresses on packages during shipment, types of storage facilities, governmental regulations, health requirements, and others

  20. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana;

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature...... on packaging design and processing fluency, our aim is to define and conceptualise packaging fluency. We stress the important role of packaging fluency since it is anticipated that a fluent package would influence the evaluative judgments for a product. We conclude this paper by setting the research agenda...

  1. Sneaking out after Dark: Resistance, Agency, and the Postmodern Child in JK Rowling's Harry Potter Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Drew

    2008-01-01

    JK Rowling's "Harry Potter" novels situate their child protagonists in a fantastical world side by side with present day British society. Through the characters' choices and realizations, young readers are introduced to the complexities and ambiguities of the contemporary world. Harry and his friends embrace these qualities of postmodern childhood…

  2. Inclusive Education and the "No Child Left Behind Act": Resisting Entrenchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulgin, Kathleen Maria; Drake, Bob M.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines inclusive education in view of the current US policy climate. The "No Child Left Behind Act" provides the opportunity to examine dominant social forces and the underlying theories of mechanism and positivism that run counter to a constructivist approach to inclusive education. The incompatibility of these theories is explored…

  3. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  4. 49 CFR 178.915 - General Large Packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Large Packaging standards. 178.915 Section... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.915 General Large Packaging standards. (a) Each Large Packaging.... Large Packagings intended for solid hazardous materials must be sift-proof and water-resistant. (b)...

  5. Growth and development in a child with resistance to thyroid hormone and ectopic thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Natasha; Hall, Kate; Neas, Katherine; Potter, Howard; Wiltshire, Esko

    2012-03-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone is an uncommon problem, which has rarely been associated with thyroid dysgenesis. We report a case with both thyroid gland ectopy and resistance to thyroid hormone and, thus, a reduced capacity to produce and respond to thyroid hormone. The patient presented at 2 years of age with developmental delay, dysmorphic features, and elevation in both thyroxine and thyrotropin. We document her response to therapy with thyroxine, with particular regard to her growth and development. Persistent elevation of thyrotropin is commonly recognized during treatment of congenital hypothyroidism. Resistance to thyroid hormone may be an important additional diagnosis to consider in cases where thyrotropin remains persistently elevated.

  6. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  7. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  8. Partial Hepatectomy for the Resistant Fasciola Hepatica Infection in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgin, Gülhan; S, Kanık Yüksek; H, Tezer; A, Özkaya Parlakay; B, Dalgıç; A, Dalgıç; G, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Fascioliasis is an emerging and important chronic parasitic disease caused by two trematode liver fluke species: Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) and Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) infecting several herbivorous mammals including cattle, goats, sheep, and humans. We report a 9-year-old girl who suffered from F. hepatica infection and underwent right hepatectomy because of increasing abdominal pain resistant to anthelmintic chemotherapy. When anthelmintic drug treatment is not effective and abdominal pain persists, surgical resection including hepatectomy should be kept in mind for resistant F. hepatica infection.

  9. Partial Hepatectomy for the Resistant Fasciola Hepatica Infection in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gülhan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is an emerging and important chronic parasitic disease caused by two trematode liver fluke species: Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica infecting several herbivorous mammals including cattle, goats, sheep, and humans. We report a 9-year-old girl who suffered from F. hepatica infection and underwent right hepatectomy because of increasing abdominal pain resistant to anthelmintic chemotherapy. When anthelmintic drug treatment is not effective and abdominal pain persists, surgical resection including hepatectomy should be kept in mind for resistant F. hepatica infection.

  10. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots (Daucus carota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (106 CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O2, 30% CO2 and 10% N2). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9 kGy and stored at 4±1 deg. C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15 kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 log CFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses ≥0.3 kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage

  11. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  12. Adolescent Perspectives on Rules and Resistance within the Parent-Child Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, C. Melanie; Kuczynski, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-two adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 participated in a semistructured interview regarding their perspectives on parental expectations and their strategies for expressing resistance. Thematic analyses indicated that adolescents perceive parental expectations as flexible and coconstructed rather than as firm, explicit, standing…

  13. ELRIS2D: A MATLAB Package for the 2D Inversion of DC Resistivity/IP Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akca Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ELRIS2D is an open source code written in MATLAB for the two-dimensional inversion of direct current resistivity (DCR and time domain induced polarization (IP data. The user interface of the program is designed for functionality and ease of use. All available settings of the program can be reached from the main window. The subsurface is discretized using a hybrid mesh generated by the combination of structured and unstructured meshes, which reduces the computational cost of the whole inversion procedure. The inversion routine is based on the smoothness constrained least squares method. In order to verify the program, responses of two test models and field data sets were inverted. The models inverted from the synthetic data sets are consistent with the original test models in both DC resistivity and IP cases. A field data set acquired in an archaeological site is also used for the verification of outcomes of the program in comparison with the excavation results.

  14. ELRIS2D: A MATLAB Package for the 2D Inversion of DC Resistivity/IP Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Irfan

    2016-04-01

    ELRIS2D is an open source code written in MATLAB for the two-dimensional inversion of direct current resistivity (DCR) and time domain induced polarization (IP) data. The user interface of the program is designed for functionality and ease of use. All available settings of the program can be reached from the main window. The subsurface is discretized using a hybrid mesh generated by the combination of structured and unstructured meshes, which reduces the computational cost of the whole inversion procedure. The inversion routine is based on the smoothness constrained least squares method. In order to verify the program, responses of two test models and field data sets were inverted. The models inverted from the synthetic data sets are consistent with the original test models in both DC resistivity and IP cases. A field data set acquired in an archaeological site is also used for the verification of outcomes of the program in comparison with the excavation results.

  15. Reducing childhood illness - fostering growth : an integrated home-based intervention package (IHIP) to improve indoor-air pollution, drinking water quality and child nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Hartinger Peña, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    Child mortality attributable to pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition accounts globally for the majority of 8.8 million annual deaths. More than half of these deaths are preventable. Available and effective interventions include safe water supply, household water treatment, improved chimney stoves and personal- and home-hygiene and -health messages. In Peru, the current health services reform is focused on shifting responsibilities to peripheral levels; thus, empowering community organisation...

  16. Hypochondroplasia, Acanthosis Nigricans, and Insulin Resistance in a Child with FGFR3 Mutation: Is It Just an Association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available FGFR3 mutations cause wide spectrum of disorders ranging from skeletal dysplasias (hypochondroplasia, achondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia, benign skin tumors (epidermal nevi, seborrhaeic keratosis, and acanthosis nigricans, and epithelial malignancies (multiple myeloma and prostate and bladder carcinoma. Hypochondroplasia is the most common type of short-limb dwarfism in children resulting from fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 mutation. Acanthosis nigricans might be seen in severe skeletal dysplasia, including thanatophoric dysplasia and SADDAN syndrome, without a biochemical evidence of hyperinsulinemia. Insulin insensitivity and acanthosis nigricans are uncommonly seen in hypochondroplasia patients with FGFR3 mutations which may represent a new association. We aim to describe the association of hypochondroplasia, acanthosis nigricans, and insulin resistance in a child harboring FGFR3 mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report associating the p.N540 with acanthosis nigricans and the second to describe hyperinsulinemia in hypochondroplasia. This finding demonstrates the possible coexistence of insulin insensitivity and acanthosis nigricans in hypochondroplasia patients.

  17. Breath and string test: A diagnostic package for the identification of treatment failure and antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori without the necessity of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Leodolter; Kathlen Wolle; Ulrike von Arnim; Stefan Kahl; Gerhard Treiber; Matthias P. Ebert; Ulrich Peitz; Peter Malfertheiner

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Helicobacter pylori ( H pylofi) resistance after failed eradication has a major impact on the outcome of a further treatment regimen. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a non-invasive strategy using the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) and the gastric string test in identifying post-treatment resistance of Hpylori.METHODS: The UBT was routinely performed 4 to 6 wk after H pylorieradication therapy. Forty-two patients (24 females, 18 males, mean age 48 years) with a positive UBT were included in the study. A gastric string test using a capsule containing a 90 cm-long nylon fiber was performed.Before the capsule was swallowed, the free end of the string was taped to the cheek. After one hour in the stomach, the string was withdrawn. The distal 20 cm of the string was inoculated onto an agar plate and processed under microaerophilic conditions. Following the string test, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to obtain gastric biopsies for conventional culture.RESULTS: H pyloriwas successfully cultured from the gastric string in 34 patients (81%), but not in 5 patients due to contamination with oropharyngeal flora. Hpyloriwas cultured from the gastric biopsies obtained at endoscopy in 39 patients (93%).CONCLUSION: The UBT followed by the gastric string test in the case of treatment failure is a valid diagnostic strategy with the aim of determining the post-therapeutic antibiotic resistance of Hpyloriwith little inconvenience to the patient.Upper GI-endoscopy can be avoided in several cases by applying consequently this diagnostic package.

  18. Database of refractories for explosive and fire resistant steel cask for packaging and transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains the results of mechanical and thermophysical properties investigations of the dense and porous refractory concretes (silicate (building), chamotte (metallurgical), alumina, zirconia (including ceramics)). Porosities of these materials were 20 - 50 %. Compression strength, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, heat capacity and operation temperature for this refractories are discussed. The split-Hopkinson bar method was used for investigation of the strain rate about 1000 sec-1. For damage assessment of the severe events connected with overheating of the metal and oxides contents of cask and terrorist attack by means of the anti-tank weapons to cask we discussed resistance of a zirconia ceramics(concrete) to melted mixture Zr, UO2, Fe2O3 and Monroe jet. Our results testify that the porous zirconia ceramics can use in the impact limiter system of casks under mechanical, thermal and chemical attacks. (authors)

  19. Radiation effects evaluation for electrons sheaf in packages resistance in a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella and Sitophilus zeamais; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao por feixe de eletrons na resistencia de embalagens a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella e Sitophilus zeamais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2011-07-01

    The plagues of stored products consist of a man problem, depreciating products and causing economical damages. Among these curses we have Lasioderma serricorne (F. 1792), Sitophilus zeamais (M. 1855) and Plodia interpunctella (H. 1813) known by infesting stored products as: grains, brans, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits and spices. These curses perforate and penetrate the packages, ovipositing over the substratum. In this context the package plays a fundamental part, preventing the contact and curses' proliferation in the packed product. So, to protect the packed product and to prolong its shelf life, the package should have good mechanical resistance to tension and perforation, good sealing, good barrier properties and should not transfer odors nor strange flavors to the packed product. The ionizing radiation can cause structural changes in polymer packages, these changes are caused by the scission processes and reticulation of the polymers chains. These are concurrent processes and the predominance of one over the other depends on the chemical structure of the polymer, the irradiation conditions and specific factors of the material that will absorb the energy. This work had the objective to evaluate the changes in mechanical properties of package structures used to store granola, cereal bar and pasta, as well as its resistance to perforation by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais, when submitted to electrons sheaf radiation. In this methodology were used five structures of commercially utilized packages to store granola, cereal bar and pasta composed by (Polypropylene bi-oriented metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - BOPPmet/BOPP 50 {mu}m), (Polypropylene bi-oriented/Polypropylene - BOPP/PP 50 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - PETmet/BOPP 32 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) /Polypropylene - PET/PP1 72 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate)/Polypropylene - PET/PP2 32 {mu

  20. Antiretroviral Strategies to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: Striking a Balance between Efficacy, Feasibility, and Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, James A; Hopley, Mark; Moodley, Daya; Eklund, Marie; Gray, Glenda E.; Hall, David B.; Robinson, Patrick; Mayers, Douglas; Martinson, Neil A

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Currently, about 33 million people are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS. HIV can be treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), commonly three individual antiretroviral drugs that together efficiently suppress the replication of the virus. HIV infection of a child by an HIV-positive mother during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or breastfeeding is called mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). In 2007, an estimated 420,000...

  1. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Burkina Faso: evaluation of vertical transmission by PCR, molecular characterization of subtypes and determination of antiretroviral drugs resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagna, Tani; Bisseye, Cyrille; Compaore, Tegewende R.; Kagone, Therese S.; Djigma, Florencia W.; Ouermi, Djeneba; Pirkle, Catherine M.; Zeba, Moctar T. A.; Bazie, Valerie J. T.; Douamba, Zoenabo; Moret, Remy; Pietra, Virginio; Koama, Adjirita; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Sia, Joseph D.; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is a public health problem in Burkina Faso. The main objective of this study on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission was to determine the residual risk of HIV transmission in infants born to mothers receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Moreover, we detect HIV antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance among mother–infant pairs and identify subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF) in Burkina Faso. Design In this study, 3,215 samples of pregnant women were analyzed for HIV using rapid tests. Vertical transmission was estimated by polymerase chain reaction in 6-month-old infants born to women who tested HIV positive. HIV-1 resistance to ARV, subtypes, and CRFs was determined through ViroSeq kit using the ABI PRISM 3,130 sequencer. Results In this study, 12.26% (394/3,215) of the pregnant women were diagnosed HIV positive. There was 0.52% (2/388) overall vertical transmission of HIV, with rates of 1.75% (2/114) among mothers under prophylaxis and 0.00% (0/274) for those under HAART. Genetic mutations were also isolated that induce resistance to ARV such as M184V, Y115F, K103N, Y181C, V179E, and G190A. There were subtypes and CRF of HIV-1 present, the most common being: CRF06_CPX (58.8%), CRF02_AG (35.3%), and subtype G (5.9%). Conclusions ARV drugs reduce the residual rate of HIV vertical transmission. However, the virus has developed resistance to ARV, which could limit future therapeutic options when treatment is needed. Resistance to ARV therefore requires a permanent interaction between researchers, physicians, and pharmacists, to strengthen the network of monitoring and surveillance of drug resistance in Burkina Faso. PMID:25630709

  2. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Burkina Faso: evaluation of vertical transmission by PCR, molecular characterization of subtypes and determination of antiretroviral drugs resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani Sagna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission is a public health problem in Burkina Faso. The main objective of this study on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission was to determine the residual risk of HIV transmission in infants born to mothers receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Moreover, we detect HIV antiretroviral (ARV drug resistance among mother–infant pairs and identify subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF in Burkina Faso. Design: In this study, 3,215 samples of pregnant women were analyzed for HIV using rapid tests. Vertical transmission was estimated by polymerase chain reaction in 6-month-old infants born to women who tested HIV positive. HIV-1 resistance to ARV, subtypes, and CRFs was determined through ViroSeq kit using the ABI PRISM 3,130 sequencer. Results: In this study, 12.26% (394/3,215 of the pregnant women were diagnosed HIV positive. There was 0.52% (2/388 overall vertical transmission of HIV, with rates of 1.75% (2/114 among mothers under prophylaxis and 0.00% (0/274 for those under HAART. Genetic mutations were also isolated that induce resistance to ARV such as M184V, Y115F, K103N, Y181C, V179E, and G190A. There were subtypes and CRF of HIV-1 present, the most common being: CRF06_CPX (58.8%, CRF02_AG (35.3%, and subtype G (5.9%. Conclusions: ARV drugs reduce the residual rate of HIV vertical transmission. However, the virus has developed resistance to ARV, which could limit future therapeutic options when treatment is needed. Resistance to ARV therefore requires a permanent interaction between researchers, physicians, and pharmacists, to strengthen the network of monitoring and surveillance of drug resistance in Burkina Faso.

  3. ATLAS software packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rybkin, G

    2012-01-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages - platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis pro...

  4. Vicious Cycle of Multiple Invasive Treatments in a Hemophilic Inhibitor Positive Child with Resistant Knee Flexion Contracture, A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Kachooei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled recurrent hemarthrosis can end to contracture, deformity, pain, joint destruction and gait disorders which are disabling. We are going to report a challenge, a unilateral knee flexion contracture in a child with severe hemophilia A and inhibitor who underwent different treatment options with unsatisfactory improvement of knee range of motion. Mismanaging postoperatively, patient and parents irresponsibility in managing self-care, lack of access and affordability to treatment and unavailability of proper treatment can be the reasons of recurrence in addition to the tough nature of a patient with inhibitor.

  5. A Near-Fatal Infection with Oseltamivir-Resistant Seasonal Influenza A in a Previously Healthy Child: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Papenburg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of near-fatal oseltamivir-resistant seasonal influenza A infection in a previously healthy four-year-old boy is reported. This case highlights three important points for physicians: oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1 has recently emerged in North America; contrary to previously held beliefs, such strains are capable of causing severe disease in healthy children; and given this change in epidemiology, clinicians caring for children with severe seasonal influenza A infection should consider empiric dual therapy with oseltamivir and amantadine.

  6. Packaging Your Training Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  7. 49 CFR 178.940 - Standards for flexible Large Packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the Large Packaging... this subchapter, flexible Large Packaging must be resistant to aging and degradation caused by.... (6) Additives may be included in the composition of the material of the Large Packaging to...

  8. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors produced by a superinfection-resistant stable packaging cell line allow genetic modification of primary human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labenski, Verena; Suerth, Julia D; Barczak, Elke; Heckl, Dirk; Levy, Camille; Bernadin, Ornellie; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Williams, David A; Fehse, Boris; Verhoeyen, Els; Schambach, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Primary human T lymphocytes represent an important cell population for adoptive immunotherapies, including chimeric-antigen and T-cell receptor applications, as they have the capability to eliminate non-self, virus-infected and tumor cells. Given the increasing numbers of clinical immunotherapy applications, the development of an optimal vector platform for genetic T lymphocyte engineering, which allows cost-effective high-quality vector productions, remains a critical goal. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors (ARV) have several advantages compared to other vector platforms, including a more random genomic integration pattern and reduced likelihood for inducing aberrant splicing of integrated proviruses. We developed an ARV platform for the transduction of primary human T lymphocytes. We demonstrated functional transgene transfer using the clinically relevant herpes-simplex-virus thymidine kinase variant TK.007. Proof-of-concept of alpharetroviral-mediated T-lymphocyte engineering was shown in vitro and in a humanized transplantation model in vivo. Furthermore, we established a stable, human alpharetroviral packaging cell line in which we deleted the entry receptor (SLC1A5) for RD114/TR-pseudotyped ARVs to prevent superinfection and enhance genomic integrity of the packaging cell line and viral particles. We showed that superinfection can be entirely prevented, while maintaining high recombinant virus titers. Taken together, this resulted in an improved production platform representing an economic strategy for translating the promising features of ARVs for therapeutic T-lymphocyte engineering. PMID:27162078

  9. Child morbidity of salmonellosis and the level of resistance of clinical isolates of salmonella to antibacterial preparations in saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gonchar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to study the dynamics of the incidence of salmonellosis children in St. Petersburg and phenotypic resistance of clinical isolates of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium to antibiotics in recent years. Materials and methods. The incidence of salmonellosis children studied according to the report for the first nine months of Rospotrebnadzor in 2013–2014. Incidence of salmonellosis in the structure of bacterial intestinal infections caused by pathogens in children hospitalized in the Department of intestinal infections in 2013–2014, studied according to annual reports. Antibiotic sensitivity was studied 86 Salmonella isolates (S. Enteritidis strain 64 and strain 22 S. Typhimurium, isolated from patients in children 2010–2014. Used the method of serial microdilution broth. Salmonella isolates were divided into sensitive, resistant, intermediate sensitivity to antibiotics. The Results. Analysis of the incidence of salmonellosis children of St. Petersburg has revealed its decline in 2014 (109.2 compared to 2013 (123,9 but relatively long-term average level was an increase in incidence (107,6. In the structure of salmonellosis in children prevailed salmonellosis Group D. In hospitalized children in the structure of bacterial intestinal infections detected Excess of share of salmonellosis in 2014 (36,9±3,4% compared to 2013 (24,5±2,4%; p <0,01. A reduction in the frequency sensitivity of S. Enteritidis to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime and chloramphenicol. Compared to S. Enteritidis S. Typhimurium isolates were more resistant to ceftazidime and ampicillin, but more sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion. Morbidity of salmonellosis in recent years characterized by a relatively long-term average increase of the level. In the structure of salmonellosis in children prevailed salmonellosis Group D. There was a reduction of sensitivity S. Enteritidis isolates to cephalosporins new generations, and S. Typhimurium isolates

  10. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become ...

  11. Packaging for logistical support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twede, Diana; Hughes, Harold

    Logistical packaging is conducted to furnish protection, utility, and communication for elements of a logistical system. Once the functional requirements of space logistical support packaging have been identified, decision-makers have a reasonable basis on which to compare package alternatives. Flexible packages may be found, for example, to provide adequate protection and superior utility to that of rigid packages requiring greater storage and postuse waste volumes.

  12. Development of Nevirapine Resistance in Children Exposed to the Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Programme in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Antunes

    Full Text Available Single-dose nevirapine (sd-NVP has been the main option for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV-1 in low-resource settings. However, sd-NVP can induce the selection of HIV-1 resistant mutations in mothers and infants. In Mozambique, there are limited data regarding the profile of NVP resistance associated mutations (RAM in the context of PMTCT.To assess the prevalence and the factors associated with NVP RAM among children born to HIV-1 infected mothers enrolled in the PMTCT programme adopted in Mozambique.One hundred and fifty seven children aged 6 to 48 weeks were sequentially included (July 2011 to March 2012 at four centres in Maputo. Genotyping of RAM was performed in samples with HIV-1 RNA≥ 100 copies/μL (Viroseq. Sequencing was performed with ABI 3100 (Applied Biosystems. Logistic regression modelling was undertaken to identify the factors associated with NVP RAM.Seventy-nine children had their samples genotyped. Their median age was 7.0 (3-12 months and 92.4% received prophylaxis with sd-NVP at birth plus daily NVP. 35.4% of mothers received antiretrovirals (ARVs for PMTCT. ARV RAM were detected in 43 (54.4% of the children. 45.6% of these children had at least one NVP RAM. The most common mutations associated with NVP resistance were K103N (n = 16 and Y181C (n = 15. NVP RAM was significantly associated with mother exposure to PMTCT (crude odds ratio [OR] 30.3, 95% CI 4.93-186.34 and with mother's CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3 (crude OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.02-9.32. In the multivariable analysis the mother's exposure to PMTCT was the only variable significantly associated with NVP RAM (adjusted OR 48.65, 95% CI 9.33-253.66.We found a high prevalence of NVP RAM among children who were exposed to the drug regimen for PMTCT in Mozambique. The mothers' exposure to PMTCT significantly increased the risk of NVP RAM.

  13. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  14. Void-Free Lid for Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. D.; Farris, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Flexible cover eliminates air pockets in sealed container. Universal food-package lid formed from flexible plastic. Partially folded, lid unfolded by depressing center portion. Height of flat portion of lid above flange thereby reduced. Pressure of food against central oval depression pops it out, forming dome that provides finger grip for mixing contents with water or opening lid. Therefore food stays fresh, allows compact stacking of partially filled containers, and resists crushing. Originally developed for packaging dehydrated food for use in human consumption on Space Shuttle missions. Other uses include home canning and commercial food packaging.

  15. Victim Resistance in Child Sexual Abuse: A Look into the Efficacy of Self-Protection Strategies Based on the Offender's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy, as experienced by offenders with their victim, of self-protection strategies used in child sexual abuse cases. It also investigates whether the efficacy of self-protection varies according to victim characteristics. The sample consists of 94 adult offenders who sexually abused a single child and who agreed to…

  16. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  17. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  18. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  19. Considerations on the performance and fabrication of candidate materials for the Yucca Mountain repository waste packages highly corrosion resistant nickel-base and titanium-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalder, E; Goldberg, A

    1995-11-30

    Among the metallurgical factors that affect the performance of a material in a given environment are alloy composition, alloy segregation, depletion of alloying elements, non-uniform microstructures, precipitation leading to an increase in susceptibility to corrosion as well as decreases in ductility, residual plastic deformation, and residual stresses. Precipitation often occurs preferentially at grain boundaries, causing depletion of critical elements in regions adjacent to these boundaries. Continuous grain-boundary precipitates can lead to drops in ductility and toughness. The presence of non-metallic inclusions, if excessive and/or segregated, can also cause embrittlement. Segregation of alloying elements can result in localized galvanic action. Depletion of alloying elements as well as segregation can result in reductions in the concentrations of critical elements below those necessary to resist localized corrosion. Segregation and alloy depletion can also facilitate precipitation that could lead to embrittlement.

  20. Recycling glass packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Delia DOMNICA; Leila BARDAªUC

    2015-01-01

    From the specialized literature it follows that glass packaging is not as used as other packages, but in some industries are highly needed. Following, two features of glass packaging will become important until 2017: the shape of the glass packaging and glass recycling prospects in Romania. The recycling of glass is referred to the fact that it saves energy, but also to be in compliance with the provisions indicating the allowable limit values for the quantities of lead and cadmium.

  1. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2008-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  2. ATLAS software packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, Grigory

    2012-12-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  3. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  4. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  5. Central heating: package boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.

    1977-05-01

    Performance and cost data for electrical and fossil-fired package boilers currently available from manufacturers are provided. Performance characteristics investigated include: unit efficiency, rated capacity, and average expected lifetime of units. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of various package boilers. The information supplied in this report will simplify the process of selecting package boilers required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  6. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  7. Biobased packaging catalogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenveld, K.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Bos, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the catalogue is to showcase biobased packaging products and provide an overview of commercially available biobased packaging in 2014. This catalogue is a translation of the Dutch version of the biobased packaging catalogue that was launched September 2014. The raw materials, products

  8. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications. PMID:22129343

  9. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  10. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  11. Smart packaging for photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W. [ed.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  12. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  13. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  14. Packaging for meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Packaging for meat products Summary Packaging is usually integral to production process in meat industry. The packing has mainly influence on shelf life and quality of meat and meat products. It protects the product from adverse effects such as oxidation, especially fats. In addition it affects transport, storage and serves as a means of communication with customers (logo, marketing benefits, legislation). Significant is also the impact of packaging to keep attractive look of the prod...

  15. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  16. HIRENASD analysis Information Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Updated November 2, 2011 Contains summary information and analysis condition details for the Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop Information plotted in this package is...

  17. Materials for optoelectronic device packaging/manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chang

    The first part of this work is to review the materials challenges and solutions for the packaging of high power LEDs, i.e., the light extraction efficiency, thermal and UV stability, and stress/delamination, which are all related to the reliability and lifetime of high power LEDs. The second part of this work is related to the development of transparent epoxy and silicone materials for the packaging of LEDs and the studies of light transmission stability under various treatments, including thermal, UV and combined treatments. It is found out that packaged high power blue LEDs encapsulated by epoxy materials have a very short lifetime due to the severe discoloration of epoxy at die-encapsulant interface caused by high flux radiation and junction temperature from LED chip. However, the reliability of formulated silicone outperforms epoxy materials, which can be explain by highly transparent in the UV-visible wavelength region and better thermal and UV resistance of silicone materials. The third part of this work is related to the study of optical properties of white LEDs, i.e., optical power, luminous efficiency, CCT, chromaticity coordinate and CRI as a function of phosphor wt% in silicone for the flat-top (FT) and flat-top-with lens (FTWL) packages. Due to the total internal reflection (TIR) at the encapsulant-air interface, the FT package shows a 10˜11% power (in mW) reduction compared with the FTWL package at the same phosphor concentration. However, it is demonstrated that the FT package provides a more efficient way of utilizing phosphor than the FTWL package based on the same targeted chromaticity coordinates due to the TIR effect inside, resulting in a reduced phosphor usage with a lumen output only about 3% lower than that of the FTWL package. Furthermore, the effects of fumed silica on optical properties are studied for these packages. In comparison to the package without fumed silica, the package with fumed silica has the advantages in anti-settling of

  18. A Reliable Electronic Package for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed program will develop an hermetic, CTE matched, thermal shock resistant ceramic packaging technology that will facilitate the operation of Si and SiGe...

  19. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoko [Division of Food Additives, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in `Bag in a Box` and some food containers. The {gamma} ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The {gamma} ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  20. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The γ ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The γ ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  1. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  2. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  3. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  4. Waste package performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 107 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  5. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  6. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  7. Novel organic SMD package for high-power millimeter wave MMICs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Friday, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a novel low-cost SMD package for high-power MMICs is presented. Due to the special design this package has a very low thermal resistance and low parasitic ground inductance. 3D EM simulations of a packaged through-line correspond well with measurements. Measurement results of a 1 Watt

  8. Novel Organic SMD Package for High-Power Millimeter Wave MMICs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Priday, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a novel low-cost SMD package for high-power MMICs is presented. Due to the special design this package has a very low thermal resistance and low parasitic ground inductance. 3D EM simulations of a packaged through-line correspond well with measurements. Measurement results of a 1 Watt

  9. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on four type B Packages: the 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 packages. Because all four packages have similar designs with very similar performance characteristics, all of them are presented in a single SARP. The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9975 package with the regulatory safety requirements. Evaluations of the 9972, 9973, and 9974 packages support that of the 9975. To avoid confusion arising from the inclusion of four packages in a single document, the text segregates the data for each package in such a way that the reader interested in only one package can progress from Chapter 1 through Chapter 9. The directory at the beginning of each chapter identifies each section that should be read for a given package. Sections marked ''all'' are generic to all packages

  10. Disobedient Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of their parents' rules and of their own self-control. Sometimes, however, these conflicts are more than occasional ... a timeout until he calms down and regains self-control. When your child is obedient and respectful, compliment ...

  11. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  12. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA calculation that over a kg of packaging waste are generated per day for a 6 member crew. This represents over 1.5 metric tons of waste during a Mars mission....

  13. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  14. AuSn共晶焊接层空洞对陶瓷封装热阻的影响%The Influence of Gold-Tin Eutectic-welding Voids on the Thermal Resistance of Ceramic Package

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良海; 仝良玉; 葛秋玲

    2015-01-01

    共晶焊接装片以其稳定可靠的性能在微电子封装领域得到了越来越广泛的应用。在焊接过程中,由于界面氧化、沾污等原因产生的焊接层空洞对芯片的散热有较大的影响。研究了影响空洞率大小的因素,并采用有限元方法仿真分析了不同空洞对热阻的影响。根据仿真结果可以看出:空洞率在小于10%时,结壳热阻随着空洞率的增大没有显著的变化;当空洞率大于10%时,结壳热阻随着空洞率的增大而线性增加;当空洞率相同时,连续空洞的热阻几乎是分散空洞的热阻的两倍。实验结果表明利用等离子清洗机对焊接界面清洗能有效地降低焊接空洞率,芯片表面要有适当的压力来控制空洞率和焊接层厚度。%Eutectic welding is widely used in microelectronic package because of its high bonding strength and reliability. However, voids are easily formed in the solder layer during bonding process which attributed to oxide and contamination at the bonding interfaces, and have great influence on thermal performance of device. In the paper, Research is carried out to study the effect of void size and configuration on thermal resistance (θjc) by means of finite element analysis (FEA), and the influencing factor of void size. According to FEA results, it is obviously that theθjc is almost unchanged when the void ratio is less than 10%; but when the void ratio is more than 10%,θjc increases rapidly with the increase of void ratio, and in the condition of same void ratio,θjc of continuous void is nearly double that of scattered void. The results show that interface treated by microwave plasma cleaning has low void ratio, and proper pressure on the die is necessary to control the void ratio and thickness of bonding layer.

  15. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  16. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  17. Battery packaging - Technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiser, Eric [The German Engineering Federation (VDMA), Battery Production Industry Group, Lyoner Str. 18, 60528 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  18. Lush Cosmetics packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Frazer

    2014-01-01

    Frazer Hudson – Lush Cosmetics Packaging Commissioned by Suzie Hackney for Lush Cosmetics via illustration Agency - Debut Art - February 2014 I was approached in February 2014 via my London based Illustration agency Debut Art to create packaging illustration designs for the high street retailer and International cosmetics brand ‘Lush’. The illustrations would be used on an octagonal gift box set and be positioned amongst other bespoke gift box set designs within Lush Cosme...

  19. Packaging sustainability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Peregrina, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Packaging is an essential part of the majority of products in the actual market. Therefore, packaging design must draw attention to improve its sustainable character in order to satisfy consumers, enhance its environmental performance and keep economic costs to a minimum. Measuring packaging’s sustainability would provide consumers information so as to raise awareness and, moreover, a tool that would help companies to find product weaknesses to be improved. For that purpose, this projec...

  20. The ENSDF Java Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations

  1. Battery packaging - Technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production

  2. HIV-1 drug resistance emergence among breastfeeding infants born to HIV-infected mothers during a single-arm trial of triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission: a secondary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Zeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nevirapine and lamivudine given to mothers are transmitted to infants via breastfeeding in quantities sufficient to have biologic effects on the virus; this may lead to an increased risk of a breastfed infant's development of resistance to maternal antiretrovirals. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS, a single-arm open-label prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT trial, assessed the safety and efficacy of zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir given to HIV-infected women from 34 wk gestation through 6 mo of breastfeeding. Here, we present findings from a KiBS trial secondary analysis that evaluated the emergence of maternal ARV-associated resistance among 32 HIV-infected breastfed infants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All infants in the cohort were tested for HIV infection using DNA PCR at multiple study visits during the 24 mo of the study, and plasma RNA viral load for all HIV-PCR-positive infants was evaluated retrospectively. Specimens from mothers and infants with viral load >1,000 copies/ml were tested for HIV drug resistance mutations. Overall, 32 infants were HIV infected by 24 mo of age, and of this group, 24 (75% infants were HIV infected by 6 mo of age. Of the 24 infants infected by 6 mo, nine were born to mothers on a nelfinavir-based regimen, whereas the remaining 15 were born to mothers on a nevirapine-based regimen. All infants were also given single-dose nevirapine within 48 hours of birth. We detected genotypic resistance mutations in none of eight infants who were HIV-PCR positive by 2 wk of age (specimens from six infants were not amplifiable, for 30% (6/20 at 6 wk, 63% (14/22 positive at 14 wk, and 67% (16/24 at 6 mo post partum. Among the 16 infants with resistance mutations by 6 mo post partum, the common mutations were M184V and K103N, conferring resistance to lamivudine and nevirapine, respectively. Genotypic resistance was detected among 9/9 (100% and 7/15 (47% infected infants

  3. Single-serve ice cream packaging: packaging structures enhancing brand

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, August

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on packaging structures and branding; discussing the role packaging plays in brand identity. In today’s crowded marketplaces brands must fight to differentiate themselves from the competition by offering unique product experiences. As most products are packaged in one way or another, packaging has become a valuable element in brand communication and marketing. Packaging is seen as a part of the product experience, adding value and personality to otherwise similar products. ...

  4. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  5. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  6. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  7. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  8. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  9. Septic arthritis of the hip in a Cambodian child caused by multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin treated with ceftriaxone and azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, J M; Khun, P A; Moore, C E; Vuthy, S; Stoesser, N; Parry, C M

    2014-08-01

    Septic arthritis is a rare complication of typhoid fever. A 12-year-old boy without pre-existing disease attended a paediatric hospital in Cambodia with fever and left hip pain. A hip synovial fluid aspirate grew multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica ser. Typhi with intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Arthrotomy, 2 weeks of intravenous ceftriaxone and 4 weeks of oral azithromycin led to resolution of symptoms. The optimum management of septic arthritis in drug-resistant typhoid is undefined.

  10. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  11. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  12. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  13. 78 FR 13083 - Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... COMMISSION Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Products Having Laminated ] Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and... having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof. The complaint names...

  14. Child Care in High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Provides advice on how to set up child day-care services within a school to allow teen mothers to continue their education. Among the advice given are to provide a comprehensive program, be prepared for resistance, tap multiple funding sources, pay attention to staff training and necessary paperwork, have clear guidelines and rules, and be…

  15. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  16. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  17. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  18. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  19. Packaging the MAMA module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, J. Dennis

    1994-10-01

    The MAMA (Mixed Arithmetic, Multiprocessing Array) module is being developed to evaluate new packaging technologies and processing paradigms for advanced military processing systems. The architecture supports a tight mix of signal, data,and I/O processing at GFLOP throughput rates. It is fabricated using only commercial-on-the-sehlf (COTS) chips and will provide a high level of durability. Its attributes are largely the result of two new interconnection and packaging technologies. Chip-in-board packaging is used to reduce local x-y communication delays and solder joints, while significantly improving board-level packaging density. A unique 3-D interconnection technology called a cross-over cell has been developed to reduce board-to-board communication delays, drive power, glue logic, and card-edge pin-outs. These technologies enable true 3-D structures that are form, fit and connector compatible with conventional line-replacable modules. The module's design rational, packaging technology, and basic architecture will be presented in this paper.

  20. Child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  1. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  2. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  3. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  4. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  5. Patient assessment within the context of healthcare delivery packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels; Stenager, Egon;

    2016-01-01

    theoretical sampling. Participant observation was conducted for a total of 126h. Formal and informal interviews were conducted with 12 healthcare professionals and 13 patients. Furthermore, audio recordings were made of 9 final consultations between physicians and patients; 193min of recorded consultations...... of the assessment package could cause resistance among clinicians. Moreover, expert knowledge was an important factor for the efficiency of the process. Some types of organizational work processes resulted in many patients being assessed, but without being diagnosed with at package-relevant disease. CONCLUSION......: Limiting the grounds for using specialist knowledge in structured health care delivery may affect specialists' sense of professional autonomy and can result in professionals employing strategies to resist the frames of the packages. Finally, when organizing healthcare delivery packages, it seems important...

  6. SPHINX experimenters information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarick, T.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  7. SPHINX experimenters information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced

  8. Autonomous packaging robot

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Van Thanh

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the autonomous packaging robot application is to replace manual product packaging in food industry with a fully automatic robot. The objective is achieved by using the combination of machine vision, central computer, sensors, microcontroller and a typical ABB robot. The method is to equip the robot with different sensors: camera as “eyes” of robot, distance sensor and microcontroller as “sense of touch” of the robot, central computer as “brain” of the robot. Because the ro...

  9. Single molecule studies of DNA packaging by bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Derek Nathan

    The DNA packaging dynamics of bacteriophages φ29, gamma, and T4 were studied at the single molecule level using a dual trap optical tweezers. Also, a method for producing long DNA molecules by PCR for optical tweezers studies of protein DNA interactions is presented and thoroughly characterized. This DNA preparation technique provided DNA samples for the φ29 and T4 studies. In the studies of φ29, the role of charge was investigated by varying the ionic conditions of the packaging buffer. Ionic conditions in which the DNA charge was highly screened due to divalent and trivalent cations showed the lowest resistance to packaging of the DNA to high density. This confirmed the importance of counterions in shielding the DNA interstrand repulsion when packaged to high density. While the ionic nature of the packaging buffer had a strong effect on packaging velocities, there was no clear trend between the counterion-screened charge of the DNA and the maximum packaging velocity. The packaging studies of lambda and T4 served as systems for comparative studies with φ29. Each system showed similarities to the φ29 system and unique differences. Both the lambda and T4 packaging motors were capable of generating forces in excess of 50 pN and showed remarkably high processivity, similar to φ29. However, dynamic structural transitions were observed with lambda that are not observed with φ29. The packaging of the lambda genome showed capsid expansion at approximately 30 percent of the genome packaged and capsid rupture at 90 percent of the genome packaged in the absence of capsid stabilizing protein gpD. Unique to the T4 packaging motor, packaging dynamics showed a remarkable amount of variability in velocities. This variability was seen both within individual packaging phages and from one phage to the next. This is possibly due to different conformational states of the packaging machinery. Additionally, lambda and T4 had average packaging velocities under minimal load of 600

  10. CHILD TRAFFICKING

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Chincholkar

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is the third biggest beneficial industry on the planet. Child trafficking unlike many other issues is found in both developed and developing nations. NGOs evaluate that 12,000 - 50,000 ladies and kids are trafficked into the nation every year from neighboring states for the sex exchange.

  11. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  12. 49 CFR 173.62 - Specific packaging requirements for explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., packagings must be lead free 2. For UN 0209, bags, sift-proof (5H2) are recommended for flake or prilled TNT... (5H2/3). plastics, film (5H4). textile, sift-proof (5L2). textile, water resistant (5L3). paper..., 0219 and 0386, packagings must be lead free 2. For UN 0209, bags, sift-proof (5H2) are recommended...

  13. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports

  14. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  15. Polymers in Waveguide Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G; Z.; Xiao; C.; P.; Grover

    2003-01-01

    Polymers were successfully used in the packaging of waveguide-based photonic components in the area of fiber-to-waveguide coupling, waveguide die attachment, strain relief, and waveguide encapsulation. The application results of these polymers were described in this paper.

  16. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil;

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists...

  17. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  18. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R.; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast Mo

  19. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  20. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  1. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  2. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  3. Radiographic film package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muylle, W. E.

    1985-08-27

    A radiographic film package for non-destructive testing, comprising a radiographic film sheet, an intensifying screen with a layer of lead bonded to a paper foil, and a vacuum heat-sealed wrapper with a layer of aluminum and a heat-sealed easy-peelable thermoplastic layer.

  4. 高阻隔高温杀菌易撕食品软塑包装材料性能的研究%Study on Properties of High-resistance and High-temperature Sterilization and Easy Tear Flexible Plastic for Food Packaging Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫建华; 黄俊彦; 梁现峰; 曹福林

    2011-01-01

    选用不同厂家生产的聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)、铝箔(AL)、流延聚丙烯(CPP)及相应的黏合剂和醇性油墨等原料,选定软塑包装材料结构为PET/AL/CPP,进行了一系列生产工艺实验和产品检测分析,从而得出该软塑包装新材料具有极高的阻氧阻湿性能、耐高温杀菌性能和良好的单向易撕裂性能.%Selecting PET, aluminum foil(AL), chlorinated polypropylene(CPP), adhesives. And alcohol inks manufactured by different factories as raw materials, a kind of flexible plastic packaging materials of PET/AL/CPP was prepared, and then a series of production processing experiments and product testing analysis were done. The results show that the flexible plastic packaging materials possess excellent resistance oxygen performance and resistance wet performance, high-temperature sterilization and good one-way easy tear.

  5. Lakes Ecosystem Services Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains Esri 10.0 MXDs, file geodatabases and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  6. Package performance evaluation: our latest 20-year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packages for the transport of radioactive material have to comply with national and / or international regulations. These regulations are widely based on the requirements set forth by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material''. During the last 20 years, on several of its package designs, COGEMA LOGISTICS has performed tests and analyses to simulate extremely severe accidents. These tests and analysis include: 1. long duration fire test and deep immersion test on a package designed to transport plutonium oxide powder, 2. deep immersion tests on scale model of packages designed to transport spent fuel, high level vitrified waste and fresh MOX (uranium and plutonium mixed oxide) fuel, 3. burial in a soft ground of packages designed to transport spent fuel, and 4. numerical study of the thermal behaviour of packages designed to transport spent fuel and high level vitrified waste. 5. aircraft crash test on scale models of dual-purpose packages for the transport and storage of spent fuel. The paper will: review the tests and analysis which were performed, show that our designs are able to withstand extremely severe conditions, demonstrate that there is no cliff effect: should a failure occurs, it appears gradually and there is no sudden collapse of the package, and explain how compliance with all the regulatory requirements lead to high performances regarding each of them (for instance, in many cases, the need to meet radiation exposure criteria induces a mechanical resistance higher than that required to pass the regulatory requirements)

  7. Second Generation Waste Package Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 023 ''Second Generation Waste Package Design Study'' under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objectives of this activity are: to review the current YMP baseline environment and establish corrosion test environments representative of the range of dry to intermittently wet conditions expected in the drifts as a function of time; to demonstrate the oxidation and corrosion resistance of A588 weathering steel and reference Alloy 22 samples in the representative dry to intermittently dry conditions; and to evaluate backfill and design features to improve the thermal performance analyses of the proposed second-generation waste packages using existing models developed at the University of Nevada, Reno(UNR). The work plan for this project activity consists of three major tasks: Task 1. Definition of expected worst-case environments (humidity, liquid composition and temperature) at waste package outer surfaces as a function of time, and comparison with environments defined in the YMP baseline; Task 2. Oxidation and corrosion tests of proposed second-generation outer container material; and Task 3. Second Generation waste package thermal analyses. Full funding was not provided for this project activity

  8. 妇幼保健医院多重耐药菌感染状况及耐药性5年监测分析%Surveillance Analysis of Infection Status and Resistance of Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria in Ma-ternal and Child Health Hospital in 5 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 谭浩; 毛安华

    2014-01-01

    【目的】了解妇幼保健医院多重耐药菌(MDRB)的检出情况和耐药趋势,为预防和治疗临床感染提供实验室依据。【方法】对湖南省妇幼保健院2008年1月至2012年12月临床分离的MDRB鉴定和药敏试验结果进行回顾性分析。【结果】五年分离MDRB 1648株,检出率呈环比逐年升高的趋势( P <0.05),其中革兰阴性菌59.64%高于革兰阳性菌40.36%的检出率( P <0.05)。MDRB革兰阴性菌中,肠杆菌科菌对美洛培南高度敏感,铜绿假单胞菌和鲍氏不动杆菌广泛多重耐药;M D RB革兰阳性菌中耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌(MRS)未发现耐万古霉素菌株。【结论】近五年来该院送检标本MDKB检出率呈上升趋势,革兰阴性菌所占比重较高,且耐药情况严重。妇幼保健医院婴童患者免疫功能不大成熟及孕产妇免疫功能低下,定期进行细菌耐药的监测对预防和治疗临床感染更显重要。%[Objective]To understand the detection status of multidrug-resistant bacteria(MDRB) and the trend of drug resistance in order to provide experimental data for prevention and therapy of clinical infection .[Methods]The results of MDRB identification and drug sensitive test in maternal and child health hospital of Hunan province from Jan .2008 to Dec .2012 were analyzed retrospectively .[Results]Totally 1648 strains of MDRB were isolated in 5 years and the detection rate showed the rising trend year by year ( P<0 .05) .Among them ,Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 59 .64% ,which was higher than that of Gram-positive bacteria (40 .36% )( P <0 .05) .In Gram-negative bacteria of MDRB ,Enterobacteriaceae bacteria were highly sensitive to meropenem ,while pseudomonas aeruginosa and Baumannii acinetobacter were widespread multidrug-resist-ance .Vancomycin resistant strains were not found in methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRS) of Gram-positive bacteria of MDRB .[Conclusion

  9. Child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Zoran S.; Petković, Nikola; Matijašević Obradović, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of children for pornographic purposes is a serious sociological, criminological and victimological problem of today which, despite all preventive and restrictive activities on an international level, shows a tendency of global expansion. The fact that the Republic of Serbia has only recently actively joined the fight against child pornography on the Internet indicates the need for critical analysis of the existing national, penal, and legal solutions and their harmonization with the...

  10. Bone marrow transplantation in a child with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome latently infected with acyclovir-resistant (ACV(r)) herpes simplex virus type 1: emergence of foscarnet-resistant virus originating from the ACV(r) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Yasuda, Yukiharu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Kato, Shunichi; Suzutani, Tatsuo; De Clercq, Erik; Niikura, Masahiro; Maeda, Akihiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2002-09-01

    A human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed in a 13-year-old patient with the congenital immunodeficiency syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. The patient had a history of acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections prior to BMT. After BMT, the skin lesions caused by HSV-1 relapsed on the face and genito-anal areas. Ganciclovir (GCV) therapy was initiated, but the mucocutaneous lesions worsened. An HSV-1 isolate recovered from the lesions during this episode was resistant to both ACV and GCV. The ACV(r) isolate was confirmed to have the same mutation in the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene as that of the previously isolated ACV(r) isolates from the patient. After treatment switch to foscarnet (PFA), there was a satisfactory remission but not a complete recovery. Although the mucocutaneous lesions improved, a PFA-resistant (PFA(r)) HSV-1 was isolated 1 month after the start of PFA therapy. The PFA(r) HSV-1 isolate coded for the same mutation in the viral TK gene as the ACV(r) HSV-1 isolates. Furthermore, the PFA(r) isolate also expressed a mutated viral DNA polymerase (DNA pol) with an amino acid (Gly) substitution for Val at position 715. This is the first report on the clinical course of a BMT-associated ACV(r) HSV-1 infection that subsequently developed resistance to foscarnet as well.

  11. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  12. The Ettention software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. PMID:26686659

  13. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  14. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon

    2004-10-01

    The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

  15. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  16. Standard integrated head package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated head package for a standard-type nuclear reactor is described which consolidates many components and subassemblies of the upper reactor structure into a single unit which may be removed from the reactor vessel in a single lift. Included among the consolidated elements are a pressure vessel head, a cooling shroud, control rod drive mechanisms, a missile shield, a lifting rig, a hoist assembly, and a cable tray assembly. (author)

  17. A post-partum single-dose TDF/FTC tail does not prevent the selection of NNRTI resistance in women receiving pre-partum ZDV and intrapartum single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to- child HIV-1 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Reshmi; Paredes, Roger; Parboosing, Raveen; Moodley, Pravi; Singh, Lavanya; Naidoo, Anneta; Gordon, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Although the rates of vertical transmission of HIV in the developing world have improved to around 3% in countries like South Africa, resistance to antiretrovirals (ARV) used in Prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission (pMTCT) strategies may thwart such outcomes and affect the efficacy of future ARV regimens in mothers and children. This study conducted in Durban, South Africa, between 2010 and 2013 found a high rate of nevirapine (NVP) resistance among women receiving Zidovudine (AZT) from 14 weeks gestation, single dose nevirapine (sd NVP) at the onset of labor and a single dose of coformulated Tenofovir/Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) postpartum. Using Sanger sequencing, high and intermediate levels of nevirapine (NVP) resistance were detected in 15/44 (34%) and in 1/44 (2%) of women tested, respectively. Most subjects selected the K103N mutation (22% (10/45) of all patients and 66% (10/15) of those with high-level NVP resistance). Such rate of NVP resistance is comparable to studies where only sd NVP was used. In conclusion, a post-partum single-dose TDF/FTC tail does not prevent the selection of NNRTI resistance in women receiving pre-partum ZDV and intrapartum sd NVP to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25940687

  18. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  19. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) defines ... person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime to ...

  20. My Child Is Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might do so anyway because they lack enough self-control . Preteens and teens know they're not supposed ... About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood Stress Nine Steps to ...

  1. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Alix M Denoncourt; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging...

  2. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  3. Packaging - Materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  4. Packaging - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  5. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  6. New package for CMOS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

  7. The PIDCalib package

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlini, Lucio; Jones, Christopher Rob; Malde, Sneha Sirirshkumar; Muller, Dominik; Ogilvy, Stephen; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Pearce, Alex; Polyakov, Ivan; Qian, Wenbin; Sciascia, Barbara; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Zhang, Yanxi

    2016-01-01

    The PIDCalib package is a tool, widely used within the LHCb Collaboration, providing access to the calibration samples of electrons, muons, pions, kaons and protons. This note covers both theoretical aspects related to the measurement of the efficiency of particle identification requirements, and more technical issues such as the selection of the calibration samples, the background subtraction procedure, and the storage of the data sets in the new data-processing scheme adopted by the LHCb experiment during the second run of the LHC.

  8. Rock mechanics data package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data package provides a summary of available laboratory and in situ stress field test results from site characterization investigations by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project Modeling and Analysis Group. The objective is to furnish rock mechanics information for use by Rockwell Hanford Operations and their subcontractors in performance assessment and engineering studies. This release includes Reference Repository Location (RRL) site specific laboratory and field test data from boreholes RRL-2, RRL-6, and RRL-14 as well as previous Hanford wide data available as of April, 1985. 25 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs

  9. The PIDCalib package

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlini, Lucio; Jones, Christopher Rob; Malde, Sneha Sirirshkumar; Muller, Dominik; Ogilvy, Stephen; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Pearce, Alex; Polyakov, Ivan; Qian, Wenbin; Sciascia, Barbara; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Zhang, Yanxi

    2016-01-01

    The PIDCalib package is a tool, widely used within the LHCb Collaboration, which provides access to the calibration samples of electrons, muons, pions, kaons and protons. This note covers both theoretical aspects related to the measurement of the efficiency of particle identification requirements, and more technical issues such as the selection of the calibration samples, the background subtraction procedure, and the storage of the data sets in the new data-processing scheme adopted by the LHCb experiment during the second run of the LHC.

  10. Mechanical robustness of cryogenic temperature sensors packaged in a flat, hermetically-sealed package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courts, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Much of the work to develop internationally recognized temperature scales over the past 50 years was performed with thermometers whose sensing elements were constructed from platinum wire, rhodium-iron wire, or doped germanium elements. For high stability, the best results were obtained when the sensing element was strain-free mounted which reduced the effects of temperature-induced mechanical stress and deformation. Unfortunately, the devices were still highly susceptible to mechanical damage, and, barring a catastrophic mechanical shock, damage to the temperature sensors could go unnoticed as it could continue to operate with degraded accuracy. While not at the same level of stability as standards grade thermometers, many of the most commonly used cryogenic thermometers today are far more resistant to mechanical handling. This work examines the calibration offsets on three models of cryogenic temperature sensors resulting from mechanical shock and vibration. The models tested in this work were all obtained from Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc., and included Cemox™ resistance thermometer models CX-1050-SD and CX-1050-AA, and a diode temperature sensor model DT-670-SD. Mechanical treatments were performed via a simple drop test (heights 20 cm, 50 cm, 1 m, and 4 m), random vibration per MIL-STD-202, Method 214, Table 2, Condition H, and mechanical shock per MIL-STD-883, Method 2002, Condition B. Each sensor was calibrated pre- and post-mechanical treatment and the effect of the treatment on each test sensor was quantified in terms of the equivalent temperature calibration shift. This work details the calibration shift of each sensor type following each treatment type over the 1.4 K to 325 K temperature range. No effects from the testing were discemable for Cemox and diode sensors packaged in the -SD package, a flat, hermetically sealed package, while small calibration offsets of less than 0.15% of temperature at higher temperatures were observed for Cemox sensors

  11. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A2s) and is a type B packaging

  12. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoncourt, Alix M; Paquet, Valérie E; Charette, Steve J

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  13. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix M Denoncourt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  14. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  15. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  16. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  17. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  18. Tamper indicating packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL

  19. Comparative Performance and Barrier Properties of Biodegradable Thermoplastics and Nanobiocomposites versus PET for Food Packaging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cava, D.; Giménez, E.; Gavara, R.; Lagaron, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This article reports on preliminary studies of several comparative packaging properties between polyethylene terephthalate (PET) packaging films and biodegradable biopolymers such as polycarpolactone (PCL), polylacticacid (PLA), amorphous PLA (aPLA), and polyhydroxyalcanoates copolymer with 8 mol% valeriate (PHBV) and of some nanobiocomposites, in terms of thermal and retorting resistance ...

  20. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  1. Creating R Packages: A Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Leisch, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a practical introduction to creating R packages. We discuss how object oriented programming and S formulas can be used to give R code the usual look and feel, how to start a package from a collection of R functions, and how to test the code once the package has been created. As running example we use functions for standard linear regression analysis which are developed from scratch.

  2. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package

  3. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  4. K east encapsulation packager modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supporting Document analyzes a proposal for reducing the under-packager volume to decrease the amount of fissile material that could accumulate there. The analysis shows that restricting the under packager volume to no more than 4080 in3 will assure that if accumulated fissile material beneath the packager is added to the worst-case mass of fissile material in the discharge chute, a keff of 0.98 will not be exceeded

  5. Laser Sealed Packaging for Microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Seigneur, Frank; JACOT, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Packaging is the last process of microsystem manufacturing. There are mainly two kinds of packages: plastic or metallic. The two main components of the package (base and cover) may either be glued or soldered. Each of these techniques has its advantages and drawbacks, and the choice should be driven by the functionality of the microsystem. The advantage of gluing is that it is quite an easy production process. The drawback is that glue, like all polymers, is not hermetic on the long te...

  6. 2011 drug packaging review: too many dangers and too many patients overlooked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Every year, Prescrire's analysis of drug packaging confirms the importance of taking packaging into account in assessing a drug's harm-benefit balance. Safe, tried and true options are available, yet the quality of most of the drug packaging Prescrire examined in 2011 left much to be desired. Few of the packaging items examined help prevent medication errors and many actually increase the risks: misleading and confusing labelling, dosing devices that create a risk of overdose, bottles without a child-proof cap, and inadequate or dangerous patient information leaflets. Umbrella brands continue to expand and are a potential source of medication errors. Some patients are at greater risk: the patient leaflets for NSAIDs endanger pregnant women and their unborn babies; children are insufficiently protected by paediatric packaging and are at risk due to the lack of child-proof caps on too many bottles. The raft of regulatory measures taken by the French drug regulatory agency (Afssaps) in the aftermath of the Mediator disaster overlooked the importance of packaging. Until drug regulatory agencies tackle the vast issue of drug packaging, it is up to healthcare professionals to protect patients from harm.

  7. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): ATMX-500 Railcar nuclear packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.F. Peterson, J.B.; Edling, D.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.

    1977-07-08

    A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) is described that makes available to all potential users the technical specifications and limits pertinent to the modification and use of the ATMX Railcars for which the Department of Transportation has issued Special Permit No. 5948. The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Much of the information was previously published in a similar report. A complte physical and technical description of the package is presented. The packaging cnsists of a specially modified ATMX Series 500 Railcar loaded with DOT Specification steel drums or fiberglass coated plywood boxes. The results of the nuclear criticality safety analysis provide the maximum quantities of each fissile isotope which may be shipped as Fissile Class I in 30- and 55-gal drums. A limit of 5 g/ft/sup 3/ was established for wooden boxes. Design and development considerations regarding the packaging concept and modification of the ATMX-500 Railcar are presented. Tables, dimensional sketches, sequential photographs of the structural modifications, technical references, loading and shipping guidelines, and results of Mound Laboratory's experience in using this container are included. An internal review of this SARP was performed in compliance with the requirements of ERDA Manual Chapter 5201-Part V.

  8. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  9. Geometry methods and packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors address the problem of following the trajectory of a particle in simulations. It is necessary to follow the motion of the particle, and to determine its intersection with different geometric surfaces in the problem, in order to relate the stepping of the particle trajectory into real motion through the physical problem at hand. The distance a particle moves before encountering a surface is needed to compare with the actual transport distance that is about to be used in the simulation. Basic mathematical expressions are developed for the intersections of particle trajectories with plane and conic surfaces. The authors show how these are used in the EGS4 code system, which should be typical of the general problem. They also review geometry packages currently being used in electron-photon Monte Carlo programs

  10. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci, S. Erhan; Açık, Yasemin

    2003-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors.

  11. Toilet Training Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  12. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals

  13. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  14. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  15. Packaging Software Assets for Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The reuse of existing software assets such as code, architecture, libraries, and modules in current software and systems development projects can provide many benefits, including reduced costs, in time and effort, and increased reliability. Many reusable assets are currently available in various online catalogs and repositories, usually broken down by disciplines such as programming language (Ibiblio for Maven/Java developers, PyPI for Python developers, CPAN for Perl developers, etc.). The way these assets are packaged for distribution can play a role in their reuse - an asset that is packaged simply and logically is typically easier to understand, install, and use, thereby increasing its reusability. A well-packaged asset has advantages in being more reusable and thus more likely to provide benefits through its reuse. This presentation will discuss various aspects of software asset packaging and how they can affect the reusability of the assets. The characteristics of well-packaged software will be described. A software packaging domain model will be introduced, and some existing packaging approaches examined. An example case study of a Reuse Enablement System (RES), currently being created by near-term Earth science decadal survey missions, will provide information about the use of the domain model. Awareness of these factors will help software developers package their reusable assets so that they can provide the most benefits for software reuse.

  16. Gentoo package dependencies over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Remco; Amrit, Chintan; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Ordonez-Matamoros, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Open source distributions such as Gentoo need to accurately track dependency relations between software packages in order to install working systems. To do this, Gentoo has a carefully authored database containing those relations. In this paper, we extract the Gentoo package dependency graph and its

  17. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  18. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial packagings. 173.411 Section 173.411... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.411 Industrial packagings. (a) General. Each industrial packaging must comply with the requirements of this section which specifies packaging tests,...

  19. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-01-01

    Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

  20. 烟包印刷中水性光油耐摩擦性能研究%Research on Friction Resistance of Water-Soluble Varnish in Cigarette Packaging Printing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康希

    2016-01-01

    By adding slow drying agent, wax emulsion, cationic surface active agent into water-soluble varnish, new water-soluble varnish was compounded for experiments to study the impacts of leveling property, the addition of wax emulsion, surface tension and drying conditions on the friction resistance of water-soluble varnish. The results showed that different categories and contents of additives had different impacts on the friction resistance. The friction resistance of coating film could be improved by adding slow drying agent, wax emulsion, cationic surface active agent, while leveling property and rate of wax emulsion showed greatest impacts on the friction resistance. Addition of slow drying agent and first polish allowed enough time for leveling, the effect of leveling and friction resistance were good. Addition of wax emulsion and surface active agent decreased the external stress and improved the wetting ability of water-soluble varnish, therefore it improved the friction resistance too. With the extension of drying time, friction resistance could also be improved. Under the condition of drying time being 10 s for laser paper and 12 s for white cardboard, water-soluble varnish demon-strated optimal friction resistance performance.%在烟包印刷用水性光油中添加慢干剂、蜡乳液、阳离子表面活性剂等,配制多组水性光油,以研究光油的流平性、蜡乳液含量、表面张力及干燥时间等对水性光油耐摩擦性能的影响。研究结果表明:不同种类的添加剂及其含量对水性光油的耐摩擦性能影响不同,添加慢干剂、蜡乳液及阳离子表面活性剂均能提高光油的耐摩擦性能,流平性和蜡乳液含量对光油的耐摩擦性能影响最大;慢干剂、初次上光量为光油的流平提供了足够的时间,使得光油自身流平较好,耐磨度较高,而蜡乳液、表面活性剂分别从抵消外部应力和提高光油润湿性能2个方面

  1. 78 FR 19007 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof... importation of certain products having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof by... Investigation: Having considered the complaint, the U.S. International Trade Commission, on March 22,...

  2. Challenging packaging limits and infectivity of phage {\\lambda}

    CERN Document Server

    Nurmemmedov, Elmar; Medina, Elizabeth; Catalano, Carlos Enrique; Evilevitch, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The terminase motors of bacteriophages have been shown to be among the strongest active machines in the biomolecular world, being able to package several tens of kilobase pairs of viral genome into a capsid within minutes. Yet these motors are hindered at the end of the packaging process by the progressive build-up of a force resisting packaging associated with already packaged DNA. In this experimental work, we raise the issue of what sets the upper limit on the length of the genome that can be packaged by the terminase motor of phage {\\lambda} and still yield infectious virions, and the conditions under which this can be efficiently performed. Using a packaging strategy developed in our laboratory of building phage {\\lambda} from scratch, together with plaque assay monitoring, we have been able to show that the terminase motor of phage {\\lambda} is able to produce infectious particles with up to 110% of the wild-type (WT) {\\lambda}-DNA length. However, the phage production rate, and thus the infectivity, de...

  3. Wafer-level vacuum/hermetic packaging technologies for MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Mitchell, Jay; Welch, Warren; Lee, Sangwoo; Najafi, Khalil

    2010-02-01

    An overview of wafer-level packaging technologies developed at the University of Michigan is presented. Two sets of packaging technologies are discussed: (i) a low temperature wafer-level packaging processes for vacuum/hermeticity sealing, and (ii) an environmentally resistant packaging (ERP) technology for thermal and mechanical control as well as vacuum packaging. The low temperature wafer-level encapsulation processes are implemented using solder bond rings which are first patterned on a cap wafer and then mated with a device wafer in order to encircle and encapsulate the device at temperatures ranging from 200 to 390 °C. Vacuum levels below 10 mTorr were achieved with yields in an optimized process of better than 90%. Pressures were monitored for more than 4 years yielding important information on reliability and process control. The ERP adopts an environment isolation platform in the packaging substrate. The isolation platform is designed to provide low power oven-control, vibration isolation and shock protection. It involves batch flip-chip assembly of a MEMS device onto the isolation platform wafer. The MEMS device and isolation structure are encapsulated at the wafer-level by another substrate with vertical feedthroughs for vacuum/hermetic sealing and electrical signal connections. This technology was developed for high performance gyroscopes, but can be applied to any type of MEMS device.

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Dietary Intake among WIC Families Prior to Food Package Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Berbaum, Michael L.; Porter, Summer J.; Blumstein, Lara; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diets of African American and Hispanic families in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) prior to the 2009 food package revisions. Methods: Mother-child dyads were recruited from 12 WIC sites in Chicago, IL. Individuals with 1 valid 24-hour recall were included in the analyses…

  5. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO2 concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO2, plants' response to elevated CO2 levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost

  6. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collin N Smith,1 John D Kraemer,2 Andrea C Johnson,1 Darren Mays1 1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Health Systems Administration, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. Keywords: cigarette smoking, tobacco, plain packaging, regulation, policy

  7. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  8. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  9. Perfume Packaging, Seduction and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Petersson McIntyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines gender and cultural sense-making in relation to perfumes and their packaging. Gendered meanings of seduction, choice, consumption and taste are brought to the fore with the use of go-along interviews with consumers in per-fume stores. Meeting luxury packages in this feminized environment made the interviewed women speak of bottles as objects to fall in love with and they de-scribed packages as the active part in an act of seduction where they were expect-ing packages to persuade them into consumption. The interviewed men on the other hand portrayed themselves as active choice-makers and stressed that they were always in control and not seduced by packaging. However, while their ways of explaining their relationship with packaging on the surface seems to confirm cultural generalizations in relation to gender and seduction, the article argues that letting oneself be seduced is no less active than seducing. Based on a combination of actor network theories and theories of gender performativity the article points to the agency of packaging for constructions of gender and understands the inter-viewees as equally animated by the flows of passion which guide their actions.

  10. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  11. The impact of packaging on product competition

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Masoumi; Naser Azad

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to detect important factors, which are influencing competitive advantage. The proposed model of this paper uses sampling technique to measure characteristics of society. There are eight independent variables for the proposed study of this paper including packaging endurance, easy distribution, customer promotion through packaging, packaging structure, packaging as silent advertiser, diversity of packaging, clean and healthy packaging and innovation in pa...

  12. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  13. Radioactive waste package acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary acceptance criteria have been developed for packages containing nuclear waste which must be stored or disposed of by the US Department of Energy. Acceptance criteria are necessary to ensure that the waste packages are compatible with all elements of the Waste Management System. The acceptance criteria are subject to revision since many of the constraints that will be imposed on the waste packages by the Waste Management System have either not been defined or are being revised. Delineation of the acceptance criteria will provide bases for handling, transporting and disposing of the commercial waste

  14. Bioderadable Polymers in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the interest in use of biodegradable materials in packaging. The principal function of packaging is protection and preservation of food from external contamination. This function involves retardation of deterioration, extension of shelf life, and maintenance of quality and safety of packaged food. Biodegradable polymers are the one which fulfill all these functions without causing any threat to the environment. The belief is that biodegradable polymer materials will reduce the need for synthetic polymer production (thus reducing pollution at a low cost, thereby producing a positive effect both environmentally and economically.

  15. Child Abuse in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  16. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  17. Introduction of a Corrosion-resistant High-reliability Silver Alloy Bonding Wire in Package%封装用抗腐蚀高可靠性银合金丝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林良; 臧晓丹

    2014-01-01

    介绍一种在封装工艺中可用于替代昂贵金丝的抗腐蚀高可靠性银合金丝。利用表面钝化和固溶合金、二次中频合金熔炼和定向连续拉铸工艺,分别从成分和工艺方面提高了银合金丝的机械性能、抗腐蚀性、可靠性等一系列键合性能,解决了普通银丝在使用过程中存在的电子迁移问题,推动了键合银合金丝的广泛使用。%The paper introduces the silver bonding wire with high corrosion resistance and reliability, which can be used to instead of the expensive gold bonding wire. Surface passivation, solid amalgamation alloy, secondary intermediate smelting and directional continuous casting process are used to produce YesNo silver bonding wire. It improves the mechanical property, corrosion resistance, reliability and other bonding performance of the silver bonding wire from the component and processes. Silver bonding wire has solved the electron transfer problem in ordinary silver bonding wire. Silver bonding wire is more and more used.

  18. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  19. Effects of plain packaging on decision-making and reward for nicotine cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin LE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Laura E Martin1,21Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USAAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Efforts to reduce smoking prevalence include changes to policies that are expected to have impacts on smoking behaviors. Plain packaging has been introduced as a method to reduce the appeal of smoking by removing such branding information as pack colors and brand logos from cigarette packages. Behavioral studies of plain packaging demonstrate reductions in the appeal of cigarette packages, changes in smoking behaviors, and expected reductions in smoking initiation. Neuroimaging studies of branding demonstrate that the neural systems of rewards and cognitive control are associated with processing brand information (eg, logos. Neuroimaging studies in smokers demonstrate that the neural systems of reward respond to images of cigarettes and are associated with reductions in cognitive control responses. The current review discusses the state of research on plain packaging in terms of a biopsychosocial model of addiction in which behavioral studies of plain packaging can identify psychological and social changes related to packaging, whereas neuroimaging studies can identify biological changes underlying the psychological and social impacts of packaging. Together, these studies show that plain packaging may reduce positive perceptions of smoking by reducing related reward responses in the brain, thus increasing the likelihood that smokers will be able to resist the urge to smoke, and perhaps quit smoking altogether.Keywords: smoking, plain packaging, neuroimaging, branding, reward

  20. Packaging the product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Traditionally, when the nuclear industry produces a brochure or video programme, the platform of our arguments is reasoned, factual, abstract, far-sighted and convoluted. It is all about things and processes: energy plants, machinery, numbers and percentages. Yet we know that people are interested only in people, in emotions, in reality, and in basic values about next week or next month. And this is probably the biggest incongruity. Our painstaking, in-depth research backed by technical evidence and statistics is no match for the other side's anecdotal speech making. Our perfectly designed graphics cannot compete against those visual cliches that can give instant life to an abstract idea. In the UK, pioneering work for the British Nuclear Forum's, the Nuclear Industry Education Programme (NIEP) breaks through the traditional approach, allowing passion and feeling to stimulate debate. Material about nuclear power produced for young people often promotes knowledge acquisition about particular aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle without conceptual or value change. NIEP materials build on the experience of developing packages that fully meet curriculum objectives, follow educational best practice, and place nuclear power in a real energy context. But they also make a positive contribution to the meaning a young person attaches to a concept such as radiation. Essentially, the materials are in tune with the way young people make sense of their experience of the real world and the issues in it. For further information about AEA Technology's public acceptance programmes, contact: Roy Newson or Meriel Lewis on +44 235 433650, fax +44 235 432123. (author)

  1. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate consumers’ emotional responses to food packaging. More specifically, we use self-report and physiological measures to jointly assess emotional responses to three typical food packaging elements: colours (lowwavelength vs. high-wavelength), images (positive vs. negative......) and typefaces (simple vs. ornate). A sample of 120 participants was exposed to mock package design concepts of chocolate blocks. The results suggest that images generate an emotional response that can be measured by both self-report and physiological measures, whereas colours and typefaces generate emotional...... response that can only be measured by self-report measures. We propose that a joint application of selfreport and physiological measures can lead to richer information and wider interpretation of consumer emotional responses to food packaging elements than using either measure alone....

  2. Packaging trends seen by ITRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen Wolf, M.; Reichl, H.; Aschenbrenner, R. [Fraunhofer IZM (Germany); Adams, J. [Skyworks Solutions, Corp. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Faced with the rapid development of IC technology the traditional packaging is merging into a complex system integration technique to satisfy the growing demand in terms of increased functionality, performance and miniaturization of electronic products. This requires the development of new packaging and system integration technologies using complex design tools along with new materials to realize complex systems in a package carrying multiple components such as silicon ICs, MEMS, sensors or optical devices. System integration technologies have increasingly become a vital factor in the economic success of suppliers and users in the areas of consumer electronics, telecommunications, mechanical engineering and automotive industry. The paper discusses major aspects, challenges and requirements of system integration technologies which will be of special interest in the next years. The aspects discussed in the paper are primarily based on the work of the ITRS (International Technology Roadmap of Semiconductors) technical working group Packaging. (orig.)

  3. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  4. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  5. Polysaccharide-Based Membranes in Food Packaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana R V; Alves, Vítor D; Coelhoso, Isabel M

    2016-01-01

    Plastic packaging is essential nowadays. However, the huge environmental problem caused by landfill disposal of non-biodegradable polymers in the end of life has to be minimized and preferentially eliminated. The solution may rely on the use of biopolymers, in particular polysaccharides. These macromolecules with film-forming properties are able to produce attracting biodegradable materials, possibly applicable in food packaging. Despite all advantages of using polysaccharides obtained from different sources, some drawbacks, mostly related to their low resistance to water, mechanical performance and price, have hindered their wider use and commercialization. Nevertheless, with increasing attention and research on this field, it has been possible to trace some strategies to overcome the problems and recognize solutions. This review summarizes some of the most used polysaccharides in food packaging applications.

  6. Polysaccharide-Based Membranes in Food Packaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana R V; Alves, Vítor D; Coelhoso, Isabel M

    2016-01-01

    Plastic packaging is essential nowadays. However, the huge environmental problem caused by landfill disposal of non-biodegradable polymers in the end of life has to be minimized and preferentially eliminated. The solution may rely on the use of biopolymers, in particular polysaccharides. These macromolecules with film-forming properties are able to produce attracting biodegradable materials, possibly applicable in food packaging. Despite all advantages of using polysaccharides obtained from different sources, some drawbacks, mostly related to their low resistance to water, mechanical performance and price, have hindered their wider use and commercialization. Nevertheless, with increasing attention and research on this field, it has been possible to trace some strategies to overcome the problems and recognize solutions. This review summarizes some of the most used polysaccharides in food packaging applications. PMID:27089372

  7. Bio-packaged transponder MEMS implanted in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R; Loske, A M; Estevez, M; Vargas, S; Salazar, R; Pacheco, F; Vazquez-Carpizo, J; Gamboa, J M

    2013-01-01

    A novel hydroxyapatite-based hybrid material with controlled porosity was designed as a bio-package to implant micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) in living organisms. The biomaterial was prepared using synthetic stoichiometric hydroxyapatite powder reacted with a chemical-active, solvent-free, alkyd-based polyurethane. This porous material has interconnected pores with sizes between 100 and 350 μm and a pore volume fraction of 50%, fulfilling the requirements for implants. The biomaterial additionally has high wearing resistance and hydrolytic stability providing high endurance properties. The bio-package was characterized mechanically and morphologically using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, densitometry, abrasion and mechanical tests. Twelve packaged micro-electro-mechanical systems were implanted subcutaneously into rats and tested for up to 9 months with good acceptance as revealed by the histological analysis performed on the soft tissue surrounding each implant.

  8. Polysaccharide-Based Membranes in Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. V. Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic packaging is essential nowadays. However, the huge environmental problem caused by landfill disposal of non-biodegradable polymers in the end of life has to be minimized and preferentially eliminated. The solution may rely on the use of biopolymers, in particular polysaccharides. These macromolecules with film-forming properties are able to produce attracting biodegradable materials, possibly applicable in food packaging. Despite all advantages of using polysaccharides obtained from different sources, some drawbacks, mostly related to their low resistance to water, mechanical performance and price, have hindered their wider use and commercialization. Nevertheless, with increasing attention and research on this field, it has been possible to trace some strategies to overcome the problems and recognize solutions. This review summarizes some of the most used polysaccharides in food packaging applications.

  9. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  10. Food Packaging for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helén

    2011-01-01

    Packaging has been on the environmental agenda for decades. It has been discussed and debated within the society mainly as an environmental problem. Production, distribution and consumption of food and drinks contribute significant to the environmental impact. However, consumers in the EU waste about 20% of the food they buy. The function of packaging in reducing the amount of food losses is an important but often neglected environmental issue. This thesis focuses on the functions of packagin...

  11. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  12. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    "AliPDU Package" is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  13. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AliPDU Package is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  14. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Education October 4, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  15. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  16. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  17. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or working on a craft. Reward and praise self-control . For example, allow your little girl to use ... Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can I Stop My Child ...

  18. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  19. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  20. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  1. What makes a child a 'competent' child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, Amanda; Water, Tineke; Rasmussen, Shayne; Diesfeld, Kate

    2015-12-01

    Competence is a vital component of the informed consent process. The perceived level of a child's competence may influence their degree of participation in health decisions that affect them. It is the responsibility of the health professional to gauge a child's level of competence. Child competence, however, is not a static attribute that is linked to age. Rather, it is dynamic, changing in nature and dependent on a child's previous experiences, personal attributes, network of relationships around them and cultural and environmental context. Consequently, there is no single verified assessment tool to assist in the recognition of competence for New Zealand children. Adding to this complexity are the unclear interpretations of New Zealand health legislation and policy regarding whether or not a child can legally consent or refuse healthcare advice and treatment without the consent of a legal guardian. Under the Care of Children Act 2004 and the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights 1996, the Health and Disability Commissioner states "a child may consent themselves [to health treatment] if and when the child achieves sufficient understanding and maturity to understand fully what is proposed". This paper poses the question: What is 'competency' and how is this decided? For the purpose of this article, 'child' pertains to those under the age of 16 years. PMID:26913912

  2. Upgrade of FUMACS code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FUMACS code package (an acronym of FUel MAnagement Code System) was developed at Rudjer Boskovic Institute in year 1991 with the aim to enable in-core fuel management analysis of the NPP Krsko core for nominal (full power) conditions. The modernization and uprating of the NPP Krsko core from 1876 to 1994 MW (th) performed in year 2000 resulted in the change of operating conditions. The old version of the FUMACS code package would not model properly the NPP Krsko core for the new operating conditions. The upgrade of the FUMACS code package to enable the modeling of the NPP Krsko core for uprated conditions and longer cycles required modifications of master files, libraries and codes. In order to make the code package more user friendly, Windows (95/98/NT) compatible version of the code package, with incorporated graphical user interface has been developed. The new version of the code package has been verified and validated for new operating conditions through modeling and comparison of results with referent design of a number of 12-month and 18-month operating cycles.(author)

  3. Economics of child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima, Ambreen

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation aims to explore the supply and demand side determinant of child labour at macro, meso and micro level. At macro level it explores the effect of globalization (defined as openness to trade and inflow of foreign direct investment) and credit market imperfections on child labour. At meso level it explores the effect of labour market conditions on child labour. As the above two levels of analysis are mainly concerned with the demand for child labour, the micro level analysis expl...

  4. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    S. Erhan Deveci; Yasemin Acik

    2003-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000): 396-405

  5. Causes of Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Erhan Deveci

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 396-405

  6. Disciplining Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are ways to ease frustration and avoid unnecessary conflict with your child. Be Aware of What Your Child Can and ... moment, wait to cool down, apologize to your child, and explain how you will handle the situation in the future. Be sure to keep your ...

  7. [Autism and child protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coron, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  8. Method of forming a package for MEMS-based fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D; Jankowski, Alan F

    2013-05-21

    A MEMS-based fuel cell package and method thereof is disclosed. The fuel cell package comprises seven layers: (1) a sub-package fuel reservoir interface layer, (2) an anode manifold support layer, (3) a fuel/anode manifold and resistive heater layer, (4) a Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer containing a fuel cell, (5) an air manifold layer, (6) a cathode manifold support structure layer, and (7) a cap. Fuel cell packages with more than one fuel cell are formed by positioning stacks of these layers in series and/or parallel. The fuel cell package materials such as a molded plastic or a ceramic green tape material can be patterned, aligned and stacked to form three dimensional microfluidic channels that provide electrical feedthroughs from various layers which are bonded together and mechanically support a MEMS-based miniature fuel cell. The package incorporates resistive heating elements to control the temperature of the fuel cell stack. The package is fired to form a bond between the layers and one or more microporous flow host structures containing fuel cells are inserted within the Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer of the package.

  9. ASpect: A new spectrum and line analysis package for IRAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, S. J.; Eisenhamer, J. D.; Levay, Z. G.; Shaw, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    We examined several publicly available spectral analysis software packages looking for one with enough functionality and versatility to meet the analysis needs of astronomers during the next decade. None of those examined can satisfactorily support the wide variety of panchromatic science programs that are now becoming possible. Furthermore, we concluded that none of these packages can be simply modified to include critical functions because of their original (limited) designs. During the next two years we will write a new spectral analysis package, ASpect, that will incorporate the latest analysis techniques for astronomical spectra in all wavelength domains. The ASpect package has several functional requirements. It must operate on spectra from a wide variety of ground-based and space-based instruments spanning wavelengths from radio to gamma rays. It must accommodate non-linear dispersion relations. It must provide a variety of functions, individually or in combination, with which to fit spectral features and the continuum. It is vitally important that known bad data be masked and that, uncertainties be propagated throughout the calculations in order for astronomers to evaluate the reliability of results. Finally, this new package must provide a powerful, intuitive graphical user interface to handle the burden of data input/output (I/O), on-line 'help,' selection of relevant features for analysis, plotting and graphical interaction, and data base management--all in a comprehensible environment. We anticipate that ASpect will take the form of an external package in IRAF (such as the NOAO and STSDAS packages) and will be layered upon the IRAF virtual Operating System to make it available on as many platforms as possible, while making it resistant to changes in operating systems and compilers. Our choice of IRAF is motivated by its portability, its wide use within the astronomical community, and its rich set of existing user applications.

  10. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. PMID:27372152

  11. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains.

  12. Heat transfer in high density electronics packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to get an insight into the thermal characteristic and to evaluate the thermal reliability of the "System in Packaging"(SIP), a new solution of electronics packaging, a heat transfer model of SIP was developed to predict the heat dissipation capacity and to investigate the effect of different factors on the temperature distribution in the electronics. The affecting parameters under consideration include the thermophysical properties of the substrates, the coefficient of convection heat transfer, the thickness of the chip, and the density of power dissipation. ALGOR, a kind of finite element analysis software,was used to do the model simulation. Based on the sinulation and analysis of the heat conduction and convection resistance, criteria for the thermal design were established and possible measurement for enhancing power dissipation was provided, The results show that the heat transfer model provides a new and effective way to the thermal design and thermal analysis of SIP and to the mechanical analysis for the further investigation of SIP.

  13. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  14. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect...

  15. 10 CFR 71.35 - Package evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package evaluation. 71.35 Section 71.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.35 Package evaluation. The application must include the following: (a)...

  16. 10 CFR 71.33 - Package description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package description. 71.33 Section 71.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.33 Package description. The application must include a description of the...

  17. 应用Schaal耐热试验法预测软包装风味鱼的货架期%Application of Schaal heat-resistant method in predicting the shelf life of flexible package flavor fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶晶; 周如如; 王雪锋; 韩曜平; 戴阳军

    2012-01-01

    The shelf life of flavor fish was determined with heat-resistant test method. 50℃ , 60 ℃ was selected to accelerate the experiments. Acid value, peroxide value and microorganism activities of the flavor fish were determined at the expermiental temperature. With the combination of organoleptic evaluation, the shelf life was predicted according to the relations between temperature and shelf-life coefficient of fat. The results show that the shelf life of products without preservatives was 80 days or so, the shelf life of products adding 0.0075% potassium sorbet was 160 days or so.%采用高温"Schaal耐热试验法"预测风味鱼的货架期。选取40、60℃2个温度进行加速实验,以加速贮藏过程中产品酸价、过氧化值及微生物的变化为指标,结合产品感官评定,依据温度与油脂货架寿命系数的关系,预测产品货架期。结果表明不添加防腐剂的产品货架期为80d,添加0.0075%山梨酸钾的产品货架期为160d。

  18. Preparation of Low-cost,Two-package,Yellowing-resistance Solid-color Coatings for Woodenware%经济型双组分实色木器涂料耐黄产品的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝山; 袁东兴; 马升太; 罗先平

    2011-01-01

    通过对涂膜降解的原理分析,从树脂耐黄变性、耐黄变助剂的耐黄变性、固化剂的耐黄变性进行试验、分析、选择。最终确定了以椰子油改性醇酸树脂为基础,耐黄变助剂选用紫外线吸收剂与受阻胺自由基捕捉剂搭配使用,固化剂选用TDI三聚体搭配HDI三聚体进行制作。同时探讨了制作能够满足国标对耐黄变性要求的产品的制作方法。%This paper analyzes the principle of coatings film degradation and tests the yellowing resistance of resin, anti-yellowing agent and curing agent. Finally it is determined to select coconut oil modified alkyd resin as binder, UV-absorbing agent and hindered amine free radical collecting agent as combined anti-yellowing agent and TDI tripolymer and HDI tripolymer as combined curing agent to prepare the coatings. And the coatings can meet the requirement of National Standard for anti-yellowing property.

  19. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children

    OpenAIRE

    Laura eEnax; Bernd eWeber; Maren eAhlers; Ulrike eKaiser; Katharina eDiethelm; Dominik eHoltkamp; Ulya eFaupel; Holzmüller, Hartmut H.; Mathilde eKersting

    2015-01-01

    Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision ...

  20. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  1. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 711 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition2. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of energy (DOE) Order 5480.33 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.94 and 7.10.5

  2. Safety analysis report - packages 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B( ), 9968 B( ), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 71 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B(), 9968 B(), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.3 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.9 and 7.10

  3. From child to child: children as communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J

    1993-01-01

    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  4. Semiconductor packaging materials interaction and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package. The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing--package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how

  5. PACKAGING QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Cholewa-Wójcik; Agnieszka Kawecka

    2014-01-01

    Packaging is a very important element in products quality maintenance that is why quality of packaging has great influence and its quality assurance is necessary. Physical flow in supply chain may deteriorate some of packaging features, so their monitoring and proper conditions of storage, transport and suitable protection are important.The main goal of the paper was to present model of packaging supply chain with elements that are most influencing packaging quality. In the model are consider...

  6. Advanced organics for electronic substrates and packages

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Andrew E

    1992-01-01

    Advanced Organics for Electronic Substrates and Packages provides information on packaging, which is one of the most technologically intensive activities in the electronics industry. The electronics packaging community has realized that while semiconductor devices continue to be improved upon for performance, cost, and reliability, it is the interconnection or packaging of these devices that will limit the performance of the systems. Technology must develop packaging for transistor chips, with high levels of performance and integration providing cooling, power, and interconnection, and yet pre

  7. Standardised Packaging of Tobacco Products Evidence Review

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2014-01-01

    The current report reviews the scientific evidence on standardised or “plain” packaging, and the extent to which plain packaging regulations would help Ireland to achieve its tobacco control objectives.   Plain packaging is a form of marketing restriction that prohibits the use of logos, colours, brand images and promotional information on tobacco packaging. Under plain packaging regulations, the colour of the pack is uniform across different brands and varieties. Regulations ma...

  8. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Pollay RW; DiFranza JR; Clark DM

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers de...

  9. The paradox of packaging optimization – a characterization of packaging source reduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluisveld, M.A.E.; Worrell, E.

    2013-01-01

    The European Council Directive 94/62/EC for Packaging and Packaging Waste requires that Member States implement packaging waste prevention measures. However, consumption and subsequently packaging waste figures are still growing annually. It suggests that policies to accomplish packaging waste preve

  10. Reference waste package environment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of ∼2300C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment

  11. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  12. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  13. Review: nanocomposites in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Padua, G W

    2010-01-01

    The development of nanocomposites is a new strategy to improve physical properties of polymers, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, and gas barrier properties. The most promising nanoscale size fillers are montmorillonite and kaolinite clays. Graphite nanoplates are currently under study. In food packaging, a major emphasis is on the development of high barrier properties against the migration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, flavor compounds, and water vapor. Decreasing water vapor permeability is a critical issue in the development of biopolymers as sustainable packaging materials. The nanoscale plate morphology of clays and other fillers promotes the development of gas barrier properties. Several examples are cited. Challenges remain in increasing the compatibility between clays and polymers and reaching complete dispersion of nanoplates. Nanocomposites may advance the utilization of biopolymers in food packaging. PMID:20492194

  14. Waste package materials selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Southern Nevada to determine its suitability as a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC), as a part of the Management and Operating (M ampersand O) team in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), is responsible for designing and developing the waste package for this potential repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for testing materials and developing models for the materials to be used in the waste package. This paper is aimed at presenting the selection process for materials needed in fabricating the different components of the waste package

  15. Radiation sterilization and food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation by gamma radiation or electron beams offers a number of benefits to be consumer and to the food industry. Low doses can delay fruit ripening while higher doses can reduce or eliminate pathrogenic microorganisms and control insect infestation. However, ionizing radiations are known to have an effect on the plastics used for food packaging, especially PVC and polyethylene. This chapter looks at food irradiation generally, including legislation on the irradiation of food packaging materials. The effect on specific polymers (PVC, polyethylenes, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyamides and flexible laminates) is then considered. It is concluded that few of the plastics used for food packaging are significantly affected by an overall average dose of 10KGy, the maximum likely for the irradiation of prepackaged food in the United Kingdom. (UK)

  16. Green Composites Made of Bamboo Fabric and Poly (Lactic Acid for Packaging Applications—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nurul Fazita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based thermoplastics are widely used in a range of applications, particularly in packaging. However, their usage has resulted in soaring pollutant emissions. Thus, researchers have been driven to seek environmentally friendly alternative packaging materials which are recyclable as well as biodegradable. Due to the excellent mechanical properties of natural fibres, they have been extensively used to reinforce biopolymers to produce biodegradable composites. A detailed understanding of the properties of such composite materials is vital for assessing their applicability to various products. The present review discusses several functional properties related to packaging applications in order to explore the potential of bamboo fibre fabric-poly (lactic acid composites for packaging applications. Physical properties, heat deflection temperature, impact resistance, recyclability and biodegradability are important functional properties of packaging materials. In this review, we will also comprehensively discuss the chronological events and applications of natural fibre biopolymer composites.

  17. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packaging refers to a package that can sense environmental changes, and in turn, informs the users about the changes. These packaging systems contain devices that are capable of sensing and providing information about the functions and properties of the packaged foods. Also, this paper will review intelligent packaging technologies and describe different types of indicators (time-temperature indicators, freshness indicators.

  18. Green Packaging Development. : A way to efficient, effective and more environmental friendly packaging solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Growing pressure on the packaging design to enhance the environmental and logistics performance of a packaging system stresses the packaging designers to search new design strategies that not only fulfill logistics requirements in the supply chain, but also reduce the CO 2emissions during the packaging life cycle. This thesis focuses on the packaging design process and suggests some improvements by considering its logistics performance and CO 2emissions. A Green packaging development model wa...

  19. Color in packaging design : Case: ZheJiang JinSheng packaging Co,Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Cuicui

    2010-01-01

    Color occupies an important position in packaging design, with the improvement of living standard, the higher requirement of color design in packaging. The aim of this thesis was to discuss key issues concerning aesthetics of packaging design. Topics will include an overview of the packaging design, the influence factor of packaging design, and introduce the aesthetics from packaging aspect. This thesis will also identify common problems of the production process, and list the phases of ho...

  20. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  1. Study of the impact behaviour of packages containing intermediate level radioactive waste coming from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following describes primarily an experimental study into the benefits, for impact resistance, to be gained by incorporating a welded lid into the design of the cement filled drum type of intermediate level waste package. Tests on packages which were not provided with a lid showed that matrix material began to be expelled from drop heights of about 16m. This damage threshold was similar for packages composed of both high and low strength matrix. Above the damage threshold, however, the rate of increase of expelled mass with drop height was greater for the packages filled with a low strength matrix. Similar tests were conducted with specimens to which a lid had been attached by welding. Even from the greatest drop height available at the test facility (28m) only one package showed a significant amount of drum tearing but even then little matrix was lost. The benefits of incorporating a welded lid into package design were thus clearly established. Simple calculations were performed to predict the local deformations and deceleration/time histories of the packages. By optimisation of the impact resistive stress used in the computer model, final knockback areas were predicted to an accuracy of 30%. The average deceleration predicted for four of the six tests for which deceleration histories were available were also within 30% of measured values

  2. Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Each May, the Continuing Education Division of the T.J.Watson School of Engineering, Applied Science and Technology at the State University of New York at Binghamton sponsors an Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging in cooperation with local professional societies (IEEE, ASME, SME, IEPS) and UnlPEG (the University-Industry Partnership for Economic Growth.) Each volume of this Electronics Packaging Forum series is based on the the preceding Symposium, with Volume Two based on the 1990 presentations. The Preface to Volume One included a brief definition of the broad scope of the electronics packaging field with some comments on why it has recently assumed such a more prominent priority for research and development. Those remarks will not be repeated here; at this point it is assumed that the reader is a professional in the packaging field, or possibly a student of one of the many academic disciplines which contribute to it. It is worthwhile repeating the series objectives, however, so the reader will be cle...

  3. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  4. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  5. The AdMit Package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. David (David); L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis short note presents the R package AdMit which provides flexible functions to approximate a certain target distribution and it provides an efficient sample of random draws from it, given only a kernel of the target density function. The estimation procedure is fully automatic and thu

  6. Comparison of different LED Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieker, Henning; Miesner, Christian; Püttjer, Dirk; Bachl, Bernhard

    2007-09-01

    In this paper different technologies for LED packaging are compared, focusing on Chip on Board (COB) and SMD technology. The package technology which is used depends on the LED application. A critical fact in LED technology is the thermal management, especially for high brightness LED applications because the thermal management is important for reliability, lifetime and electrooptical performance of the LED module. To design certain and long life LED applications knowledge of the heat flow from LEDs to the complete application is required. High sophisticated FEM simulations are indispensable for modern development of high power LED applications. We compare simulations of various substrate materials and packaging technologies simulated using FLOTHERM software. Thereby different substrates such as standard FR4, ceramic and metal core printed circuit boards are considered. For the verification of the simulated results and the testing of manufactured modules, advanced measurement tools are required. We show different ways to experimentally characterize the thermal behavior of LED modules. The thermal path is determined by the transient thermal analysis using the MicReD T3Ster analyzer. Afterwards it will be compared to the conventional method using thermocouples. The heat distribution over the module is investigated by an IR-Camera. We demonstrate and compare simulation and measurement results of Chip-on-Board (COB) and Sub-Mounted Devices (SMD) technology. The results reveal that for different applications certain packages are ideal.

  7. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  8. Measuring child marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Cong Nguyen; Quentin Wodon

    2012-01-01

    Child or early marriage is recognized as an important development and human rights issue that affects girls especially in many developing countries. The practice has been linked to psychological, health, and education risks. These negative impacts explain why in many countries child marriage has been prohibited by law but often with little effect. While child marriage has been recognized as a major issue, its measurement has remained unsophisticated. Existing studies tend to simply report the...

  9. Child Labor and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Dinopoulos; Laixun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper embeds child labor in a standard two-sector general-equilibrium model of a small open economy facing perfectly competitive markets, efficiency wages, and free-trade. The modern sector produces a homogeneous good using skilled adult labor and capital, and offers effort-based efficiency wages. The agrarian (traditional) sector produces a homogeneous good using unskilled (child and adult) labor and skilled adult labor, and offers nutritional efficiency wages to child workers. Nutrition...

  10. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  11. Towards understanding child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Inés Carreño; Alicia Rey

    2010-01-01

    This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatm...

  12. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  13. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  14. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  15. Long-term effects of oppositional child treatment with mothers as therapists and therapist trainers.

    OpenAIRE

    Strain, P S; Steele, P.; Ellis, T; Timm, M A

    1982-01-01

    The follow-up data reported represent a long-term (3 to 9 years out of treatment) evaluation of 40 children who were clients of the Regional Intervention Program (RIP) from 1969 to 1978. As 3-, 4-, and 5-year olds, these youngsters exhibited severe and prolonged tantrums, continual opposition to adults' requests and commands, and physical aggression toward parents. Each child and mother participated in a standardized intervention package modeled after Wahler's Opposition Child Treatment. Resu...

  16. The impact of packaging on product competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Masoumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to detect important factors, which are influencing competitive advantage. The proposed model of this paper uses sampling technique to measure characteristics of society. There are eight independent variables for the proposed study of this paper including packaging endurance, easy distribution, customer promotion through packaging, packaging structure, packaging as silent advertiser, diversity of packaging, clean and healthy packaging and innovation in packaging. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling to either accept or reject all hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper. The population of this study includes all managers and experts who are involved in packaging products. We used simple sampling technique and chooses 300 from a population of 450 people who are considered as the population of this survey. Cronbach alpha was determined as 0.732, which is above the minimum acceptable level. The results confirm that all mentioned factors influence competitiveness, effectively.

  17. Flat-package DIP handling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelou, E.; Fraser, R.

    1977-01-01

    Device, using magnetic attraction, can facilitate handling of integrated-circuit flat packages and prevent contamination and bent leads. Tool lifts packages by their cases and releases them by operation of manual plunger.

  18. Packaging of silicon sensors for microfluidic bio-analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new industrial concept is presented for packaging biosensor chips in disposable microfluidic cartridges to enable medical diagnostic applications. The inorganic electronic substrates, such as silicon or glass, are integrated in a polymer package which provides the electrical and fluidic interconnections to the world and provides mechanical strength and protection for out-of-lab use. The demonstrated prototype consists of a molded interconnection device (MID), a silicon-based giant magneto-resistive (GMR) biosensor chip, a flex and a polymer fluidic part with integrated tubing. The various processes are compatible with mass manufacturing and run at a high yield. The devices show a reliable electrical interconnection between the sensor chip and readout electronics during extended wet operation. Sandwich immunoassays were carried out in the cartridges with surface functionalized sensor chips. Biological response curves were determined for different concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the packaged biosensor, which demonstrates the functionality and biocompatibility of the devices. The new packaging concept provides a platform for easy further integration of electrical and fluidic functions, as for instance required for integrated molecular diagnostic devices in cost-effective mass manufacturing

  19. Loss of a child - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  20. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  1. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nara Medianeira Stefano; Nelson Casarotto Filho

    2012-01-01

    Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it pro...

  2. Recent Advances in Antioxidant Active Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; de Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, T.G.; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Ramos, Fernando; Machado, Ana V.; Costa, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent Advances in Antioxidant Active Food Packaging: Food oxidation; Antioxidants; Food Packaging; Active Packaging; Legislation; Natural antioxidants. This work was supported by the project PTDC/AGRTEC/3366/2012 with the acronym Rose4Pack (Biodegradable active packaging with rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) to improve food shelf-life) and funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and COMPETE Program (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-028015). Denise Costa is grateful for th...

  3. Active Packaging: application of natural antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; de Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, T.G.; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Ramos, Fernando; Machado, Ana V.; Costa, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Natural antioxidants applied in Active food Packaging: Food oxidation; Antioxidants; Food Packaging; Active Packaging; Legislation; Natural antioxidants. This work was supported by the project PTDC/AGRTEC/3366/2012 with the acronym Rose4Pack (Biodegradable active packaging with rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) to improve food shelf-life) and funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and COMPETE Program (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-028015).

  4. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Dobrucka; Ryszard Cierpiszewski; Andrzej Korzeniowski

    2015-01-01

    Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packa...

  5. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Emergence among Breastfeeding Infants Born to HIV-Infected Mothers during a Single-Arm Trial of Triple-Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission: A Secondary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Timothy K; Rose Masaba; Craig B Borkowf; Richard Ndivo; Clement Zeh; Ambrose Misore; Juliana Otieno; Denise Jamieson; Michael C Thigpen; Marc Bulterys; Laurence Slutsker; De Cock, Kevin M.; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Greenberg, Alan E.; Mary Glenn Fowler

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Every year, about half a million children become infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nearly all these newly infected children live in resource-limited countries and most acquire HIV from their mother, so-called mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Without intervention, 25%–50% of babies born to HIV-positive mothers become infected with HIV during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. This infect...

  6. 27 CFR 6.93 - Combination packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combination packaging. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.93 Combination packaging. The act by an industry member of packaging and distributing distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages in...

  7. 7 CFR 58.640 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 58.640 Section 58.640 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.640 Packaging. The packaging of the semifrozen product shall be done by means which will...

  8. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consistent with the Food and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or...

  9. 9 CFR 354.72 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 354.72 Section 354.72... CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.72 Packaging. No container which bears or may bear any official identification or any...

  10. EDExpress Packaging Training, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    Packaging is the process of finding the best combination of aid to meet a student's financial need for college, given limited resources and the institutional constraints that vary from school to school. This guide to packaging under the EDExpress software system outlines three steps to packaging. The first is determining the student's need for…

  11. Unconscious emotional effects of packaging design elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis; Corsi, Armando; Lockshin, Larry;

    This research investigates consumers’ unconscious emotional responses to packaging elements such as image, colour and font. The intensity and valence of the emotional response, in reaction to these packaging elements, is established by the use of skin conductance tests and facial electromyography...... response to packaging....

  12. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging requirements. 130.21 Section 130.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packaging requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must...

  13. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging conditions. 355.20 Section 355.20 Food... HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 355.20 Packaging... accord with § 355.60. (b) Tight container packaging. To minimize moisture contamination, all...

  14. Packaging of high power semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xingsheng; Xiong, Lingling; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces high power semiconductor laser packaging design. The characteristics and challenges of the design and various packaging, processing, and testing techniques are detailed by the authors. New technologies, in particular thermal technologies, current applications, and trends in high power semiconductor laser packaging are described at length and assessed.

  15. Development of packaging technologies for microsystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yu-feng; WANG Zhen-feng; WEI Jun

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that packaging plays a very important role in developing microsystems. Packaging accounts for about 60%~80% of cost and function of a microsystem. Package is required to provide mechanical protection, media separation or coupling, signal conditioning, etc.

  16. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  17. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Medianeira Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it provides product protection, storage and convenience, as products move through the value chain. Thinking about it, the product cannot be planned separately from its packaging, and it should not be defined based only on engineering, marketing, communications or economics. The packaging concept has expanded and gained product status; packaging is able to communicate the same language of convenience wherever it goes. Today, packaging industries are taking advantage of this opportunity to differentiate their products through packaging, finding that it is not enough for the package to be beautiful, unbreakable, or preserve the flavor and freshness of foods. Within this context, the objective of this research is to analyze, from the point of view of consumers, the most important product packaging attributes at the time of purchase. For this purpose, the data obtained in this study was run through the Statistica 8.0 and SPSS 16 (Statistical Package Social Sciences software’s.

  18. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging specifications. 1702.12 Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION...

  19. 7 CFR 33.6 - Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package. 33.6 Section 33.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.6 Package. Package means any container...

  20. Surviving together: domestic violence and mother-child relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Emma

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores how mothers and children in the UK are affected by domestic violence, resist it, and actively support one another's recoveries. The focus extends beyond 'incidents' of physical violence, into the commonplace, the subtle and the everyday. This thesis shows that supportive mother-child relationships may enhance the well-being and recoveries of both mothers and children. It highlights the need to expand professional supports that repair and strengthen mother-child relationsh...

  1. Your Child's Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Vision KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Vision Print A A A Text Size What's in ... La vista de su hijo Healthy eyes and vision are a critical part of kids' development. Their ...

  2. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Piotrowski; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by revi

  3. Child Wellness and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  4. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... example, by a friend, neighbor, child care person, teacher, or stranger. When sexual abuse has occurred, a child can develop many distressing ... t tell children to 'always do everything the teacher or baby-sitter tells you to ... of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. ...

  5. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  6. Choosing Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a parent, you want to ensure that your child is safe and happy in a childcare environment that is fun, educational, and nurturing. Here are ... person or program? Do you believe that your child will be happy and have the ... in this environment? If none of the caregivers or childcare centers ...

  7. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  8. Weaning Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby and makes it possible to leave your child with a caregiver. It's important to remember that infants over 6 months should have solid foods as well as breast milk. After 1 year, breast milk alone does not provide all the nutrients a growing child needs; solid foods must become a regular part ...

  9. Divorce Child Custody Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlgate, Laurence D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines ethical issues in making policy decisions regarding divorce child custody disputes. Suggests dilemma occurs when legislator must decide between discretionary standard promoting best interest of child and nondiscretionary arbitrary assignment of custody. Advocates normative analysis of various types of dispute-settling processes and…

  10. Child Care at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN, Child Care Initiative

    2008-01-01

    This is a document summarizing a survey of child care needs of CERN staff and users which was performed in February 2008 by the CERN Child Care Initiative. The document presents the analysis of this data. Conclusions on the minimal facilities size are derived and possible funding source at the European Union are discussed.

  11. Ileostomy and your child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now your child has an opening called a stoma in their belly. Waste will pass through the stoma into a pouch that collects it. You and ... child will need to take care of the stoma and empty the pouch many times a day. ...

  12. Headstart for Every Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Annie L.

    An early learning kit provides a booklet of ten articles on educational head starts for children along with an activity packet for classroom use. The articles deal with: the crucial early school years; emotional preparation of the child; broadening a child's background; selecting toys and games; reading readiness; mathematical skills; learning to…

  13. Reducing suggestibility in child witness interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Memon, Amina; Holley, Angela; Wark, Linsey; Bull, Ray; Koehnken, Guenter

    1996-01-01

    This study set out to test the prediction that a Cognitive Interview may increase resistance to subsequent misleading suggestions in child witness interviews. The misleading information was presented in the form of questions both prior to, and after, a cognitive or structured interview to 8 and 9 year old witnesses to a video-taped event. Use of the cognitive interview resulted in more correct responses to post-interview questions than did the structured interview eventhough there was not qui...

  14. Heat Transfer Characteristics in High Power LED Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the T3Ster transient thermal resistance measuring device to investigate the effects to heat transfer performances from different LED crystal grains, packaging methods and heat-sink substrates through the experimental method. The experimental parameters are six different types of LED modules that are made alternatively with the crystal grain structure, the die attach method and the carrying substrate. The crystal grain structure includes the lateral type, flip chip type and vertical type. The die attach method includes silver paste and the eutectic structure. The carrying substrates are aluminum oxide (Alumina and aluminum nitride (AIN ceramic substrates and metal core PCB (MCPCB. The experimental results show that, under the conditions of the same crystal grain and die attach method, the thermal resistance values for the AIN substrate and the Alumina substrate are 2.1K/W and 5.1K/W, respectively and the total thermal resistance values are 7.3K/W and 10.8K/W. Compared to the Alumina substrate, the AIN substrate can effectively lower the total thermal resistance value by 32.4%. This is because the heat transfer coefficient of the AIN substrate is higher than that of the Alumina substrate, thus effectively increasing its thermal conductivity. In addition, under the conditions of the same crystal grain and the same substrate, the packaging methods are using silver paste and the eutectic structure for die attach. Their thermal resistance values are 5.7K/W and 2.7K/W, respectively, with a variance of 3K/W. Comparisons of the crystal grain structure show that the thermal resistance for the flip chip type is lower than that of the traditional lateral type by 0.9K/W. This is because the light emitting layer of the flip chip crystal grain is closer to the heat-sink substrate, shortening the heat dissipation route, and thus lowering the thermal resistance value. For the total thermal resistance, the crystal grain structure has a lesser

  15. The battered child syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.)

  16. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  17. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 178 - Flame Penetration Resistance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. E Appendix E to Part 178—Flame Penetration Resistance Test (a) Criteria for... the test apparatus to represent the outer packaging design; (3) Testing must be conducted on all design features (latches, seams, hinges, etc.) affecting the ability of the outer packaging to...

  18. Traceability Research at Packaging Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerlund, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Research at the division of Packaging Logistics, Lund University, has been performed in numerous areas, ranging from organisational learning and sustainability to process integration and service development. One of these is the new and complex research area of traceability. When it comes to food scandals, from the mad cow disease at the end of the 90s to the more recent incident where glass has been found in chicken, this has increased focus on traceability research in food supply chains....

  19. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  20. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE's mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin

  1. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  2. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  3. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  4. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. PMID:26803804

  5. "Programmed packaging" for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, M; Sakurai, Y; Akita, H; Harashima, H

    2014-11-10

    We report on the development of a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) based on our packaging concept "Programmed packaging" to control not only intracellular trafficking but also the biodistribution of encapsulated compounds such as nucleic acids/proteins/peptides. Our strategy for achieving this is based on molecular mechanisms of cell biology such as endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, etc. In this review, we summarize the concept of programmed packaging and discuss some of our recent successful examples of using MENDs. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was applied as a new methodology for identifying a new ligand toward cell or mitochondria. The delivery of siRNA to tumors and the tumor vasculature was achieved using pH sensitive lipid (YSK05), which was newly designed and optimized under in vivo conditions. The efficient delivery of pDNA to immune cells such as dendritic cells has also been developed using the KALA ligand, which can be a breakthrough technology for DNA vaccine. Finally, ss-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like surfactant (ssPalm) which is a lipid like material with pH-activatable and SS-cleavable properties is also introduced as a proof of our concept. PMID:24780263

  6. The environmental effects of taxes on packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts of taxes for packages are presented, differentiated for greenhouse gas emissions. The evaluation used a qualitative analysis of information from eighteen depth-interviews with experts in the packaging market, foreign experiences, relevant price elasticities and 'expert guesses'. It appears that tax package so far had a limited effect on the packaging market. For the longer term (ten years) larger, but probably also limited, effects are expected. The environmental impact of packaging tax can be increased if the taxes are substantially increased.

  7. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O' Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a

  8. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  9. Conceptual design for HIC transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd.(KHNP) is developing a HIC(High Integrity Container) transport package to transport a high integrity container from the radioactive waste treatment facility of the nuclear power plant to the interim storage building of radioactive waste. The transport package is designed according to the requirements of the Korean and the IAEA transport regulations for Type B package. The transport package provides containment, radiation shielding, structural integrity and passive heat removal for normal transport and hypothetical accident conditions. This paper describes the conceptual design for the HIC transport package

  10. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... requirements for package formats used for long term preserved digital material, and using these requirements as the basis for analysing a range of package formats. The result of the concrete investigation is that the WARC format is the package format best suited for the listed requirements. Fulfilling...

  11. A silicon wafer packaging solution for HB-LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tom; Weichel, Steen; Isaacs, Steven; Kuhmann, Jochen

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present HyLED, a silicon wafer packaging solution for high-brightness LEDs. The associated technology is batch micro-machining/metallisation processing of silicon wafers allowing significant reduction of the final device size. The presented package is multi-functional where the micro-machined cavity acts as reflector, thermal conductor and reservoir for the silicone/colour conversion substance. The base material, silicon, has excellent mechanical and thermal properties and enables direct integration of intelligence. We present customer specific solutions, open tool samples and performance data for optical and thermal parameters and reliability testing. Thermal resistance values of R<5 K/W, junction-to-board are demonstrated.

  12. Reliability of Semiconductor Laser Packaging in Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, Ivair; Qiu, Yueming; Shapiro, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    A typical set up used to perform lifetime tests of packaged, fiber pigtailed semiconductor lasers is described, as well as tests performed on a set of four pump lasers. It was found that two lasers failed after 3200, and 6100 hours under device specified bias conditions at elevated temperatures. Failure analysis of the lasers indicates imperfections and carbon contamination of the laser metallization, possibly from improperly cleaned photo resist. SEM imaging of the front facet of one of the lasers, although of poor quality due to the optical fiber charging effects, shows evidence of catastrophic damage at the facet. More stringent manufacturing controls with 100% visual inspection of laser chips are needed to prevent imperfect lasers from proceeding to packaging and ending up in space applications, where failure can result in the loss of a space flight mission.

  13. IMS Content Packaging v1.2 public draft specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    The IMS Content Packaging Specification provides the functionality to describe and package learning materials, such as an individual course or a collection of courses, into interoperable, distributable packages. Content Packaging addresses the description, structure, and location of online learning

  14. Perspectives on the Elements of Packaging Design : A Qualitative Study on the Communication of Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Alervall, Viktoria; Saied, Juan Sdiq

    2013-01-01

    Background: In today’s markets almost all products we buy come packaged. We use packaging to protect, contain and identify products. Furthermore if this is executed in a skillful way consumers often choose products based on packaging. The work of a designer and marketer is therefore extremely valuable when it comes to the design of a package. Problem: How are packages used to communicate marketing information? Purpose: The focus of this thesis is to identify differences and similarities of a ...

  15. The art of packaging: An investigation into the role of color in packaging, marketing, and branding

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Mohebbi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing research in the field of packaging and marketing and shed more light on the psychology of colors and their effect on packaging and marketing. Nowadays, packaging is proved to be one of the significant factors in the success of promoting product sale. However, there is a perceived gap with respect to the different aspects of packaging, in particular the graphics, design, and color of packaging. The current study provides...

  16. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms.

  17. Child labor, schooling, and child ability

    OpenAIRE

    Akresh, Richard; Bagby, Emilie; de Walque, Damien; Kazianga, Harounan

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected in rural Burkina Faso, this paper examines how children's cognitive abilities influence households' decisions to invest in their education. To address the endogeneity of child ability measures, the analysis uses rainfall shocks experienced in utero or early childhood to instrument for ability. Negative shocks in utero lead to 0.24 standard deviations lower ability z-sc...

  18. Modelling of a DNA packaging motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Jun; Xie Ping; Xue Xiao-Guang; Wang Peng-Ye

    2009-01-01

    During the assembly of many viruses, a powerful molecular motor packages the genome into a preassembled capsid. The Bacillus subtilis phage φ29 is an excellent model system to investigate the DNA packaging mechanism because of its highly efficient in vitro DNA packaging activity and the development of a single-molecule packaging assay. Here we make use of structural and biochemical experimental data to build a physical model of DNA packaging by the φ29 DNA packaging motor. Based on the model, various dynamic behaviours such as the packaging rate, pause frequency and slip frequency under different ATP concentrations, ADP concentrations, external loads as well as capsid fillings are studied by using Monte Carlo simulation. Good agreement is obtained between the simulated and available experimental results. Moreover, we make testable predictions that should guide future experiments related to motor function.

  19. Theory of the Golden Packaging Design Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玮

    2012-01-01

      Color as a design language, in the packaging design field with a strong visual impact, is not only the ele-ments of commodity packaging, is the soul of the sales package, has become an important means of advertising goods image one. And the golden packaging and packaging the most popular the most brilliant. Golden art design to use in packing, we must request in the system designer can grasp the basic theory on the basis of the color, pay attention to the market and adapt to the colour is applied law, gift packaging spirituality and attractive charm, so as to create a good packaging, arouse consumers' desire to buy, in order to meet the increasing material and cultural and spiritual needs.

  20. Biobased Packaging - Application in Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wilfred Ruban

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of growing problems of waste disposal and because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource with diminishing quantities, renewed interest in packaging research is underway to develop and promote the use of “bio-plastics.” In general, compared to conventional plastics derived from petroleum, bio-based polymers have more diverse stereochemistry and architecture of side chains which enable research scientists a greater number of opportunities to customize the properties of the final packaging material. The primary challenge facing the food (Meat industry in producing bio-plastic packaging, currently, is to match the durability of the packaging with product shelf-life. Notable advances in biopolymer production, consumer demand for more environmentally-friendly packaging, and technologies that allow packaging to do more than just encompass the food are driving new and novel research and developments in the area of packaging for muscle foods. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 79-82

  1. Examination of shipping package 9975-02403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    SRNL examined shipping package 9975-02403 following storage of nuclear material in K-Area Complex (KAC). As a result of field surveillance activities in KAC, this package was identified to contain several non-conforming and other conditions. Further examination of this package in SRNL confirmed significant moisture and mold in the bottom layers of the lower fiberboard assembly, and identified additional corrosion along the seam weld and on the bottom of the drum. It was recently recommended that checking for corrosion along the bottom edge of the drum be implemented for packages that are removed from storage, as well as high wattage packages remaining in storage. The appearance of such corrosion on 9975-02403 further indicates that such corrosion may provide an indication of significant moisture concentration and related degradation within the package. This condition is more likely to develop in packages with higher internal heat loads.

  2. Lunar Dust Analysis Package - LDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, S. A.; Richter, L.; Goepel, M.; Sovago, M.; Pike, W. T.; Yang, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Claus, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Lunar Dust Analysis package (L-DAP) is a suite of payloads which have been designed to operate in synergy with each other at the Lunar Surface. The benefits of combining these payloads in a single package allow very precise measurements of a particular regolith sample. At the same time the integration allows mass savings since common resources are shared and this also means that interfaces with the Lander are simplified significantly leading to benefits of integration and development of the overall mission. Lunar Dust represents a real hazard for lunar exploration due to its invasive, fine microscopic structure and toxic properties. However it is also valuable resource which could be exploited for future exploration if the characteristics and chemical composition is well known. Scientifically, the regolith provides an insight into the moon formation process and there are areas on the Moon which have never been ex-plored before. For example the Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin is the oldest and largest on the moon, providing excavated deep crust which has not been found on the previous lunar landing missions. The SEA-led team has been designing a compact package, known as LDAP, which will provide key data on the lunar dust properties. The intention is for this package to be part of the payload suite deployed on the ESA Lunar Lander Mission in 2018. The LDAP has a centralised power and data electronics, including front end electronics for the detectors as well as sample handling subsystem for the following set of internal instruments : • Optical Microscope - with a 1μm resolution to provide context of the regolith samples • Raman and LIBS spectrographic instrumentation providing quantification of mineral and elemental composition information of the soil at close to grain scale. This includes the capability to detect (and measure abundance of) crystalline and adsorbed volatile phases, from their Raman signature. The LIBS equipment will also allow chemical

  3. [Qualitative research approaches in practical use in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, J; Gerwert, U

    1993-10-01

    Experimental study designs and quantitative analysis are dominating the methodology of child psychiatric research. Sometimes the "box of tools" consisting of standardized software packages for statistical analysis seems to lead to a regrettable uniformity in research strategies. Elaborated sociological research concepts in the tradition of Max Weber and the "Chicago school" could close the scientific gap between quantitative studies on large samples and simple case-reports. They are excellent instruments for generating hypothesis on relatively rare clinical problems or in new fields of child psychiatric research. Based on a review of the literature potential applications of qualitative methodology in child psychiatry will be discussed.

  4. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  5. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET

  6. On the Selective Packaging of Genomic RNA by HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Davis, Sean R; Rein, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Like other retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) selectively packages genomic RNA (gRNA) during virus assembly. However, in the absence of the gRNA, cellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are packaged. While the gRNA is selected because of its cis-acting packaging signal, the mechanism of this selection is not understood. The affinity of Gag (the viral structural protein) for cellular RNAs at physiological ionic strength is not much higher than that for the gRNA. However, binding to the gRNA is more salt-resistant, implying that it has a higher non-electrostatic component. We have previously studied the spacer 1 (SP1) region of Gag and showed that it can undergo a concentration-dependent conformational transition. We proposed that this transition represents the first step in assembly, i.e., the conversion of Gag to an assembly-ready state. To explain selective packaging of gRNA, we suggest here that binding of Gag to gRNA, with its high non-electrostatic component, triggers this conversion more readily than binding to other RNAs; thus we predict that a Gag-gRNA complex will nucleate particle assembly more efficiently than other Gag-RNA complexes. New data shows that among cellular mRNAs, those with long 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) are selectively packaged. It seems plausible that the 3'-UTR, a stretch of RNA not occupied by ribosomes, offers a favorable binding site for Gag. PMID:27626441

  7. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, M. R.; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D.; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET.

  8. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdi, M. R., E-mail: mrgaldi@unisa.it; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D., E-mail: dalbanese@unisa.it; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L., E-mail: ldimaio@unisa.it [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET.

  9. Safety analysis report -- Packages LP-50 tritium package (Packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, A.A.; McCarthy, P.G.; Edl, J.W.; Chalfant, G.G. (comps.); Cadelli, G.

    1975-05-01

    Elemental tritium is shipped at low pressure in a stainless steel container (LP-50) surrounded by an aluminum vessel and Celotex insulation at least 4 in. thick in a steel drum. Each package contains a large quantity (greater than a Type A quantity) of nonfissile material, as defined in AECM 0529. This report provides the details of the safety analysis performed for this type container.

  10. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders. PMID:18822999

  11. Father-Child Play Behaviors and Child Emotion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the father-child activation theory, which identifies the father-child relationship as a source for self-regulation learning. Father-child play behaviors during toddlerhood were examined for their contribution to self-regulation skills, specifically emotion regulation and aggression. This study examined father-child play behaviors of emotion amplification, intrusiveness, positive regard, and child emotion regulation seeking in the National Early Head Start (EHS) Evaluation. Fat...

  12. Drug Resistance Proteins and Refractory Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Expression of multi-drug resistance gene-1 P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) in refractory epilepsy was studied at the Epilepsy Research Group, Institutes of Neurology and Child Health, University College, London, and Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK.

  13. Spectroscopic investigation of the constituent components effect on the biodegradable package characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coťa, C.; Cioica, N.; Filip, C.; Fechete, R.; Todica, M.; Nagy, E. M.; Cozar, O.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of the nature and the content of the plasticizers (water, glycerol) on the corn starch based biodegradable packages properties (crystalline-amorphous) and also on their degradation process after absorption of distilled water were investigated by 1H NMR relaxation and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies. For this goal, a set of 14 samples with various starch/glycerol/water (mass %) ratios were prepared and investigated after extrusion process in order to establish their crystalline or amorphous character. The composition having starch/glycerol/water 68/17/15 mass % ratio was found to have a dominant amorphous character and very similar features with a commercial specimen (USA) used for the package. It was also found that this best package is extremely degraded after just one day under water absorption. The most resistant package was that with a large content of starch (78/19.5/2.5).

  14. Spectroscopic investigation of the constituent components effect on the biodegradable package characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the nature and the content of the plasticizers (water, glycerol) on the corn starch based biodegradable packages properties (crystalline-amorphous) and also on their degradation process after absorption of distilled water were investigated by 1H NMR relaxation and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies. For this goal, a set of 14 samples with various starch/glycerol/water (mass %) ratios were prepared and investigated after extrusion process in order to establish their crystalline or amorphous character. The composition having starch/glycerol/water 68/17/15 mass % ratio was found to have a dominant amorphous character and very similar features with a commercial specimen (USA) used for the package. It was also found that this best package is extremely degraded after just one day under water absorption. The most resistant package was that with a large content of starch (78/19.5/2.5)

  15. Spectroscopic investigation of the constituent components effect on the biodegradable package characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coţa, C.; Cioica, N., E-mail: cioica@inma.ro; Nagy, E. M. [National Institute of Research-Development for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry – INMA Bucureşti – Cluj-Napoca Branch, 59, Al. Vaida-Voievod Str., RO-400458 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Filip, C. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Fechete, R. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Dept. of Physics, 25 G. Baritiu Str., RO-400020 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Todica, M. [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics, 1 Kogalniceanu Str., RO-400084, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cozar, O. [National Institute of Research-Development for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry – INMA Bucureşti – Cluj-Napoca Branch, 59, Al. Vaida-Voievod Str., RO-400458 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientists, 54 Splaiul Independentei, RO-050094, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    The effect of the nature and the content of the plasticizers (water, glycerol) on the corn starch based biodegradable packages properties (crystalline-amorphous) and also on their degradation process after absorption of distilled water were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR relaxation and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies. For this goal, a set of 14 samples with various starch/glycerol/water (mass %) ratios were prepared and investigated after extrusion process in order to establish their crystalline or amorphous character. The composition having starch/glycerol/water 68/17/15 mass % ratio was found to have a dominant amorphous character and very similar features with a commercial specimen (USA) used for the package. It was also found that this best package is extremely degraded after just one day under water absorption. The most resistant package was that with a large content of starch (78/19.5/2.5)

  16. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, WILLIAM D.; EATON, WILLIAM P.; MALSHE, AJAY P.; MILLER, WILLIAM M.; O' NEAL, CHAD; SINGH, SUSHILA B.

    1999-09-24

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging is much different from conventional integrated circuit (IC) packaging. Many MEMS devices must interface to the environment in order to perform their intended function, and the package must be able to facilitate access with the environment while protecting the device. The package must also not interfere with or impede the operation of the MEMS device. The die attachment material should be low stress, and low outgassing, while also minimizing stress relaxation overtime which can lead to scale factor shifts in sensor devices. The fabrication processes used in creating the devices must be compatible with each other, and not result in damage to the devices. Many devices are application specific requiring custom packages that are not commercially available. Devices may also need media compatible packages that can protect the devices from harsh environments in which the MEMS device may operate. Techniques are being developed to handle, process, and package the devices such that high yields of functional packaged parts will result. Currently, many of the processing steps are potentially harmful to MEMS devices and negatively affect yield. It is the objective of this paper to review and discuss packaging challenges that exist for MEMS systems and to expose these issues to new audiences from the integrated circuit packaging community.

  17. Your Child's Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and when to go to the doctor. "Barky" Cough Barky coughs are usually caused by a swelling ... happens when the child inhales (breathes in). Whooping Cough Whooping cough is another name for pertussis, an ...

  18. Surviving Your Child's Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your child that will never be answered. Depression Lack of energy, sleep problems, inability to concentrate, ... a zip code. Search Connect with us on Facebook Find Support Video Online Support Community Connect, share ...

  19. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  20. Understanding Child Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Awareness Sustainability Policy Issues Understanding Child Traumatic Stress Page Contents: Responding to Danger When Danger Turns ... malevolence, and human accountability. Back to Top Posttraumatic Stress Responses For reasons that are basic to survival, ...

  1. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  2. Normal Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... is "normal" depends upon the child's level of development, which can vary greatly among children of the ...

  3. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron and ... enough iron in their daily diets. How Much Iron Do Kids Need? Kids require different amounts of ...

  4. Child with NF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead some ado- lescents to feelings of depression, anxiety and social isolation. Counseling and assisting the child in finding a social network can help significantly. In addition to promoting local ...

  5. Your Child's Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ll need an accurate height and weight measurement. Bathroom scales and tape measures aren't always precise. ... child's health, level of physical activity, and eating habits, as well as your family medical history. The ...

  6. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  7. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Interpreters are available to help in 170 languages. The ... drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness High stress Does not look after the child's hygiene or ...

  8. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn more about the Child Care Rule > OCC Publishes Approved FY 2016-2018 CCDF Plans The Plan ... Instructions Information Memoranda Policy Interpretation Questions Technical Bulletins Administration for Children & Families U.S. Department of Health & Human ...

  9. Helping Your Overweight Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are high in calories, sugar, and salt like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy refined grains (white ... make smoothies. Buy fewer high-calorie foods like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy. Offer your child ...

  10. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  11. Child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania : possibilities and barriers for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kisanga, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite beinga crime in most countries, and with well-known physical and mental health consequences, the majority of sexual offences are not reported. Child sexual abuse is a maltreatment form characterized by contact or non-contact acts perpetrated by adults or older children toward younger children who have little power to resist. This thesis aims to understand the social context of child sexualabuse, and the...

  12. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  13. Microfinance and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Jonas; Breyer, Julika

    2011-01-01

    Aims to assess the role of microfinance as an instrument in combating child labour. Reviews the economic literature drawing on empirical evidence of the impact of microfinance on poverty, income stability, overall household wellbeing and the demand for child labour taking a comprehensive perspective on microfinance which includes loans for consumption, savings, insurance, financial services for improving the access to education, and awareness raising. Examines the direct experience of microfi...

  14. ''Battered child'' syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synonyms for the 'battered child' syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as 'child abuse', or 'non-accidental injury'. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ)

  15. Music in child care

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2007-01-01

    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  16. Child sex rings.

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, N J; Wynne, J M

    1986-01-01

    Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a "family friend" or obtained a position of authority over children. Secrecy was encouraged and bribery, threats, and peer pressure used to induce participatio...

  17. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  18. Novel SU-8 based vacuum wafer-level packaging for MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murillo, Gonzalo; Davis, Zachary James; Keller, Stephan Urs;

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a simple and low-cost SU-8 based wafer-level vacuum packaging method which is CMOS and MEMS compatible. Different approaches have been investigated by taking advantage of the properties of SU-8, such as chemical resistance, optical transparence, mechanical reliability and versa......This work presents a simple and low-cost SU-8 based wafer-level vacuum packaging method which is CMOS and MEMS compatible. Different approaches have been investigated by taking advantage of the properties of SU-8, such as chemical resistance, optical transparence, mechanical reliability...... and versatility. A novel technique of wafer level adhesive bonding, which uses SU-8 as structural and adhesive material, has been developed and successfully demonstrated. Optical inspection and SEM images were used in order to measure the package lid bending and probe the encapsulation sealing. In addition...

  19. Fungal mycelium and cotton plant materials in the manufacture of biodegradable molded packaging material: Evaluation study of select blends of cotton byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary material used by the packaging industry is extruded polystyrene foam, which is commonly marketed as Styrofoam™. In its original formulation, Styrofoam™ is resistant to photolysis and effectively does not decompose. The light weight of Styrofoam™ packaging materials reduces the likelihood...

  20. Safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. TRU curium shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transuranium (TRU) Curium Shipping Container was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing offsite shipment of packages containing radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  1. Complex Carton Packaging with Dexterous Robot Hands

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Venketesh N.; Dai, Jian S.

    2006-01-01

    The chapter has presented a dexterous reconfigurable assembly and packaging system (D-RAPS) with dexterous robot fingers. The aim of this research was to design a reconfigurable assembly and packaging system that can handle cardboard cartons of different geometry and shapes. The initial idea was to develop such a system that can demonstrate adaptability to cartons of different styles and complexities. It was shown that the packaging machine could fold two cartons of completely different shape...

  2. micromap: A Package for Linked Micromaps

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn C. Payton; Michael G. McManus; Weber, Marc H.; Anthony R. Olsen; Thomas M. Kincaid

    2015-01-01

    The R package micromap is used to create linked micromaps, which display statistical summaries associated with areal units, or polygons. Linked micromaps provide a means to simultaneously summarize and display both statistical and geographic distributions by linking statistical summaries to a series of small maps. The package contains functions dependent on the ggplot2 package to produce a row-oriented graph composed of different panels, or columns, of information. These panels at a minimum t...

  3. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists

  4. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eEnax

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yoghurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions.

  5. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Ahlers, Maren; Kaiser, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Holtkamp, Dominik; Faupel, Ulya; Holzmüller, Hartmut H; Kersting, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yogurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions.

  6. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Ahlers, Maren; Kaiser, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Holtkamp, Dominik; Faupel, Ulya; Holzmüller, Hartmut H; Kersting, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yogurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions. PMID:26191012

  7. Best Practice in Policy Package Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Florian; Vesela, Jirina; Vencl, Vaclav;

    2010-01-01

    This deliverable focuses on the identification and analysis of best practice examples of policy package design. For this purpose a methodology is developed that allows the systematic analysis of both national and EU policy packages. Eight packages were selected and analysed, highlighting...... the factors which supported the design and implementation process in each case. The results of the analysis show which factors led to these cases to be considered best practice. In addition, factors are identified which are not yet part of the generic policy packaging framework presented in earlier OPTIC...

  8. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  9. New Polymer Materials for Microelectronics Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Researchers at the CAS Institute of Chemistry (ICCAS) have made breakthrough progress in developing the manufacturing technology of advanced polymer materials for microelectronics packaging applications. The advanced integrated circuit (IC) packaging polymer materials, including photoimageable polyimide resins and liquid epoxy underfills, are a key issue for FC-BGA/CSP(flip chip-ball grill array/chip scale packaging) which is the main stream for the next generation of microelectronics devices. With the down-sizing, thinning and high I/O (input/output) of IC chips, microelectronics packaging is now facing a big technology challenge.

  10. Hermeticity testing of MEMS and microelectronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Packaging of microelectronics has been developing since the invention of the transistor in 1947. With the increasing complexity and decreasing size of the die, packaging requirements have continued to change. A step change in package requirements came with the introduction of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) whereby interactions with the external environment are, in some cases, required.This resource is a rapid, definitive reference on hermetic packaging for the MEMS and microelectronics industry, giving practical guidance on traditional and newly developed test methods. This book in

  11. Hermetic packaging for microwave modules. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollar, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    Microwave assemblies, such as radar modules, require hermetically sealed packaging. Since most of these assemblies are used for airborne applications, the packages must be lightweight. The aluminum alloy A-40 provides the needed characteristics of these applications. This project developed packaging techniques using the A-40 alloy as a housing material and laser welding processes to install connectors, purge tube, and covers on the housings. The completed package successfully passed the hermetic leak requirements and environmental testing. Optimum laser welding parameters were established in addition to all of the related tooling for assembly.

  12. Packaged optofluidic microbubble resonators for optical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Wu, Xiang; Liu, Liying; Xu, Lei

    2016-01-10

    A microbubble resonator (MBR) coupled with a fiber taper is packaged with low-index polymer. The cladding polymer serves as a protective matrix for the coupling system to avoid environmental disturbance. The packaged structure is portable and provides good performance to maintain high Q factors for a long working period. The hollow structure of the MBR makes the packaged system useful for practical chemical and biomedical sensing applications. To evaluate the performance of the packaged MBRs-based sensor, we carry out bulk refractive index and surface-sensing measurements with achieved sensitivities of 18.8 nm/RIU and 31.29 pm/nm, respectively. PMID:26835777

  13. Simulation and Training Package on Corex Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A software package has been developed for simulation on the Corex process. The simulation and training package on the process of shaft furnace using Corex off gas were introduced. The package consists of three main modules, namely the numerical simulation, the system modeling and optimization, and the training module, which are integrated with graphical interfaces. In addition, the equipment starting and stopping operation and typical trouble-shooting were also included in the package, whereby a practical environment can be established for training of operation and management stuff.

  14. Nanotechnology applications in foods-packagings and importance for seafoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göknur Sürengil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology 100 nanometer scale in a small and rapidly developing science and technology field. Each area of nanotechnology to create advanced products with new techniques, medicine, health, food, packaging materials and systems, pharmaceutical, electronic industries, such as benefits. Utilization of nanotechnology in the food sector to a limited extent useful and impor¬tant, although still used. In recent years, studies worldwide food industry is seeking ways to exploit this technology the most. On the other hand more recently because of the increase in consumption of food, fresh food is prepared and to be resistant for a long time became a prio¬rity and has focused on these issues. Especially in terms of food quality and shelf life of pro¬cessed meat and fishery products and packing of fresh fruits and vegetables are underway. Na¬notechnology in the food industry creates new food and intelligent packaging systems. Especi¬ally recently developed edible films, antimicrobial packaging, biodegradable materials, such as technological systems nanosensörler food safety and shelf life can be controlled. Nanofood technology is gaining increasing importance in the world although precise information be ob¬tained about the effects on public health and the environment. In this article, nanotechnology, and aquatic products industry has been compiled to date information about the fields and met¬hods.

  15. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project Information Package Specification Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D. M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2010-08-31

    Information Package Specification version 1.1 describes an XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information in information management systems and other information archives. An information package consists of package information, the context required to understand and use that information, package metadata that describes the information, and XML signatures that protect the information. The information package described in this specification was designed to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. It is an implementation of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model archival information package tailored to meet NNSA information storage requirements and designed to be used in the computing environments at the Y-12 National Security Complex and at other NNSA sites.

  16. An examination of product packaging marketing strategies used to promote pediatric multivitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Samuel, Lalitha; Quinn, Christine; Dunne, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the nature of marketing strategies for multivitamin and multimineral (MVM) supplement packaging and to assess the extent to which these supplements are marketed as food products. A cross-sectional study of children's supplement packaging was conducted. Descriptive statistics identified common marketing practices. Websites of the three largest retail chain pharmacies in the United States and MVM manufacturers were accessed. The study's sample consisted of packaging for 52 children's MVM supplements. Child-targeted marketing included reference to trademarked characters on 42.3% of MVM packaging (n = 22). More than 80% of the sample (n = 42) listed fruity flavors and almost all packaging included descriptive words related to the MVMs' shape and/or flavor (88.5%, n = 46). Nearly one-fifth of the packaging (n = 10) pictured a food item. With respect to parent-targeted promotional language, almost 83% of the supplement packages (n = 43) included text on the support of bodily structure/function. More than half of the sample (53.8%, n = 28) had promotional language related to dietary practice (e.g. organic, gluten-free). Pediatricians can play a role in ensuring that parents are aware of (1) possible risks associated with MVM overconsumption, and (2) the importance of deriving vitamins and minerals from a balanced diet. Given the high number of exposures to pediatric MVMs among youth and established influence of food marketing on shaping children's perceptions and behaviors, further research is necessary to determine the extent to which children's MVMs are marketed as a food product and perceived as such by children.

  17. An examination of product packaging marketing strategies used to promote pediatric multivitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Samuel, Lalitha; Quinn, Christine; Dunne, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the nature of marketing strategies for multivitamin and multimineral (MVM) supplement packaging and to assess the extent to which these supplements are marketed as food products. A cross-sectional study of children's supplement packaging was conducted. Descriptive statistics identified common marketing practices. Websites of the three largest retail chain pharmacies in the United States and MVM manufacturers were accessed. The study's sample consisted of packaging for 52 children's MVM supplements. Child-targeted marketing included reference to trademarked characters on 42.3% of MVM packaging (n = 22). More than 80% of the sample (n = 42) listed fruity flavors and almost all packaging included descriptive words related to the MVMs' shape and/or flavor (88.5%, n = 46). Nearly one-fifth of the packaging (n = 10) pictured a food item. With respect to parent-targeted promotional language, almost 83% of the supplement packages (n = 43) included text on the support of bodily structure/function. More than half of the sample (53.8%, n = 28) had promotional language related to dietary practice (e.g. organic, gluten-free). Pediatricians can play a role in ensuring that parents are aware of (1) possible risks associated with MVM overconsumption, and (2) the importance of deriving vitamins and minerals from a balanced diet. Given the high number of exposures to pediatric MVMs among youth and established influence of food marketing on shaping children's perceptions and behaviors, further research is necessary to determine the extent to which children's MVMs are marketed as a food product and perceived as such by children. PMID:25416097

  18. Optimal prices, package sizes and package compositions in a market with variety seeking and loyal consumers

    OpenAIRE

    GIJSBRECHTS, Els; PAUWELS, Wilfried

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyze how the presence of loyal versus variety seeking consumers affects manufacturers’ package decisions. Package decisions relate to the price of the package, the quantity of the commodity it contains, and the number of different varieties in it. We first study the optimal consumption of packages by the two types of consumers, taking into account their purchasing, transaction and inventory cost. We then derive market equilibria in the monopoly and in the duopoly case. Dep...

  19. Child survival and changing fertility patterns in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Z A

    1992-01-01

    feeding, smaller family sizes, and delayed childbearing on child survival are discussed. Lessons to be learned from sub-Saharan Africa are that countries should not be caught in social cutbacks due to structural adjustment packages, and should use approaches, such as in Matlab in Bangladesh, to provide contraceptives and immunization. Policy must emphasize female education at least through the primary level for long lasting effects.

  20. Child life services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Child life programs are an important component of pediatric hospital-based care to address the psychosocial concerns that accompany hospitalization and other health care experiences. Child life specialists focus on the optimal development and well-being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults while promoting coping skills and minimizing the adverse effects of hospitalization, health care, and/or other potentially stressful experiences. Using therapeutic play, expressive modalities, and psychological preparation as primary tools, in collaboration with the entire health care team and family, child life interventions facilitate coping and adjustment at times and under circumstances that might otherwise prove overwhelming for the child. Play and developmentally appropriate communication are used to: (1) promote optimal development; (2) educate children and families about health conditions; (3) prepare children and families for medical events or procedures; (4) plan and rehearse useful coping and pain management strategies; (5) help children work through feelings about past or impending experiences; and (6) establish therapeutic relationships with patients, siblings, and parents to support family involvement in each child's care. PMID:24777212

  1. Antimicrobial seafood packaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suman; Ho Lee, Myung; Park, Lnsik; Shin, Yangjai; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage in most seafood products; however, only few microbes, called the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), contribute to the offensive off-flavors associated with seafood spoilage. In food, microbial degradation manifests itself as spoilage, or changes in the sensory properties of a food product, rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. The use of antimicrobial substances can control the general microflora as well as specific microorganisms related to spoilage to provide products with higher safety and better quality. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures for use in seafood, especially organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins; some studies have considered inorganic compounds such as AgSiO2, zinc oxide, silver zeolite, and titanium oxide. The characteristics of some organic antimicrobial packaging systems for seafood and their antimicrobial efficiency in film structures are reviewed in this article. PMID:27478206

  2. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryter, John Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramaiyan, Kannan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  3. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Summary report of NRC approved packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1). This directory makes available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the back of Volume 1

  4. 49 CFR 173.24 - General requirements for packagings and packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., including reuse provisions; (ii) The packaging is capable of passing the prescribed tests in part 178 of..., packaging compatibility, etc. must be maintained for the minimum and maximum temperatures, changes in... increase of heat or pressure, significantly reduce the effectiveness of the packaging; (4) There will be...

  5. Healthy package, healthy product? Effects of packaging design as a function of purchase setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompay, van Thomas J.L.; Deterink, Florien; Fenko, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by research testifying to the influence of visual packaging appearance and meaning portrayal on food evaluation, here it is argued that effects of packaging design vary depending on purchase context. Realistic packaging variants for a fictitious yoghurt brand varying in health connotation w

  6. Waste package reference conceptual designs for a repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the reference conceptual waste package designs for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to baseline these designs, thereby establishing the configuration and interface controls necessary, within the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, formerly the National Waste Terminal Storage Program, to proceed in an orderly manner with preliminary design. Included are designs for the current reference defense high-level waste form from the Savannah River Plant, an optimized commercial high-level waste form, and spent fuel which has been disassembled and compacted into a circular bundle containing either 12 pressurized-water reactor or 30 boiling-water reactor assemblies. For compacted spent fuel, it appears economically attractive to standardize the waste package diameter for all fuel types. The reference waste packages consist of the containerized waste form, a low carbon steel overpack, and, after emplacement, a cover of salt. The overpack is a hollow cylinder with a flat head welded to each end. Its design thickness is the sum of the structural thickness required to resist the 15.4-MPa lithostatic pressure plus the corrosion allowance necessary to assure the required structural thickness will exist through the 1000-year containment period. Based on available data and completed analyses, the reference concepts described in this report satisfy all requirements of the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with reasonable assurance. In addition, sufficient design maturity exists to form a basis for preliminary design; these concepts can be brought under configuration control to serve as reference package designs. Development programs are identified that will be required to support these designs during the licensing process. 19 refs., 37 figs., 31 tabs

  7. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  8. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  9. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7.13) will be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging...

  10. Reliability of industrial packaging for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reus, Roger De; Christensen, Carsten; Weichel, Steen;

    1998-01-01

    Packaging concepts for silicon-based micromachined sensors exposed to harsh environments are explored. By exposing the sensors directly to the media and applying protection at the wafer level the packaging and assembly will be simplified as compared to conventional methods of fabrication...

  11. 40 CFR 262.30 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under 49 CFR parts 173, 178, and 179. ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Packaging. 262.30 Section 262.30... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.30 Packaging....

  12. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollay RW

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  13. Introduction to Software Packages. [Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Sheila, Ed.; And Others

    This document provides an introduction to applications computer software packages that support functional managers in government and encourages the use of such packages as an alternative to in-house development. A review of current application areas includes budget/project management, financial management/accounting, payroll, personnel,…

  14. The power of symbolic packaging cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. van Ooijen

    2016-01-01

    Packaging can be considered as an element of communication in the marketplace. By communicating through packaging, marketers are able to appeal to consumers at the most crucial moment in the consumer decision journey: the point of sale. At the point of sale, consumers are able to consider the purcha

  15. Developing a Package Training System for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, D. L. N.

    1974-01-01

    The hotel and catering industry is one of Great Britain's largest. A packaged training system has been developed to satisfy the needs of this industry, an ever-growing occupational field with multiple categories. The material provided in each package outlines short pieces of instruction and helps the trainer create appropriate training. (DS)

  16. A Thermodynamics Course Package in Onenote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.; Medlin, J. Will; deGrazia, Janet; McDanel, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    A ready-to-use package of active-learning materials for a semester-long chemical engineering thermodynamics course was prepared for instructors, and similar materials are being prepared for a material and energy balance course. The course package includes ConcepTests, explanations of the ConcepTests for instructors, links to screencasts, chapter…

  17. Waste package performance in unsaturated rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unsaturated rock and near-atmospheric pressure of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain present new problems of predicting waste package performance. In this paper we present some illustrations of predictions of waste package performance and discuss important data needs. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  18. Material Efficiency in Dutch Packaging Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; van Sluisveld, M.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implem

  19. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for consu

  20. Evaluation of Five Microcomputer CAD Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the similarities, differences, advanced features, applications and number of users of five microcomputer computer-aided design (CAD) packages. Included are: "AutoCAD (V.2.17)"; "CADKEY (V.2.0)"; "CADVANCE (V.1.0)"; "Super MicroCAD"; and "VersaCAD Advanced (V.4.00)." Describes the evaluation of the packages and makes recommendations for…

  1. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers. PMID:19570250

  2. Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the development of technology-assisted problem solving (TAPS) packages at University Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). The project is the further work of the development of interactive multimedia based packages targeted for students having problems in understanding the subject of engineering mechanics dynamics.…

  3. Fiberboard humidity data for 9975 shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis.Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts.

  4. Fiberboard Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts

  5. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project, Information Package Specification Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D.M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2009-09-28

    This document contains a specification for a standard XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information and the context required to understand and use that information in information management systems and other types of information archives. An information package consists of packaged information, a set of information metadata that describes the packaged information, and an XML signature that protects the packaged information. The information package described in this specification was designed to be used to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. Information package metadata can also include information search terms, package history, and notes. Packaged information can be text content, binary content, and the contents of files and other containers. A single information package can contain multiple types of information. All content not in a text form compatible with XML must be in a text encoding such as base64. Package information is protected by a digital XML signature that can be used to determine whether the information has changed since it was signed and to identify the source of the information. This specification has been tested but has not been used to create production information packages. The authors expect that gaps and unclear requirements in this specification will be identified as this specification is used to create information packages and as information stored in information packages is used. The authors expect to issue revised versions of this specification as needed to address these issues.

  6. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700... PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging..., using, or ingesting household substances, the Commission has determined that packaging designed...

  7. 49 CFR 173.61 - Mixed packaging requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mixed packaging requirements. 173.61 Section 173... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.61 Mixed packaging requirements. (a) An explosive may not be packed in the same outside packaging with any...

  8. 49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Large Packaging identification codes. 178.905... FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.905 Large Packaging identification codes. Large packaging code designations consist of: two numerals specified in paragraph (a) of this section; followed...

  9. The Role of Child Care Providers in Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Nancy L.; Gillespie, Linda G.; Temple, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    Child care providers are likely to be the professionals who most frequently interact with families with young children. Thus, infant and toddler child care providers are uniquely positioned to recognize and respond to families' needs for information and support. This article describes knowledge, skills, and strategies that support child care…

  10. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  11. Is child work necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalotra, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the income from child wage work is necessary to the survival of rural households in Pakistan. It is by no means obvious that it is. For instance, children may work because the returns to work exceed the returns to school, or because parents are selfish or short-sighted. It is argued here that, if child work is necessary, then the income effect of a wage change will dominate the substitution effect and the labour supply curve will be "forward falling" or negativ...

  12. The visually impaired child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa; Kaufman, Lawrence M

    2003-02-01

    This article discusses the causes of childhood blindness and how the primary care provider may begin the appropriate steps toward diagnosing and managing the visually impaired child. Community resources (see Box 3) and low-vision programs in schools should be used so that parents do not need to reinvent strategies to raise a blind child. Worldwide, childhood blindness, which places is a tremendous burden on families and communities of the third world, is mostly preventable with improved hygiene, diet, and immunization. PMID:12713115

  13. Death of a Special Needs Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of a Special Needs Child When a child ... Needs Child Dies The grief that follows the death of a special-needs child comes not only ...

  14. Marital Problems and the Exceptional Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoz, Daniel

    1977-01-01

    The exceptional child, because he/she does not fulfill the parental expectations of a child's behavior, becomes a disturbing child and frequently is labeled as disturbed. The case of one such child is presented and conclusions are drawn. (Author)

  15. Can packaging elements elicit consumers’ emotional responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis; Corsi, Armando; Lockshin, Larry;

    Emotion has been an important concept in many areas of consumer research such as judgment, decision-making and advertising. Little research has been done on emotion in packaging adopting the physiological measures used in other areas. This paper draws on past studies in advertising that measure...... emotional responses toward image, colour and font, and apply them to packaging research. The study tests the extent at which packaging can elicit consumers’ spontaneous emotional response for each of those three elements, by using skin conductance, facial electromyography (EMG) and selfassessment scales....... The results show that packaging can elicit an emotional response via different elements. The paper also raises concerns about the accuracy of using selfreport measures of emotional responses to packaging research....

  16. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-04-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data. PMID:15864957

  17. Packaged entanglement states and particle teleportation

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Rongchao

    2015-01-01

    The entanglement states of particles are now widely used in quantum communication. However, these entanglement states usually relate to only one of the particles' physical quantities. Here we theoretically show that there exists a packaged entanglement state which encapsulates all the necessary physical quantities for completely identifying the particles. We first show that a particle-antiparticle pair can form a packaged entanglement state in which the particles are indeterminate. Thereafter, we gave a possible experimental scheme for testing the packaged entanglement state. Finally, we proposed a protocol for teleporting a particle to an arbitrarily large distance using the packaged entanglement states. These packaged entanglement states could be important for particle physics and be useful in matter teleportation, medicine, remote control, and energy transfer.

  18. A Compact, Modular Superconducting Bolometer Array Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a detector package to house a superconducting bolometer array, SQUID multiplexers, bias and integration circuitry, optical filtering, electrical connectors, and thermal/mechanical interfaces. This package has been used successfully in the GISMO 2mm camera, a 128-pixel camera operating at a base temperature of 270mK. Operation at lower temperatures is allowed by providing direct heat sinking to the SQUIDS and bias resistors, which generate the bulk of the dissipation in the package. Standard electrical connectors provide reliable contact while enabling quick installation and removal of the package. Careful design has gone into the compensation for differing thermal expansions, the need for heat sinking of the bolometer array, and the placement of magnetic shielding in critical areas. In this presentation, we detail the design and performance of this detector package and describe its scalability to 1280- pixel arrays in the near future.

  19. Service Packages – Attractiveness Has Many Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Bondos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to identify the impact of the customer age (especially the Baby boomers generation and the X and the Y generation on the assessment of incentives to buy service package. Belonging to different age generations seems to be important for the effectiveness of service packages sales – the entrance by the consumers in subsequent phases of the life cycle is related to their perception of the market offer. The starting point for the empirical part of the article was to analyze the different average scores attractiveness of the ten packages service features (incentives to purchase. Then, using multidimensional scaling authors determined the similarity or dissimilarity data on a set of applied incentives to use service packages. Visible differences indicate a different perception of the attractiveness of packages representatives of the Baby boomer generation and Y generation. Managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. FITSH -- a software package for image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, András

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the main features of the software package named FITSH, intended to provide a standalone environment for analysis of data acquired by imaging astronomical detectors. The package provides utilities both for the full pipeline of subsequent related data processing steps (incl. image calibration, astrometry, source identification, photometry, differential analysis, low-level arithmetic operations, multiple image combinations, spatial transformations and interpolations, etc.) and for aiding the interpretation of the (mainly photometric and/or astrometric) results. The package also features a consistent implementation of photometry based on image subtraction, point spread function fitting and aperture photometry and provides easy-to-use interfaces for comparisons and for picking the most suitable method for a particular problem. This set of utilities found in the package are built on the top of the commonly used UNIX/POSIX shells (hence the name of the package), therefore both frequently us...

  1. Preliminary conceptual designs for advanced packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study assumes that the spent fuel will be disposed of in mined repositories in continental geologic formations, and that the post-emplacement control of the radioactive species will be accomplished independently by both the natural barrier, i.e., the geosphere, and the engineered barrier system, i.e., the package components consisting of the stabilizer, the canister, and the overpack; and the barrier components external to the package consisting of the hole sleeve and the backfill medium. The present document provides an overview of the nature of the spent fuel waste; the general approach to waste containment, using the defense-in-depth philosophy; material options, both metallic and nonmetallic, for the components of the engineered barrier system; a set of strawman criteria to guide the development of package/engineered barrier systems; and four preliminary concepts representing differing approaches to the solution of the containment problem. These concepts use: a corrosion-resistant meta canister in a special backfill (2 barriers); a mild steel canister in a corrosion-resistant metallic or nonmetallic hole sleeve, surrounded by a special backfill (2 barriers); a corrosion-resistant canister and a corrosion-resistant overpack (or hole sleeve) in a special backfill (3 barriers); and a mild steel canister in a massive corrosion-resistant bore sleeve surrounded by a polymer layer and a special backfill (3 barriers). The lack of definitive performance requirements makes it impossible to evaluate these concepts on a functional basis at the present time

  2. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory.

  3. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  4. When Your Child Has Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You When Your Child Has Tinnitus When Your Child Has Tinnitus Patient Health Information News media interested in ... be continuous or sporadic. This often debilitating condition has been linked to ear injuries, circulatory system problems, ...

  5. Design, fabrication, testing and packaging of a silicon micromachined radio frequency microelectromechanical series (RF MEMS) switch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Giridhar; Ashwini Jambhalikar; Jiju John; R Islam; Ananda Behera; C L Nagendra; George Thachil; M P Srikanth; Shailesh Somani; B H M Darukesha; Srinivasarao Bollu

    2013-04-01

    RF characterization and packaging of a single pole single throw (SPST) direct contact microelectromechanical (MEMS) series radio frequency (RF) switch is reported. Precise thickness of the silicon MEMS structure is achieved using a specially developed silicon Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) thinning process. A stress free release process is employed which ensures a high yield of released microstructures. The design of the device is based on stiffness equations derived from first principles. Displacement of the actuator under applied field is measured to confirm electrostatic pull in, which occurs in the 30–50 V range. The variation of contact resistance with time has been measured and is found to have a power law decay, in agreement with theoretical models. At the bare die level the insertion loss, return loss and the isolation of the switch were measured to be −0.43 dB, −25 dB and −21 dB, respectively at 10 GHz. The devices were packaged in commercially available RF packages and mounted in alumina boards for post package characterization. Due to the presence of bond wires in the signal path of the packaged devices, the RF performance was found to degrade at high frequencies. However, losses were measured to be at acceptable levels up to 2 GHz. Factors contributing to insertion loss at the die and package device levels are discussed in detail with possible solutions.

  6. Completion of the radioactive materials packaging handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance', which will serve as a replacement for the 'Cask Designers Guide'(1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US DOE and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials. Even though the Handbook is concerned with both small and large packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting fissile, radioactive sources (e.g. spent fuels). The safety analysis reports for packagings (SARPs) must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet United States and/or international regulations, all of which are covered in the Handbook. One of the primary goals of the Handbook is to provide information which would guide designers of radioactive materials packages to make decisions that would most likely be acceptable to regulatory agencies during the approval process of the packaging. It was therefore important to find those authors who not only were experts in one or more of the areas that are addressed in a SARP, but who also had been exposed to the regulatory process or had operational experience dealing with a wide variety of package types. Twenty-five such people have contributed their time and talents to the development of this document, mostly on a volunteer basis

  7. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  8. Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able ... resistant to several common antibiotics. To help prevent antibiotic resistance Don't use antibiotics for viruses like colds ...

  9. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): Model AL-M1 nuclear packaging (DOE C of C No. USA/9507/BLF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, H.L.; Whitney, M.A.; Williams, M.A.; Alexander, B.M.; Shapiro, A.

    1987-11-24

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) satisfies the request of the US Department of Energy for a formal safety analysis of the shipping container identified as USA/9507/BLF, also called AL-M1, configuration 5. This report makes available to all potential users the technical information and the limits pertinent to the construction and use of the shipping containers. It includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. A complete physical and technical description of the package is presented. The package consists of an inner container centered within an insulated steel drum. The configuration-5 package contains tritiated water held on sorbent material. There are two other AL-M1 packages, designated configurations 1 and 3. These use the same insulated outer drum, but licensing of these containers will not be addressed in this SARP. Design and development considerations, the tests and evaluations required to prove the ability of the container to withstand normal transportation conditions, and the sequence of four hypothetical accident conditions (free drop, puncture, thermal, and water immersion) are discussed. Tables, graphs, dimensional sketches, photographs, technical references, loading and shipping procedures, Monsanto Research Corporation-Mound experience in using the containers, and a copy of the DOE/OSD/ALO Certificate of Compliance are included.

  10. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  11. Does child abuse cause crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Janet; Tekin, Erdal

    2006-01-01

    Child maltreatment, which includes both child abuse and child neglect, is a major social problem. This paper focuses on measuring the effects of child maltreatment on crime using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focus on crime because it is one of the most socially costly potential outcomes of maltreatment, and because the proposed mechanisms linking maltreatment and crime are relatively well elucidated in the literature. Our work addresses many ...

  12. 16 CFR 503.6 - Packagers' duty to withhold availability of packages imprinted with retail sale price...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 503.6 Packagers... packaging or special package sizes bearing retail sale price representations should contain the condition... such steps, the fact that a particular customer has failed to resell the packages at a price...

  13. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  14. Trends in Child Maltreatment Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Leah E.; Conyngham, Heather A.; May, Patricia F.

    2003-01-01

    Child maltreatment articles (n=2090) published from 1977-1998 were reviewed. Across the period studied, quantitative articles and articles on child sexual abuse increased and theoretical articles and articles on physical abuse decreased. Articles examining child neglect or emotional abuse remained consistently low. Participant recruitment from…

  15. Death of an Adult Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of an Adult Child The death of any child, regardless of cause or age, ... the situations that may have caused their child’s death. Judgmental statements from others indicating that the child ...

  16. CURRICULUM GUIDE, CHILD CARE CENTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    CALIFORNIA CHILD CARE CENTERS WERE ESTABLISHED IN 1943 TO SUPPLY SERVICES TO CHILDREN OF WORKING MOTHERS. THE CHILD CARE PROGRAM PROVIDES, WITHIN NURSERY AND SCHOOLAGE CENTERS, CARE AND EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION FOR PRESCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN. THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE CHILD CENTER PROGRAM IS BASED UPON THE BELIEF THAT EACH CHILD…

  17. Family Interactions and Child Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Nelson, Dana

    Previous research has not correlated parent-child interaction patterns with different forms of child psychopathology. This study examined whether parent-child interaction corresponded with childhood depression/anxiety and childhood aggression. Forty-two clinically-referred children and adolescents, 8 to 16 years old, were classified into four…

  18. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-01

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  19. Thermal analysis of GaN laser diodes in a package structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Mei-Xin; Yang Hui; Zhang Shu-Ming; Jiang De-Sheng; Liu Jian-Ping; Wang Hui; Zeng Chang; Li Zeng-Cheng; Wang Huai-Bing; Wang Feng

    2012-01-01

    Using the finite-element method,the thermal resistances of GaN laser diode devices in a TO 56 package for both epi-up configuration and epi-down configuration are calculated.The effects of various parameters on the thermal characteristics are analysed,and the thicknesses of the A1N submount for both epi-up configuration and epi-down configuration are optimized.The obtained result provides a reference for the parameter selection of the package materials.

  20. The Child Whisperer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.

    2012-01-01

    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…