Sample records for child rearing

  1. Contexts of Child Rearing: Problems and Prospects. (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie


    Synthesizes existing knowledge regarding interpersonal contexts of human development with emerging concepts and data that point to trans-contextual parameters of child-rearing environments. Proposes properties of the environment that foster development: primary and secondary development contexts; the impact of third parties; and interconnections…

  2. Intergenerational Comparisons of Paternal Korean Child Rearing Practices and Attitudes. (United States)

    Jung, Kwanghee; Honig, Alice Sterling


    Explored possible antecedents of paternal child rearing in middle-class, two-parent, Korean families. Found that fathers reported disciplinary practices similar to those of their own fathers. Fathers reported more nurturance and acceptance/flexibility than grandfathers. Paternal job satisfaction, relationship with own mother, and educational…

  3. Parents' perfectionism and its relation to child rearing behaviors. (United States)

    Greblo, Zrinka; Bratko, Denis


    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parents' perfectionism and self-reported parenting behaviors. The study included 786 parents (417 mothers and 369 fathers) of high school students. Results showed that parents' positive and negative perfectionism were differently related to specific forms of child rearing practices. Namely, positive perfectionism was positively, while negative perfectionism was negatively related to parental acceptance for both mothers and fathers. Mothers' and fathers' negative perfectionism was positively related to parental criticism and permissiveness. In addition, fathers' positive perfectionism was negatively associated with permissive child rearing practices. After controlling for background variables, parents' positive and negative perfectionism explained significant amounts of variance in all self-reported parenting dimensions for fathers and significantly accounted for the variance of parental acceptance and criticism for mothers. According to our findings, parents' perfectionism might have an important role in shaping parenting behaviors.

  4. Child Prostitution as Filial Duty? The Morality of Child-Rearing in a Slum Community in Thailand (United States)

    Montgomery, Heather


    It has been claimed that there are universal goals of child-rearing, such as survival of the child or the promotion of their capacity to contribute to economic and social reproduction. Yet in certain circumstances parents appear to pursue child-rearing practices that actively harm children, threaten their survival and inhibit their ability to grow…

  5. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave. (United States)

    Walker, J R


    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  6. Attitudes of Parents Toward Child-Rearing: A Case Study

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    I. Celik


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the investigation of parents’, living in rural areas or urban areas and with children 5-6 years of age, difference in their attitudes towards children according to demographic characteristics and living conditions, rural and urban areas. The study group of the research includes 200 parents who have 5-6 years old children taking pre-school education. 100 of them live in rural areas and 100 of them live in the city center. Instruments of study are Personal Information Form and PARI (Family Life and Child-Rearing Attitude Scale. Independent samples t-test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis were used for data analysis. According to findings, mothers are more over-protective, more democratic and less disciplined than fathers. Parents living urban areas are more over-protective, more democratic and less disciplined than parents living rural areas. Moreover, parents living in extended families are more disciplined, less over-protective and less democratic egalitarian in terms of attitudes than parents live in nucleus families. As a result, educational status, gender, family type and location are predictors for parents’ child-rearing attitude. However, the variables of age and number of children do not contribute to the total variance significantly.

  7. Geometry of rear seats and child restraints compared to child anthropometry. (United States)

    Bilston, Lynne E; Sagar, Nipun


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the geometry of a wide range of restraints (child restraints, booster seats and rear seats) used by children, and how these match their anthropometry, and to determine limitations to restraint size for the population of children using them. The study is motivated by the widespread premature graduation from one restraint type to another, which parents often attribute to children outgrowing their previous restraint. Currently, recommended transitions are based on a small sample of vehicles and children. Outboard rear seat and seat belt geometry (anchorage locations, sash belt angles) from 50 current model vehicles were measured using a custom-developed measuring jig. For 17 child restraints, a 3-dimensional measuring arm was used to measure the geometry of the restraint including interior size and strap slot locations (where relevant). These measurements were compared to anthropometric measurements, to determine the suitability of a given restraint for children of particular ages. The results for the rear seat geometry indicate that all seat cushions were too deep for a child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile until approximately 11.5 years, and half of vehicle seat cushions were too deep for a 15 year old child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile. Sash belt geometry was more variable, with approximately a third of vehicles accommodating 6-8 year olds who approximate the shoulder geometry measurements at the 50th percentile. Dedicated child restraints accommodated most children within recommended age groups, with two exceptions. Several high back booster seats were not tall enough for a child whose seated height is at the 50th percentile for 8 year olds (who is still too short for an adult belt according to current guidelines and the results from the rear seat geometry study), and a small number of forward facing restraints and high back boosters were too narrow for children at the upper end of

  8. Machismo in two cultures: relation to punitive child-rearing practices. (United States)

    Deyoung, Y; Zigler, E F


    The relationship of culture, personality traits, and punitive child-rearing practices to machismo was examined in 40 Guyanese and 40 Caucasian parents with children aged four to 12 years. Guyanese parents were found to adhere more strongly to machista attitudes and beliefs and to employ controlling, authoritarian, and punitive child-rearing techniques more often than did Caucasian parents.

  9. Child-Rearing Inc.: On the Perils of Political Paralysis Down Under (United States)

    Graham, Linda J.


    In his 2007 PESA keynote address, Paul Smeyers discussed the increasing regulation of child-rearing through government intervention and the generation of "experts", citing particular examples from Europe where cases of childhood obesity and parental neglect have stirred public opinion and political debate. In his paper ("Child-Rearing: On…

  10. A Study on the Child-Rearing Pattern of American Family in Lizzie Mc-Guire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Development of globalization makes family education play a more important role in global competition. The child-rear-ing pattern is the reflection of family education. Therefore, the paper will research child-rearing pattern of American family in Lizzie McGuire.

  11. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E. Lindhout; M.T. Markus; T.H.G. Hoogendijk; F. de Boer


    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether

  12. Child rearing practices amongst brothel based commercial sex workers

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    Pardeshi Geeta


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The experiences of the commercial sex workers as they fulfill the role of being a parent, have rarely been reported. Considering their socioeconomic background, profession and work pattern, the women are bound to face major challenges. AIMS: To describe child bearing, family support, dietary practices and various placement options for raising children. STUDY DESIGN : A cross-sectional descriptive study of brothel- based commercial sex workers. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : X2 test, Fisher′s Exact test RESULTS: Some commercial sex workers continued pregnancy with the hope of security and support, while others were compelled to do so, as they report late for medical termination of pregnancy. A group of sex workers (Devdasis received support during pregnancy, delivery, puerperium and child-rearing. The role and responsibilities of raising the child, depended upon the kind of family support available to the mothers. Being a single parent, stigma of the profession, odd working hours and variable family support were major challenges, while the fact that the women were earning, availability of rehabilitation centers, the homogeneous groups within the brothels, supportive peers and local non governmental organizations were factors which helped them in the process of raising their children. CONCLUSIONS : Day care centers and night shelters should be opened up in the red light area where the children can be looked after, during the working hours. The sex workers should be educated about weaning and nutrition. The role of peer workers and NGOs was very important in helping the women raise their children.

  13. Child rearing styles, dental anxiety and disruptive behaviour: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.B.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.


    Aim: This was to explore the relation between children's dental anxiety, their behaviour during treatment and their parent's rearing style. Also the parents' preparation of the child for dental treatment was related to behaviour and parental rearing style. Methods: The parents of 100 children, refer

  14. Change in Women's Perceptions of Parental Child Rearing Attitudes in Turkey: A Three Generation Comparison. (United States)

    Sever, Leyla


    Found significant differences across generations in perceptions of child rearing practices, attitudes, and beliefs. Found a decreasing emphasis on authoritarian control and an increasing emphasis on encouraging independence, open expression, and expression of affect. (PCB)

  15. Predicting relapse of problematic child-rearing situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Assink, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.


    Background The development and evaluation of risk assessment instruments for child maltreatment is still in its infancy, both in the Netherlands and internationally. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive validity of a structured clinical judgement instrument - the Check List of Child S

  16. Maternal Psychiatric Disorders, Parenting, and Maternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.


    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study, were used to investigate associations between maternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Maternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed in 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Maternal anxiety,…

  17. Child Rearing: Passivity and Being Able to Go on. Wittgenstein on Shared Practices and Seeing Aspects (United States)

    Ramaekers, Stefan; Smeyers, Paul


    It is not uncommon to hear parents say in discussions they have with their children "Look at it this way". And called upon for their advice, counsellors too say something to adults with the significance of "Try to see it like this". The change of someone's perspective in the context of child rearing is the focus of this paper. Our interest in this…

  18. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa


    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child's adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal,…

  19. Child-Rearing Inc.: On the Perils of Political Paralysis Down Under (United States)

    Graham, Linda J.


    In his 2007 PESA keynote address, Paul Smeyers discussed the increasing regulation of child-rearing through government intervention and the generation of "experts", citing particular examples from Europe where cases of childhood obesity and parental neglect have stirred public opinion and political debate. In his paper…

  20. Child Rearing Practices Amongst Brothel-based Commercial Sex Workers


    Pardeshi Geeta; Bhattacharya S


    BACKGROUND: The experiences of the commercial sex workers as they fulfill the role of being a parent, have rarely been reported. Considering their socioeconomic background, profession and work pattern, the women are bound to face major challenges. AIMS: To describe child bearing, family support, dietary practices and various placement options for raising children. STUDY DESIGN : A cross-sectional descriptive study of brothel- based commercial sex workers. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : X2 test, Fishe...

  1. The relationships of child and parent factors with children's anxiety symptoms: parental anxious rearing as a mediator. (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Farrell, Lara J


    A considerable body of research has identified various child and parent factors that contribute to and maintain anxiety symptoms in children. Yet relatively few studies have examined child factors (including threat-based cognitive bias, neuroticism, gender, puberty and age) as well as parent factors (including maternal anxiety and child-rearing style) in association with child anxiety symptoms, and the extent to which these factors serve as unique predictors of child anxiety. Moreover, research is lacking on whether parent factors such as child-rearing style, which is often targeted in early intervention and treatment programs, might mediate the association between child factors such as neuroticism, and child anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 85 children between 7 and 12 years of age with varying levels of anxiety, including those with diagnosed anxiety disorders, results showed that children were more anxious when they were reported to be more advanced in pubertal status by their parents, when they had a tendency to interpret more threat in ambiguous situations, and when they self-reported more neuroticism. Regarding parent factors, maternal self-reported trait anxiety and children's perceptions of their mother as having an anxious child-rearing style were associated with higher levels of child anxiety. Moreover, when these correlates of child anxiety were examined in a multivariate model to identify those that had direct as well as indirect associations via maternal anxious child-rearing style, child neuroticism remained as a significant and unique predictor of child anxiety that was also mediated by maternal anxious-rearing. Child neuroticism also mediated the relationship between child pubertal stage and anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of relevant theory and empirical evidence regarding the roles of both child and parent factors in the development of child anxiety.

  2. [Supporting the Love, Marriage, and Child-Rearing of Persons with Schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Emi


    Persons with schizophrenia and their families have strong interests and hopes for love, marriage, pregnancy, and child-rearing. These experiences often lead to recovery from schizophrenia. There are many partners with schizophrenia who enjoy fruitful lives even with their disability. However, only some persons can enter into such lives in the real world in Japan and other countries. This leads persons with schizophrenia to develop a discouraged and disappointed attitude, and also causes professionals of mental health to develop indifference or pessimism about these issues. Schizophrenics are thought to have interests in love and sexual behavior just as strong as the general population. I discuss with my patients about these issues and working life early in the course of treatment. Because they lose their chance to learn adult behavior in social lives with peers due to the beginning of schizophrenia, they need an opportunity to participate in a social situation to learn knowledge and skills of dating and related behaviors, and systematic education such as psycho-education and social skills training should be provided. Continuing married life and child-rearing require more support from experts with rich experience and knowledge. Psychiatrists are required to participate in shared decision-making about medication during pregnancy and breast-feeding, as well as provide knowledge on the benefits and risks of antipsychotics. Net-working with the family, professionals of child welfare, and the community is necessary to support child-rearing. Urakawa Bethel's House was introduced as a pioneering concept to support love, marriage, and child-rearing. Finally, professionals' negative or indifferent attitudes toward these issues are discussed in the setting of treatment. I hope that professionals of mental health will think about these issues from the standpoints of persons with schizophrenia and their families.

  3. As an instance of Mersin province on child rearing according to socioeconomic level

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    Musa Eroğlu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to search the parents who have children aged between 3 to 6 years in Mersin’s Toros district, and to specify how their attitudes of child care- education. At the same time this study also searches the effects of parents’ socioeconomic level of child rearing.This study has been implemented on the 232 volunteer parents who have children aged between 3 and 6 years in Mersin’s Toros district. Applied family life and child care –education scale which has been developed with Öner and Torun (1989, consisted of questionnaires which will affect the attitudes of the parents in terms of child care- education and this includes   demographic information which will introduce the parents. These surveys have been performed by the parents who have children in Toros district’s Playschools, kindergartens and day care center by one-to-one interviews. The data which is obtained from surveys by the help of the SPSS 16.0 packet program has been evaluated by using the rate per cents, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, t- test of analysis of variance and one way ANOVA.In consequence of this assessment has been seen the significant differences between participants’ ages and protectiveness dimension F (3,228 = 2,553; p<0,050], and has been seen the meaningful differences between levels of income and overprotective dimension [f (4,227 =3, 361; p<0,050]As a consequence has been seen the significance of the family’s socioeconomic level of child rearing. Child-rearing attitudes of families with low socio-economic level had significantly more protective attitude.

  4. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents. (United States)

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J


    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed.

  5. The Young Male Adolescent's Perception of Early Child-Rearing Behavior: The Differential Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Family Size (United States)

    Scheck, Dennis C.; Emerick, Robert


    Of all variables studied, education is the best predictor of variation in perceived differences in child rearing practices. The lower the socioeconomic status, the lower the amount of perceived parental support, control, and consistency. (Author/DEP)

  6. An Investigation into the Relationship between Parents' Child-rearing Styles and Domestic Violence against Children in Ahvaz City


    Mahmoud Yaghoubidoust; Halimeh Enayat


    Introduction Domestic violence against children is a global issue which devastates family bonds and threatens individuals' health in mental, physical as well as sexual aspects (Sajadifar 2002:11). There are a lot of factors involving in domestic violence against children. It seems that the parents' child-rearing style is an important factor that plays a pivotal role in decrease or increase of violence against children. Child-rearing style can act as a predicator of social and mental devel...

  7. Communal child-rearing: The role of nurses in school health

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    Fhumulani M. Mulaudzi


    Full Text Available Background: Child-rearing remains a concern within our communities, especially because families of today lack primary parents due to multifaceted challenges such as working mothers, diseases and violence. Health-promoting school initiatives are necessary because they allow a multifaceted approach to child-rearing. They further provide a conducive environment for continued schoolchild-rearing moving from home to school. Objectives: This study promotes an integrated approach to school care using the African concept of Ubuntu – solidarity and sense of community – as a point of departure. The socio-ecological model was used, which includes the work of the school healthcare nurse in contributing to holistic health services. Method: An integrative review was conducted in January 2013, which included methodology studies, a theory review and a variety of studies related to school health. The studies were categorised according to school health, Ubuntu and the socio-ecological model. Findings: The role of school healthcare nurses entails acting as a liaison officer between a variety of stakeholders who work together to shape the future of children. Conclusion: Ubuntu, together with the socio-ecological model, can assist us to involve an entire community to raise children. This knowledge serves as a background to the planning of a school health programme. The role of the nurse in school health can also assist in collaborative efforts to formulate the programme and develop the competencies that will inform school health nurse training curricula.

  8. Authoritarian Child Rearing, Parental Locus of Control, and the Child's Behavior Style. (United States)

    Janssens, Jan M. A. M.


    Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…

  9. Child rearing in a group setting: beliefs of Dutch, Caribbean Dutch, and Mediterranean Dutch caregivers in center-based child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Huijbregts; L. Tavecchio; P. Leseman; P. Hoffenaar


    Child care centers in Western countries are becoming increasingly culturally diverse, regarding both professional caregivers, children, and their parents. Child-rearing beliefs, which differ between cultures, are found to affect process quality and children’s developmental outcomes. The first aim of

  10. Child-rearing Methods and Their Effect on Performance in the Labor Market: Empirical research in Japan (Japanese)


    Nishimura, Kazuo; Yagi, Tadashi


    Chua (2011) compared widespread parenting methods between China and Western countries, and proposed that strict child-rearing helps children succeed, which has generated heated debate among researchers. Ever since Kim (2013) denied the advantages of the "Tiger Mother" method, research on how parenting affects a child's performance has been receiving greater attention. This study analyzed the influence of parenting methods on a child's future. We used data collected in Japan, and used the chil...

  11. Parenthood, child-rearing and fertility in England, 1850-1914. (United States)

    Pooley, Siân


    Fertility declines across Europe and the Anglo-world have been explained as the result of reversals of intergenerational flows of wealth. According to this theory, the child was transformed from an economically-useful household asset to an emotionally-valued parental burden. This article is based on a comparative study of changing understandings of parenthood in three provincial English localities between 1850 and 1914. It works from the premise that in order to make sense of reproductive behaviour, it is essential to examine the meanings that men and women attached to childlessness, child-rearing and parenthood. It is argued that there was not a universal shift that made children into burdens. New understandings of the duties of parenthood did develop, but these were founded on class-, gender- and place-specific interpretations. These encouraged a minority of fathers and mothers to believe that together they had the capacity to improve the lives of their sons and daughters in pioneering ways. Given that husbands and wives had distinct motives for avoiding rearing many children and that the discussion of reproduction was shrouded in silence, the dissemination and use of new ideals of family was crucial in enabling birth control to be thought about respectably within marriage.

  12. Correspondence between mothers' self-reported and observed child-rearing practices. (United States)

    Kochanska, G; Kuczynski, L; Radke-Yarrow, M


    The correspondence between self-reported child-rearing attitudes and practices and actual child management was examined among 68 mothers of young children. Data on mothers' verbal and physical control techniques along with children's responses (cooperation vs. resistance) were obtained during 90 min of spontaneous interaction in a naturalistic setting. Self-report data (the Block Q-Sort) were obtained 1-2 weeks later. The Block Q-Sort factors were combined to represent authoritarian and authoritative patterns of attitudes. The authoritarian pattern was positively associated with the use of direct commands, physical enforcements, reprimands, and prohibitive interventions, and negatively associated with the use of suggestions. The authoritative pattern was positively related to the use of suggestions and positive incentives, and negatively related to the use of physical enforcements, prohibitive interventions, and direct commands. Mothers' enjoyment of the parental role and their negative affect toward the child, as expressed in the Block Q-Sort, were more a result of the child's cooperation/resistance during the interaction than predictors of maternal control strategies.

  13. East Asian child-rearing attitudes: an exploration of cultural, demographic and self-disclosure factors among US immigrants. (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Bernard, Matthew J; Beitel, Mark


    Child-rearing attitudes among East Asian groups have been emphasized in the developmental psychology literature in the context of their association with academic achievement. Although child-rearing attitudes play an important role in the transmission of cultural values, much of the research on East Asian child-rearing attitudes has ignored cultural variables and has instead focused on authoritarian parenting style. The current study examined the association between three classes of variables-culture (i.e., ethnic identity, self-construal, acculturation), demographics (sex, years in the US, English fluency), and self-disclosure-and traditional child-rearing attitudes (TCRA) among East Asian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that higher levels of TCRA would be associated with higher levels of ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, and guarded self-disclosure, and fewer years spent in the United States. The participants included 170 East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) immigrants (88 men, 82 women) who were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Our hypotheses were largely supported. We found that, while there was no significant sex by ethnicity effect for TCRA, men were significantly more likely than women to endorse TCRA and the Korean group had significantly higher TCRA than the Japanese group. Ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, years in the US, and guarded self-disclosure were significant independent predictors of TCRA. The findings suggest the need for broadening the content of assessment tools of child-rearing attitudes and measuring associated cultural and noncultural variables among East Asian ethnic groups. Future research on child-rearing attitudes among Asian ethnic groups may benefit from (1) measuring multiple dimensions of TCRA, (2) assessing associated cultural variables directly rather than inferring them in an ad hoc fashion based on observed ethnicity

  14. An Investigation into the Relationship between Parents' Child-rearing Styles and Domestic Violence against Children in Ahvaz City

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    Mahmoud Yaghoubidoust


    Full Text Available Introduction Domestic violence against children is a global issue which devastates family bonds and threatens individuals' health in mental, physical as well as sexual aspects (Sajadifar 2002:11. There are a lot of factors involving in domestic violence against children. It seems that the parents' child-rearing style is an important factor that plays a pivotal role in decrease or increase of violence against children. Child-rearing style can act as a predicator of social and mental development, academic performance, welfare and even the potentiality of children's problematic behaviors in the future. Child-rearing style can be both the facilitator and inhibitor of antisocial behavior, like domestic violence against adolescent and children. Those studies that talk about antisocial behavior as a result of offensive child-rearing styles have mainly emphasized autocratic parents (Adams, Mount & Mayer 1998. Many studies have indicated that unstable and unorganized child-rearing style is more likely to increase in domestic violence against children. On the other hand, other studies talk about those child-rearing styles which reduce violence against children, emphasizing stable and controlled punishments, in proportion to improper behavior committed by children, which may decrease violence against them (Denton & Kaspf 1994, Krunkuych & Gyrdan 1987. Therefore, with regard to this issue and the importance of the role that parenting styles play in child-rearing, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between parents' child-rearing styles and domestic violence against children in Ahvaz city. Material and Method This is a survey study and research population is consisted of all male and female students of high schools and their parents in Ahvaz, out of which 384 subjects were selected by using Cochran’s formula and through multistage cluster sampling method. By using SPSS software, the questionnaire was processed at two levels of descriptive

  15. Parental rearing as a function of parent's own, partner's, and child's anxiety status: fathers make the difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Bamelis, L.; van der Bruggen, C.


    Parents of children with anxiety disorders are found to be over controlling and more rejecting in parent-child interactions than parents of control children. However, most studies included mothers, and the rearing behaviour of fathers of anxious children is largely unknown. Also, it remains unclear

  16. Effect of Training from Trained Mothers and Education from Mother to Mother on Family Functions and Child-Rearing Attitudes (United States)

    Demircioglu, Haktan; Ömeroglu, Esra


    The effect of training from trained mothers and education from mother to mother on family functions and child-rearing attitudes was examined. The study was conducted in the 2010-2011 academic year in Ankara, and was modeled based on a pre-test, post-test control group experimental pattern. The study was conducted with a total of 96 mothers, with…

  17. The Relationship Between Child-Rearing Styles and the Effects of Familial Death on Pre-Adolescent Children. (United States)

    Choksey, Linda L.

    This paper primarily considers the effects of parental and sibling deaths on preadolescent children, including the relationship of child rearing styles to the process of mourning. Through a review of the literature and an integration of several psychological factors, the author shows that familial death places children at risk. However, she…

  18. Kinematics and shoulder belt position of child rear seat passengers during vehicle maneuvers. (United States)

    Bohman, Katarina; Stockman, Isabelle; Jakobsson, Lotta; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Bostrom, Ola; Arbogast, Kristy B


    Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children and previous research highlighted vehicle maneuvers prior to impact as possible contributing factors. The aim was to quantify kinematics of child occupants during swerving maneuvers focusing on the child's lateral movement and seat belt position relative to the child's shoulder. A study was conducted on a closed-circuit test track with 16 children aged 4-12, restrained in the rear seat of a modern passenger vehicle. A professional driving instructor drove at 50 km/h making sharp turns in a repeatable fashion, resulting in inboard motion of the children. The children were exposed to two turns in each of two restraint systems. Shorter children were on a booster or highback booster cushion. The taller children were seated on a booster cushion or with only a lap and shoulder seat belt. Four film cameras were fixed in the vehicle monitoring the child. Vehicle data were also collected. The seat belt slipped off the shoulder in 1 of 5 turns, varying by age and restraint type. Among shorter children, the belt slipped off in a majority of turns when seated on a booster cushion while the belt remained on the shoulder when seated on the highback booster cushion. Among taller children, the shoulder belt moved far laterally on the shoulder in half of the turns. This data provides valuable knowledge on possible pre-impact postures of children as a result of vehicle swerving maneuvers for a variety of restraint systems.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study on Child Rearing Practices in Rural Goa

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    Jagadish Cacodcar


    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the traditional child rearing practices among rural Goan mothers and the various socio demographic factors influencing these practices. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 307 rural mothers with children < 2 years in two rural areas under rural health and training centre Mandur located 16 kilometres from Panaji Goa, through house to house visits and oral interviews. Analysis of collected data was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version. Chi-square test was applied in addition to proportions and percentages. Results: Rooming in was practiced by majority (86% of the mothers within 24 hours of birth. 46.25% of the mothers fed colustrum to their newborns while 73.62 % of the mothers breastfed within 24 hours. 37.59% of the mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for the first six months. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 11.015 th months. 90% of the women was educated 12 standard and above breastfed their babies up to 12 months. Bottle feeding was common (75%. Cereal based diet was the commonest complementary feeding administered by 23% of the mothers. Commonest traditional practices followed included oil massage (97.72% and use of amulets/talisman (97.72% in the study population. Conclusion: Beneficial infant feeding practices such as early initiation of breastfeeding and feeding of colustrum among rural Goan mothers was low despite accessible antenatal care and health care services. However, though some of the traditional children rearing practices followed such as oil massage, delivery at parents' home were as per the recommended norms, some of the beliefs/practices such as kajal application, bathing the newborn immediately after birth, need to be replaced by sound and scientific methods.


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    Alejandro Pachajoa Londoño **


    Full Text Available Resumen:En un primer momento se plantea la relación entre las múltiples concepciones de la infancia y las pautas de crianza a travésde diversos períodos de la historia de la humanidad. Luego se hace énfasis en lo que acontece durante los primeros años devida del niño a nivel social y familiar para comprender cómo se percibe la niñez, qué se entiende por crianza y cuáles son loscomponentes de la misma en la actualidad. Finalmente se recomienda reflexionar acerca de la necesidad de proponerestudios que desde la psicología den cuenta de las condiciones político-legislativas nacionales que determinan gran parte dela crianza de los niños.Abstract:At first we explain the connection between the multiple conceptions of childhood and some child rearing norms in severalperiods of human history. Then we emphasize what happens during the child first years of life, in a social and family way, tounderstand how childhood is perceived, what child rearing means and which its components are nowadays. Finally werecommend to think about the need to propose psychological studies about national political and legislative conditions thatestablish most of the child rearing.

  1. A dutch adaptation of the child-rearing styles inventory and a validation of krohne's two-process model. (United States)

    Depreeuw, E; Lens, W; Horebeek, W


    Abstract A Questionnaire for the Parent-Child Interaction (VOKI) has been developed by adapting Krohne's German ESI for the Flemish high school population. The psychometric characteristics of the adaptation are satisfying. The ESI factor structure has been replicated and the VOKI scales are perfectly comparable to the original German scales. Further research on the VOKI and two questionnaires assessing achievement related concepts such as test anxiety, procrastination and achievement motivation yielded correlational patterns partly predicted from Krohne's Two-Process Model. The relations between parental child-rearing styles and competence and consequence expectancies are in line with this model, whereas test anxiety and procrastination seem more complexly determined.

  2. Child-rearing practices and social development indicators in three-year-old children / Práticas educativas maternas e indicadores do desenvolvimento social no terceiro ano de vida

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    Patrícia Alvarenga


    Full Text Available The present work aimed at investigating relations between maternal child-rearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and social competence indicators of thirty-month-old children. The study involved 23 child-mother dyads. In the child's thirtieth month after birth, an observation of mother-child interaction was performed in order to evaluate maternal child-rearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and child social competence. The results support the literature about social development that relates child-rearing practices such as guidance, assertive control and positive parental involvement to social competence, and coercive and permissive practices to externalizing behavior problems. The work discusses the relevance of parental child-rearing practices for the comprehension of the social development, emphasizing the importance of child-rearing practices, such as autonomy authorization, intrusiveness and ambiguous control.

  3. Knowledge and practices regarding child rearing and its association with literacy among married women in a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India

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    Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader


    Full Text Available Background: India contributes a large proportion to global under-five child mortality. One of the determinants of child morbidity and mortality is the "child rearing practices." Socio-economic environment, child rearing practices and nutritional status play a synergistic role. Materials and Methods: Information was collected by exit interviews from married women attending out-patient departments of three primary health centers. Data was collected during December, 2009 using pretested questionnaire Married women in reproductive age group with youngest child in the age group of 1-5 years were eligible for inclusion. To assess the child rearing knowledge and practices (CRKP, a composite score was calculated based on 10 variables and categorized into satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Results: A total of 100 eligible married women were included in the study. About half of the women were in the age group of 25-35 years, 80% belonged to social class V and VI majority (63% were literate and 70% had ≥2 children. With the increase in literacy status, there was the increase in proportion of women who had satisfactory CRKP and decrease in proportion of women who had given pre-lacteal feed. Among women who had three children, 15 out of 39 (38% had fully immunized their first child as compared with 25 out of 39 (64% for the second child and 38 out of 39 (97% for the third child. Immunization coverage increased as the birth order increased. Conclusion: Mothers' education has a significant role in determining her child rearing practices, which in turn would lead better child survival.

  4. A questionnaire study on attitudes toward birth and child-rearing of university students in Japan, China, and South Korea. (United States)

    Yu, Liling; Kato, Yutaka; Shishido, Keisuke; Doi, Hideko; Jin, Haeng mi; Wang, Jin gang; Ikezawa, Junko; Awaya, Tsuyoshi


    This study examines the attitudes of young Japanese, Chinese, and South Koreans toward birth and child-rearing. The survey targeted four-year university students (n=1,668) who responded to an anonymous survey using self-report questionnaires between December 2012 and April 2013. The collection rates were 72.5%, 94.7%, and 96.5% for the Japanese, Chinese, and South Korean students, respectively. Correlations among the respondents' attributes, medical and scientific literacy levels, and views of preferred qualities of children were analyzed using chi-square test, supplemented by residual analysis (significance level set at p<0.05). Participants were asked whether they were willing to use the following methods for obtaining preferred qualities in their children:(1) choosing a spouse (43.2%, 72.6%, and 85.1% of the Japanese, Chinese, and South Koreans, respectively, agreed);(2) using a sperm bank (cryobank) (5.8%, 60.1%, and 81.7% of the Japanese, Chines, and South Koreans, respectively, agreed);and (3) using an egg cell bank (ova bank or cryobank) (5.3%, 47.2%, and 70.3% of the Japanese, Chinese, and South Koreans, respectively, agreed). The proportion of affirmative responses (indicating "eugenic inclination") to these statements was significantly higher among the Chinese and South Korean participants than their Japanese counterparts (p<0.001). Significant differences were also found in the attitudes of the 3 groups toward methods for obtaining the preferred qualities for their children:prenatal diagnosis, pre-implantation diagnosis, the environment during pregnancy, and child-rearing.

  5. Predicting Family Poverty and Other Disadvantaged Conditions for Child Rearing from Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.


    This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…

  6. Modeling and Compensatory Processes Underlying Involvement in Child Care among Kibbutz-Reared Fathers (United States)

    Gaunt, Ruth; Bassi, Liat


    This study examined modeling and compensatory processes underlying the effects of an early paternal model on father involvement in child care. Drawing on social learning theory, it was hypothesized that father-son relationships would moderate the association between a father's involvement and his own father's involvement. A sample of 136 kibbutz…

  7. Spare the rod and spoil the child. Is this a sensible justification for the use of punishment in child rearing? (United States)

    Carey, T A


    This paper examines the validity of the well-used proverb Spare the rod and spoil the child. To do this, the original form of the proverb from the Bible is compared with the modern form, and some significant differences are highlighted. The definition of punishment is considered, and the differences between punishment and corporal punishment are examined. Punishment is explored in some detail with attention given to the criteria that need to be satisfied in order for punishment to be effective. Discrepancies in the literature concerning these criteria are pointed out, making punishment a complex issue. The negative effects of punishment are significant with links to social problems such as teenage delinquency and violence. Reference is made to cultures where corporal punishment has been banned and the effects of this action. Given the problems associated with punishment programs, especially those being used in families, alternatives to punishment are discussed. Finally, an alternative form of the proverb to the current adaptation is offered.

  8. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on improving home environment and child-rearing practices: results from a community-based trial among severely malnourished children in Bangladesh

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    Nahar Baitun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parenting programmes are effective in enhancing parenting practices and child development. This study evaluated the effects of a intervention with psychosocial stimulation (PS on the quality of the home environment and mothers’ child-rearing practices in a community-based trial with severely malnourished Bangladeshi children. Method Severely underweight children (n = 507, 6–24 months of age, were randomly assigned to five groups: PS; food supplementation (FS; PS + FS; clinic-control (CC; and, hospital-control (CH. PS included fortnightly follow-up visits for six months at community clinics where a play leader demonstrated play activities and gave education on child development and child rearing practices. FS comprised cereal-based supplements (150–300 kcal/day for three months. All groups received medical care, micronutrient supplements and growth monitoring. Mothers were given the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME inventory and a questionnaire on parenting at baseline and after six months to assess the outcome. Results 322 children completed the study. After six months of intervention the PS + FS and PS groups benefitted in the total HOME score (depending on the comparison group, effect sizes varied from 0.66 to 0.33 SD The PS + FS and PS groups also benefitted in two HOME subscales: maternal involvement (effect sizes: 0.8 to 0.55 SD and play materials, (effect sizes: 0.46 to 0.6 SD, and child-rearing practices scores (effect size: 1.5 to 1.1 SD. The PS + FS group benefitted 4.0 points in total HOME score compared with CH, 4.8 points compared with CC and 4.5 points compared with FS (p  Conclusions Child-rearing practices of mothers of severely malnourished children and the quality of their home environment can be improved through community-based psychosocial stimulation with or without food supplementation. This may be of importance to promote child development.

  9. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

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    Anselm Crombach


    Full Text Available Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods: Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results: We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.

  10. Rear-facing car seat (image) (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  11. Práticas educativas maternas e indicadores do desenvolvimento social no terceiro ano de vida Child-rearing practices and social development indicators in three-year-old children

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    Patrícia Alvarenga


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as relações entre as práticas educativas maternas e indicadores dos problemas de externalização e da competência social em crianças aos 30 meses de vida. Participaram do estudo 23 díades mãe-criança. No 30º mês de vida da criança foi realizada uma observação da interação mãe-criança para a avaliação das práticas educativas maternas, dos problemas de externalização e da competência social das crianças. Os resultados apóiam a literatura que relaciona práticas de orientação, controle assertivo e envolvimento parental positivo à competência social, e práticas coercitivas e permissivas aos problemas de externalização. Discute-se a relevância das práticas educativas parentais para a compreensão do desenvolvimento social, enfatizando a importância de práticas menos referidas na literatura, como a autorização de autonomia, a intrusividade e o controle ambíguo.The present work aimed at investigating relations between maternal child-rearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and social competence indicators of thirty-month-old children. The study involved 23 child-mother dyads. In the child's thirtieth month after birth, an observation of mother-child interaction was performed in order to evaluate maternal child-rearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and child social competence. The results support the literature about social development that relates child-rearing practices such as guidance, assertive control and positive parental involvement to social competence, and coercive and permissive practices to externalizing behavior problems. The work discusses the relevance of parental child-rearing practices for the comprehension of the social development, emphasizing the importance of child-rearing practices, such as autonomy authorization, intrusiveness and ambiguous control.

  12. Metaparenting: associations with parenting stress, child-rearing practices, and retention in parents of children at risk for ADHD. (United States)

    Tamm, Leanne; Holden, George W; Nakonezny, Paul A; Swart, Sarah; Hughes, Carroll W


    The aim of the study is to investigate metaparenting (effortful, deliberate cognition about parenting) in parents of children at risk for ADHD including predictors, correlates, and intervention outcomes. Parents (n = 68) of children with significant ADHD symptoms (i.e., ≥ 6 inattentive or hyperactive/impulsive symptoms with impairment in ≥ 2 settings, mostly un-medicated) provided ratings of metaparenting, parenting stress and practices, and child ADHD symptoms before and after parent training. Parents were predominantly Caucasian, in their upper thirties, and most had schooling beyond high school. We investigated the relation between metaparenting and baseline predictors, and whether metaparenting predicted (1) parenting behaviors at baseline, (2) attrition, and (3) parenting stress and parent/child behaviors at outcome. More educated mothers, with fewer people living in the home, and higher levels of parenting stress, reported more metaparenting. Parents with lower problem-solving and assessing scores reported more inconsistent parenting, and those with lower problem-solving scores were more likely to drop out of parent training. Higher problem-solving and reflecting scores at baseline were associated with more parental stress. Higher reflecting at baseline predicted child hyperactivity/impulsivity at outcome. Our findings indicate metaparenting is associated with parenting behaviors and decisions to complete parent training. Furthermore, metaparenting appears to be a complex, finely nuanced construct with both positive and negative associations with reports of parenting practices and stress.

  13. Father involvement in early child-rearing and behavioural outcomes in their pre-adolescent children: evidence from the ALSPAC UK birth cohort (United States)

    Redshaw, Maggie; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Quigley, Maria A


    Objective To explore the nature of paternal involvement in early child-rearing adopting a social developmental perspective, and estimate its effect on behavioural outcomes of children aged 9 and 11 years. Setting The data come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the former county of Avon in the southwest of England. Participants Out of the 14 701 children in this cohort who were alive at 1 year, 10 440 children were living with both parents at 8 months and were therefore eligible. Outcome data were available for 6898 children at 9 years and 6328 children at 11 years. Main exposure Paternal involvement was measured using factor scores obtained through factor analysis of fathers’ responses on their participation in, understanding of, and feelings about their child's early upbringing. Outcome Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties score. Results 3 factors were identified in the factor analysis: Factor 1 described fathers’ emotional response to the child; factor 2 measured the frequency of fathers’ involvement in domestic and childcare activities; factor 3 characterised fathers’ feelings of security in their role as parent and partner. Children of fathers with high scores on factors 1 and 3 had 14% (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.94, p=0.001) and 13% (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96, p=0.006), respectively, lower adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 9 years. Factors 1 and 3 were associated with comparable reduction in adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 11 years (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.98, p=0.017 and OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.99, p=0.034, respectively). Factor 2 was not associated with the outcome. Conclusions Psychological and emotional aspects of paternal involvement in children's early upbringing, particularly how new fathers see themselves as parents and adjust to the role, rather than the quantity of direct

  14. Child-rearing in an indigenous Sami population in Norway: a cross-cultural comparison of parental attitudes and expectations. (United States)

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja


    Semi-structured interviews of 76 Sami mothers and 58 Sami fathers, and 86 Norwegian mothers and 58 Norwegian fathers of four-year olds, revealed consistent cross-cultural differences in parenting. ANCOVA results showed that parental permissiveness was higher in the Sami group. Moreover, the effect of ethnicity was different for boys and girls (mothers' reports). Co-sleeping and self-regulation of food and sleep were commonly practiced in the Sami, but not in the Norwegian families. Sami children were more socially independent than their Norwegian peers. Indirect or internal types of control were used more by Sami parents, and they were less tolerant of child aggression, in the form of temper tantrums and displays of jealousy. These patterns are similar to those found in other indigenous cultures in the circumpolar region. The results are discussed with reference to the Individualism-Collectivism dimension. The study challenges the Individualism-Collectivism construct for apparently confounding the individualism common in European liberalism with the individual autonomy commonly encountered among hunting-gathering peoples.

  15. Parents' Child-rearing Sex-role Attitudes and Its Relationship with Their Gender Schematicity%父母的性别角色教养态度及其与性别图式的关系

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    王美芳; 袁翠翠; 杨峰; 曹仁艳


    Objective:To explore the characteristics of parental child-rearing sex-role attitudes towards children aged 3-to 8-year old and its relationship with their gender schematicity.Methods:349 children's parents were examined by the Parental Child-rearing Sex-role Attitudes Scale and the Bem's Sex Role Inventory.Results:①Fathers' and mothers' scores on the Parental Child-rearing Sex-role Attitudes Scale were both significantly higher than the medians of the scale,and there was no significant differences between fathers' and mothers' scores.②Girls' fathers and mothers scored both significantly higher than boys' fathers and mothers on the Parental Child-rearing Sex-role Attitudes Scale.③There were no significant differences among different age groups.④Gender schematic parents scored significantly lower than gender aschematie parents on the Parental Child-rearing Sex-role Attitudes Scale.Conclusion:On the whole,the child-rearing gender-role attitudes of parents tend to be nontraditional,but parents' child-rearing gender-role attitudes vary with children's gender and their own gender schematicity.%目的:探讨3~8岁儿童父母性别角色教养态度的特点及其与性别图式的关系.方法:使用父母性别角色教养态度量表及贝姆性别角色量表对349名儿童的父亲和母亲进行调查.结果:①3~8岁儿童父亲和母亲的性别角色教养态度得分均显著高于量表计分中位数,并且父亲和母亲得分不存在显著差异;②女孩父亲和母亲的性别角色教养态度得分均显著高于男孩父亲和母亲的性别角色教养态度得分;③不同年龄儿童的父亲和母亲的性别角色教养态度得分之间无显著差异;④性别图式化父母的性别角色教养态度得分显著低于性别非图式化父母的性别角色教养态度得分.结论:整体而言,父母倾向持有非传统的性别角色教养态度,但他们的性别角色教养态度因儿童性别和自身性别图式的不同而不同.

  16. 独生与非独生子女家庭父母养育方式的比较研究%Comparative Study of Parental Rearing Patterns between Single and Non-Single Child in Family.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立新; 彭金维; 奚燕娟


    【Objective】 To compare the features of parental rearing patterns between single and non-single child in family. 【Methods】 191 single and 133 non-single children aged from 9 to 14 years old were asked to complete the Chinese Revision of EMBU. 【Results】 ①Single child got higher scores than non-single child in the factors of parent's warmth and understanding.②Single boy obtained lower scores than non-single boy in the factors of mother's punishment and rejection.③ Single girl obtained lower score than non-single girl in the factor of father's over-protect.  【Conclusions】 Comparing with non-single child family, those parent of single child family trended to choice the better behavior style in rearing patterns.%【目的】比较独生与非独生子女家庭父母养育方式的差异。【方法】采用岳冬梅修订的父母养育方式评价量表对9~14岁独生子女和非独生子女儿童进行测试。【结果】独生子女家庭父母采用情感温暖的养育方式明显高于非独生子女组;独生男童的母亲采取惩罚严厉和拒绝否认养育方式明显少于非独生男童组;而独生女童的父亲采用过度保护的养育方式也明显少于非独生女童组;另外,受教育程度高的父母亲更倾向于采用较好的养育方式来教养自己的子女。【结论】独生子女家庭父母亲采用的养育方式优于非独生子女家庭,并且父母采用的养育方式对男女性别的儿童有明显差异。

  17. The Change and Guide Correction of the Concept of Marriage and Child Rearing of Migrant Workers%农民工婚育观的跨代变迁与引导校正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Two generations of peasant workers' growth course is very good to deduce the concept of marriage and child rearing of Chinese workers. They changed the concept of Love, Mating view, Matrimony mode, procreation conception, family model and divorce view in the symbiosis and conflict between modem and traditiona. The new generation of migrant workers has being deeply troubled by too higher love "sunk cost", the cost of marriage stress, highlight of older workers class, and marriage crisis. It must be the best way to solve problem of marriage and child rearing of Migrant workers, by developing the local economy, improveing the comprehen sive quality of rural migrant workers, strengthening the humanities concern, breakthrough the system obstacles.%两代农民工的成长历程很好地演绎了中国农民工的婚育观,他们在现代与传统的共生与冲突中实现着恋爱观、择偶观、婚配模式、生育观、家庭模式、离婚观的变迁。新生代农民工深受恋爱的“沉没成本”太高、婚姻的成本叠加压力过大、大龄农民工阶层凸显、婚姻危机纷生等婚育困境的困扰。解决新生代农民工的婚育问题,须大力发展地方经济,提升农民工综合素质,加强人文关怀,突破制度障碍。

  18. Neuroethics vs neurophysiologically and neuropsychologically uninformed influences in child-rearing, education, emerging hunter-gatherers, and artificial intelligence models of the brain. (United States)

    Pontius, A A


    Potentially negative long-term consequences in four areas are emphasized, if specific neuromaturational, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological facts within a neurodevelopmental and ecological context are neglected in normal functional levels of child development and maturational lag of the frontal lobe system in "Attention Deficit Disorder," in education (reading/writing and arithmetic), in assessment of cognitive functioning in hunter-gatherer populations, specifically modified in the service of their survival, and in constructing computer models of the brain, neglecting consciousness and intentionality as criticized recently by Searle.

  19. Crenças e atitudes educativas dos pais e problemas de saúde mental em escolares Parental beliefs and child-rearing attitudes and mental health problems among schoolchildren

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    Ymara Lúcia Camargo Vitolo


    -graders from public and private schools in Southeastern Brazil. Standardized instruments were administered to parents/caretakers by trained interviewers, including screening questionnaires for mental health problems among children and parents/caretakers; a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes; and a questionnaire for socio-economic status. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: We found 35.2% prevalence of clinical/borderline cases among students. Parents/caretakers that believed in corporal punishment as a child-rearing method used physical aggression towards their children more frequently (64.8%. Logistic regression models showed that the act of hitting the child with a belt was associated to conduct problems and to overall mental health problems among schoolchildren in the presence of other risk factors: child gender (male, parents/caretakers with mental health problems, and adverse socioeconomic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of mental health problems among schoolchildren and its association with child-rearing methods and mental health problems among parents/caretakers indicate the need for psycho-educational interventions aimed to reduce physical abuse and mental health problems in childhood.

  20. Analysis on Influencing Factors of Di rect Economic Cost of Child Rearing in a Family%中国儿童抚养直接经济成本影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Using 2014 Chinese family development track survey data ,direct economic cost of child rearing in a family from Age 0 to Age 5 is estimated and analyzed from the perspective of family expenses .The study finds that from nationwide ,a family need to spend about 10 454 yuan on average every year ,and a total of 62 ,726 yuan for a child from birthdate to Age 5 ,which brings some economic pressure to the families and affects their decision making of giving birth to the second child .The regression results show that some variables have a significant impact on the cost ,including the only child ,left‐behind children ,age of children ,kindergarten ,being in hospi‐tal due to injury and illness ,breastfeeding ,family income ,university educational level of parents , age of parents ,parents for daily care ,parents for child education ,difference between urban and rural areas ,city scale (first‐tier cities) .Proposals are presented as follow s :increasing child medi‐cal insurance ,promoting breastfeeding ,adding financial investment to kindergartens ,paying at‐tention to education of disadvantaged children ,giving certain economic aid and social policy sup‐port to low income and vulnerable children and families in order to reduce the economic pressure of family parenting .%采用2014年中国家庭发展追踪调查数据,从家庭支出的角度,对0~5周岁儿童抚养直接经济成本进行估算和分析。研究发现,从全国看,抚养一个0~5岁的儿童每年平均大概需要10454元,如果将一个孩子从出生抚养到5周岁共需62726元,这给家庭带来了一定的经济压力,影响了生育二胎的抉择。回归结果显示,独生子女、留守儿童、儿童年龄、上幼儿园、伤病住院、医保、母乳喂养、家庭收入、父母学历为大学的、父母年龄、父母为日常主要照看者、父母为孩子的日常主要教育者、城乡差异、城市规模(一线城市)等因素都会对儿童

  1. 重性抑郁障碍儿童少年的父母养育方式探讨%Research on Relationship between Child and Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder and Parental Rearing Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗新坚; 叶敏捷; 姜德国


    Objective: To explore the relationship between child and adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) and parental rearing patterns. Methods: Using frequency matched case-control study design, 98 children with MDD and 125 controls were administered with Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran. Logistic regression was used to identify factors related to MDD. Results: Perceived high pressure from study (OR=3.30), bad parents' relationship (OR=3.28), bad marital status (OR=2.61), high score on father's rejection scale(OR=1.27). father with physical labor (OR=1.18), high score on father's punishment scale (OR=1.14), shorter duration of mother's education year(OR=1.12) and high score on mother's rejection scale (OR l.ll) were risk factors for child and adolescent MDD. High score on father's warmth scale (OR=0.83) and high score on mother's warmth scale (OR-0.74) were protective factors. Conclusions: We should reduce bad parental factors and rearing patterns to prevent MDD among children and adolescents.%目的:探讨儿童少年重性抑郁障碍与父母教养方式的关系.方法:采用频数匹配病例对照研究,98例重性抑郁障碍儿童少年和125例正常对照自评完成父母养育方式问卷:使用Logistic回归筛选儿童少年重性抑郁障碍的危险因素.结果:儿童少年重性抑郁障碍的危险因素分别为自觉学习压力大(OR=3.30)、父母关系差(OR=3.28)、父母婚姻状况不良(OR=2.61)、父亲拒绝分高(OR=1.27)、父亲职业以体力劳动为主(OR=1.18)、父亲惩罚分高(OR=1.14)、母亲受教育年限短(OR=1.12)和母亲拒绝分高(OR=1.11);父亲情感温暖分高(OR=0.83)和母亲情感温暖分高(OR=0.74)为儿童少年重性抑郁障碍的保护因素.结论:预防儿童少年抑郁障碍的发生,需要从改善不良的父母因素和教养方式入手.

  2. Comparison and Enlightenment of the Current Situation of Father Involvement in Child Rearing in China and the United States%中美父亲参与幼儿教养的现状比较及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A large number of studies have proved that father's participation is important to the healthy growth of children. However, the relevant survey shows that the phenomenon of"father absence"is widespread in our country at present, which is not conducive to the development of young children, and will have a negative impact on the quality of human resources and national competitiveness as well. Based on the introduction of the current situation of father involvement in child rearing in China and the US, the comparison shows that the amount of time and participation patterns of Chinese fathers are obviously insufficient. And drawing lessons from the experience of the US, this study summs up that China should starts from the legislation, policy, educa⁃tion institutions, communities and families, etc., to promote fathers’participation in early childhood education.%大量研究证明,父亲参与对幼儿健康成长具有重要价值。然而,相关调查显示,目前我国“父亲缺失”的现象普遍存在。这既不利于幼儿发展,也将对我国未来人力资源质量和国家竞争力产生不利影响。比较分析中美父亲参与幼儿教养的现状发现,我国父亲在参与时间量和参与方式上都存在明显不足。美国经验启示我国应从立法、政策、教育机构、社区和家庭等方面入手,促进父亲参与幼儿教养。

  3. Perspectiva dos pais sobre educação e castigo físico Perspectiva de los padres sobre educación y castigo físico Parent's perspective on child rearing and corporal punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguir Terezinha Vieccelli Donoso


    organizados en temas y categorías. ANÁLISIS DEL DISCURSO: Los resultados señalaron la restricción de los discursos de los entrevistados en función de sus condiciones de producción. Hubo diversidad de concepciones sobre educación y formas de educar, teniendo como puntos comunes el relato de la práctica de la punición física por todos los padres, inclusive entre aquellos que la condenan. Los discursos fueron marcados por la heterogeneidad y polifonía, sobresaliéndose el discurso de la tradición, el discurso religioso y el discurso científico popularizado. No fue observada expresión de concepto de interdicción legal de la práctica o de sus excesos por los participantes. CONCLUSIONES: La cultura de castigo físico se encuentra en transición, en que la tradición de permisividad se debilita y la interdicción se inicia lentamente. Refuerzo de acciones de represión legal a la práctica podría contribuir para acelerar el proceso de interdicción del castigo físico.OBJECTIVE: To describe parents' current perception of corporal punishment associated to child rearing and its practices. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES: There were studied 31 family members whose children were warded due to child abuse complaints (12 and not warded (19 at a health care unit and a local social service unit in the city of Belo Horizonte (Southeastern Brazil in 2006. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and speech analysis was performed grouped by subjects and categories. ANALYSIS OF DISCOURSE: There was limitation of the respondents' speeches based on their production means. There was a diversity of conceptions on child rearing and its practices and corporal punishment was reported by all parents, even among those who expressed strong disapproval of this practice. Speeches were characterized by heterogeneity and polyphony with emphasis on the tradition speech, the religious speech and the popular scientific speech. Respondents did not express concepts of legal interdiction of

  4. Single Fathers Rearing Children. (United States)

    Greif, Geoffrey L.


    Describes single fathers rearing children alone following divorce (N=1,136). Findings revealed four primary reasons for the divorce and four broad situations in which the fathers obtained custody. These latter situations often are affected by the mother's desire to relinquish custody. (NRB)

  5. Evaluation of Pediatric Use Patterns and Performance of Lap Shoulder Belt Systems in the Center Rear



    Lap and shoulder belts have been required in rear outboard positions since 1989. A recent congressional mandate encouraged the requirement of a lap and shoulder belt in the center rear seat position. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to quantify changes in seating patterns for children in vehicles that already have this feature compared to those which do not and measured the safety benefit associ...

  6. Influence of situational health education on self-efficacy of primipara in breast-feeding and child rearing%情境体验式健康教育对初产妇母乳喂养和育儿自我效能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雪萍; 黄婉琴; 林可珊


    目的:探讨情境体验式健康教育对初产妇母乳喂养和育儿自我效能的影响。方法将2012年9月~2013年8月在本院进行产前检查的185例孕妇设为对照组,产前实施传统的健康教育;2013年9月~2014年8月在本院进行产前检查的192例孕妇设为观察组,产前实施情境体验式健康教育。于产妇出院前和出院后(产后6周)了解两组产妇母乳喂养和育儿自我效能情况。结果出院前后观察组产妇母乳喂养和育儿自我效能均优于对照组;出院后两组产妇母乳喂养和育儿自我效能均优于出院前(均P<0.05)。结论应用情境体验模式对孕妇开展健康教育,提高了初产妇母乳喂养和育儿自我效能,进而有利于新生儿的生长发育。%Objective To explore the effect of situational health education on self-efficacy of primipara in breast-feeding and child rearing. Methods One hundred and eighty-five pregnant women taking prenatal examinations in our hospital from September 2012 to August 2013 were selected into control group and they received traditional education. Another one hundred and ninety-two pregnant women taking the same prenatal examinations in our hospital from Sep 2013 to Aug 2014 were selected into experiment group and the antenatal situational health education was applied . The self-efficacy in breast-feeding and child rearing of the two groups before and after discharged from hospital (6 weeks after delivery) were compared. Result The self-efficacy in breast-feeding and child rearing of the experiment group were significantly better than those of the control group and before discharged from hospital (P<0.05). Conclusion The situational health education is important for increasing self-efficacy in breast-feeding and child rearing and is beneficial for the growth and development of the neonates.

  7. Early Child Care in Switzerland (United States)

    Luscher, Kurt K.; And Others


    This monograph provides a comprehensive description of the multiple, diverse, and complex systems of child care in Switzerland today. The following topics are discussed: prevailing conceptions of the child-rearing process, the relationship between family and society, socialization, training of personnel, information dissemination, mass media and…

  8. Study of Parental Rearing Patterns in Single Child Family in Cities of ShanDong Province%山东省城市独生父母家庭幼儿教养方式的现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着我国第一代独生子女进入育儿高峰期,独生父母的育儿观念和方式越来越受到社会的关注。本文以子女为学龄前儿童的城市独生父母家庭为研究对象,调查了他们的教养方式的现状及存在问题,并讨论了解决方案。%As the first generation of single child family into parenting peak,single child family,s parenting style and concept were paid attention to.Taking the city for pre-school children single-child family as the research object,we investigate their upbringing of the present situation and the existing problems,and discusses the solution.

  9. Multivariate head injury threshold measures for various sized children seated behind vehicle seats in rear impacts. (United States)

    Saczalski, Kenneth; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Pozzi, Mark; Saczalski, Todd; Burton, J L; Lewis, P


    Government recommendations to place children into the rear areas of motor vehicles to avoid airbag induced injuries have been complicated by the fact that most adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear area during rear-impacts, and thus pose another potentially serious injury hazard to rear-seated children. Many variables affect whether or not a front seat occupant will collapse into the rear child, and whether that interaction could be injurious to the child. For instance, the severity of rear impact, coupled with front and rear occupant sizes (mass and stature), and the level of front seat strength, all interrelate to influence whether or not a rear seated child is likely to be impacted and possibly injured. The most common types of child injuries in these instances are head and chest injuries. In this study, a "high-low" experimental method was employed with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study "multivariate" biomechanics of child head injury potential determined from rear-seated 3 and 6 year-old child surrogates in different types of vehicle bodies mounted to a sled system. The sled-buck systems were towed rearward into crushable barriers that matched the crash pulses of the vehicle types being tested. Various sizes of adult surrogates (i.e. 50 kg up to 110 kg), seated in both the "typical" low strength "single recliner" collapsing type front seat (i.e. 3.2 kN) and a much stronger "belt-integrated" seat design (i.e. up to 14.5 kN), were tested in the two different "sled body-buck" set-ups at various impact levels (i.e. 22.5 to 50 kph). One set-up used a popular minivan vehicle body with "built-in booster" seats for the 3 year-old. The other used a 4-door family sedan vehicle body with the 6 year-old in a standard rear bench seat. The parameters of the tests enabled the experimental data to be combined into polynomial "head injury" functions of the independent variables so the "likelihood" of rear child head-injury potential could

  10. Evaluation of pediatric use patterns and performance of lap shoulder belt systems in the center rear. (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K


    Lap and shoulder belts have been required in rear outboard positions since 1989. A recent congressional mandate encouraged the requirement of a lap and shoulder belt in the center rear seat position. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to quantify changes in seating patterns for children in vehicles that already have this feature compared to those which do not and measured the safety benefit associated with the provision of a shoulder belt in the center rear seat position. The data demonstrate that the presence of a shoulder belt in the center rear seating position influences seating practices only when there is a single child occupant in the vehicle. Belted children in the center rear of vehicles equipped with a lap shoulder belt are at an 81% reduction in risk of injury than those belted in the center rear equipped with a lap only belt. The data suggest that by requiring lap shoulder belts in the center rear, benefits would be realized to belted children, specifically the 4-8 year old group.

  11. 父母教养方式及亲子关系对儿童心理发展的影响%Effects of Parental Rearing Styles and Parent-Child Relationship on Children’s Psychological Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Family education is the foundation of children’s education. Parenting style and parent-child relationship have great significance for children’s growth. Through studying on parenting styles and parent-child relationship,illustrate the impacts of parent-child relationship and parenting styles on children’s psychological development. And,how to develop a positive parenting style and establish a good parent-child relationship is the purpose of this paper study.%家庭教育是儿童教育的基础,父母的教养方式和亲子关系对儿童成长具有极其重要的意义。通过父母教养方式及亲子关系的研究,说明父母教养方式及亲子关系对儿童心理发展的影响,并依此提出如何培养积极正面的父母教养方式并建立良好的亲子关系,促进儿童心理健康成长。

  12. Parents 'child rearing attitude and children's behavioral problems at 2~3 and 4~5 years old in Daxing district of Beijing%北京大兴区农村父母养育方式与2~4岁儿童行为问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪娜; 闫淑娟; 李东阳


    [Objective] To study the relations between deveopment of'Parents' child rearing attitude and children's behavioral problems in the longitudinal in Daxing districts of Beijing. [Method] At children of 2~3 and 4~5 year of age,109 parents reported their child rearing attitudes with CRPP, and their children's behavioral problems with CBCL. [ Results] 1)There were less punishment(t=15. 680,P=0.000), protection(t=2. 665,P=0. 009) and encouragement of independence(t = 4. 402, P= 0. 000) in 4-year-old than 2-year-old; 2)During the period of two years, there was significant stability in externalizing behaviors, but less stability in internalizing behaviors; 3)There were significant correlation between parents' children rearing attitude and children's behavioral problems: The parents' rejection of 2~3 years old can significant predict internalizing problems of 4~5 years old children(β=-0. 305) and significant prediction can be found between rejection and externalizing problems at the same period(β=-0. 290,β=- 0. 473). [Conclusion] The children's temperament and parenting practices have important impacts on children's behavior problem.%[目的]了解北京市大兴区农村父母养育方式与2~4岁儿童的行为问题的发展变化. [方法]使用父母养育Q分类卡片和Achenbach的儿童行为调查表对大兴区109名儿童在2~3岁、3~4岁进行了纵向追踪调查分析. [结果]1)父母的养育方式4岁组较2岁组惩罚(t=15.680,P=0.000)、保护/担忧(t=2.665,P=0.009)和鼓励独立(t=4.402,P=0.000)均有所减少;2)儿童的外显行为问题具有较高的稳定性,内隐行为问题稳定性相对较低;3)儿童的行为问题与父母养育方式的相互作用较强,儿童2岁时父母的拒绝能预测儿童4岁时的内隐行为(β=-0.305),父母拒绝行为对同一时间段的外显行为问题有预测作用. [结论]父母的养育方式和儿童的行为问题均有较高稳定性,且相互作用.

  13. Correlation of personality and parental rearing behavior in single child with mood disorders%独生子女情感障碍患者人格与父母教养方式的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红霞; 王秋玲; 姚宁; 王贵山


    目的:探讨独生子女情感障碍患者人格与父母教养方式的相关性. 方法:采用艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)、人格诊断问卷(PDQ-4+)、父母教养方式评价量表(EMBU)对情感障碍独生子女患者90例(研究组)和正常独生子女90名(正常对照组)进行测评,其中研究组患者在自知力恢复以后测评.结果:研究组EPQ评分精神质、神经质、内外倾性显著高于正常对照组(t=5.63,6.11,11.13;P均<0.01).研究组人格障碍的阳性率(44.44%)高于正常对照组(28.89%)(x2=4.69,P<0.05).研究组EMBU评分父母惩罚、父母拒绝、父亲保护、母亲干涉因子分高于正常对照组(t=3.03 ~8.20,P均<0.01),而父亲温暖因子低于正常对照组(t=4.46,P<0.01). 结论:不良的父母教养方式可能造成独生子女人格障碍,人格障碍与情感障碍的发病有关.%Objective:To explore the correlation between personality and parenting styles in single-child with mood disorders. Method;The study group (n =90) and control group (n =90) were investigated with Eysenk personality questionnaire ( EPQ ) , personality diagnostic questionnaire-4+( PDQ-4+) , Egma minnen bardndom uppforstran(EMBU). Results:Personality traits in single-child with mood disorders were characterized by high psyoticism and neuroticism as well as extraversion (t = 5. 63 ,6. 11,11. 13 ; all P < 0. 01 ) . The prevalence of personality disorder in the study group(44. 44% ) was significantly higher than the control group (28. 89% ) (x2=4. 69,P <0.05). Compared with the control group,the parents of single-child with mood disorders showed lower in father warmth(t =4. 46,P <0. 01) ,high parental punishment and rejection, and father protection and mother interference (t=3.03 ~8.20,all P<0.01). Conclusion;Undesired parenting styles contribute to personality disorders. In addition,personality disorders are correlated with mood disorders.

  14. Early Canadian Child Study: From Baldwin and Tracy to Blatz. (United States)

    Wright, Mary J.

    A brief overview of the history of the scientific study of the child in Canada is provided in this paper. Discussion begins with an account of the scholarly interests and activities of James Mark Baldwin, who brought modern psychology to Canada, and Frederic Tracy, who objected to child-centered approaches to child rearing. The remainder of the…

  15. Influência de práticas maternas no desenvolvimento motor de lactentes do 6º ao 12º meses de vida Influence of child-rearing practices on infants' motor development between the sixth and twelfth months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PL Silva


    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Práticas maternas são comportamentos específicos, por meio dos quais as mães/cuidadores desempenham suas tarefas maternais. Estas práticas poderiam influenciar o desenvolvimento motor de lactentes. OBJETIVO: verificar a influência de práticas maternas, utilizadas no cuidado diário de lactentes saudáveis, sobre seu desenvolvimento motor do 6º ao 12º meses de vida. MÉTODO: Selecionados 14 lactentes, nascidos a termo e saudáveis, avaliados longitudinalmente no 6º, 9º e 12º meses de vida, utilizando-se a Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Em cada avaliação/idade a mãe respondeu a um questionário fechado sobre práticas, predominantemente adotadas no cuidado diário do lactente durante os períodos de vigília. Considerou-se neste estudo a postura predominantemente adotada pelo lactente, local preferencial de permanência e a forma de carregar o lactente no colo. RESULTADOS: No 9º mês de vida o desempenho motor dos lactentes foi influenciado positivamente pela predominância na postura de quatro apoios, em relação à sentada e prono ou supino e pela permanência no chão em relação ao carrinho de bebê. No 12º mês houve influência positiva da predominância na postura de quatro apoios e em pé. A postura predominante no 6º mês de vida e a forma de carregar o lactente no 6º, 9º e 12º meses de vida não influenciaram o desempenho motor do grupo estudado. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que as práticas que estimulam a adoção da postura de quatro apoios e a utilização do chão como local de permanência influenciam positivamente o desenvolvimento motor de lactentes saudáveis a partir do 6º mês de vida.BACKGROUND: Child-rearing practices are defined as specific behavioral patterns used during maternal duties. These practices could influence infants' motor development. OBJECTIVE: To verify the influence of daily child-rearing practices on the motor development of healthy infants from their sixth to twelfth

  16. On Rationalizing the "Demonized" College Girls——A survey of college girls′ concept of marriage and child rearing in a university in Fuzhou City%被“妖魔化”的女大学生,谁来为你正名?——福州大学城某高校女大学生婚育观调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    College girls are the best of the bunch,and their different experiences and choices about love not only concern with their development,but also with the construction of the campus culture and guidance of general mood of society,even with the development and stability of future China.With the change of time,the concept of marriage and child rearing has demonstrated many new characteristics and problems.So rational thinking about contemporary concept of marriage is one of the important tasks of ideological and political education.%女大学生作为同龄女性中的佼佼者,她们对爱情的不同体验、不同选择,不仅关系到其自身的发展与成才,更关系到校园文化的建设与社会风气的导向,甚至关系到中国未来社会的发展与稳定。文章以福州大学城某高校大一、大二、大三的三个年级各100名女生为调查对象,分了其恋爱观、婚育观。其恋爱观、婚育观理性、现实,趋于成熟;理想化的成份渐渐褪去。对当代女大学生的婚恋观进行理性思考是高校思想政治工作不容忽视的课题之一。

  17. Kansei Evaluation in Agent Rearing Game


    野路, 浩一朗; 西野, 順二; 小高, 知宏; 小倉, 久和; NOJI, Koichiro; NISHINO, Junji; ODAKA, Tomohiro; OGURA, Hisakazu


    In this paper, We have studied the Kansei evaluation of the agent rearing game. The agent rearing game is a game by which the characters who are the agents are brouht up. The Kansei evaluation is an evaluation by Kansei engineering like the sensibility and feelings, etc. to treat technological1y. In this research, We produced the agent rearing game. We propose the method of the interesting the game using the technique of Kansei engineering for the evaluation.

  18. Child-Rearing Concepts, 1628-1861: Historical Sources. (United States)

    Greven, Philip J., Jr.

    This collection of readings, which focuses on children's education and family influences, is taken from authors of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Puritan-evangelical concepts comprise most of the book, exemplified by such authors as (1) John Robinson, (2) John Locke, (3) Cotton Mather, (4) Susanna Wesley, (5) John Wesley, (6) Jonathan…

  19. Familism, machismo and child rearing practices among Mexican Americans. (United States)

    Tamez, E G


    Mexican Americans form the 2nd largest minority group in the US. Fertility is 50% higher than in any other ethnic group. Income levels are inordinately low. In 1970, 42% of Mexican Americans were indigent, making approxiamtely 4200 annually. The Mexican American poor can be categorized into newly arrived aliens or 2nd or 3rd generation American citizens. In the 1st instance, the couple is young and English is not spoken. 2nd or 3rd generation Mexican Americans speak English. The persistent socioeconomic status of the Mexican American relates directly to the level of education. 52% of all Mexican Americans do not finish high school. Paz and Remos described the Mexican in terms of Adler's inferiority model. Murillo stated that to an individual, the family--whether nuclear or extended--is the center of life. The inherent responsibility is that the individual behave properly lest the family be disgraced. The family provides emotional and material security. Familism was seen as a deterrant to utilization of health care services, although some studies claim opposing views. Familism and occupational stability related positively to seeking medical care when ill. Hayden believed that supreme male dominance, individualism, pride, wife beating, aversion to contraceptives, and other characteristics were attributable to machismo. A predominant pattern in Mexican American culture is that of elders' ordering young men and women to establish obedience and male dominance. The husband represents authority and the wife-mother maintains a role of complete devotion to her husband and children. Role differentiation is taught implicitly and explicitly from infancy. Studies on the psychological differences between the sexes indicated that females were oppressed and had lower self esteem than males. 18-24 year old Mexican Americans are becoming less insistent upon strict separation of sex roles and are beginning to reject the traditional Mexican notion of masculine superiority. The word machismo is derived from macho, which means male. The real macho possesses many traits of honor, dignity, and courage. he exemplifies masculine aggressiveness and sexual virility. The negative extremes of machismo center on absolute power in the form of violence and exploitation. Machismo is the underlying cause of family conflicts.

  20. Neighborhood Family Day Care as a Child-Rearing Environment. (United States)

    Emlen, Arthur C.

    The field study reported examined the attitudes and behavior of working mothers and their neighborhood caregivers (nonrelatives). Data were obtained from interviews with 104 mother-sitter pairs, 39 of whom were friends when the arrangement began, and 65 of whom were strangers. The dynamics of mother-sitter relations prove to be dramatically…

  1. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.


    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  2. Experimental injury study of children seated behind collapsing front seats in rear impacts. (United States)

    Saczalski, Kenneth J; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Burton, Joseph L; Lewis, Paul R


    In the mid 1990's the U.S. Department of Transportation made recommendations to place children and infants into the rear seating areas of motor vehicles to avoid front seat airbag induced injuries and fatalities. In most rear-impacts, however, the adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear occupant area and pose another potentially serious injury hazard to the rear-seated children. Since rear-impacts involve a wide range of speeds, impact severity, and various sizes of adults in collapsing front seats, a multi-variable experimental method was employed in conjunction with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study injury potential of rear-seated children. Various sizes of Hybrid III adult surrogates, seated in a "typical" average strength collapsing type of front seat, and a three-year-old Hybrid III child surrogate, seated on a built-in booster seat located directly behind the front adult occupant, were tested at various impact severity levels in a popular "minivan" sled-buck test set up. A total of five test configurations were utilized in this study. Three levels of velocity changes ranging from 22.5 to 42.5 kph were used. The average of peak accelerations on the sled-buck tests ranged from approximately 8.2 G's up to about 11.1 G's, with absolute peak values of just over 14 G's at the higher velocity change. The parameters of the test configuration enabled the experimental data to be combined into a polynomial "injury" function of the two primary independent variables (i.e. front seat adult occupant weight and velocity change) so that the "likelihood" of rear child "injury potential" could be determined over a wide range of the key parameters. The experimentally derived head injury data was used to obtain a preliminary HIC (Head Injury Criteria) polynomial fit at the 900 level for the rear-seated child. Several actual accident cases were compared with the preliminary polynomial fit. This study provides a test efficient, multi

  3. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting and Quality Child Care (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay


    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…

  4. Why Parents Matter: Parental Investment and Child Outcomes. (United States)

    Barber, Nigel

    There has been a recent academic controversy over whether parental child-rearing has any real effect on how offspring turn out. This book is a comprehensive collection of the experimental evidence establishing that parental treatment does affect child outcomes. Also included are natural experiments, as in the case of children raised in…

  5. Relations among perceived parental rearing behaviors, attachment style, and worry in anxious children. (United States)

    Brown, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P


    The present study extended the findings of Muris et al. [Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hulsenbeck, P. (2000). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487-497] regarding the relations between perceived parental rearing behaviors, self-reported attachment style, and worry in a community sample to a clinical sample of anxious children. Sixty-four children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, with a primary anxiety disorder completed (a) the EMBU-C, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) an index of worry severity. Findings revealed that child rated parental rearing behaviors, particularly parental rejection, were positively related to child worry. Self-reported attachment style was also related to worry, such that children who classified themselves as ambivalently attached reported higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. Parenting style and attachment were found to make independent contributions to worry. The results are compared to those from Muris et al.'s community study, and implications for future research are discussed.

  6. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes. (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan


    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  7. 网络成瘾初中生创造性倾向及与父母养育方式的相关性研究%Creativity Tends and Parental Child-rearing Styles in Internet-addicted Middle School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠敏; 刘彩谊; 李焕; 代玉美; 贾学芳; 陶然


    Objective To comparatively assess the creativity tends in internet -addicted and non-internet-addicted middle school students and study the relationship between internet addiction and parenting styles .Methods Questionnaire surveys were conducted on 71 internet-addicted and 74 non-internet -addicted middle school students.Creativity trends and parental child-rearing styles were assessed by Williams Creativity Scale and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran ( EMBU) respectively using the statistical software 13.0.Results There was no significant difference in the measures of creativity trends between inter -net-addicted and non-internet-addicted students (P>0.05) .The average score of the father′s emotional warmth 〔 (44.94 ±15.81 ) vs.( 55.59 ±11.28 ) , P0.05 ) .In non-addiction students , creativity trends were positively correlated with the emotional warmth scores of both parents ( r=0.34 ) but none of the other EMBU parameters ( P>0.05 ) , and father′s excessive protections had a positive impact on the adventure behaviors of the child.Conclusion Parenting styles , emotional warmth and understanding in particular , significantly impact the creativity and originality in middle school students while internet addiction has little effect .%目的:将网络成瘾(网瘾)初中生和非网瘾在校初中学生创造性倾向进行对比研究,分析网瘾初中生创造性倾向的特点,并进一步探究父母教养方式对初中生创造性倾向的影响,为网瘾青少年的家庭教育提供参考。方法对74名非网瘾初中学生(对照组)和71名网瘾初中生(研究组)进行创造性倾向量表和父母养育方式问卷的测量,采用SPSS 13.0统计软件进行数据分析。结果研究组和对照组的创造性倾向各因子得分差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。研究组的父母养育方式中父亲情感温暖、理解因子得分低于对照组〔(44.94±15.81)分比(55.59±11.28)分, P<0.01〕

  8. Parent-Child Communication and Its Perceived Effects on the Young Child's Developing Self-Concept. (United States)

    Banham, Victoria; Hanson, Jane; Higgins, Alice; Jarrett, Michelle

    In Australia, an exploratory study was grounded in U. Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective of human development and his principles of reciprocity, affective tone, and developmental opportunity and developmental risk. It used D. Baumrind's (1979) work on child rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) to explore the effect of…

  9. Young stock rearing using automatically recorded data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, A.H.; Mol, de R.M.; Hogewerf, P.H.


    The subject ‘young stock rearing’ is important for future dairy farming. So far there has been too little attention for young stock rearing. Proper care by monitoring health and growth of the young animals will lengthen life expectancy and increase milk production of the adult dairy cow. Due to the

  10. Cultural considerations and child maltreatment: in search of universal principles. (United States)

    Kolhatkar, Gauri; Berkowitz, Carol


    Cultural diversity poses challenges within the health care setting, particularly regarding the question of how health professionals can resolve the tension between respecting cultural norms or child-rearing practices and the importance of determining what constitutes harm and child maltreatment. Cultural competency and respect for cultural diversity does not imply universal tolerance of all practices. The United Nations provides a standard of universal child rights, protecting them from harmful practices. Pediatric providers must respect cross-cultural differences while maintaining legal and ethical standards of safety and wellbeing for children, promoting evidence-based prevention of maltreatment, and advocating for child wellness across all cultures.

  11. Happiness is 0 to 6 from 7 to 5: Coosa Valley's Child Development Program (United States)

    Appalachia, 1973


    The Carterville and Calhoun centers are representative of the 6 local child development programs in rural northwest Georgia. The day care centers are for the children of working mothers. The outreach program provides workers who go into the homes to help nonworking mothers improve their child-rearing skills. (FF)

  12. Scoliosis surgery - child (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  13. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators. (United States)

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R; Ginsburg, Golda S


    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention.

  14. Development of a Rear Wall for the KATRIN Rear Section and investigation of tritium compatibility of Rear Section components


    Schönung, Kerstin


    The aim of the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment is to improve the current neutrino mass sensitivity limit to 0.2 eV/c2 (90%C.L.). For that, the required proof of suitability of several components for a low pressure tritium atmosphere is furnished. In addition, an optical design for an e-gun is developed and the resulting electron rate is calculated. Also, a final Rear Wall with temporally stable and homogeneous work function is developed and characterized within the scope of this thesis.

  15. Child Development (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  16. Child Care and Child Nutrition (United States)

    Karolak, Eric


    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  17. Rear Area Security In The Field Army Service Area. (United States)


    his ma.jor subordinate Commanders, the arm support brigade commander. Rear are? ecurity doctrine requires the area coriander to coordin- ate unit...field army service area. Response The army support brigade coriander conducts phase I rear area security operations within the limits of current

  18. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W


    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation.

  19. Surveillance studies about "rear-window ethics"%Surveillance studies about"rear-window ethics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It can be said that people now live in a surveillance society. Some forms of surveillance have always existed as people watch over each other for mutual care, for moral caution and to discover information under the table. Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window is a typical fi lm for surveillance studies.What is happening on the screen is merely a projection of our own anxieties, our own existence, and our self-ambiguity as portrayed by the characters in this wonderful film.

  20. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia (United States)

    Tulviste, Tiia


    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions about…

  1. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia (United States)

    Tulviste, Tiia


    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions…


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  3. Prevent Child Abuse America (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  4. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani


    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.

  6. Maternal beliefs as long-term predictors of mother-child interaction and report. (United States)

    Kochanska, G


    2 kinds of parental beliefs: endorsed rearing philosophy (authoritative-authoritarian dimension) and affective attitude toward child (positive-negative affect dimension) were examined in 20 normal and 36 depressed mothers as long-term predictors of their rearing behaviors and interaction patterns with their children, and of their ratings of child externalizing problems (Achenbach CBCL). The beliefs were measured when the children were toddlers (Time 1), and maternal behaviors 2-3 years later (Time 2). Mothers' endorsement of the belief in authoritative parenting predicted their frequent avoidance of prohibitive interventions. It also predicted maternal autonomy-granting to the child (more compliant and liberal responses to child-initiated control interventions). Endorsed child-rearing philosophy was a relatively more important predictor of behavior for normal mothers, and affective attitude toward child for the behavior of depressed mothers. Both actual child noncompliance and parental beliefs predicted mothers' ratings of externalizing problems in their children. The former was relatively more important for normal and latter for depressed mothers.

  7. Comparison of brain development in sow-reared and artificially-reared piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeba M Jacob


    Full Text Available IntroductionProvision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has yet to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared or reared in an artificial setting. MethodsOver a 25-d feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0.2 kg initial bodyweight were either sow-reared (SR; n = 10 with ad libitum intake, or artificially-reared (AR; n = 29 receiving an infant formula modified to mimic the nutritional profile and intake pattern of sow’s milk. At study conclusion, piglets were subjected to a standardized set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI procedures to quantify structure and composition of the brain.ResultsDiffusion tensor imaging, an MRI sequence that characterizes brain microstructure, revealed that SR piglets had greater (P < 0.05 average whole-brain fractional anisotropy, and lower (P < 0.05 mean and radial and axial diffusivity values compared with AR piglets, suggesting differences in white matter organization. Voxel-based morphometric analysis, a measure of white and gray matter volumes concentrations, revealed differences (P < 0.05 in bilateral development of gray matter clusters in the cortical brain regions of the AR piglets compared with SR piglets. Region of interest (ROI analysis revealed larger (P < 0.05 whole brain volumes in SR animals compared with AR, and subcortical regions to be larger (P < 0.05 as a percentage of whole-brain volume in AR piglets compared with SR animals. Quantification of brain metabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed SR piglets had higher (P < 0.05 concentrations of myo-inositol, glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine, and creatine + phosphocreatine compared with AR piglets. However, glutamate + glutamine levels were higher (P < 0.05 in AR piglets when compared with SR animals

  8. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  9. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed. (United States)

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I D


    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in industrial settings, can be the key for a change in the way natural resources are utilized in order to produce meat, animal protein and a list of other valuable animal products. However, because insect mass rearing technology is relatively new, little is known about the different factors that determine the quality and yield of the production process. Obtaining such knowledge is crucial for the success of insect-based product development. One of the issues that is likely to compromise the success of insect rearing is the outbreak of insect diseases. In particular, viral diseases can be devastating for the productivity and the quality of mass rearing systems. Prevention and management of viral diseases imply the understanding of the different factors that interact in insect mass rearing. This publication provides an overview of the known viruses in insects most commonly reared for food and feed. Nowadays with large-scale sequencing techniques, new viruses are rapidly being discovered. We discuss factors affecting the emergence of viruses in mass rearing systems, along with virus transmission routes. Finally we provide an overview of the wide range of measures available to prevent and manage virus outbreaks in mass rearing systems, ranging from simple sanitation methods to highly sophisticated methods including RNAi and transgenics.

  10. Neck Kinematics in Rear-End Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King H Yang


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to document the kinematics of the neck during low-speed rear-end impacts. In a series of experiments reported by Deng et al (2000, a pneumatically driven mini-sled was used to study cervical spine motion using six cadavers instrumented with metallic markers at each cervical level, a 9-accelerometer mount on the head, and a tri-axial accelerometers on the thorax. A 250-Hz x-ray system was used to record marker motion while acceleration data were digitized at 10,000 Hz. Results show that, in the global coordinate system, the head and all cervical vertebrae were primarily in extension during the entire period of x-ray data collection. In local coordinate systems, upper cervical segments were initially in relative flexion while lower segments were in extension. Facet joint capsular stretch ranged from 17 to 97%. In the vertical direction, the head and T1 accelerated upward almost instantaneously after impact initiation while there was delay for the head in the horizontal direction. This combination was the result of a force vector which was pointed in the forward and upward direction to generate an extension moment. Upward ramping of the torso was larger in tests with a 20-deg seatback angle. The study concluded that the kinematics of the neck is rather complicated and greatly influenced by the large rotations of the thoracic spine. Significant posterior shear deformation was found, as evidenced by the large facet capsular stretch. Although the neck forms a 'mild' S-shaped curve during whiplash, using its shape as an injury mechanism can be misleading because the source of pain is likely to be located in the facet capsules.

  11. Socialization of a single hand-reared tiger cub. (United States)

    Kelling, Angela S; Bashaw, Meredith J; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Maple, Terry L


    Given the drawbacks of hand-rearing nonhuman animals in captivity, the practice is generally avoided, but it is sometimes necessary. A few scientific publications are available to guide managers toward best practices in hand-rearing, but the majority of articles focus on hand-rearing captive primates. Less is known about hand-rearing carnivores, but early socialization appears to be critical for adult social behavior. This article documents the successful hand-rearing and reintroduction of a single female Sumatran tiger cub at Zoo Atlanta. Reintroduction included a systematic procedure that used scent trials and introduction sessions through a barrier to gauge interest and determine whether or not aggression was a problem. Based on signs of interest, reduced stress-related behaviors, and a lack of aggression, animal managers decided to proceed with reintroduction. During the introductions, the animals were not aggressive and did occasionally interact, although typical mother-infant interactions were rare. The cub has since bred naturally and successfully delivered and reared two litters of cubs. These data suggest limited exposure to an adult tiger may be adequate socialization for normal reproduction even if it is provided relatively late in the cub's development.

  12. Picking among pen-reared quail (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.


    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  13. Maternal Socialization and Child Temperament as Predictors of Emotion Regulation in Turkish Preschoolers (United States)

    Yagmurlu, Bilge; Altan, Ozge


    This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…

  14. Foundations of Child Psychiatry. (United States)

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  15. Office of Child Care (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  16. Rearing of silkworm under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Shin; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    In order to investigate of a possibility of utilizing silkworm for the space agriculture, rearing of silkworms was examined under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions. In terms of structural mechanics, the lower inner pressure of Martian greenhouse has advantage to reduce requirements on physical properties of mechanical member of the pressurized structure. The main objective of this study is to know the influence of lower total pressure and hypoxia condition on silkworm. Silkworms are reared under following four hypobaric and hypoxia conditions, 10kPa pure oxygen, 20kPa pure oxygen, 10kPa oxygen and 10kPa nitrogen, and 10kPa oxygen and 90kPa nitrogen. After rearing them to pupa stage, growth of silkworms was found poor under all hypobaric hypoxia conditions compared to those grown under the normal atmospheric condition; the control group. The growth under total pressure of 20kPa is slightly fast.

  17. Rear Bumper Laminated In Jute Fiber With Polyester Resin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, R. A


    Full Text Available Today, a growing interest exists in the use of natural of fibers (sisal, coconut, banana, and jute, as reinforcement in composites. The aim of the present study is shows the use of jute fiber agglutinated with polyester resin in the automobile industry in the production of a rear bumper of hatch vehicle. A simplified mathematical model was used for evaluation of the flaw on trunk center cover submitted to dynamic loads. The traverse section of the referred bumper is simplified by a channel formation. This study shows that a rear bumper made using jute fiber agglutinated with polyester resin will be possible. The molded part obtained good visual characteristics, good geometric construction and surface without bubbles and imperfections in the fiber and resin composite. The mathematical model to failure criterion showed that the rear bumper in jute fiber will not resist to an impact equivalent at 4.0 km/h.

  18. Comparison of meat and carcass quality in organically reared and conventionally reared pasture-fed lambs. (United States)

    Prache, S; Gatellier, P; Thomas, A; Picard, B; Bauchart, D


    The 'Organic' product label guarantees a production process that avoids the use of synthetic fertilisers, pesticides and hormones and minimises recourse to pharmaceuticals or veterinary drugs; however, the product's quality remains an issue that needs to be addressed in response to consumer demand. Consequently, this study was conducted to compare the sensory and nutritional qualities of meat and carcasses from pasture-fed lambs reared organically (O) or conventionally (C). Mean lamb growth profile was kept similar between the two treatments to avoid confounding effects with lamb age or weight at slaughter. The experiment was conducted over 3 years (2005 to 2007) with 12 O and 12 C lambs each year. The O and C treatments differed in the level of on-pasture mineral N fertilisation inducing a higher proportion of white clover in the organic pasture than the conventional pasture. Lambs were slaughtered when they attained a fat class of 2 to 3, and carcass and meat quality were evaluated. Lambs were slaughtered at an average weight and age of 35.3 kg and 156 days in the O treatment, respectively, and 35.2 kg and 155 days in the C treatment, respectively. Sensory evaluation indicated that loin chops from the O treatment had a higher level of abnormal fat odour compared with the C treatment. Carcasses from the O treatment had a softer subcutaneous fat one among 3 years (2007) compared to the C treatment. These results are probably due to a higher proportion of white clover in the diet. Organically reared lambs did offer the slight advantage of muscle fatty acid containing a higher level of stearic acid, which may have positive effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in humans. This may be the result of a higher rumen bio-hydrogenation of C18:3n-3 due to differences in the botanical composition between the O and the C pasture. Production system had no effect on the colour characteristics of the meat and subcutaneous fat, except lightness of subcutaneous dorsal

  19. Clarification of the Authoritarian Parenting Style and Parental Control: Cultural Concepts of Chinese Child Rearing. (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    This study investigated whether certain broad cultural notions, such as "chiao shun" (training children in appropriate behavior or morals) and "guan" (a positive notion expressing parental concern, caring, or involvement) better distinguish the Chinese parent from the European-American than do the concepts of…

  20. The Impact of Parental Views of the Nature of Humankind upon Child-Rearing Attitudes. (United States)

    Clayton, Lawrence

    A total of 330 parents of preschool children were given Wrightsman's Philosophy of Nature Instrument, a measure developed to assess the expectancies people have about others' behavior. The instrument consists of 14 items for each of six subscales assessing trustworthiness, altruism, independence, strength of will, complexity, and variability.…

  1. Toward a Social Psychology of Childhood: From "Patterns of Child Rearing" to "1984." (United States)

    Hartup, Willard W.

    Using "Patterns of Childrearing," by Sears, Maccoby and Levin (1957) as a starting point, this paper touches on the schism between developmental and social psychology and attempts to assess the progress of research in social development during the past quarter century with respect to five major perspectives that are at once evolutionary,…

  2. A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba AYAZ


    Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child.

  3. Relational interventions for child maltreatment: past, present, and future perspectives. (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Gravener-Davis, Julie A; Guild, Danielle J; Cicchetti, Dante


    It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed, with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment.

  4. Effect of Rearing Systems on Reproductive Performance of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M AnnaAnandh


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing systems on reproductive performance of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo. A total of 180 Beltsville Small White and Board Breasted Bronze turkeys were taken for the study and reared under three different rearing system viz. intensive system (full confinement, semi-intensive system (partial confinement and partial day scavenging and free range system (all-day scavenging. Average egg weight (g, percentage of infertile eggs, embryonic mortalities, total egg hatchability, fertile egg hatchability, fertility and poults survivability values were significantly (P>0.01 higher in turkeys reared under intensive system of management followed by semi intensive system and free range system of management. The highest percentage of dead in shell was found in intensive system and was did not differ significantly from semi intensive and free range system. Hatched weight of poults (g between semi intensive and intensive system did not differ significantly between them, but both groups found statistically significant (P>0.01 from free range system. From the study, it is concluded that higher reproductive performance was obtained in intensive system of management followed by semi intensive and free range system of management. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 226-229

  5. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.


    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in in

  6. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents (United States)

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo


    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  7. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors. (United States)


    ... replacements shall meet, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at the time... replaced with mirrors meeting, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section...

  8. Rear Detachments: Capturing and Resourcing How the Army Fights (United States)


    operations/ plans officer), is the Rear Detachment Commander. Captain Basil H. Liddell-Hart was correct in noting that “even the bonds of patriotism...January, 2010; Kyle Moore and Erica Koelder, “Family Readiness in the ARFORGEN Cycle,” Engineer, May/August 2010. 8 Godwin, The Mission, Organization

  9. Overtopping And Rear Slope Stabillity Of Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Lykke Andersen, Thomas


    An experimental study of overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping breakwaters has been carried out. The variation of those two parameters with crest width, crest freeboard and sea state was investigated. The tests showed that the variation in overtopping discharge with crest freeboard...

  10. Breeding and mass scale rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula: feeding and rearing in brackishwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DHANEESH Kottila Veettil; AJITH KUMAR Thipramalai Thankappan; SWAGAT Ghosh; BALASUBRAMANIAN Thangavel


    Breeding and mass scale larval rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula is very limited in brackishwater.We designed an indoor program of A.percula culture in brackishwater with a salinity of 24±1,during which the impacts of feed type,water temperature,and light intensity,on the efficiency of its reproduction,were revealed.The fish were accommodated along with sea anemones in fibre glass tanks to determine the influence of brooder diet on breeding efficiency.Higher reproductive efficiency [number of eggs laid (276±22.3 eggs)] was observed when fish were fed live Acetes sp.rather than clam (204±16.4eggs),trash fish (155±12 eggs) and formulated feed (110±10 eggs).The spawning rate was increased during September and October (water temperature,28.74±0.55℃) on average of 2.4 spawning per month; and low spawning rate was in January (water temperature,24.55±0.45℃) on average of 1 spawning per month.Among three light intensities (100,500,and 900 Ix) set to evaluate larval survival rate,larvae showed the highest survival rate (65.5%) at 900 Ix.The breeding method specifically in brackishwater developed in the present study is a new approach,will help the people from the regions of estuary and backwater to enhance their livelihood and it will lead to reduce the exploitation from the wild habitat.

  11. Rearing history and allostatic load in adult western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in human care. (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N; Wolfe, Barbara A; Crews, Douglas E


    Disrupted rearing history is a psychological and physical stressor for nonhuman primates, potentially resulting in multiple behavioral and physiological changes. As a chronic, soma-wide stressor, altered rearing may be best assessed using a holistic tool such as allostatic load (AL). In humans, AL estimates outcomes of lifetime stress-induced damage. We predicted mother-reared gorillas would have lower AL than nursery-reared and wild-caught conspecifics. We estimated AL for 27 gorillas housed at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium between 1956 and 2014. AL estimates were calculated using biomarkers obtained during previous anesthetic events. Biomarkers in the high-risk quartile were counted toward a gorilla's AL. Rearing history was categorized as mother-reared, nursery-reared, and wild-caught. Using ANCOVA, rearing history and AL are significantly associated when age and sex are entered as covariates. Wild-caught gorillas have significantly higher AL than mother-reared gorillas. Neither wild-caught nor mother-reared gorillas are significantly different from nursery-reared gorillas. When examined by sex, males of all rearing histories have significantly lower AL than females. We suggest males face few stressors in human care and ill effects of rearing history do not follow. Wild-caught females have significantly higher AL than mother-reared females, but neither is significantly different from nursery-reared females. Combined with our previous work on AL in this group, wherein females had twofold higher AL than males, we suggest females in human care face more stressors than males. Disrupted rearing history may exacerbate effects of these stressors. Providing opportunities for females to choose their distance from males may help reduce their AL.

  12. Pododermatitis in captive-reared black stilts (Himantopus novaezelandiae). (United States)

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Tompkins, Daniel M; Maloney, Richard F; Sancha, Emily; Wharton, David A


    A potential cause of pododermatitis ("bumblefoot") was investigated in captive-reared juvenile black stilts at the Department of Conservation "Kaki Recovery Program" at Twizel, New Zealand. To address the importance of substrate, the development of clinical signs in individuals was compared among aviaries that contained rubber matting and/or salt footbaths, and controls. No effect of either experimental manipulation of the environment was apparent on pododermatitis development. With the substrate appearing not to be an initiating factor, and a previous study that indicated that the birds' diet fulfills the nutritional requirements for rearing black stilts in captivity, results of this study suggest that insufficient space for exercise may instead be the cause.

  13. Standard methods for rearing and selection of Apis mellifera queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchler, Ralph; Andonov, Sreten; Bienefeld, Kaspar;


    Here we cover a wide range of methods currently in use and recommended in modern queen rearing, selection and breeding. The recommendations are meant to equally serve as standards for both scientific and practical beekeeping purposes. The basic conditions and different management techniques...... methods and data preconditions for the estimation of breeding values which integrate pedigree and performance data from as many colonies as possible are described as the most efficient selection method for large populations. Alternative breeding programmes for small populations or certain scientific...... and quality control of queens complete the queen rearing section. The improvement of colony traits usually depends on a comparative testing of colonies. Standardized recommendations for the organization of performance tests and the measurement of the most common selection characters are presented. Statistical...

  14. Interaction of parent- child schemas in different types of personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Ali Beigi


    Full Text Available Objective: In addition to Personality traits, cognitive theories emphasize on the role of cognitive errors in incidence of personality disorders. Schemas are one of the specific cognitive errors. The aim of present research was determining the role of parents' schemas in etiology of Childs' schemas in different types of personality disorders. Methods: It was an expo-facto research in individuals with personality disorder. From a private clinic in Tehran we selected 50 ones with personality disorder which were welcome to enter to the project. In addition to diagnosis of the therapist, we used MCMI-III for diagnosis of personality disorder. We asked for completing questionnaires by clients and also their parents. YSQ-75 used for assessing schemas in children and parents which presents 15 schemas in 5 categories. Results: Abandonment and unbalanced standards in cluster A, Unbalanced standards and entitlement in Cluster B and C were dominant. There were significant relations between child-parent schemas. Discussion: Unbalanced Standards was not a specific schema for a specified personality disorder and it was the dominant schema in all cases. It shows a difficult parenting style in Iranian populations and Tehran dominant child rearing. The implicit message is idealized and high expectations of parents. It indicate the necessity of educating child rearing for modifying rearing styles of parents.

  15. Artificially reared mice exhibit anxiety-like behavior in adulthood



    It is important to establish experimental animal techniques that are applicable to the newborn and infant phases for nutrition and pharmacological studies. Breeding technology using the artificial suckling method without breast milk is very effective for the study of newborn nutrition. Using this method, we separated newborn mice from dams within 48 h of birth and provided them with artificial milk. We evaluated mouse anxiety levels after early postnatal maternal separation. Artificially rear...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare slaughtering traits of two pig genotypes when reared in two different ways, and to determine the influence of pig housing on carcass characteristics and muscle tissue quality. The research was carried out on 68 fattening pigs of both sex, divided into two groups: the first group was kept on deep litter, and the second one was housed in flat deck pens without deep litter. Each group consisted of pigs of two genotypes, i.e. three-way crossbreeds of Large White and German Landrace (LW x GL in the dam line and of German Landrace and Pietrain (P in the sire line. At the end of the experiment, pigs were slaughtered and the following values were determined: the pH45 and pH24 values, electric conductivity values (EC45, EC24, the “a” and “b” carcass length, loin values and the values of backfat and muscle thickness, aiming to evaluate the share of muscular tissue in carcass by applying the two-points method. Pigs reared on deep litter had statistically significantly smaller live weights (P<0.05 and warm carcass weights in comparison to pigs reared on flat deck without deep litter. Pigs crossed with Pietrain, which were kept without deep litter had significantly thicker muscles than the ones crossed with German Landrace, kept on deep litter (P<0.05. Fattening pigs of both genotypes, reared without deep litter, had significantly smaller pH45 values in loins and in MLD, when compared to pigs crossed with Pietrain and kept on deep litter (P<0.05. The influence of genotype was statistically significant for the EC45 value in loin, as well as for the muscle thickness and percentage share of muscular tissue (P<0.05. Interaction between the way of fattening and genotype did not have any effect on carcass and meat quality.

  17. Evolutionarily advanced ant farmers rear polyploid fungal crops


    Pepijn W Kooij; Aanen, D. K.; Schiøtt, M.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.


    Abstract Innovative evolutionary developments are often related to gene or genome duplications. The crop fungi of attine fungus‐growing ants are suspected to have enhanced genetic variation reminiscent of polyploidy, but this has never been quantified with cytological data and genetic markers. We estimated the number of nuclei per fungal cell for 42 symbionts reared by 14 species of Panamanian fungus‐growing ants. This showed that domesticated symbionts of higher attine ants are polykaryotic ...

  18. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  19. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media. (United States)

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven


    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program.

  20. Dynamic emergy evaluation of a fish farm rearing process. (United States)

    Vassallo, P; Beiso, I; Bastianoni, S; Fabiano, M


    The environmental sustainability of a fish farm rearing process was examined by means of emergy analysis. Many emergy analyses integrate data for a whole year smoothing short term variations and sometimes losing meaningful information (aliasing). For this reason we developed a model for an instantaneous emergy evaluation in an aquacultural system so that transformities, efficiency and effort spent at each moment during the fish rearing activity could be calculated. By means of the model and dynamic emergy calculations it is possible to recognize step by step the importance of the various emergy contributions and verify where and when to modify the system to move toward optimum production of a sustainable product. By the application of the model we confirmed that the emergy trends in a fish farm installation follow wide oscillations during a year due to variations in both internal and external emergy contributions. Among the fluxes considered, those due to the introduction of fingerlings represented the highest contributions to the total emergy budget. Thus, to improve the sustainability of the analyzed system the amount, frequency and timing of these fluxes must be carefully considered. For this purpose, a comparison between two different fry introduction schedules was performed to evaluate differences in the efficiency of the rearing process.

  1. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. (United States)

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S


    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt.

  2. Effects of rearing treatment on the behavior of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) (United States)

    Kreger, M.D.; Estevez, I.; Hatfield, J.S.; Gee, G.F.


    Small founder populations of whooping cranes are managed to maximize egg production for the purpose of reintroducing young to the wild. This results in an excessive number of hatched chicks that cannot be naturally reared by parents. Hand-rearing techniques have been developed to raise the additional hatches. However, hand rearing may affect the behavior of the birds and their chances of survival later in life. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of rearing practices on the behavior of whooping crane chicks. The birds were reared under three commonly used rearing techniques: parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Fifty-six whooping crane chicks were observed by focal animal sampling from hatch to 20 weeks of age. During these observations, occurrences of comfort behavior, aggression, foraging, nonvigilance, sleep, vigilance, and other types of behavior were collected. Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Behavior was affected by rearing treatment, age, and time of day. PR birds spent more time being vigilant than HR and HRE birds. An inverse correlation was found between percentage of time foraging and vigilant (r = -0.686, P < 0.0001). However, there were no differences in the behavior of birds reared in HR or HRE programs.

  3. FPG Child Development Institute (United States)

    ... Early Childhood Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero ... Children with Disabilities October 12, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North ...

  4. Well-child visits (United States)

    ... who has questions about issues such as feeding, circumcision , and general child health issues. After the baby ... deep tendon reflexes as the child gets older Neonatal jaundice -- first few visits only Palpation Percussion Standard ...

  5. Cholesterol and Your Child (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  6. Child abuse - physical (United States)

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  7. Child Dental Health (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  8. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia. (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S


    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  9. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal


    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  10. Child poverty and changes in child poverty. (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles


    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  11. Assessing Child Maltreatment in Children Born to Mothers Who Used Methamphetamine during Pregnancy at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Patcharoros, Nontima; Chulakadabba, Sudsabuy; Na Manorom, Nattawadee; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon


    Studies on maltreatment of children born to methamphetamine abusing mothers are lacking. This cross-sectional study examined child maltreatment among children born at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, to mothers who used methamphetamines during pregnancy. During the study period between July 2011 and January 2012, 34 caretakers of these children were interviewed using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parent Version (ICAST-P) to assess their disciplinary actions. The associations between child's and caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were analyzed. More than 90% of caretakers were female with age ranging from 18 to 35 years and about 60% were biological mothers. The children's age ranged from 1 to 9 years. Disciplinary acts and child rearing practices that were considered to be child maltreatment behaviors were reported as follows: psychological discipline 82.4%, physical discipline 79.4%, and neglect 29.4%. No associations between the child's or the caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were found. In conclusion, child maltreatment behaviors were frequent in caretakers of children born to mothers who used methamphetamine during pregnancy. Supervision on child rearing and careful monitoring are needed for this population.

  12. Your Child's Immunizations (United States)

    ... the number of shots a child receives. The Vaccines Your Child Needs The following vaccinations and schedules are recommended ... are developed. Your doctor will determine the best vaccinations and schedule for your child. Recommended vaccinations: Chickenpox (varicella) vaccine Diphtheria, tetanus, and ...

  13. Supporting Each Child's Spirit (United States)

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Buchanan, Teresa


    In using developmentally appropriate practices, teachers should intentionally address all aspects of a child's being, the spiritual along with the physical and the cognitive. Because spirituality is a vital part of human nature, a whole-child teaching approach must include the part of the child some call spirituality. Many have attempted to…

  14. Child Care Services Handbook. (United States)

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  15. [Autism and child protection]. (United States)

    Coron, Guillaume


    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  16. Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact. (United States)

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Karg, Patricia; Bertocci, Gina


    This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading. Three wheelchairs included no headrests, and three were equipped with slightly modified wheelchair-mounted headrests. Surrogate WTORS properly secured the wheelchairs; three-point occupant restraints properly restrained the ATD. All tests used a 26km/h, 11g rear-impact test pulse. Headrest presence affected wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading; headrest-equipped wheelchairs had greater mean seatback deflections, mean peak front and rear tiedown loads and decreased mean lap belt loads. Rear-impact tiedown loads differed from previously measured loads in frontal impact, with comparable tiedown load levels reversed in frontal and rear impacts. The front tiedowns in rear impact had the highest mean peak loads despite lower rear-impact severity. These outcomes have implications for wheelchair and tiedown design, highlighting the need for all four tiedowns to have an equally robust design, and have implications in the development of rear-impact wheelchair transportation safety standards.

  17. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops. (United States)

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R


    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree.

  18. Child Labor - Moral Choice


    Lagasse, Caitlin


    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  19. From child to child: children as communicators. (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J


    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  20. Head-Neck Biomechanics in Simulated Rear Impact


    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Cusick, Joseph F.; Kleinberger, Michael


    The first objective of this study is to present an overview of the human cadaver studies aimed to determine the biomechanics of the head-neck in a simulated rear crash. The need for kinematic studies to better understand the mechanisms of load transfer to the human head-neck complex is emphasized. Based on this need, a methodology is developed to delineate the dynamic kinematics of the human head-neck complex. Intact human cadaver head-neck complexes were subjected to postero-anterior impact ...

  1. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva


    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  2. Investigations of some parameters of natural immunity in meat turkeys reared outdoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Tacconi


    Full Text Available The progression of some parameters of natural immunity in meat turkey reared outdoors was investigated. The levels of the haemolytic complement were lower than those obtained in commercial turkeys and in turkeys reared in a controlled environment during one of our previous investigations. The weather conditions could have influenced the trend of the haemolytic complement in turkeys selected for high meat production and kept outside, underlining the possible importance of the rearing system.

  3. Evaluation of rear-end crash risk at work zone using work zone traffic data. (United States)

    Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian


    This paper aims to evaluate the rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area and merging area, as well as analyze the impacts of contributing factors by using work zone traffic data. Here, the rear-end crash risk is referred to as the probability that a vehicle is involved in a rear-end crash accident. The deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) is used in measuring rear-end crash risk. Based on work zone traffic data in Singapore, three rear-end crash risk models are developed to examine the relationship between rear-end crash risk at activity area and its contributing factors. The fourth rear-end crash risk model is developed to examine the effects of merging behavior on crash risk at merging area. The ANOVA results show that the rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area is statistically different from lane positions. Model results indicate that rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area increases with heavy vehicle percentage and lane traffic flow rate. An interesting finding is that the lane closer to work zone is strongly associated with higher rear-end crash risk. A truck has much higher probability involving in a rear-end accident than a car. Further, the expressway work zone activity area is found to have much larger crash risk than arterial work zone activity area. The merging choice has the dominated effect on risk reduction, suggesting that encouraging vehicles to merge early may be the most effective method to reduce rear-end crash risk at work zone merging area.

  4. Effectivity of Aloe vera bioactives as feed additive for broilers reared on deep litter


    A.P Sinurat; T Purwadaria; T Pasaribu; W Rakhmani; J Dharma; J Rosida; S Sitompul; Udjianto


    There are plenty of Indonesian plants contain usefull bioactive components. One of them is Aloe vera. Previous experiment showed that Aloe vera bioactives reduced aerob bacteria in the intestinal and improved feed efficiency in broilers reared in cages. The results however, gave some variations, may be due to variation in rearing the chickens. Two experiments were carried out to study the effectivity of Aloe vera bioactives as feed additives for broilers reared on deep litter. In the first st...

  5. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint loading associated with adult manual transit wheelchair in rear impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Salipur, MEng


    Full Text Available Proper securement of wheelchairs in motor vehicles is vital to providing wheelchair users an adequate level of safety in a crash. Thus far, wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS loading has mostly been examined under frontal impact conditions. Because of the inherent crash dynamic differences, rear-impact loading of WTORS is expected to differ greatly. In this study, three identical, reinforced, manual, folding, X-braced ANSI/RESNA WC19 wheelchairs were subjected to an International Organization for Standardization-proposed rear-impact crash pulse. WTORS loads (front tiedowns, rear tiedowns, lap belt, and shoulder belt were measured and compared with frontal impact WTORS loading. Rear impact produced substantially higher loads (up to 7,851 N in the front tiedowns than frontal impact. The rear tiedowns experienced relatively negligible loading (up to 257 N in rear impact, while rear-impact dynamics caused the lap belt (maximum load of 1,865 N to be loaded substantially more than the shoulder belt (maximum load of 68 N. Considering differences in frontal and rear impact WTORS loading is important to proper WTORS design and, thus, protection of wheelchair-seated occupants subjected to rear-impact events.

  6. Morphometric comparison between hatchery-reared and wild-caught megalopae of the mangrove crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Andressa Casagrande Ayres


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the morphometry of hatchery-reared and wild-caught mangrove crab (Ucides cordatus megalopae. Ten U. cordatus megalopae of each group (hatchery-reared and wild-caught were individually analyzed using a stereoscopic microscope equipped with an ocular micrometer. Length, width, and height of all megalopae were measured, and the size of body appendices was determined. The results indicate that the hatchery-reared megalopae are more robust than the wild ones. Furthermore, some significant differences in the size of certain appendices can be cues of the kind of alterations that hatchery-reared individuals experience.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 苏永全; 全成干; 丁少雄; 张纹


    The genetic diversity of both wild and reared Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson) col-lected from Guan-Jing-Yang in Ningde, China in May 1999 was investigated by random amplified poly-morphic DNA (RAPD) in the present study. The polymorphism and mean difference of the wild popula-tion as revealed by RAPD were 18.9% and 0.0960 respectively, and those of the reared stocks were rel-atively lower, with 16.7% in polymorphism and 0.0747 in mean difference. The genetic distance be-tween the two stocks was 0.0041. From the comprehensive investigation, the main reasons for the loss of genetic diversity were probably overilshing, small number of parents as broodstocks and the debatable arti-ficial ranching. Results from this study also showed that the large yellow croaker populations distributed along Fujian coastal waters including Guan-Jing-Yang still potentially wide genetic variability. It is sug-gested that genetic management and prevention should be scientifically conducted in order to maintain and improve the genetic diversity of the P. crocea population.

  8. Perimortality in a Captive Reared Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wayne Garcia


    Full Text Available erinatal mortality has been reported in cattle, swine, goats, sheep and rabbits; however, there have been no documented reports on this phenomenon in agouti (Dasyprocta leporina. The agouti is a Neotropical polytocous rodent, hunted for its meat. This study reports on an incident of perinatal mortalities in a captive reared agouti from the wildlife unit of the Faculty of Food and Agriculture. The pluriparous female agouti was reared in captivity from birth and had delivered three (3 previous litters successfully. These ranged from 2-3 young, with a 100% survival rate. This case presented a difficult labor, with delivery of three (3 healthy female precocious offspring (434g, 378g and 402g, and three (3 perinatal mortalities (285g, 368g and 300g. The female agouti died during delivery and postmortem results indicated that Dystocia resulting in Secondary Uterine Inertia as the cause of death. This abnormally large litter may have been as a result of captive conditions, where an abundance of food and a lack of predators may have dulled the animal’s survival instinct. The agouti’s ability and the time taken to deliver all six (6 young may also have contributed to the animals delivery stress.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The genetic diversity of both wild and reared Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson) collected from Guan-Jing-Yang in Ningde, China in May 1999 was investigated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in the present study. The polymorphism and mean difference of the wild population as revealed by RAPD were 18.9% and 0.0960 respectively, and those of the reared stocks were relatively lower, with 16.7% in polymorphism and 0.0747 in mean difference. The genetic distance between the two stocks was 0.0041. From the comprehensive investigation, the main reasons for the loss of genetic diversity were probably overfishing, small number of parents as broodstocks and the debatable artificial ranching. Results from this study also showed that the large yellow croaker populations distributed along Fujian coastal waters including Guan-Jing-Yang still potentially wide genetic variability. It is suggested that genetic management and prevention should be scientifically conducted in order to maintain and improve the genetic diversity of the P. crocea population.

  10. Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera:Calliphoridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Firoozfar; F; Moosa-Kazemi; H; Baniardalani; M; Abolhassani; M; Khoobdel; M; Rafinejd; J


    Objective:To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies(Lucilia sericata).Methods:Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver-baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April,2010 to November,2010.The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality,they were kept under insectary condition to develop to adult stage and identified using systematic keys.Results:A total of 218 flies were collected in three rounds of sampling from the field of Tehran and Karaj Counties.In the first generation,433 flies including 135(31.17%) male,and 298(68.82%) female were yielded. The female/male of parent ratio was calculated as 1.72 in Tehran and in Karaj areas,whereas it was 2,20%and 1.81%,respectively in Fl and F2 generations,respectively.Conclusions:During this study,the mass rearing of sheep blow fly has been established at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and can be used for producing flies for maggot therapy.

  11. Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera:Calliphoridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Firoozfar F; Moosa-Kazemi H; Baniardalani M; Abolhassani M; Khoobdel M; Rafinejd J


    Objective: To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Methods: Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver-baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop to adult stage and identified using systematic keys. Results: A total of 218 flies were collected in three rounds of sampling from the field of Tehran and Karaj Counties. In the first generation, 433 flies including 135 (31.17%) male, and 298 (68.82%) female were yielded. The female/male of parent ratio was calculated as 1.72 in Tehran and in Karaj areas, whereas it was 2.20% and 1.81%, respectively in F1 and F2 generations, respectively. Conclusions: During this study, the mass rearing of sheep blow fly has been established at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and can be used for producing flies for maggot therapy.

  12. Current issues in child psychiatry: a dialogue with John Bowlby. (United States)

    Warme, G E; Bowlby, J; Crowcroft, A; Rae-Grant, Q


    A condensed account of Bowlby's work, particularly his advocacy of an ethological approach and of attachment theory, is followed by comments by three child psychiatrists. His work is critically discussed and ranges from questions concerning the theoretical status of Bowlby's work, to concerns about the de-emphasis of constitutional and temperamental factors, and to concerns that current realities render impractical (and perhaps unnecessary) the traditional models of child rearing. Dr. Bowlby responds to each discussant. In this three days at Lake Couchiching, John Bowlby was the most available and charming of guests. He welcomed discussion with delegates in his every free moment, including mealtimes. It was a privilege to have him in dialogue with us.

  13. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer


    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  14. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe


    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  15. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño


    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  16. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.


    Pen rearing studies during 1986 completed the second of three years intended for rearing and releasing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two study sites, a backwater and a pond, adjacent to the Columbia River; both areas are located in the Jonn Day Reservoir. Results of this study in 1984 and 1985 showed that fish could be successfully reared in net pens and that growth and physiological development of the off-station reared fish proceeded at a faster rate than in fish reared at a hatchery. Transfer of fish from the hatchery to off-station sites at Social Security Pond (pond) and Rock Creek (backwater) during early March increased the period of rearing in 1986 by about four weeks. The increased period of rearing allowed all treatments of fed fish to reach a minimum weight of YU fish/lb by release. Differences in growth of fed fish between regular density treatments and additional, high density treatments (double and triple the regular densities) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but growth of all fed fish reared off-station was again significantly better than that of hatchery reared fish (P < 0.05), Mortalities in all groups of fed fish were low. Physiological development of fed fish was similar in all treatments. At release, development of fish at Social Security Pond appeared to be somewhat ahead of fish at Rock Creek on the same dates however, none of the groups of fed fish achieved a high state of smoltification by release. Unfed fish grew poorly over the redring period, and at release were significantly smaller than either fed groups at the off-station sites, or the control groups reared at the hatchery (P < 0.05). Development of unfed fish toward smoltification was much slower than of fed fish. Mortality of all groups of unfed fish, including the barrier net, was relatively low. Health of all fish reared off-station remained good over the rearing period, and no outbreaks of disease were noted. On-site marking and

  17. A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry (United States)

    We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

  18. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.


    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared

  19. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981-2663 (301) ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...

  20. Talking to Your Child's Doctor (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Talking to Your Child's Doctor KidsHealth > For Parents > Talking to Your Child's Doctor ... an important role in your child's health? The Doctor-Patient Relationship Today, doctors are pressured to see ...

  1. Child neglect and psychological abuse (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Review Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  2. Lean Six Sigma Application in Rear Combination Automotive Lighting Process (United States)

    Sodkomkham, Thanwarhat; Chutima, Parames


    The case study company produces various front and rear lightings for automobiles and motorcycles. Currently, it faces two problems, i.e. high defective rate and high inventory. Lean Six Sigma was applied as a tool to solve the first problem, whereas the other problem was managed by changing the production concept from push to pull. The results showed that after applying all new settings to the process, the defect rate was reduced from 36,361 DPPM to 3,029 DPPM. In addition, after the implementation of the Kanban system, the company achieved substantial improvement in lead time reduction by 44%, in-process inventory reduction by 42%, finished good inventory reduction by 50%, and finished good area increased by 16%.

  3. Isolation of putative probionts from cod rearing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzon, H.L.; Gudmundsdottir, S.; Pedersen, M.H.;


    , metabolite production and adhesion to fish cell lines. Our study demonstrated that 14% of screened bacteria (n = 188) had antagonistic properties towards fish pathogens. The majority of these isolates were Gram-positive (81%), belonging to Firmicutes (69.2%) and Actinobacteria (11.5%) phyla based on 16S r...... was designed to search for new probiotics to target this critical period in cod rearing. Potential probionts were selected from the naturalmicrobiota of cod aquacultural environment. The selection was based on several criteria: pathogen inhibition potential, growth characteristics, strain identification......RNA gene sequencing. Only 6 (3.2%) of 188 isolates could inhibit all three pathogens tested: Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and Vibrio salmonicida. Differences observed in activity intensity and spectrum among inhibitory isolates emphasise the need to develop probiotic...

  4. Evolutionarily advanced ant farmers rear polyploid fungal crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Aanen, D.K.; Schiøtt, Morten


    Innovative evolutionary developments are often related to gene or genome duplications. The crop fungi of attine fungus-growing ants are suspected to have enhanced genetic variation reminiscent of polyploidy, but this has never been quantified with cytological data and genetic markers. We estimated...... the number of nuclei per fungal cell for 42 symbionts reared by 14 species of Panamanian fungus-growing ants. This showed that domesticated symbionts of higher attine ants are polykaryotic with 7-17 nuclei per cell, whereas nonspecialized crops of lower attines are dikaryotic similar to most free......-living basidiomycete fungi. We then investigated how putative higher genetic diversity is distributed across polykaryotic mycelia, using microsatellite loci and evaluating models assuming that all nuclei are either heterogeneously haploid or homogeneously polyploid. Genetic variation in the polykaryotic symbionts...

  5. Analysis of factors associated with seatbelt wearing among rear passengers in Malaysia. (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli; Isah, Noradrenalina; Othman, Ihamah; Syed Rahim, Sharifah-Allyana; Paiman, Noorfaradilla


    A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 793 rear passengers in Malaysia. Logistic regression was performed to analyse the association of rear seatbelt wearing with 12 independent variables. Seven factors were significantly associated with rear seatbelt wearing. Experience of being stopped by an enforcement officer for not wearing rear seatbelt yielded the highest odds ratio 2.3 (p = 0.002) followed by self-consciousness (odds ratio 1.7; p = 0.004), attitude (odds ratio 1.5, p = 0.001), and knowledge (odds ratio 1.4, p = 0.004). Age of participants and their perception of being caught by an enforcement officer were also significantly associated with rear seatbelt wearing, odds ratios were 1.03 (p = 0.004) and 1.1 (p = 0.004), respectively. In contrast, level of education was negatively associated with rear seatbelt wearing (odds ratio 0.59, p = 0.003). It was concluded that enforcement activities, knowledge and attitude on seatbelt wearing play a very important role in improving the rate of rear seatbelt wearing. Thus, efforts to increase these factors should be the special focus in designing education and social marketing activities to advocate rear seatbelt wearing.

  6. Human head-neck response during low-speed rear end impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroonenberg, A.J. van den; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Cappon, H.J.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Hell, W.; Langwieder, K.


    Neck injuries resulting from rear-end collisions rank among the top car safety problems and have serious implications for society. Many rear impact sled experiments with volunteers and PMHSs have been performed in the past. However, in most of these studies, T1 kinematics were not obtained so that t

  7. Aeroelastic tailoring using lamination parameters: drag reduction of a Formula One rear wing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuwis, G.A.A.; De Breuker, R.; Abdalla, M.M.; Gürdal, Z.


    The aim of the present work is to passively reduce the induced drag of the rear wing of a Formula One car at high velocity through aeroelastic tailoring. The angle-of-attack of the rear wing is fixed and is determined by the required downforce needed to get around a turn. As a result, at higher velo

  8. Suckling systems in calf rearing in organic dairy farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.P.; Langhout, D.J.


    In an on-farm experiment three calf rearing methods were compared: bucket feeding of milk replacer, bucket feeding of tank milk and suckling of mother or nurse cow up to three months of age. Aim was to determine whether the technical results of suckling systems in calf rearing were satisfactory. Cal

  9. Online Responses towards Parental Rearing Styles Regarding Hand-Held Devices (United States)

    Geng, Gretchen; Disney, Leigh


    This article reviewed the literature on parental rearing styles and used responses from an online discussion forum to investigate people's opinions towards parental rearing styles and strategies when children use hand-held devices. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used as an analysis method via micro, meso and macro multi-level…

  10. Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway. (United States)

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rudmin, Floyd Webster


    A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured interview on child-rearing were used as instruments. As would be expected from a developmental perspective, elevated scores of child behavior problems were associated with lower levels of parental cuddling and with higher levels of physical punishment. Family demographics such as low maternal age and single parenthood were also associated with more behavioral problems. Girls seemed to be more strongly influenced by child-rearing factors than boys. Subgroup analyses suggested that for harsh treatment, patterns of correlations differed between Sami and Norwegian groups, especially for boys. A positive correlation between physical punishment and externalizing problems emerged for Norwegian boys, but not for Sami boys. Teasing/ridiculing was positively correlated with internalizing problems for Norwegian boys, but inversely correlated for Sami boys. These findings emphasize the importance of taking the child's cultural context and gender into account when assessing parenting influences on behavioral problems in children.

  11. Child Wellness and Happiness (United States)

    Rettew, David C.


    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  12. The Child Welfare Cartel (United States)

    Stoesz, David


    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  13. Child Psychology Experiences Program. (United States)

    Walla Walla Coll., WA.

    Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

  14. Child Poverty & Public Policy. (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  15. Divorce Child Custody Disputes. (United States)

    Houlgate, Laurence D.


    Examines ethical issues in making policy decisions regarding divorce child custody disputes. Suggests dilemma occurs when legislator must decide between discretionary standard promoting best interest of child and nondiscretionary arbitrary assignment of custody. Advocates normative analysis of various types of dispute-settling processes and…

  16. Influence of Pasture Rearing on the Cecal Bacterial Microbiota in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák L.


    Full Text Available Differences in quantity of cecal microbiota in broiler chickens from conventional and pasture rearing were investigated by cultivation. Rearing on pasture brings stress reduction and increases comfort and bird welfare, which leads to products with better taste and flavour compared to conventionally produced broiler chickens. A difference in cecal settlement of general anaerobes, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, and campylobacters and salmonellas in the two different rearing systems was addressed. Whereas numbers of total anaerobes and lactic acid bacteria were not affected, those of coliforms were significantly reduced in pasture rearing. Campylobacters were found only in pasture-reared chickens (in 28% of animals. Salmonellas were not detected in any of the systems.

  17. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.


    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

  18. Child prostitution in Thailand. (United States)

    Lau, Carmen


    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  19. Systematic analysis of diffuse rear reflectors for enhanced light trapping in silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, Florian; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Basch, Angelika; Hermle, Martin; Lee, Benjamin G.; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph


    Simple diffuse rear reflectors can enhance the light path length of weakly absorbed near infrared light in silicon solar cells and set a benchmark for more complex and expensive light trapping structures like dielectric gratings or plasmonic particles. We analyzed such simple diffuse rear reflectors systematically by optical and electrical measurements. We applied white paint, TiO2 nanoparticles, white backsheets and a silver mirror to bifacial silicon solar cells and measured the enhancement of the external quantum efficiency for three different solar cell geometries: planar front and rear side, textured front and planar rear side, and textured front and rear side. We showed that an air-gap between the solar cell and the reflector decreases the absorption enhancement significantly, thus white paint and TiO2 nanoparticles directly applied to the rear cell surface lead to the highest short circuit current density enhancements. The short circuit current density gains for a 200 um thick planar solar cell reached up to 1.8 mA/cm2, compared to a non-reflecting black rear side and up to 0.8 mA/cm2 compared to a high-quality silver mirror rear side. For solar cells with textured front side the short circuit current density gains are in the range between 0.5 and 1.0 mA/cm2 compared to a non-reflecting black rear side and do not significantly depend on the angular characteristic of the rear side reflector but mainly on its absolute reflectance.

  20. Effect of electroless nickel on the series resistance of high-efficiency inkjet printed passivated emitter rear contacted solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenio, Martha A.T. [REC Technology US, Inc., 1159 Triton Dr., Foster City, CA 94301 (United States); Lennon, A.J.; Ho-Baillie, A.; Wenham, S.R. [ARC Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)


    Many existing and emerging solar cell technologies rely on plated metal to form the front surface contacts, and aluminium to form the rear contact. Interactions between the metal plating solutions and the aluminium rear can have a significant impact on cell performance. This paper describes non-uniform nickel deposition on the sintered aluminium rear surface of passivated emitter and rear contacted (PERC) cells patterned using an inkjet printing technique. Rather than being plated homogeneously over the entire rear surface as is observed on an alloyed aluminium rear, the nickel is plated only in the vicinity of the point openings in the rear surface silicon dioxide dielectric layer. Furthermore, this non-uniform nickel deposition was shown to increase the contact resistance of the rear point contacts by an order of magnitude, resulting in higher series resistance values for these fabricated PERC cells. (author)

  1. Child Development Associate. Child Growth and Development. (United States)

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is to help the CDA intern understand the factors and principles which affect the total growth and development of children. Early sections of the module stipulate the module's competency-based objectives, define terms, and suggest procedures by which…

  2. Antisocial process screening device: validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing. (United States)

    Väfors Fritz, Marie; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Koposov, Roman; Af Klinteberg, Britt


    The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age=16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700-707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383-392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kurinenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of rearing and provide aquaculture-biological characteristic of peled reared in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids based on pond technology. Methodology. The material for the studies were fry, young-of-the-year, yearlings and age-1+ peled produced from eggs exported in March 2009 from Russian Federation. Rearing of peled was carried out based on the technology developed by the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Pond Fish Culture for coregonids with the use of methodical recommendations on the biotechnology of industrial rearing of seed coregonids. Studies were carried out at the pond fish farm “Korop” of Lviv region. Water supply of rearing ponds was done by self-flow. The investigation of fish diet and hydrobiological studies were carried out using conventional methods. Findings. We performed a study of fish egg incubation and produced larvae with their further rearing in floating cages to the fingerling stage. Rearing of peled in polyculture allows increasing the fish productivity parameters at the first year of rearing by 1.3%, at the second year by 0.9%. Average weights of age-1 and age-1+ peled were 185.3 g and 450 g, respectively. In these rearing conditions, daily growth of the young-of-the-year was within 0.1-1.5 g, age-1+ – 1.1-3.3 g. As a positive result of rearing, we should note high weight gain during winter period that was more than 50%. We also investigated qualitative and quantitative composition of zooplankton and peled juvenile diet. Originality. The works of peled rearing based on pond technology in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids were carried out in the conditions of Ukraine for the first time. Practical value. The results of the performed works along with similar previous works on peled rearing in ponds will be used for the creation of methodical recommendations on rearing of peled seeds, which will be used by Ukrainian fish farms in future.

  4. Child maltreatment in India. (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot


    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  5. Comparison of nutritional status of field and laboratory reared Balanus amphitrite Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica) larvae and implication of starvation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.

    amphitrite. The larvae were also field-reared using micro-enclosures. Laboratory-reared larvae were larger in size than the field-reared larvae. An increase in size, DNA content and instar index of the starved II instar larvae was observed indicating...

  6. Rearing a native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes: Preliminary comparisons (United States)

    This study compared several biological parameters of native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis, reared on an artificial versus the natural diet of Opuntia spp. cladodes. Results suggest that the current artificial diet developed for mass rearing C. cactorum can provide nutritional value for the rear...

  7. Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa. (United States)

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H


    Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts.

  8. New artificial diet for continuous rearing of the bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata. (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping


    The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero ( 1993 ), called the "D-OO diet." However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15-25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata.

  9. Pen rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1994 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, John W.; Novotny, Jerry F.


    Results of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon juveniles in net pens and a barrier net enclosure in two backwater areas and a pond along the Columbia River were compared with traditional hatchery methods. Growth, smoltification, and general condition of pen-reared fish receiving supplemental feeding were better than those of fish reared using traditional methods. Juvenile fish receiving no supplemental feeding were generally in poor condition resulting in a net loss of production. Rearing costs using pens were generally lower than in the hatchery. However, low adult returns resulted in greater cost per adult recovery than fish reared and released using traditional methods. Much of the differences in recovery rates may have been due to differences in rearing locations, as study sites were as much as 128 mi upstream from the hatcheries and study fish may have incurred higher mortality associated with downstream migration than control fish. Fish reared using these methods could be a cost-effective method of enhancing salmon production in the Columbia River Basin.

  10. Risk of Incidence of Hock Burn and Pododermatitis in Broilers Reared under Commercial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Jacob

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most common lesions observed in commercial broiler farms are hock burns and pododermatitis, defined as necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads and in the hock of growing broilers, causing pain and compromising broiler welfare. The present study aimed at identifying the risks of hock burns and pododermatitis in broilers reared under commercial conditions on new or reused litter. Twenty-four 40-d-old broilers reared in two houses in a commercial broiler farm. The plantar surface of the footpads and the hocks of broiler were recorded using infrared thermal images. The incidence of hock burns in broilers reared on new litter was 0.72 times lower than those on reused litter. Broilers reared on new litter presented lower risk (0.75, RR<1 of presenting pododermatitis when compared to those reared on reused litter. When simulating the risk using a larger sample, the simulated risk of broilers presenting footpad and hock lesions when reared on new litter was 38% higher those reared on reused litter.

  11. Expression of acetylcholinesterase 1 is associated with brood rearing status in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Kyungmun; Lee, Si Hyeock


    Acetylcholinesterase 1 (AmAChE1) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been suggested to have non-neuronal functions. A systematic expression profiling of AmAChE1 over a year-long cycle on a monthly basis revealed that AmAChE1 was predominantly expressed in both head and abdomen during the winter months and was moderately expressed during the rainy summer months. Interestingly, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when bees were stimulated for brood rearing by placing overwintering beehives in strawberry greenhouses with a pollen diet, whereas it resumed when the beehives were moved back to the cold field, thereby suppressing brood rearing. In early spring, pollen diet supplementation accelerated the induction of brood-rearing activity and the inhibition of AmAChE1 expression. When active beehives were placed in a screen tent in late spring, thereby artificially suppressing brood-rearing activity, AmAChE1 was highly expressed. In contrast, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when beehives were allowed to restore brood rearing by removing the screen, supporting the hypothesis that brood rearing status is a main factor in the regulation of AmAChE1 expression. Since brood rearing status is influenced by various stress factors, including temperature and diet shortage, our finding discreetly suggests that AmAChE1 is likely involved in the stress response or stress management. PMID:28045085

  12. Environmental effects on behavioural development consequences for fitness of captive-reared fishes in the wild. (United States)

    Johnsson, J I; Brockmark, S; Näslund, J


    Why do captive-reared fishes generally have lower fitness in natural environments than wild conspecifics, even when the hatchery fishes are derived from wild parents from the local population? A thorough understanding of this question is the key to design artificial rearing environments that optimize post-release performance, as well as to recognize the limitations of what can be achieved by modifying hatchery rearing methods. Fishes are generally very plastic in their development and through gene-environment interactions, epigenetic and maternal effects their phenotypes will develop differently depending on their rearing environment. This suggests that there is scope for modifying conventional rearing environments to better prepare fishes for release into the wild. The complexity of the natural environment is impossible to mimic in full-scale rearing facilities. So, in reality, the challenge is to identify key modifications of the artificial rearing environment that are practically and economically feasible and that efficiently promote development towards a more wild-like phenotype. Do such key modifications really exist? Here, attempts to use physical enrichment and density reduction to improve the performance of hatchery fishes are discussed and evaluated. These manipulations show potential to increase the fitness of hatchery fishes released into natural environments, but the success is strongly dependent on adequately adapting methods to species and life stage-specific conditions.

  13. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.


    Upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are being reared in a backwater and a pond along John Day Reservoir to evaluate the benefits of rearing fish and releasing them off-station compared to traditional hatchery procedures. Fish reared in net pens at a density/feeding combination judged to be the economic optimum of those used during 1984 rearing trials exhibited good growth and smolt development. Size of fish averaged 112 fish/lb (4.0g/fish), ATPase activities ranged from 16.4 to 29.5 micromoles Pi/mg prot/hr at release and total mortality of fish was low among pens, ranging from 0.3 to 1.1%. Poor growth and smolt development was observed in fish reared in a large barrier net, especially during the initial two weeks after stocking. In addition, mortality of fish in the barrier net was high (49%) in relation to any of the other treatments tested thus far. The combined effects of generally poor condition of fish at stocking, low zooplankton densities during the initial two weeks of rearing, and losses to predation were thought to be the primary causes of the slow growth rates and high mortality. Unfed fish in pens utilized the available natural food base, but zooplankton densities were apparently not sufficient for growth, and may have been marginal for sustenance, especially at higher density. ATPase activities at release were significantly higher in low-density pens than in higher density pens, but development at all densities was retarded when compared with ATPase activities of fed fish. Preliminary cost estimates for producing fish-using the rearing strategies developed in the current pen-rearing study compared favorably with the average costs of rearing salmonids in a Northwest hatchery.

  14. Child Behavior Disorders (United States)

    ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening themselves, other people or pets Damaging or destroying property Lying or stealing Not ...

  15. Your child's first vaccines (United States)

    ... multi.html . CDC review information for Multi Pediatric Vaccines: Your Child's First Vaccines: What you need to know (VIS): ... baby. 2. Some children should not get certain vaccines Most children can safely get all of these vaccines. But ...

  16. My Child Is Stealing (United States)

    ... there's often little sympathy for repeat offenders. Further punishment , particularly physical punishment, is not necessary and could make a child ... They should also know that stealing is a crime and can lead to consequences far worse than ...

  17. Asthma - child - discharge (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  18. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. Such treatment can help reduce the ... Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Teen Suicide ...

  19. My Child Is Stealing (United States)

    ... around. And there's often little sympathy for repeat offenders. Further punishment , particularly physical punishment, is not necessary and could make a child or teen angry and more likely to engage in even ...

  20. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation (United States)

    ... as feelings of betrayal, powerlessness, worthlessness and low self-esteem. It is impossible to calculate how many times a child's pornographic image may be possessed and distributed online. Each and ...

  1. CDC Child Growth Charts (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  2. Toilet Teaching Your Child (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... when traveling, around the birth of a sibling , changing from the crib to the bed, moving to ...

  3. Weaning Your Child (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... cup, or maybe even just a cuddle. Try changing your daily routine so that you're otherwise ...

  4. Effects of attachment and rearing behavior on anxiety in normal developing youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise


    the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...

  5. Effect of rearing system and season on the performance and egg characteristics of Ancona laying hens



    Productive performance and egg characteristics of Ancona laying hens reared under three different rearing systems (conventional, organic and organic-plus) were compared during an experimental period of one year. Three-hundred-sixty Ancona female chicks at 28 days of age were divided in three groups and assigned to different rearing systems. The organic group had 4m2 pasture/hen according to the requirements imposed by the EC Regulation 1804/99, whereas the organic-plus group had a larger gras...

  6. The effects of captive rearing on the behavior of newly-released whooping cranes (Grus americana) (United States)

    Kreger, M.D.; Hatfield, J.S.; Estevez, I.; Gee, G.F.; Clugston, D.A.


    Rearing treatments used in captivity to prepare animals for reintroduction to the wild may have a profound effect on behavior and, possibly, affect their survival after reintroduction. This study examined the behaviors of captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) upon their release in Florida to determine if rearing treatments may affect the behavior of the birds and how these affect their chances of survival in the wild. Individually tagged birds were observed at the rearing facility, the U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland, from hatch to 20 weeks of age and at the release site in Central Florida for up to 6 weeks post release. The rearing treatments were parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Observations at the rearing facility are described in a previous paper. At the release site, each bird was observed for 5 min every morning (0700?1000 h) and late afternoon (1500?1800 h) during the 6-week study period. Our results indicated that most of the time, the n = 34 birds were foraging (46.03 ? 1.48%), followed by nonvigilant (20.89 ? 0.73%), vigilant (19.21 ? 0.72%), or performing comfort behaviors (11.61 ? 1.28%). Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant behavioral differences between HR and HRE birds. PR birds were found in larger groups than HR birds during the first 2 weeks post release and greater than HR and HRE birds afterwards. This may be interpreted as an antipredator strategy for birds that relied on parental guidance during rearing. HR and HRE birds foraged more than PR birds during the first 2 weeks post release and PR birds were more vigilant during the first 2 weeks post release. Across rearing treatments, the percentages of time spent foraging and engaged in vigilant behaviors during rearing were positively correlated with their behavior upon release. If any of these behaviors can be demonstrated to have relevance for the

  7. Music in child care


    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos


    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  8. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys. (United States)

    Rocke, T E; Yuill, T M; Amundson, T E


    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The percentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  9. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.


    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  10. Characteristics of reared game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini


    Full Text Available Chemical and physical characteristics of game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg were studied and compared with domesticfowl (Gallus gallus domesticus’s egg. The birds were housed in individual cages in a environmentally controlled room(T=18÷20°C; 16L:8D and fed ad libitum standard breeder diet. A sample of thirty eggs was analysed for each phase of thelaying period (beginning, peak and end. The following chemico-physical parameters: egg, albumen, yolk and shell weight;yolk colour; egg and shell dry matter (DM; shell thickness (blunt end, pointed end and middle part were measured. Theprotein, lipid, and cholesterol content was evaluated; the fatty acid (FA profile analysed. We observed: egg weight averageof 34.5g ; a high proportion of yolk (37% in the whole egg (Y/E, consequently, a high lipid content of 13.9%; a protein contentDM of 44.3%; the fatty acid composition was similar to that of chicken egg and the oleic acid (36.4% was the majorproportion of the total fatty acids, as in the domestic fowl. The rearing pheasant’s egg has a high nutritive concentration, dueto high ratio yolk/whole egg, with biological and nutritional characteristics similar to domestic fowl’s egg.

  11. Breeding objectives for a Nellore cattle rearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Victor Damasceno Carvalho


    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to define the traits that should be included as breeding objectives for Nellore cattle, according to simulations with a bio-economic model for rearing systems. The economic values (EVs of the traits were calculated as the differences between the profits due to an increased performance of 1% in each trait, with the others traits remaining constant. To determine the impact of each selection on the revenue system, two scenarios were simulated based on the traits being selected. In the first scenario, the adopted selection criteria were: weaning weight (WW, weaning rate (WR, yearling weight (YW, and mature cow weight (MCW. In the second scenario, the cumulative productivity (CP of dams was used as an indirect evaluation of the performance of calves, with all the other traits included, except WW. In the first scenario, an EV of R$ 1.44 kg-1 was obtained for WW. In the second scenario, an EV of R$ 2.91 kg-1 was obtained for CP. The trait with the highest EV in both scenarios was WR, which enhanced the profits by R$ 3.21 for each 1% increased performance. The meat price paid to the producer is the factor with the greatest impact on the EVs of all examined traits.

  12. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti


    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  13. Extensively reared Iberian pigs versus intensively reared white pigs for the manufacture of liver pâté. (United States)

    Estévez, M; Morcuende, D; Ramírez, R; Ventanas, J; Cava, R


    Physico-chemical characteristics and quality traits of the raw ingredients (muscle cuadriceps femoris, liver and adipose tissue) and the pâtés made from extensively reared Iberian pigs and intensively reared white pigs, were evaluated. The differences found between muscles, livers and adipose tissues from Iberian and white pigs influenced the characteristics of the pâtés. Compared to pâtés from white pigs, pâtés from Iberian pigs had a higher content of heme iron (27.5 μg/g vs 11.5 μg/g; p<0.05) and lower content of non-heme iron (27.5 μg/g vs 33.7 μg/g; p<0.05). Pâtés from Iberian pigs exhibited a darker colour (L (∗):18.6 vs 15.9, p<0.05) with less redness (a (∗) values: 9.1 vs 11.3; p<0.05) and yellowness (b (∗) values: 13.1 vs 14.8, p<0.05). Thus, pâtés from white pigs had higher values of chroma (18.6 vs 15.9, p<0.05) and smaller values of hue (52.5 vs 55.2, p<0.05) that those from Iberian pigs' pâtés. In fatty acid composition, pâtés from white pigs had higher proportions of SFA (37.9% vs 32.8%, p<0.05) and PUFA (14.4% vs 9.6%, p<0.05) than pâtés from Iberian pigs and lower percentages of oleic (53.4% vs 43.6%, p<0.05) and total of MUFA (57.5% vs 47.6%, p<0.05). Pâtés from Iberian pigs had a lower n-6/n-3 values (13.2 vs 17.2; p<0.05).

  14. A Collaboratively Designed Child Mental Health Service Model: Multiple Family Groups for Urban Children with Conduct Difficulties. (United States)

    McKay, Mary McKernan; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia; Assael, Kara Dean; Chacko, Anil; Jackson, Jerrold; Fuss, Ashley


    This paper presents preliminary outcomes associated with an experimental, longitudinal study of a Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery approach set within thirteen urban outpatient clinics serving children and their families living in inner-city, primarily African American and Latino communities. Specifically, this paper focuses on parent reports of child oppositional behavior and parenting stress over time. MFG is a flexible, protocol-driven approach designed to address the most common reason for referral to outpatient child mental health clinics, childhood behavioral difficulties. The MFG also aims to enhance family-level engagement and retention in ongoing care. Further, the service delivery model was collaboratively developed with intensive input from parents rearing children with conduct difficulties, parent advocates, community-based child mental health providers and services research staff in order to ultimately expand the number of effective service models that can be situated within "real world," urban child mental health settings.

  15. [Rearing immature horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) by using a substrate of bryophytes and sand]. (United States)

    Ferreira, Ruth L M; Rafael, José A


    A new method for rearing immature horse flies by using a substrate of bryophytes and sand is described and the advantages of such substrate for maintenance of species with long development periods are discussed.

  16. A Control Source Structure of Single Loudspeaker and Rear Sound Interference for Inexpensive Active Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhide Kobayashi


    phase-lag is imposed by the Swinbanks' source and the rear sound interference. Thirdly, effects on control performances of control source structures are examined by control experiments with robust controllers.

  17. Technology of Mass Rearing Clostera anachoreta and Production of CaGV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYajun; LIANGHongzhu; ZHANGQiushuan; HOUZhengrong


    A new technique for mass rearing Clostera anachoreta(C.) was developed through a large number of experiments, so the problem of mass produce of CaGV was solved. The process of CaGV was discussed in detail.

  18. The Planning and Digital Design for Welding Production Line of the Car Rear Floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chun-Yan


    Full Text Available The last two sub-assembly welding production line of the car rear floor is designed in this paper. Firstly, the welding production line of the car rear floor is complete planned and designed from global aspect by analysis the structure of body-in-white and the car rear floor; Secondly, each working position fixture are designed and the location of all fixture are arranged according to location and spot welding requirements with the CATIA software. Finally, the conveying appliance of welding production line for the car rear floor are detailed planed, according to the production program, the economic requirements to complete a three-dimensional design of delivery devices, ergonomic simulation and dynamic interference checking in the process of material transportation are realized in virtual simulation platform DELMIA software, to ensure the production line design is reasonable and feasible from theory.

  19. The influence of rearing order on personality development within two adoption cohorts. (United States)

    Beer, J M; Horn, J M


    There is an extensive literature on the relationship between birth order and psychological traits, but no previous study has investigated the influence of ordinal position on personality development within adoptive siblings. Such a design is important because it effectively separates the effects of biological birth order and rearing order. Here we report data from two adoption cohorts in which subjects were biological first-borns reared in various ordinal positions. Data were analyzed with reference to Sulloway's (1996) evolutionarily based sibling rivalry theory of birth order effects. Between- and within-family analyses indicated that rearing order's influence on personality was very weak. The only clear difference was for conscientiousness, on which first-reared siblings scored higher. We draw possible implications for Sulloway's theory and speculate upon an alternative, prenatal biological process that may produce birth order differences.

  20. Life-history analysis of Thaumastocoris peregrinus in a newly designed mass rearing strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, G.; López, L.; Cantero, G.; González, A.; Dicke, M.


    The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero et Dellape (Heteroptera Thaumastocoridae), is one of the most important emerging pests of Eucalyptus LHeritier plantations worldwide. In the development of strategies to control this pest, establishing effective rearing protocols is fundamental to

  1. Genetic analysis reveals multiple parentage in captive reared eastern hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). (United States)

    Unger, Shem D; Williams, Rod N


    Information on the parentage of captive reared clutches is vital for conservation head-starting programs. Molecular methods, such as genotyping individuals with hyper-variable markers, can elucidate the genealogical contribution of captive-reared, reintroduced individuals to native populations. In this study, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to infer parentage of a clutch of 18 eastern hellbenders collected from a single nest from Buffalo Creek, West Virginia, subsequently reared in captivity, and used for translocations in Indiana. Collectively, these markers successfully detected the presence of multiple parentage for this species of conservation concern presently used in captive management programs in zoos across many states. This study highlights the need for genetic analysis of captive reared clutches used in translocations to minimize the loss of genetic diversity and potential for genetic swamping at release sites.

  2. A Rearing Method for Argynnis (Speyeria diana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae That Avoids Larval Diapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie N. Wells


    Full Text Available We describe a rearing protocol that allowed us to raise the threatened butterfly, Argynnis diana (Nymphalidae, while bypassing the first instar overwintering diapause. We compared the survival of offspring reared under this protocol from field-collected A. diana females from North Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee. Larvae were reared in the lab on three phylogenetically distinct species of Southern Appalachian violets (Viola sororia, V. pubescens, and V. pedata. We assessed larval survival in A. diana to the last instar, pupation, and adulthood. Males reared in captivity emerged significantly earlier than females. An ANOVA revealed no evidence of host plant preference by A. diana toward three native violet species. We suggest that restoration of A. diana habitat which promotes a wide array of larval and adult host plants, is urgently needed to conserve this imperiled species into the future.

  3. An optimized approach to germ-free rearing in the jewel wasp Nasonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dylan Shropshire


    Full Text Available Development of a Nasonia in vitrogerm-free rearing system in 2012 enabled investigation of Nasonia-microbiota interactions and real-time visualization of parasitoid metamorphosis. However, the use of antibiotics, bleach, and fetal bovine serum introduced artifacts relative to conventional rearing of Nasonia. Here, we optimize the germ-free rearing procedure by using filter sterilization in lieu of antibiotics and by removing residual bleach and fetal bovine serum. Comparison of these methods reveals no influence on larval survival or growth, and a 52% improvement in adult production. Additionally, adult males produced in the new germ-free system are similar in size to conventionally reared males. Experimental implications of these changes are discussed.

  4. Effects of rearing temperature on immune functions in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). (United States)

    Alcorn, Stewart W; Murra, Anthony L; Pascho, Ronald J


    To determine if the defences of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) raised in captivity are affected by the rearing temperature or their life-cycle stage, various indices of the humoral and cellular immune functions were measured in fish reared at either 8 or 12 degrees C for their entire life-cycle. Measures of humoral immunity included the commonly used haematological parameters, as well as measurements of complement, and lysozyme activity. Cellular assays quantified the ability of macrophages from the anterior kidney to phagocytise Staphylococcus aureus cells, or the activities of certain bactericidal systems of those cells. The T-dependent antibody response to a recombinant 57 kDa protein of Renibacterium salmoninarum was used to quantify the specific immune response. Fish were sampled during the spring and fall of their second, third and fourth years, corresponding to a period that began just before smolting and ended at sexual maturation. Fish reared at 8 degrees C tended to have a greater percentage of phagocytic kidney macrophages during the first 2 years of sampling than the fish reared at 12 degrees C. During the last half of the study the complement activity of the fish reared at 8 degrees C was greater than that of the 12 degrees C fish. Conversely, a greater proportion of the blood leucocytes were lymphocytes in fish reared at 12 degrees C compared to the fish reared at 8 degrees C. Fish reared at 12 degrees C also produced a greater antibody response than those reared at 8 degrees C. Results suggested that the immune apparatus of sockeye salmon reared at 8 degrees C relied more heavily on the non-specific immune response, while the specific immune response was used to a greater extent when the fish were reared at 12 degrees C. Although a seasonal effect was not detected in any of the indices measured, varying effects were observed in some measurements during sexual maturation of fish in both temperature groups. At that time there were dramatic

  5. Fundamental Consideration to the Relationship between Frontend lateral motion and Rear


    酒井, 英樹


    [Abstract] This paper formulates the relationship between attitude angle at rear wheel and transient steering torque against steering angle input. The torque contains the element from attitude angle velocity at rear wheel. Thus drivers can sense the velocity by steering wheel. Furthermore this paper formulates yawing natural frequency and its damping ratio under steering torque input. They are independent from front cornering stiffness. For verifications, an actual vehicle experiment is condu...

  6. Mass-Rearing Hydrellia Pakistanae Deonier and H. balciunasi Bock for the Management of Hydrilla verticillata (United States)


    provided on rearing methods, releases, and associated costs. BACKGROUND: Hydrilla, family Hydrocharitaceae, is an exotic submersed macrophyte that...amount of topped-out, contiguous hydrilla was noted, as was the location within the reservoir (cove, boat lane, etc.). Sites containing Berlese extraction with the same methods previously mentioned to monitor rearing pond numbers. Generally, two or three sites per reservoir were

  7. Techniques for rearing and releasing nonmigratory cranes: Lessons from the Mississippi Sandhill Crane program (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; O'Malley, K.E.; Nagendran, Meenakshi; Hereford, Scott G.; Range, P.; Harper, W.T.; Ingram, R.P.; Smith, D.G.


    Captive-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) reared at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent) have been released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) since 1981. Of 131 birds released through December 1990, 103 were reared by foster parents. The remaining 28 were experimentally hand-reared in 1989 and 1990. After refining release procedures, parent-reared birds have integrated into the wild flock, many have survived, and some have bred. Releases of hand-reared cranes elsewhere in the 1970's were largely unsuccessful, at least in part due to the lack of a lengthy acclimation period. A new hand-rearing protocol holds promise in producing release-worthy birds. The technique employs some features first used in the 1960's (e.g., a costume for the human caretaker and model crane heads used to train chicks to feed). In the mid-1980's, the following features were added: (1) the costumed caretaker was given a visor and feathers, (2) a taxidermic crane head or a hand puppet was held or suspended from the ceiling for use in stimulating chicks to feed, (3) a taxidermic mount of a brooding crane supplied warmth, (4) a full-sized live crane was maintained in an adjacent pen and in visual contact with neonatal young to provide an imprinting model, and (5) a small group of adult (or subadult) cranes was penned adjacent to the outdoor chick pens to provide socialization models. Recent releases of Mississippi sandhill cranes hand-reared according to this protocol and released in Mississippi have had high first-year survival rates. The now-operational technique holds promise for producing large numbers of release-worthy birds.

  8. Overtopping and Rear Slope Stability of Reshaping & Non-reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.


    Overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping and non-reshaping berm breakwaters have been studied in a wave flume. A total of 695 tests have been performed to cover the influence of crest freeboard, crest width, berm width, berm elevation, stone size and sea state. Formula for average...... overtopping discharge that includes these parameters has been derived. The measurements show good correlation between average overtopping discharge and rear slope damage....

  9. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni


    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle; to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc., in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation; feed distribution (frequency and time, and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size, and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation. The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression

  10. The FAO/IAEA interactive spreadsheet for design and operation of insect mass rearing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Carlos, E-mail: [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Seibersdorf (Austria). Agency' s Labs. Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture; Rendon, Pedro [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS/CPHST), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Animal and Plant Health Inspection. Center for Plant Health Science and Technology


    An electronic spreadsheet is described which helps users to design, equip and operate facilities for the mass rearing of insects for use in insect pest control programmes integrating the sterile insect technique. The spreadsheet was designed based on experience accumulated in the mass rearing of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), using genetic sexing strains based on a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation. The spreadsheet takes into account the biological, production, and quality control parameters of the species to be mass reared, as well as the diets and equipment required. All this information is incorporated into the spreadsheet for user-friendly calculation of the main components involved in facility design and operation. Outputs of the spreadsheet include size of the different rearing areas, rearing equipment, volumes of diet ingredients, other consumables, as well as personnel requirements. By adding cost factors to these components, the spreadsheet can estimate the costs of facility construction, equipment, and operation. All the output parameters can be easily generated by simply entering the target number of sterile insects required per week. For other insect species, the biological and production characteristics need to be defined and inputted accordingly to obtain outputs relevant to these species. This spreadsheet, available under, is a powerful tool for project and facility managers as it can be used to estimate facility cost, production cost, and production projections under different rearing efficiency scenarios. (author)

  11. Mass Rearing of Temperature Sensitive Genetic Sexing Strains in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis Capitata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, C. [FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Entomology Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail:


    Genetic sexing strains (GSS) based on the temperature sensitive lethal(tsl) mutation are being used to produce sterile male medflies for large scale sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes for this pest. The use of male-only strains increases the overall efficiency of the technique. Currently more than 1.4 billion sterile male-only pupae are produced per week in different facilities around the world. Due to the mutations used to construct these strains, that is, translocations and selectable markers, they require different and more careful mass rearing procedures than do bisexual strains (BSS). The basic rearing technology has been developed and can be used to produce only males on a predictable basis to a level of 99.9% accuracy. If specific rearing procedures are followed, then tsl-based GSS has a rearing efficiency that is equal to that of a BSS and it is already know that males produced by the tsl-based GSS are of equal quality to males produced by BSS. Based on current rearing technology the cost of production of male pupae is about the same for both types of strain. This is due to the large colony that is required for the tsl-based GSS. This paper discusses the considerations that need to be taken into account during mass rearing of GSS and identifies the most efficient production processes that are currently available. (author)

  12. The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman


    Full Text Available The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF alone (pollen-1 and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine® (pollen-2. Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine® is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

  13. Utilizing the resource of twins reared apart: their distribution across nine provinces or cities of China. (United States)

    Gao, Wenjing; Zhou, Bin; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Jiang, Guohong; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming


    Twins reared apart provide a fascinating experiment to distinguish genetic from environmental influences. However, there is as yet no broad report on distribution of twins reared apart, especially in the Chinese population. In this study, information on 18,295 volunteer twin pairs of all age groups was compiled in nine provinces or cities of China, and questionnaires were used for zygosity determination. It was discovered that twins reared apart from 0 to 10 years of age accounted for 2.2% of all twin interviewees, with the proportion of this 0-10 group separated before 1, 2, and 5 years old, accounting for 65.3%, 76.1%, and 91.3%, respectively. The proportion of twins reared apart is not significantly related to zygosity or gender, but it is related to region and twin age. As the age of twins lowers, the proportion of those reared apart gradually decreases. Twins reared apart will become rarer in the future and therefore should be cherished as a resource.

  14. Persistence of free-living protozoan communities across rearing cycles in commercial poultry houses. (United States)

    Baré, Julie; Houf, Kurt; Verstraete, Tine; Vaerewijck, Mario; Sabbe, Koen


    The introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. To date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipeline, water, and miscellaneous samples) in three commercial poultry houses across three rearing cycles by using the molecular fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our study provides strong evidence for the long-term (ca. 6-month) persistence of protozoa in broiler houses across consecutive rearing cycles. Various free-living protozoa (flagellates, ciliates, and amoebae), including known vectors of bacterial pathogens, were observed during the down periods in between rearing cycles. In addition, multivariate analysis and variation partitioning showed that the protozoan community structure in the broiler houses showed almost no change across rearing cycles and remained highly habitat and farm specific. Unlike in natural environments, protozoan communities inside broiler houses are therefore not seasonal. Our results imply that currently used biosecurity measures (cleaning and disinfection) applied during the down periods are not effective against many protozoans and therefore cannot prevent potential cross-contamination of bacterial pathogens via free-living protozoa between rearing cycles.

  15. Fitness and predation potential of Macrolophus pygmaeus reared under artificial conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bjorn Vandekerkhove; Veronic De Puysseleyr; Maarten Bonte; Patrick De Clercq


    The biological parameters ofMacrolophuspygmaeus Rambur after prolonged rearing in the absence of plant materials were compared with those of conventionally plant-reared predators.When eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller were provided as food,developmental and reproductive fitness of M.pygmaeus reared for over 30 consecutive generations using artificial living and oviposition substrates was similar to that of predators kept on tobacco leaves.Plantless-reared fifth instars of the predator also had similar predation rates on second instars of the tobacco aphid,Myzus persicae nicotianae Blackman,as their peers maintained on plant materials.In a further experiment,predation on aphid prey by fifth instar M.pygmaeus fed one of two egg yolk-based artificial diets was compared with that of nymphs fed E.kuehniella eggs.Despite their lower body weights,predators produced on either artificial diet killed similar numbers of prey as their counterparts reared on lepidopteran eggs.Our study indicates that artificial rearing systems may be useful to further rationalize the production of this economically important biological control agent.

  16. Effects of Rearing Density on Survival, Growth, and Development of the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Riddick


    Full Text Available Our research focuses on developing techniques to rear ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. We evaluated the effects of rearing density on survival, growth, and development of Coleomegilla maculata. The hypothesis that a low to moderate rearing density has limited or no effects on survival and development was tested. C. maculata first instars were reared to pupae at a density of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 20 individuals per arena (2.5 cm high, 9.0 cm diameter, and 159 cm3 volume and fed powdered brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana eggs. More larvae survived at the 1 and 5 densities, but no differences were detected between the 10, 15, or 20 densities. Median survival rate was at least 90% for larvae and 100% for pupae at the 10, 15, and 20 densities. Development time, body weight, and sex ratio were unaffected by rearing density. Overall, this study suggests that C. maculata larvae can be reared successfully at a density of 20 larvae/159 cm3 (≈ 0.126 larvae/cm3 in containers provisioned with powdered A. franciscana eggs. Scaling-up the size of containers, and C. maculata density in these containers, should be possible.

  17. The Trauma of Birth or Parenting a Child: Effect on Parents' Negative Emotion in China. (United States)

    Xiang, Yanhui; Chi, Xinli; Wu, Hao; Zeng, Tianyu; Chao, Xiaomei; Zhang, Peichao; Mo, Lei


    The present study assessed negative emotions associated with the traumas of infertility and child rearing (child's disability or death) and the correlates of duration of trauma. The widely used Chinese Mental Health Scale was used to assess negative emotions in 294 individuals who experienced the aforementioned traumas and 124 who did not (control group). Results showed that individuals with infertility exhibited greater anxiety, depression, and solitude than the control group; bereaved parents and had greater solitude and fear than control group; and parents of children with disabilities had greater solitude than the control group. Parents who experienced the death of a child had more fear and physiological maladjustment than parents of a child with disabilities. In addition, individuals without parenting experience had higher scores on solitude, fear, and physiological disease than those with parenting experience. After controlling for demographic variables, the duration of trauma significantly negatively predicted depression in the infertile group and for bereaved parents. The results suggest that in order to prevent psychological and physiological health problems among infertile couples, parents of a disabled child, and parents who experience the death of child, family and community-based strategies should be developed and implemented.

  18. 医科大学护理本科生父母养育方式的研究%The research on nursing undergraduates' parental rearing pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔昌秀; 吴伟; 唐永云


    Objective:To explore the parental rearing styles of nursing undergraduates. Methods;289 nursing undergraduates were assessed with the parent upbringing evaluation forms and basic state questionnaire. Results;Fathers' penalty or severe and predilection were markedly higher than mothers' (P <0. 05) , but fathers' emotional warmth or understanding, over - interference or over - protection and rejection or denial were markedly lower than mother's(P <0. 05). Male students were markedly higher than female in the father's penalty or severe, over - interference and rejection or denial(P<0.05). Only -child students were markedly higher than not - only - child students in parental emotional warmth or understanding(P < 0. 05 ) . Father's culture background had the significant impact on father's emotional warmth or understanding(P <0.01). Conclusion:There are significant differences between father's parenting styles and mother's. Parental rearing styles are significantly correlated with parental culture background,child's sex and being only -child or not.%目的:探讨护理本科生的父母养育方式特点.方法:采用分层随机抽样方法,以父母养育方式评价量表、自设护生基本情况问卷对289名护理本科生进行测评.结果:护理本科生的父亲惩罚严厉、偏爱被试得分高于母亲(P<0.05),而情感温暖理解、过分干涉和过度保护、拒绝否认得分低于母亲(P<0.05).男性护生的父亲严厉惩罚、过分干涉、拒绝否认得分高于女性护生(P<0.05).独生护生的父母情感温暖理解得分高于非独生护生(P<0.05).父亲文化程度对父亲情感温暖理解存在差异(P<0.05).结论:护理本科生的父母养育方式明显不同,并与父亲文化程度及子女性别、独生与否等因素密切相关.

  19. The universal condition: medical constructions of 'congenital phimosis' in twentieth century New Zealand and their implications for child rearing. (United States)

    Watson, Lindsay R


    'Congenital phimosis' was one of a number of pseudo-pathologies that entered mainstream medicine in the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century Truby King, Henry Jellett, and Eric Corkill advocated premature foreskin retraction as the first intervention to manage 'congenital phimosis'. If that failed they recommended circumcision, although eventually it became more expedient to use circumcision exclusively. The nineteenth-century justification for such interventions was to prevent masturbation, but by the middle of the twentieth century this was replaced by prevention of infections. Gairdner's landmark paper of 1949 turned New Zealand doctors away from 'congenital phimosis' and non-therapeutic circumcision, although some doctors and persisting family traditions maintained both interventions until the end of the century.

  20. Foreign Fathers – Native English Speaking Fathers’ Contributions to Bilingual Child-Rearing in Intermarried Families in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan Jackson


    Full Text Available Who are you? What makes you so? These superficially simplistic questions pertain to the question of identity. Sociological understanding of this term suggests that our identities are socially constructed; that is, that they are both learned from and negotiated during our interactions with others. In view of this, it can be said that the family, initially at least, is the principal cultivator of one’s cultural identity.

  1. The Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein abbasnezhadriyabi


    Full Text Available While a large number of children are losing their lives due to poverty, malnutrition, contagious diseases and war, we are witnessing hundreds of children death by reason of misbehaving. Today, "child abuse" as a social-cultural phenomenon which shows crisis in a society, has a growing process in our country. The goal of this research was to investigate the base factors of child abuse that according to the results are consist as follows, poverty, unemployment, addiction, large families, single-parent, Considering the increase of factors such as poverty, addiction, unemployment, divorce, temporary marriage, street children and other effective factors, the hypothesis based on growth of child abuse was proved in Iran.

  2. Meet the good child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Malene; Grønhøj, Alice


    to be appropriate child and parental behavior. The study takes a practice theoretical perspective, building on previous research on family consumption, and draws empirically on 35 interviews with 5–6 year-olds and 13 family interviews. Findings show that the children recognize the position of ‘the good child......’ and most often prefer to take on this position, which is confirmed by their parents. The children can describe how ‘the good child’—in their eyes—should behave. They prefer consensus and not being embarrassing or embarrassed. The study concludes that the children are strongly immersed in social norms...... and family practices, and that the Danish national/cultural context probably reinforces these children as independent consumers, who are well aware of the requirements of the consumer role. Childing practices are a standard with know-how and rules that these children argue they live by—at least most...

  3. Effects of growth patterns and dietary crude protein levels during rearing on body composition and performance in broiler breeder females during the rearing and laying period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.


    ABSTRACT The combined effects of growth pattern (GP) and dietary CP level during rearing (2 to 22 wk of age) on body composition and performance were investigated in broiler breeder females from 0 to 40 wk of age. One-day-old pullets (n = 768) were randomly allotted to 48 pens according to 2 growth

  4. Seat belt use among rear passengers: validity of self-reported versus observational measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schievano Elena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of seat belt laws and public education campaigns on seat belt use are assessed on the basis of observational or self-reported data on seat belt use. Previous studies focusing on front seat occupants have shown that self-reports indicate a greater seat belt usage than observational findings. Whether this over-reporting in self reports applies to rear seat belt usage, and to what extent, have yet to be investigated. We aimed to evaluate the over-reporting factor for rear seat passengers and whether this varies by gender and under different compulsory seat belt use conditions. Methods The study was conducted in the Veneto Region, an area in the North-East of Italy with a population of 4.7 million. The prevalence of seat belt use among rear seat passengers was determined by means of a cross-sectional self-report survey and an observational study. Both investigations were performed in two time periods: in 2003, when rear seat belt use was not enforced by primary legislation, and in 2005, after rear seat belt use had become compulsory (June 2003. Overall, 8138 observations and 7902 interviews were recorded. Gender differences in the prevalence of rear seat belt use were examined using the chi-square test. The over-reporting factor, defined as the ratio of the self-reported to the observed prevalence of rear seat belt use, was calculated by gender before and after the rear seat belt legislation came into effect. Results Among rear seat passengers, self-reported rates were always higher than the observational findings, with an overall over-reporting factor of 1.4. We registered no statistically significant changes over time in the over-reporting factor, nor any major differences between genders. Conclusion Self-reported seat belt usage by rear passengers represents an efficient alternative to observational studies for tracking changes in actual behavior, although the reported figures need to be adjusted using an

  5. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare. (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean


    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  6. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.


    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  7. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.


    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  8. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old) (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... All parents and those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they ...

  9. Child Labor in America's History (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold


    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  10. When Your Child Has Tinnitus (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You When Your Child Has Tinnitus When Your Child Has Tinnitus Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... and public relations staff at . Tinnitus is a condition where the patient hears a ...

  11. Vaginal itching and discharge - child (United States)

    ... vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... To prevent and treat vaginal irritation, your child should: Avoid colored or perfumed toilet tissue and bubble bath. Use plain, unscented soap. Limit bath time to 15 minutes or less. Ask ...

  12. Parent and Child Living Centers. (United States)

    Pushaw, David R.


    Parent and child living centers offer a program to improve parenting skills with areas of learning including child growth and development, family management, home care and repair, and personal growth and development. (MM)

  13. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises (United States)

    ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, M. K. Shakir1, M. A. Mian, S. Mussawar2, F. R. Durrani and A. Cheema3


    Full Text Available Information from 150 females was obtained during the year 1998-99 to investigate status of backyard chicken in Chitral. Estimated human population and number of backyard birds in Chitral were 0.295 and 0.747 million, respectively. Average household flock size was 23.14 ± 1.97 birds, representing 8.04 ± 1.23, 6.83 ± 1.13, 5.67 ± 0.85 and 2.60 ± 0.27 number of Saso, Desi (non-descript indigenous chicken, Rhode Island Red (RIR and Fayumi birds, respectively. Household flock size and per capita available birds were higher in double than in transitional crop zone. Training status of the farmers, vaccination schedule and crop production zone affected egg production and mortality in backyard chickens. Average mortality in a flock was 13.56 ± 1.38%, representing higher mortality (P<0.05 in Saso as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken. Total annual number of eggs obtained by a household from backyard chicken was 2975.95 ± 71.22 eggs, representing 378.28 ± 17.45 and 128.61 ± 21.14 eggs per capita and per bird, respectively. Saso chicken (176.22 ± 21.23 eggs as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken (58.83 ± 5.27 eggs produced higher number of eggs per bird. Average number of eggs used for hatching purpose and per capita eggs consumed was 56.34 ± 3.37 and 137.68 ± 23.61, respectively. Mixed rearing practice of exotic birds with Desi chicken resulted in non-broodiness problem that adversely affected hatching performance as reported by most of the farmers. Proper health coverage, provision of training in poultry production, higher flock size, introduction of exotic birds, avoiding haphazard breeding and reduction in mortality were suggested as key factors for better backyard chicken productivity in Chitral.

  15. Effects of rearing host species on the host-feeding capacity and parasitism of the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa. (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Ruan, Changchun; Zang, Liansheng; Wan, Fanghao; Liu, Linzhou


    Parasitoids of the Encarsia genus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are important biological control agents against whiteflies. Some of the species in this genus not only parasitize their hosts, but also kill them through host feeding. The whitefly parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, was examined to determine whether the rearing host species affects its subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism. E. formosa wasps were reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) 'Q', and their subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism of T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci were examined. E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum were significantly larger in body size than those reared on B. tabaci, but these wasps killed a similar number of whitefly nymphs by host feeding when they attacked the same host species on which they were reared. Regardless of the species on which it was reared, E. formosa fed significantly more on the B. tabaci nymphs than on the T. vaporariorum nymphs. The number of whitefly nymphs parasitized by E. formosa differed between the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum and those reared on B. tabaci depending on which whitefly species was offered as a host. In addition, the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum parasitized significantly more on T. vaporariorum than those reared on B. tabaci. The wasps reared on B. tabaci, however, parasitized similar numbers of whiteflies of both host species. The results indicated that the host-feeding capacity of E. formosa was affected more by the host species attacked than by the rearing host species, but the parasitism was affected by the host species attacked and the rearing host species. Generally, E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum killed more T. vaporariorum nymphs by parasitism and host feeding than those reared on B. tabaci. Additionally, a similar number of B. tabaci nymphs were killed by parasitism and host feeding regardless of the rearing host species. Currently



    Laura Negredo; Óscar Herrero


    Downloading, exchanging and producing child pornography is a criminal behaviour of growing relevance. The cruel exploitation of minors and its link with child sexual abuse raise great social and academic concern. The current paper approaches the nature of the phenomenon, the characteristics of the materials labelled as “child pornography”, the psychological traits of the users and the existing treatment programs

  17. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities. (United States)

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…


    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.


  19. Social Structure and Child Poverty (United States)

    Ferriss, Abbott L.


    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  20. Treatment for Child Abusers (United States)

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.


    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  1. Child Nutrition Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Child Nutrition Program invites all students to participate in the school breakfast and lunch program at school. Our goal is to improve the health and education of students by providing nutritious meals that promote food choices for a healthy diet. Failure to eat balanced meals increases the risk of illness including obesity ,

  2. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter


    child mortality but the same morbidity pattern as in other Western societies was found. Negative health behaviour is frequent in schoolchildren. The influence of rapid cultural changes, and familial and societal factors related to social ill health, together with socioeconomic inequity, are of major...

  3. Measuring Child Rhythm (United States)

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar


    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and has a…

  4. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant...

  5. The Child as Craftsman (United States)

    Feldman, David H.


    Perhaps the most important implication of the metaphor is to suggest that it may well be the main purpose of education to provide conditions under which each child will identify and find satisfaction through a chosen field or fields of work. (Author)

  6. Who Is This Child? (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.


    An Idaho education dean recounts a moving encounter with a fatherless first-grader while visiting his grandson in Eugene, Oregon. Envisioning a deadbeat dad and a burned-out mother, he pondered the statistical odds of this child graduating from college. However, the girl's warm welcome from her teacher helped revise his hopes about the little…

  7. Child Care Aware (United States)

    ... a stream of our activity across multiple social networks by visiting the Child Care Aware® of America Social Dashboard. Visit Our Social Dashboard Follow and Engage ... Care Aware of America Home Newsroom Contact Us Log In Register Back About ...

  8. The Gifted Dyslexic Child (United States)

    Eide, Brock; Eide, Fernette


    A major reason why dyslexia is likely to be missed or mislabeled in an intellectually gifted child is the lack of a specific, clearly recognized definition to enable diagnosis of dyslexia. It's crucial that adults working with gifted students understand that average or even above reading comprehension does not by itself guarantee that a gifted…

  9. The Child Whisperer (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.


    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  10. Child Indicators: Dental Health. (United States)

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy


    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  11. Child Care Centres. (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…

  12. Internet and child pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Çağlar


    Full Text Available Nowadays, internet use and access is becoming increasingly common as a great entertainment, communication and educational resource for children as well as for adults. Internet is a perfect environment for children, for exploring the world, learning and having fun. However, access to illegal sites that contain violence and sexuality, and contact dangerous people are among the particular risks for children using the internet. It is a known fact that, internet and developing technology make the production and distribution of child pornography cheaper and easier. There has been consensus on the need of creating a plan and increasing the awareness in the community for the fight against child pornography. Because of the increasing internet use and the risk for children mentioned, nurses got new responsibilities. Nurses have to inform society, especially families and children, about safe internet use. In this review, legal regulations about the fight against child pornography on the internet, the reasons that lay the ground for child pornography and their negative effects on children has been addressed.

  13. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment. (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J


    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  14. Rural origin as a risk factor for maternal and child health in periurban Bolivia. (United States)

    Bender, D E; Rivera, T; Madonna, D


    Rapid migration in Latin America is settling rural women and their families next to those of urban origin in sprawling urban settings. Those born and reared in rural areas bring with them knowledge and skills learned and adapted to rural areas; those same skills may be maladaptive in urban areas. Hypothesized is that urban women of rural origin are more likely to have poorer health outcomes for themselves and their children than lifelong urban counterparts. Identification of specific risk factors affecting child and/or maternal health status in peri-urban barrios can assist health workers to target limited resources to those least likely to access available services.

  15. Three-dimensional numerical analysis of hybrid heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells with heterojunction rear point contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Peng Ling


    Full Text Available This paper presents a three-dimensional numerical analysis of homojunction/heterojunction hybrid silicon wafer solar cells, featuring front-side full-area diffused homojunction contacts and rear-side heterojunction point contacts. Their device performance is compared with conventional full-area heterojunction solar cells as well as conventional diffused solar cells featuring locally diffused rear point contacts, for both front-emitter and rear-emitter configurations. A consistent set of simulation input parameters is obtained by calibrating the simulation program with intensity dependent lifetime measurements of the passivated regions and the contact regions of the various types of solar cells. We show that the best efficiency is obtained when a-Si:H is used for rear-side heterojunction point-contact formation. An optimization of the rear contact area fraction is required to balance between the gains in current and voltage and the loss in fill factor with shrinking rear contact area fraction. However, the corresponding optimal range for the rear-contact area fraction is found to be quite large (e.g. 20-60 % for hybrid front-emitter cells. Hybrid rear-emitter cells show a faster drop in the fill factor with decreasing rear contact area fraction compared to front-emitter cells, stemming from a higher series resistance contribution of the rear-side a-Si:H(p+ emitter compared to the rear-side a-Si:H(n+ back surface field layer. Overall, we show that hybrid silicon solar cells in a front-emitter configuration can outperform conventional heterojunction silicon solar cells as well as diffused solar cells with rear-side locally diffused point contacts.

  16. Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.


    Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

  17. Comparison of ovarian maturation and spawning after unilateral eyestalk ablation of wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, W.; Yang, Q.; Ma, Z.; Jiang, S.; Qiu, L.; Huang, J.; Zhou, F.; Qin, J.G.


    The present study compares the efficiency of ovarian maturation and spawning success between wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon females after unilateral eyestalk ablation. The earliest spawning time after eyestalk ablation was 5.9 days in wild-caught females, which is significantly shorter than the spawning time in pond-reared females (10.5 days). Both wild-caught and pond-reared females repeatedly spawned after eyestalk ablation. On average, each wild-caught female spawned 2.94 times while each pond-reared female spawned only 1.09 times. The spawning induction rate, egg hatching rate, and the number of eggs per spawning were significantly greater in wild-caught females than in pond-reared females. However, the egg size was not significantly different between wild-caught and pond-reared females. Four shrimp sizes (60, 80, 100 and 120 (± 1.0) g) were tested in this study and body weight significantly affected ovarian induction in pond-reared females but not in wild-caught females. Within the same body-weight class, the egg number per spawn in wild-caught females was significantly greater than that in pond-reared females. The egg production per spawn of the pond-reared females in the 120-g size group was two times higher than that in the pond-reared females in the 80-g size group. In conclusion, the fecundity of wild-caught P. monodon females is significantly higher than that of pond-reared P. monodon females. In breeding pond-reared P. monodon, the recommended minimum body weight of females is over 80 g, and the desirable body weight is over 100 g. (Author)

  18. Study on Rear-end Real-time Data Quality Control Method of Regional Automatic Weather Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [Objective] The aim was to study the rear-end real-time data quality control method of regional automatic weather station. [Method] The basic content and steps of rear-end real-time data quality control of regional automatic weather station were introduced. Each element was treated with systematic quality control procedure. The existence of rear-end real time data of regional meteorological station in Guangxi was expounded. Combining with relevant elements and linear changes, improvement based on traditiona...

  19. Optimization of Rear Local Contacts on High Efficiency PERC Solar Cells Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Wijekoon


    Full Text Available A local contact formation process and integration scheme have been developed for the fabrication of rear passivated point contact solar cells. Conversion efficiency of 19.6% was achieved using  mm, pseudo square, p-type single crystalline silicon wafers. This is a significant improvement when compared to unpassivated, full area aluminum back surface field solar cells, which exhibit only 18.9% conversion efficiency on the same wafer type. The effect of rear contact formation on cell efficiency was studied as a function of contact area and contact pitch, hence the metallization fraction. Contact shape and the thickness of Al-BSF layer were found to be heavily dependent on the laser ablation pattern and contact area. Simulated cell parameters as a function of metallization showed that there is a tradeoff between open circuit voltage and fill factor gains as the metallization fraction varies. The rear surface was passivated with an Al2O3 layer and a capping layer. The rear surface contact pattern was created by laser ablation and the contact geometry was optimized to obtain voids free contact filling, resulting in a uniform back surface field. The efficiency gain in rear passivated cells over the reference cells is mainly due to improved short circuit current and open circuit voltage.

  20. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Sherley

    Full Text Available The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot. Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08 and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10 survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03. Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  1. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.


    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  2. Effect of rearing system and season on the performance and egg characteristics of Ancona laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Castellini


    Full Text Available Productive performance and egg characteristics of Ancona laying hens reared under three different rearing systems (conventional, organic and organic-plus were compared during an experimental period of one year. Three-hundred-sixty Ancona female chicks at 28 days of age were divided in three groups and assigned to different rearing systems. The organic group had 4m2 pasture/hen according to the requirements imposed by the EC Regulation 1804/99, whereas the organic-plus group had a larger grass paddock (10m2/hen. The Control group was reared in cages under standard housing conditions. The following egg characteristics were recorded and analysed during the year-long cycle: egg weight and egg mass laid/d, weight of egg components, shell thickness, Haugh index and yolk colour. Egg quality was affected by the pasture available. The hens that ingested grass (organic-plus, produced eggs with higher shell weight and percentage, darker yolk colour and higher α-tocopherol, carotenoid and polyphenol contents. The other egg traits were not affected by rearing system.

  3. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.


    This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings.

  4. Study on the SiN_x/Al rear reflectance performance of crystalline silicon solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The performance of internal rear surface reflectance of crystalline silicon solar cells is becoming more and more important with the decrease of thickness of the silicon wafers. In this paper PC1D was used to simulate the correlations between the rear surface reflectance and the electrical as well as optical properties of the solar cells. The results showed that the short circuit current, open circuit voltage and quantum efficiency were all enhanced with the increase of the rear reflectance. When the rear reflectance increased from 60% to 100%, the short circuit current, open circuit voltage and maximum output power were improved by about 0.128 A, 0.007 V, and 0.066 W, respectively. The internal quantum efficiency was improved by 39.9%, the external quantum increased by 17.4%, and the efficiency of the solar cells was enhanced by 0.4% at 1100 nm wavelength. The screen-printing was selected to prepare SiNx/Al reflector, and experimental results showed that the SiNx/Al reflector has desired characteristic of internal rear reflectance, with the reflectivity of 15% higher than that of conventional aluminum BSF at 1100 nm wavelength.

  5. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents. (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J


    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  6. The effect of parental rearing conditions on offspring life history in Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maung Liam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to impact the success of offspring. Little is known on the presence of such parental effects in Anopheles. If present, parental effects could influence mosquito breeding programmes, some malaria control measures and have epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods The presence of parental effects on offspring emergence time, size, survival, blood meal size and fecundity in laboratory reared An. stephensi were tested. Results Parental rearing conditions did not influence the time taken for offspring to emerge, or their size or survival as adults. However, parental effects were influential in determining the fecundity of daughters. Counter-intuitively, daughters of parents reared in low food conditions produced larger egg clutches than daughters of parents reared in high food conditions. Offspring reared in low food conditions took larger blood meals if their parents had also experienced a low food environment. Conclusion So far as we are aware, this is the first evidence of parental effects on progeny in Anopheles.

  7. Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon (United States)

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.


    Organisms that share the same genotype can develop into divergent phenotypes, depending on environmental conditions. In Atlantic salmon, young males of the same age can be found either as sneakers or immature males that are future anadromous fish. Just as the organism-level phenotype varies between divergent male developmental trajectories, brain gene expression is expected to vary as well. We hypothesized that rearing environment can also have an important effect on gene expression in the brain and possibly interact with the reproductive tactic adopted. We tested this hypothesis by comparing brain gene expression profiles of the two male tactics in fish from the same population that were reared in either a natural stream or under laboratory conditions. We found that expression of certain genes was affected by rearing environment only, while others varied between male reproductive tactics independent of rearing environment. Finally, more than half of all genes that showed variable expression varied between the two male tactics only in one environment. Thus, in these fish, very different molecular pathways can give rise to similar macro-phenotypes depending on rearing environment. This result gives important insights into the molecular underpinnings of developmental plasticity in relationship to the environment. ?? 2005 The American Genetic Association.

  8. Global Threats to Child Safety. (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E


    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children.

  9. Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga) Se-2 solar cells


    Vermang, Bart; Timo Watjen, Jorn; Fjallstrom, Viktor; Rostvall, Fredrik; Edoff, Marika; Gunnarsson, Rickard; Pilch, Iris; Helmersson, Ulf; Kotipalli, Ratan; Henry, Frederic; Flandre, Denis


    Al2O3 rear surface passivated ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) solar cells with Mo nano-particles (NPs) as local rear contacts are developed to demonstrate their potential to improve optical confinement in ultra-thin CIGS solar cells. The CIGS absorber layer is 380 nm thick and the Mo NPs are deposited uniformly by an up-scalable technique and have typical diameters of 150 to 200 nm. The Al2O3 layer passivates the CIGS rear surface between the Mo NPs, while the rear CIGS interface in contact w...

  10. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič


    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  11. The influence of increased rearing density on medial protocerebral neurosecretory neurons of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilijin Larisa


    Full Text Available Morphometric changes of A1, A1' and A2 protocerebral dorsomedial neurosecretory neurons, total brain protein content and brain protein profiles were analyzed in 4th instar Lymantria dispar larvae under elevated rearing density, i.e. under intense stress when 5 larvae were kept in a petri dish (V = 80 ml, less intense stress when 5 larvae were kept in a plastic cup (V = 300 ml. In the control samples the larvae were reared in isolated conditions. Protein pattern changes in the brain were observed. Proteins with the following molecular masses: 30, 14, 10 and 3.4-2.5 kD were detected in the experimental groups. The size and cytological characteristics of protocerebral dorsomedial neurosecretory neurons were changed under elevated rearing density.

  12. Numerical investigation into effect of rear barrier pillar on stress distribution around a longwall face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠明和; 李学华; 姚强岭; 李冬伟; 种照辉; 周健


    Numerical investigation was performed to examine the effect of rear barrier pillar on stress distribution around a longwall face. Salamon theoretical formula was used to calculate the parameters of the caving zone, which was later assigned to double yield constitutive model in FLAC3D. Numerical results demonstrate that high stress concentration zone exists above the region where the second open-off cut intersects with the rear barrier pillar due to stress transfer and plastic zone expansion. It is also found that the maximum vertical stresses with varied distance to the seam floor are all within the projective plane of the rear barrier pillar and their positions concentrate on the barrier pillar adjacent to the connection corner of the second open-off cut. In addition, position of the maximum vertical stresses abruptly transfer from the connection corner adjacent to former panel to that adjacent to current panel along the panel direction.

  13. Environment-dependent plasticity and ontogenetic changes in the brain of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, J.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Thomassen, S.T.;


    enhancement strategies, like environmental enrichment. Here, we investigated the size of the brain in hatcheryreared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar kept at standard (high) and reduced (low) tank densities. In contrast to our predictions, we found that fish reared at high density had larger dry mass of cerebellum......Lowered rearing density has repeatedly been shown to increase the performance of hatchery-reared salmonids stocked into natural environments. One possible mechanism for this pattern could be that lower densities enhance brain development, which has been shown to be the case in other hatchery...... the opposite pattern was observed for telencephalon. Overall, these results reveal substantial brain plasticity depending on the surrounding environment as well as ontogenetic adaptive changes in the brain of the Atlantic salmon...

  14. Impact characteristics of a vehicle population in low speed front to rear collisions. (United States)

    Nishimura, Naoya; Simms, Ciaran K; Wood, Denis P


    Rear impact collisions are mostly low severity, but carry a very high societal cost due to reported symptoms of whiplash and related soft tissue injuries. Given the difficulty in physiological measurement of damage in whiplash patients, there is a significant need to assess rear impact severity on the basis of vehicle damage. This paper presents fundamental impact equations on the basis of an equivalent single vehicle to rigid barrier collision in order to predict relationships between impact speed, maximum dynamic crush, mean and peak acceleration, time to common velocity and vehicle stiffness. These are then applied in regression analysis of published staged low speed rear impact tests. The equivalent mean and peak accelerations are linear functions of the collision closing speed, while the time to common velocity is independent of the collision closing speed. Furthermore, the time to common velocity can be used as a surrogate measure of the normalized vehicle stiffness, which provides opportunity for future accident reconstruction.

  15. Effects of Hypergravity Rearing on Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor in Rat Pups (United States)

    Baer, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.


    Body weights of rat pups reared during exposure to hypergravity (hg) are significantly reduced relative to 1 g controls. In the present study, we examined in hg-reared rat pups two major contributors to growth and development, namely growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g or 2.0-g. On Postnatal day (P)l0, plasma GH and IGF-1 were analyzed using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Both hormones were significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g control pups. Together, these findings suggest that GH and IGF-1 are not primary determinants of reduced body weights observed in hg-reared pups. The significant elevations in pup GH and IGF-1 may be related to increased physical stimulation in hypergravity.

  16. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbo Yang


    Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.

  17. Understanding Biological Roles of Venoms Among the Caenophidia: The Importance of Rear-Fanged Snakes. (United States)

    Mackessy, Stephen P; Saviola, Anthony J


    Snake venoms represent an adaptive trophic response to the challenges confronting a limbless predator for overcoming combative prey, and this chemical means of subduing prey shows several dominant phenotypes. Many front-fanged snakes, particularly vipers, feed on various vertebrate and invertebrate prey species, and some of their venom components (e.g., metalloproteinases, cobratoxin) appear to have been selected for "broad-brush" incapacitation of different prey taxa. Using proteomic and genomic techniques, the compositional diversity of front-fanged snakes is becoming well characterized; however, this is not the case for most rear-fanged colubroid snakes. Because these species consume a high diversity of prey, and because venoms are primarily a trophic adaptation, important clues for understanding specific selective pressures favoring venom component composition will be found among rear-fanged snake venoms. Rear-fanged snakes typically (but not always) produce venoms with lower complexity than front-fanged snakes, and there are even fewer dominant (and, arguably, biologically most relevant) venom protein families. We have demonstrated taxon-specific toxic effects, where lizards and birds show high susceptibility while mammals are largely unaffected, for both Old World and New World rear-fanged snakes, strongly indicating a causal link between toxin evolution and prey preference. New data are presented on myotoxin a, showing that the extremely rapid paralysis induced by this rattlesnake toxin is specific for rodents, and that myotoxin a is ineffectual against lizards. Relatively few rear-fanged snake venoms have been characterized, and basic natural history data are largely lacking, but directed sampling of specialized species indicates that novel compounds are likely among these specialists, particularly among those species feeding on invertebrate prey such as scorpions and centipedes. Because many of the more than 2200 species of colubroid snakes are rear

  18. Assessing juvenile salmon rearing habitat and associated predation risk in a lower Snake River reservoir (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Hatten, James R.; Trachtenbarg, David A


    Subyearling fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin exhibit a transient rearing strategy and depend on connected shoreline habitats during freshwater rearing. Impoundment has greatly reduced the amount of shallow-water rearing habitat that is exacerbated by the steep topography of reservoirs. Periodic dredging creates opportunities to strategically place spoils to increase the amount of shallow-water habitat for subyearlings while at the same time reducing the amount of unsuitable area that is often preferred by predators. We assessed the amount and spatial arrangement of subyearling rearing habitat in Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River to guide future habitat improvement efforts. A spatially explicit habitat assessment was conducted using physical habitat data, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling and a statistical habitat model in a geographic information system framework. We used field collections of subyearlings and a common predator [smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu)] to draw inferences about predation risk within specific habitat types. Most of the high-probability rearing habitat was located in the upper half of the reservoir where gently sloping landforms created low lateral bed slopes and shallow-water habitats. Only 29% of shorelines were predicted to be suitable (probability >0.5) for subyearlings, and the occurrence of these shorelines decreased in a downstream direction. The remaining, less suitable areas were composed of low-probability habitats in unmodified (25%) and riprapped shorelines (46%). As expected, most subyearlings were found in high-probability habitat, while most smallmouth bass were found in low-probability locations. However, some subyearlings were found in low-probability habitats, such as riprap, where predation risk could be high. Given their transient rearing strategy and dependence on shoreline habitats, subyearlings could benefit from habitat creation efforts in the lower

  19. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.


    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  20. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben


    . Three hundred seventy-four have since left the study, leaving 2500 active families. The non-participants act as controls contributing data through local registries. Biological material, questionnaires, and registry data were compiled. Anthropometric data and other physical data were collected. RESULTS...... provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data......., the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012...

  1. Child Health in Portugal. (United States)

    Bandeira, Teresa; Ferreira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Inês


    Portugal has experienced rapid decline of neonatal and infant mortality in the last century, similar to that of other western European states. The joint venture of pediatricians and obstetricians with adequate top-down government commissions for maternal and child health for the decision making by health administrators and a well-defined schedule of preventive and managerial measures in the community and in hospitals are the most likely explanations for this success. Another achievement of child health care services is the registry for special diseases. Education of health care workers plays a fundamental role in improving health statistics. Portugal has a reasonable number of doctors, nurses, and health technicians per capita. Quality assurance monitoring systems and implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines with digital records, including international coding, are essential steps to improve health care systems.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Shanxi Province child labor scandal has shocked China to its core. Over 1,000 children were forced into illegal labor by morally bankrupt brick kiln businesses, throwing a depressing shroud over China’s rapid development. Uncovering these tales of abduction, death and the physical and mental abuse endured by these children has been a proud moment for China’s press. Several hundred of the kiln slave children have now been reunited with their families. Kiln owners, contractors and accomplices are being brought to justice or hunted down, some even charged with murder.However, in all this gloom some good has surfaced.Public and government attention is now focused on erasing child labor once and for all and for better protecting workers’ rights, hopefully ridding China of such disgraces in the future.

  3. Navy Child Care, 1980. (United States)


    months to 2 1/2 years) full-time. ............. 23.8 Preschool (2 1/2 to 5 years) such as Montessori or other nursery school developmental program...had beyond High School. *Naval Air Station, Miramar One Associate degree, five BA/ES, three Montessori Certified, three enrolled in Montessori training...comes in many forms. The child-care center at Naval Station, Adak, burned in November 1979 (Nida, 1980). Fortunately, there was no loss of life or

  4. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne


    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases....... The obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic...

  5. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing. (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D


    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  6. Zoeal morphology of Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes (Decapoda, Grapsidae reared in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Brossi-Garcia


    Full Text Available Ovigerous females of Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850 were collected on the Praia Dura and Saco da Ribeira beaches, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. Larvae were individually reared in a climatic room at 25ºC temperature, salinities of 28, 32 and 35‰ and under natural photoperiod conditions. The best rearing results were observed at 35%o salinity. Seven zoeal instars were observed, drawing and described in detail. The data are compared with those obtained for P. gracilis (Saussure, 1858.

  7. A Rear-End Collision Avoidance Scheme for Intelligent Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen


    Full Text Available In this paper, a rear-end collision control model is proposed using the fuzzy logic control scheme for the autonomous or cruising vehicles in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs. Through detailed analysis of the car-following cases, our controller is established on some reasonable control rules. In addition, to refine the initialized fuzzy rules considering characteristics of the rear-end collisions, the genetic algorithm is introduced to reduce the computational complexity while maintaining accuracy. Numerical results indicate that our Genetic algorithm-optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller (GFLC outperforms the traditional fuzzy logic controller in terms of better safety guarantee and higher traffic efficiency.

  8. Mediation of early maladaptive schemas between perceptions of parental rearing style and personality disorder symptoms. (United States)

    Thimm, Jens C


    In schema therapy (ST), early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are proposed to be the defining core of personality disorders. Adverse relational experiences in childhood are assumed to be the main cause for the development of EMS. The present study explored the links between perceived parental rearing behaviours, EMS, and personality disorder symptoms in a clinical sample (N=108). Results from mediation analyses suggest that EMS mediate the relationships between recalled parenting rearing behaviours and personality disorder symptoms. Findings give support to the theoretical model ST is based on.

  9. Child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Hymel, K P; Jenny, C


    Multiple obstacles can hinder the medical evaluation of suspected child sexual abuse in pediatric primary care. The need for diagnostic accuracy is high. Knowledge of sexual abuse risk factors, an understanding of the victimization process, and awareness of the varied clinical presentations of sexual abuse can be of assistance. Open-ended questioning of the suspected victim is the most critical component of the evaluation. Skillful medical interviewing requires time, training, patience, and practice. Pediatricians lacking any of these four requirements should defer interviewing in sexual abuse cases to other professionals. Abnormal physical findings from sexual abuse are uncommon. Colposcopy has assisted pediatricians greatly in reaching consensus regarding diagnostic physical findings. Cases of acute sexual assault require familiarity with the forensic rape examination, STD screening and prophylaxis, and pregnancy prevention. Victimization from sexual abuse continues long after the abusive acts end, often requiring long-term therapeutic intervention. An emerging standard of care for medical evaluations of suspected child sexual abuse recognizes the requirement for patience and compassion while retaining objectivity. The pediatrician's primary concern must be for the child's physical and emotional well-being.

  10. Does rearing laying hens in aviaries adversely affect long-term welfare following transfer to furnished cages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Tahamtani

    Full Text Available This study tests the hypothesis that hens that are reared in aviaries but produce in furnished cages experience poorer welfare in production than hens reared in caged systems. This hypothesis is based on the suggestion that the spatial restriction associated with the transfer from aviaries to cages results in frustration or stress for the aviary reared birds. To assess the difference in welfare between aviary and cage reared hens in production, non-beak trimmed white leghorn birds from both rearing backgrounds were filmed at a commercial farm that used furnished cage housing. The videos were taken at 19 and 21 weeks of age, following the birds' transition to the production environment at 16 weeks. Videos were analysed in terms of the performance of aversion-related behaviour in undisturbed birds, comfort behaviour in undisturbed birds, and alert behaviour directed to a novel object in the home cage. A decrease in the performance of the former behaviour and increase in the performance of the latter two behaviours indicates improved welfare. The results showed that aviary reared birds performed more alert behaviour near to the object than did cage reared birds at 19 but not at 21 weeks of age (P = 0.03. Blood glucose concentrations did not differ between the treatments (P>0.10. There was a significant difference in mortality between treatments (P = 0.000, with more death in aviary reared birds (5.52% compared to cage birds (2.48%. The higher mortality of aviary-reared birds indicates a negative effect of aviary rearing on bird welfare, whereas the higher duration of alert behavior suggests a positive effect of aviary rearing.

  11. Does rearing laying hens in aviaries adversely affect long-term welfare following transfer to furnished cages? (United States)

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Hansen, Tone Beate; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Moe, Randi O; Janczak, Andrew M


    This study tests the hypothesis that hens that are reared in aviaries but produce in furnished cages experience poorer welfare in production than hens reared in caged systems. This hypothesis is based on the suggestion that the spatial restriction associated with the transfer from aviaries to cages results in frustration or stress for the aviary reared birds. To assess the difference in welfare between aviary and cage reared hens in production, non-beak trimmed white leghorn birds from both rearing backgrounds were filmed at a commercial farm that used furnished cage housing. The videos were taken at 19 and 21 weeks of age, following the birds' transition to the production environment at 16 weeks. Videos were analysed in terms of the performance of aversion-related behaviour in undisturbed birds, comfort behaviour in undisturbed birds, and alert behaviour directed to a novel object in the home cage. A decrease in the performance of the former behaviour and increase in the performance of the latter two behaviours indicates improved welfare. The results showed that aviary reared birds performed more alert behaviour near to the object than did cage reared birds at 19 but not at 21 weeks of age (P = 0.03). Blood glucose concentrations did not differ between the treatments (P>0.10). There was a significant difference in mortality between treatments (P = 0.000), with more death in aviary reared birds (5.52%) compared to cage birds (2.48%). The higher mortality of aviary-reared birds indicates a negative effect of aviary rearing on bird welfare, whereas the higher duration of alert behavior suggests a positive effect of aviary rearing.

  12. Girl child and social change. (United States)

    Seth, P


    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  13. On Parental Rearing Patterns of College Students in Yunnan Province%云南省大学生父母教养方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪猛; 高飞


      采用父母教养方式评价量表(EMBU)对云南省759名大学生进行测查。结果表明:(1)父母对男孩更加惩罚、严厉、拒绝和否认,而对女孩则更加情感温暖、理解、过分干涉和偏爱;(2)父亲对独生子女的偏爱以及母亲对独生子女的拒绝、否认、惩罚、严厉和偏爱明显多于非独生子女;(3)来自不同生源地的大学生,父母对其教养的投入程度是不同的,从高到低大致是:城市-乡镇-农村。%The EMBU on 759 college students in Yunnan province were tested. The result shows:(1)The parents of boys were more severe punishment, rejection and denial, while for girls is more emotional warmth, understanding, excessive interference and preference;(2)The father of one child preference and mother on the only child's refusal, deny, severe punishment, and partial love than non-only child;(3)From different sources of students, their parents rearing investment degree is different, from high to low is roughly: City-the town of rural.

  14. Correlative study of medico's empathy and parental rearing patterns%医科大学生共情能力与父母教养方式的关联探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余皖婉; 汪凯; 梁振


    Objective To study the characteristics of college students' empathy and parental rearing patterns,as well as the mutual influence between them. Methods Six hundred and three medical students served as the samples and tested by using the parental rearing patterns ( Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran, EMBU) and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Results Boys scored lower than girls on parental emotional warmth and understanding, refusal and deny, but boys scored higher than girls on paternal stern punishment and overprotection. The only-child scored higher than the non-only-child on parental over intervention and maternal emotional warmth and understanding and stern punishment, but the only child scored lower than non-only child on paternal partiality. The urban students scored higher than the rural on parental emotional warmth and understanding , but the rural ones scored higher than the urban ones on parental partiality (P<0. 05 ). The boys scored lower than girls on imagination, empathy concerns and personal pains; the only-child- scored lower than the non-only-child on empathy concerns and personal pains; the urban students scored lower than the rural ones on empathy concerns) P<0. 01). Parental rearing patterns were obviously correlated with some factors of IRI. Conclusion The positive ways of parental rearing patterns can benefit the children's empathy ability development, while the negative ways inhibit it.%目的 探讨医科大学生共情能力与父母教养方式的特点及其相互影响,为医科大学生的身心健康做出有益的探究.方法 使用父母教养方式量表(EMBU)和人际反应指针量表(IRI),对603名医科大学生进行问卷调查.结果 父母的情感温暖理解、拒绝否认和母亲惩罚严厉得分男生低于女生,父亲的惩罚严厉和过度保护得分男生高于女生;父母的过分干涉及母亲的情感温暖理解和惩罚严厉得分独生子女高于非独生子女,父亲偏爱被试则是

  15. Parental Rearing Behavior Prospectively Predicts Adolescents' Risky Decision-Making and Feedback-Related Electrical Brain Activity (United States)

    Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.


    The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an…

  16. Effects of rearing conditions on behavioural and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, I.C; Prelle, I.T.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J; Koolhaas, J.M.


    The physiological and behavioural responses of slaughter pigs reared in either a barren environment or in an enriched environment (larger pens with straw bedding) to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport were studied. Enriched-reared pigs had higher salivary cortisol concentrations in the ho

  17. Effect of rearing conditions on behavioural and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Prelle, I.T.; Burgwal, van de J.A.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.


    The physiological and behavioural responses of slaughter pigs reared in either a barren environment or in an enriched environment (larger pens with straw bedding) to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport were studied. Enriched-reared pigs had higher salivary cortisol concentrations in the ho

  18. Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Physical and Cognitive Development of Children in Ukraine (United States)

    Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie


    To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…

  19. Colony growth of two species of Solenopsis fire ants(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reared with crickets and beef liver (United States)

    Most diets for rearing fire ants and other ants contain insects such as crickets or mealworms. Unfortunately, insect diets are expensive, especially for large rearing operations, and are not always easily available. This study was designed to examine colony growth of Solenopsis fire ants on beef liv...

  20. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  1. Early enrichment effects on brain development in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): no evidence for a critical period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Joacim; Aarestrup, Kim; Thomassen, Søren T.;


    In hatcheries, fish are normally reared in barren environments, which have been reported to affect their phenotypic development compared with wild conspecifics. In this study, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) alevins were reared in conventional barren hatchery trays or in either of two types...... of structurally enriched trays. We show that increased structural complexity during early rearing increased brain size in all investigated brain substructures. However, these effects disappeared over time after transfer to barren tanks for external feeding. Parallel to the hatchery study, a group of salmon parr...... was released into nature and recaptured at smoltification. These stream-reared smolts developed smaller brains than the hatchery reared smolts, irrespective of initial enrichment treatment. These novel findings do not support the hypothesis that there is a critical early period determining the brain growth...

  2. Child neglect: assessment and intervention. (United States)

    Hornor, Gail


    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  3. 49 CFR 571.223 - Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards. (United States)


    ... longitudinal vertical plane passing through the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle when the guard is... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.223 Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards. S1. Scope. This...

  4. 49 CFR 571.224 - Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection. (United States)


    ... mm of the longitudinal vertical planes that are tangent to the side extremities of the vehicle. See... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.224 Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection. S1. Scope....

  5. New records of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) reared from fungus sporophores in Japan, including five new species


    DISNEY, R Henry L; NITTA, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Mio; Tuno, Nobuko


    Megaselia donaldsonae Disney sp. nov., M. flava (Fallén), M. gotoi Disney, M. kanekoi Disney, M. margaretae Disney sp. nov., M. nakayamai Disney sp. nov., M. salteri Disney sp. nov. and M. stepheni Disney sp. nov. were reared from sporophores of fungi.

  6. Conservation Considerations for a Management Measure: An Integrated Approach to Hare Rearing and Release (United States)

    Sokos, Christos; Birtsas, Periklis; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos G.; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Manolakou, Katerina; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Billinis, Charalambos


    Wildlife managers are challenged with the task of deciding whether a management measure is appropriate or not, and furthermore they have to convince others about the merits of their decision. Population decline of some hare species (genus Lepus) has resulted in their Red Listing and conservation measures are being undertaken. Release or restocking is a frequent measure in some countries, and thousands of hares are released annually, mainly for hunting purposes. These hares can be obtained by either intensive or extensive rearing or translocation of the wild animals. Each method entails difficulties and different survival rates in the wild. Survival rates in the wild are low for hares intensively reared in cages but are higher for hares reared extensively in enclosures and wild translocated hares. The benefits of the hare release practice are significantly lower than the action's implementation cost. Hare releases have not increased significantly the wild hare population or the hunting harvest in areas where the practice has been applied. The risk of genetic and evolutionary degradation and pathogen transmission is possible in wild populations. The need for wise management of this practice is evident and the term `Permitted Transferring Units' should be introduced to denote regions where hares should not be transferred for rearing and release.

  7. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.


    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m sprin

  8. Do stocked hatchery-reared juveniles ecologically suppress wild juveniles in Salvelinus leucomaenis? (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Doi, T


    The dominancy of semi-wild and hatchery-reared white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles was evaluated using pair-wise enclosure tests and field stocking tests. The semi-wild S. leucomaenis originated in a hatchery, being stocked into the test stream as eyed-eggs. In the pair-wise enclosure test, the semi-wild S. leucomaenis dominated the hatchery S. leucomaenis that were of a similar standard length (L(S) ). The semi-wild S. leucomaenis were subordinate to hatchery S. leucomaenis that were > 11% larger in LS . In the field stocking test, the abundance and growth of semi-wild S. leucomaenis was decreased in the presence of larger hatchery S. leucomaenis (14% larger LS ). Taken together, these results suggest that larger hatchery S. leucomaenis ecologically suppress the smaller semi-wild S. leucomaenis. Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles that are stocked with the intention of supplementing natural populations should be < 10% larger than their wild counterparts at the time of stocking to minimize their competitive advantage. The semi-wild and hatchery S. leucomaenis used in both tests were genetically similar individuals, suggesting that the differences are due to the early rearing environment of either a natural stream or hatchery. The hatchery S. leucomaenis have lower levels of aggression as a result of selection in the hatchery rearing environment. Rearing in a natural stream from the eyed-egg stage is likely to increase their lowered aggression.

  9. Effect of rearing temperature on growth and thermal tolerance of Schizothorax (Racoma) kozlovi larvae and juveniles. (United States)

    He, Yongfeng; Wu, Xingbing; Zhu, Yongjiu; Li, Haocheng; Li, Xuemei; Yang, Deguo


    Effect of rearing temperature on growth and thermal tolerance of Schizothorax (Racoma) kozlovi Nikolsky larvae and juveniles was investigated. The fish (start at 12d post hatch) were reared for nearly 6 months at five constant temperatures of 10, 14, 18, 22 and 26°C. Then juvenile fish being acclimated at three temperatures of 14, 18 and 22°C were chosen to determine their critical thermal maximum (CTMax) and lethal thermal maximum (LTMax) by using the dynamic method. Growth rate of S. kozlovi larvae and juveniles was significantly influenced by temperature and fish size, exhibiting an increase with increased rearing temperature, but a decline with increased fish size. A significant ontogenetic variation in the optimal temperatures for maximum growth were estimated to be 24.7°C and 20.6°C for larvae and juveniles of S. kozlovi, respectively. The results also demonstrated that acclimation temperature had marked effects on their CTMax and LTMax, which ranged from 32.86°C to 34.54°C and from 33.79°C to 34.80°C, respectively. It is suggested that rearing temperature must never rise above 32°C for its successful aquaculture. Significant temperature effects on the growth rate and thermal tolerance both exhibit a plasticity pattern. Determination of critical heat tolerance and optima temperature for maximum growth of S. kozlovi is of ecological significance in the conservation and aquaculture of this species.

  10. Farm, Rural, and Urban Backgrounds of Rearing and Socioeconomic Career Achievements in Metropolitan Stratification Systems. (United States)

    Featherman, David L.

    In a secondary analysis of longitudinal data for white, originally second-parity couples resident in 7 large Standard Metropolitan Areas in 1957 (Princeton Fertility Study), the processes of educational, occupational, and economic achievements of a subset of 715 males are considered. Of primary concern is the extent of rearing in farm or rural as…

  11. Increased drinking following social isolation rearing: implications for polydipsia associated with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Hawken

    Full Text Available Primary polydipsia, excessive drinking without known medical cause, is especially associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. We used animal models of schizophrenia-like symptoms to examine the effects on schedule-induced polydipsia: post-weaning social isolation rearing, subchronic MK-801 treatment (an NMDA-receptor antagonist or the two combined. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats reared in groups or in isolation beginning at postnatal day 21 were further divided to receive subchronic MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg twice daily or saline for 7 days beginning on postnatal day 62. Following a 4-day withdrawal period, all groups were trained on a schedule-induced polydipsia paradigm. Under food-restriction, animals reared in isolation and receiving food pellets at 1-min intervals developed significantly more drinking behavior than those reared with others. The addition of subchronic MK-801 treatment did not significantly augment the amount of water consumed. These findings suggest a predisposition to polydipsia is a schizophrenia-like behavioral effect of post-weaning social isolation.

  12. Effect of Rearing Environment on the Feeding Pattern of under Two Years Old Nigerian Children (United States)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Lawoyin, Taiwo Olubanke; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Ifeoluwapo Oyebola


    With economic pressures on families increasing, more women are working outside the home leaving their children in day care centres. In a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study, the feeding pattern in two groups of children under two years old, cared for in two different rearing environments: home environment and day care centres, was…

  13. Mass-rearing of Mediterranean fruit fly using low-cost yeast products produced in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Moreira da Silva Neto


    Full Text Available Ceratitis capitata is one of the most important pests of fruits for exportation, and Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been the most efficient and environmental friendly technique used to control fruit fly populations around the world. A key goal in achieving a successful SIT program is a mass rearing system producing high quality insects at low cost. Providing adults with an artificial diet containing hydrolysed protein has been the major obstacle for bio-production facilities in Brazil, because it is expensive and has to be imported. Two other commercial products, autolysed yeast (AY and yeast extract (YE, of domestic origin and low cost, were tested as substitutes of the imported hydrolyzed protein. To compare their efficiency we observed the female fecundity, adult survival and egg viability of flies raised on diets containing one of each of the different protein products. Flies reared on the domestic yeast products had equivalent or superior performance to the flies reared on imported protein. Both AY and YE can be a possible substitute for imported hydrolyzed protein for C. capitata mass-rearing, as they are cheaper and are readily available in the national market.

  14. Comparative Studies of Predation Among Feral, Commercially-Purchased, and Laboratory-Reared Predators (United States)

    The predatory activities of commercially-purchased Hippodamia convergens Guèrin-Mèneville and two laboratory-reared strains of Geocoris punctipes (Say) were compared with their feral counterparts. In single prey choice feeding tests, commercially-purchased and feral H. convergens were provided copi...

  15. Activity of gypsy moth dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons under increased rearing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrdaković Marija


    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar caterpillars were reared under two different rearing densities for the first three days of the 4th larval instar: 5 larvae that were kept in a Petri dish (V = 80 ml belonged to the intense stress (D1 group; 5 larvae that were kept in a plastic cup (V = 300ml belonged to the group exposed to less intense stress (D2 group. In the control group, single larvae were reared in a Petri dish. Morphometric changes in L1, L2 and L2’ dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons (nsn were analyzed. After keeping 5 larvae in a Petri dish, the size of L2 neurosecretory neurons (nsn significantly increased. Rearing 5 larvae in a plastic cup significantly increased the size of L1 nsn nuclei and the number of L2’nsn. A decrease in relative band densities in the region of molecular masses (11-15 kD that correspond to prothoracicotropic hormones in the gypsy moth was observed in the electrophoretic profiles that were obtained after both treatments in comparison to the control group. [Acknowledgments. This study was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (Grant No. 173027.

  16. Differential rearing conditions and alcohol-preferring rats: consumption of and operant responding for ethanol. (United States)

    Deehan, Gerald A; Palmatier, Matthew I; Cain, Mary E; Kiefer, Stephen W


    Exposing rats to differential rearing conditions during early postweaning development has been shown to produce changes in a number of behaviors displayed during adulthood. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate whether rearing alcohol-preferring (P) and nonpreferring (NP) rats in an environmental enrichment condition (EC), a social condition (SC), or an impoverished condition (IC) would differentially affect self-administration of 10% ethanol. In Experiment 1, rats were tested for consumption of 10% ethanol in limited- and free-access tests. For Experiment 2, rats were trained to respond in an operant chamber for ethanol and then provided concurrent access to 10% ethanol and water. Each solution was presented in a separate liquid dipper after meeting the schedule of reinforcement on distinct levers. After concurrent access tests, the water lever/dipper was inactivated and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule was initiated. Three successive solutions (10% ethanol, 15% ethanol, and 10% sucrose) were tested under the PR. For P rats, rearing in an EC reduced ethanol consumption, preference, and motivation to obtain ethanol, relative to P rats reared in an IC. Thus, exposure to a novel environment immediately after weaning acted to decrease the reinforcing properties of ethanol in an animal model for alcoholism.

  17. Early life experiences affect the adaptive capacity of rearing hens during infectious challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, I.; Napel, ten J.; Kemp, B.; Schipper, H.; Brand, van den H.


    This study aimed to investigate whether pre- and early postnatal experiences of rearing hens contribute to the ability to cope with infectious challenges at an older age. In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 352 Lohmann Brown chicks were exposed to either suboptimal or optimized incubation plus hatch c

  18. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.


    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  19. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond


    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  20. Augmenting laboratory rearing of stable fly (diptera: muscidae) larvae with ammoniacal salts (United States)

    Stable flies are serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well as the physical properties o...

  1. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder


    Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.

  2. Morphometric Identification of Queens, Workers and Intermediates in In Vitro Reared Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) (United States)

    A. De Souza, Daiana; Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; De Jong, David; V. Amdam, Gro; S. Gonçalves, Lionel; M. Francoy, Tiago


    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste classification of female honey bees reared in vitro, based on weight at emergence, ovariole number, spermatheca size and size and shape, and features of the head, mandible and basitarsus. Morphological measurements were made with both traditional morphometric and geometric morphometrics techniques. The classifications were performed by principal component analysis, using naturally developed queens and workers as controls. First, the analysis included all the characters. Subsequently, a new analysis was made without the information about ovariole number and spermatheca size. Geometric morphometrics was less dependent on ovariole number and spermatheca information for caste and intercaste identification. This is useful, since acquiring information concerning these reproductive structures requires time-consuming dissection and they are not accessible when abdomens have been removed for molecular assays or in dried specimens. Additionally, geometric morphometrics divided intercastes into more discrete phenotype subsets. We conclude that morphometric geometrics are superior to traditional morphometrics techniques for identification and classification of honey bee castes and intermediates. PMID:25894528

  3. Analysis of rear-end impact response using mathematical human modeling and volunteer tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Ono, K.; Kaneoka, K.


    At TNO multi-directional mathematical human body models have been developed. The objective of this study was to simulate the rigid seat and standard seat JARI rear-impact sled tests using the MADYMO 50th percentile male model. The head and neck response of this human model and the volunteers were co

  4. Interpersonal Self-Perception and Memories on Parental Rearing in Alcohol Dependent Patients and Outpatient Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Jacobs, P.


    The aim of the present study is to explore the relation between interpersonal self-perceptions and memories on parental rearing taking into account the influence of alcohol dependence. Based on interpersonal and object relation theories, the existence and the directions of this relation are hypothes

  5. Releases of insectary-reared Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in commercial apple orchards (United States)

    Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is one of several phytoseiid species that are available for purchase to supplement endemic predator populations that are not providing sufficient control of spider mites. We performed a series of releases of commercially reared G. occidentalis in commercial apple (...

  6. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. (United States)

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J


    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations.

  7. Test methodology for low-speed rear impact human kinematics and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Cappon, H.J.; Yoganandan, N.; Pintar, F.A.


    Design of crash dummies and development of numeric models of the human body require data sets which specify the performance of real humans in crash impact conditions. Rear impact conditions have become increasingly important during the last decade. This resulted in a growing number of research proje

  8. Hand-rearing and sex determination tool for the Taveta golden weaver (Ploceus castaneiceps). (United States)

    Breeding, Shawnlei; Ferrie, Gina M; Schutz, Paul; Leighty, Katherine A; Plassé, Chelle


    Improvements in the ability to hand-rear birds in captivity have aided zoological institutions in the sustainable management of these species, and have provided opportunities to examine their physical growth in varying conditions. Monitoring the weight gain and development of chicks is an important aspect of developing a hand-rearing protocol. In this paper we provide the institutional history for a colonial species of passerine, the Taveta golden weaver, at Disney's Animal Kingdom®, in order to demonstrate the methods of establishing a successful breeding program which largely incorporates hand-rearing in management of the population. We also tested if we could accurately predict sex of chicks using weights collected on Day 14 during the hand-rearing process. Using this tool, we were able to correctly determine sex before fledging in more than 83% of chicks. Early sex determination is important in captive species for genetic management and husbandry purposes. While genetic sexing can be expensive, we found that using growth curves to determine sex can be a reliable and cost-effective tool for population management of a colonial passerine.

  9. Whiplash: reduction of neck injuries and their societal costs in rear end collisions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.


    Neck injuries in car collisions constitute a serious problem with tremendous implications for the individual as well as for the society. Neck injuries particularly occur in rear-end collisions and for this accident type no test method or passive safety regulations exist, mainly as a consequence of t

  10. The Experiences of Single Fathers Who Have Reared Academically Successful Children: A Collective Case Study (United States)

    Long, Cheri Gentry


    This qualitative collective case study explored single fathers' experiences in rearing academically successful children. Academic success was defined as the completion of high school or college, entering college, or attending college. A purposeful maximal sampling of five bounded systems of single fathers and their academically successful children…

  11. Hand-rearing reduces fear of humans in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available Pending changes in European legislation ban the use of wild-caught animals in research. This change is partly justified on the assumption that captive-breeding (or hand-rearing increases welfare of captive animals because these practices result in animals with reduced fear of humans. However, there are few actual data on the long-term behavioural effects of captive-breeding in non-domestic species, and these are urgently needed in order to understand the welfare and scientific consequences of adopting this practice. We compared the response of hand-reared and wild-caught starlings to the presence of a human in the laboratory. During human presence, all birds increased their general locomotor activity but the wild-caught birds moved away from the human and were less active than the hand-reared birds. After the human departed, the wild-caught birds were slower to decrease their activity back towards baseline levels, and showed a dramatic increase in time at the periphery of the cage compared with the hand-reared birds. We interpret these data as showing evidence of a greater fear response in wild-caught birds with initial withdrawal followed by a subsequent rebound of prolonged attempts to escape the cage. We found no effects of environmental enrichment. However, birds in cages on low shelves were less active than birds on upper shelves, and showed a greater increase in the time spent at the periphery of their cages after the human departed, perhaps indicating that the lower cages were more stressful. In demonstrating reduced fear of humans in hand-reared birds, our results support one of the proposed welfare benefits of this practice, but without further data on the possible welfare costs of hand-rearing, it is not yet possible to reach a general conclusion about its net welfare impact. However, our results confirm a clear scientific impact of both hand-rearing and cage position at the behavioural level.

  12. Effects of rearing environment on the gut antimicrobial responses of two broiler chicken lines. (United States)

    Butler, Vanessa L; Mowbray, Catherine A; Cadwell, Kevin; Niranji, Sherko S; Bailey, Richard; Watson, Kellie A; Ralph, John; Hall, Judith


    To reduce the risk of enteric disease in poultry, knowledge of how bird gut innate defences mature with age while also responding to different rearing environments is necessary. In this study the gut innate responses of two phylogenetically distinct lines of poultry raised from hatch to 35days, in conditions mimicing high hygiene (HH) and low hygiene (LH) rearing environments, were compared. Analyses focussed on the proximal gut antimicrobial activities and the duodenal and caecal AvBD1, 4 and 10 defensin profiles. Variability in microbial killing was observed between individual birds in each of the two lines at all ages, but samples from day 0 birds (hatch) of both lines exhibited marked killing properties, Line X: 19±11% (SEM) and Line Y: 8.5±12% (SEM). By day 7 a relaxation in killing was observed with bacterial survival increased from 3 (Line Y (LY)) to 11 (Line X (LX)) fold in birds reared in the HH environment. A less marked response was observed in the LH environment and delayed until day 14. At day 35 the gut antimicrobial properties of the two lines were comparable. The AvBD 1, 4 and 10 data relating to the duodenal and caecal tissues of day 0, 7 and 35 birds LX and LY birds revealed gene expression trends specific to each line and to the different rearing environments although the data were confounded by inter-individual variability. In summary elevated AvBD1 duodenal expression was detected in day 0 and day 7 LX, but not LY birds, maintained in LH environments; Line X and Y duodenal AvBD4 profiles were detected in day 7 birds reared in both environments although duodenal AvBD10 expression was less sensitive to bird age and rearing background. Caecal AvBD1 expression was particularly evident in newly hatched birds. These data suggest that proximal gut antimicrobial activity is related to the bird rearing environments although the roles of the AvBDs in such activities require further investigation.

  13. Effects of feeding and rearing systems on growth, carcass composition and meat quality in pigs. (United States)

    Lebret, B


    Animal growth performance and quality of pork depend on the interactive effects of pig genotype, rearing conditions, pre-slaughter handling, and carcass and meat processing. This paper focuses on the effects of feeding and rearing systems (feeding level and diet composition, housing, production system, etc.) on growth performance, carcass composition, and eating and technological qualities of pork. The feeding level and protein : energy ratio can be used to manipulate growth rate or composition of weight gain. Restricted feed allowance strongly reduces growth rate and carcass fatness and also intramuscular fat (IMF) level, resulting in decreased meat tenderness or juiciness. Expression of compensatory growth due to restricted followed by ad libitum feeding modifies the composition of weight gain at both carcass and muscle levels, and may improve meat tenderness due to higher in vivo protein turnover. Decreasing the protein : energy ratio of the diet actually increases IMF and improves eating quality, but gives fatter carcasses. In contrast, a progressive reduction in the protein : energy ratio leads to similar carcass composition at slaughter but with higher IMF. Technological meat traits (pH1, pHu, colour, drip loss) are generally not affected by the level or protein : energy in feed. Modification of fatty acid composition and antioxidant level in meat can be obtained through diet supplementations (e.g. vegetable sources with high n-3 fatty acids), thereby improving the nutritional quality of pork. Influences of pig rearing system on animal performance, carcass and meat traits result from interactive effects of housing (floor type, space allowance, ambient temperature, physical activity), feeding level and genotype in specific production systems. Indoor enrichment (more space, straw bedding) generally increases growth rate and carcass fatness, and may improve meat juiciness or flavour through higher IMF. Outdoor rearing and organic production system have various

  14. Child health in Colombia. (United States)

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I


    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children.

  15. Advocacy and child neglect. (United States)

    Krugman, Scott D


    Pediatricians have a unique opportunity to intervene in the lives of children to identify and to prevent neglect. While it remains important to care for individual patients affected by neglect, the ecological model of child neglect requires intervention at the parent, family, community, and societal levels. Pediatricians can improve the outcomes for children by advocating for policies and interventions at each level. Effective advocacy principally requires the willingness to tackle broader issues beyond individual clinical care. Working with local, state, and national organizations, pediatricians can contribute a unified voice to promote evidence-based policies and programs that improve the well-being of children.

  16. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series. (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hryhorenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of different types of fertilizers on the formation of hydrochemical regime in rearing ponds. Methodology. For the study, we used generally accepted hydrochemistry methods. For the overall (total chemical analysis, water samples were taken two times during the season (at the beginning and at the end of the growing season, a short chemical analysis of water was carried out twice a month. Findings. The article presents the research results of hydrochemical regime in rearing ponds of the State Enterprise "Nivkа" when applying different types of fertilizers. It was found that hydrochemical regime in experimental rearing ponds was formed under the effect of water supply source and measures aimed at improving the development of the natural food supply (application of cattle manure and microfertilizer "Rostok" Macro. No significant difference was observed between hydrochemical parameters when applying different types of fertilizers. The dynamics of seasonal changes in the basic chemical indicators in both experimental ponds was similar, however, the pond fertilized with manure was characterized by higher values of permanganate oxidation, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen during the entire culture season. In general, the hydrochemical regime in rearing ponds was satisfactory and suitable for the cultivation of carp seeds when applying either cattle manure or microfertilizer "Rostok" Macro. Originality. The peculiarities of the formation of the hydrochemical regime of rearing ponds when applying cattle manure and "Rostock" Macro fertilizer have been investigated. Practical value. The obtained data can be used to develop practical recommendations for the optimization of growing conditions of fish seeds when applying of various types of fertilizers, increasing the efficiency of aquatic ecosystems management and their bioproductivity.

  18. Optimisation of mesh enclosures for nursery rearing of juvenile sea cucumbers. (United States)

    Purcell, Steven W; Agudo, Natacha S


    Mariculture of tropical sea cucumbers is promising, but the nursery rearing of juveniles is a bottleneck for farming and sea ranching. We conducted four medium-scale experiments lasting 3-6 weeks, using thousands of cultured juvenile sandfish Holothuria scabra, to optimise nursery rearing in mesh enclosures in earthen seawater ponds and to test rearing in enclosures in the sea. In one experiment, survival in fine-mesh enclosures (1 m(3); 660-µm mesh) related nonlinearly to juvenile size, revealing a threshold body length of 5-8 mm for initial transfer from hatchery tanks. Survival in enclosures within ponds in the other experiments ranged from 78-97%, and differences in growth rates among experiments were explained largely by seasonal differences in seawater temperatures in ponds. Stripped shadecloth units within fine-mesh enclosures increased feeding surfaces and improved growth rates by >15%. On the other hand, shading over the enclosures may lower growth rates. Following the rearing in fine-mesh enclosures, small juveniles (0.5 to 1 g) were grown to stocking size (3-10 g) in coarse-mesh enclosures of 1-mm mesh. Sand or mud added to coarse-mesh enclosures did not significantly improve growth compared to controls without sediment. Survival of sandfish juveniles in coarse-mesh enclosures set on the benthos within seagrass beds differed between two sheltered bays and growth was slow compared to groups within the same type of enclosures in an earthen pond. Our findings should lead to significant improvement in the cost-effectiveness of rearing sandfish juveniles to a stocking size compared to established methods and highlight the need for further research into nursery systems in the sea.

  19. Control of cryptosporidiosis in neonatal calves: use of halofuginone lactate in two different calf rearing systems. (United States)

    De Waele, V; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D; Mulcahy, G; Murphy, T M


    To date there is no effective treatment for bovine cryptosporidiosis. This study describes the use of halofuginone lactate in preventing cryptosporidiosis in naturally infected neonatal calves on a dairy farm with a high prevalence of infection. The animals were kept in two different calf rearing systems. A randomized double-blind trial was carried out with 32 naturally infected calves, divided into four groups. The two prophylactic halofuginone lactate treated groups were kept in either individual or group pens. Similarly, the animals receiving the placebo were housed in either individual pens or together in a large pen. A total of ten faecal samples were collected periodically during the 28 days study from each calf and tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. using microscopic and molecular methods. Generalized estimating equations models were used to determine if the effects of the various treatments and/or rearing systems on the presence of diarrhoea and infection were statistically significant. Further analysis (classification trees models) was carried out to explore possible risk factors for cryptosporidiosis and interactions between treatments and rearing systems. Halofuginone lactate was shown to be effective in reducing clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and environmental contamination. However, the treatment did not delay the onset of diarrhoea and did not reduce the risk of infection amongst calves reared together in a highly contaminated environment. The use of halofuginone lactate in combination with good hygienic measures, such as rearing animals in clean individual pens, was the most effective method to reduce the risk of cryptosporidiosis amongst 7-13 days old calves. It was concluded that the control of the parasite could be achieved by the combination of using effective preventive drugs, such as halofuginone lactate and good animal husbandry procedures.

  20. Gender of rearing and psychosocial aspect in 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arushi Gangaher


    Full Text Available Background: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH with ambiguous genitalia, assigning gender of rearing can be complex, especially If genitalia is highly virilized. Apart from karyotype, prenatal androgen exposure, patient's gender orientation, sociocultural, and parental influences play a role. The aim of this study was to assess gender dysphoria and psychosocial issues in patients of CAH raised as males and females. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that includes patients (old and new with CAH who were treated by us in the last 6 months. A semi-structured interview proforma was used to elicit history and psychosocial background of the patients. The clinical and biochemical details were noted. For psychological analysis, patients were screened for gender dysphoria using Parent Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for children <12 years and Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. Results: We analyzed 22 46 XX CAH patients among which, 3 were reared as males and 19 as females. Among the 19 patients reared as females, 17 patients showed no gender dysphoria. Two patients revealed gender dysphoria as indicated by their marginally low scores on the gender dysphoria assessment. However, in view of current literature and the age groups of the patients, behavior of the 6-year-old patient can be best understood as being tomboyish. Gender dysphoria in the 22-year-old can be explained by the dominance of psychosocial factors and not hormones alone. Among the three patients reared as males, two prepubertal were satisfied with their male gender identity. The third patient, aged 32 years, had gender dysphoria when reared as a male that resolved when gender was reassigned as female and feminizing surgery was done. Conclusion: Gender assignment in 46 XX CAH is guided by factors such as degree of virilization of genitalia, gender orientation, patient involvement, sociocultural, and parental influences.

  1. Communication and community development: early child development programs. (United States)

    Wood, F; Reinhold, A J


    Community-based groups are organized around particular aspects of early childhood development (ECD), such as literacy, parent education, and early childhood activities. In the Colombian national program, community households call upon women to devote a portion of their home to organized child care for minimal material reward. The Indian Child Development Service subsidizes the payment of organizers; and Kenyan parents construct basic preschool facilities, provide school lunches, and subsidize a teacher. In such cases the government plays a subordinate role, while the burden of program maintenance is carried by the community. These programs share the characteristics that children and adults learn side by side; adult learning ranges from women's literacy, to health, organizational issues, or small-scale economic development; a strong cultural component emphasizes mother tongue language learning, indigenous child-rearing practices, and local working models; physical structures are in homes; capacity-building for the adults is central which will be transferred to other spheres of community life. In the remote coastal villages of Colombia, an organization called Promesa works with mothers on designing their preschool children's educational activities. Promesa began to confront other priority needs in the villages, especially in environmental health and malaria control. A 1990 assessment related that participants' pride, self-confidence, and ability to solve problems regarding the healthy development of their children increased; groups learned to make use of the physical, human, and institutional resources from their environments; and participants' children remained in school and performed better. Conclusions from a decade of loose experimentation suggest that through communication community women can be organized to provide basic early education and early childhood activities can help rural children over the cultural barrier of school.

  2. Questions to ask your child's doctor (United States)

    ... families who are coping with this type of cancer? My child's life after treatment: Will my child grow normally? ... able to have children as an adult? Will cancer treatment put my child at risk for health problems later in life? ...

  3. Child abuse by drowning. (United States)

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E


    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  4. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin


    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown that there ......Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  5. Child Shona noun prefixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R Sibanda


    Full Text Available This article falls under the broad area of child language acquisition and it aims to present an analysis of the acquisition of Shona noun class prefixes. The data collection procedures involved fortnightly observation and audio-recording of the spontaneous speech of three children who were acquiring Shona as a mother tongue. The results of this investigation confirm findings from earlier studies and show that noun class prefixes are acquired in three partially overlapping stages. In the first stage, nouns are produced without class prefixes and as time progresses, in the second stage, they are produced with them but in the form of an onsetless vowel. In the third stage, nouns are produced with full and phonologically appropriate class prefixes. The empirical and theoretical findings of this investigation are expected to broaden and deepen our knowledge of morphology and the phonology-morphology interface in the context of child language acquisition. As there are few descriptive and theoretical studies on the acquisition of Shona, this research recommends more studies on this subject.

  6. Child Labor in the Global Economy


    Edmonds, Eric V.; Nina Pavcnik


    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  7. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux" (United States)

    Stoesz, David


    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  8. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Klaauw (Bas); L. Wang (Lihong)


    textabstractThis paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated

  9. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist. (United States)

    Fern, Tami L.


    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  10. Personal Affairs: Child Development Services (United States)


    with AEI, appendix G. d. Air deodorizing machines should be installed in child activity rooms/modules serving nontoilet–trained children and all child...Plant Listing Non–Toxic Listing Abella, Abyssinian Sword Lily, African Daisy, African Palm, African Violet, Air Fern, Airplane Plant, Aluminum Plant

  11. Multidimensional child deprivation in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefzadeh Faal Daghati, Sepideh; Mideros-Mora, Andrés; De Neubourg, Chris; Minujin, Alberto; Nandy, Shailen


    The chapter analyses children's multidimensional deprivation in Iran in 2009 and explores inequalities in different regions. The study focused on outcome indicators, with the level of analysis focusing on the individual child as well as the household. A child rights approach is applied to define dim

  12. Child Development: An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Dickerson, LaVerne Thornton, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on recent publications dealing with factors that influence child growth and development, rather than the developmental processes themselves. Topics include: general sources on child development; physical and perceptual-motor development; cognitive development; social and personality development; and play.…

  13. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa


    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  14. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa


    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  15. Is My Child's Appetite Normal? (United States)

    ... child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in their preschool years. That is why your child may have a smaller appetite now. That is normal. If he or she is not hungry or does not finish a meal, relax. Take the food away. Your child probably is eating enough if ...

  16. History of the child health and development book. Part 2: 1945-2000. (United States)

    Clendon, Jill; McBride-Henry, Karen


    This is the second part of a historical review of the New Zealand child health and development record book (also known as the Well Child/Tamariki Ora Health book or Plunket book). It focuses on the years between 1945 and 2000. The first article highlighted how the book documented the development of "scientific mothering", which marginalized women-generated mothering knowledge. The present article highlights how during the reviewed time period women began to challenge notions of "scientific mothering", these changes are signaled in the content of the Well Child/Tamariki Ora Health book over time. In addition, women's movements, such as LaLeche league and Parent Centre, reflected significant societal changes during this era in relation to mothering and child-rearing practices, the influence of which had a significant impact on the Plunket book's development. However, tensions between health professionals and women in relation to the value placed on types of knowledge continued to exist as evidenced by the language employed in the Plunket books throughout the time period reviewed. Being mindful of the tensions that exist between competing discourses and knowledge sources is important as they call us to engage with how we value and develop our relationships with women and mothers as health care professionals.

  17. [The place of the child]. (United States)

    Molenat, F


    A child's self-construction and access to his identity depend on the conditions of affective security in which he is raised and his genealogical references, the founders of his own place in society. The quality of the professional care at the different stages of the birth process is confirmed as a major variable in the parents' sense of security, followed by the child's. The drift toward the illusion of a right to a child is tempered by the attention that can be contributed by all healthcare providers who come into contact with couples when they request artificial procreation: recognition of their request, but also of their suffering, so as to separate the child's place from parental projections that may be poorly adjusted to the child's needs.

  18. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala


    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  19. Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). (United States)

    Stunz, G W.; Minello, T J.


    We examined the patterns of habitat-specific mortality for newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using an experimental mesocosm approach. Experiments were designed to analyze prey vulnerability and fish rearing-type (wild-caught or hatchery-reared) in estuarine habitats of varying structural complexity including marsh (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), seagrass (Halodule wrightii Aschers), and nonvegetated sand bottom. We used two different predators, pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides Linnaeus) and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus Cuvier). For both predators, vulnerability of wild-caught red drum was significantly lower in structurally complex habitats such as seagrass and oyster reef; the highest vulnerability was associated with the nonvegetated bottom. This habitat effect was not apparent for hatchery-reared prey. In trials using a combination of both rearing-types, there was no significant habitat effect on prey selection, but hatchery-reared red drum suffered higher overall mortality than wild-caught fish from pinfish predators. In these trials, spotted seatrout did not select for either prey type. Differences we observed in prey vulnerability were likely caused by behavioral differences between wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum. Our results reinforce the conclusion that structural complexity in estuarine habitats increases survival of newly settled fishes. Our data also suggest that hatchery-reared red drum may be more vulnerable to predation than natural fishes, and that survival of stocked fish may be enhanced through habitat-related behavior modification.

  20. Optical Evaluation of the Rear Contacts of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Coupled Electromagnetic and Statistical Ray-Optics Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Dabirian, Ali


    High-efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells increasingly feature sophisticated electron and hole contacts aimed at minimizing electronic losses. At the rear of photovoltaic devices, such contacts—usually consisting of stacks of functional layers—offer opportunities to enhance the infrared response of the solar cells. Here, we propose an accurate and simple modeling procedure to evaluate the infrared performance of rear contacts in c-Si solar cells. Our method combines full-wave electromagnetic modeling of the rear contact with a statistical ray optics model to obtain the fraction of optical energy dissipated from the rear contact relative to that absorbed by the Si wafer. Using this technique, we study the impact of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, and thickness of the rear-passivating layer and establish basic design rules. In addition, we evaluate novel optical structures, including stratified thin films, nanoparticle composites, and conductive nanowires embedded in a low-index dielectric matrix, for integration into advanced rear contacts in c-Si photovoltaic devices. From an optical perspective, nanowire structures preserving low contact resistance appear to be the most effective approach to mitigating dissipation losses from the rear contact.

  1. 家庭养育环境因素对学龄前儿童气质及行为问题的影响研究%Study on the home rearing environment factors of preschool children's temperament and behavior problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    [Objective]To study the relationship between home rearing environment and preschool children's temperament and behavior problems.[Methods]Three hundred seventy preschool children were evaluated by self-designed questionnaire of family rearing environment, 3~7 years old children temperament questionnaires, Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist.To study the relationship between home rearing environment and children's temperament and behavior problems with Conditional logistic regression analysis.[Result]The home rearing environment play an important role in part preschool children's temperament and behavior problems.[Conclusion]Parents should pay attention to create favorable home rearing environment for preschool children's temperament and behavior development.%[目的]研究家庭养育环境因素对学龄前儿童气质和行为问题的影响,为临床有效指导提供参考.[方法]采用McDevitt SC教授编制测查儿童气质,采用CBCL儿童行为量表调查儿童行为问题,采用自拟的家庭因素调查表了解其家庭养育环境因素,采用Logistic回归分析的方法筛选儿童气质及行为问题的影响因素.[结果]许多家庭养育环境因素对学龄前儿童气质类型和维度及行为问题的发生有重要影响.[结论]育儿者要重视营造良好的家庭养育环境,为学龄前儿童气质和行为发展创造有利条件.

  2. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.


    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  3. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.


    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  4. A child with narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvério Macedo


    Full Text Available Introduction: Narcolepsy is a chronic disease characterized by sleep attacks, excessive daytime sleepiness and nocturnal sleep fragmentation. It can be associated cataplexy and other disturbance of REM sleep (sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations and hypnopompic. Case report: A 10-year old boy was referred to Pedopsychiatry because of behavioural disturbance, irritability, sleepiness and distraction, being interpreted as an “ill-mannered child.” After clinical evaluation and comprehensive laboratory studies we concluded that he presented narcolepsy with cataplexy. Discussion/conclusion: Patients with narcolepsy face several problems due to the disease which, if left untreated or ineffectively treated, cause embarrassing or distressing symptoms, affecting their quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to this problem since it is a rare condition and therefore seldom not recognized by the general public or even by health professionals.

  5. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Bennett, Allyson J; Schapiro, Steve


    Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition; however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment......-reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain...

  6. Dark rearing maintains tyrosine hydroxylase expression in retinal amacrine cells following optic nerve transection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wan; Zhenghai Liu; Xiaosheng Wang; Xuegang Luo


    The present study examined changes in retinal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in rats having undergone optic nerve transection and housed under a normal day/night cycle or in the dark. The aim was to investigate the effects of amacrine cells on axonal regeneration in retinal ganglion cells and on the synapses that transmit visual signals. The results revealed that retinal TH expression gradually decreased following optic nerve transection in rats housed under a normal day/night cycle, reaching a minimum at 5 days. In contrast, retinal TH expression decreased to a minimum at 1 day following optic nerve transection in dark reared rats, gradually increasing afterward and reaching a normal level at 5-7 days. The number of TH-positive synaptic particles correlated with the TH levels, indicating that dark rearing can help maintain TH expression during the synaptic degeneration stage (5-7 days after optic nerve injury) in retinal amacrine cells.

  7. On the laboratory rearing of green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagmar Voigt; Naoe Hosoda; Jan Schuppert; Stanislav Gorb


    Leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula have attracted recently increased research interest from various points of view, since they are: (i) pest insects in rhubarb crops; (ii) potential biocontrol agents of dock plants Rumex spp. in grasslands; and (iii) a model species in ecological studies on insect population dynamics, biochemistry, behavior, biomechanics and biomimetics. The continuous rearing of beetles at standardized conditions may help to unify the fitness state of different individuals, allowing a better comparison of experimental results. The present communication suggests a modular space- and time-saving rearing method of G. viridula in stackable faunariums under laboratory conditions, which has been successfully established and continuously used over the last 5 years. Several developmental stages were kept in separate boxes, and multiple generations were kept simultaneously, depending on the required number of beetles.

  8. An Experimental Investigation of the Flow Over the Rear End of a Notchback Automobile Configuration (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.


    An experimental investigation of the flow over the rear end of a 0.16 scale notchback automobile configuration has been conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART). The objective of this work was to investigate the flow separation that occurs behind the backlight and obtain experimental data that can be used to understand the physics and time-averaged structure of the flow field. A three-component laser velocimeter was used to make non-intrusive, velocity measurements in the center plane and in a single cross-flow plane over the decklid. In addition to off-body measurements, flow conditions on the car surface were documented via surface flow visualization, boundary layer measurements, and surface pressures. The experimental data show several features previously identified by other researchers, but also reveal differences between the flow field associated with this particular configuration and the generally accepted models for the flow over a notchback rear end.

  9. Genetic and environmental influences on applied creativity: A reared-apart twin study. (United States)

    Velázquez, Jaime A; Segal, Nancy L; Horwitz, Briana N


    Applied creativity involves bringing innovation to real-life activities. The first reared-apart twin study assessing genetic and environmental origins of applied creativity, via Draw-a-House (DAH) and Draw-a-Person (DAP) tasks, is presented. Participants included 69 MZA and 53 DZA twin pairs from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Drawings were evaluated by four artists and four non-artists. Genetic effects were demonstrated for the DAP (.38-.47), but not for the DAH. Creative personality showed genetic effects (.50), and modest, but significant correlations with scores on the two drawings (rs = .17-.26). Both genetic and nonshared environmental influences underlie variance in applied creativity. Individuals concerned with enhancing creativity among students and others may better understand individual differences in performance and training.

  10. Doing Socrates experiment right: controlled rearing studies of geometrical knowledge in animals. (United States)

    Vallortigara, Giorgio; Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Chiandetti, Cinzia


    The issue of whether encoding of geometric information for navigational purposes crucially depends on environmental experience or whether it is innately predisposed in the brain has been recently addressed in controlled rearing studies. Non-human animals can make use of the geometric shape of an environment for spatial reorientation and in some circumstances reliance on purely geometric information (metric properties and sense) can overcome use of local featural information. Animals reared in home cages of different geometric shapes proved to be equally capable of learning and performing navigational tasks based on geometric information. The findings suggest that effective use of geometric information for spatial reorientation does not require experience in environments with right angles and metrically distinct surfaces.

  11. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja Brinch


    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused...... by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing...... system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation...

  12. Optimization of Assembly of Rear Axle Carrier (Transmission System Through Ergonomic Consideration: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Kaustubh N. Kalaspurkar


    Full Text Available Increased competition in the market, ever increasing demands of products and delivery of the quality product within committed dates forcing the manufacturers to involve newer and more optimized techniques in their production scheduling. This technique either involves costly Automation and Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS or the techniques forcing on elimination of unnecessary and unproductive operation (i.e. motion during the production. An assembly line is designed by determining the sequences of operations for manufacture of each component as well as the final product. In this paper, a case study at one of leading tractor manufacturing company in India for one of its production operation i.e. assembly of Rear Axle Carrier (Transmission System of tractor is presented using the technique of time and motion study. For this technique such as Predetermined Motion Time Study (PMTS, Method Time Measurement (MTM, various process charts are used for analysis and optimize their present methodology of assembling Rear Axle Carrier (RAC.

  13. White sturgeon spawning and rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Beckman, Lance G.


    Estimates of spawning habitat for white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus in the tailraces of the four dams on the lower 470 km of the Columbia River were obtained by using the Physical Habitat Simulation System of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Instream Flow Incremental Methodology to identify areas with suitable water depths, water velocities, and substrates. Rearing habitat throughout the lower Columbia River was assessed by using a geographic information system to identify areas with suitable water depths and substrates. The lowering of spring and summer river discharges from hydropower system operation reduces the availability of spawning habitat for white sturgeons. The four dam tailraces in the study area differ in the amount and quality of spawning habitat available at various discharges; the differences are due to channel morphology. The three impoundments and the free-flowing Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam provide extensive areas that are physically suitable for rearing young-of-the-year and juvenile white sturgeons.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. of 8 months older, rearing in recirculation system during 107 days period - he has been analysed from the point of view of feeding efficiency and nutritional quality of carp carcass. The stocking of breeding ponds has been made at 12.17 kg/m3 density, the initial average weight of fishes has been 82.2 g/ex., biochemical composition of carp carcass has been following: protein 14.35%, fat 1.10%, ash 1.67% and moisture 82.22%. Weekly, there has been analysed biochemical composition of meat and protein efficiency coefficient (PER, protein using efficiency (PUE, retained protein (RP. The nutritional quality of fish meat and appreciation coefficients of fish rearing they indicate a good capitalization of delivered food.

  15. A method for both mass and individual rearing of fungivorous astigmatid mites (Acari). (United States)

    Okabe, K; Oconnor, B M


    Several species of common fungi were assessed as food for fungivorous astigmatid mites. Hypocrea nigricans, Botrytis cinerea and Flammulina velutipes were generally good food sources for most mites examined. Fungal mycelia growing on PDA (potato dextrose agar) medium were not only nutritionally adequate but the system also maintained high humidity through the water-based agar medium. Among acarid mites, most species of Rhizoglyphinae could be reared easily with the method. Although filter-feeding histiostomatid mites do not feed directly on hyphae, some species were successfully maintained with the same method through multiple generations. Presumably, these mites obtained sufficient nutrition from the agar medium and fungal metabolites leaching into it. Most species ultimately produced dispersing heteromorphic deutonymphs on these media. Individual mites were also maintained in isolation within glass rings on fungal colonies. Using this technique, we were able to compare developmental periods, fecundity and survival periods of mites reared under different conditions.

  16. Is socioeconomic status of the rearing environment causally related to obesity in the offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontaine, Kevin R; Robertson, Henry T; Holst, Claus;


    Adoptees and Their Families (HOLT). In CASO, the SES of both biological and adoptive parents was known, but all children were adopted. In HOLT, only the SES of the rearing parents was known, but the children could be either biological or adopted. After controlling for relevant covariates (e.g., adoptee age...... adoptive and biological) reduced the coefficient for biological paternal SES by 44% (p¿=¿.034) and the coefficient for adoptive paternal SES by 1%. For HOLT, the regression coefficients for rearing parent SES were -.42 and -.25 for biological and adoptive children, respectively. Controlling for the average...... at measurement, adoptee age at transfer, adoptee sex) the raw (unstandardized) regression coefficients for adoptive and biological paternal SES on adoptee body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) in CASO were -.22 and -.23, respectively, both statistically significant (p¿=¿0.01). Controlling for parental BMI (both...

  17. Analysis and Optimal Condition of the Rear-Sound-Aided Control Source in Active Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kreuter


    Full Text Available An active noise control scenario of simple ducts is considered. The previously suggested technique of using an single loudspeaker and its rear sound to cancel the upstream sound is further examined and compared to the bidirectional solution in order to give theoretical proof of its advantage. Firstly, a model with a new approach for taking damping effects into account is derived based on the electrical transmission line theory. By comparison with the old model, the new approach is validated, and occurring differences are discussed. Moreover, a numerical application with the consideration of damping is implemented for confirmation. The influence of the rear sound strength on the feedback-path system is investigated, and the optimal condition is determined. Finally, it is proven that the proposed source has an advantage of an extended phase lag and a time delay in the feedback-path system by both frequency-response analysis and numerical calculation of the time response.

  18. Characteristics of Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera Carnica, Pollman 1879 Queens Reared in Slovenian Commercial Breeding Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorc Aleš


    Full Text Available In this three-year-trial study, we examined the quality of mated queens based on morphological and physiology traits. At each location, sister queen bees were reared each year from one Apis mellifera carnica breeder queen. Queens were also reared and mated in different locations. Altogether, we sampled and analysed 324 queens from 27 apiaries in 2006, 288 queens from 24 apiaries in 2008, and 276 queens from 23 apiaries in 2010. Nine queens from each apiary were sampled and dissected for morphological analyses and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae spores, if present, were quantified. Three queens from each apiary were prepared and tested for four viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, deformed wing virus (DWV, and sacbrood virus (SBV. The highest average queen weight of 209.49 ± 9.82 mg was detected in 2008. The highest average ovary weight of 78.67 ± 11.86 mg was detected in 2010, and the highest number of ovarioles was 161.59 ± 8.70 in 2006. The average number of spermatozoa in queens ranged from 3.30 x 106 in 2006 to 5.23 x 106 in 2010. Nosema ceranae spores were found in queens sampled in 2008 and 2010. Viruses were discovered sporadically during the queen testing periods from 2006 - 2010. This study importantly demonstrates that queens from rearing stations require regular evaluation for morphological and physiological changes as well as for infection from harmful pathogens. These results could also be used in establishing relevant commercial standards for rearing quality queens.

  19. Experimental transmission by mosquitoes of Plasmodium hermani between domestic turkeys and pen-reared bobwhites. (United States)

    Nayar, J K; Young, M D; Forrester, D J


    Plasmodium hermani was experimentally transmitted from domestic turkey poults (Meleagris gallopavo) to pen-reared bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and then from these bobwhites back to domestic turkey poults. Transmission was achieved by Culex nigripalpus both by bites of the mosquito and by intraperitoneal injection of sporozoites. All of the 23 bobwhites and the 13 turkeys exposed to sporozoites became infected. These results indicate that the bobwhite might be a reservoir host for this malaria of wild turkeys in nature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This work represents the early development of a new rearing system of species Silurus glanis in Romania, meaning the growth cycle of biological material from 1 g/ex. - fry to 1.2 kg / ex. - average weight. These are achieved in the first phase of development into a "flow-through" system type, then during a cold season, within a recirculating system.

  1. Rear interface engineering of hybrid organic-silicon nanowire solar cells via blade coating. (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Chun; Chang, Yu-Fan; Tsai, Pei-Ting; Chang, Jan-kai; Tseng, Wei-Hsuan; Lin, Yi-Cheng; Hsiao, Chu-Yen; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Wu, Chih-I; Chi, Gou-Chung; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Yu, Peichen


    In this work, we investigate blade-coated organic interlayers at the rear surface of hybrid organic-silicon photovoltaics based on two small molecules: Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminium (Alq(3)) and 1,3-bis(2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl) benzene (OXD-7). In particular, soluble Alq(3) resulting in a uniform thin film with a root-mean-square roughness organic-silicon photovoltaics.

  2. Impact of rearing conditions on the microbiological quality of raw retail poultry meat. (United States)

    Hardy, Bridgshe; Crilly, Nate; Pendleton, Sean; Andino, Ana; Wallis, Audra; Zhang, Nan; Hanning, Irene


    There is a gap in knowledge of microbiological quality in raw chicken products produced by nonconventional methods and no studies have reported the microbiological quality of turkeys produced under different rearing environments. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the microbiological quality of conventionally and organically reared whole chicken and turkey carcasses purchased from 3 retail outlets in Knoxville, Tenn., U.S.A. A total of 100 raw broiler chickens organically (n = 50) and 50 raw turkey carcasses consisting of 3 brands reared either conventionally (n = 25) or organically (n = 25) were evaluated. The FDA BAM protocol for rinsing poultry carcasses was used to enumerate of aerobic bacteria, Campylobacter, and Staphylococcus spp., and for qualitative analysis of Salmonella. Organic chickens from one brand had the highest average counts of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp. and Campylobacter (4.8, 4.8, and 4.7 Log10 CFU/mL rinsate, respectively) while the other organic brand had the lowest average counts (3.4, 3.3, and 3.1, respectively) of all 4 brands evaluated. The organic turkeys had the highest average counts of these same bacteria (4, 3.9, and 3.8, respectively) compared to the 2 brands of conventional turkeys evaluated. Salmonella (5% prevalence) was isolated only from organic chickens and turkeys. From these data, it appears that the microbiological quality of the raw product was not dependent on rearing conditions and, thus, it cannot be assumed that organic raw poultry is safer than conventionally raised poultry in terms of microbiological quality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Gatta


    Full Text Available Lipid oxidation indices (Free Fatty Acids-FFA, Peroxide Value-PV and Thiobarbituric Acid-TBA were evaluated in frozen fillets from seabream reared in Italy in: land based facilities (recirculation systems, lagoons or net-cages. Statistically significant differences emerged among seabream sources for all indices. Quality loss related to rancidity seemed to have been affected by both storage time and culturing system.

  4. Host-specific and pH-dependent microbiomes of copepods in an extensive rearing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Castro Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg;


    gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, a clear difference was found between the microbiomes of the two copepod species, Acartia tonsa and Centropages hamatus, present in the system. This pattern was corroborated through 454/FLX-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of copepod microbiomes, which...... furthermore showed that the abiotic parameters pH and oxygen concentration in rearing tank water were the key factors influencing composition of copepod microbiomes....

  5. Effects of early rearing conditions on problem-solving skill in captive male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (United States)

    Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke


    Early rearing conditions of captive chimpanzees characterize behavioral differences in tool use, response to novelty, and sexual and maternal competence later in life. Restricted rearing conditions during early life hinder the acquisition and execution of such behaviors, which characterize the daily life of animals. This study examined whether rearing conditions affect adult male chimpanzees' behavior skills used for solving a problem with acquired locomotion behavior. Subjects were 13 male residents of the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto: 5 wild-born and 8 captive-born. A pretest assessed bed building and tool use abilities to verify behavioral differences between wild- and captive-born subjects, as earlier reports have described. Second, a banana-access test was conducted to investigate the problem-solving ability of climbing a bamboo pillar for accessing a banana, which might be the most efficient food access strategy for this setting. The test was repeated in a social setting. Results show that wild-born subjects were better able than captive-born subjects to use the provided materials for bed building and tool use. Results of the banana-access test show that wild-born subjects more frequently used a bamboo pillar for obtaining a banana with an efficient strategy than captive-born subjects did. Of the eight captive-born subjects, six avoided the bamboo pillars to get a banana and instead used, sometimes in a roundabout way, an iron pillar or fence. Results consistently underscored the adaptive and sophisticated skills of wild-born male chimpanzees in problem-solving tasks. The rearing conditions affected both the behavior acquisition and the execution of behaviors that had already been acquired.

  6. Reconstruction of Low Speed Rear-End collisions - Technical Means of Assessing Cervical Spine Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hitzemann


    Full Text Available In recent years, an increasing number of cervical spine injuries sustained by vehicle occupants in collisions at comparatively low speeds have been reported to insurance companies and in civil litigation. The reported injuries occur in both rear-end and side impact collisions. The paper describes how a detailed assessment of such cases requires interdisciplinary teamwork involving technical, biomechanical and medical experts.

  7. Rear view mirror: blogging as a reflective tool for practice as research


    Pinchbeck, Michael


    For Michael Pinchbeck's PhD project exploring dramaturgy he kept blogs for each performance process and an online appendix to the thesis which housed interviews with artists about why they worked with or as dramaturgs. Now he reflects on the critical and creative role blogs play in practice as research as a 'rear view mirror'. The online space allows an 'embedded dramaturgy' to take place and makes more visible a private process, to invite and enrich a wider debate of the work.

  8. Gender of rearing and psychosocial aspect in 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia


    Arushi Gangaher; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Vasundhera Chauhan; Jomimol John; Manju Mehta


    Background: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with ambiguous genitalia, assigning gender of rearing can be complex, especially If genitalia is highly virilized. Apart from karyotype, prenatal androgen exposure, patient's gender orientation, sociocultural, and parental influences play a role. The aim of this study was to assess gender dysphoria and psychosocial issues in patients of CAH raised as males and females. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that includes pati...

  9. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents


    Anbo Yang


    In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998), and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965). The results suggested that parental global self-esteem ...

  10. Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing. (United States)

    O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J


    Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Battle Analysis, Yongsan, Rear Area Operations (24th Infantry Division 11-13 August 1950), (United States)


    HAFEMAN. At 0900 hours, 13 August 1950, TF HAFEMAN was dissolved. After a valient effort in combat roles, the combat service support soldiers of TF...defense role for TF HAFEMAN. At 0900 hours, 13 August 1950, TF HAFEMAN was dissolved. After a valient effort in combat roles, the combat service support...This operation ended the rear area defense role for TF HAFEMAN. At 0900 hours, 13 August 1950, TF HAFEMAN was dissolved. After a valient effort in

  12. Foster Care and Child Health. (United States)

    McDavid, Lolita M


    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care.

  13. Mental health, personality, and parental rearing styles of adolescents with Internet addiction disorder. (United States)

    Xiuqin, Huang; Huimin, Zhang; Mengchen, Li; Jinan, Wang; Ying, Zhang; Ran, Tao


    The objectives of this study were to compare the personality profiles of adolescent males with and without Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and to determine if IAD is associated with specific parental rearing behaviors. A total of 304 subjects (204 IAD positive and 100 IAD negative controls) completed three instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-revision (SCL-90-R), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised (EPQ-R), and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran--'My Memories of Upbringing' (EMBU). SCL-90-R profiles of adolescents with IAD revealed comparatively higher mean scores for all of the nine domains, and significantly higher scores for obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoid ideation; the mean global symptom index of adolescents with IAD was also significantly higher by approximately 10%. EPQ profiles of adolescents with IAD showed that Internet-dependent individuals tended to exhibit a significantly lower degree of extraversion and a significantly higher degree of psychoticism when compared with the control group. EMBU profiles revealed that adolescents with IAD generally rated both maternal and paternal rearing practices as lacking in emotional warmth, being over-involved, rejecting, and punitive (mothers only). The results of this study confirm that IAD often occurs concurrently with mental symptoms and personality traits such as introversion and psychoticism. Adolescents with IAD consistently rated parental rearing behaviors as being over-intrusive, punitive, and lacking in responsiveness. These findings suggest that the influences of parenting style and family function are important factors in the development of Internet dependency.

  14. Captive-breeding of captive and wild-reared Gunnison sage-grouse. (United States)

    Apa, Anthony D; Wiechman, Lief A


    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) distribution in North America has decreased over historical accounts and has received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. We investigated captive-breeding of a captive-flock of Gunnison sage-grouse created from individuals reared in captivity from wild-collected eggs we artificially incubated. We also introduced wild-reared individuals into captivity. Our captive-flock successfully bred and produced fertile eggs. We controlled the timing and duration of male-female breeding interactions and facilitated a semi-natural mating regime. Males established a strutting ground in captivity that females attended for mate selection. In 2010, we allowed females to establish eight nests, incubate, and hatch eggs. Females in captivity were more successful incubating nests than raising broods. Although there are many technical, financial, and logistic issues associated with captive-breeding, we recommend that federal biologists and managers work collaboratively with state wildlife agencies and consider developing a captive-flock as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy for a conservation-reliant species like the Gunnison sage-grouse. The progeny produced from a captive-rearing program could assist in the recovery if innovative approaches to translocation are part of a comprehensive proactive conservation program.

  15. Spawning and rearing behavior of bull trout in a headwaterlake ecosystem (United States)

    Lora B. Tennant,; Gresswell, Bob; Guy, Christopher S.; Michael H. Meeuwig,


    Numerous life histories have been documented for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations that occupy small, headwater lake ecosystems and migrate short distances to natal tributaries to spawn are likely common; however, much of the research on potamodromous bull trout has focused on describing the spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout populations that occupy large rivers and lakes and make long distance spawning migrations to natal headwater streams. This study describes the spawning and rearing characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage, Glacier National Park, USA, a small headwater lake ecosystem. Many spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage are similar to potamodromous bull trout that migrate long distances. For example, subadult bull trout distribution was positively associated with slow-water habitat unit types and maximum wetted width, and negatively associated with increased stream gradient. Bull trout spawning also occurred when water temperatures were between 5 and 9 °C, and redds were generally located in stream segments with low stream gradient and abundant gravel and cobble substrates. However, this study also elucidated characteristics of bull trout biology that are not well documented in the literature, but may be relatively widespread and have important implications regarding general characteristics of bull trout ecology, use of available habitat by bull trout, and persistence of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in small headwater lake ecosystems.

  16. Biomechanical assessment of a rear-seat inflatable seatbelt in frontal impacts. (United States)

    Sundararajan, Srinivasan; Rouhana, Stephen W; Board, Derek; DeSmet, Ed; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Miller, Carl S; Schneider, Lawrence W


    This study evaluated the biomechanical performance of a rear-seat inflatable seatbelt system and compared it to that of a 3-point seatbelt system, which has a long history of good real-world performance. Frontal-impact sled tests were conducted with Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and with post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using both restraint systems and a generic rear-seat configuration. Results from these tests demonstrated: a) reduction in forward head excursion with the inflatable seatbelt system when compared to that of a 3-point seatbelt and; b) a reduction in ATD and PMHS peak chest deflections and the number of PMHS rib fractures with the inflatable seatbelt system and c) a reduction in PMHS cervical-spine injuries, due to the interaction of the chin with the inflated shoulder belt. These results suggest that an inflatable seatbelt system will offer additional benefits to some occupants in the rear seats. Further research is needed to assess the field effectiveness, customer comfort and acceptance and change in the belt usage rate with the inflatable seatbelt system.

  17. Deficits in parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus of isolation reared rats. (United States)

    Harte, M K; Powell, S B; Swerdlow, N R; Geyer, M A; Reynolds, G P


    Post-mortem studies have provided evidence for abnormalities of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in schizophrenia. The calcium-binding proteins (CBPs), parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB) and calretinin (CR) can be used as markers for specific subpopulations of GABAergic neurons in the brain. Isolation rearing of rats is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion manipulation that leads to deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) and other behavioural and neurochemical alterations reminiscent of schizophrenia. Female rats were reared in social housing (groups of three) or singly for 11 weeks post weaning and PPI was measured. Brains were removed and hippocampal CBP- containing neurons determined following immunocytochemical staining. Compared to socially housed rats, isolated rats exhibited PPI deficits and reductions in PV and CB-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus, with no significant change in CR. These findings demonstrate selective abnormalities of sub-populations of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus of isolation reared rats, which resemble the neuronal deficits seen in this region in schizophrenia.

  18. SIFT-MS analysis of Iberian hams from pigs reared under different conditions. (United States)

    Carrapiso, Ana I; Noseda, Bert; García, Carmen; Reina, Raquel; Sánchez Del Pulgar, José; Devlieghere, Frank


    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) equipment to tentatively quantify relevant volatile compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham, and to differentiate Iberian hams from pigs reared at four different conditions yielding different commercial grades. The SIFT-MS analysis allowed the rapid quantification of 39 Iberian ham volatile compounds, 16 of them being significantly affected by the rearing conditions of pigs. The full spectra SIFT-MS data allowed the correct classification of 79.2% of hams according to diet, which is a smaller percentage than that obtained using intramuscular fatty acid data (95.8%) obtained by using a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector after lipid extraction and transesterification. Therefore, the SIFT-MS analysis would be a rapid tool to tentatively quantify some relevant volatile compounds, and also would provide a rapid but rough classification of Iberian ham according to the rearing conditions of pigs.

  19. Nursery production of hatchery-reared milkfish, Chanos chanos in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe


    Full Text Available To ensure stable supply of milkfish, Chanos chanos fingerlings for stocking in ponds or cageswhere they will be reared until harvestable size, nursery production of hatchery-reared milkfish fry inearthen ponds and fed solely on natural food (periphyton was developed. Trials were conducted using500 m2 earthen ponds during the dry and wet months. The ponds were prepared and added withfertilizers in order to enhance the production of natural food. Hatchery-reared milkfish fry were stockedat densities ranging 20 – 39 fry/m2. At least a month (< 40 days after stocking, the fry reached thefingerling stage (2.59 – 4.63 g with survival rates of 68.6% - 81.0%. There was better productionduring the dry months due to abundant supply of natural food, although it was also possible to obtaingood production during the wet months when pond conditions are favorable. This strategy of rearingmilkfish fry in nursery ponds using natural food could be a viable and inexpensive technique inmaintaining sustainable milkfish aquaculture.

  20. Adaptation of an artificial diet for Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) laboratory rearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavaresco, Alvimar [EPAGRI, Estacao Experimetal de Canoinhas, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Garcia, Mauro S.; Gruetzmacher, Anderson D.; Ringenberg, Rudiney; Foresti, Josemar [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade


    The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) was studied on three artificial diets with different protein sources (d1 = white bean, yeast extract, soybean flour, powder milk and wheat germ; d2 = 'carioca' bean and yeast extract; d3 = corn flour, wheat germ and yeast extract). The objective of this research was to determine the most suitable diet for mass rearing S. cosmioides in laboratory. The species is highly polyphagous, and for this reason we hypothesized that diets that are suitable for other Lepidoptera can allow its development and fulfill the minimum requirements of biological quality, quantity and economy. Although S. cosmioides has completed the biological cycle on the three diets, the d1 was the most suitable for its rearing and produced the fastest development, higher total survival and pupae weight, as well as higher net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) and finite rate of natural increase (l). The number of instars varied from six to seven, predominating six in d1 and d3; in d2, half the population presented six instars and half seven. Females presented pupae duration significantly lower that the males in all diets, thus emerging earlier. Adult longevity was not affected by the diets, while total fecundity was higher in d1 and d2. In conclusion, the diet 1 is recommended to mass rearing S. cosmioides in the laboratory. (author)

  1. Intelligent rear light for compensation of environmental effects on car visibility (United States)

    Gruner, Roman; Schubert, Jorg


    LIDAR remote sensing technology has not only applications in geographical, atmospheric or biological sciences but it can also play an important role in the everyday life. Within the last 10 years statistics of European car traffic has shown that about one third of all accidents go back to darkness and poor road conditions. A system collecting information about visibility and distance to following vehicles and setting appropriate rear light intensities could provide a much safer road travel under various environmental conditions. The system that is being developed co-operates with a dirt and brightness sensor to take into account these various external influences on an automobile and applies them to the operation of the rear light. The developed sensors are integrated in an advanced micro-system and capable of providing external environmental data for automatic brightness control within a requested range of light output for constant perceptibility of light signals to the following traffic. This conference gives further information about: (1) construction, optical and laser parameters, (2) application in rear light systems, (3) measurement characteristics, (4) test equipment (LIDAR_Probe), (5) measurement results, test rides, raw data.

  2. Optimal Design and Dynamic Simulation of Mountain Bike with Rear Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Yan; XIANG Zhongxia; HUANG Tian; ZHANG Xu; WANG Xinghua


    This paper investigates the dynamic design methodology of mountain bikes with rear suspension. Firstly, a multi-rigid body dynamic model of rider and mountain bike coupled system is constructed. The rider model includes 19 skeletons, 18 joints and 118 main muscles. Secondly, to validate the feasibility of the model, an experiment test is designed to reflect the real cycling status. Finally,aiming at enhancing the performance of the rider vibration comfort, the scale parameters of rear suspension are optimized with computer simulation and uniform design. The mathematical model in the vibration performance and the design variables is constructed with regression analysis. The result shows that when the length of side link is 90 mm, the length of connected rod is 336.115 1 mm and the included angle between absorber and side link is 60°, the mountain bike has better vibration comfort. This study and relevant conclusions are of practical importance to the design of the mountain bike's rear suspension system.

  3. The effect of rearing temperature in larval development of pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis: morphological indicators of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Chalde

    Full Text Available It is well known that in pejerrey water temperature not only affects growth rates but also directs the sexual differentiation process. This fact rise the question of how different the development of pejerrey larvae of the same age is when reared at different temperatures. A description of developmental stages for the embryonic and larval periods of the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis, and the influence of rearing temperature on larval development are presented. Then, larval development was studied at three rearing temperatures, and changes in general morphology, fin morphology, and caudal fin structure have been taken into consideration within the thermal range involved in the temperature sex determination of this species. Fin fold reabsorption, caudal fin formation, and body shape were selected to follow the events leading to the acquisition of the juvenile morphology. The juvenile phenotype was defined when the fin fold was reabsorpted and the caudal fin acquired its definitive homocercal structure. The moment at which the juvenile phenotype was achieved, was evaluated in relation to larval age, size and, shape. The size resulted as the best indicator of development in pejerrey.

  4. Mainstem Clearwater River study: Assessment for Salmonid Spawning, Incubation, and Rearing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, William P.; Pishl, Markley J.; Whitman, Marc A.


    This is the second annual progress report for studies conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe to evaluate the potential for increasing fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations and establishing summer chinook salmon spawning in the lower 57.5 km of the mainstem Clearwater River (LMCR) of Idaho. The report presents study methods and preliminary results for the 1988--1989 phase of the study. The overall study plan was designed to quantitatively evalulate the available spawning, incubation and rearing habitat for fall and summer chinook salmon. We also studied steelhead trout (O. mykiss) rearing habitat since there is a stable population of these fish in the LMCR's tributaries and their parr are known to rear periodically in the mainstem. Resident fish were studied to assess the potential for habitat overlap with that of anadromous fish. Based on these findings the Nez Perce Tribe could determine chinook salmon habitat conditions for selected stocks under existing flow and temperature regimes and consult with the US Army Corps of Engineering concerning the effects of Dworshak Dam operation on flows and measures to restore or establish stocks identified in this study. 38 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Evaluating critical factors to the economic feasibility of semi-intensive pig rearing in western Kenya. (United States)

    Levy, Mike; Dewey, Cate; Weersink, Alfons; Mutua, Florence; Carter, Natalie; Poljak, Zvonimir


    The purpose of this research is to assess how season, ADG, opportunity costs of farm-grown feeds, pig weight, and butcher price variation impact the economic potential of semi-intensive pig rearing. We developed a unique algorithm that emulates least-cost pig feeding and used it to assess the impact of the aforementioned factors on farmers' maximum revenue and profit potential when pigs are sold to local butchers in western Kenya. When considered as independent factors influencing feed costs to grow a pig to a market weight of 30 kg, variation in ADG, opportunity cost of feed, and weaning season resulted in feed cost differences of up to 982, 947, and 379 Kenyan shillings (KES), respectively. The variation in revenues attributable to butcher or butcher negotiation and seasonal variance of butcher prices for a 30 kg pig was 744 and 225 KES, respectively. Feed items most commonly chosen for least-cost feed rations were small dried fish, cooked ground maize, whole maize, millet, cassava foliage, sweet potato vines, bone meal, avocado, and mango. Smallholder farmers who can feed pigs to reach higher ADG, have lower opportunity costs of feeds and/or who effectively bargain with butchers can benefit from semi-intensive pig rearing. Farmers without access to at least some zero-cost feeds and farmers with opportunity costs of feeds exceeding 50 % of the market price will not earn positive returns from semi-intensive pig rearing.

  6. Artificial Rearing of Entomophagous Insects, with Emphasis on Nutrition and Parasitoids - General Outlines from Personal Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Grenier


    Full Text Available The disposability of high numbers of entomophagous insects for their use in biological control strategies is an old objective carried on, between others, by the rearing in different kinds of artificial diets. The definition and the perfecting of these diets are at first based on nutritional studies. Food or carcass analyses, nutritional balance studies, and deletion/supplementation methods allow to evaluate the different nutritional needs. Nitrogen sources are the most critical needs especially with fast growing entomophagous insects. Lipids and carbohydrates mainly constitute energy sources with storage possibility. Other nutrients such as salts and vitamins are also needed, and sometimes some specific polyunsaturated fatty acids. There are other important physiological requirements, concerning the digestion process, the respiration, or the hormonal balances. Physico-chemical factors such as Osmotic Pressure and pH often show critical values for the normal development, mostly of endoparasitoid insects. For egg parasitoids and predators, the presentation of the food is of prime importance for a normal food intake, and finally for the success of the rearing. Sterilization of the diet or incorporation of preservative agents is often necessary for preventing bacterial or fungal contaminations. Many successes were obtained for artificial rearing of entomophagous insects, but ultimate efforts are still needed for crucial improvements and supports that may lead to the extension of the use of this biological control strategy.

  7. Comparative Growth and Survival of Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Reared on Artificial or Natural Diet at 15 or 25°C. (United States)

    Romo, C M; Bader, M K-F; Pawson, S M


    Two saproxylic forest insects, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Mulsant)(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were reared on artificial or natural diet at 15 or 25°C to compare larval growth rates and survival. A significant diet by temperature interaction was observed in the growth of H. ligniperda larvae,which developed faster when reared on natural diet at 15°C, but grew faster and pupated significantly earlier when reared on artificial diet at 25°C. However, H. ligniperda survival by the end of the experiment was low on both diets when reared at 25°C (10.1%, 95% CI: 5.2–15.1%), which suggests that rearing at lower temperatures may be required. A. ferus larvae gained significantly larger body size when reared on artificial diet than on natural diet at both temperatures. Survival of A. ferus reared on artificial diet was significantly lower than larvae reared on natural diet at 25°C. The significant differences between A. ferus larval development rates when reared on artificial and natural diets preclude the use of artificial diet to collect meaningful data to construct temperature development models for ecological comparisons. Artificial diet provided a suitable medium for mass production of individuals for research purposes, e.g., test mortality in response to treatments. However, additional rearing studies are needed to determine whether the larger artificially reared larvae result in adults that are healthier, more productive, and live longer.

  8. Association of rearing patterns with diet and temperament traits among infants in urban areas%城市地区抚养模式与幼儿饮食特征及气质的关联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁影; 朱鹏; 高荣; 梁贞贞; 黄文; 陶芳标


    目的 探讨城市地区三种主要抚养模式对幼儿饮食特征和气质特征的影响.方法 从2008年合肥市妇幼保健院出生队列资料中,随机选取480例25~30月龄儿童家庭为研究对象,应用1~3岁要幼儿气质问卷、幼儿食物频率问卷和家庭环境调查表行入户调查.结果 在所调查的430个家庭中,父母抚养模式、隔代抚养模式和父母、隔代联合抚养模式分别占33.0%、21.2%和45.8%.父母抚养模式幼儿倾向于加工类食物饮食特征,其适应性和节律性均较差.隔代抚养模式幼儿倾向于果蔬类食物和谷物类食物饮食特征,其节律性较差.联合抚养模式幼儿倾向于水产类食物和果蔬类食物饮食特征,其适应性和节律性较好.线性回归模型结果显示,倾向于水产类食物、高蛋白食物和果蔬类食物饮食特征的幼儿有更积极的气质表现,而倾向于加工类食物饮食特征的幼儿其消极的气质特征更明显.结论 城市地区联合抚养模式家庭中幼儿的饮食特征更健康,气质表现更积极.饮食特征与幼儿气质间的因果关系有待进一步探讨.%Objective To explore the effects of rearing patterns on diet and temperament traits among infants in urban areas. Methods A total of 480 25-30-month-old infants were randomly selected from the birth cohort in Hefei Maternal and Child Health Care Center in 2008. A household survey was conducted using China Toddler Temperament Scale (CTTS) , Dietary Characteristics Questionnaire and Family Environment Questionnaire. Results Of the 430 surveyed households, there were three main rearing patterns including parents rearing pattern (Croup A) , grandparents rearing pattern (Croup B) and joint rearing pattern (Croup C) , accounting for 33.0% , 21. 2% and 45. 8% , respectively. Infants in Group A tended to adopt processed food pattern, with poor rhythmicity and adaptability; infants in Group B tended to adopt fruit, vegetable, and

  9. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza


    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  10. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender


    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  11. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate


    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  12. Helping Your Child Deal with Death (United States)

    ... to tell you. Grandma died today." Pause to give your child a moment to take in your words. Listen and comfort. Every child ... being together helps people start to feel better." Give your child a role. ... if they want to take part, and how. Help your child remember the ...

  13. Effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development and West Nile virus vector competence of Culex tarsalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodson Brittany L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature is known to induce changes in mosquito physiology, development, ecology, and in some species, vector competence for arboviruses. Since colonized mosquitoes are reared under laboratory conditions that can be significantly different from their field counterparts, laboratory vector competence experiments may not accurately reflect natural vector-virus interactions. Methods We evaluated the effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development parameters and vector competence of two Culex tarsalis strains for West Nile virus (WNV. Results Rearing temperature had a significant effect on mosquito developmental parameters, including shorter time to pupation and emergence and smaller female body size as temperature increased. However, infection, dissemination, and transmission rates for WNV at 5, 7, and 14 days post infectious feeding were not consistently affected. Conclusions These results suggest that varying constant larval rearing temperature does not significantly affect laboratory estimates of vector competence for WNV in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes.

  14. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  15. Design of a Self Don/Doffing Rear Entry Planetary Suit to Interface with a Suit Port/Lock Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under Phase 1 of subject SBIR, Air-Lock, Incorporated will design a self donning and doffing Rear Entry Hard Upper Torso (REHUT) that interfaces with a suit port....

  16. Severity of Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescence : Relationship With Maternal Parenting Stress, Maternal Psychopathology, and Rearing Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.


    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress ha

  17. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Schuppert; C.J. Albers; R.B. Minderaa; P.M.G. Emmelkamp; M.H. Nauta


    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress ha

  18. A Review of the Relationship Beteewn Parent Rearing Style and Children's Psychological Development%父母教养方式与儿童心理发展关系研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    近年来有关亲子关系的研究越来越多,其中父母教养方式与儿童发展之间关系的研究已取得丰富的成果,本文对父母教养方式与儿童认知、情绪、气质、行为及社会化等方面发展之间的关系研究进行了综述,旨在揭示父母教养方式对儿童心理发展的具体影响。%In recent years ,there are more and more researchs about parent-child relationship,among them, the research about the relationship beteewn parent rearing style and the development of children are rich, this article reviews the studies about the relationsh

  19. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior. (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others


    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  20. An Update on the CHILDES/BIB (formerly ISU/CHILDES) Database. (United States)

    Higginson, Roy


    Describes the CHILDES/BIB electronic bibliographic database, its contents, and its relationship to the CHILDES database. CHILDES is a depository of child language corpora and is the publisher of CHAT (a transcription manual) and CLAN (an electronic package for child language research). (GLR)

  1. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Eligibility for Services § 98.20 A child's eligibility for child...

  2. Trends in child mortality in India. (United States)

    Behl, A S


    To assess Indias recent trends in child mortality rates and disparities and identify ways to reduce child mortality and wealth-related health disparities, we analyzed three years of data from Indias National Family Health Survey related to child mortality. Nationally, declines in average child mortality were statistically significant, but declines in inequality were not. Urban areas had lower child mortality rates than rural areas but higher inequalities. Interstate differences in child mortality rates were significant, with rates in the highest-mortality states four to six times higher than in the lowest-mortality states. However, child mortality in most states declined.

  3. Car Seat Inspection Among Children Older Than Three: Using Data to Drive Practice in Child Passenger Safety (United States)

    Kroeker, Amber M.; Teddy, Amy J.; Macy, Michelle L.


    Background Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children ages 4-12 in the United States. Despite this high risk of injury from MVCs in this age group, parental awareness, and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections. Other variables included, if the coalition provided a new child safety seat and if the child had a sibling who underwent a car seat inspection. Chi-square statistics were used to compare change in restraint use upon arrival and at departure, the proportion of children attending a car seat inspection event by age, the age category of children by site, the proportion of children with siblings also undergoing a car seat inspection by age, and the distribution of a new child safety seat by age. Results Data were available from 1,316 Safe Kids Huron Valley and 3,215 Safe Kids Greater Grand Rapids car seat inspections. Just 10.8% of total seats inspected were booster seats. Child safety seats for infant and young children were more commonly inspected [rear-facing carrier (40.3%), rear-facing convertible (10.2%), and forward-facing (19.3%) car seats]. Few children at inspections used a seat belt only (5.4%) or had no restraint (13.8%). Children age 4 and above were found to be in a sub-optimal restraint at least 30% of the time. Conclusion Low proportions of parents use car seat inspections for children in the booster seat age group. The proportion of children departing the inspection in a more protective restraint increased with increasing age. This highlights an area of weakness in child passenger safety programs and signals an opportunity to strengthen efforts on The Forgotten Child. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26308122

  4. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  5. Your child and the flu (United States)

    ... children 6 months or older should receive the vaccine. Children under 9 years will need a second flu ... severe or life-threatening flu infection. WILL THE VACCINE HARM MY CHILD? A small amount of mercury (called thimerosal) is ...

  6. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most recently...

  7. Genetics of Stiff Child Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available A Chinese boy with a DYT1 gene mutation presented with muscle stiffness, painful muscle spasms, myoclonus, and dystonia, compatible with stiff child syndrome, and is reported from Queen Mary Hospital, the University of Hong Kong.

  8. Allergy Relief for Your Child (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... and run the air conditioner. back to top Allergy Medicines For most children, symptoms may be controlled ...

  9. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling


    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  10. FastStats: Child Health (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  11. Treatment of the Hyperactive Child (United States)

    Wunderlich, Ray C.


    Described individually are the following forms of medical treatment for the hyperactive child: stimulants, tranquilizers, megavitamins, corticosteroids, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, food elimination, air filtration, allergic desensitization, perceptual motor training, and behavioral counseling. (DB)

  12. Evaluation of the enuretic child. (United States)

    Rushton, H G


    Nocturnal enuresis is a symptom of environmental, physical, and psychosocial factors. In addition to a physical examination, the initial workup of the enuretic child should include a careful voiding, psychosocial, and family history. Studies have shown that the parents of enuretic children often have a history of enuresis. An increased incidence of enuresis has also been demonstrated in children from large families and lower socioeconomic groups. Daytime voiding symptoms (e.g., frequency, urgency, or enuresis) suggest the possibility of underlying voiding dysfunction. A complete urinalysis and urine culture also should be performed to exclude urinary infection and certain metabolic or nephrologic disorders. Finally, it is important that the treating physician understand the attitudes of both the child and the family concerning enuresis. Parents who feel that the child is at fault need to be educated and reassured. A careful, complete evaluation will allow the physician to tailor treatment to the individual child and family.

  13. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems (United States)

    ... page: // Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  14. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Carbohydrates, Sugar, ... a 1-ounce equivalent. previous continue Sizing Up Sugar Foods that are high in added sugar (soda, ...

  15. Strength Training and Your Child (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength ... help prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using ...

  16. Preparing Your Child for Surgery (United States)

    ... a teen might be afraid of losing control, missing out on events, being embarrassed or humiliated in ... in the future. Explaining What Will Happen Find books, appropriate to your child's level of understanding, about ...

  17. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? (United States)

    ... Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article to a friend by ... a pediatric ophthalmologist. Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Glaucoma What to watch for in children under the ...

  18. Strength Training and Your Child (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength Training ... prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using free ...

  19. The silk characteristics of jedung silkworm (Attacus atlas L.) reared on senggugu (Clerodendron serratum Spreng) food plant




    The objective of this research was to determine the silk characteristics of Jedung silkworm reared on Senggugu food plant. Cocoon characteristics examined was the weight of cocoon and the value of Shell Ratio (SR). Meanwhile, the characteristics of fiber conclude the tensile strength, the elongation and the moisture absorption. The results showed that the range of cocoon weight was between 5.849 + 0.378 g. If it is compared to other cocoon reared on other food plants, the cocoons from Jedung ...

  20. Comparative Study of Reproductive Development in Wild and Captive-Reared Greater Amberjack Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810) (United States)

    Zupa, Rosa; Rodríguez, Covadonga; Mylonas, Constantinos C.; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Fakriadis, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria; Pérez, José A.; Pousis, Chrysovalentinos; Basilone, Gualtiero


    The greater amberjack Seriola dumerili is a large teleost fish with rapid growth and excellent flesh quality, whose domestication represents an ambitious challenge for aquaculture. The occurrence of reproductive dysfunctions in greater amberjack reared in captivity was investigated by comparing reproductive development of wild and captive-reared individuals. Wild and captive-reared breeders were sampled in the Mediterranean Sea during three different phases of the reproductive cycle: early gametogenesis (EARLY, late April-early May), advanced gametogenesis (ADVANCED, late May-early June) and spawning (SPAWNING, late June-July). Fish reproductive state was evaluated using the gonado-somatic index (GSI), histological analysis of the gonads and determination of sex steroid levels in the plasma, and correlated with leptin expression in the liver and gonad biochemical composition. The GSI and sex steroid levels were lower in captive-reared than in wild fish. During the ADVANCED period, when the wild greater amberjack breeders were already in spawning condition, ovaries of captive-reared breeders showed extensive atresia of late vitellogenic oocytes and spermatogenic activity ceased in the testes of half of the examined males. During the SPAWNING period, all captive-reared fish had regressed gonads, while wild breeders still displayed reproductive activity. Liver leptin expression and gonad proximate composition of wild and captive greater amberjack were similar. However, the gonads of captive-reared fish showed different total polar lipid contents, as well as specific lipid classes and fatty acid profiles with respect to wild individuals. This study underlines the need for an improvement in rearing technology for this species, which should include minimum handling during the reproductive season and the formulation of a specific diet to overcome the observed gonadal decrements of phospholipids, DHA (22:6n-3) and ARA (20:4n-6), compared to wild breeders. PMID:28056063

  1. Fear and exploration in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris: a comparison of hand-reared and wild-caught birds.

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    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6-8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration. In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research.

  2. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.


    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kananchuk


    Full Text Available The article shows the relationship of protective reflection of rationalization by circumstances of mother and psychological well-being of the child. Particular attention is paid to the peculiarities of parent-child relationship, the mother causes the protective reflexes that promote the appearance of certain indicators of psychological distress of the child. The article points out that it is on the extent to which manifested a protective reflex to rationalize the circumstances of mothers with projective character. The scientific novelty of the research is to what extent a manifestation of character accentuations closest to the child rearing adults - mothers, manifested in a protective reflex to rationalize the circumstances and characteristics of parent-child relationships, cause indicators of psychological distress of children. Relevance of the research in the article content is determined by studying the significance of this aspect in connection with the need to create a family and educational institution environment conservation psychological well-being of the child. Baseline confidence in the world, to themselves and people around the child is formed in early childhood with significant adults bringing up and, to a greater extent - the mother. The study has been confirmed the assumption that the psychological disadvantage preschool children, manifested in the form of insecurity, aggression and increased impulsiveness, a substantial originality in the affective, cognitive and behavioral areas. The mechanism that triggers a psychological disadvantage of the child, are not constructive relationship with the child bringing up an adult (in the family - mother, due to safety (pathogenic reflection. Protective strategies of the Child expressed its cautious and defensive, or aggressive and offensive position, arising in response to the non-constructive attitude towards him adult, contribute to the manifestation of insecurity, aggressiveness

  4. Child poverty can be reduced. (United States)

    Plotnick, R D


    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  5. The Child Rights System in Romanian Legislation




    Child rights are a set of international conventions which define the conditions for the normal development of a child. In Romania, child rights are now the subject of a specific law, law nr. 272/2004 on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of the Child, which is in accordance with the international conventions. All children have their own rights - whether at home with their natural parents, in foster families, child care institutions or at school. Parents and families, the professional ...

  6. The assessment of recalled parental rearing behavior and its relationship to life satisfaction and interpersonal problems: a general population study

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    Hinz Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental rearing behavior is a significant etiological factor for the vulnerability of psychopathology and has been an issue of clinical research for a long time. For this scope instruments are important who asses economically recalled parental rearing behavior in a clinical practice. Therefore, a short German instrument for the assessment of the recalled parental rearing behavior Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten (FEE was psychometrically evaluated [Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior]. Methods This questionnaire was evaluated in a representative population sample (N = 2.948 in Germany which included 44.2% male and 55.8% female persons with a mean age of M = 47.35 (SD = 17.10, range = 18–92. For the content evaluation of the FEE the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP was filled out by the participants. Results The FEE scales yielded a good to satisfactory internal consistency and split-half reliability. Its three factors (rejection/punishment, emotional warmth, control/overprotection correlated positively with most of the areas of life satisfaction. Furthermore, positive associations between interpersonal problems and parental rejection and control could be identified. Conclusion The FEE is a short, reliable and valid instrument that can be applied in the clinical practice. In addition, the data proved an association between recalled parental rearing behavior, life satisfaction and interpersonal problems conform to the literature. Finally, specific problems with the retrospective assessment of parental rearing behavior were addressed as well.

  7. The Effect of Perceived Parental Rearing Behaviors on Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents with Leukemia. (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Lee, Sunhee


    As the prognosis of childhood leukemia has dramatically improved, clinical interest has been growing in health-related quality of life in adolescents with leukemia. An important factor in adolescent quality of life is their perception of parental rearing behavior. The aim of this study was to explore how perceived parental rearing behaviors related to the quality of life of adolescents with leukemia. A descriptive, exploratory study was conducted among 106 adolescents with leukemia using the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior and the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life scales. Data were examined using descriptive, correlation, and path analyses. The coefficients of total effect of paternal and maternal emotional warmth on the quality of life of adolescents were 0.36 and 0.45, respectively. We found that paternal rejection/punishment behavior was significantly correlated with maternal rejection/punishment behavior (P warmth has a moderate effect on the quality of life of adolescents, that quality of life was related to both paternal and maternal rearing behaviors, and that the mother's and father's rearing behaviors were correlated with each other. To improve the quality of life of adolescents with leukemia, the patient's care plan should aim to enhance positive parental rearing behaviors in both parents.

  8. Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermang, Bart, E-mail: [Ångström Solar Center, University of Uppsala, Uppsala 75121 (Sweden); ESAT-KU Leuven, University of Leuven, Leuven 3001 (Belgium); Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Fjällström, Viktor; Rostvall, Fredrik; Edoff, Marika [Ångström Solar Center, University of Uppsala, Uppsala 75121 (Sweden); Gunnarsson, Rickard; Pilch, Iris; Helmersson, Ulf [Plasma & Coatings Physics, University of Linköping, Linköping 58183 (Sweden); Kotipalli, Ratan; Henry, Frederic; Flandre, Denis [ICTEAM/IMNC, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve 1348 (Belgium)


    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} rear surface passivated ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells with Mo nano-particles (NPs) as local rear contacts are developed to demonstrate their potential to improve optical confinement in ultra-thin CIGS solar cells. The CIGS absorber layer is 380 nm thick and the Mo NPs are deposited uniformly by an up-scalable technique and have typical diameters of 150 to 200 nm. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer passivates the CIGS rear surface between the Mo NPs, while the rear CIGS interface in contact with the Mo NP is passivated by [Ga]/([Ga] + [In]) (GGI) grading. It is shown that photon scattering due to the Mo NP contributes to an absolute increase in short circuit current density of 3.4 mA/cm{sup 2}; as compared to equivalent CIGS solar cells with a standard back contact. - Highlights: • Proof-of-principle ultra-thin CIGS solar cells have been fabricated. • The cells have Mo nano-particles (NPs) as local rear contacts. • An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film passivates the CIGS rear surface between these nano-particles. • [Ga]/([Ga] + [In]) grading is used to reduce Mo-NP/CIGS interface recombination.

  9. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

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    Pesanayi Gwirayi


    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  10. Robotics in child neurosurgery. (United States)

    Giorgi, C; Sala, R; Riva, D; Cossu, A; Eisenberg, H


    We felt there was a need for a new device with "minimal invasive" tracking hardware, to be used in image-guided neurosurgery, and the system we designed to fill this need is now presented. It combines precision of movement, stability and self-positioning capabilities together with optically tracked registration and procedural control within the structure of a surgical microscope. The results are reduced setup time and minimal "distraction" from the procedure itself, factors of special relevance in child neurosurgery. The system is composed of a six-axis industrial robot suitable for use in the operating room, carrying a surgical microscope. Three progressive scan-synchronized infrared cameras mounted around the lenses of the scope are used to register the patient's position and track surgical instruments with reference to the registered space. Orientation of the microscope during surgery is obtained with a six-axis joystick used as a microscope handle. The system has been clinically used in 14 cases, and it has proven itself to be reliable, providing the expected performance advantages. The implementation of a tracked ultrasound or endoscope intraoperative imaging source is also described.

  11. Child custody evaluations. (United States)

    Bernet, William


    Because divorce is so common, it is important for our society to find ways to minimize the psychological trauma that is experienced by children of divorced parents. Ideally, divorcing parents would not fight so much over the children, in front of the children, and through the children. When disputes do arise regarding custody, visitation, and parenting plans, mental health professionals can assist the judges who make the final decisions by performing competent custody evaluations. These evaluations should be conducted in a systematic manner, should consider several critical factors in an unbiased manner, and should result in recommendations that promote the best interests of the children. In most cases, the goal is for each child to have strong, healthy relationships with both parents. After conducting an evaluation, it is usually possible to make recommendations regarding custody, parenting arrangements, and forms of counseling and therapy that should be helpful to the family members. It is important to communicate these recommendations in an articulate manner, whether verbally or in the written report.

  12. [Child abuse in the family]. (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes


    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  13. The child anxiety impact scale: examining parent- and child-reported impairment in child anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Langley, Audra K; Falk, Avital; Peris, Tara; Wiley, Joshua F; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda; Birmaher, Boris; March, John; Albano, Ann Marie; Piacentini, John


    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of both the Child and Parent version of the Child Anxiety Impact Scale (CAIS) using data obtained from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (Walkup et al., 2008 ). The CAIS child and parent versions measure anxiety-related functional impairment in school, social, and family domains. Participants were 488 children ages 7 to 17 (M age = 10.7, SD = 2.8 years) enrolled as part of the CAMS study across 6 sites and their primary parent or caregiver. Families participated in a structured diagnostic interview and then completed the CAIS along with other measures. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the a priori three-factor structure (school, social, and home/family) for the CAIS parent- and CAIS child-report was a reasonable fit, with a comparative fit index of .88 and root mean square error of approximation of .05. Internal consistency was very good for total score and subscales of both versions of the scale (Cronbach's α = .70-.90). The CAIS total scores demonstrated good construct validity, showing predicted significant correlations with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing Scale, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) Total Scores, the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. In addition, CAIS Social and School subscales were significantly related to similar subscales on the CBCL, SCARED, and MASC. The results provide support that the CAIS is a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of the impact of anxiety on child and adolescent functioning.

  14. Effects of Hand-Rearing on Reproductive Success in Captive Large Cats Panthera tigris altaica, Uncia uncia, Acinonyx jubatus and Neofelis nebulosa.

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    Maja Coulthard Hampson

    Full Text Available Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica, snow leopard (Uncia uncia, cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. Many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. Hand-rearing can cause behavioural problems, resulting in decreased copulation and lower breeding success in some species. In this study, studbook data subsets were examined: from 1901 to 2011; and 2000 to 2011. We analysed records from 4273 Siberian tigers, 2045 snow leopards, 3435 cheetahs, and 804 clouded leopards. We assessed the number of offspring produced, litter size, age at first reproduction, longevity, infant mortality and generational rearing of hand-reared versus parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared Siberian tigers (p<0.01; p = 0.0113, snow leopards (p<0.01, male cheetahs (p<0.01 and female clouded leopards (p<0.01 produced fewer offspring than parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared snow leopard breeding pairs had larger litters than parent-reared pairs (p = 0.0404. Hand-reared snow leopard females reproduced later in life (p<0.01. Hand-reared female Siberian tigers lived shorter lives, while hand-reared cheetahs lived longer (p<0.01; p = 0.0107. Infant mortality was higher in hand-reared snow leopards (p<0.01 and male cheetahs (p = 0.0395 in the 1901-2011 dataset and lower in hand-reared female Siberian tiger and male snow leopard cubs (p = 0.0404; p = 0.0349 in the 2000-2011 dataset. The rearing of the mother and subsequent rearing of offspring showed a significant relationship for all species (p<0.01 for Siberian tiger and snow leopard cubs; p<0.001 for cheetah and snow leopard cubs. Taking into account the limited carrying capacity of zoos, the

  15. Trends in Child Poverty in Sweden: Parental and Child Reports. (United States)

    Mood, Carina; Jonsson, Jan O

    We use several family-based indicators of household poverty as well as child-reported economic resources and problems to unravel child poverty trends in Sweden. Our results show that absolute (bread-line) household income poverty, as well as economic deprivation, increased with the recession 1991-96, then reduced and has remained largely unchanged since 2006. Relative income poverty has however increased since the mid-1990s. When we measure child poverty by young people's own reports, we find few trends between 2000 and 2011. The material conditions appear to have improved and relative poverty has changed very little if at all, contrasting the development of household relative poverty. This contradictory pattern may be a consequence of poor parents distributing relatively more of the household income to their children in times of economic duress, but future studies should scrutinze potentially delayed negative consequences as poor children are lagging behind their non-poor peers. Our methodological conclusion is that although parental and child reports are partly substitutable, they are also complementary, and the simultaneous reporting of different measures is crucial to get a full understanding of trends in child poverty.

  16. Predictors of mother–child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families



    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent–child interaction and a secure parent–child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent–child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills ...

  17. Has Child Restraint System Use Increased among Parents of Children in Shantou, China?

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    Huiqian Lei


    Full Text Available Objective: to examine parents’ use of child restraint systems (CRS, and determine if parents’ knowledge of, attitude toward, and use behavior of child restraint systems have improved following enactment of child restraint use laws in other cities. Design: Observations and a cross-sectional survey of drivers transporting children 17 years and under were conducted at the gate of the schools and parking lots of hospitals in Shantou. Observers recorded the seating location of child passengers, the type of restraint, and appropriate use of CRS and safety belts based on the observation. Knowledge of and attitudes towards use of CRS were reported by the driver following observation. Results: Approximately 6.6% of passengers aged 0–12 were in CRS; rate of forward-facing CRS in children aged 3–5 (9.9% was higher than rear-facing CRS for children aged 0–2 (1.1% and booster seat use among children aged 6–12 (0.1%. Children younger than four years old (OR = 3.395, 95% CI = 2.125–5.424, drivers having a college or higher lever education (OR = 2.908, 95% CI = 1.878–4.500 and drivers wearing seatbelt (OR = 3.194, 95% CI = 1.605–6.356 had greater odds of CRS use. Over half (56.6% of parents might or would use CRS if they could rent CRSs with fees. Conclusions: The rate of CRS is still low in Shantou. Comprehensive public education programs supported by legislation might be an effective way to improve child passenger safety. Renting CRSs to parents could be a new approach to encourage use.

  18. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting. (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel


    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions.

  19. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

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    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L, semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic

  20. Scientific Opinion on Cylactin® (Enterococcus faecium for calves, lambs and kids for rearing and for fattening

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    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP


    Full Text Available Cylactin® consists of dehydrated cells of a strain of Enterococcus faecium. It is authorised for use in feeds for chickens, turkeys and pigs for fattening, piglets, sows, calves and cats and dogs. The applicant is now seeking re-evaluation when used with calves and a new authorisation for use in feed for goat kids and lambs for rearing and for fattening at 1.0 x 109 - 6.6 x 109 CFU/kg feed. The strain does not contain marker genes typical of hospital-associated isolates responsible for clinical infections and is susceptible to clinically relevant antibiotics, except for kanamycin which is considered of no concern. There were no adverse effects seen in calves when Cylactin® was administered at a 100-fold overdose. Consequently, Cylactin® is considered safe for calves for fattening and for rearing at the recommended dose. This conclusion was extended to kids for fattening and rearing. However, lambs for fattening are not considered a minor species and require a separate demonstration of safety which was not provided. No additional concerns would arise for consumers, users and the environment from the proposed extension of use. Seven trials made with calves for fattening or rearing were considered. Use of the additive with calves for fattening significantly increased final body weight and/or daily gain in four of five trials when used at a dose of 1 x 109 CFU/kg complete feed. An additional study with calves for rearing confirmed these results at the same dose. As the mechanism of action of the additive can be reasonably assumed to be same, the positive results seen in calves for fattening and rearing can be extrapolated to kids for rearing and fattening. Conclusions on the efficacy of the product for sheep would derive from results with lambs for fattening which were not made available.