Conner, Kenneth R; Bossarte, Robert M; Lu, Naiji; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Chan, Grace; Wyman, Peter; Tu, Xin M; Goldston, David B; Houston, Rebecca J; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hesselbrock, Victor M
Parents with psychopathology such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) that confers risk for suicide attempt (SA) may have children who are more likely to develop such psychopathology and to attempt suicide, suggesting that risk may be "transmitted" from parents to children. We examined this phenomenon during the transition from childhood to adolescence, when risk for SA increases dramatically. A cohort of 418 children were examined at average age 9.4 (range 7-14) years at enrollment (Time 1, childhood) and approximately 5 years later, prior to reaching age 18 (Time 2, adolescence). One or both biological parents, oversampled for AUD, were also interviewed. Structural equation models (SEM) examined father-child, mother-child, and either/both parent-child associations. The primary outcome was SA over follow-up among offspring, assessed at Time 2. As hypothesized, parental antisocial personality disorder predicted conduct disorder symptoms in offspring both during childhood and adolescence (parent-child model, father-child model) and maternal AUD predicted conduct disorder symptoms during childhood (mother-child model). However, we did not find evidence to support transmission of depression from parents to offspring either during childhood or adolescence, and parent psychopathology did not show statistically significant associations with SA during adolescence. In conclusion, we conducted a rare study of parent-to-child "transmission" of risk for SA that used a prospective research design, included diagnostic interviews with both parents and offspring, and examined the transition from childhood to adolescence, and the first such study in children of parents with AUD. Results provided mixed support for hypothesized parent-child associations.
Thabane Lehana; Odueyungbo Adefowope; Browne Dillon T; Byrne Carolyn; Smart Lindsay A
Abstract Background Research has shown strong links between parenting and child psychopathology. The moderating role of child gender is of particular interest, due to gender differences in socialization history and in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Currently there is little agreement on how gender moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychopathology. This study attempts to address this lack of consensus by drawing upon two theories (self-salience vs. gender stereot...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown strong links between parenting and child psychopathology. The moderating role of child gender is of particular interest, due to gender differences in socialization history and in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Currently there is little agreement on how gender moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychopathology. This study attempts to address this lack of consensus by drawing upon two theories (self-salience vs. gender stereotyped misbehaviour to determine how child gender moderates the role of parenting, if at all. Methods Using generalized estimating equations (GEE associations between three parenting dimensions (hostile-ineffective parenting, parental consistency, and positive interaction were examined in relationship to child externalizing (physical aggression, indirect aggression, and hyperactivity-inattention and internalizing (emotional disorder-anxiety dimensions of psychopathology. A sample 4 and 5 year olds from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY were selected for analysis and followed over 6 years (N = 1214. Two models with main effects (Model 1 and main effects plus interactions (Model 2 were tested. Results No child gender-by-parenting interactions were observed for child physical aggression and indirect aggression. The association between hostile-ineffective parenting and child hyperactivity was stronger for girls, though this effect did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance (p = .059. The associations between parenting and child emotional disorder did vary as a function of gender, where influences of parental consistency and positive interaction were stronger for boys. Discussion Despite the presence of a few significant interaction effects, hypotheses were not supported for either theory (i.e. self-salience or gender stereotyped misbehaviour. We believe that the inconsistencies in the literature regarding child gender
J. Reef (Joni)
textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem a
Murray, Joseph; Murray, Lynne
Theory and evidence relating parental incarceration, attachment, and psychopathology are reviewed. Parental incarceration is a strong risk factor for long-lasting psychopathology, including antisocial and internalizing outcomes. Parental incarceration might threaten children's attachment security because of parent-child separation, confusing communication about parental absence, restricted contact with incarcerated parents, and unstable caregiving arrangements. Parental incarceration can also cause economic strain, reduced supervision, stigma, home and school moves, and other negative life events for children. Thus, there are multiple possible mechanisms whereby parental incarceration might increase risk for child psychopathology. Maternal incarceration tends to cause more disruption for children than paternal incarceration and may lead to greater risk for insecure attachment and psychopathology. Children's prior attachment relations and other life experiences are likely to be of great importance for understanding children's reactions to parental incarceration. Several hypotheses are presented about how prior insecure attachment and social adversity might interact with parental incarceration and contribute to psychopathology. Carefully designed longitudinal studies, randomized controlled trials, and cross-national comparative research are required to test these hypotheses.
Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.
Hoffman, Ellen J.; State, Matthew W.
Objective: This review considers the impact of chromosomal studies on the understanding of childhood neuropsychiatric syndromes, highlighting key discoveries, advances in technology, and new challenges faced by clinicians trying to interpret recent findings. Method: We review the literature on the genetics of child psychiatric disorders, including…
One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.
Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel
This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…
Studies using narratives with children and parents offer ways to study affective meaning-making processes that are central in many theories of developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews theory regarding affective meaning making, and argues that narratives are particularly suited to examine such processes. The review of narrative studies and methods is organized into three sections according to the focus on child, parent, and parent-child narratives. Within each focus three levels of analysis are considered: (a) narrative organization and coherence, (b) narrative content, and (c) the behavior/interactions of the narrator(s). The implications of this research for developmental psychopathology and clinical work are discussed with an emphasis on parent-child jointly constructed narratives as the meeting point of individual child and parent narratives.
Burnett Heyes, S; Lau, J Y F; Holmes, E A
Mental imagery-based interventions are receiving increasing interest for the treatment of psychological disorders in adults. This is based on evidence that mental imagery potently influences the experience of emotion in non-clinical samples, and that a number of psychological disorders are marked by syndrome-specific, distressing abnormalities in mental imagery. During childhood and adolescence, neurocognitive development impacting mental imagery processes may moderate its relationship with clinically-relevant emotional symptoms at a number of potential loci. Crucially, these changes could impact vulnerability to distressing mental imagery and the efficacy of mental imagery-based clinical interventions. This review synthesises evidence pertaining to developmental changes in the role and content of mental imagery, and in the cognitive sub-processes required to generate and sustain mental images. Subsequently, we discuss implications for understanding the developmental relationship between mental imagery, emotion and psychopathology. Translational cognitive neuroscience research investigating the content, emotional impact and neurocognitive substrates of mental imagery across development may reveal insights into trajectories of vulnerability to symptoms of a number of psychological disorders. If proper consideration is given to developmental factors, techniques based on mental imagery may be valuable as part of a treatment armoury for child and adolescent clinical populations and those at risk of emotional disorders.
Jennissen, Simone; Holl, Julia; Mai, Hannah; Wolff, Sebastian; Barnow, Sven
The present study investigated the mediating effects of emotion dysregulation on the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology. An adult sample (N=701) from diverse backgrounds of psychopathology completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the negative affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a cross-sectional online survey. Correlational analyses showed that all types of child maltreatment were uniformly associated with emotion dysregulation, and dimensions of emotion dysregulation were strongly related to psychopathology. Limited access to strategies for emotion regulation emerged as the most powerful predictor. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation partially mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology, even after controlling for shared variance with negative affect. These findings emphasize the importance of emotion dysregulation as a possible mediating mechanism in the association between child maltreatment and later psychopathology. Additionally, interventions targeting specific emotion regulation strategies may be effective to reduce psychopathology in victims of child maltreatment.
Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Ende, J. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J.; Verhulst, F.C.
Objective: To devise and test a model describing the process of help-seeking for child psychopathology in professional and informal service settings. Method: Using structural equation modeling, associations between several help-seeking stages, and the influence of child, family, and context characte
Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.
Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…
Kohrt, Holbrook E.; Kohrt, Brandon A.; Waldman, Irwin; Saltzman, Kasey; Carrion, Victor G.
The present study examined significant risk factors, including child maltreatment, for child psychopathology in a cross-cultural setting. Ninety-nine Mongolian boys, ages 3-10 years, were assessed. Primary caregivers (PCG) completed structured interviews including the Emory Combined Rating Scale (ECRS) and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire…
Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.
Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…
Woznica, J G; Shapiro, J R
Assessed the concept of the "expendable child" syndrome proposed by Sabbath (1969) as a contributing factor in adolescent suicide attempts. It was hypothesized that suicidal adolescents would be rated higher on a measure of "expendability" than would a psychiatric control group of adolescents with no known history of suicide attempts or ideation. Forty adolescents, ages 13-24, who had been seen in psychotherapy at a teen-age health clinic, were rated by their psychotherapists on suicidality and a 12-item scale of expendability (a sense of being unwanted and/or a burden on the family). As predicted, suicidal adolescents received significantly higher ratings on the expendability measure than nonsuicidal adolescents. Results support the concept that feeling expendable is a characteristic of suicidal adolescents. Implications for prevention and treatment of adolescent suicidality are discussed.
Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M
Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually
Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante
The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth.
Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh
We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…
Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A
A total psychiatric examination of the persons, after attempted suicides was performed during a month of stay in the department of resuscitation of the N.V. Sklifosovsky Institute for the Emergency Medical care. In all the patients some mental pathology was found that took place in the moment of suicide and long before it. In most of the cases the disorders of either affective (48.7%) or schizophrenic (38.5%) spectrum were diagnosed. Psychogenic reactions to stress and personality disorders were in only 10.2% of the patients. In most of the patients (74.7%) a mental disease wasn't diagnosed before in spite of its long duration (11.5 years on the average).
Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children.
... Talk to a School Age Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to help inform and ... six to twelve year old child after a suicide attempt in the family. It is not intended to replace the advice ...
... to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to inform and guide ... two to five year old child after a suicide attempt in the family. It is not intended to replace the advice ...
Full Text Available Jun Won Kim,1,2 KounSeok Lee,3 Young Sik Lee,4 Doug Hyun Han,4 Kyung Joon Min,4 Sung Hwan Song,5 Ga Na Park,6 Ju Young Lee,1 Jae Ock Kim5 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Neuropsychiatry, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Gongju National Hospital, Gongju, South Korea; 6Department of Special Education, Graduate School, Dankook University, Jukjeon, South Korea Purpose: Low socioeconomic status is an important risk factor for child psychiatric problems. Low socioeconomic status is also associated with psychiatric problems later in life. We investigated the effects of group bullying on clinical characteristics and psychopathology in elementary school students using child-welfare facilities.Methods: Three hundred and fifty-eight elementary school students using child-welfare facilities were recruited. The School Bullying Self Rating Questionnaire was used to assess group bullying. To evaluate related psychopathology, the Children’s Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire, the Children’s Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, Young’s Internet Addiction Scale, and Conners–Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale were applied. Samples were classified according to school grade (lower or upper, and each group’s characteristics were compared as they related to bullying victims versus non-victims.Results: The prevalence rate of group bullying was 22% in the lower-grade group and 12% in the higher-grade group. Bullying victims in lower grades reported high somatization, depressive symptoms, Internet addiction, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder tendencies, whereas
Klasen, Fionna; Reissmann, Sina; Voss, Catharina; Okello, James
Child soldiers often experience complex trauma as victims and perpetrators, and feelings of guilt may affect their psychological health. The relationship between the children's traumatic experiences as victims or perpetrators, their perception of themselves as victim or perpetrator, guilt and psychopathology were investigated: of the 330 former child soldiers interviewed, 50.8 % perceived themselves as victims and 19.1 % as perpetrators. On psychopathology measures, scores within the clinical range were 33 % for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 36.4 % for major depressive disorder (MDD), and 26.1 % for externalizing problems. Low socio-economic status, traumatic experience as perpetrator, and guilt were significant predictors of PTSD. Significant predictors of MDD were low socio-economic status, traumatic experiences as victim, and guilt. A greater number of traumatic experiences as perpetrator and guilt were associated with externalizing problems. The current paper underscores the significance of guilt following traumatic experiences and has implications for the development of clinical interventions for war-affected children.
Gallardo-Pujol, David; Pereda, Noemí
Personality, environmental adversity and psychopathology are related, and different models have been proposed to explain their interaction. The theory of person-environment transactions may elucidate the role of personality in these interactions beyond traditional conceptualizations. To our knowledge, hardly any studies have explored the relationships between the Five Factor Model, child sexual victimization and general psychopathology. We hypothesized (1) that neuroticism and conscientiousness will moderate the effect of sexual victimization on psychopathology and (2) that neuroticism will mediate the relationship between sexual victimization and psychopathology. Our findings partially support these hypotheses. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and sexual victimization have a direct effect on psychopathology, whereas extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness do not. With regard to interactive effects, conscientiousness, but not neuroticism, moderates the effect of sexual victimization on psychopathology, and neuroticism does mediate the aforementioned effect. No other interactions were found with regard to extraversion, agreeableness or openness to experience. To our knowledge, the present study represents the first global test of person-environment transactions with regard to psychopathology and sexual victimization within the framework of the Five Factor Model.
Saile, Regina; Ertl, Verena; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia
In postconflict settings risk factors at multiple levels of the social ecology, including community, family, and relationship factors, potentially affect children's mental health. In addition, intergenerational risk factors such as guardians' history of childhood family violence, war exposure, and psychopathology may contribute to children's psychopathological symptoms. In this study, we aimed to identify risk constellations that predict child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, depression, and posttraumatic stress symptoms in the postconflict setting of northern Uganda. In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, 513 second-grade students and their female guardians were interviewed using standardized clinical questionnaires. A higher exposure to traumatic events, more witnessed or experienced violence within the family, and lower child-reported care from female guardians independently predicted psychopathological symptoms in children. While controlling for intergenerational risk factors in female guardians, serial mediation modeling revealed that the effect of trauma exposure on children's psychopathological symptoms was partially mediated by higher exposure to family violence and lower child-perceived care from female guardians. The mediation appeared to be stronger for children's depression symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems than for posttraumatic stress symptoms. The current findings support the need for targeted interventions at the individual and family system levels that are matched to children's psychopathological symptoms.
De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; De Clercq, Barbara J.; De Fruyt, Filip; Tremmery, Sabine; Deboutte, Dirk
Research on adulthood posits personality and self-esteem as important predictors of psychopathology. In childhood, however, the study of these relationships is complicated by the lack of consensus on how to combine data from multiple informants of child behavior. This study evaluates the relationships among personality symptoms, self-esteem and…
Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.
The present study investigated underlying processes of the effect of maltreatment on psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in a group of 111 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated 7-10 year-old children (60% boys). We tested the moderating and/or mediating roles of emotion regulation and the mother-child relationship quality…
Evans, Spencer C; Burke, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Michael C; Fite, Paula J; Lochman, John E; de la Peña, Francisco R; Reed, Geoffrey M
In preparation for the World Health Organization's development of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) chapter on Mental and Behavioral Disorders, this article reviews the literature pertaining to severe irritability in child and adolescent psychopathology. First, research on severe mood dysregulation suggests that youth with irritability and temper outbursts, among other features of hyperactivity and arousal, demonstrate cross-sectional correlates and developmental outcomes that distinguish them from youth with bipolar disorder. Second, other evidence points to an irritable dimension of Oppositional Defiant Disorder symptomatology, which is uniquely associated with concurrent and subsequent internalizing problems. In contrast to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' (5th ed.) Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, our review of the literature supports a different solution: a subtype, Oppositional Defiant Disorder with chronic irritability/anger (proposal included in Appendix). This solution is more consistent with the available evidence and is a better fit with global public health considerations such as harm/benefit potential, clinical utility, and cross-cultural applicability. Implications for assessment, treatment, and research are discussed.
R.A.M. Cents (Rolieke)
markdownabstract__Background and aim:__ Psychopathology often recurs in the same families over the course of multiple generations. Only a clear understanding of the processes underlying the transmission of psychopathology will help the formulation of effective prevention and intervention programs fo
Full Text Available Current civil wars are characterized by the increasing involvement of civilian populations and the systematic employment of child soldiers. An example of such wars was the conflict in Northern Uganda, where the war-affected population is still challenged by the reintegration of formerly abducted children and youths. A cross-sectional, population-based survey, using a multistage cluster sampling approach of 1,113 Northern Ugandans aged between 12 and 25 in camps for internally displaced persons and locally validated instruments was conducted to assess symptoms and diagnoses of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and probable Depression in war-affected, as well as formerly abducted individuals. Further objectives were to determine predictors of psychopathology and to relate indicators of maladjustment (i.e., impairments in daily and community functioning, somatic complaints, suicidality, aggressiveness and discrimination to abduction, level of exposure to violence and psychopathology. 43% of the sample reported abduction by the rebel army. Exposure to violence among this group was higher than for non-abducted youths (t = 28.05; p<.001. PTSD point prevalence rates were 25% among former child soldiers and 7% among the comparison group. High suicidal ideation was present in 16% and 6% respectively. A higher amount of experienced and witnessed event-types (β = . 32. p<.001, loss of first-degree relatives (β = .13. p<.001 and the number of event-types involving forced perpetration (β = .23. p<.001 were identified as risk factors of PTSD symptoms in former child soldiers. The associations between abductee-status and indicators of maladjustment were fully mediated by level of trauma exposure and psychopathology. Results show that child soldiering and its psychological sequelae affect a substantial proportion of children and youths. After release or flight, their readjustment depends at least partly on their level of mental
Interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and child antisocial behavior: examining the role of maternal versus paternal influences using a novel genetically sensitive research design.
Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit K; Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita
Past research has linked interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and externalizing behavior problems in childhood. However, few studies have examined these relationships while simultaneously allowing the contribution of common genetic factors underlying associations between family- and parent-level variables on child psychopathology to be controlled. Using the attributes of a genetically sensitive in vitro fertilization research design, the present study examined associations among interparental conflict, parents' antisocial behavior problems, parents' anxiety symptoms, and hostile parenting on children's antisocial behavior problems among genetically related and genetically unrelated mother-child and father-child groupings. Path analyses revealed that for genetically related mothers, interparental conflict and maternal antisocial behavior indirectly influenced child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For genetically unrelated mothers, effects were apparent only for maternal antisocial behavior on child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For both genetically related and genetically unrelated fathers and children, interparental conflict and paternal antisocial behavior influenced child antisocial behavior through father-to-child hostility. Effects of parental anxiety symptoms on child antisocial behavior were apparent only for genetically related mothers and children. Results are discussed with respect to the relative role of passive genotype-environment correlation as a possible confounding factor underlying family process influences on childhood psychopathology.
Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael
Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)
Martel, Michelle M; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Maurício S; Gadelha, Ary; do Rosário, Maria C; Mari, Jair J; Manfro, Gisele G; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Paus, Tomás; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Rohde, Luis A; Salum, Giovanni A
High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF). A community sample of 8,012 families from Brazil with children ages 6-12 years completed structured interviews about the child and parental psychiatric syndromes, and a subsample of 2,395 children completed tasks assessing EF (i.e., working memory, inhibitory control, and time processing). Confirmatory factor analyses tested a series of structural models of psychopathology in both parents and children. The model with a general psychopathology factor ("P factor") with 3 specific factors (fear, distress, and externalizing) exhibited the best fit. The general P factor accounted for most of the variance in all models, with little residual variance explained by each of the 3 specific factors. In addition, associations between child and parental factors were mainly significant for the P factors and nonsignificant for the specific factors from the respective models. Likewise, the child P factor-but not the specific factors-was significantly associated with global child EF. Overall, our results provide support for a latent overarching P factor characterizing child psychopathology, supported by familial associations and child EF. (PsycINFO Database Record
Using a sample of 156 Chinese children aged 2-3 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socio-economic status, specifically family income and parental education, on the children's internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and whether these effects were mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. Results indicated that family income, maternal education and paternal education all negatively predicted externalizing symptoms. Income also negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among boys but not girls. Maternal education negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among girls but not boys. The effects of income on psychopathology were fully mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. In contrast, the effects of education were not mediated or only partially mediated by conflict. Findings are discussed in the framework of the family stress model.
Braden, Abby; Rhee, Kyung; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Boutelle, Kerri
Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8 to 12 years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mothers' general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices.
Burstein, Marcy; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun
The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents…
Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante
The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…
Colder, Craig R; O'Connor, Roisin M
The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) and Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) are widely studied components of Gray's sensitivity to reinforcement model. There is growing interest in integrating the BAS and BIS into models of risk for psychopathology, however, few measures assess BAS and BIS functioning in children. We adapted a questionnaire measure and reaction time task from adult studies to assess the BAS and BIS in a sample of 9-12 year olds (N = 63; 42% female). A continuous performance task was also administered to assess physiological correlates of the BAS and BIS. Factor analysis supported 3 subdimensions of the BAS (Drive, Reward Responsivity, and Impulsivity/Fun seeking), and one dimension of the BIS (sensitivity to punishment). Results supported the utility of the questionnaire measures and reaction time task as assessments of BAS and BIS functioning. Moreover, these measures were associated with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior as expected. High levels of impulsivity/fun seeking, but not drive or reward responsivity, were associated with high levels of externalizing problems, whereas high levels of sensitivity to punishment were associated with high levels of internalizing behavior problems. The relation between physiological indices and caregiver reports of the BAS, BIS, and problem behavior were complex and not consistent with expectation.
Gallagher, Bernard; Bradford, Michael; Pease, Ken
Objective: To establish the prevalence, typology and nature of attempted or completed incidents of stranger-perpetrated sexual abuse or abduction of children "away from home". Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 2,420 children (83% response rate) aged 9-16 years in 26 elementary and high schools in North-West England. Results: Of these…
Gallagher, Bernard; Bradford, Michael; Pease, Ken
Objective: To establish the prevalence, typology and nature of attempted or completed incidents of stranger-perpetrated sexual abuse or abduction of children "away from home". Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 2,420 children (83% response rate) aged 9-16 years in 26 elementary and high schools in North-West England. Results: Of…
Comer, Jonathan S.; Fan, Bin; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Wu, Ping; Musa, George J.; Mandell, Donald J.; Albano, Anne Marie; Hoven, Christina W.
In the aftermath of disasters, understanding relationships between disaster-related life disruption and children's functioning is key to informing future postdisaster intervention efforts. The present study examined attack-related life disruptions and psychopathology in a representative sample (N = 8,236) of New York City public schoolchildren…
Full Text Available Introduction. Filicide is the killing of a son or daughter by a parent. The paper examines interaction between stress and maternal psychopathology that led to the killing. Case Outline. After prolonged conflict with her ex-husband and father of her only child, the respondent committed filicide. Two years before committing filicide, after she had divorced the father of the child, the respondent attempted suicide and had to be hospitalized. On that occasion, she was diagnosed with depressive disorder, which was not treated after hospitalization. Having killed her daughter by cutting her throat, she tried to commit suicide in the same manner, by slitting her throat. During further observation, the respondent was found to suffer from acute psychotic disorder, depressive disorder and histrionic personality disorder. These disorders in interaction with stress do not provide us with an explanation for an unusual and psychopathological motivation analysis of killing the child. Conclusion. Filicide is a violent act, most frequently multifactorial in its nature. Histrionic personality disorder in mother cannot explain the filicide act. Only interactive and dynamic evaluation of this psychiatric disorder in its longitudinal, development aspects and its potentiality to enable the expression of some other psychiatric disorders, especially dissociative states, as well as the importance of prolonged and acute stress and its subjective importance for the individual can shed some more light on the mental state of the mother at the time of filicide.
Garfield, Sol L., Ed.
Presents six developmentally oriented articles on childhood psychopathology. Reviews research dealing with autism, social isolation, interpersonal understanding, sociomoral reasoning, cognitive controls, and aggression and includes an overview of progress and problems in the cognitive approach to clinical child psychology. (JAC)
Rescorla, Leslie; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Begovac, Ivan; Chahed, Myriam; Drugli, May Britt; Emerich, Deisy Ribas; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Haider, Mariam; Hansson, Kjell; Hewitt, Nohelia; Jaimes, Stefanny; Larsson, Bo; Maggiolini, Alfio; Markovic, Jasminka; Mitrovic, Dragan; Moreira, Paulo; Oliveira, Joao Tiago; Olsson, Martin; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Petot, Djaouida; Pisa, Cecilia; Pomalima, Rolando; da Rocha; Marina Monzani; Rudan, Vlasta; Sekulic, Slobodan; Shahini, Mimoza; de Mattos Silvares, Edwiges Ferreira; Szirovicza, Lajos; Valverde, Jose; Vera, Luis Anderssen; Villa, Maria Clara; Viola, Laura; Woo, Bernadine S. C.; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing
Objective: To build on Achenbach, Rescorla, and Ivanova (2012) by (a) reporting new international findings for parent, teacher, and self-ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report, and Teacher's Report Form; (b) testing the fit of syndrome models to new data from 17 societies, including previously underrepresented regions; (c)…
The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects.
Mbagaya, Catherine; Oburu, Paul; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
This study compared the prevalence of self-reported childhood physical abuse and neglect and the associated psychopathological sequelae among Kenyan, Zambian, and Dutch university students. In addition, we sought to find out the differentiated role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in mediating the associations between childhood maltreatment experiences and psychopathology symptoms. The sample consisted of 862 university students from Kenya (n = 375), Zambia (n = 182), and The Netherlands (n = 305) who completed the Personal and Relationships Profile (PRP). Results showed that physical abuse was highly prevalent in Kenya (59%) and Zambia (40%), and that neglect was even more prevalent than physical abuse in Zambia and The Netherlands at 59%, 54%, and 42% for the Kenyan, Zambian, and Dutch samples respectively. Neglect was associated with psychopathological symptoms in all three samples, whereas physical abuse was associated with psychopathological sequelae in the Kenyan and Zambian samples only. PTSS mediated the association between neglect and psychopathology symptoms in the Dutch sample and between physical abuse and psychopathology symptoms in the Dutch and Kenyan samples. We conclude that physical abuse and neglect are associated with psychopathology symptoms independently of country and cultural context. However, the pathways through which physical abuse and neglect may lead to psychopathological sequelae may be dependent on perceptions of specific parental behavior in different sociocultural contexts.
Skovgaard, A M; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E;
Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life.......Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life....
Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior
Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea
This research is an attempt to gain a comprehensive insight into alexithymia in schizophrenia. Previous studies offered clinically-descriptive and phenomenologically oriented suggestions regarding alexithymia putative contribution in shaping schizophrenic psychopathology. However, the factorial structure of the scales used to assess alexithymia had never been applied to a schizophrenic sample as a preliminary step to interpret results, thus assuming the purported dimensions of the alexithymia construct (i.e. difficulties identifying feelings, difficulties describing feelings, and externally oriented thinking) to be transnosographically stable. In order to explore the psychopathologic meaning and interrelations with other schizophrenic symptoms, we evaluated 76 chronic schizophrenic outpatients using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, standardized measures of positive, negative, disorganized and depressive symptoms, social and physical anhedonia scales, and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms. The principal component analysis ofTAS-20 items revealed a 4-factor structure with multiple correlations with psychotic, disorganized, depressive, anhedonic dimensions and basic symptoms. The data suggest that alexithymia in schizophrenia is more heterogeneous than was previously recognized, and has several components, some of which are more state-related, and others of which are more like trait features. Those components are specifically correlated with both overt and subjective dimensions of schizophrenic psychopathology.
Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis; Zahavi, Dan
Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the "psychiatric object" (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research....... In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary "operationalist" epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers' views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature...... in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind....
Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia
Background A growing body of research attempts to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the association between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD). In a preceding study, we found considerable support for a specific priming effect in subjects with AD and emotional abuse experiences receiving alcohol rehabilitation treatment. We concluded that maltreatment related cues can automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcoho...
Pallanti, S; Quercioli, L
The origins of the word "shame" recall the concept of the infraction of integrity both as scandal and as individualization. The human experience of shame stretches along a continuum from modesty to disabling interpersonal terror. Unlike other basic affects, its emergence is a fundamental moment in the process of self-awareness and self-object differentiation. Neglected by psychiatry because it was regarded as a moral concept, today it is possible to hypothesize that it has a biologic basis that one can attempt to describe in terms of corticothalamic pathways. In this respect, like other affects, it could be considered as a cognitive shortcut to activate specific and evolutionally useful behavioral patterns, such as concealment or a request for affiliation. It is fairly ubiquitous in psychopathology, but is clinically much more structured in its abnormal expressions in anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and even in bipolar mood disorder. In schizophrenia it has been described as being one stage in the construction of delusion. Its presence is connected to interpersonal relationship (altruism) though it seems absent in autism. The assessment of shame experiences in psychiatric patients could be useful for both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies, and could provide a categorization of a new psychopathology based on abnormal affects.
Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Anna; Goodman, Robert
Background: The use of similar standardised measures of psychopathology for population surveys permits cross-cultural comparisons. However, interpretation of findings can be challenging because rating thresholds may differ across cultures. By combining questionnaire and interview data, we explore whether lower questionnaire scores in Norway as…
Fagel, Selene Sofia Alexandra Agnes
In conclusion, the results of the present studies show how schizotypal symptoms may develop following child psychiatric psychopathology and how these symptoms unfavorably influence a persons’ quality of life. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the complex dynamics of psychopathology and t
Serin, Ralph C.; And Others
Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…
Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.
OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed
Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert
Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…
Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter's proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry.
Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert
Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own developmental symptom histories and other predictors of psychopathology. This study used latent difference score structural equation modeling to test ...
Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.
Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007
Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K Paige; Teachman, Bethany A
Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression.
Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E.
2000 was investigated by data from National Danish registers and data collected prospectively from birth in a general child health surveillance programme. Mental health outcome at 11/2 years was assessed by clinical and standardised measures including the Child Behavior Check List 11/2-5 (CBCL 11....../2-5), Infant Toddler Symptom Check List (ITSCL), Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II), Mannheim Eltern Interview (MEI), Parent Child Early Relational Assessment (PC ERA) and Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS), and disordered children...
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone. To explain the contradictory findings, developmental models of disability and psychopathology are applied. Within a multi-factorial developmental psychopathological perspective and a dialectical model of disability (Vygotsky, 1993), it is suggested that disability can be understood as an incongruence between the individual development of the child and demands and expectations in the specific relations and institutions in which the child participates. This incongruence creates and strengthens negative factors for the child with disability and results in a higher risk of psychopathology.
Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I
This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers' psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices.
Mbagaya, Catherine Vuhya
Child maltreatment is a global phenomenon affecting a significant number of the world’s children. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported childhood maltreatment among university students in Kenya, Zambia, and The Netherlands. We also sought to compare the psychopatho
Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.
Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…
Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)
textabstractIn the past few decades, considerable advances have been made in understanding childhood psychopathology. This progress is the result of four primary developments in the field. First, both in the research and in the clinical framework, psychopathology has been conceptualized across a spectrum of severity of symptoms and impairment. Second, psychopathology has been studied in the context of young children’s real life parallel to referral settings. Third, studying child psychopathol...
This study explored the relationships between maternal modelling of eating behaviours with reported symptoms of maternal eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Mothers (N = 264) with a child aged 1.5 to 8 years completed three self-report measures designed to assess modelling of eating behaviours, eating psychopathology and levels of anxiety and depression. The study found that higher levels of maternal eating psychopathology were positively associated with eating behaviours that wer...
Fernandez, L; Sztulman, H
Research concerning the psychopathological aspects of dependence implicates a wide range of behaviors reassembled under the term of "dependence behaviors": sexual, medical, alcoholic and tobacco dependencies. Speech samples of dependent subjects show that encountering the object of dependence (product, element, ...) introduces a particular form of organized psychological processes. According to several authors, psychopathological dependence can be attributed to: early personality development; failures in the separation-individuation processes; disorders in mother-infant interactions; and a deficit in the psychological functioning of the subjects. For psychopathology, the dependence cannot be reduced to physiological dependence on the product but is understood rather in terms of a complex process indicative of either specific or non-specific suffering which is addressed by abused substance that represents a solution--the effects of which constitute the addictive process. Understanding this process requires an analysis of the psychopathological dependence from a triple meta-psychological viewpoint (topographical, dynamic, economic). Such analysis allows for a psychoanalytical theoretical interpretation of dependence based on three models: pleasure, narcissism and stress reduction. At the same time, the analysis extends the examination of psychopathological dependence towards issues concerning the body. Such body issues are critically placed between the biological and the psychological processes.
Fernandez, Eduard Bayarri; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Domenech, Josep Maria
There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and…
Dodd, Helen F.; Porter, Melanie A.
This research aimed to comprehensively explore psychopathology in Williams syndrome (WS) across the life span and evaluate the relationship between psychopathology and age category (child or adult), gender, and cognitive ability. The parents of 50 participants with WS, ages 6-50 years, were interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders…
Muris, Peter; van der Heiden, Simone; Rassin, Eric
There is clear evidence in the adult literature that disgust sensitivity is implicated in various psychopathological syndromes. The current study examined the link between disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in youths. In a sample of non-clinical children aged 9-13 years, disgust sensitivity was assessed by two self-report questionnaires (i.e., the Disgust Scale and the Disgust Sensitivity Questionnaire) and a behavioural test. Furthermore, children completed scales for measuring the personality trait of neuroticism and various types of psychopathological symptoms. Results showed that disgust measures had sufficient to good convergent validity. Further, significant positive correlations were found between disgust sensitivity and symptoms of specific phobias (i.e., spider phobia, blood-injection phobia, small-animal phobia), social phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and eating problems, and these links were not attenuated when controlling for neuroticism. The possible role of disgust sensitivity in the aetiology of child psychopathology is discussed.
Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P
Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps Adolescent inpatients engaged in NSSI showed greater deficits in emotional face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination of the role of context-dependent emotional processing are needed moving forward.
For a lot of people, because of the joy and happiness of a new life, pregnancy means being on cloud nine. The general population may not be aware that this does not apply to every woman. Psychopathology during and after pregnancy should not be underrated. For as much as 10-20% of all pregnant women,
Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.
Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…
This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…
The term "dyspraxia" was coined by Julian de Ajuriaguerra and Mira Stambak in 1964. This clinical term was treated very differently according to which explanatory model was adopted. Nowadays, it is used to refer to developmental coordination disorder in view of its neuro-developmental origin. In any case, the actual clinical situations vary and are often complex. In our opinion, it is first necessary to examine the differential diagnosis: apraxia in children caused by lesions, dysgraphia, simply delayed motor development, non-verbal learning disability syndrome, hemispheric specialisation deficits, pervasive developmental disorders (autisms, Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and other pervasive developmental disorders), mixed specific developmental disorders, multiple developmental disorder, and children with high potential. Next we focus on co-morbidity. Firstly, we look at psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia: autism and pervasive developmental disorders, dyscalculia/math disability, dyslexia/reading difficulties, dysphasia accompanied by verbal dyspraxia, intelligence deficiency, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Secondly, we examine psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia. Children with developmental coordination disorder are less inclined to participate in collective games. As a result, there is a greater risk of them becoming lonely and isolated. They have higher child behaviour checklist (CBCL) scores in the somatic problems scale as well as for anxiety, depression and social withdrawal. They have low self-perception in sports as well as at school, which is related to their physical appearance and their self-esteem, attention deficit and externalized behaviour. These children are often at risk of academic failure and they suffer from oppositional defiant disorder and functional disorders. And finally, we believe that it is important to touch on the impact of these disorders on the family.
Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael
This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…
Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.; Perkins, Susan M.
Few studies have utilized both categorical and dimensional measures of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. We evaluated 173 children (88 males, 85 females; mean age 11.7y [SD 1.8]; range 9-14y) who had epilepsy (generalized 36%, partial 61%) for at least 6 months. The primary caregiver completed a dimensional measure, the Child Behavior…
Hankir, Ahmed; Zaman, Rashid
Not all poets have experienced psychopathology. Conversely, not all those who have experienced psychopathology become poets. The notion, nonetheless, of there being an association between 'craziness' and creativity, contentious though it may be, remains a seductive one. Poetry is both beneficial for the person who is composing or reciting it as well as the person who may be reading or listening to it. Poetry Therapy, which falls under the remit of Art Therapy, is increasingly being recognised as an effective form of adjunctive therapy for the treatment of mental health problems. The main aims of this paper are to explore (and to attempt to elucidate) if there is indeed a relationship between the artistic temperament and mental illness and to comment on the rise and recognition of Art Therapy.
Müller, Jörg M; Furniss, Tilman
The often-reported low informant agreement about child psychopathology between multiple informants has lead to various suggestions about how to address discrepant ratings. Among the factors that may lower agreement that have been discussed is informant credibility, reliability, or psychopathology, which is of interest in this paper. We tested three different models, namely, the accuracy, the distortion, and an integrated so-called combined model, that conceptualize parental ratings to assess child psychopathology. The data comprise ratings of child psychopathology from multiple informants (mother, therapist and kindergarten teacher) and ratings of maternal psychopathology. The children were patients in a preschool psychiatry unit (N=247). The results from structural equation modeling show that maternal ratings of child psychopathology were biased by maternal psychopathology (distortion model). Based on this statistical background, we suggest a method to adjust biased maternal ratings. We illustrate the maternal bias by comparing the ratings of mother to expert ratings (combined kindergarten teacher and therapist ratings) and show that the correction equation increases the agreement between maternal and expert ratings. We conclude that this approach may help to reduce misclassification of preschool children as 'clinical' on the basis of biased maternal ratings.
Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A
The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.
Heleniak, Charlotte; Jenness, Jessica L; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A
Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology.
The Mad Genius is a recurring stereotype of contemporary cultural expression. However, starting with Lombroso’s investigation of genius and madness in 1888, recent decades have seen an increasing number of empirical studies suggesting that there really is an association between creativity and psychopathology. Still, taken together, the empirical support is unconvincing - largely due to a heavy reliance on biographical data and small cohorts. The primary aim of this thesis is t...
Full Text Available Any psychological paradigm needs a psychopathological system that helps professionals to describe and explain the behavioral expressions that deviate from “normal” (whether this term is used with the semantic property of statistical or ideal adaptations. In this work, I seek to present the system that I have been developing since 1998 among the psychologists at the Instituto Vegotsky de Lisboa (Vygotsky Institute of Lisbon, Portugal, to understand psychopathology with regard to the vygotskian approach. It was conceived and designed according to the work of Rita Mendes Leal and her contribution to socioemotional development theory, AR Luria’s systemic and dynamic theory of the human brain, the theory of Activity (dyatel’nost of AN Leont’ev, and the psychopathological German school of E Kraepelin, presented and disseminated in Portugal in the early twentieth century by Professor Sobral Cid. It is intended to be a proposal to colleagues who are interested in postnonclassical psychology and a request for arguments.
Jorge Caraveo Anduaga
Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders affect up to one third of patients with non-psychiatric diseases.1-5 Nevertheless, despite the high prevalence of psychopathology in general medical patients, only between 30-50% of all cases are detected.2,6-8 Some have suggested that the difficulty in the detection and diagnosis of mental disorders among patients who seek medical attention for other reasons, lies in the lack of screening questions that might alert the physician to the possibility of a psychiatric co-morbidity.9 Such questions would identify medical patients at high risk of psychiatric problems. Previous work on clinical predictors of psychopathology have identified the following: specific physical symptoms10-11; patient report of severity of illness11; recent stress12,13; low self-perception of health status13; and age less than 50.14 Two specific studies on the detection of psychopathology in the general medical population are worth highlighting. The first, by Jackson and his research team13 updating a 2001 study evaluating a prediction model with four parameters (recent stress, severity of physical symptoms, five or more specific symptoms, self-assessment of physical condition. They found that those patients who report recent stress, have five or more physical symptoms or a low self-perception of their health state are at a higher risk of having a psychiatric disorder. The second study, by Lowe et al. published in 2003,9 examines a series of factors that could serve as indicators of psychopathology in ambulatory medical (i.e. non-psychiatric patients. After evaluating several different models they found that the combination of four of factors (taken as a group had a high sensitivity (86%, specificity (100%, positive predictive value (100%, and negative predictive value (91%. This suggests that a physician could use the combination of these four indicators to evaluate for the presence of co morbid mental disorders. These factors are: self
After briefly reviewing the scope and limitations of descriptive and clinical psychopathology, this paper focuses on the method and intention of structural psychopathology. Structural psychopathology goes beyond the description of isolated symptoms and the use of some of those symptoms to establish a diagnosis. It aims to understand the meaning of a given world of experiences and actions grasping the underlying characteristic modification that keeps the symptoms meaningfully interconnected. Building on and expanding some basic phenomenological and hermeneutical principles, and applying them to the study of abnormal human subjectivity, this paper suggests the methodological guidelines for a structurally informed psychopathological interview.
This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.
Francesca Romana Montecchi
Full Text Available In Western societies many immigrants live in difficult social and working conditions. Together with other factors, this state of affairs represents a risk for the well being of their children. This article will consider the principle risk factors for child psychopathology and/or distress, with a distinction between temporary and permanent factors and with a peculiar attention to the interplay between risk and protective factors. Risk factors can be ordered in cultural, social, familiar/parental and individual factors. Some of these are general risk factors, applying to child and adolescent psychopathology and distress independently from the status of immigrants’ offspring (among them there are some risk factors related to poor social conditions, independently from being an immigrant or a low-social-class Western citizen. Other factors are specific of migration, some of them being related to: a different ways of immigrated families to situate themselves within the host society (assimilation, separation, integration, marginality; b cultural/familiar attitudes in child’s nurture and education; c the family role of women as well as factors specific of the pregnancy period in immigrants; d the ability of the school system to enhance and support children’s abilities to integrate within the new society; e the political/bureaucratic facilitation/impediment to the regularization of VISA, with the consequent effect on the sense of identity/rejection within/from the host society.In conclusion, the programs for monitoring immigrants’ living and health conditions should also include: the assessment of parental skills, the dynamic indicators of risk and protection indexes, the assessment of living conditions and social school environment, with a careful attention to those early signs of discomfort that might precede possible later onset of psychopathology and/or social distress.
Daligand, Liliane; Gonin, Daniel
Crime does not necessarily involve the existence of a psychopathologic disorder. However, some psychiatric disorders as, for example, delirious psychosis, paranoia, melancholy or obsessional neurosis, might predispose to crime. Violence can lead the victim, by the way of stress or trauma, to develop some psychic trouble as neurosis or traumatic psychosis. Children in particular, while constructing, are very vulnerable victims, especially when their aggressor is also a member of their family. Therapy for the aggressors, as well as for the victims, is based on the assertion that both the aggressors and the victims are subject to law.
De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.
Discrepancies often exist among different informants' (e.g., parents, children, teachers) ratings of child psychopathology. Informant discrepancies have an impact on the assessment, classification, and treatment of childhood psychopathology. Empirical work has identified informant characteristics that may influence informant discrepancies.…
Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.
Background: A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry.…
Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.
This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…
Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier
The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…
Leonardo Y. Álvarez R
Full Text Available The paradigm of complexity states that reality conveys a chaotic dynamics, ambiguous, blurred, and paradoxical, and that it does not fulfill the values of order, harmony nor perfection. However, such a chaos represents a specific way of organization and order. Human behavior explained by this paradigm vindicates on this way the outstanding role of contradiction and irregularity aside of what is linear and predictable. The purpose of this review has the primary aim to describe some concepts and assumptions that give support to the approach to complexity in behavior, especially concerning the psychopathological behavior of an individual. Some comparisons with concepts associated to complexity in scientific approaches to psychology (contextual and paradigmatical behaviorism and interbehaviorism from its own persepctive are stablished. All these elements are developed underlining the concepts of reciprocal multicausality, complex and hierarchical learning, historical and contextual factors in the comprehension of behavior, and trying to make some extrapolations on the psychopathological behavior. This approach is hence considered appropriate and necessary to understand gnosiological entities and to intervene them in their role of clinical challenges.
Mehmet Fatih Ustundag
Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.
Nelson, Charles A
After summarizing the main points raised in articles by Kaslow et al. and Plotsk, a number of questions that derive from these authors' work are listed. Additional questions are then posed, the answers to which will likely facilitate one's ability to translate animal models of child psychopathology into human terms. After summarizing the various advantages and disadvantages to models using mice, rats, and monkeys, several examples of recent research that have attempted to meld animal models with human studies are described.
Gallucci, N T
The perceptual and cognitive functioning of children with intelligence quotients greater than 135 was examined with the Rorschach Inkblot Test. A criterion measure, the Child Behavior Checklist, was also administered so as to determine whether deviations for Rorschach variables from age-appropriate norms indicated the presence of psychopathology or were evidence of nonentrenched, novel, or creative styles of encoding and processing information. Rorschach variables indicative of intellectual sophistication, nonentrenched thinking or inaccurate reality perception, and cognitive slippage were reliably elevated for this sample versus norms. Results for the Child Behavior Checklist demonstrated that the incidence of psychopathology in the intellectually superior and average samples were comparable. There was a lack of covariance between Rorschach makers of inaccurate reality perception, cognitive slippages, and schizophrenia, and the sum of behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist. Results for the Rorschach and Child Behavior Checklist variables were comparable for children with intelligence quotients greater than 150 versus between 136 and 140. It was concluded that the intellectually superior children did process the Rorschach stimuli in a manner that was nonentrenched and reliably different from norms, but that these differences should not routinely be considered as indications of psychopathology.
Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer
The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.
Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I
The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls, 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multiethnic children. Every dimension of mothers' and fathers' psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children's externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. These findings suggest that most types of mothers' and fathers' self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered.
Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim
Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…
Rybakowski, Janusz; Klonowska, Paulina; Patrzała, Amelia; Jaracz, Jan
In this paper, a concept has been presented stating that the process of creativity may be connected with psychopathological features such as mood disorders, mainly bipolar, and psychosis-like thought abnormalities. Biographic studies point to a more frequent occurrence of affective disorders in creative subjects and members of their families. There is also data concerning the occurrence of schizophrenia in the families of prominent persons. A number of studies have demonstrated a similarity of patients with bipolar affective illness and members of their families to creative persons, as to increased indexes of creativity as well as such temperamental features as cyclothymia, neuroticism and openness. An association has been also found between the dimension of"psychoticism", schizotypal features and the measures of creativity. A reduction of the so called "latent inhibition" mechanism, resulting in perception of seemingly irrelevant external stimuli is connected with a predisposition to both increased creativity and schizophrenia-like disturbances. A neurobiological model of generating ideas and creative drive assumes a dominant role of three brain structures: frontal lobes, temporal lobes and the mesolimbic system. The neurotransmission system mostly connected with elevated mood and psychotic thinking is the dopaminergic system, especially its mesolimbic and cortical pathways. Both neurobiological and pharmacological evidence has been accumulated for an association of these pathways with motivational, emotional and cognitive processes, and indirectly, with the processes of creativity. In recent years, a number of interesting results has also been obtained from molecular-genetic studies about genetic determinants of creativity processes in association with bipolar mood changes and psychotic conditions.
Zervas, Iannis M; Soldatos, Constantin R
In this article, in an attempt to integrate recent findings with existing knowledge, we provide an overview of issues related to nightmares that could be useful as a guide to clinical work. After defining what should be considered as a nightmare, we look into the relationship of nightmares with issues such as normal development and maturation, as well as culture. Issues of stress and personality are then discussed in their relation to situational and chronic nightmares. State and trait factors are further elaborated on as we explore the relationship of nightmares and psychopathology. A brief review of organic and pharmacological causes of nightmares follows before we embark on a discussion of issues that relate nightmares to psychological trauma. Some final remarks on treatment conclude our review.
The Handbook of Forensic Psychopathology and Treatment explores the relationship between psychopathology and criminal behaviour in juveniles and adults. It provides a detailed explanation of the developmental pathway from the process of increasing criminal behaviour and becoming a forensic patient,
Skovgaard, Anne Mette
UNLABELLED: The thesis includes seven published papers and an overview concerning the epidemiological aspects of mental health problems and psychopathology in children aged 0-3 years. The research behind the thesis focuses at psychopathology in the first years of life. The aim has been...... to investigate phenomenology, prevalence, risk factors and predictors, in order to contribute to the knowledge about early developmental psychopathology, and improve the scientific foundation for identification and treatment of mental illness of infants and toddlers, and optimize the foundation for prevention...... of neurodevelopmental psychopathology than has been described hitherto. Risk factors of emotional, behavioural and eating and sleeping disorders were psycho-social adversities in parents, and parent-child relationship disturbances seem to be the key mediator in the risk mechanisms. Risk factors of relationship...
Malhotra, Savita; Varma, V.K.; Verma, S.K.; Malhotra, Anil
SUMMARY Development and standardization of an instrument Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) to assess psychopathology in children is reported. CPMS is standardized on Indian population and is applicable to children of both sexes in the age range of 4-14 years. It measures overall psychopathology in the form of a total scores and also the type of psychopathology in the form of eight factorially derived syndromes which have satisfactory reliability and validity. CPMS is propo...
João Gama Marques
Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in
For a better understanding of what psychiatry is all about, the importance and stronghold of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology in psychiatry has never been overstated. Biological psychiatry has accumulated enough evidences of mental illnesses until now but that does not mean that phenomenology and psychopathology would lose its shine. Rather psychopathology and phenomenology will afoot stronger as it is the philosophy of psychiatry.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. AIM: To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. METHODS: 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS. An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS was optimized using a previously published technique. RESULTS: In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. CONCLUSION: We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.
Psychopathology in patients with DCM is as complex as its clinical forms where the factors are numerous and often intricate. It combines psychophysiological, psychopathological factors, behavioral disorders which can be the cause or the consequence of DCM but also the negative impact on quality of life and the simplest daily activities. DCM affects the quality of life of every patient, regardless of the severity. Women are more affected by the DCM that man older age, male sex, atopy and the existence of a contact sensitization are independent risk factors of severity. Depression may affect up to 10 % of patients, should involve greater attention from dermatologists and general practitioners. Health authorities and all health actors should be aware of interactions between secondary cognitive troubles or inherent to DCM and efforts required in terms of preventive measures. Thus, the presence of psychiatric comorbidity is more common in patients with chronic dermatoses. Today it is considered that the emotional environment, built by the mother - child relationship must be optimal, otherwise the mental stability of body image may be compromised. Diminished self-esteem, affects less well managed and somatic expression of emotional content. Recently, a surprising study showed that most patients with refractory occupational dermatitis were not able to recognize the warning sign of flare or the role of psychological factors in the formation and maintenance of the dermatose. In fact, they rejected their personal responsibility in the occurrence of the new flare. To address this public health problem, health authorities, trainers and caregivers should be aware of the cognitive impact of DCM in these patients and interactions with current means of prevention. The role of obsessive-compulsive washing as part of an anxiety disorder or personality disorder is most likely a contributing or maintaining factor systematically underestimated in the pathogenesis of DCM and in the
Stone, Lisanne L.; van Daal, Carlijn; van der Maten, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Otten, Roy
Background: While child self-reports of psychopathology are increasingly accepted, little standardized instruments are utilized for these practices. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) is an age-appropriate instrument for self-reports of problem behavior by young children. Objective: Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the BPI will be…
Frick, Paul J.
This article discusses the promise and problems associated with integrating research on child temperament and research on childhood psychopathology. Unfortunately, these 2 extensive and influential areas of psychological research with children have largely been conducted independently of each other. This article provides a summary of the…
Collishaw, Stephan; Pickles, Andrew; Messer, Julie; Rutter, Michael; Shearer, Christina; Maughan, Barbara
Objective: Child abuse is an important risk for adult psychiatric morbidity. However, not all maltreated children experience mental health problems as adults. The aims of the present study were to address the extent of resilience to adult psychopathology in a representative community sample, and to explore predictors of a good prognosis. Methods:…
Cole, Pamela M.; Putnam, Frank W.
Proposes model based on developmental psychopathology for conceptualizing effects of child sexual abuse. Argues that incest has negative effects on self and social functioning, by jeopardizing self-definition and integration, self-regulatory processes, and sense of security and trust in relationships. Reviews self and social development…
Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong
This study examined sleep problems and their correlates and comorbid psychopathology in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Participants consisted of 166 ASD children and 111 unaffected siblings aged 4-15 years. Parents completed a self-administered child sleep questionnaire. Of the children with ASDs, 47.0% (78/166) had at least one…
Allely, C. S.; Purves, D.; McConnachie, A.; Marwick, H.; Johnson, P.; Doolin, O.; Puckering, C.; Golding, J.; Gillberg, C.; Wilson, P.
This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant…
Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian
This study examined event memory and suggestibility in 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of child maltreatment. A total of 322 children were interviewed about a play activity with an unfamiliar adult. Comprehensive measures of individual differences in trauma-related psychopathology and cognitive functioning were administered.…
A historical outline is given of the search for an explanation of the still elusive nature of hysteria and hypnosis, their mutual relationship, and that which they bear to psychopathology. Charcot regarded hypnosis as an artificially induced hysterical neurosis, and it was he who first introduced Freud to these two states. Freud was the first to see in hypnosis an experimental instrument for understanding psychopathological mechanisms. His subsequent conceptualization of psychoanalysis derived from these two phenomena at this decisive period. In 1895 Freud attempted to achieve a psychophysiological synthesis of the mental apparatus in his "Project for a Scientific Psychology," but then decided not to publish it. Whether or not recent advance in neurophysiology are sufficiently important bo bring about this synthesis remains an open question. In recent years some psychoanalysts have become interested in hypnosis, which one of them described as a focus for psychophysiological and psychoanalytic investigations. Any theory of the psychical apparatus which does not account for such an obvious psychical phenomenon must necessarily be incomplete. Since Charcot, hysteria presents hardly any new openings for experimental work. It is suggested that the solution of psyche-soma interaction might be sought in the study of hypnosis. It is postulated that hypnosis is a "fourth organismic state," not as yet objectifiable (in contradistinction to the waking state, sleep, and dreaming): a kind of natural or inborn mechanism which acts as one of the regulators of man's relationships with the environment. The author discusses briefly the aims and methodology of future interdisciplinary research on hypnosis, and the study of the transition from one state of consciousness to another, and their potential application to a wide range of subjects, namely, wherever man's relations with the environment are involved.
Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank
The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...
Bayarri Fernàndez, Eduard; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Domènech, Josep María
There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and exposed to DV were evaluated using a diagnostic interview and other instruments of psychopathology and functional impairment. The participants were classified in three groups according to the degree of exposure: witness (n = 72), involved (n = 52), and victim (n = 20). According to mothers' self-reports and mother-child combined information, DV equally affects psychopathology and functional impairment regardless of the degree of the exposure. Children's self-reports showed a linear trend to present greater psychopathology as a victim than as a witness. The differential effect of exposure to DV measured in this study depended on the informant, which underlines the importance of obtaining information from the children exposed to violence at home.
Pelizza, Lorenzo; Pupo, Simona
The term "brittle" is used to describe an uncommon subgroup of patients with type I diabetes whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle diabetes. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological and personological assessment of patients with brittle diabetes in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes, using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality disorders following the multi-axial format of the current DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - IV Edition - Text Revised) diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Patients comprised 42 subjects with brittle diabetes and a case-control group of 42 subjects with stable diabetes, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis II personality Disorders (SCID-II). The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters revealed no differences in all primary symptom dimensions and in the three global distress indices between the two groups. However, patients with brittle diabetes showed higher percentages in borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorder. In this study, patients with brittle diabetes show no differences in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and specific symptoms of axis I DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnoses in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes. Differently, individuals with brittle diabetes are more frequently affected by specific DSM-IV-TR cluster B personality disorders.
Iorio, Gennaro; Prisco, Vincenzo; Iorio, Nicola
The authors, after examining a clinical case of obsessive-compulsive disorder, associated to Pica syndrome, analyse psychopathological development of the symptomatology in its complex, refuting some statements of published studies, that include Pica within obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum. On the contrary, they think the coexistence of the two symptomatologies simply as an expression of a comorbidity, explaining why they are prone to link Pica with eating disorders.
Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon in neurological and psychiatric patients. There are clinical case reports and a few studies which describe the condition. Musical hallucinations have a heterogeneous clinical and pathophysiological aetiology, and have been reported in the elderly and in those with hearing impairment, central nervous system disorders and psychiatric disorders. The psychopathology is reviewed and three cases seen in a psychiatric setting are reported.
The issue of violence in prisons concerns the people detained there, the conditions of the imprisonment and the relations which are established between the prisoners and the guards. The deprivation of liberty in prison, by suppressing desire, stirs up violence. Security contingency measures are not sufficient to control aggressive urges. Violence in prison stems from the internal regulations, the architecture of the building, the organisation of the surveillance and from the psychopathological dynamics of the deprivations resulting from being locked up.
Parnas, Josef; Bovet, P
(connectionism), and developmental psychology (developmental biodynamics) converge in viewing living organisms as self-organizing systems. In this perspective, the organism is not specified by the outer world, but enacts its environment by selecting relevant domains of significance that constitute its world....... The distinction between mind and body or organism and environment is a matter of observational perspective. These models from empirical sciences are compatible with fundamental tenets of philosophical phenomenology and hermeneutics. They imply consequences for research in psychopathology: symptoms cannot...
Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Henrik Day; Nielsen, Anne
This paper has been submitted to a journal for consideration, so please do not quote without permission. Adolescents' first-time suicide attempt tends to be characterized by parental psychiatric disorder or suicidal behaviour, family violence, especially child abuse and neglect. An increased risk...
Rackauskaite, Gija; Bilenberg, Niels; Bech, Bodil Hammer
was associated with an increased prevalence of psychopathology (odds ratio (OR) 2.6, CI 1.4-4.6, for Developmental Quotient of cognitive function (DQ) 50-85 and OR 3.0, CI 1.3-7.0, for DQsingle parent showed increased odds for a positive CBCL screening compared to children living......Cerebral palsy (CP) is often accompanied by psychopathology and learning disability. AIMS: (1) to evaluate the prevalence of psychopathology as estimated by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) parental questionnaire in 8- to 15-year-old Danish children with CP and to analyze its association...... with cognitive ability and families' social characteristics; (2) to examine to what extent children with CP had been evaluated by a child psychiatrist and/or psychologist. METHOD: The parents of 462 children with CP answered a questionnaire about their child's treatment and the family's characteristics and 446...
Full Text Available For a better understanding of what psychiatry is all about, the importance and stronghold of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology in psychiatry has never been overstated. Biological psychiatry has accumulated enough evidences of mental illnesses until now but that does not mean that phenomenology and psychopathology would lose its shine. Rather psychopathology and phenomenology will afoot stronger as it is the philosophy of psychiatry.
胡毅; 郭菲; 陈祉妍
儿童、青少年心理病理研究中经常使用多报告者的评估方法.不同报告者间的评价差异导致了研究者分析、理解数据的困难,因此引发了针对这一问题的大量研究.研究发现子女的人口学特征、被评估问题的特征和家庭环境特征等均对报告者差异有显著影响.从报告者获取信息和认知的角度整合当前研究结果有利于对报告者差异的产生进行更深入的分析,相关因素通过影响信息获得和作答过程对报告者差异产生影响.目前缺乏对报告者差异的系统理解和理论框架,进一步分析报告者差异对相关研究设计、数据处理和临床实践有实际意义.%In research on children's psychopathology, multiple informants' report is a widely used method. Since discrepancies among informants bring difficulties to researchers in data analysis, more and more studies have been done to investigate the phenomenon. Researchers explored factors influencing the direction and magnitude of discrepancies from different areas, including demographic factors of children, types of target problems, characteristics of informants and their families. Deeper understanding of how the discrepancies generates can be got by connecting present findings to behavior observation and cognitive process of respondents, whose information gathering and questionnaire responding process may be influenced by different factors. Systemic understanding and theoretical framework for the generation of discrepancies are needed. Further researches on the informant discrepancy would be significant to research design, data analysis and clinical practice.
Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.
Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021
Full Text Available Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of otherness.We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first- and second-person approaches. Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, American Psychiatric Association, 2013 and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which - by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioural symptoms - takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients’ first person experience. But how can we speak about a first person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from within, if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it
Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa
Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of "otherness." We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which-by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms-takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients' first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from "within," if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge.
Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.
Children have an important influence on a variety of purchasing decisions, with respect to both child-related purchases such as toys, snacks, or sweets and everyday household purchases such as breakfast products and desserts. As children grow older, they even gain a say in their parents' choice of r
Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.
This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…
Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa
Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…
Masten, Ann S.
This article highlights the defining principles, progress and future directions in developmental psychopathology in relation to this special section. Six fundamental principles of developmental psychopathology are identified and the pervasive impact of this integrative framework on research, theory, and practice in behavioral health fields over…
Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Buchanan, Teresa
In using developmentally appropriate practices, teachers should intentionally address all aspects of a child's being, the spiritual along with the physical and the cognitive. Because spirituality is a vital part of human nature, a whole-child teaching approach must include the part of the child some call spirituality. Many have attempted to…
Szekeres, Adám; Tisljár, Roland
In the last few decades there has been a considerable increase in the levels of narcissism among the population of individualistic, western cultures. The phenomena of narcissism induced a large number of psychological researches, some of which approaches the issue from changes in environmental factors. The modern environment of these days is substantially different from the one to which our ancestors have adapted over millions of years of evolution. The research results of narcissism from the perspective of evolutionary psychopathology approach have yet to integrate.The present review focuses on two studies and empirical findings induced by them in which an attempt is made to explore the evolutionary origins of narcissism. Relating to these studies we present the main mechanisms by which evolution may have played a role in the development and maintenance of narcissism. One of the significant elements of the current, changing social environment allowing virtual contacts is the social networking site called Facebook. Following the presentation of the main features of the site we discuss research results in connection with narcissistic traits and Facebook usage. Finally an attempt is made to integrate these findings into an evolutionary psychopathological framework.
Slobodskaya, Helena R
This study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the hierarchical structure of child personality and common psychopathology in community samples of parent reports of children aged 2-18 (N = 968) and self-reports of adolescents aged 10-18 (N = 1,543) using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences-Short version (ICID-S), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). A joint higher-order factor analysis of the ICID-S and SDQ scales suggested a 4-factor solution; congruence coefficients indicated replicability of the factors across the 2 samples at all levels of the personality-psychopathology hierarchy. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and personality-psychopathology dimensions shared much of their variance. The main contribution of reinforcement sensitivity was through opposing effects of reward and punishment sensitivities. The superordinate factors Beta and Internalizing were best predicted by reinforcement sensitivity, followed by the Externalizing and Positive personality factors. These findings provide evidence for consistency of the hierarchical structure of personality and common psychopathology across informants and highlight the role of reinforcement systems in the development of normal and abnormal patterns of behavior and affect. (PsycINFO Database Record
Ramos Gorostiza, P; Portela Vicente, M
From the current status of psychopathology abolition, in behalf of a reductionist and non-satisfactory empiricism that has overwhelmed psychiatry in a sterile paralysis, we question its origin, discovering in Jaspers the methodological problems that made him unable to assume obstacles and led us to the present situation. Matching Heidegger's review on Psychology of the conceptions of the world, we are tracing the criticism to that methodology, in an attempt to approach the model of a new empiricism for psychopathology that solves the current situation. We use this occasion to pursue the tracks followed by one of the confronted attitudes or another that we consider a psychopathology crossroad. We are investigating the consequences and alternatives derived for that new task in present time, once these methodological positions have been assumed.
Havaki-Kontaxaki Beata J
Full Text Available Abstract Isotretinoin, a synthetic oral retinoid that is used against severe nodulocystic acne, has been associated with various psychiatric side effects such as depression, suicidality and psychotic symptoms. A great number of reports on its effects have been published since its introduction into the market. However, a causal relationship has not been established and the link between isotretinoin use and psychiatric events remains controversial. The present paper reviews the available evidence regarding the association of isotretinoin and psychiatric side effects. All published material reporting psychiatric side effects following isotretinoin treatment, including case reports, case series, reports from adverse drug event reporting systems, prospective surveys and retrospective case-control studies, are presented. In addition, the neurobiology of the retinoids and possible biological mechanisms that may lead to psychopathology are described.
Sellers, Ruth; Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon T; Mahedy, Liam; Potter, Robert; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Ajay; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan
Depression is known to be influenced by psychosocial stressors. For mothers with recurrent depressive illness, the presence of psychopathology in their children may have important effects on their own mental health. Although the impact of maternal depression on child mental health is well-established, no study to date, as far as we are aware, has examined the extent to which offspring psychopathology influences the course of depression in mothers with a history of recurrent depressive illness, what types of child psychopathology impact maternal mental health, or whether risks vary by child gender. Aims were to (a) Use a longitudinal design to examine whether adolescent psychopathology (depression, disruptive behavior disorder; DBD) predicts recurrence of a depressive episode and depression symptom course in women with a history of recurrent depression; and (b) To test if observed effects vary by child gender. 299 mothers with recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring were assessed on 2 occasions, 29 months apart. Maternal depression and offspring psychopathology were assessed using semistructured interview measures. Cross-generational links across time were assessed using structural equation modeling. Analyses were adjusted for past severity of maternal depression. Offspring depression symptoms but not DBD symptoms at baseline predicted future episode recurrence in mothers. Depression symptoms in daughters (β = .16, p = .039) but not sons (β = -.07, p = .461), predicted an increase in maternal depression symptoms across time. Psychopathology in daughters is associated with long-term depressive symptoms in women (mothers) with a history of recurrent depression. Findings highlight the importance of careful assessment and management of mental health problems in adolescents for more effective management of maternal depression. This study suggests that offspring symptoms of depression may be important for the recurrence of maternal depression
George, Carrie; Herman, Keith C.; Ostrander, Rick
Prior studies have found remarkable similarity in the family characteristics across a wide range of child psychopathologies. This study investigated the unique relationships between symptoms of depression, conduct problems/aggression, and inattention/hyperactivity and characteristics of the family environment. Parents and teachers completed…
Haltigan, John D.; Vaillancourt, Tracy
The joint development of trajectories of bullying perpetration and peer victimization from Grade 5 to Grade 8 and concurrent and predictive associations with parent- and child-reported symptoms of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and somatization) were examined in a large sample (N = 695) of Canadian…
Krueger, Robert F; DeYoung, Colin G
The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project represents a welcome effort to circumvent the limitations of psychiatric categories as phenotypes for psychopathology research. Here, we describe the hierarchical and dimensional structure of phenotypic psychopathology and illustrate how this structure provides phenotypes suitable for RDoC research on neural correlates of psychopathology. A hierarchical and dimensional approach to psychopathology phenotypes holds great promise for delineating connections between neuroscience constructs and the patterns of affect, cognition, and behavior that constitute manifest psychopathology.
Delgado, Honorio; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
Dementia praecox or schizophrenia, psychosis common in youth and fundamentally conditioned by heredity age has an external cause appear without evident and manifest a special set of organic and mental symptoms. Among the latter are some characteristic. Hence the interest of psychopathological study of this psychosis. The most important psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia are the following: 1 In the field of perceptual activity: the impression of strangeness of the world, pseudo...
Full Text Available The paper deals with two central issues in the philosophy of neuroscience and psychiatry, namely those of the nature and the major kinds and types of psychopathological mechanisms. Contrary to a widespread view, I argue that mechanisms are not kinds of systems but kinds of processes unfolding in systems or between systems. More precisely, I argue that psychopathological mechanisms are sets of actions and interactions between brain-systems or circuits as well as between the latter and other systems in one's body and external environment, both physical and social, involved in human psychopathology. According to the kinds of properties of the interacting systems or their component-parts, psychopathological mechanisms may be physical, chemical, biological, psychological, social, or, typically, mixed ones. Furthermore, I focus on two main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms involved in the causation of mental disorders, namely the pathogenetic and pathophysiological ones, stressing the importance of their careful distinction for the integrative understanding of otherwise disparate and apparently incommensurable psychiatric research findings. I illustrate my analysis with an example drawn from contemporary research on the mechanisms of acute psychosis. Finally, I stress the relevance of psychopathological mechanisms to a more scientifi cally-grounded classifi cation of mental disorders.
Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn
Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women
Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav
Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.
Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi
This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction.
Full Text Available Background: Sexual abuse is a well-recognised risk factor for child psychopathology. Little is known regarding whether child and maternal mentalization can be considered a potential resource or protective factor in this context, respectively, mediating or moderating the relationship between sexual abuse and psychopathology. Objective: The aims of this study were (1 to explore the relationships between child and maternal mentalizing, measured as reflective functioning (RF, and child depressive symptoms and externalising difficulties; and (2 to examine whether child mentalizing mediates the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA and psychopathology. Method: A total of 168 children aged 7–12 years and their mothers participated in the study. The sample included 74 dyads where children had experienced sexual abuse. The Child Attachment Interview was rated by using the Child Reflective Functioning Scale to assess children's mentalization, and the Child Depression Inventory was used to assess depressive symptoms. Mothers completed the Parent Development Interview to assess maternal RF and the Child Behavior Checklist to assess their child's externalising difficulties. A model involving direct and indirect paths from CSA, child and maternal RF to child psychopathology was examined using Mplus software. Results: Child mentalization partially mediated the relationships between CSA and depressive symptoms, as well as the relationship between CSA and externalising difficulties. Maternal mentalization was an independent predictor of child externalising difficulties, with higher maternal RF associated with less externalising difficulties. Discussion: The findings indicate that by ages 7–12, child mentalization is an important inner resource associated with lower depression and externalising. In addition, this study provides new evidence of the importance of the parent's mentalizing stance for the development of self-regulation and externalising
Ensink, Karin; Bégin, Michaël; Normandin, Lina; Fonagy, Peter
Background Sexual abuse is a well-recognised risk factor for child psychopathology. Little is known regarding whether child and maternal mentalization can be considered a potential resource or protective factor in this context, respectively, mediating or moderating the relationship between sexual abuse and psychopathology. Objective The aims of this study were (1) to explore the relationships between child and maternal mentalizing, measured as reflective functioning (RF), and child depressive symptoms and externalising difficulties; and (2) to examine whether child mentalizing mediates the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and psychopathology. Method A total of 168 children aged 7–12 years and their mothers participated in the study. The sample included 74 dyads where children had experienced sexual abuse. The Child Attachment Interview was rated by using the Child Reflective Functioning Scale to assess children's mentalization, and the Child Depression Inventory was used to assess depressive symptoms. Mothers completed the Parent Development Interview to assess maternal RF and the Child Behavior Checklist to assess their child's externalising difficulties. A model involving direct and indirect paths from CSA, child and maternal RF to child psychopathology was examined using Mplus software. Results Child mentalization partially mediated the relationships between CSA and depressive symptoms, as well as the relationship between CSA and externalising difficulties. Maternal mentalization was an independent predictor of child externalising difficulties, with higher maternal RF associated with less externalising difficulties. Discussion The findings indicate that by ages 7–12, child mentalization is an important inner resource associated with lower depression and externalising. In addition, this study provides new evidence of the importance of the parent's mentalizing stance for the development of self-regulation and externalising difficulties in both
Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.
Full Text Available Background: Chronic conditions like epilepsy in a child can affect his/her entire family. The failure of the family members to adapt adequately to the unique demands of this childhood chronic illness can be considered as an important risk factor for development of psychopathology. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to study the profile of parenting stress in parents of children with epilepsy and its correlates; and, to examine the correlates of psychopathology in these children. Material and Methods: Twenty three epileptic children and their families were subjected to Parenting Stress Index (PSI, Scores for indices such as The Children′s Depression Inventory (CDI, Benton Visual Retention test, Spence anxiety scale for children, The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children were calculated. Results: Mean verbal and performance IQ score was 94, while the mean total IQ score was 95. Mean scores for all Wechsler IQ Scores as well as Benton Visual retention test were within the average range. Means for total internalizing CBCL t scores (M, Mean=70; Standard Deviation, SD=4.4, total externalizing CBCL t scores (M=60, SD=9.6, and total behavior problems CBCL t scores (M=67, SD=5.2 were above the standard cut off levels of 65 for clinical behavioral problems. Mean score on CDI was 42 ± 2. Scores of the PSI equal to or higher than 85 th percentile were considered pathologically high. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that pediatric patients with epilepsy, specifically with intractable cases, are correlated with high levels of parental stress.
Olino, Thomas M; Dougherty, Lea R; Bufferd, Sara J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N
A number of studies have found that broadband internalizing and externalizing factors provide a parsimonious framework for understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, few of these studies have examined psychopathology in young children, and several recent studies have found support for alternative models, including a bi-factor model with common and specific factors. The present study used parents' (typically mothers') reports on a diagnostic interview in a community sample of 3-year old children (n = 541; 53.9 % male) to compare the internalizing-externalizing latent factor model with a bi-factor model. The bi-factor model provided a better fit to the data. To test the concurrent validity of this solution, we examined associations between this model and paternal reports and laboratory observations of child temperament. The internalizing factor was associated with low levels of surgency and high levels of fear; the externalizing factor was associated with high levels of surgency and disinhibition and low levels of effortful control; and the common factor was associated with high levels of surgency and negative affect and low levels of effortful control. These results suggest that psychopathology in preschool-aged children may be explained by a single, common factor influencing nearly all disorders and unique internalizing and externalizing factors. These findings indicate that shared variance across internalizing and externalizing domains is substantial and are consistent with recent suggestions that emotion regulation difficulties may be a common vulnerability for a wide array of psychopathology.
Majer, John M; Beasley, Christopher; Jason, Leonard A
Suicide attempts were examined in relation to sociodemographic (age, gender, ethnicity), psychopathological (prior psychiatric hospitalizations, physical and sexual abuse histories), and cognitive (personal need for structure) variables among a sample of ex-offenders with substance use disorders ( N = 270). Hierarchical logistic regression was conducted to determine whether personal need for structure would significantly predict whether participants reported past suicide attempts beyond sociodemographic and psychopathological predictors. Personal need for structure and prior psychiatric hospitalizations were the only significant predictors, with higher values of these predictors increasing the likelihood of suicide attempts. Findings are consistent with a cognitive model for understanding suicide behavior, suggesting that persons with a high need for cognitive structures operate with persistent and rigid thought processes that contribute to their risk of suicide.
Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior
Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.
Eissler, Ruth S., Ed.; And Others
Twenty-seven papers treat aspects of the psychoanalytic study of the child. Problems of psychopathology and therapy considered are the fantasy of the phallic woman, the use of child analysis, the background of perversions, variables in the production of neurotic disturbances, treatment of narcissistic personality disorders, and problems of the…
Martin-Larregola, Maria; Gomez-Arnau, Jorge; Correas-Lauffer, Javier
Energy drinks (ED) are nonalcoholic beverages that have caffeine as their most common active substance. The rapid expansion of ED consumption has created concern in the scientific community as well as in the public opinion. We report a psychotic episode probably triggered by ED abuse in a young adult without previous psychotic disorders. We have reviewed the literature regarding the relationship between caffeine, energy drinks, and psychopathology. Few articles have been published about mental health effects of energy drinks and caffeine abuse. Nevertheless, this relationship has been suggested, specifically with anxiety disorders, manic episodes, suicide attempts, psychotic decompensation, and substance use disorder. ED consumption could represent a global public health problem because of the potential severe adverse effects in mental and physical health. To our knowledge, this article is probably the first case of psychosis related to ED abuse in an individual without previous psychotic disorders. PMID:28116203
Carson, Shelley H
Creativity is considered a positive personal trait. However, highly creative people have demonstrated elevated risk for certain forms of psychopathology, including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and alcoholism. A model of shared vulnerability explains the relation between creativity and psychopathology. This model, supported by recent findings from neuroscience and molecular genetics, suggests that the biological determinants conferring risk for psychopathology interact with protective cognitive factors to enhance creative ideation. Elements of shared vulnerability include cognitive disinhibition (which allows more stimuli into conscious awareness), an attentional style driven by novelty salience, and neural hyperconnectivity that may increase associations among disparate stimuli. These vulnerabilities interact with superior meta-cognitive protective factors, such as high IQ, increased working memory capacity, and enhanced cognitive flexibility, to enlarge the range and depth of stimuli available in conscious awareness to be manipulated and combined to form novel and original ideas.
Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik
subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...
Harrsi, Rachel; And Others
The relationship between substance abuse and suicide is indicated by high rate of attempted suicide among alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as increased likelihood of repeated attempts in these populations. This study reports on psychological characteristics of male drug suicide attempters who are in treatment for their addiction problem.…
Sorenson, Susan B.; Rutter, Carolyn M.
Using data from 2,304 community residents, found self-reports of suicide attempts were more common among persons with than without family history of suicide. Nearly one in four suicide attempters reported family history of suicide. Being female and unmarried, respondent mental disorder, parent mental disorder, and parent suicide attempt exerted…
Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A
Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.
Skovgaard, A M; Houmann, T; Landorph, S L;
The research of psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age is dominated by clinical case studies and theoretical reflections, and epidemiological studies are few. This paper reviews methods to assess and classify psychopathology in children 0-3 years old in an epidemiological context. Diagnostic...... psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age: screening instruments with established psychometric properties, such as the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), and methods of in-depth assessment known from both clinical practice and research: developmental tests......, such as the Bayley Scales, and relationship assessments, such as the Early Relational Assessment (ERA). The classification of psychopathology in young children can be approved by the Diagnostic Classification 0-3. The reliability and validity of DC 0-3 have not yet been established, but preliminary results seem...
Gadit, Amin A Muhammad
This report describes a 26-year-old man who was so emotionally attached to his mother that the mere thought of separating from her caused immense anxiety. The death of his mother after a brief illness resulted in prolonged bereavement. However, the patient started seeing and talking to his mother after her death, which led to huge improvement in his mood and social functioning. His wife brought him in for consultation but no obvious psychopathology was detected. This gave rise to the dilemma of whether to consider this a real psychopathology and treat it, or to disregard this reported hallucination. No active treatment is being given to this patient at the moment.
Wachtel, P L
Both the understanding of psychopathology and the ability to intervene therapeutically are enhanced by an appreciation of the central role of vicious circles in the development and maintenance of psychological disorder. It is usually possible to discern a structure to people's difficulties in which internal states and external events continually re-create the conditions for the re-occurrence of each other in all too real psychological version of the mythical perpetual motion machine. The present article illustrates how such circular processes work in a number of representative types of psychological difficulty and discusses the implications of this conception for understanding psychopathology and for therapeutic intervention.
Ormel, Johan; Rosmalen, Judith; Farmer, Ann
BACKGROUND: Neuroticism measures are very popular in psychopathological research, but it is unclear how useful neuroticism is in studies of the aetiology of psychopathology. METHOD: A conceptual examination was made of the literature on the association of neuroticism and psychopathology, the ontolog
Beauchaine, Theodore P; McNulty, Tiffany
Research on child and adolescent mental health problems has burgeoned since the inaugural issue of Development and Psychopathology was published in 1989. In the quarter century since, static models of psychopathology have been abandoned in favor of transactional models, following the agenda set by editor Dante Cicchetti and other proponents of the discipline. The transactional approach, which has been applied to autism, depression, self-injury, and delinquency, (a) specifies vulnerabilities and risk factors across multiple levels of analysis spanning genes to cultures, (b) identifies multifinal and equifinal pathways to psychopathology, and (c) transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries. However, as noted by Rutter and Sroufe (2000), specific mechanisms of continuity, discontinuity, and comorbidity of psychopathology must be identified if we wish to understand etiology fully. In this article, we present a model of early-onset externalizing behavior in which comorbidities and continuities are viewed as ontogenic processes: products of complex longitudinal transactions between interdependent individual-level vulnerabilities (e.g., genetic, epigenetic, allostatic) and equally interdependent contextual risk factors (e.g., coercive parenting, deviant peer group affiliations, neighborhood criminality). Through interactions across levels of analysis, some individuals traverse along the externalizing spectrum, beginning with heritable trait impulsivity in preschool and ending in antisociality in adulthood. In describing our model, we note that (a) the approach outlined in the DSM to subtyping externalizing disorders continues to obscure developmental pathways to antisociality, (b) molecular genetics studies will likely not identify meaningful subtypes of externalizing disorder, and (c) ontogenic trait approaches to psychopathology are much more likely to advance the discipline in upcoming years.
Mbassa Menick, D
The purpose of this study was to describe the sociodemographic, psychopathologic and criminological features associated with homicide based on review of expert psychiatric court reports describing murder and attempted murder perpetrators examined at Jamot Hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The study cohort comprised reports describing 12 offenders who were examined at the request of ajudge or public prosecutor from March 1, 2002 to July 31, 2006. There were 8 men (66.7%) and 4 women (33.3%) with a mean age of 18.3 years (range, 17 to 43 years). In 8 cases the criminal act coincided with a difficult period in the offender's life. In the remaining 4 cases the act could not be linked to a specific life event. Assaults were carried out by strangulation, battery, or stabbing (knifes or machetes) in 87.5% of cases and occurred at the victim's home in 68.8% of cases. The main mental disorders diagnosed using the ICD-10 classification were schizophrenia in 41.7% of cases (n = 5), chronic delirium in 25.0% (n = 3), and personality disorder in 8.3 % (n = 1). Nine offenders (75.0%) had a history of mental disorder including 8 within at least six months preceding the assault. Four offenders had already received psychiatric treatment including 2 who required hospitalization following one or more episodes of psychotic decompensation. There were a total of 16 victims including 14 that died and 2 that were seriously wounded but survived thanks to prompt medical attention. The victims included 8 males and 8 females with 11 children (68.7%) and 5 adults (31.3%). In the child group 9 victims died (81.8%) and 2 survived (18.2%). Except one 17-year-old teenager, the 6 female and 3 male child victims were between the ages of 18 months and 8 years. The adult victims included 1 female and 4 males. The main findings of this study were the high incidence of mental disease, especially schizophrenics (66.7%), associated with homicide and the high number of child victims (62.5%). The first
Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.
This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…
When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318
Davis, Andrew S.
A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…
Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W
Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.
Hamerlynck, Sannie M J J; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres M C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T
The aim of the study was to investigate a group of detained females with regard to aggression and psychopathology and to examine the relationship between the two conditions. For this purpose, a representative sample of 216 detained adolescent females aged 12-18 (mean 15.5) was studied with a standard set of self-report instruments, while a subgroup of 73 parents was interviewed by telephone on the participants' externalizing psychopathology. Based on aggression items derived from the Conduct Disorder section of the Kiddie-SADS, the following three aggression subgroups were identified: (1) non-aggressive (NA; 41%), (2) mildly aggressive (MA; 39%), and (3) severely aggressive (SA; 20%). In addition to high levels of psychopathology for the group as a whole, differences were found between aggression groups, with the NA group demonstrating the lowest levels, the MA group intermediate levels, and the SA group the highest levels. These differences were most pronounced for externalizing psychopathology, and were also found for post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) and suicidality. The clinical implications of these findings should be investigated in the future, but may well relate to issues of diagnostic identification and administration of adequate and targeted treatment, especially with regard to PTSS and suicidality. Since the current study was cross-sectional, the predictive effect of the investigated relationships should be the focus of further study.
Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ); (b) The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (c) The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (d) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
Trumpf, J.; Margraf, J.; Vriends, N.; Meyer, A.H.; Becker, E.S.
Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young wom
Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John
Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…
Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.
Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)
Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.
Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…
Roefs, A.; Huijding, J.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; MacLeod, C.M.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.T.M.
Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)
Smulevich, A B
An analysis of the interaction between pathocharacterological and psychopathological (affective, anxious-phobic and hysterical) phenomena within "borderline psychiatry" (reactions, phases, development) gives evidence to the existence of 2 clinically heterogeneous variations of comorbid interactions. The first variation: primary psychopathological syndromes manifesting without any significant correlation with personality disorders and transform into pathocharacterological ones (neurotic, postreactive) personality development by means of "amalgamating" mechanism. The second variation: secondary (in regard to personality disorders) psychopathological phenomena forming on the basis of constitutional personality traits by means of "splitting off" mechanism and are defined as personality disorders with predisposition to manifest positive psychopathological symptomatology. Formation of isolated obsessive and dissociative disorders within the structure of "basic" pathocharacterological phenomena (variation 2) predicts a future absence of growing severity of personality disorders (i.e. a dynamics traditionally defined as the development--variation 1) and stabilization of psychopathic traits with features of compensation of the latter. The possibilities of pathological dynamics in psychopathic personality with a "splitting off" of the isolated psychopathological syndromes exhausted; for decades neither growing severity of personality disorders, nor an exacerbation of those psychopathological complexes which provided a primary base for manifestation of positive symptomatology may be observed.
Skovgaard, A M; Houmann, T; Landorph, S L;
psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age: screening instruments with established psychometric properties, such as the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), and methods of in-depth assessment known from both clinical practice and research: developmental tests...
Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes
The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys).…
EISSLER, RUTH S., ED.; AND OTHERS
TWENTY ARTICLES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME, THE 22ND IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES. PAPERS ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THERAPY INTERPRET LOSING AND BEING LOST, OBSTACLES TO PSYCHOANALYTIC CURE, AND AFFECT CONTROL. ASPECTS OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY CONSIDERED ARE FREUD'S CONCEPT OF PRIMAL REPRESSION, CONCEPTS OF STRUCTURE AND…
Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria
The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...
Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R; Ginsburg, Golda S
While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention.
Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L
The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability.
Miranda, Jenniffer K; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes
The aim of the study was to examine whether maternal depression, mothers' and fathers' parenting, child physical punishment and negative life events (NLE) mediate the effect of maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV) and cumulative violence (both CA and IPV) on Spanish children's and adolescents' psychopathology. Furthermore, multiple mediator models examine whether IPV mediates the effect of CA on the contextual and family factors mentioned above. Three hundred and eighteen Spanish outpatients aged 7 to 18 and their parents were assessed using a structured interview and other instruments for measuring the study variables. Structural equation models (SEMs) showed multiple pathways explaining psychopathological problems among offspring of mothers who suffered CA, IPV and both of these violent experiences. In particular, mothers' depression mediated the link between maternal CA, IPV, cumulative violence and children's externalizing, and total behavior problems. Child NLE was an important pathway between maternal CA and total behavior problems, as well as between cumulative violence and both externalizing and total problems. IPV contributed to explaining the link between maternal CA and contextual and family factors, such as child physical punishment and NLE, which were in turn, associated with children's behavior problems. Findings show the complex interconnections between different types of violence and their harmful effects on the mental health of women and their offspring, as well as the need to extend our knowledge on this subject.
Important data about possible continuities and discontinuities of psychopathology from childhood to adulthood have been provided by findings from well scheduled prospective longitudinal studies of community-based samples. Findings from clinical populations have contributed as well. This presentation relies on data from selected studies of reference. An effort is made to combine results demonstrating the extent of continuity at a more general level with those indicating continuities or discontinuities concerning disorders commonly presented in clinical practice. These disorders are those included in the internalizing (anxiety and mood disorders) and externalizing (ADHD, oppositional, conduct disorder-antisocial personality disorder) domains of psychopathology. Discontinuities do exist, however findings also suggest considerable longitudinal links between childhood-adolescence and adulthood. Reports from the Dunedin longitudinal study showed that half of those with psychiatric diagnoses at the age of 26 had met criteria for psychiatric disorder by the age of 15, and that figure approached 75% by the age of 18. Homotypic continuity is the most prominent. There are also heterotypic continuities, while homotypic and heterotypic continuities may co-occur. Among common disorders, findings suggest continuity tendencies even for anxiety disorders and for subclinical cases with obsessive and compulsive symptoms as well. Comorbidity between different anxiety disorders (strict homotypic continuity) as well as between them and depression (broad homotypic continuity) is very common. In the externalizing domain, longitudinal links between conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder, including adverse consequences in psychosocial functioning, have been repeatedly found. Childhood onset subtype of conduct disorder is more prone to this adverse outcome, however all cases with conduct disorder need early recognition and intervention. During the course of conduct disorder
Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik; Juul Larsen, Kim
, psychiatric diagnoses, and psychopharmacological medications prescribed to youth before and after the index attempt were risk factors for repeated suicide attempts. Parental diagnoses and drug prescriptions following a child's first suicide attempt moderated the risk of repeated attempts. Psychiatric illness...... is a strong predictor of repeated suicide attempts in young people, and those with co-morbid diagnoses are at increased risk of repeated suicide attempts. Treatment of psychiatric illness in the parents after their child's first suicide attempt is a potential protective factor....
This article is a radical restatement of the predominant psychopathology, which is characterized by nosological systems and by its approach towards a neurobiological conception of the so-called mental disorders. The "radical" sense of this restatement is that of radical behaviorism itself. As readers will recall, "radical" applied to behaviorism means total (not ignoring anything that interests psychology), pragmatic (referring to the practical sense of knowledge), and it also derives from the Latin word for "root" (and thus implies change beginning at a system's roots or getting to the root of things, in this case, of psychological disorders). Based on this, I introduce the Aristotelian distinction of material and form, which, besides being behaviorist avant la lettre, is used here as a critical instrument to unmask the hoax of psychopathology as it is presented. The implications of this restatement are discussed, some of them already prepared for clinical practice.
O'Connor, Thomas G; Moynihan, Jan A; Caserta, Mary T
Experimental animal and adult human data suggest that stress exposure is associated with alterations in immune system function that may underlie increased susceptibility to disease and behavioral disorders. The implications of these data for child psychology and psychiatry are not yet clear. The current review seeks to distil and translate the relevant animal and adult human work to children to advance a developmental model of psychoneuroimmunology. In addition to reviewing key specific findings, we consider biological/conceptual models and technical aspects of psychoneuroimmunology work in pediatric populations, and outline the rationales and advantages of integrating hypotheses concerning neuroinflammation in developmental studies of psychopathology.
Trumpf, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Becker, Eni S
Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18–25 years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results W...
Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Gregory A. Miller
Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored the...
Full Text Available Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one’s own emotion, underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood.
Psychopathology as the investigation and classification of experience, behavior and symptoms in psychiatric patients is an old discipline that ranges back to the end of the 19th century. Since then different approaches to psychopathology have been suggested. Recent investigations showing abnormalities in the brain on different levels raise the question how the gap between brain and psyche, between neural abnormalities and alteration in experience and behavior can be bridged. Historical approaches like descriptive (Jaspers) and structural (Minkoswki) psychopathology as well as the more current phenomenological psychopathology (Paarnas, Fuchs, Sass, Stanghellini) remain on the side of the psyche giving detailed description of the phenomenal level of experience while leaving open the link to the brain. In contrast, the recently introduced Research Domain Classification (RDoC) aims at explicitly linking brain and psyche by starting from so-called 'neuro-behavioral constructs'. How does Spatiotemporal Psychopathology, as demonstrated in the first paper on depression, stand in relation to these approaches? In a nutshell, Spatiotemporal Psychopathology aims to bridge the gap between brain and psyche. Specifically, as demonstrated in depression in the first paper, the focus is on the spatiotemporal features of the brain's intrinsic activity and how they are transformed into corresponding spatiotemporal features in experience on the phenomenal level and behavioral changes, which can well account for the symptoms in these patients. This second paper focuses on some of the theoretical background assumptions in Spatiotemporal Psychopathology by directly comparing it to descriptive, structural, and phenomenological psychopathology as well as to RDoC.
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H
Current frameworks for understanding the link between early adverse childhood experiences and later negative life outcomes, including psychopathology, focus on the mediating negative impact on brain and biological systems in the developing child resulting broadly from stress and trauma. Although this approach is useful, we argue that the framework could be functionally extended by distinguishing the effects of two different types of abnormal input, both deviations from the expectable environment in early childhood. Specifically, we review the consequences of inadequate input (eg, neglect/deprivation) and harmful input (eg, abuse/trauma) on brain and biological development. We then review evidence on the differential links between each type of abnormal input to four selected domains of psychopathology (indiscriminate social behavior, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct problems), and consider potential mechanisms for inadequate and harmful input to lead to these outcomes. We conclude that the careful consideration of the type of deviation from the expected environment, while acknowledging the practical difficulties in assessing this, is likely to lead to clearer understanding of the mechanism of risk for psychopathology, and that tailored approaches to prevention and intervention may be informed by considering the unique consequences of inadequate and harmful input when experienced in early childhood.
Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa
The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers.
Schechter, Daniel S; Willheim, Erica
As the field of attachment has expanded over the past four decades, the perturbations in the relational context which give rise to disturbances of attachment are increasingly, though by no means conclusively, understood. In Part I, this article reviews the historical and current state of research regarding normative attachment classification, the diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder, and the proposed categories of Secure Base Distortions and Disrupted Attachment Disorder. In Part II, the article explores the role of parental psychopathology and the manner in which disturbed caregiver self-regulation leads to disturbances in the mutual regulation between caregiver and infant. The question of the relationship between particular types of maternal pathology and particular forms of attachment disturbance is examined through recent research on the association between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Atypical Maternal Behavior, and child scores on the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). The authors present original research findings to support that the presence and severity of maternal violence-related PTSD were significantly associated with secure base distortion in a community pediatrics sample of 76 mothers and preschool-age children. Clinical implications and recommendations for treatment of attachment disturbances conclude the article.
Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Boot, Nathalie C.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.
Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be
Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.
Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and functioni
Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population.
Lizardi, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Keyes, Katherine; Hasin, Deborah
Research suggests parental divorce during childhood increases risk of suicide attempt for male but not female offspring. The negative impact on offspring associated with parental divorce may be better explained by parental psychopathology, such as depression. We examined whether adult offspring of parental divorce experience elevated risk of suicide attempt, controlling for parental history of depression, and whether the risk varies by the gender of the offspring. Using the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), the sample consists of respondents who experienced parental divorce (N = 4895). Multivariable regressions controlled for age, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and parental history of depression. Females living with their fathers were significantly more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts than females living with their mothers, even after controlling for parental depression. Findings suggest that childhood/adolescent parental divorce may have a stronger impact on suicide attempt risk in female offspring than previously recognized.
Apter-Levi, Yael; Pratt, Maayan; Vakart, Adam; Feldman, Michal; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth
Maternal depression across the first years of life negatively impacts children's development. One pathway of vulnerability may involve functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We utilize a community cohort of 1983 women with no comorbid risk repeatedly assessed for depression from birth to six years to form two groups; chronically depressed (N=40) and non-depressed (N=91) women. At six years, mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis, child salivary cortisol (CT) was assessed three times during a home-visit, mother-child interaction was videotaped, and child empathy was coded from behavioral paradigms. Latent Growth curve Model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) estimated the links between maternal depression and mother's negative parenting and three child outcomes; psychopathology, social withdrawal, and empathy as related to child CT baseline and variability. Depressed mothers displayed more negative parenting and their children showed more Axis-I psychopathology and social withdrawal. SEM analysis revealed that maternal depression was associated with reduced CT variability, which predicted higher child psychopathology and social withdrawal. Whereas all children exhibited similar initial levels of CT, children of controls reduced CT levels over time while children of depressed mothers maintained high, non-flexible levels. Mother negativity was related to lower initial CT levels, which predicted decreased empathy. Findings suggest that chronic maternal depression may compromise children's social-emotional adjustment by diminishing HPA-system flexibility as well as limiting the mother's capacity to provide attuned and predictable caregiving.
R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)
textabstractThis manuscript contains results of an epidemiological study of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults. The first aim of the study was to determine the development of psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood. The second aim was to validate recently developed' proced
Strickland, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer; Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen; Hopkins, Joyce; LeBailly, Susan
Despite growing interest in the development of alternative diagnostic classification systems for psychopathology in young children, little is known about the adequacy of the DSM symptom structure for describing psychopathology in this population. This paper examines the fit of the DSM-IV emotional (ED) and disruptive behavior disorder (DD) symptom…
Fern, Tami L.
This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…
Danese, Andrea; Baldwin, Jessie R
Childhood trauma is a key risk factor for psychopathology. However, little is known about how exposure to childhood trauma is translated into biological risk for psychopathology. Observational human studies and experimental animal models suggest that childhood exposure to stress can trigger an enduring systemic inflammatory response not unlike the bodily response to physical injury. In turn, these "hidden wounds" of childhood trauma can affect brain development, key behavioral domains (e.g., cognition, positive valence systems, negative valence systems), reactivity to subsequent stressors, and, ultimately, risk for psychopathology. Further research is needed to better characterize the inflammatory links between childhood trauma and psychopathology. Detecting and healing these hidden wounds may help prevent and treat psychopathology emerging after childhood trauma.
John M. de Figueiredo
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objectives of the manuscript are: (a to review the understanding of demoralization and its assessment; (b to describe its clinical progression; (c to explain the differences between demoralization and other form of psychological distress; (d to propose a set of criteria for future research on demoralization. Methods: A MEDLINE search using the keywords distress, subjective incompetence, depression, demoralization, helplessness, hopelessness and psychopathology was conducted. This was supplemented by a manual search of the literature. Results: Demoralization can be distinguished from passing or transient distress, non-specific distress, sub-threshold depression or anxiety, and certain mental disorders. Demoralization can be a risk factor for the manifestation of psychopathology, the prodromal phase of a mental disorder, or a trigger for exacerbation or recurrence of psychiatric distress symptoms. The domains of distress and demoralization are described and research diagnostic criteria for demoralization are presented. Conclusions: The scales discussed in this article differ in their time frames and have not yet been applied to the same population at the same time. The role of demoralization as a risk factor for mental disorders is just beginning to be understood. The domains and the diagnostic criteria for demoralization presented in this article need to be confirmed by epidemiological and empirical studies. Future research should continue to clarify its role in the pathogenesis of both mental disorders and physical illnesses and identify appropriate interventions for its arrest or prevention.
John M. de Figueiredo
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objectives of the manuscript are: (a to review the understanding of demoralization and its assessment; (b to describe its clinical progression; (c to explain the differences between demoralization and other form of psychological distress; (d to propose a set of criteria for future research on demoralization. Methods: A MEDLINE search using the keywords distress, subjective incompetence, depression, demoralization, helplessness, hopelessness and psychopathology was conducted. This was supplemented by a manual search of the literature. Results: Demoralization can be distinguished from passing or transient distress, non-specific distress, sub-threshold depression or anxiety, and certain mental disorders. Demoralization can be a risk factor for the manifestation of psychopathology, the prodromal phase of a mental disorder, or a trigger for exacerbation or recurrence of psychiatric distress symptoms. The domains of distress and demoralization are described and research diagnostic criteria for demoralization are presented. Conclusions: The scales discussed in this article differ in their time frames and have not yet been applied to the same population at the same time. The role of demoralization as a risk factor for mental disorders is just beginning to be understood. The domains and the diagnostic criteria for demoralization presented in this article need to be confirmed by epidemiological and empirical studies. Future research should continue to clarify its role in the pathogenesis of both mental disorders and physical illnesses and identify appropriate interventions for its arrest or prevention.
Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria
This study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pre-professional and professional dancers (n=209) who were exposed to traumatic events. Nine self-report instruments assessed (1) adverse childhood experiences, (2) past traumatic events, (3) coping strategies under stressful situations, and (4) fantasy proneness. The psychopathology variables included (5) anxiety, (6) depression, (7) dissociation, (8) shame, and (9)) PTSD diagnostic scale. Statistical calculations included descriptive, distributional, and multivariate analysis of covariates (MANCOVA). Results indicate that dancers had a significantly higher distribution of PTSD (20.2%) compared to the normal population (7.8%). They also had a higher frequency of family members with mental illness, an inability to speak about their trauma, and more suicidal thoughts. The PTSD group of dancers had higher levels of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, dissociation, and shame) and they had more childhood adversity and adult trauma. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group had higher scores on fantasy proneness and emotion-oriented coping strategies. These coping strategies may increase psychological instability. Addressing early abuse and trauma is recommended. Clinicians may help dancers alter their internal working models that their self is worthless, others are abusive, and the world is threatening and dangerous. By understanding PTSD in dancers, medical and mental health treatment protocols may be established to address the debilitating, and often hidden, symptoms of PTSD.
Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M
During the past ten years, research on schizophrenia has witnessed a clear emphasis on studies based on negative symptoms. This interest can be explained in terms of diagnosis, specific treatment, functional prognosis and outcome issues. However, main current approaches consider negative symptoms from an operationalist view, which implies objective and atheoretical descriptions of clinical criteria, observed from a third person perspective. And the understanding of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, still a crucial issue of mental health, remains only partial. From a different perspective, psychopathology - and notably psychiatric phenomenology -, can provide a conceptual and clinical framework, taking into account subjective experience (first person perspective), based on a global understanding of the clinical situation lived by patients with schizophrenia. In the present review, we give a brief survey on the historical aspects of the description of negative symptoms. Then, we introduce the clinical contributions raised by clinical phenomenology. We principally develop Minkowski's notion of loss of vital contact, and Blankenburg's notion of loss of natural evidence. Then we highlight the current debates which are discussed and explored in contemporary psychopathology. In conclusion, we discuss the possible articulation between objective and subjective approaches, in order to better understand pauci-symptomatic forms of schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile. The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48, were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44, reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41, of phobic tendencies (r=40, of anxiety (r=0.39, and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38, and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43.
Full Text Available Background: The current study explored the relationship between parenting experience in childhood as a specific aspect of the non-shared environment and the amount of psychopathology in adulthood. Sampling and Methods: 27 same-sex sibling pairs were studied. In each pair, one proband was a psychiatric outpatient, the other proband a non-patient. All probands filled in the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. Results: The patients rated higher on practically all SCL-90-R scales whereas no significant differences were found with regard to the PBI ratings. With only one exception, there were no significant correlations between PBI and SCL-90-R ratings in the group of patients. In contrast, all SCL-90-R subscales correlated negatively with paternal care and half of them positively with paternal control in patients' healthy siblings. Conclusions: The degree of paternal care seems to be most closely related with lack of mental symptoms in psychiatric non-patients. In contrast, parenting does not seem to play a substantial role in patients, presenting with a higher degree of psychopathology. Obviously, environmental factors become less important, the more pronounced the pathology.
Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.
Sourkes, Barbara M.
The experience of siblings of a child with a life-threatening illness may be seen at the juncture of the following perspectives: (1) the family system; (2) a focus on living rather than on dying; and (3) a view toward positive adaptation rather than toward psychopathology. The most critical focus is on the sibling-patient relationship itself. (BJV)
Worland, J; Weeks, D G; Janes, C L; Strock, B D
The intelligence, academic achievement, and classroom behavior of 158 children were assessed in a sample that is being followed longitudinally. The sample included children at high risk for mental disorder by virtue of having a parent with a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia or affective disorder, children at moderate risk, and children at low risk. A series of path analyses indicated that in this sample (1) classroom behavior was more likely an affect that a cause of academic achievement, and (2) the influence of parental psychopathology on classroom behavior was mediated by a child's intelligence and academic achievement. We were unable to substantiate an unmediated causal link between parental psychopathology and children's academic achievement or classroom behavior.
Palmieri, Vincenzo O; Santovito, Daniela; Margari, Francesco; Lozupone, Madia; Minerva, Francesco; Di Gennaro, Carla; Todarello, Orlando; Palasciano, Giuseppe
In some tumors, psychosocial interventions may enhance health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients. The effects of psychological variables on HRQOL in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients have been rarely assessed. The aim of this work is to evaluate the psychopathological profile of HCC and cirrhotic patients and its effect on HRQOL. Twenty-four HCC patients (median age 71, Child A 21, Child B 3), 22 cirrhotic patients (median age 68, Child A 20, Child B 2) and 20 control subjects were included in this study. Each subject completes four questionnaires: medical outcomes study short form-36 (SF-36, HRQOL evaluation); Hamilton-D (quantitative evaluation of depression; positive ≥8); symptom check list 90-revised (SCL 90-R, general psychopathological profile; nine domains, each positive >1); Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS 20) (positive ≥60). SCL 90-R: cirrhotic patients differ from HCC subjects for somatization (SOM) (M ± SD 1.09 ± 0.6 vs 0.65 ± 0.6; p = 0.01) and anxiety (M ± SD 0.85 ± 0.46 vs 0.58 ± 0.38; p = 0.01) items. TAS 20: positive in 50% of HCC patients, in 54% of cirrhotic patients (p = n.s.) and in none of controls. Hamilton-D: higher scores in cirrhotic patients than in the HCC group (86 vs 46%; p = 0.005). SF-36: each item, except bodily pain, is lower in both group of patients in comparison with controls. Pearson correlation analysis shows negative correlations on HRQOL of depression, SOM and anxiety both in cirrhotic and HCC subjects, also of obsessive-compulsive and hostility items in HCC. This is the first report on the psychopathological profile of HCC patients: the results open questions on the role of psychological interventions that may improve HRQOL of patients before treatment and in the follow-up.
Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet
This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…
Gross, G; Huber, G
While in the midth the 19th century Griesinger and 80 years later Mayer-Gross regarded schizophrenia as a brain disease, a far-reaching change in the view of schizophrenia found expression in the review of Manfred Bleuler in 1951: All classical assumptions of the schizophrenia doctrine and especially, that schizophrenia could be classified a somatically conditioned illness and not psychogenic, would be, as he wrote, shaken severely. On the 1st International Meeting of Neuropathology in Rome (1952) the opinion became generally accepted that pathological changes of the brain could not be expected in schizophrenias. The neuropathological research into psychoses, considered as unfruitful, has been practically stopped. The World Congress of Zürich "The group of schizophrenias" has summarized through Walter Schulte that schizophrenia must be understood as a "riddle of the human being", unapproachable for the methods of scientific medicine. In contrary to the main trends of psychiatry of that time, we were convinced that schizophrenias have a pathological-somatic basis and considered the search for empirical indications of the somatosis hypothesis an aim of research having priority. Thus, we tried to associate findings gained with the available somatic methods (neurohistopathology, neuroradiology, neurophysiology, neuropsychology, neurochemistry) with clinical syndromes and course of the disorder. These investigations, directed to psychopathological-somatic correlations went already since the monograph of 1957 hand in hand with the gradual development of the basic symptom concept (BSC) and of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic symptoms (BSABS) and with our long-term course- and early recognition research. I originated with three observations, made at the Heidelberg Clinic of Kurt Schneider, (1.) the cenesthetic schizophrenia; (2.) the asthenic pure defect and (3.) lethal catatonias, patients who were diagnosed clinically as idiopathic schizophrenias, but could be
How to Talk to a Teenager about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to help inform and ... six to twelve year old child after a suicide attempt in the family. It is not intended to replace the advice ...
Garaigordobil, Maite; Pérez, José Ignacio; Mozaz, María
This study has two objectives: 1) to analyse the characteristics of self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms in accordance with age and gender in a representative sample from the Basque Country; and 2) to explore the relationships of self-concept and self-esteem with psychopathological symptoms. The sample is made up of 1,579 participants, aged 12 to 65, of whom 732 are males (46.4%) and 847 are females (53.6%). The study uses a descriptive and correlational methodology. For the measurement of psychopathological symptoms, self-concept and self-esteem, three assessment instruments are applied. The ANOVAs indicated significant differences associated with age in self-concept, self-esteem, and quantity of psychopathological symptoms. As regards gender, no significant differences were found for self-concept and self-esteem, but there were differences in psychopathological symptoms, with females scoring higher in various disorders (somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and total quantity of symptoms). The results of the correlational analyses confirmed significant inverse relationships between self-concept/self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion considers the potential role of intervention programmes that promote self-concept and self-esteem in the prevention of psychopathological problems.
A first reason for the psychiatrist to be interested in music, musicians and their artistic work, comes from the strong biographical and scientific evidence linking mood disorders and in particular, bipolar disorder, to artistic creativity. Moreover, a family association between psychopathology and creativity has been found in several studies. Important changes in mood, but also cognition, personality and behaviour can occur during all phases of manic-depressive illness and these changes have potentially important effects on creativity and productivity. Those changes are usually opposite in mania and depression. Many bipolar artists see emotional turmoil as essential to their creativity, which has therapeutical but also ethical consequences. A second area of interest is the impaired emotional recognition in schizophrenic patients, not only for visual material (faces or contextual scenes) but also for auditive material (voice or music) leading to impaired social interactions in this condition.
Perceptual control theory (PCT; Powers, 1973) is presented and adapted as a framework to understand the causes, maintenance, and treatment of psychological disorders. PCT provides dynamic, working models based on the principle that goal-directed activity arises from a hierarchy of negative feedback loops that control perception through control of the environment. The theory proposes that psychological distress arises from the unresolved conflict between goals. The present paper integrates PCT, control theory, and self-regulatory approaches to psychopathology and psychotherapy and recent empirical findings, particularly in the field of cognitive therapy. The approach aims to offer fresh insights into the role of goal conflict, automatic processes, imagery, perceptual distortion, and loss of control in psychological disorders. Implications for psychological therapy are discussed, including an integration of the existing work on the assessment of control profiles and the use of assertive versus yielding modes of control.
Full Text Available
Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED.
Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied multivariate regression models.
Results: Our results highlight a statistically significant relation between LH, FSH and prolactin decreased levels, mood and thought disturbances (subscales 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of SCL-90r which are associated to Body Attitude ( BAT total scale and Dissociative Experiences (DES II total scale.
Conclusions: Decreased sexual hormones levels could have a role in ED psychological disturbances, not inquired yet
Mallett, Christopher; De Rigne, Lea A; Quinn, Linda; Stoddard-Dare, Patricia
With suicide being the third leading cause of death among young people, early identification of risk is critical, particularly for those involved with the juvenile courts. In this study of court-involved youth (N = 433) in two Midwest counties, logistic regression analysis identified some expected and unexpected findings of important demographic, educational, mental health, child welfare, and juvenile court-related variables that were linked to reported suicide attempts. Some of the expected suicide attempt risk factors for these youth included prior psychiatric hospitalization and related mental health services, residential placement, and diagnoses of depression and alcohol dependence. However, the most unexpected finding was that a court disposition to shelter care (group home) was related to a nearly tenfold increased risk in reported suicide attempt. These findings are of importance to families, mental health professionals, and juvenile court personnel to identify those youth who are most at risk and subsequently provide appropriate interventions to prevent such outcomes.
Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Ballarotto, Giulia
The article aims to study mother-child and father-child interactions with 24-month-old children during feeding, considering the possible influence of time spent by the parent with the child, the infantile temperament, and the parental psychological profile. The families were recruited from 12 preschools in Italy (N = 77 families). Through an observation of the feeding [Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare (SVIA - Feeding Scale; I. Chatoor et al., ; L. Lucarelli et al., )], self-reporting [Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R; L.R. Derogatis, ), and report-form questionnaires [Italian Questionnaires on Temperament (QUIT; G. Axia, )], and information provided by the parents about the amount of time spent with their children, results showed that the overall quality of father-child interactions during feeding is lower than that of mother-child interactions. Fathers showed higher psychological symptoms than did mothers. No associations were found between the fathers' psychopathological risk and the quality of interactions with their children during feeding. Mothers' psychopathological risks predicted less contingent exchanges interactions with their children during feeding. Children's temperaments significantly influence mother-child interactions, but no association exists between maternal involvement and the quality of interactions with their children. Paternal involvement predicts a better quality of father-infant interactions when associated with a child's higher scores on Social Orientation. The quality of parents' interactions with their children during feeding are impacted by different issues originating from the parent's psychological profile, the degree of involvement, and from the child's temperament.
Manly, Jody Todd; Oshri, Assaf; Lynch, Michael; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne
Given the high prevalence of child neglect among maltreatment subtypes, and its association with exposure to additional environmental adversity, understanding the processes that potentiate child neglect and link neglect to subsequent child externalizing psychopathology may shed light on key targets for preventive intervention. Among 170 urban low-income children (ages 4-9) and their mothers, this 5-year prospective study examined the effects of early neglect severity and maternal substance abuse, as well as neighborhood crime, on children's later externalizing behavior problems. Severity of child neglect (up to age 6 years) mediated the relation between maternal drug dependence diagnosis (MDDD), determined at children's age of 4 years, and children's externalizing behavior problems at age 9. Rates of neighborhood crime mediated the link between presence of child neglect and children's externalizing behavior problems. The roles of MDDD, child neglect, and community violence in the development of child psychopathology are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention.
Full Text Available Objective. The difficulties to distinguish between infanticide and murder of the woman own child, experienced by both experts and the court, have been discussed on the example of the psychopathological description of the perpetrator killing five of her children, and data from the literature. Case. This paper describes an extremely rare case of the woman who has killed five of her children immediately after their birth over several years. Comment. It is very difficult to decide whether the seemingly rational motivation to kill her own child shortly after their birth can be a proof of specific psychopathological state which is a consequence of childbirth or an assassination planned in cold blood. The act of killing a child by their own mother is so contrary to nature that it seems easy to find the ground for psychosis or a state of emergency. However, when neither of them has been proven the experts are left with the conviction of both diagnostic deficiency and inexplicability of human behaviour.
Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina
INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...
Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Schredl, Michael; Jenni, Oskar G; Landolt, Markus A
Posttraumatic nightmares are considered as a reexperiencing symptom of the DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Different types of posttraumatic nightmares, however, may differ in their relation to psychopathology. Thirty-two children were longitudinally assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after traffic accidents. Occurrence and characteristics of nightmares were examined and their relation to psychopathology assessed. Thirty-four percent of children reported posttraumatic nightmares during at least one assessment. Exact replicative nightmares at baseline assessment predicted PTSD symptoms 2 and 6 months postaccident, but not depressive symptoms. Exact replicative nightmares revealed the strongest cross-sectional association with trauma-specific psychopathology but not with depression. The authors conclude that posttraumatic nightmares--especially exact replicative ones--may be closely related to psychopathological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress in children.
Draguns, Juris G; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko
Research based information on the impact of culture on psychopathology is reviewed, with particular reference to depression, somatization, schizophrenia, anxiety, and dissociation. A number of worldwide constants in the incidence and mode of expression of psychological disorders are identified, especially in relation to schizophrenia and depression. The scope of variation of psychopathological manifestations across cultures is impressive. Two tasks for future investigations involve the determination of the generic relationship between psychological disturbance and culture and the specification of links between cultural characteristics and psychopathology. To this end, hypotheses are advanced pertaining to the cultural dimensions investigated by Hofstede and their possible reflection in psychiatric symptomatology. It is concluded that the interrelationship of culture and psychopathology should be studied in context and that observer, institution, and community variables should be investigated together with the person's experience of distress and disability.
Causadias, José M
In this paper, I propose a roadmap for the integration of culture in developmental psychopathology. This integration is pressing because culture continues to be somewhat disconnected from theory, research, training, and interventions in developmental psychopathology, thus limiting our understanding of the epigenesis of mental health. I argue that in order to successfully integrate culture into developmental psychopathology, it is crucial to (a) study cultural development, (b) consider both individual-level and social-level cultural processes, (c) examine the interplay between culture and biology, and (d) promote improved and direct cultural assessment. I provide evidence in support of each of these guidelines, present alternative conceptual frameworks, and suggest new lines of research. Hopefully, that these directions will contribute to the emerging field of cultural development and psychopathology, which focuses on the elucidation of the cultural processes that initiate, maintain, or derail trajectories of normal and abnormal behavior.
With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.
This study of alterity in psychopathological language includes three parts: 1) The double without dialogue; 2) The ego(s) in the soliloguy; and here: 3) The sex of words. Two clinical cases (an asexuation delusion, an agressive misogyny) show the systemic interrelations in one of their sides only. The relations between neurosis, perversion, psychosis are operating into the sexuation and into the insatured dialogical structure of language. Enclosed alterity in language is the specific fact of psychopathology.
Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara
This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…
Lahey, Benjamin B; Krueger, Robert F; Rathouz, Paul J; Waldman, Irwin D; Zald, David H
We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences. Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the 3 levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record
Davies, Patrick T; Martin, Meredith J
Although children's security in the context of the interparental relationship has been identified as a key explanatory mechanism in pathways between family discord and child psychopathology, little is known about the inner workings of emotional security as a goal system. Thus, the objective of this paper is to describe how our reformulation of emotional security theory within an ethological and evolutionary framework may advance the characterization of the architecture and operation of emotional security and, in the process, cultivate sustainable growing points in developmental psychopathology. The first section of the paper describes how children's security in the interparental relationship is organized around a distinctive behavioral system designed to defend against interpersonal threat. Building on this evolutionary foundation for emotional security, the paper offers an innovative taxonomy for identifying qualitatively different ways children try to preserve their security and its innovative implications for more precisely informing understanding of the mechanisms in pathways between family and developmental precursors and children's trajectories of mental health. In the final section, the paper highlights the potential of the reformulation of emotional security theory to stimulate new generations of research on understanding how children defend against social threats in ecologies beyond the interparental dyad, including both familial and extrafamilial settings.
Paola De Rose
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate the current psychopathological problems of different forms associated with maltreatment on children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Ninety-five females and ninety males with a mean age of 8.8 years who have suffered in the last six months different forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional and neglect were included in the study. The current reaction to trauma as directly observed by clinical instruments was examined. Differences in gender, age at the time of medical examination, familial psychiatric disorders, neuropsychiatric status, and type of maltreatment were also taken into account. Results documented that 95.1% of abused children and adolescents developed a psychiatric disorder or a subclinical form of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Moreover, our data demonstrate a role for gender, age, and familial psychiatric comorbidity in the current psychopathological problems associated with maltreatment. Overall, our findings can help clinicians make a diagnosis and provide efficient treatment and prevention strategies for child maltreatment and abuse.
Full Text Available The idea to monitor and research psychopathological responses of physically injured persons in a more systematic manner has come from our observation of huge differences in patient behavior, whose psychological responses were noticeably changed and often inappropriate. The behavior aberrations were all the more striking because we treated wartime injuries in addition to peacetime ones. Our sample had 175 patient subjects, of both sexes different ages, marital status and professions. A group of 70 patients treated in the Institute for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology were divided into two subgroups. The first experimental subgroup (E1 consisted of 26 (37.1% patients physically injured in combat. The second subgroup (E2 had 44 (62.9% patients physically injured in peacetime circumstances (car accidents, work accidents, etc. The physical injuries encompassed injuries to spinal column and extremities. The control (K consisted of 105 subjects without physical injuries. The clinical picture and psychological reactions of the patients were examined by means of 4 instruments - PTSD-10 scale or posttraumatic symptoms scale [1 ], Family Homogeneity Index /FHI with 19 variables, applied to measure the relation between the family system homogeneity and accident effects , Short Eysenck's Personality Inventory applied to investigate neuroticism and extroversion and introversion traits , Late Effects of Accidental Injury Questionnaire . Our observations of psychological responses of patients in our ward (insomnia, sedatives intake were mostly confirmed by tests conducted with the above instruments. In the group of the wartime injured (E1, as well as in the control (K, Eysenck's scale proved a significantly higher degree of neuroticism in comparison to the peacetime injured. Such results indicated that the wartime injured would most probably develop the picture of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Such a conclusion was related not only to the
Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Waaktaar, Trine
The objective of this study was to determine predictors of repeated suicide attempts in young people, focusing on psychiatric illness. A longitudinal population-based register study of all adolescents born in Denmark between 1984 and 2006 was conducted. Greater numbers of hospitalizations, psychiatric diagnoses, and psychopharmacological medications prescribed to youth before and after the index attempt were risk factors for repeated suicide attempts. Parental diagnoses and drug prescriptions following a child's first suicide attempt moderated the risk of repeated attempts. Psychiatric illness is a strong predictor of repeated suicide attempts in young people, and those with co-morbid diagnoses are at increased risk of repeated suicide attempts. Treatment of psychiatric illness in the parents after their child's first suicide attempt is a potential protective factor.
Full Text Available BackgroundIn the present study, we have explored the link among styles of attachment and psychopathology in drug users. We know that insecure attachment predisposes the individuals the development of drug-addiction and psychopathological symptoms. However, we do not know which attachment is more frequent in drug users and which is related to particular psychopathological symptoms. The aim of the present work is to explore the relationship between childhood attachment state of mind, attachment in close relationships, parental bonding and psychopathology in sample of Italian substance users.MethodsWe explored, in a sample of 70 drug users and drug-addicted patients, the childhood attachment state of mind measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI, the attachment in close relationships by the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ and parental bonding measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI. The Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R measured psychopathological symptoms.ResultsWe found that parental bonding, rather than state of mind concerning childhood attachment or attachment in close relationships, is related to the psychopathological manifestation of anxiety, hostility, depression and paranoid ideation in the sample. The latter occurs frequently in our sample, independent of state of mind concerning child attachment, attachment in close relationships and parental bonding, suggesting its role either as a factor that favors a bad image of the participants’ own relationships or as a direct effect of consuming drugs. ConclusionThese results have clinical implications on suggesting ways of interventions that prevent drug addiction, which should include the evaluation of attachment in the prodromic phases of substance use onset or rehabilitation programs to prevent and manage psychotic-like symptoms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131 were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5% patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4% achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context
Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Joyce, Ann Marie
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by excessive daydreaming, mental confusion, slowness, and low motivation. Several teacher- and parent-report measures of SCT have recently been developed but a child self-report measure of SCT does not yet exist despite clear links between SCT and internalizing psychopathology (for which self-report is often desired). This study examined the initial reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory (CCI), a child self-report measure of SCT symptoms, in a school-based sample of 124 children (ages 8-13; 55% female). Children completed the CCI and measures of academic/social functioning, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. Teachers completed measures of psychopathology symptoms (including SCT) and academic/social functioning. Although exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) supported a 3-factor model of the CCI (consisting of slow, sleepy, and daydreamer scales closely resembling the factor structure of the parent-report version of this measure), bifactor modeling and omega reliability indices indicated that the CCI is best conceptualized as unidimensional. CCI scores were significantly correlated with teacher-rated SCT and were statistically distinct from teacher-rated ADHD and child-rated anxiety/depression. After controlling for sex, grade, and other psychopathology symptoms, the CCI total score was significantly associated with poorer child-reported academic/social functioning and self-worth in addition to increased loneliness and emotion dysregulation. Child ratings on the CCI were moderately to strongly correlated with poorer teacher-rated academic/social functioning but these associations were reduced to nonsignificance after controlling for demographics and other psychopathology symptoms. Findings provide preliminary support for the CCI, and future directions include replication with adolescents and clinical samples in order to further examine the CCI's factor structure, reliability, validity
Catherine A. Martin
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caffeine use, other drug use, and psychopathology in adolescents, using self-report measures. The study group consisted of 132 adolescents (average age 14.01 ± 2.06 years, 52% female, 19% African American, 5% other categories, 76% Caucasian. Most (47% were recruited from a child psychiatry clinic with emphasis on youth with disruptive disorders, with 35% from an adolescent pediatric clinic with emphasis on prevention of risk-taking behavior and 18% from a pediatric clinic for families with limited resources. Subjects were consecutively recruited before or after regular clinic visits. Consent was obtained from parents and assent from the youth. High caffeine consumption was associated with daily cigarette use; aggressive behavior; conduct, attention deficit/hyperactivity, and social problems; and increased somatic complaints in adolescents.
Riggs, Shelley A; Sahl, Gayla; Greenwald, Ellen; Atkison, Heather; Paulson, Adrienne; Ross, Colin A
The current study explored the role of early family environment and adult attachment style in explaining long-term outcomes among child abuse survivors. Adult patients (N = 80) in a trauma treatment program were assessed for clinical diagnosis and administered a multiscale questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses were significant for dissociative identity disorder (DID), substance abuse, anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress, somatization, and six personality disorder dimensions. Adult attachment styles were significant predictors of most outcome variables. Of particular note was the strong contribution of attachment avoidance to DID. Five family environment scales (Independence, Organization, Control, Conflict, Expressiveness) also contributed to various psychopathological outcomes. Evidence emerged supporting a mediating role for attachment style in the link between family independence and five personality disorder dimensions.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.
Vender, Simone; Poloni, Nicola; Aletti, Francesca; Bonalumi, Cristiano; Callegari, Camilla
The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores) was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.
Full Text Available Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ; (b The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90; (c The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; (d State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results: State anxiety and trait anxiety were correlated, to a statistically significant degree, with the family status of the students (p = 0.024 and the past visits to the psychiatrist (p = 0.039 respectively. The subscale of psychoticism is significantly related with the students’ origin, school, family status and semester. The subscale of neuroticism is significantly related with the students’ school. The subscale of extraversion is significantly related with the students’ family psychiatric history. Students, whose place of origin is Attica, have on average higher scores in somatization, phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation than the other students. Students from abroad have, on average, higher scores in interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism than students who hail from other parts of Greece. The majority of the students (79.7% do not suffer from depression, according to the Beck’s depression inventory scale. Conclusions: Anxiety, somatization, personality traits and depression are related with the students’ college life.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.
Eating disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders. The scientific study of eating disorders has expanded dramatically over the past few decades, and provided significant understanding of eating disorders and their treatments. Those significant advances notwithstanding, there is scant knowledge about key processes that are crucial to clinical improvement. The lack of understanding mechanisms that cause, maintain and change eating disorders, currently is the biggest problem facing the science of eating disorders. It hampers the development of really effective interventions that could be fine-tuned to target the mechanisms of change and, therefore, the development of more effective treatments. It is argued here that the science of eating disorders and eating disorder treatment could benefit tremendously from pure experimental studies into its mechanisms of change, that is, experimental psychopathology (EPP). To illustrate why eating disorders need more EPP research, some key symptoms - restriction of intake, binge eating and body overvaluation - will be discussed. EPP studies challenge some generally accepted views and offer a fresh new look at key symptoms. This will, consequently, better inform eating disorder treatments.
Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel
Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning.
Since this journal's inception, the field of adolescent brain development has flourished, as researchers have investigated the underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Explanations based on translational models initially attributed such behaviors to executive control deficiencies and poor frontal lobe function. This conclusion was bolstered by evidence that the prefrontal cortex and its interconnections are among the last brain regions to structurally and functionally mature. As substantial heterogeneity of prefrontal function was revealed, applications of neuroeconomic theory to adolescent development led to dual systems models of behavior. Current epidemiological trends, behavioral observations, and functional magnetic resonance imaging based brain activity patterns suggest a quadratic increase in limbically mediated incentive motivation from childhood to adolescence and a decline thereafter. This elevation occurs in the context of immature prefrontal function, so motivational strivings may be difficult to regulate. Theoretical models explain this patterning through brain-based accounts of subcortical-cortical integration, puberty-based models of adolescent sensation seeking, and neurochemical dynamics. Empirically sound tests of these mechanisms, as well as investigations of biology-context interactions, represent the field's most challenging future goals, so that applications to psychopathology can be refined and so that developmental cascades that incorporate neurobiological variables can be modeled.
Tonioni, Federico; Corvino, Stefano
The development of the Internet and its gradual mass distribution in the last 20 years have marked the beginning of a global revolution in the way of communicating and thinking. In this context, emerged disorders related to a pathological use of the network, up to forms of real addiction (Internet Addiction Disorder), similar to the use of psychotropic substances. The abuse of the Internet can seriously aggravate pre-existing psychopathological traits, which are the basis of addiction, resulting in a continuous process of disconnection from reality. The loss of interpersonal relationships, the change of mood, cognition completely oriented to the use of the network and disruption of temporal experience are common features in patients addicted to the Internet. There are also clear signs of intoxication and abstinence. Teenagers are particularly at risk, maybe because born in the "new virtual world" and therefore less aware of the risks that may ensue. At the Gemelli Hospital in Rome it's active an out-patient service for Internet Addiction Disorder with a treatment protocol that includes individual interviews, group rehabilitation and self-help groups for family members.
Paraphrasing Taylor and Fink (2003), catatonia needs "a home of its own" in child and adolescent psychiatry. Limited but expanding literature supports that catatonia in children and adolescent can be identified reliably among other childhood conditions, is sufficiently common, treatable with the same specific treatments as adult catatonia (e.g., sedative drugs and electroconvulsive therapy), and can be worsened by other treatments (e.g., antipsychotics). Other findings in child and adolescent catatonia suggest that sex ratio and associated disorders may differ, and the proposed classification of Taylor and Fink (2003) needs modification. Adopting a broader diagnostic schedule may accommodate both child, adolescent, and adult catatonia. A psychomotor automatism variant should be included as a diagnosis, as well as specifiers for associated disorders such as acute nonpsychotic anxious state and pervasive developmental disorder. Duration of illness should be specified as acute or chronic. Regardless of associated psychiatric disorders, this chapter describes a new psychopathological model. Three main modalities of movement dysfunction in catatonic subjects are listed: (1) adherence to delusional ideas leading to a psychomotor automatism (De Clérambault, 1927); (2) resistance to delusional thinking or conviction; and finally (3) hyperanxious states. Case-vignettes illustrate the model, and future research directions are identified.
Bousoño Serrano, Matilde; Al-Halabí, Susana; Burón, Patricia; Garrido, Marlen; Díaz-Mesa, Eva María; Galván, Gonzalo; García-Álvarez, Leticia; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Bousoño, Manuel; García-Portilla, María Paz; Iglesias, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bobes, Julio
Substance and Internet use or abuse, psychopathology and suicidal ideation appear to be related. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between use of psychotropic substances, inadequate Internet use, suicidal ideation and other psychopathological symptoms within the adolescent population. The present study was carried out as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project, funded by the European Union. The sample is composed of 1026 adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years from 12 state schools in Asturias (530 men and 496 women). This study adds to the possibility of knowing whether the SEYLE data is confirmed in a relatively isolated and recession hit province of Spain. In the present study the following consumption rates were obtained: a) alcohol 11.89% in males and 7.86% in females; b) tobacco: 4.15% and 5.44 % in males and females respectively; c) other drugs: 6.98% in males and 4.44% in females; d) maladaptive or pathological Internet use: 14.53% and 20.77% in males and females respectively. The variables that predict suicide ideation in the logistic regression model were: previous suicide attempts, depression, maladaptive or pathological Internet use, peer problems and alcohol consumption.
Full Text Available Very preterm birth (VPT; <32 weeks of gestation has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset.Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity.However, the aetiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies.Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological and psychosocial factors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known about the long-term psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia. The existing literature describes more severe courses of illness in these patients compared with adult-onset schizophrenia. This article reports preliminary data of a study exploring the outcome of early-onset schizophrenia 13.4 years (mean after first admission. Predictors for interindividual outcomes were investigated. Methods We retrospectively assessed 27 former patients (mean age at first admission 15.5 years, SD = 2.0 that were consecutively admitted to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Wuerzburg between 1990 and 2000. A multidimensional approach was chosen to assess the outcome consisting of a mail survey including different questions about psychopathological symptoms, psychosocial parameters, and standardized self-reports (ESI and ADS. Results Concerning the psychopathological outcome, 22.2% reported having acute schizophrenic symptoms. Almost one third (30.8% described symptoms of depression and 37.0% reported having tried to commit suicide or seriously thought about it. 77.8% of the former patients were still in outpatient treatment. Compared to the general population, the number of patients without a school graduation was relatively high (18.5%. Almost half of participants still live with their parents (48.1% or in assisted or semi-assisted living conditions (33.3%. Only 18.5% were working in the open market. Conclusion Schizophrenia with an early onset has an unfavourable prognosis. Our retrospective study of the psychopathological and psychosocial outcome concludes with a generally poor rating.
Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec
We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide and suicide attempts represent a severe problem for public health services. The aim of this study is to determine the socio-demographic and psychopathological variables associated with suicide attempts in the population admitted to a General Hospital. Methods An observational-descriptive study of patients admitted to the A Coruña University Hospital (Spain during the period 1997-2007, assessed by the Consultation and Liaison Psychiatric Unit. We include n = 5,234 admissions from 4,509 patients. Among these admissions, n = 361 (6.9% were subsequent to a suicide attempt. Admissions arising from a suicide attempt were compared with admissions occurring due to other reasons. Multivariate generalised estimating equation logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with suicide attempts. Results Adjusting by age, gender, educational level, cohabitation status, being employed or unemployed, the psychiatric diagnosis at the time of the interview and the information on previous suicide attempts, we found that the variables associated with the risk of a suicide attempt were: age, psychiatric diagnosis and previous suicide attempts. The risk of suicide attempts decreases with age (OR = 0.969. Psychiatric diagnosis was associated with a higher risk of suicide attempts, with the highest risk being found for Mood or Affective Disorders (OR = 7.49, followed by Personality Disorders (OR = 7.31, and Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders (OR = 5.03. The strongest single predictive factor for suicide attempts was a prior history of attempts (OR = 23.63. Conclusions Age, psychopathological diagnosis and previous suicide attempts are determinants of suicide attempts.
Full Text Available The case history and management of a 26 years old adult is reported who presented with an unusual symptom of sexual experience, in the background of symptoms of depression and anxiety; had been given multiple diagnoses at multiple points of time and treated with multiple medications. On establishment of rapport, he revealed details of his unusual experiences, which had been unexplored. When he was about 11 years and ten months, he sat next to a lady; he could perceive a particular experience for the first time in his life. And next time with another lady too he perceived a particular type of smell (“madaka gandha” meaning an intoxicating smell along with the other feelings. He began to have these feelings whenever he was in the vicinity of a female except his mother and sister. The smell reminded him of roses vaguely and was at least ten to 20 times more pleasurable than an orgasm that he got with masturbation. These feelings were more pleasurable than he could ever imagine and happened always with the presence of a female in the vicinity. This was never associated with periods of unresponsiveness or any other history suggestive of seizures. He titled the experience as “anubhoothi”. These experiences occurred on a regular basis for a period of ten months following which there was abrupt cessation of the same, without any intervention. Later he developed all symptoms. A coordinated management plan spearheaded by the multi-disciplinary treatment team could bring down his symptoms as well as make him functional. This case indicates that it is essential to explore abnormalities of experiences to understand the psychopathology and plan management.
Full Text Available Aim: Review of conclusions from cluster analysis research on suicide risk factors published after the year 1993. Methods: Search and analysis of cluster analysis research papers on suicidal behaviour. Results: Following groups where distinguished: (1 persons with comorbid mental disorders or with severe symptoms, (2 persons without mental disorders or with mild symptoms, (3 persons with personality disorders and externalizing psychopathology, (4 socially withdrawn persons with a tendency to avoid social contacts, (5 depressive persons Conclusions: Analysis of studies on characteristics of suicide attempters, with the application of cluster analysis, has indicated the possibility of differentiation of several groups of persons with significantly increased risk of suicide attempt. The reviewed cluster analysis research had multiple methodological limitations. Studies employing cluster analysis on large, representative and homogeneous population are needed.
Full Text Available Field study to assess the concurrence of the psychopathology of drug addiction, and to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatment versus drug-free treatments for the psychopathology of drug addiction. A total of 261 patients treated for drug addiction, 131 on a drug-free treatment and the remaining 130 patients received a drug regime, of which 113 were, according to the Prochaska and Decrement’s Transtheorical Model, in a initial phase of the treatment (from 15 days to 6 months of treatment and 148 in a maintenance phase in drug treatment (> 6 months, were psychopathologically assessed using the SCL-90-R (Derogatis, 2002. A field study with a 2 X 2 design (treatment: drug-free vs. drug-regime and (treatment phase: initial phase vs. maintenance in drug treatment was carried out. The results support the hypothesis of a dual diagnosis, that is, the comorbidity of psychopathology and drug addiction. On the whole, treatment for drug addiction had a significant impact on reducing associated psychopathology. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of the implications for the treatment of drug addiction.
Castillo, Diane T; Joseph, Jeremy S; Tharp, Andra T; C'de Baca, Janet; Torres-Sena, Lorraine M; Qualls, Clifford; Miller, Mark W
Subtypes of posttraumatic psychopathology were replicated and extended in 254 female veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cluster analyses on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Personality Psychopathology Five scales (Harkness, McNulty, & Ben-Porath, ) yielded internalizing and externalizing psychopathology dimensions, with a third low psychopathology group (simple PTSD). Externalizers were higher than the internalizers and the simple PTSD groups on the antisocial, substance, and aggression scales; internalizers were higher on depression and anxiety scales. Further validation included an independent measure of psychopathology to examine anger (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, [BDHI]; Buss & Durkee, ). Externalizers were higher on extreme behavioral anger scales (assault and verbal hostility); and externalizers and internalizers were higher than the simple PTSD subjects on other anger scales. Positive correlations between the BDHI scales and the PTSD symptom of "irritability and anger outbursts" were found across scales in the total sample (range: r = .19-.36), on the assault scale in externalizers (r = .59), and the verbal hostility scale in both internalizers (r = .30) and simple PTSD (r = .37) groups, suggesting the broad utility of the symptom in the diagnosis. The results demonstrate the generalizability of the internalizing/externalizing typology to the female veteran population and highlight clinically relevant distinctions in anger expression within PTSD.
A. A. Lukshina
Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on meningiomas and their psychopathological manifestations that occupy a central position in the clinical picture in almost every 5 patients with these tumors. The authors provide a clinical and psychopathological analysis of a female patient with multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere: a giant meningioma in the posterior third of the falx, a large meningioma in the temporal region, and three small meningiomas in the frontal and parietal regions. The disease started as headache; however, psychopathological symptoms remained missed by physicians, such as emotional lability; personality changes leading to family dissension; lower criticism; spatial orientation problems; hypomnesia; left-sided visual inattention,occurred in parallel. Surgical treatment was performed by stages: the two largest meningiomas were removed at an 11-day interval, which presented a means of observing psychopathological changes after each operation. It is concluded that greater attention should be given to the psychopathological manifestations of the disease, which is important to make a primary diagnosis and to define further treatment policy.
Modern molecular psychiatry benefits immensely from the scientific and technological advances of general neuroscience (including genetics, epigenetics, and proteomics). This "progress" of molecular psychiatry, however, will be to a degree "unbalanced" and "epiphytic" should the development of the corresponding theoretical frameworks and conceptualization tools that allow contextualization of the individual neuroscientific findings within the specific perspective of mental health care issues be neglected. The General Psychopathology, published by Karl Jaspers in 1913, is considered a groundbreaking work in psychiatric literature, having established psychopathology as a space of critical methodological self-reflection, and delineating a scientific methodology specific to psychiatry. With the advance of neurobiology and molecular neuroscience and its adoption in psychiatric research, however, a growing alienation between current research-oriented neuropsychiatry and the classical psychopathological literature is evident. Further, consensus-based international classification criteria, although useful for providing an internationally accepted system of reliable psychiatric diagnostic categories, further contribute to a neglect of genuinely autonomous thought on psychopathology. Nevertheless, many of the unsolved theoretical problems of psychiatry, including those in the areas of nosology, anthropology, ethics, epistemology and methodology, might be fruitfully addressed by a re-examination of classic texts, such as Jaspers's General Psychopathology, and their further development and adaptation for 21st century psychiatry.
Davies, Patrick T; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G; Vonhold, Sara E
Two studies examined the nature and processes underlying the joint role of interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as predictors of children's disruptive behavior problems. Participants for both studies included a high-risk sample of 201 mothers and their 2-year-old children in a longitudinal, multimethod design. Addressing the form of the interplay between interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as risk factors for concurrent and prospective levels of child disruptive problems, the Study 1 findings indicated that maternal antisocial personality was a predictor of the initial levels of preschooler's disruptive problems independent of the effects of interparental violence, comorbid forms of maternal psychopathology, and socioeconomic factors. In attesting to the salience of interparental aggression in the lives of young children, latent difference score analyses further revealed that interparental aggression mediated the link between maternal antisocial personality and subsequent changes in child disruptive problems over a 1-year period. To identify the family mechanisms that account for the two forms of intergenerational transmission of disruptive problems identified in Study 1, Study 2 explored the role of children's difficult temperament, emotional reactivity to interparental conflict, adrenocortical reactivity in a challenging parent-child task, and experiences with maternal parenting as mediating processes. Analyses identified child emotional reactivity to conflict and maternal unresponsiveness as mediators in pathways between interparental aggression and preschooler's disruptive problems. The findings further supported the role of blunted adrenocortical reactivity as an allostatic mediator of the associations between parental unresponsiveness and child disruptive problems.
Schleider, Jessica L; Weisz, John R
Research shows relations between entity theories-i.e., beliefs that traits and abilities are unchangeable-and youth psychopathology. A common interpretation has been that entity theories lead to psychopathology, but another possibility is that psychopathology predicts entity theories. The two models carry different implications for developmental psychopathology and intervention design. We tested each model's plausibility, examining longitudinal associations between entity theories of thoughts, feelings, and behavior and psychopathology in early adolescents across one school year (N = 59, 52 % female, ages 11-14, 0 % attrition). Baseline entity theories did not predict increases in psychopathology; instead, baseline psychopathology predicted increased entity theories over time. When symptom clusters were assessed individually, greater youth internalizing (but not externalizing) problems predicted subsequent increases in entity theories. Findings suggest that the commonly proposed predictive model may not be the only one warranting attention. They suggest that youth psychopathology may contribute to the development of certain kinds of entity theories.
Henrichs, J.; Bogaerts, S.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Klerx, F.
This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and v
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability......Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...
Haynes, S.H.; O'Brien, W.H.; Kaholokula, J.K.; Witteman, C.L.M.
This paper discusses and integrates concepts of causality in psychopathology, clinical assessment, clinical case formulation and the functional analysis. We propose that identifying causal variables, relations and mechanisms in psychopathology and clinical assessment can lead to more powerful and e
Batten, Lisa A.; Hernandez, Mariely; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Blier, Pierre; Flament, Martine F.; Poh, Ernest; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M.
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of current psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents (collectively called children) of mothers entering treatment for depression; to examine maternal predictors of child psychopathology among children of depressed mothers; and to determine consistency of findings with a similar child study ancillary…
McLaughlin, Katie A
Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.
Haack, Lauren M; Kapke, Theresa L; Gerdes, Alyson C
The Latino youth population is rapidly growing and expected to comprise nearly 40% of the total youth population by 2060. Unfortunate disparities exist in the United States (U.S.), such that young Latinos are less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to receive and benefit from mental health services. In order to identify and prioritize specific areas of mental health outreach, the current study examined preliminary rates, associations, and predictors of child psychopathology in a convenience sample of Latino youth. 123 Spanish and English speaking Latino parents of school-aged children completed a series of questionnaires regarding child and family functioning. Latino youth in the current sample demonstrated comparable rates of psychopathology to non-referred, normative samples. Parental acculturation (particularly Separated parental acculturation status: high orientation to Latino culture and low orientation to U.S. mainstream culture) was associated with an increased prevalence of clinically significant psychopathology across several domains, and socioeconomic status was associated with an increased prevalence of thought problems. Additionally, Separated parental acculturation status significantly predicted the prevalence of clinically significant anxious/depressed problems, such that youth of parents displaying Separated acculturation status were significantly more represented in the clinically-elevated groups than the functional groups. These preliminary results suggest that prioritizing outreach to Latino youth of parents maintaining orientation to Latino culture but not U.S. mainstream culture may be necessary in order to begin addressing existing mental health disparities in the U.S.
McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine
Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…
Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John M; Keyes, Corey L M
To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed withthe Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing.
Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W.
Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms…
group, although at least four per cent of all children under one year of age, is subjected to child abuse and neglect. In her study, Else Christensen has attempted to estimate the extent of the problem among children under the age of one year. Furthermose, she has made a theoetical and practical...... clarification of the concept child abuse and neglect. Excatly which signs is the health nurse to observe in order to employ the serious term child abuse and neglect?...
Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon
This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…
Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...
Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.
Turecki, Gustavo; Ota, Vanessa Kiyomi; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Jackowski, Andrea; Kaufman, Joan
Child maltreatment is associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders, and a range of health problems later in life. The aim of this paper is to review emerging data on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the etiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders with a focus on future avenues of investigation. Epigenetic processes are described, key findings in the field presented, clinical implications of the research discussed, methodological issues, and future avenues of research considered. Research suggests that adverse early experiences can lead to changes in gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms that can alter stress reactivity, brain function, and behavior. While these changes are frequently long lasting, they can be reversed through pharmacological and environmental manipulations. The complexity of the epigenome is not fully understood. Future studies should investigate epigenetic marks other than methylcytosine, and assess the efficacy of interventions to reverse epigenetic processes associated with early-life adversity. PMID:26361201
La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi
Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)
Moor, Sasha; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Beumont, P. J. V.
Do the levels of psychopathology displayed by patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) more closely resemble those displayed by full-criteria anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients than they do those of non-eating-disorder controls? Three groups of eating disorder patients (anorexia nervosa, n = 27; bulimia nervosa, n = 23;…
Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans
We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…
Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…
Gilbert, Kirsten E
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by elevated stress, heightened risky behaviors, and increases in psychopathology. Emotion dysregulation is a hypothesized contributor to negative outcomes and to the onset of psychopathology during adolescence. However, the dysregulation of negative emotion has been the focus of research while the literature on positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology is limited. This review highlights both the development of normative and dysregulated positive emotion during adolescence. First, the literature on normative adolescent emotional development and on negative emotional regulation is briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of current theories of positive emotion, which are grounded in the adult literature. From a developmental perspective, the dimension of approach motivation within positive emotion is emphasized throughout and frames the review. This conceptualization guides organization of literatures on normative experiences of positive emotion in adolescence and the role of dysregulated positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology, specifically adolescent depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, externalizing disorders and eating disorders. Last, future directions in the study of adolescent positive emotion and its regulation and the implications of highlighting approach motivation in normative and dysregulated positive emotion in adolescence are detailed.
Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara
The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…
The Kantian idea of freedom was introduced to psychiatry methodologically by Karl Jaspers. It influenced the genesis and design of his doctrine of understanding, General Psychopathology, even more decisively than Nietzsche's topos of resentment did. This article places Jaspers' work in the framework of a history of ideas. It begins by pursuing Nietzsche's perspective in the context of Darwinism, then focuses on the role concealed resentment played for Jaspers' genealogical concept of understanding in the first (1913) edition of General Psychopathology, which is primarily oriented towards Max Weber, before examining the idea of Kantian freedom, which was to become crucial for Jaspers' later work. The antinomy of freedom already shapes the suicidology contained in Jaspers' Philosophy of 1931. The idea gains prominence in the final, philosophically grounded revision of GeneralPsychopathology published in 1941/1942. Jaspers' reception of Kantian idealism leads him to develop a concept of critical understanding that clearly distinguishes itself from speculative understanding, whose hazards Jaspers illustrates on the basis of Viktor von Weizsäcker's theory of medicine. This goes far beyond Kant, embracing Schelling and Hegel philosophically. As it were, Jaspers and von Weizsäcker represent critical and postcritical thought in psychopathology and psychosomatics. The epilogue sums up by placing the inquiry in the context of Jaspers' life and work.
Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea
The study's aim was to empirically derive the psychopathological constellation associated with self-centrality (i.e. non-delusional self-referential attitude) by seeking an interpretation in the light of the 'Basic Symptoms Model' of schizophrenic psychopathology. Eighty-four patients with an established schizophrenic illness receiving maintenance treatment at the Psychiatry Section of the Parma University Neuroscience Department were examined. The Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms, the Calgary Depression Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale were administered to all subjects to determine levels of positive, disorganized, negative and depressive symptoms, as well as alexithymia. Subjective experiences, including non-delusional self-centrality, were explored by means of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms. Logistic regression detected three different psychopathological domains (delusional, alexithymic, and basic body symptoms) strongly associated with self-centrality. Among these the most influential independent variable was basic body symptoms. These results suggest that impaired lived body experience (i.e. protopathic body disattunement) is a psychopathologic condition concomitant with the emergence of autocentric polarization of experience (i.e. self-centrality).
Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Porter, Guy; Fenech, Pauline
The objective of this study was to examine associations between problem video game use and psychopathology. The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users and SCL-90 assessed dimensions of…
Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo
The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder.
Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam
Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…
Full Text Available Aim. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII is used as an option in patients with diabetes failing to multiple daily injections (MDI. Psychological factors may play a relevant role in the failure to attain therapeutic goals in patients on MDI. This could lead to an overrepresentation of psychopathology in patients treated with CSII. Methods. A consecutive series of 100 patients with type 1 diabetes was studied, collecting main clinical parameters and assessing psychopathology with the self-reported questionnaire Symptom Checklist 90-revised. Patients on CSII were then compared with those on MDI. Results. Of the 100 enrolled patients, 44 and 56 were on CSII and MDI, respectively. Among men, those on CSII were younger than those on MDI; conversely, no difference in age was observed in women. Women on CSII showed higher scores on most Symptom Checklist 90 subscales than those on MDI, whereas no differences were observed in men. Conclusion. Women with type 1 diabetes treated with CSII display higher levels of psychopathology than those on MDI. This is probably the consequence of the fact that patients selected for CSII are those failing to MDI. Higher levels of psychopathology could represent a limit for the attainment and maintenance of therapeutic goals with CSII.
Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.
Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…
Full Text Available We describe the case of a 44-year-old woman, without known previous psychiatric history, hospitalized after a significant hemorrhage caused by self-inflicted deep facial dermal lesions (with muscle exposition. Psychopathological possible explanations of this case, as in similar reviewed ones, are related to frustration, aggression, and impulsivity.
Bille Brahe, U.; Egebo, H.; Crepet, P.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.
Abstract In order to measure social support among suicide attempters, an instrument was especially designed to be included in the follow-up interview study being part of the WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide which is carried out in cooperation with EC Concerted Action on Attempted Suicide. I
Badawi, M A; Eaton, W W; Myllyluoma, J; Weimer, L G; Gallo, J
against mortality include higher household income, not living as extended members in a married couple family, and living with children in the household. Persons who were unemployed, widowed or single, without high school education, male, and 65 years of age or older were more likely to die. Sample loss was influenced by cognitive impairment, antisocial personality, and cocaine use. Household factors linked to sample loss include living in female-headed families, or non-family households, and living alone. Young nonwhite, divorced/separated, without high school education, and unemployed were also harder to find. Refusal was associated with being white, with incomplete elementary education, living as a spouse in traditional married couple families, or as a child in female-headed families. Psychopathology did not influence refusal.
Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A
Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts.
Hedeland, Rikke; Jørgensen, Marianne H; Teilmann, Grete;
Aims: To explore: (1) The relationship between children admitted to our paediatric department as a result of suicide attempts with acetaminophen and their parents and friends. (2) The extent to which the children had attempted to speak to their parents about their problems before their suicide...... Hospital, Denmark, 2006-2011. Study group: 107 children, 11 to 15 years old. Control group: 59 age- and gender-matched children. Results: 43.5% experienced a dissociated parental relationship characterized by the inability to speak to their parents about any problems, compared with 2% in the control group.......02). Prior to their suicide attempts, 41.5% of the children had attempted to speak to their parents about their problems but felt that they were not heard. There was a significant association among 'the feeling of not being heard' and the purpose of the suicide attempt (p = 0.002) and self-mutilation (p = 0...
Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Zammit, Stanley; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate
Previous cross-sectional research has shown that parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have high rates of psychopathology, especially ADHD and depression. However, it is not clear whether different types of parent psychopathology contribute to the course and persistence of ADHD in the child over time. The aim of this two wave study was to investigate if mother self-reported ADHD and depression influence persistence of offspring ADHD and conduct disorder symptom severity in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. A sample of 143 males with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in this study. ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms were assessed at baseline and reassessed 4 years later. The boys in this sample had a mean age of 10.7 years at Time 1 (SD 2.14, range 6-15 years) and 13.73 years at Time 2 (SD 1.74, range 10-17 years). Questionnaire measures were used to assess ADHD and depression symptoms in mothers at Time 1. Mother self-reported ADHD was not associated with a change in child ADHD or conduct symptom severity over time. Mother self-reported depression was found to predict an increase in child conduct disorder symptoms, but did not contribute to ADHD symptom levels. This study provides the first evidence that concurrent depression in mothers may be a predictor of worsening conduct disorder symptoms in adolescents with ADHD. It may, therefore, be important to screen for depression in mothers of children with ADHD in clinical practice to tailor interventions accordingly.
As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...
Nagendra Gouda M
Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.
Levy, S R; Jurkovic, G L; Spirito, A
The present study tested an ecologically based model, which predicted that hopelessness (individual level) mediates the effects of family dysfunction (interpersonal level) and socioeconomic status (sociocultural level) on both suicidal intent and suicidal ideation, within a sample of attempters. Subjects included adolescent males and females presenting at a general hospital emergency room following suicide attempts. Baron and Kenny's (1986) criteria for testing mediation models through multiple-regression analyses were employed. Little evidence of mediation was found. Hopelessness proved to be the best predictor of suicidal intent and ideation within a sample of attempters.
Full Text Available Trichotillomania (TTM is still a scarcely known and often inadequately treated disorder in Italian clinical settings, despite growing evidence about its severe and disabling consequences. The current study investigated the phenomenology of TTM in Italian individuals; in addition, we sought to examine patterns of self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and OCD-related symptoms in individuals with TTM compared to healthy participants. The current study represents the first attempt to investigate the phenomenological and psychopathological features of TTM in Italian hair pullers. One hundred and twenty-two individuals with TTM were enrolled: 24 were assessed face-to-face (face-to-face group and 98 were recruited online (online group. An additional group of 22 face-to-face assessed healthy controls (HC group was included in the study. The overall female to male ratio was 14:1, which is slightly higher favoring female than findings reported in literature. Main results revealed that a higher percentage of individuals in the online group reported pulling from the pubic region than did face-to-face participants; furthermore, the former engaged in examining the bulb and running the hair across the lips and reported pulling while lying in bed at higher frequencies than the latter. Interestingly, the online TTM group showed greater functional and psychological impairment, as well as more severe psychopathological characteristics (self-esteem, physiological and social anxiety, perfectionism, overestimation of threat, and control of thoughts, than the face-to-face one. Differences between the two TTM groups may be explained by the anonymity nature of the online group, which may have led to successful recruitment of more serious TTM cases, or fostered more open answers to questions. Overall, results revealed that many of the phenomenological features of Italian TTM participants matched those found in U.S. clinical settings, even though some notable differences were
Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Kushner, Shauna C; Rule, Nicholas
The present study examined whether thin-slice ratings of child personality serve as a resource-efficient and theoretically valid measurement of child personality traits. We extended theoretical work on the observability, perceptual accuracy, and situational consistency of childhood personality traits by examining intersource and interjudge agreement, cross-situational consistency, and convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of thin-slice ratings. Forty-five unacquainted independent coders rated 326 children's (ages 8-12) personality in 1 of 15 thin-slice behavioral scenarios (i.e., 3 raters per slice, for over 14,000 independent thin-slice ratings). Mothers, fathers, and children rated children's personality, psychopathology, and competence. We found robust evidence for correlations between thin-slice and mother/father ratings of child personality, within- and across-task consistency of thin-slice ratings, and convergent and divergent validity with psychopathology and competence. Surprisingly, thin-slice ratings were more consistent across situations in this child sample than previously found for adults. Taken together, these results suggest that thin slices are a valid and reliable measure to assess child personality, offering a useful method of measurement beyond questionnaires, helping to address novel questions of personality perception and consistency in childhood.
Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars
Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.
Jarodzka, H. (2012, 27 April). Visual expertise: characteristics and instructional attempts. Presentation during the ‘Symposium 4C-ID: Hoe implementer je de blauwdruk?’, Studiecentrum Open Universiteit, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Reiss, S; Havercamp, S
Sensitivity theory holds that people differ in both the types of reinforcement they desire and in the amounts of reinforcement they need to satiate. People who crave too much love, too much attention, too much acceptance, too much companionship, or too much of some other fundamental reinforcer are at risk for aberrant behavior because normative behavior does not produce the desired amounts of reinforcement. People who are intolerant of even everyday amounts of anxiety or frustration also are at risk for aberrant behavior. Individual differences in desired amounts of particular reinforcers may predict person-environment interactions, risk factors for psychopathology, and the occurrence of generalized and durable therapy effects versus the occurrence of relapses. Parallel predictions are made for individual differences in tolerance of aversive stimuli. Implications are discussed for applied behavior analysis, the development of psychopathology, and treatment strategies.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the distress associated to psychopathology in children and adolescents. The sample included 330 children aged 8 to 17 years attending outpatient mental health services of the public network in Barcelona(Spain assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. A substantial part of children brought to treatment suffered distress associated to internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms. Psychological distress was most frequent among girls and among adolescents, and was more frequently reported by children and adolescents than by their parents. It was also a marker of perception of need of psychological help, and it was significantly related to diagnosis, subthreshold conditions and functional impairment. Individual symptoms of depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder were most associated with psychological distress. Given the potential importance of subjective distress as well as impairment for the identification and definition of psychopathology and planning of treatment, diagnostic assessment should include questions related to distress.
Full Text Available Masturbation is common in all societies. Despite being common, it is admonished culturally and almost all religions prohibit masturbation and consider it an act of immorality. The prohibition for masturbation leads to a lot of cultural beliefs, including certain myths, which influence sexual behavior of the person. The impact of these common cultural myths associated with masturbation, are clinically understood as Dhat syndrome and masturbatory guilt. Although there is a reasonable literature on Dhat syndrome, there is limited literature with regard to masturbatory guilt especially linking the same with axis-I psychopathology. In this case series, three cases of masturbatory guilt are presented in whom masturbatory guilt was associated with manifestation of severe psychopathology. This report suggests that masturbatory guilt must be enquired for in patients presenting with severe mental disorder.
Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett; Kim, Young Shin; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il
To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them.
Full Text Available We present data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology of 358 children and adolescents (4–17 years. Data on maltreatment profiles has been categorized into six major maltreatment types: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, sexual abuse with penetration, exposure to intimate partner violence and neglect. The data on history of maltreatment is based on the interview version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ. Additionally data on psychopathology in general as well as specific disorders according to DSM-IV based on K-SADS-PL is presented. The data was used to examine patterns of co-occurrences of maltreatment and associated clinical outcome variables using latent class analysis (LCA, “Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables” (Witt et al., .
David González Pando
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore empirically the learning potential of people with schizophrenia in opposite conditions of psychopathological stability. For this purpose, a general procedure of conditional discrimination learning was introduced by conducting a study on the formation of equivalence classes. The sample consisted of 8 inpatient adults included in the program of Severe Mental Disorders, aged between 20 and 53 years. Because of dropouts, the initial procedure was modified in order to reduce the duration and attentional effort of the task. The results showed that people with schizophrenia can acquire stimulus equivalence with standard procedure both in terms of stability and psychopathological decompensation, in the presence of strong positive symptoms. This finding is relevant both for therapy, conceived in terms of learning, and for designing programs in the context of rehabilitation and recovery in schizophrenia.
Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett; Kim, Young Shin; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il
To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them. PMID:24719154
The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…
Hayden, Elizabeth P; Hanna, Brigitte; Sheikh, Haroon I; Laptook, Rebecca S; Kim, Jiyon; Singh, Shiva M; Klein, Daniel N
The dopamine active transporter 1 (DAT1) gene is implicated in psychopathology risk. Although the processes by which this gene exerts its effects on risk are poorly understood, a small body of research suggests that the DAT1 gene influences early emerging negative emotionality, a marker of children's psychopathology risk. As child negative emotionality evokes negative parenting practices, the DAT1 gene may also play a role in gene-environment correlations. To test this model, children (N = 365) were genotyped for the DAT1 gene and participated in standardized parent-child interaction tasks with their primary caregiver. The DAT1 gene 9-repeat variant was associated with child negative affect expressed toward the parent during parent-child interactions, and parents of children with a 9-repeat allele exhibited more hostility and lower guidance/engagement than parents of children without a 9-repeat allele. These gene-environment associations were partially mediated by child negative affect toward the parent. The findings implicate a specific polymorphism in eliciting negative parenting, suggesting that evocative associations play a role in elevating children's risk for emotional trajectories toward psychopathology risk.
McLaughlin, Katie A.
Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanis...
Masi, G; Brovedani, P; Poli, P
School difficulties and learning disorders in adolescence can become significant risk factors for psychopathology. This study investigates emotional and cognitive patterns in adolescents with school difficulties. Four clinical conditions that can determine adolescence-onset learning disorders are outlined. These are adolescent turmoil, intellectual inhibition, delay in reasoning development, and metacognitive dysfunctioning. Cognitive, emotional and behavioral features of these conditions are discussed in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
Daria J. Kuss
Full Text Available Objective: In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet Gaming Disorder in the diagnostic manual as a condition which requires further research, indicating the scientific and clinical community are aware of potential health concerns as a consequence of excessive Internet use. From a clinical point of view, it appears that excessive/addictive Internet use is often comorbid with further psychopathologies and assessing comorbidity is relevant in clinical practice, treatment outcome and prevention as the probability to become addicted to using the Internet accelerates with additional (subclinical symptoms. Moreover, research indicates individuals play computer games excessively to cope with everyday stressors and to regulate their emotions by applying media-focused coping strategies, suggesting pathological computer game players play in order to relieve stress and to avoid daily hassles. The aims of this research were to replicate and extend previous findings and explanations of the complexities of the relationships between excessive Internet use and Internet addiction, psychopathology and dysfunctional coping strategies. Method: Participants included 681 Polish university students sampled using an online battery of validated psychometric instruments. Results: Results of structural equation models revealed dysfunctional coping strategies (i.e., distraction, denial, self-blame, substance use, venting, media use, and behavioural disengagement significantly predict excessive Internet use, and the data fit the theoretical model well. A second SEM showed media-focused coping and substance use coping significantly mediate the relationship between psychopathology (operationalised via the Global Severity Index and excessive Internet use. Conclusions: The findings lend support to the self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders, and suggest psychopathology and dysfunctional coping have additive effects on excessive Internet use.
Mosaku, Kolawole; Akinpelu, Victoria; Ogunniyi, Grace
Hearing impairment is a recognized cause of emotional and psychological disturbances worldwide, however little is known about this condition in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of psychopathology between hearing impaired adolescents and healthy adolescents. Students attending two special schools for the hearing impaired were assessed for psychopathology with the help of a trained signer and their teacher, using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria (ICD 10). Fifty two hearing impaired students and 52 age and sex matched controls from the same school were also interviewed using the same instrument. The mean age of the hearing impaired students was 16 (sd=3.8), while for the controls the mean age was 16 (sd=2.5). Psychopathology was present in 10 (19%) of the hearing impaired adolescents compared to 2 (4%) among the control group, this difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.62 p=0.03). The most common diagnosis was generalized anxiety disorder 4 (8%), followed by depression 2 (4%). Years spent in school (t=4.81, p=0.001), primary guardian (χ(2)=18.3, p=0.001) and mean income of guardian (t=7.10, p=0.001) were all significantly different between the two groups. Psychopathology is relatively common in this population. Proper assessment and treatment should be made available for this population group. A limitation to this study is communication difficulty which made only a third party assessment possible; this may affect the generalizability of the findings.
Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett,; Kim, Young Shin; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il
To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators...
Floros, Georgios D; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios D
This study assessed the results from the parallel application of two alternate personality models, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman trait model and Bond's Defense Styles, in a sample of 268 Greek medical students (172 women, M age = 22.0 yr., SD = 1.1; 95 men, M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 1.2) in relation to psychopathological symptoms, so as to clarify whether this practice yielded accurate results while avoiding shared variance. Data from both models are cross-checked with canonical correlation analysis to validate whether there was significant conceptual overlap between them that would mean that their parallel use is an ineffective research practice. Following this analysis, factors from both models are utilized to predict variance in sample psychopathology, so as to compare their relative usefulness. Results indicated that the two models did not share a significant amount of variance, while a combination of personality aspects from both models, including Impulsive Sensation-Seeking, Neuroticism-Anxiety, Aggression-Hostility, and Sociability traits and Maladaptive Action, Image Distorting, and Adaptive Action defense styles, predicted high variance in psychopathology symptoms.
Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel
A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. To examine gender differences in the major psychopathologic features in agoraphobia with panic disorder. Method. The study was conducted as a clinical study. The sample consisted of 119 patients, 32 men (26.9% and 87 women (73.1% with the basic diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic disorder. All the patients were evaluated with the clinical instruments suitable for the assessment of various clinical features associated with agoraphobia with panic disorder - questionnaires (the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 90, the Panic Appraisal Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory, and the clinical rating scale (the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. After the data collection, the sample was divided into two groups by the gender. Then the groups were compared. Results. There were no differences between the genders in the global psychopathologic features (the age at the onset of a disorder, duration of a disorder, severity and frequency of panic attacks, intensity of general psychiatric symptoms, intensity of general anxiety and depression. The women, however, reported a subjective perception of a more severe agoraphobic avoidance and males were significantly more likely than the females to anticipate the serious somatic consequences of panic attacks and worry about somatic health. Conclusion. There were a few gender specific psychopathologic features in patients with agoraphobia with panic disorder, so further studies would be necessary to come to a more precise conclusion.
Developmental psychopathology is described as a conceptual approach that involves a set of research methods that capitalize on developmental and psychopathological variations to ask questions about mechanisms and processes. Achievements are described in relation to attachment and attachment disorders, autism, schizophrenia, childhood antecedents of adult psychopathology, testing for environmental mediation of risk effects, gene-environment interplay, intellectual and language functioning, effects of mentally ill parents on the children, stress and vulnerability to depression, ethnicity and schizophrenia, and drug response. Continuities and discontinuities over the course of development are discussed in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, antisocial behavior, eating disorders, substance abuse and dependency, pharmacological and behavioral addictions, and a range of other disorders. Research challenges are considered in relation to spectrum concepts, the adolescent development of a female preponderance for depression, the mechanisms involved in age differences in response to drugs and to lateralized brain injury, the processing of experiences, the biological embedding of experiences, individual differences in response to environmental hazards, nature-nurture integration, and brain plasticity.
Marcelo C. Zappitelli
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated high rates of psychopathology in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to identify psychiatric diagnoses in a sample of children of bipolar parents. METHOD: This case series comprised 35 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years, with a mean age of 12.5 + 2.9 years (20 males and 15 females, who had at least one parent with bipolar disorder type I. The subjects were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL. Family psychiatric history and demographics were also evaluated. RESULTS: Of the offspring studied, 71.4% had a lifetime diagnosis of at least one psychiatric disorder (28.6% with a mood disorder, 40% with a disruptive behavior disorder and 20% with an anxiety disorder. Pure mood disorders (11.4% occurred less frequently than mood disorders comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (17.1%. Psychopathology was commonly reported in second-degree relatives of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (71.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support previous findings of an increased risk for developing psychopathology, predominantly mood and disruptive disorders, in the offspring of bipolar individuals. Prospective studies with larger samples are needed to confirm and expand these results.
Meltzer, Herbert Y; Brennan, Mark D; Woodward, Neil D; Jayathilake, Karu
A number of genes located on chromosome 22q11-13, including catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), are potential schizophrenia susceptibility genes. Recently, the sulfotransferase-4A1 (Sult4A1) locus within chromosome 22q13 was reported to be linked to schizophrenia in a family TDT study. Sult4A1 is related to metabolism of monoamines, particularly dopamine and norepinephrine, both of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the psychopathology and cognitive dysfunction components of schizophrenia. An available, prospectively collected data base was interrogated to determine how three Sult4A1 SNPs: rs138060, rs138097, and rs138110, previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia might be associated with psychopathology, cognition, and quality of life in a sample of 86 Caucasian patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The majority of patients met criteria for treatment resistant schizophrenia and had been drug-free for one week or longer at the time of evaluation. The major findings were: 1) patients heterozygous (T/G) for rs138060 had significantly worse Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) Total and anxiety/depression sub-scale scores, and higher Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) Total scores than G/G homozygous patients; and 2) patients heterozygous (A/G) for rs138097 demonstrated significantly worse performance on neuropsychological testing, specifically on tests of executive function and working memory, compared to patients homozygous for the G and A alleles. RS138110 was unrelated to psychopathology and cognition. These results provide the first evidence of how genetic variation in Sult4A1 may be related to clinical symptoms and cognitive function in schizophrenia, and permit future studies to attempt to replicate these potentially important findings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that Chinese religious believers are more likely to commit suicide than those identifying as non-religious among rural young adults, contrary to findings in Western countries. However, one cannot conclude that religiosity is associated with elevated suicide risk without examining the effect of political and religious beliefs in a generally atheist country like China where political belief plays a dominant role in the belief system of young adults. The present study investigated the effects of political and religious belief on suicidality with meaningfulness and psychopathology as potential mediators in a large representative sample of Chinese college students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1390 first-year college students randomly sampled from 10 colleges and universities in mainland China. Results A total of 1168 respondents (84.0% provided complete data on all variables. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt were 45.1%, 6.8%, and 1.9% respectively, with one-year suicidal ideation showing at 19.3%. Female gender was associated with elevated risk of suicidality. Political belief but not religious belief was associated with decreased suicide risk. A significant interactive effect of political belief and religious belief was found, indicating that for political believers, being religious was associated with decreased suicide risk; for non-political believers, being religious was associated with increased suicide risk. Multi-group structural equation modeling showed that meaningfulness completely mediated and psychopathology partially mediated the effect of belief system on suicidality. Gender differences were found in pathways of political belief by religious beliefs to suicidality and political belief to psychopathology. The coefficients were significant for males but not for females. Conclusions In less religious societies, political belief may serve as a means of
Nielsen, A S; Stenager, E; Brahe, U B
The purpose of the present study was to relate suicidal intent to the suicide method chosen and the medical lethality of the suicidal act, and to discuss how ingestion of alcohol impacts these three factors. The study was based upon interviews with 139 suicidal patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital. The results indicated a tendency for suicide attempters using wrist-cutting to score low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. Patients using kinds of self-injury other than self-poisoning or wrist-cutting scored high. In the case of self-poisoning, suicidal intent did not influence the choice of toxic agent, nor was the choice of method and/or choice of toxic agent affected by alcohol ingestion. A correlation between suicidal intent and the lethality of the suicide attempt was seen only among patients without a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Alcohol-dependent patients who made highly lethal attempts scored relatively low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. The results indicate that the lethality of the suicidal act is only an incomplete guide to a patient's suicidal intent. However, it should be stressed that, despite the fact that alcohol-dependent suicide attempters may not strongly wish to die, they are nonetheless at high risk for making fatal suicide attempts.
Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender
Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…
Anita D Stuart
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to improve understanding of the association between physiology and psychology in Functional Gastrointestinal disorders by considering the co-morbidity of lrritable Bowel Syndrome and psychopathology in a sector of the South African population. A comparison was made between the incidence of concurrent psychopathology in a sample of 48 white female patients, aged 25 to 55 years and diagnosed with lrritable Bowel Syndrome and the incidence of psychopathology in a control group that consisted of 39 white women, aged 25 to 55 years, who did not meet the criteria for lrritable Bowel Syndrome.
The Personality Assessment Inventory was used to determine the incidence of psychopathological personality traits and symptoms in the lrritable Bowel Syndrome group and the control group. This is a selfadministered, objective measuring instrument of adult personality that was developed to provide information about 18 critical clinical variables. The instrument was developed and standardised for use in the clinical assessment of individuals aged 18 years and older. Earlier studies showed a high incidence of associated psychiatric disorder in patients with lrritable Bowel Syndrome. This study confirmed this trend and it seems as if age and level of education has no influence on the incidence of psychopathology in patients with lrritable Bowel Syndrome.
Dit was die doel van die studie om 'n verbeterde begrip van die assosiasie tussen fisiologie en sielkunde in Funksionele Maagderm Versteurings te bewerkstellig deur die komorbiditeit van Prikkelbare Dermsindroom en psigopatalogie binne 'n sektor van die Suid Afrikaanse populasie te oorweeg. 'n Vergelyking is getref tussen die voorkoms van konkurrente psigopatalogie in 'n steekproef van 48 wit, vroulike pasiente wat wissel in ouderdomme van 25 tot 55 jaar en gediagnoseer is met Prikkelbare Dermsindroom, en die voorkoms van psigopatalogie in 'n kontrolegroep wat bestaan het
Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Knud
. Statistically, the risk of repetition of parasuicide for patients with a somatic disease but without depression was significantly less. The 7 patients committing suicide were older and a tendency was found towards painful somatic diseases and depression as risk factors for suicide....... on analgesics for pain. Patients that suffered from a somatic disease differed from other suicide attempters in depression score, age, pain and the presence of psychosis. Fewer of the somatically ill suicide attempters had a psychosis. Patients complaining of pain were more often depressed and abused medicine...
Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence rates of suicidal intent and its correlates among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11-18 years and diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of suicide with individual, family, peer, ADHD, and psychopathology factors. A total of 12.2% of the participants reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. A logistic regression analysis model showed that adolescents who were older, were bullying perpetrators, and reported high depression level were more likely to have suicidal intent. These three factors were also significantly correlated with suicidal ideation; however, only having high depression level was significantly correlated with suicidal attempts. The results of this study showed that a high proportion of adolescents with ADHD reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. Multiple factors were significantly associated with suicidal intent among adolescents with ADHD. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents with ADHD should monitor the possibility of suicide in adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the correlates of suicidal intent identified in this study.
Full Text Available O texto se propõe a uma reflexão em torno de uma perspectiva antropológica da questão da psicopatologia. Partindo da análise antropológica de Tzvetan Todorov, perpassa o ensaio histórico de Theodore Zeldin, alcançando a crítica de Thomas Szasz e a abordagem histórico-antropológica de Michel Foucault, na tentativa de clarear a compreensão do fenômeno psicopatológico. Nesta perspectiva crítico-histórica, a psicopatologia é vista como um fenômeno contextualizado, inserido na construção das mentalidades específicas da cultura ocidental.The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon an anthropological approach of psychopathology. It intends to throw some light upon the phenomenon of the "psychopathologic". It begins with some remarks on the anthropological concept of Tzevan Todorov. It also analyses Theodore Zeldin’s historical essay, Thomas Szasz’s critical reflections and Michel Foucault’s historic-anthropological approach. In this historical perspective, "Psychopathology" is conceived as a rather contextualized phenomenon, part of the specific mentalities constructed by the Western culture.
Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J
Although there is growing consensus that the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) should replace the categorical view of mental disorders with a dimensional approach rooted in personality theory, no consensus has emerged about the dimensions that should be the basis of the new classification system. Moreover, recent attempts to bridge the gap between psychiatric nosology and personality theories have primarily relied on empirically-derived dimensional personality models. While this focus on empirically-derived personality theories may result in a psychometrically valid classification system, it may create a classification system that lacks theoretical and empirical comprehensiveness and has limited clinical utility. In this paper, we first argue that research findings increasingly suggest that an integration of theory-driven and empirically-derived models of personality development is not only possible, but also has the potential to provide a more comprehensive and clinically-relevant approach to classification and diagnosis than either approach alone. Next, we propose a comprehensive model of personality development and psychopathology based on an integration of contemporary theory-driven and empirically-derived models of personality. Finally, we outline the implications of this approach for the future development of DSM, and especially its potential for developing research that addresses the interactions between psychosocial and neurobiological processes implicated in personality development and psychopathology.
Parent, Justin; McKee, Laura G; N Rough, Jennifer; Forehand, Rex
The primary purpose of the current study was to test a model examining the process by which parent dispositional mindfulness relates to youth psychopathology through mindful parenting and parenting practices. The universality of the model across youth at three developmental stages was examined: young childhood (3-7 years; n = 210), middle childhood (8-12 years; n = 200), and adolescence (13-17 years; n = 205). Overall, participants were 615 parents (55% female) and one of their 3-to-17 year old children (45% female). Parents reported on their dispositional mindfulness, mindful parenting, positive and negative parenting practices and their child's or adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems. Consistent findings across all three developmental stages indicated that higher levels of parent dispositional mindfulness were indirectly related to lower levels of youth internalizing and externalizing problems through higher levels of mindful parenting and lower levels of negative parenting practices. Replication of these findings across families with children at different developmental stages lends support to the generalizability of the model.
Somer, Eli; Ginzburg, Karni; Kramer, Lilach
Previous studies on survivors of childhood trauma documented associations between psychological dysregulation, impulsivity, and both behavioral and emotional manifestations of distress. Yet, the mechanism that links these variables remains unclear. The current study aims to examine the pattern of relations between a history of child abuse, impulsivity and dissociation. More specifically, it examines whether impulsivity serves as a moderator or mediator in the association between childhood trauma and dissociation. Eighty-one inpatients from the acute wards of two psychiatric hospitals participated in this study. Data were collected by clinician-administered questionnaires. A highly significant linear hierarchical regression analysis revealed that both psychiatric comorbidity and childhood trauma made unique contributions to the variance of dissociation. Yet, the significant association between childhood trauma and dissociation decreased when impulsivity was entered into the regression model. Our findings suggest that impulsivity mediates the association between childhood trauma and dissociative psychopathology and imply that the identification and treatment of impulsivity could be a potentially valuable clinical target in individuals with dissociative disorders.
Nigg, Joel T
The time is ripe for upgrading or rethinking the assumed paradigms for how we study developmental psychopathology. The classic transactional models appear robust but need specification in terms of biological and psychosocial processes. That specification is increasingly tractable due to developments in genetics, epigenetics, the measurement of psychosocial processes, and theory and data on developmental origins of health and disease. This essay offers a high-level view of where the field has been and where it may be going in regard to nosology and conceptions of etiology. Remarks seek to consider rapidly evolving contexts not only for children, but also for the science itself due to progress in our field and in neighboring fields. Illustrations are provided as to how syndromal nosology can be enriched and advanced by careful integration with biologically relevant behavioral dimensions and application of quantitative methods. It is concluded that a revised, forward-looking, transactional model of abnormal child psychology will incorporate prenatal and postnatal developmental programming, epigenetic mechanisms and their associated genotype x environment interactions, and inflammatory processes as a potential common mediator influencing numerous health and mental health conditions.
Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J; Berger, Jessica M; Burger, Jessica; Trautwein, Ulrich
The present paper focuses on the trait domain of conscientiousness, its development, and its relation to psychopathology. The definition of conscientiousness and its interface with specific forms of psychopathology, such as externalizing psychopathology, are discussed first. Then an overview of the known developmental changes in conscientiousness across the life course is provided, as well as the potential shared developmental etiology of conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology. Given the lack of data, testing etiological factors that may contribute to the development of both conscientiousness and externalizing disorders, we report on three studies examining the childhood experiences associated with both conscientiousness and externalizing behaviors. Last, future directions are discussed.
Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia
Recent research has shown that cognitive fusion underlies psychological inflexibility and in consequence various forms of psychopathology. However, the role of cognitive fusion specifically related to body image on eating psychopathology remained to be examined. The current study explores the impact of cognitive fusion concerning body image in the relation between acknowledged related risk factors and eating psychopathology in a sample of 342 female students. The impact of body dissatisfaction and social comparison through physical appearance on eating psychopathology was partially mediated by body image-related cognitive fusion. The results highlight the importance of cognitive defusion in the treatment of eating disorders.
Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.
According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…
Many theories have been put forward to explain the civil unrest that erupted across the Middle East and North Africa at the beginningof this year. The author of this paper believes that seen from an historical perspective the unrest was an attempt by the Arab world to stage a third revival.
Finney, Jean R.
Few attempts at in vitro culture of mermithids have been undertaken. The various methods used to initiate cultures are described. The capacity of a range of media to promote growth and development of the nematodes has been evaluated and current approaches to in vitro outlined.
Klonsky, E David; May, Alexis M; Saffer, Boaz Y
Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Fortunately, recent developments in suicide theory and research promise to meaningfully advance knowledge and prevention. One key development is the ideation-to-action framework, which stipulates that (a) the development of suicidal ideation and (b) the progression from ideation to suicide attempts are distinct phenomena with distinct explanations and predictors. A second key development is a growing body of research distinguishing factors that predict ideation from those that predict suicide attempts. For example, it is becoming clear that depression, hopelessness, most mental disorders, and even impulsivity predict ideation, but these factors struggle to distinguish those who have attempted suicide from those who have only considered suicide. Means restriction is also emerging as a highly effective way to block progression from ideation to attempt. A third key development is the proliferation of theories of suicide that are positioned within the ideation-to-action framework. These include the interpersonal theory, the integrated motivational-volitional model, and the three-step theory. These perspectives can and should inform the next generation of suicide research and prevention.
Zimmerman, Shirley L.
Notes that subject of transgenerational patterns of suicide attempt calls for examination of variables extending beyond those examined in previous article (Sorenson and Rutter, 1991). Considers possible significance of such variables as respondent's income, employment status, and length of residence in the community. Contends that scales assessing…
Salem Bilal A
Full Text Available Abstract The possible increase of suicidal ideation with some antidepressants is still a matter of debate. We are reporting two cases of suicidal attempt that occurred concomitantly with the use of Duloxetine. To our knowledge there is no prior publication about a possible Duloxetine related increase in the risk of suicidality.
Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul
Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…
Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Van Hulle, Carol; Urbano, Richard C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Applegate, Brooks; Garriock, Holly A.; Chapman, Derek A.; Waldman, Irwin D.
Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted of "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) symptoms of common mental disorders derived from structured interviews of a representative sample of 4,049 twin children and adolescents and their adult caretakers. A dimensional model based on the assignment of symptoms…
Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…
Fedyszyn, Izabela E; Erlangsen, Annette; Hjorthøj, Carsten;
OBJECTIVE: Emergency departments are important, albeit underutilized, sites for suicide prevention. Preventive strategies and interventions could benefit from a greater understanding of factors influencing the course of suicide risk after emergency department contact due to attempted suicide....... The aim of our study was 2-fold: to identify predictors of repeated suicide attempts and suicide and to investigate the timing of these events. METHODS: Data from Danish nationwide, longitudinal registers were used in this prospective, population-based study of all individuals first presenting...... to an emergency department after attempted suicide (index attempt) between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2011 (N = 11,802). Cox regression analysis identified predictors, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis modeled the time to repeated suicide attempts and suicide. RESULTS: Sixteen percent of the sample...
Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna
Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–MMPI-2. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference compared to the personality structure, especially pronounced in hypersensitive structures, in relation to the duration of addictive experience and duration of heroin by intravenous route, as well as in relation to the presence of psychotic disorders, drug abuse and suicidal behavior in the family. Conclusion: As risk factors among opiate addicts are indentified interfered biological and psychological factors and the effects of the substances themselves. PMID:26236166
Darryl W. Etter
Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse, childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction, and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood stress and trauma have been related to adult psychopathology in different psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed at verifying this relationship for stressful experiences during developmental periods by screening stress load across life in adult psychiatric inpatients with different diagnoses compared to healthy subjects. In addition, a relationship between the amount of adverse experiences and the severity of pathology, which has been described as a 'building block' effect in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, was explored for non-traumatic events in psychiatric disorders other than PTSD. Methods 96 patients with diagnoses of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, schizophrenia, drug addiction, or personality disorders (PD and 31 subjects without psychiatric diagnosis were screened for adverse experiences in childhood (before the age of six years, before onset of puberty, and in adulthood using the Early Trauma Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. Effects of stress load on psychopathology were examined for affective symptoms, PTSD, and severity of illness by regression analyses and comparison of subgroups with high and low stress load. Results High stress load in childhood and before puberty, but not in adulthood, was related to negative affect in all participants. In patients, high stress load was related to depressive and posttraumatic symptoms, severity of disorder, and the diagnoses of MDD and PD. Conclusion Results support the hypothesis of stress-sensitive periods during development, which may interact with genetic and other vulnerability factors in their influence on the progress of psychiatric disorders. A 'dose' effect of stress load on the severity of psychopathology is not restricted to the relationship between traumata and PTSD.
Background The present study aimed to investigate the mental health status in patients with asthma and assess the effects of asthma on suicidal ideation and attempts using a representative sample from Korea. Methods Individual-level data were obtained from 228,744 participants (6372 with asthma and 222,372 without asthma) of the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, physical health status, and mental health status were compared between patient...
Molly B Kraus
Full Text Available Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain.
Molly B Kraus; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A
Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain.
Mazur, V M-L; Chahraoui, K; Bissler, L
Refugees seeking asylum are a particularly vulnerable population. It has been observed that among the most commonly-occurring disorders exhibited in this population, there is a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and depression. These disorders may be linked to the difficult paths that refugees are forced to undertake, as well as to different traumatic events which are particularly destructive psychologically (deliberate physical, sexual and/or psychological violence, traumatic bereavements in the context of war, or social and political instability, socio-economic, familial or administrative difficulties), which compromise their view of their short-term futures. In the face of the weight of these life events, the question of the psychological resources of the individual is at the forefront of our understanding of mental health and the capacity to adjust to trauma. Our study aims to apprehend in a dynamic way, the different strategies used by asylum seekers in our western countries to adjust psychologically to traumatic and stressful events. The aim of this research is to study the links between mental health and anxious and depressive psychopathologies as well as the defensive modalities of these subjects. One hundred and twenty adult asylum seekers, living in refugee centres in Slovakia, France and Norway have agreed to participate in this study. We tried to assess the psychopathological disorders manifesting in these populations, notably PTSD, major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Using the DSQ-60 we also tried to establish the links between the psychopathologies observed in this population and the defence mechanisms employed. Our results reveal that 60% of subjects do indeed suffer from psychopathological disorders with an important comorbidity of PTSB and depression (64.2%). Furthermore, the seriousness of the symptoms is correlated with less adaptive defence mechanisms (a higher incidence of defence
Maren, Stephen; Phan, K. Luan; Liberzon, Israel
Contexts surround and imbue meaning to events; they are essential for recollecting the past, interpreting the present and anticipating the future. Indeed, the brain’s capacity to contextualize information permits enormous cognitive and behavioural flexibility. Studies of Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction in rodents and humans suggest that a neural circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the learning and memory processes that enable context-dependent behaviour. Dysfunction in this network may be involved in several forms of psychopathology, including post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders. PMID:23635870
Pérez La Rotta, Emilia
This study points to the benefits of dynamic psychotherapy with art on patients with severe psychopathology. Participants were patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and drug abuse, from a psychiatric clinic in Bogotá. Colombia. The paper shows the techniques and the results of art in the psychotherapeutic process. Esta investigación es un aporte a la comprensión de los beneficios de la terapia dinámica que involucra el arte con pacientes aquejados de psicopatologías severas. Se tr...
Matson, Johnny L; Cervantes, Paige E
The study of comorbid psychopathology among persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is picking up steam. The purpose of this paper was to review and describe important characteristics of existing studies. Among the current crop of papers, depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been frequently evaluated. Groups studied have most frequently been children. Persons with ASD and normal intelligence quotient (IQ) scores have been studied more often than individuals with ASD and intellectual disability. Additional characteristics are discussed, and the implications of these data for future developments in the field are reviewed.
The aim of this paper is three-fold. Firstly, to briefly set out how strategic choices made about theorising about intentionality or content have actions at a distance for accounting for delusion. Secondly, to investigate how successfully a general difficulty facing a broadly interpretative approach to delusions might be eased by the application of any of three Wittgensteinian interpretative tools. Thirdly, to draw a general moral about how the later Wittgenstein gives more reason to be pessimistic than optimistic about the prospects of a philosophical psychopathology aimed at empathic understanding of delusions.
Sam, Victoria Nyarkoah
Child labor is a threatening evil. It is particularly dangerous because it involves the sacrifice of a child’s future welfare in exchange for immediate benefit; it is a difficult phenomenon to combat because it involves questions of power within the households. This study attempts to comprehensively investigate various dimensions of child labor in Ghana and show whether its ban will be beneficial to the country.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety. Methods The study was conducted as a web-based Internet survey of participants (N = 995 who had social anxiety symptoms falling within the high range, and including many respondents who had scores in the clinical range. The assessment included measures of child maltreatment, emotional peer victimization, social anxiety symptoms and general psychopathology. Results Regression and mediation analyses revealed that parental emotional maltreatment and emotional peer victimization were independently related to social anxiety and mediated the impact of physical and sexual maltreatment. Subjects with a history of childhood emotional maltreatment showed higher rates of psychopathology than subjects with a history of physical maltreatment. Conclusions Although our findings are limited by the use of an Internet survey and retrospective self-report measures, data indicated that social anxiety symptoms are mainly predicted by emotional rather than physical or sexual types of victimization.
Human Resources Division
HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.
Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.
The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress ha
H.M. Schuppert; C.J. Albers; R.B. Minderaa; P.M.G. Emmelkamp; M.H. Nauta
The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress ha
... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...
Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomani...
Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit
We review theory and empirical study of distress tolerance, an emerging risk factor candidate for various forms of psychopathology. Despite the long-standing interest in and promise of work on distress tolerance for understanding adult psychopathology, there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature focused on the…
Bos, Elisabeth H; Snippe, Evelien; de Jonge, Peter; Jeronimus, Bertus F
Background Many studies on resilience have shown that people can succeed in preserving mental health after a traumatic event. Less is known about whether and how people can preserve subjective wellbeing in the presence of psychopathology. We examined to what extent psychopathology can co-exist with
Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria
Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's…
A. Ghassabian (Akhgar)
textabstractIn the past few decades, considerable advances have been made in understanding childhood psychopathology. This progress is the result of four primary developments in the field. First, both in the research and in the clinical framework, psychopathology has been conceptualized across a spe
Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.
Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to modera
Moffitt, Terrie E.
This article reviews behavioral-genetic research to show how it can help address questions of causation in developmental psychopathology. The article focuses on studies of antisocial behavior, because these have been leading the way in investigating environmental as well as genetic influences on psychopathology. First, the article illustrates how…
Darya eZabelina; David eCondon; Mark eBeeman
Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomani...
McGoron, Lucy; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Smyke, Anna T.; Drury, Stacy S.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.
Objective: Children exposed to early institutional rearing are at risk for developing psychopathology. The present investigation examines caregiving quality and the role of attachment security as they relate to symptoms of psychopathology in young children exposed to early institutionalization. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Bucharest…
Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.
Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…
Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.
Over the past decades, developmental psychopathology has coalesced into a discipline that has made significant contributions toward the understanding of risk, psychopathology, and resilience in individuals across the life course. The overarching goal of the discipline has been to elucidate the interplay among biological, psychological, and…
Mattison, Richard E.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson
Objective: Learning disabilities (LD), executive function (EF), and psychopathology were investigated to clarify their relationships in 595 children with ADHD. Method: Standard instruments for IQ, achievement, EF, and parent and teacher ratings of psychopathology were obtained at the time of outpatient evaluation. Results: Comparisons between the…
Penney, Stephanie R.; Skilling, Tracey A.
A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits;…
Gómez-Expósito, Alexandra; Wolz, Ines; Fagundo, Ana B.; Granero, Roser; Steward, Trevor; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the implication of personality, impulsivity, and emotion regulation difficulties in patients with a bulimic-spectrum disorder (BSD) and suicide attempts (SA), BSD patients with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and BSD patients without these behaviors. Method: One hundred and twenty-two female adult BSD patients were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Patients were clustered post-hoc into three groups depending on whether they presented BSD without NSSI or SA (BSD), BSD with lifetime NSSI (BSD + NSSI) or BSD with lifetime SA (BSD + SA). Results: The BSD + NSSI and BSD + SA groups presented more emotion regulation difficulties, more eating and general psychopathology, and increased reward dependence in comparison with the BSD group. In addition, BSD + SA patients specifically showed problems with impulse control, while also presenting higher impulsivity than both the BSD and BSD + NSSI groups. No differences in impulsivity between the BSD and BSD + NSSI groups were found. Conclusions: The results show that BSD + NSSI and BSD + SA share a common profile characterized by difficulties in emotion regulation and low reward dependence, but differ in impulsivity and cooperativeness. This suggests that self-injury, in patients without a history of suicide attempts (i.e., BSD + NSSI), may have a regulatory role rather than being due to impulsivity. PMID:27597836
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the implication of personality, impulsivity, and emotion regulation difficulties in patients with a bulimic-spectrum disorder (BSD and suicide attempts (SA, BSD patients with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI, and BSD patients without these behaviors. Method: 122 female adult BSD patients were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Patients were clustered post-hoc into three groups depending on whether they presented BSD without NSSI or SA (BSD, BSD with lifetime NSSI (BSD+NSSI or BSD with lifetime SA (BSD+SA. Results: The BSD+NSSI and BSD+SA groups presented more emotion regulation difficulties, more eating and general psychopathology, and increased reward dependence in comparison with the BSD group. In addition, BSD+SA patients specifically showed problems with impulse control, while also presenting higher impulsivity than both the BSD and BSD+NSSI groups. No differences in impulsivity between the BSD and BSD+NSSI groups were found. Conclusions: The results show that BSD + NSSI and BSD+SA share a common profile characterized by difficulties in emotion regulation and low reward dependence, but differ in impulsivity and cooperativeness. This suggests that self-injury, in patients without a history of suicide attempts (i.e. BSD+NSSI, may have a regulatory role rather than being due to impulsivity.
Toth, Sheree L; Gravener-Davis, Julie A; Guild, Danielle J; Cicchetti, Dante
It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed, with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment.
Full Text Available The focus of the present paper is on sketching a psychopathology of the body in schizophrenia. Our hypothesis is that the psychopathological alterations of the lived body are closely related to spatiotemporal alterations in the brain’s resting state. Hence our plea for a spatiotemporal psychopathology of embodiment. We will shed some light on the resting state itself, its spatiotemporal structure and self-specific organisation and then address the resting state’s spatial and temporal abnormalities in schizophrenia and how they account for the abnormal experience of body, time, and space in this psychopathological condition. Finally, we sketch the implications of such spatiotemporal psychopathology of embodiment that concerns the spatialization and temporalization and self-specification of the lived body and its intero-, proprio- and extero-ceptive input by the resting state’s spatiotemporal structure and self-specific organisation.
"When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to
Sakutaro Hagiwara is a famous Japanese poet from the early part of this century. His debut collection of poems, 'Tsuki ni Hoeru', contains a number of works characterized by the strange and abnormal impression they convey. The various and characteristic psychotic symptoms exhibited by this poet have been the subject of much discussion and pathographic description. However, it seems that there have been few considerations as to the meaning of such poetic expression for Sakutaro. In the present study, the relationship between his internal psychopathology and such forms of expression was examined. Furthermore, the influence of the contemporary fin de siècle art and the significance of the choice of poetry as his medium of expression was considered. It was found that his earliest psychopathological problems, such as anthropophobia (which could well be viewed as having been engendered by the particular Japanese cultural climate of that time) and systemic depersonalization, both led to his own anxiety about existence; expressing himself through the medium of poetry was a kind of self-healing act for Sakutaro, who had been suffering seriously from feelings of inadequacy and self-doubt.
The objective of this study is to present a theoretical paper about a clinical issue. Our aim is to propose some clinical and semiological considerations for a psychopathological conception of psychopathy. We will discuss several major theoretical works dedicated to this nosographic entity (mainly those of Schneider [Psychopathic Personalities (1923). London, Cassell, 1950], Cleckley [The Mask of Sanity. St. Louis, Mosby, 1941] and Hare [The Hare Psychopathy Checklist - Revised Manual, ed 2. Toronto, Multi-Health Systems, 2003]). We will also examine a significant issue raised by Cooke et al. [Psychol Assess 2001;13:171-188; J Person Disord 2004;18:337-357; Br J Psychiatry Suppl 2007;49:s39-s50; Int J Forensic Ment Health 2012;11:242-252], namely whether psychopathic functioning is consistently related to antisocial behavior. This theoretical essay is informed by clinical situations (involving psychopaths who were interviewed in prison or in forensic centers). The method applied a phenomenological psychopathology analysis to the clinical material. We first compare Binswanger's conception of mania with psychopathic functioning. Patient behavior is similar, but there is a difference related to the dialectic between the ego and the alter ego. A patient with mania has a fundamental crisis of the ego, which a psychopath does not have. A second finding of our investigations concerns emotions and the adaptive dimension of the psychopathic disorder. An epistemological discussion of the concept of emotions reveals that psychopaths are competent in the management of emotional stimuli, which confers a psychological advantage upon them.
Hsu, Chia-Yueh; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Lee, Ming-Been
Chronotye is associated with age, sex, personality, and parental monitoring during childhood. The evening type is associated with poor school performance, sleep problems, anxious/depressive symptoms, tobacco smoking, caffeine consumption, alcohol drinking, and suicidality in adolescents. The present study tested the relationships between chronotype and a wide range of psychopathology and personality traits among 2919 incoming undergraduate students. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire that included demographics, plus the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) scale, Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS), Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Maudesley Personality Inventory. The t-score distribution of the M-E scale was used to form the morning (t-score >60, n = 419), evening (t-score personality characteristics, but lower than the morning type in extraversion and social desirability. In reward dependence, the evening type scored lowest for males, but there was no difference for females. The findings of the evening type being associated with possible psychopathology and certain types of personality have public health implications, that is, chronotype needs to be taken into account in the development of mental health prevention programs and assessment of and intervention for mental problems in young adults.
Gross, G.; Huber, G.; Schuettler, R.
1978-1980 we examined 451 patients of the Psychiatric University Clinic of Bonn by computerized tomography. From 260 patients with characterized diseases of the brain and brain damages, 78 patients had neuropsychiatric diseases of old age, i.e. cerebro-vascular processes (average age of 63.7 years) and 9 patients had primary degenerative processes of the brain (average age of 62.1 years). Patients with diseases of the cerebral vessels showed irreversible psychopathological syndromes in 87%. The rate of pathological findings in CT increases in relation to degree of severity of the chronic (irreversible) organic psychosyndromes from 76% in pseudoneurasthenics syndromes to 93% in patients with organic changes of personality and to 100% in patients with dementia. The ambiguity of the conception of the multi-infarct-dementia is discussed. Only 19% of the sample with irreversible psychopathological changes showed localized neurological deficits and infarctions in CT, but none of them more than one. In all patients with dementia a cortical atrophy was found. There is a significant positive correlation between cerebral atrophy in CT and irreversible organic psychosyndrome. These findings with computerized tomography demonstrate in accordance with earlier pneumoencephalographic findings that distinct types of irreversible psychosyndromes can be correlated to distinct types of cerebral atrophy. But these statistical correlations between the degree of the severity of the loss of psychic functions and the reduction of cerebral tissue are not necessarily valid for any single case.
João Gama Marques
Full Text Available Background: Henrique João Barahona-Fernandes (1907-1992 was one of the most important psychiatrists of the 20th century. Thanks to his direct contact with Egas Moniz, Sobral Cid, Carl Kleist, Kurt Schneider, Karl Jaspers among others, and thanks to his mastery and impressive capacity of publication, he left an extensive contribute to psychopathology that is not at all out of date, and must be shown to the new generations. Aims: A brief revision was made including the most important psychopatological concepts within all Barahona-Fernandes’ works. Methods: Research and reflection, using all of the relevant material found in the «Professor Doutor Barahona-Fernandes Library» (Hospital Júlio de Matos, Centro Hospitalar Psiquiátrico de Lisboa – HJM CHPL, where most of his works are kept. Results: Within the many works that we have consulted, we emphasis three concepts: «The model of personality in situation», «The model of Symptomatic Psychosis», and «The group of the Holodysphrenias». All of these concepts are assessed in this article. Conclusions: The work of Barahona-Fernandes deserves all the attention of students and academics in the field of psychopathology. Its richness goes much further than a merely historical interest. It can be applied to nowadays psychiatry and neurosciences, and can be used in teaching of psychology and psychiatry.
Jones, J G
The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.
Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand
The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed.
Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank
This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these.......This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these....
Gureje, O; Oladeji, B; Hwang, I; Chiu, W T; Kessler, R C; Sampson, N A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Beautrais, A; Borges, G; Bromet, E; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; de Graaf, R; Gal, G; He, Y; Hu, C; Iwata, N; Karam, E G; Kovess-Masféty, V; Matschinger, H; Moldovan, M V; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scocco, P; Seedat, S; Tomov, T; Nock, M K
Previous research suggests that parental psychopathology predicts suicidal behavior among offspring; however, the more fine-grained associations between specific parental disorders and distinct stages of the pathway to suicide are not well understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that parental disorders associated with negative mood would predict offspring suicide ideation, whereas disorders characterized by impulsive aggression (for example, antisocial personality) and anxiety/agitation (for example, panic disorder) would predict which offspring act on their suicide ideation and make a suicide attempt. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews conducted on nationally representative samples (N=55 299; age 18+) from 21 countries around the world. We tested the associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset and persistence over time (that is, time since most recent episode controlling for age of onset and time since onset) of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicide ideation, plans and attempts) among offspring. Analyses tested bivariate and multivariate associations between each parental disorder and distinct forms of suicidal behavior. Results revealed that each parental disorder examined increased the risk of suicide ideation among offspring, parental generalized anxiety and depression emerged as the only predictors of the onset and persistence (respectively) of suicide plans among offspring with ideation, whereas parental antisocial personality and anxiety disorders emerged as the only predictors of the onset and persistence of suicide attempts among ideators. A dose-response relation between parental disorders and respondent risk of suicide ideation and attempt was also found. Parental death by suicide was a particularly strong predictor of persistence of suicide attempts among offspring. These associations remained significant after controlling for comorbidity of parental disorders and for the presence of mental disorders among
Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.
Sato, João Ricardo; Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Crossley, Nicolas; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Amaro, Edson; McGuire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca
Abnormal connectivity patterns have frequently been reported as involved in pathological mental states. However, most studies focus on "static," stationary patterns of connectivity, which may miss crucial biological information. Recent methodological advances have allowed the investigation of dynamic functional connectivity patterns that describe non-stationary properties of brain networks. Here, we introduce a novel graphical measure of dynamic connectivity, called time-varying eigenvector centrality (tv-EVC). In a sample 655 children and adolescents (7-15 years old) from the Brazilian "High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders" who were imaged using resting-state fMRI, we used this measure to investigate age effects in the temporal in control and default-mode networks (CN/DMN). Using support vector regression, we propose a network maturation index based on the temporal stability of tv-EVC. Moreover, we investigated whether the network maturation is associated with the overall presence of behavioral and emotional problems with the Child Behavior Checklist. As hypothesized, we found that the tv-EVC at each node of CN/DMN become more stable with increasing age (P < 0.001 for all nodes). In addition, the maturity index for this particular network is indeed associated with general psychopathology in children assessed by the total score of Child Behavior Checklist (P = 0.027). Moreover, immaturity of the network was mainly correlated with externalizing behavior dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that changes in functional network dynamics during neurodevelopment may provide unique insights regarding pathophysiology.
Jacobson, Nicholas C
This study sought to evaluate the current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychopathology by examining whether these disorders impact the quantity of offspring or the quality of the parent-child relationship across the life span. Using the National Comorbidity Survey, this study examined whether DSM-III-R anxiety, posttraumatic stress, depressive, bipolar, substance use, antisocial, and psychosis disorders predicted later fertility and the quality of parent-child relationships across the life span in a national sample (N = 8,098). Using latent variable and varying coefficient models, the results suggested that anxiety in males and bipolar pathology in males and females were associated with increased fertility at younger ages. The results suggested almost all other psychopathology was associated with decreased fertility in middle to late adulthood. The results further suggested that all types of psychopathology had negative impacts on the parent-child relationship quality (except for antisocial pathology in males). Nevertheless, for all disorders, the impact of psychopathology on both fertility and the parent-child relationship quality was affected by the age of the participant. The results also showed that anxiety pathology is associated with a high-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy followed by a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy. Further, the results suggest that bipolar pathology is associated with an early high-quantity and a continued low-quality parenting strategy. Posttraumatic stress, depression, substance use, antisocial personality, and psychosis pathology are each associated with a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy, particularly in mid to late adulthood. These findings suggest that the evolutionary impact of psychopathology depends on the developmental context. (PsycINFO Database Record
Collins, Vikki K.
High-quality child care has been shown to improve the academic success and life adjustments of children living in poverty. During the past decade, many American states have adopted voluntary Quality Rating and Improvement (QRI) systems in an attempt to increase the level of quality in child care. Using data compiled by the National Association of…
Papadakis, J; Christodoulou, A; Paleologou, M; Vlassopoulos, M; Lazaratou, H; Anagnostopoulos, Dc; Ploumpidis, D N
economic immigrants, including thus a random number of children speaking different languages. Without doubt, immigration affects the immigrating person as much as it affects the new group. Also, immigration adjustment and formation depends on the pre-existing characteristics of the immigrants as much as it does on the characteristics of the welcoming society. Research dealing with the issues of economic immigrants in Greece are limited and mainly come from schools. The focus of interest is aimed firstly on the psychopathology that can be linked to the phenomenon of immigration and secondly on the social consequences of the phenomenon. The formation of psychopathology is associated with immigration and the importance of psychological trauma and its consequences. However, the association between the creation of psychopathology, which is formulated in childhood/adolescence, and the bilingual environment together with identity formation, is not yet clear. The aim of this paper was to study the effect of the dual language environment on psychopathology formation among children and adolescents as it appears in everyday clinical practice and as it has been recorded at the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit of the Community Mental Health Centre of Byron and Kaissariani, Psychiatric Hospital, Athens University. Data deriving from the database of the Community Mental Health Centre were extracted from the files of 62 bilingual children, aged 0 to 18 years, who had visited the CMHC of Byron and Kaissariani in the period 2000 to 2005. The data selected concerned the sex, age, maternal language, diagnosis and the existence of economic immigration. Means deriving from the sample of bilingual children were compared to the means of the rest of the sample. (Pearson chi,2 Fishers exact test) Based on the results, four fifths of the sample was composed of children belonging to families of economic immigrants. The occurrence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders was triple among the sample
Blain, Leah M.; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.
Objectives: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has…
Latife UTAŞ AKHAN
Full Text Available The human being has to socialize once he is born as an individual and is under the influence of the environment, and the ethical, esthetic and moral values since his childhood. The thoughts, wants and wishes of the individual that conflict with the environmental order and values are repressed outside the consciousness. The repressed feelings and thoughts are converted into symbols in the form of visual images outside the consciousness. Unformed symbols provide the purest hint regarding the internal conflicts causing mental disorders. There is regression in verbal expression in some psychiatric disorders and especially in psychosis. Symptoms specific for the abstract thoughts and verbal language pathology appear. Visual language as graphic language may become the single way of communication in such instances. This constitutes the rationale and main principle of “Diagnosis and Treatment by Art'' in the psychiatric field. The three-function method of spontaneous psychopathological art enables the use of art in individuals with a psychiatric disorder. This is the projection of the complexes and conflicts that are subconscious or outside consciousness with spontaneous images as graphic and plastic expressions and enables making a diagnosis. The second function of psychopathological art is to monitor the disease progress. A series of artistic work enable the step by step monitoring of the disorder's progress. Pathological changes can be reflected in the works of art even before the clinical symptoms of the disorder appear. The third function is enabling treatment. The individual who has severed connections with the environment is in a chaotic word. During the time the psychopathological art method is used, the patients start to see the artistic work as a mirror where they find and watch themselves and their behaviors. When the artistic endeavor of patients with a mental disorder does not take place under suitable control, it becomes a tool that
Tuba Cimilli Ozturk
Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.
Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M
Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.
Leenarts, Laura E W; Diehle, Julia; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Jansma, Elise P; Lindauer, Ramón J L
This is a systematic review of evidence-based treatments for children exposed to childhood maltreatment. Because exposure to childhood maltreatment has been associated with a broad range of trauma-related psychopathology (e.g., PTSD, anxiety, suicidal ideation, substance abuse) and with aggressive and violent behavior, this review describes psychotherapeutic treatments which focus on former broad range of psychopathological outcomes. A total of 26 randomized controlled clinical trials and seven non-randomized controlled clinical trials published between 2000 and 2012 satisfied the inclusionary criteria and were included. These studies dealt with various kinds of samples, from sexually abused and maltreated children in child psychiatric outpatient clinics or in foster care to traumatized incarcerated boys. A total of 27 studies evaluated psychotherapeutic treatments which used trauma-focused cognitive, behavioral or cognitive-behavioral techniques; only two studies evaluated trauma-specific treatments for children and adolescents with comorbid aggressive or violent behavior; and four studies evaluated psychotherapeutic treatments that predominantly focused on other mental health problems than PTSD and used non-trauma focused cognitive, behavioral or cognitive-behavioral techniques. The results of this review suggest that trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is the best-supported treatment for children following childhood maltreatment. However, in line with increased interest in the diagnosis of complex PTSD and given the likely relationship between childhood maltreatment and aggressive and violent behavior, the authors suggest that clinical practice should address a phase-oriented approach. This review concludes with a discussion of future research directions and limitations.
Tackett, Jennifer L; Lahey, Benjamin B; van Hulle, Carol; Waldman, Irwin; Krueger, Robert F; Rathouz, Paul J
Previous research using confirmatory factor analysis to model psychopathology comorbidity has supported the hypothesis of a broad general factor (i.e., a "bifactor"; Holzinger & Swineford, 1937) of psychopathology in children, adolescents, and adults, with more specific higher order internalizing and externalizing factors reflecting additional shared variance in symptoms (Lahey et al., 2012; Lahey, van Hulle, Singh, Waldman, & Rathouz, 2011). The psychological nature of this general factor has not been explored, however. The current study tested a prediction, derived from the spectrum hypothesis of personality and psychopathology, that variance in a general psychopathology bifactor overlaps substantially-at both phenotypic and genetic levels-with the dispositional trait of negative emotionality. Data on psychopathology symptoms and dispositional traits were collected from both parents and youth in a representative sample of 1,569 twin pairs (ages 9-17 years) from Tennessee. Predictions based on the spectrum hypothesis were supported, with variance in negative emotionality and the general factor overlapping substantially at both phenotypic and etiologic levels. Furthermore, stronger correlations were found between negative emotionality and the general psychopathology factor than among other dispositions and other psychopathology factors.
De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; De Caluwé, Elien; Verbeke, Lize
Four different models have been generally proposed as plausible etiological explanations for the relation between personality and psychopathology, namely, the vulnerability, complication, pathoplasty, and spectrum or continuity model. The current study entails a joint investigation of the continuity, pathoplasty, and complication models to explain the nature of the associations between early maladaptive traits and psychopathology over time in 717 referred and community children (54.4% girls), aged from 8 to 14 years. Across a 2-year time span, maladaptive traits and psychopathology were measured at three different time points, thereby relying on comprehensive and age-specific dimensional operationalizations of both personality symptoms and psychopathology. The results demonstrate overall compelling evidence for the continuity model, finding more focused support for pathoplasty and complication effects for particular combinations of personality symptoms and psychopathology dimensions. As expected, the continuity associations were found to be more robust for those personality-psychopathology associations that are conceptually closer, such as the emotional instability/introversion-internalizing problems association and the disagreeableness-externalizing problems association. Continuity associations were also stronger when personality was considered from a maladaptive rather than from a general trait perspective. The implication of the findings for the treatment of psychopathology and personality symptoms are briefly discussed.
Reinhard, H G
Stress coping can be valid for a paradigm of psychopathology of children and adolescents. This concept is supported by an extensive literature which shows the way of coping from a "footnote to stress theory" (Lazarus) to its central concept. Neither the "objective" stress (stimulus side) nor the specificity of stress reaction (adaptation syndrome) are the important factors, but rather the mediation between stress coping and the individual, the transaction in the sense of an exchange process. Above all, permanent personality attributes have been examined here, most intensively extraversion/introversion and neuroticism, and recently, more and more often coping processes. The research situation also confirms in its approach the concept of Lazarus (1981) in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. According to Lazarus, stressors are less meaningful as a cause of psychiatric disturbances than cognitive-emotional reaction mediating coping processes. They should be examined preferably under natural conditions; a combination of standard research strategies with individual case analyses is recommended. Therapeutically, it is essential to help children and adolescents to achieve an adequate correlation between their own capabilities and limitations on the one hand, and of conflicts and stress situations on the other hand, whereby the adolescent (young) patient is interested in a quick solution to personal and interpersonal crises. He is not at all interested in its extension in the sense of a 'Sturm-und-Drang'-idea of adolescent age. Hence coping cannot be confined only to coping with a functional crisis; it must rather aspire to achieve a schematisation of the situation in accordance with the truth.
Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Francesco Craig,2 Lucia Margari,2 Emilia Matera,2 Anna Linda Lamanna,2 Paola Alessandra Lecce,2 Donatella La Tegola,3 Felice Carabellese3 1Psychiatry Unit, 2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs of the Aldo Moro University of Bari, 3Section of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed.Methods: The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes.Results: Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01 and conduct problems (P=0.034. Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18% and conduct problems (20% than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement.Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. Keywords: juvenile offenders
Davies, Benjamin R; Allen, Nicholas B
Youth runaway behavior and homelessness (RHY) in the U.S. is increasingly common, with prevalence estimated at 1-1.7 million youth. RHY have multiple, overlapping problems often including poor physical and mental health, frequent street victimization, and histories of physical and sexual abuse. Further, current street victimization interacts with childhood abuse to produce complex, unique presentations of traumatic symptoms and related disorders in runaway and homeless youth. This review paper explores (1) the role of childhood trauma in the genesis of runaway and homeless behavior, and (2) how childhood trauma interacts with street victimization to create vulnerability to psychopathology. In response to the trauma needs of RHY, we conducted a systematic review of the state of the current literature on trauma-informed interventions for RHY. We conclude that the field currently lacks empirically validated trauma interventions in RHY. However, theoretically plausible frameworks do exist and could be the basis for future research and intervention development.
Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto
Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships.
Full Text Available The literature on disturbance of time-sense in brain disease and schizophrenia is reviewed and the subjective experience of altered time-sense reported by 45 out of 350 personally interviewed schizophrenics is analyzed. A review of the literature on the effect of brain damage revealed that some phenomena (déjà vu, reduplication of time, altered tempo to events were linked with right hemisphere dysfunction, one phenomenon (incorrect sequencing of events was linked with left anterior brain damage, and others (disrupted “biological clock”, disturbed serise of rate of flow of current or past events could arise from subcortical as well as focal cortical damage. The sparse literature on disturbed time-sense in schizophrenia suggested that there was a shared psychopathology in this respect with right hemisphere dysfunction. The phenomena encountered in the 45 schizophrenics are described and classified.
Jaspers' concept of limit situations seems particularly appropriate not only to elucidate outstanding existential situations in general, but also basic preconditions for the occurrence of mental disorders. For this purpose, the concept is first explained in Jaspers' sense and then related to an 'existential vulnerability' of mentally ill persons that makes them experience even inconspicuous events as distressing limit situations. In such situations, an otherwise hidden fundamental condition of existence becomes manifest for them, e.g. the fragility of one's own body, the inevitability of freedom, or the finiteness of life. This fundamental condition is found unbearable and, as a reaction, gives rise to mental illness. This concept of existential vulnerability is illustrated by some psychopathological examples.
De Berardis, D; Mazza, M; Marini, S; Del Nibletto, L; Serroni, N; Pino, M C; Valchera, A; Ortolani, C; Ciarrocchi, F; Martinotti, G; Di Giannantonio, M
Over the years, infertility has been variably defined. Infertility affects approximately 80 million people from all parts of the world. An important area of discussion has been represented by the possible causal link between psychopathology and infertility. In the past, the prevalence of psychiatric problems among infertile couples was estimated to be 25-60%. The incidence of depression and anxiety in infertile couples is significantly high than in fertile controls and in the general population respectively. Infertility has been linked to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, psychoticism, substance abuse and eating disorders. Psychological impact of infertility is greater in women than in men. Additionally, authors found that infertile patients were more alexithymic than healthy controls. In relation to the different needs, different psychological therapeutic interventions may be indicated. Psychological counseling can provide valuable assistance in dealing with infertility treatments and their eventual failures.
José M. Pozueco-Romero
Full Text Available This theoretical study reviews two of the most cited profiles of intimate partner batterers in the scientific literature, paying special attention to the most notable differences between them, as well as to their common criteria. The study also discusses one of the longest standing controversies in various research studies, including the particular overview with respect to Spain: it being the constant yet erroneous reference to the equivalence of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Similarly, special attention is paid to the implications of considering intimate partner batterers as having either a psychopathological or psychopathic profile, while also stressing the specific role played by psychopathy in the intimate partner batterer and, concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers, such aspects as their specific motives for perpetrating intimate partner violence and the evaluation instruments of this particular profile. Finally, a series of future directives for research concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers are also pointed out.
Romi, Juan Carlos
This article reviews the concept of serial crime, including murder as well as any action for the purpose of inflicting bodily harm upon any person. It characterizes three types of multi-murderers: serial killers, mass murderers, and spree killers. These offenders often have a specific (ritual) behavior that is idiosyncratic and repeated on each crime, which allows the psychological profiling of the murderer. Examples, a psychopathological background, and a description of both their criminal behavior and dynamics are provided for each of these criminals. They are further classified according to their different motivations: psychotic, prophetic or enlightened, pleasure, secondary or pecuniary profits, power or control. Finally, the author shares his personal experience over 20 years in the assessment of sexual offenders.
Full Text Available Background:Patients with chronic conditions like hypertension may experience many negative emotions which increase their risk for poor quality of lifeas well as the development of anxiety and depression symptomatology. However little is known about hypertension accompanied by dyslipidaemia. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the possible differences between hypertensive patients with dyslipidaemia and hypertensive patients without dyslipidaemia on quality of life and mental health. Methods:One hundred and nineteen-seven patients with essential hypertension participated and classified into two groups― dyslipidemic and non dyslipidaemic ― based on the levels of hypertension and cholesterol after medical examination. Along with a questionnaire regarding demographics and clinical features the SF-36 Health Survey, the Symptom Checklist-90-R, and the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire were administered. Results: Lower levels of Physical Functioning (p=.001, Role –Physical (p=.046, Vitality (p=.000, Bodily Pain (p=.004, General Health (p=.000 and Physical Component Summary (p=.000betweendyslipidemic and non dyslipidaemichypertensive patients were found. Significant differences between groups were also observed in all dimensions of psychopathology with exception to Hostility (p=.097, and Phobic Anxiety (p=.472. Apart from the avoidance subscale (p=.018, no difference onheart focused anxiety between the two groups was found. Logistic regression model found that dyslipidaemic hypertensive patients had in general a higher risk of impairment regarding quality of life and psychopathology. Conclusions: There is a significant association between presence of dyslipidaemia and deteriorated quality of life as well as mental symptomatology inhypertensive patients. The need for a more target therapeutic schema is outlined.
Most scholars consider gratitude as a moral emotion, with only few seeing it as a character trait. As a result, no systematic mechanism has ever been attempted to develop gratitude in children. Given the social issue of widespread lack of gratitude in the one-child generations of China, this article attempts to outline a mechanism of parental…
Rhee, Soo Hyun; Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D
In this article, we review evidence from recent behavior genetic studies that examined the covariance among common childhood psychopathological conditions and tested specific hypotheses regarding common and broadband-specific underlying features of childhood psychopathology. Specifically, we review the distinction between internalizing and externalizing disorders, the support for the generalist genes and specialist environments model, negative emotionality as a heritable underlying feature common to both internalizing and externalizing disorders, and daring as a heritable broadband-specific underlying feature that distinguishes externalizing disorders from internalizing disorders. We also discuss the implications of research in the search for specific genes that influence childhood psychopathology and suggest avenues for new research.
Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others
Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…
Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S
Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n = 97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n = 53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors.
Stewart, Jeremy G.; Esposito, Erika C.; Glenn, Catherine R.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Pridgen, Bryan; Gold, Joseph; Auerbach, Randy P.
Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality are serious health concerns; however, factors that contribute to the transition from NSSI to suicide ideation and suicide attempts are unclear. To address this gap, we investigated whether demographic characteristics, child maltreatment, and psychiatric factors are associated with the level suicidality among adolescents with a history of self-injury. Participants were three groups of adolescent inpatient self-injurers (n = 397, 317 female), aged 13–18 years (M = 15.44, SD = 1.36): (a) non-ideators (n = 96; no current suicide ideation and no lifetime suicide attempts), (b) suicide ideators (n = 149; current ideation and no lifetime attempts), and (c) suicide attempters (n = 152; current ideation and at least one lifetime attempt). Participants completed interviews assessing psychiatric diagnoses, suicidality, and NSSI characteristics, as well as questionnaires on childhood trauma, psychiatric symptoms, and risky behavior engagement. Depression severity was associated with greater odds being a suicide ideator (p adolescent self-injurers and determine the clinical utility of using risk markers for screening and intervention. PMID:27716512
Feldman, Ruth; Monakhov, Mikhail; Pratt, Maayan; Ebstein, Richard P
Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide signaling molecule originating from an ancestral peptide, appears in different variants across all vertebrate and several invertebrate species. Throughout animal evolution, neuropeptidergic signaling has been adapted by organisms for regulating response to rapidly changing environments. The family of OT-like molecules affects both peripheral tissues implicated in reproduction, homeostasis, and energy balance, as well as neuromodulation of social behavior, stress regulation, and associative learning in species ranging from nematodes to humans. After describing the OT-signaling pathway, we review research on the three genes most extensively studied in humans: the OT receptor (OXTR), the structural gene for OT (OXT/neurophysin-I), and CD38. Consistent with the notion that sociality should be studied from the perspective of social life at the species level, we address human social functions in relation to OT-pathway genes, including parenting, empathy, and using social relationships to manage stress. We then describe associations between OT-pathway genes with psychopathologies involving social dysfunctions such as autism, depression, or schizophrenia. Human research particularly underscored the involvement of two OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs53576, rs2254298) with fewer studies focusing on other OXTR (rs7632287, rs1042778, rs2268494, rs2268490), OXT (rs2740210, rs4813627, rs4813625), and CD38 (rs3796863, rs6449197) single nucleotide polymorphisms. Overall, studies provide evidence for the involvement of OT-pathway genes in human social functions but also suggest that factors such as gender, culture, and early environment often confound attempts to replicate first findings. We conclude by discussing epigenetics, conceptual implications within an evolutionary perspective, and future directions, especially the need to refine phenotypes, carefully characterize early environments, and integrate observations of social behavior across
... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...
Rutter, M; Dunn, J; Plomin, R; Simonoff, E; Pickles, A; Maughan, B; Ormel, J; Meyer, J; Eaves, L
The developmental interplay between nature and nurture is discussed, with particular reference to implications for research in developmental psychopathology. The general principles include individual differences in reactivity to the environment, two-way interplay between intraindividual biology and
Aldao, Amelia; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L
Despite the increasing interest in the study of emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology, researchers have predominantly focused on covert emotion regulation strategies-that is, those strategies that occur within the individual (e.g., cognitive reappraisal, suppression). Conversely, less attention has been devoted to the examination of the relationship between psychopathology and overt emotion regulation strategies (e.g., drinking alcohol, seeking advice). This has resulted in a limited understanding of the complex repertoire of emotion regulation strategies that individuals possess, and how patterns in the use of strategies might relate to psychopathology. We asked 218 undergraduates to report on their habitual use of 15 covert and overt emotion regulation strategies and symptoms of seven different mental disorders. Overt strategies were associated with symptoms and, at times, they predicted psychopathology above and beyond the more frequently studied covert strategies. These findings have implications for developing a more sophisticated understanding of patterns of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation.
Thomsen, Marianne S; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean; Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik
The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination.
Rossini, E D
The concurrent validity of Hutt's (1977) empirical psychopathology scale of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test was evaluated among three groups of younger school-aged children within the 7-to-10- year age range (M = 109.1): adjustment disordered, conduct disordered, and nonclinical controls (n = 40/group). Excellent interscorer reliability was achieved with approximately 2 hr of self-study of the scoring manual. Although the conduct-disordered group was significantly more immature on Koppitz' Developmental Scoring System, there were no significant differences among groups on the psychopathology scale when visual-motor development was covaried (M = 50.5). This was an unexpected result, given Hutt's initial validation study among school-aged children. The psychopathology scale was not inferred to be valid among adolescents in the only known concurrent validation study. Pending supportive validation research, the psychopathology scale should not be employed in the clinical assessment of younger school-aged children.
Full Text Available The objective in this study was to analyze to what extent inter parental conflicts and divorce act as predictors of psychopathological development in young people from intact and divorced families. The participants were 827 Portuguese young people between 13 and 25 years of age. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Children’s Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale and the Brief Symptom Inventory were used. Significant difference in the psychopathology were found with regard to gender, age and family structure. As verified, the intensity and lack of solution of the inter parental conflicts positively predict the development of psychopathology. In conclusion, the children whose parents are separated or divorced perceive the frequency and intensity of inter parental conflicts more highly, but present a higher solution level of the inter parental conflicts and higher psychopathology levels. Nevertheless, the family structure has no moderating effect on the interaction between the inter parental conflicts and the development of pyschopathology.
Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Chapman, Cath; Mills, Katherine; Teesson, Maree; Lockwood, Emma; Forbes, David; Slade, Tim
The experience of traumatic events has been linked to the development of psychopathology. Changing perspectives on psychopathology have resulted in the hypothesis that broad dimensional constructs account for the majority of variance across putatively distinct disorders. As such, traumatic events may be associated with several disorders due to their relationship with these broad dimensions rather than any direct disorder-specific relationship. The current study used data from 8871 Australians to test this hypothesis. Two broad dimensions accounted for the majority of relationships between traumatic events and mental and substance use disorders. Direct relationships remained between post-traumatic stress disorder and six categories of traumatic events in the total population and between drug dependence and accidents/disasters for males only. These results have strong implications for how psychopathology is conceptualized and offer some evidence that traumatic events are associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing psychopathology in general.
Goodwin, Huw; Arcelus, Jon; Geach, Nicole; Meyer, Caroline
This study examined the associations between conscientious perfectionism (high standards), self-evaluative perfectionism (self-criticism) and eating psychopathology among dancers. A sample of 244 female dancers, with a mean age of 20.11 years (standard deviation=1.97) completed the Perfectionism Inventory and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Self-evaluative perfectionism predicted eating psychopathology (eating restraint, eating concern, weight concern and shape concern). This relationship was not moderated by conscientious perfectionism. The mediation analyses showed that although conscientious perfectionism predicted eating psychopathology, this relationship was fully mediated by self-evaluative perfectionism. These findings demonstrate the greater influence of self-evaluative perfectionism, rather than conscientious perfectionism, on eating psychopathology in dancers.
Lange, E; Bräunig, K P; Fötzsch, R
In 14 patients with a surgically nad histopathologically verified meningioma of the olfactory nerve groove (OGM) (12 women, 2 men), clinical findings and diagnosis were analysed, especially with respect to neuropathology and psychopathology. The apodictic theorem that an OGM leads to a Foster-Kennedy syndrome as well as to a psychopathological orbital brain syndrome cannot be maintained. The Foster-Kennedy syndrome does not occur in a characteristically high incidence, and psychopathologically an orbital brain syndrome can only be diagnosed in case of an anterior location of the OGM. The more the OGM shows starting point or growth development to or from the anterior chiasmal angle, the more is resembles that psychopathological syndrome that we have found and described for the meningioma of the Tuberculus sellae.
Bijttebier, Patricia; Beck, Ilse; Claes, Laurence; Vandereycken, Walter
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) presupposes individual differences in the sensitivity of basic brain systems that respond to punishing and reinforcing stimuli. These differences are thought to underlie the personality dimensions of anxiety and impulsivity, and to have relevance for psychopathology. The present article aims at reviewing RST-based research on personality-psychopathology associations. First, RST and its revisions are described and the link between RST systems and personality dimensions is discussed. Second, studies investigating associations between RST systems and specific types of psychopathology are summarized. Although the available research yields a rather consistent picture with respect to constellations of BIS/BAS sensitivity that are associated with specific types of psychopathology, it also provides a clear indication that much work remains to be done. The discussion section highlights several topics that deserve future research attention.
Snyder, Hannah R.; Gulley, Lauren D.; Bijttebier, Patricia; Hartman, Catharina A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Mezulis, Amy; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.
Temperament is associated with important outcomes in adolescence, including academic and interpersonal functioning and psychopathology. Rothbart's temperament model is among the most well-studied and supported approaches to adolescent temperament, and contains 3 main components: positive emotionalit
Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A
The authors provide the clinico-psychopathological characteristics of mental patients revealed for the first time during a clinico-epidemiological study of the district therapeutic population. The predominance among them of the somatic psychopathological syndromes was established. The overwhelming majority of those conditions were found to belong to multifactorial mental diseases in whose etiology and pathogenesis the key role is played by interaction between exogenous (psychogenous) and endogenous (thymopathic) factors.
Budak, Ersin; Taymur, Ibrahim; Askin, Rustem; Gungor, Buket Belkiz; Demirci, Hakan; Akgul, Almila Ikra; Sahin, Zeynep Anil
Objectives. Internet addiction is closely associated with general psychopathology and interpersonal relationships. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between internet addiction, psychopathology and selfesteem among university students. Methods. One hundred and eighty-five volunteer university students were involved in this study. The participants are evaluated with socio-demographic data form, Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), Symptom Check List (SCL-90), Rosenberg Self-Est...
Are assisted reproduction technologies associated with categorical or dimensional aspects of psychopathology in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood? Results from a Danish prospective nationwide cohort study.
Klausen, T; Juul Hansen, K; Munk-Jørgensen, P; Mohr-Jensen, C
An increasing number of children are conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (ART), but little is known about the long-term risk in terms of mental health outcomes. All twin and singleton children conceived via ART and born in 1995 were sampled from the Danish in vitro fertilization registry and matched to four spontaneously conceived (SC) children. The children were followed-up at the age of 3, 7, 14 and 18 years in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry, to estimate the prevalence of all possible psychiatric diagnoses; dimensional aspects of psychopathology were assessed at the age of 14 years, using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The study included 858 ART children and 3436 SC children. ART and SC children were not clinically distinguishable on either the categorical measures of psychopathology at the age of 3, 7, 14 and 18 years, or on CBCL scale scores at the age of 14 years. The findings remained nonsignificant after controlling for sample differences. This large, prospective, nationwide cohort study provides evidence to support that ART exposure does not increase the risk of adverse mental health outcomes considered as a whole, while power was limited to discard an effect of ART on specific mental health disorders.
Katrin E. Giel
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in obese adolescents participating in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss and to investigate possible relationships with weight change, general psychopathology, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Method: At the beginning and after completion of a 6-month lifestyle intervention, 41 participants (20 females; age: 13.7 ± 1.4 years reported on core symptoms of eating disorders (SCOFF, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, RSES, and HRQOL (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents, KINDL, while parents filled in a questionnaire assessing their children's internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems (Child Behavior Checklist, CBCL. Results: Compared to age-matched normative samples, patients showed increased behavior problems and an impaired HRQOL. 43% of the patients were screened positive for an eating disorder pathology, and this subgroup showed an increased psychopathological burden compared to patients that were screened negative. The lifestyle intervention resulted in a significant weight loss which was unaffected by the presence of an eating disorder pathology. The screening rate for eating disorders remained stable after the intervention. Conclusion: The large overlap, mutual interaction, and high burden of eating and weight problems in children and adolescents underpin the need for an integrated view in both prevention and treatment approaches in pediatric obesity.
Park, Soyoung; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk
Case management interventions for suicide attempters aimed at helping adjust their social life to prevent reattempts have high nonparticipation and dropout rates. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the group who refused to participate in the suicide prevention program in Korea. A total of 489 patients with a suicide attempt who visited Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, from December 2009 to December 2013 were analyzed. All patients were divided into the participation group (n = 262) and the refusal group (n = 227) according to their participation in the case management program. Demographic and clinical characteristics of each group were examined. Results showed that the refusal group had low risks for suicide in terms of risk factors related with psychopathologies and presenting suicide behavior. That is, the refusal group had less patients with co-morbid medical illnesses and more patients with mild severity of depression compared to the participation group. However, the refusal group had more interpersonal conflict, more isolation of social integrity, and more impaired insight about suicide attempt. The results suggest that nonparticipation in the case management program may depend upon the patient's impaired insight about the riskiness of suicide and lack of social support.
Moulton, Stuart J; Newman, Emily; Power, Kevin; Swanson, Vivien; Day, Kenny
The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood trauma and eating psychopathology using a multiple mediation model that included emotion dysregulation and dissociation as hypothesised mediators. 142 female undergraduate psychology students studying at two British Universities participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed measures of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect), eating psychopathology, dissociation and emotion dysregulation. Multiple mediation analysis was conducted to investigate the study's proposed model. Results revealed that the multiple mediation model significantly predicted eating psychopathology. Additionally, both emotion dysregulation and dissociation were found to be significant mediators between childhood trauma and eating psychopathology. A specific indirect effect was observed between childhood emotional abuse and eating psychopathology through emotion dysregulation. Findings support previous research linking childhood trauma to eating psychopathology. They indicate that multiple forms of childhood trauma should be assessed for individuals with eating disorders. The possible maintaining role of emotion regulation processes should also be considered in the treatment of eating disorders.
Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A; Boot, Nathalie C; De Dreu, Carsten K W
Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be linked to basic motivational approach and avoidance systems, and that approach and avoidance motivation differentially influences creativity. Based on this reasoning, we predict that propensity for approach-based psychopathologies (e.g., positive schizotypy and risk of bipolar disorder) associates with increased creativity, whereas propensity for avoidance-based psychopathologies (e.g., anxiety, negative schizotypy, and depressive mood) associates with reduced creativity. Previous meta-analyses resonate with this proposition and showed small positive relations between positive schizotypy and creativity and small negative relations between negative schizotypy and creativity and between anxiety and creativity. To this we add new meta-analytic findings showing that risk of bipolar disorder (e.g., hypomania, mania) positively associates with creativity (k = 28, r = .224), whereas depressive mood negatively associates (albeit weakly) with creativity (k = 39, r = -.064). Our theoretical framework, along with the meta-analytic results, indicates when and why specific psychopathologies, and their inclinations, associate with increased or, instead, reduced creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record
Full Text Available Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s. None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants’ real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed.
Zabelina, Darya L; Condon, David; Beeman, Mark
Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s). None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants' real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed.
Hyde, Luke W
The emerging field of neurogenetics seeks to model the complex pathways from gene to brain to behavior. This field has focused on imaging genetics techniques that examine how variability in common genetic polymorphisms predict differences in brain structure and function. These studies are informed by other complimentary techniques (e.g., animal models and multimodal imaging) and have recently begun to incorporate the environment through examination of Imaging Gene × Environment interactions. Though neurogenetics has the potential to inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology, there has been little integration between principles of neurogenetics and developmental psychopathology. The paper describes a neurogenetics and Imaging Gene × Environment approach and how these approaches have been usefully applied to the study of psychopathology. Six tenets of developmental psychopathology (the structure of phenotypes, the importance of exploring mechanisms, the conditional nature of risk, the complexity of multilevel pathways, the role of development, and the importance of who is studied) are identified, and how these principles can further neurogenetics applications to understanding the development of psychopathology is discussed. A major issue of this piece is how neurogenetics and current imaging and molecular genetics approaches can be incorporated into developmental psychopathology perspectives with a goal of providing models for better understanding pathways from among genes, environments, the brain, and behavior.
Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Lausten, Mette; Pozzoli, Dario
We investigate the degree of correspondence between parents’ reports on child behavioral and educational outcomes using wave four of a rich Danish longitudinal survey of children (the DALSC). All outcomes are measured at age 11 when the children are expected to be in fifth grade. Once discrepancies...... are detected, we analyze whether they are driven by noisy evaluations or by systematic bias, focusing on the role of parental characteristics and response heterogeneity. We then explicitly assess the relative importance of the mother’s versus the father’s assessments in explaining child academic performance...... and diagnosed mental health to investigate whether one parent is systematically a better informant of their child’s outcomes than the other. Our results show that parental psychopathology, measured as maternal distress, is a source of systematic misreporting of child functioning, that the parent–child...
Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju
We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392
Bornstein's paper is a true psychoanalytic study of a child, if ever there was one. The fine tracing and discussion of the technical detail, together with the clarity and exposition of the theoretical underpinning make it a truly deep and thorough study and a model for those of us doing this work and trying to understand what indeed we do and why. I should say that although I have read the writings of the (then) Hampstead Clinic's borderline workshop (Kut Rosenfeld and Sprince, 1965), I had not read this outstanding paper by Berta Bornstein, and I wish I had done so long ago. I shall begin with some comments about psychoanalytic theory and then go on to discuss Bornstein's abundant and fascinating analyses of technique. I shall conclude with some observations on the child's psychopathology.
Matot, J P
School failure is an important phenomenon about which not only the teachers are very much concerned, but also the sociologists and the political authorities. As it is the main reason why people consult them, child psychiatrists, psychologists and professionals in mental health are led to consider, beside the specific psychopathological factors, the socio-cultural and pedagogical aspects involved in different ways everytime a child meets difficulties at school. The programs of intervention resulting from this dynamic approach raise the question of the limits of the psychiatrists' competence and practice. The cooperation with the school in particular should take into account the risks arising from any confusion between therapeutic and pedagogic responsibilities. Finally, serious school failure leads us to question how special education works, when considering inadaptation only as a consequence of deficits. We should compare the advantages of such a system in connection with the possibilities-still to be imagined- of integration through the channel of ordinary school teaching.
Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162339.html Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged Men more often ... HealthDay News) -- The number of Americans who attempted suicide and wound up in the emergency room has ...
Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won
Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom...... severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047......) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania....
Guyer, Amanda E.; McClure, Erin B.; Adler, Abby D.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rich, Brendan A.; Kimes, Alane S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen
Background: We examined whether face-emotion labeling deficits are illness-specific or an epiphenomenon of generalized impairment in pediatric psychiatric disorders involving mood and behavioral dysregulation. Method: Two hundred fifty-two youths (7-18 years old) completed child and adult facial expression recognition subtests from the Diagnostic…
Cerel, Julie; Fristad, Mary A.; Verducci, Joseph; Weller, Ronald A.; Weller, Elizabeth B.
Objective: Although the death of a parent is one of the most significant stressors a child can experience, the psychiatric sequelae of parental death are not fully understood. Method: A total of 360 parent-bereaved children (ages 6-17) and their surviving parents were directly interviewed four times during the first 2 years following the death (at…
Full Text Available This is a cross sectional comparative case control study assessing the Relationship between psychopathology and socio demographic and clinical variables in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and Bronchial Asthma in comparison to healthy individuals. The investigation reveals that there is psychopathology in all the three groups. The psychopathology is significantly more in patients with COPD. Psychopathology in COPD patients is related to age, duration, severity of illness and steroid medication. It is found that psychopathology in bronchial asthma patients are more than those of healthy controls but there is no significant difference. The psychopathology is significantly related to relate to age, marital status, occupational status, and smoking. Duration severity of illness and steroid medication.
Hooper, Lisa M; Decoster, Jamie; White, Nyshetia; Voltz, Mukesha L
Several decades of research have shown that people who experience parentification in childhood are at an increased risk of experiencing psychopathology in adulthood. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the magnitude of the relation between self-reported parentification experienced in childhood and psychopathology evidenced in adulthood. Results from 12 nonoverlapping studies (N = 2,472), which were conducted between 1984 and 2010, revealed a small significant but reliable effect (r = .14; 95% confidence interval = .10 to .18). Moderator analyses were performed to explore possible explanations for the variance evidenced between parentification and psychopathology. Moderators that were examined include population factors, methodological factors, and type of psychopathology. The present findings indicate that four factors-types of psychopathology, type of sample, race, and parentification measure used-moderated the relation between parentification and psychopathology. The meta-analytic findings that emerged highlight the need for additional empirical research. Possible explanations and clinical
Full Text Available The exchange of goods, facilities and services, according to a neoliberal, as well as being the main occupation of people constitutes the normative basis underpinning all other devices of industry and in particular those that organize the work, the relations between social groups and, finally, also inform the more intimate and personal relationship. If we look at how both have changed employment contracts, and relational habits and customs related to them, we'll see that there is a close correlation between the organization of work, social life and emotional exchanges. The job now requires: cooperation, spirit of competition, individual initiative, ability to adapt to the speed at which processing takes place. These reasons are now perceived as inevitable cultural, habitual, instinctive, and not to think about. The propensity to consume up to the waste, the need to update what the technology we have, the change of taste in every season has become a matter of status, an inevitable narcissistic brand witch penetrates in the minds causing apprehension and discomfort.Keywords:Psychopathology of bondings; Post-modernity; Social and psychological changes
Lesch, K P
Serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important regulator of morphogenetic activities during early central nervous system development, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation as well as synapto-genesis. Serotonergic raphe neurons diffusely project to a variety of brain regions (e.g. cortex, amygdala, hippocampus) and play known roles in integrating emotion, cognition, motor function as well as in food intake, sleep, pain, and sexual activity. The diversity of physiologic functions is due to the fact that 5-HT acts as a master control neurotransmitter within a highly complex system of neural communication mediated by multiple pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT receptors, thus orchestrating the activity and interaction of several other neurotransmitter systems. Since proteins involved in the regulation of central serotonergic activity (e.g. enzymes, receptors, transporter) play pivotal role in brain 5-HT homeostasis, polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of their genes resulting in variation of expression and function are likely to influence complex traits, such as temperament/personality and psychopathology.
Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha
Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain.
Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis A; Zahavi, Dan
Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the "psychiatric object" (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary "operationalist" epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers' views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, "atheoretical" definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind.
Fushimi, Masahito; Sugawara, Junya; Saito, Seiji
To determine the factors underlying suicide in Akita prefecture, a questionnaire survey was conducted among members of the Akita Prefectural Medical Association (APMA), regarding suicide cases they attended. During the investigation period (1 July 2001-30 June 2002), the total number of suicide cases was 243 (138 completed, 105 attempted). Significant differences were identified between completed and attempted suicide groups in terms of gender, age distribution, and suicidal methods. Specifically, in the completed suicide group, the number of male completers exceeded that of female completers, the number of middle-aged or elderly completers was high, and the majority of completed suicide cases involved hanging as the suicide method. Conversely, in the attempted suicide group, the number of female attempters exceeded that of male attempters, younger attempters were frequent, hanging was rare, and drug overdose or cutting was common. In addition, the number of cases involving a history of previous suicide attempts was significantly higher in the attempted suicide group than in the completed suicide group. The results of the present study support the concept that the completed and attempted suicide groups are essentially of a different nature. Furthermore, the number of cases involving a history of previous suicide attempts was found to be significantly lower in the completed suicide group than in the attempted suicide group. This result indicates the difficulty in decreasing the number of completed suicides by simply providing intervention and care for individuals who have attempted suicide.
Strong, T H; Vega, J S; O'Shaughnessy, M J; Feldman, D B; Koemptgen, J G
Eighteen of 901 women (2%) attempting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) received amnioinfusion. No untoward effects occurred in the subjects or their fetuses. We conclude that, though amnioinfusion in the setting of a VBAC attempt is needed only infrequently, it appears to be a reasonable intrapartum management option. The usual safeguards for a VBAC attempt should be followed.
The empirical link between psychopathology and creativity is often correlational and fraught with suspiciously causal interpretations. In this paper, we review research in favor of the position that certain forms of psychopathology that profoundly affect the neural substrates for rule-based thought (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) can significantly influence the quantity of creative production. Because highly productive individuals, irrespective of psychopathology, often produce work o...
McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John
Forced marriage is a violation of human rights and thwarts personal safety and well-being. Child brides are at higher risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) and often are unable to effectively negotiate safe sex, leaving them vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus, and early pregnancy. The prevalence of forced marriage and child marriage in the United States is unknown. The intersection of forced marriage and child marriage and IPV is equally unknown. When 277 mothers who reported IPV to shelter or justice services were asked about a forced marriage attempt, frequency and severity of IPV, mental health status, and behavioral functioning of their child, 47 (17%) reported a forced marriage attempt with 45% of the women younger than 18 years of age at the time of the attempt. Among the 47 women, 11 (23%) reported death threats, 20 (43%) reported marriage to the person, and 28 (60%) reported a pregnancy. Women younger than 18 years reported more threats of isolation and economic deprivation associated with the attempt as well as pressure from parents to marry. Regardless of age, women experiencing a forced marriage attempt reported more intimate partner sexual abuse, somatization, and behavior problems for their children. Forced marriage attempts occurred to one in six women (17%) reporting IPV and are associated with worse functioning for mother and child. The frequent occurrence and associated effect of forced marriage attempts to maternal child functioning indicates routine assessment for a forced marriage attempt as part of comprehensive care for women reporting IPV.
Frick, Paul J; Ray, James V; Thornton, Laura C; Kahn, Rachel E
Recent research has suggested that the presence of significant levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits designates a clinically important and etiologically distinct subgroup of children and adolescents with serious conduct problems. Based on this research, CU traits have been included in the most recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013)--as a specifier for the diagnosis of conduct disorder. In this review, we attempt to understand CU traits within a developmental psychopathological framework. Specifically, we summarize research on the normal development of the prosocial emotions of empathy and guilt (i.e., conscience) and we illustrate how the development of CU traits can be viewed as the normal development of conscience gone awry. Furthermore, we review research on the stability of CU traits across different developmental periods and highlight factors that can influence this stability. Finally, we highlight the implications of this developmental psychopathological framework for future etiological research, for assessment and diagnostic classification, and for treatment of children with serious conduct problems.
Chamanara, Elham; Raeeskarami, Seyed-Reza
Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are prone to the problems that can delay their psychosocial development; however, the existing literature has not reached a consensus on the psychological problems related to JIA. A total of 51 children and adolescents with JIA and 75 healthy controls aged 6 to 18 years were examined using the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Our results represented that 70 percent of JIA group reached “borderline clinical” range or “clinical” range in internalizing problems, while this percentage in the control group was 18 percent. In addition, our results indicated that JIA group has gotten significantly higher scores (more than twofold) in externalizing behaviors compared to control group. Furthermore, children with JIA showed higher rate of anxiety/depression, withdrawal/depression, somatic complaints, rule breaking behaviors, and aggressive behaviors as well as thought and social problems compared to control group (p < 0.001). As a conclusion, children and adolescents with JIA compared to healthy controls may show higher rate of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Furthermore, our novel findings on externalizing, social, and thought problems in JIA warrant further investigation on affected children who may be at greater risk of future psychopathologies. PMID:27656678
Sütterlin, Stefan; Braet, Caroline; Mueller, Sven C.
Emotion regulation and associated autonomic activation develop throughout childhood and adolescence under the influence of the family environment. Specifically, physiological indicators of autonomic nervous system activity such as interoceptive sensitivity and vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) can inform on emotion regulation. Although the effect of parental emotion socialization on emotion regulation appears to be influenced by autonomic processes, research on physiological regulation and the influence of parental factors remains scarce. This study investigated the relationship between self-reported habitual emotion regulation strategies and HRV at rest as well as interoceptive sensitivity in forty-six youngsters (27 female; age: M = 13.00, SD = 2.13). Secondly, the association between these autonomic correlates and parental psychopathology was also studied. Whereas better interoceptive sensitivity was related to reduced maladaptive emotion regulation, specifically rumination, high HRV was related to more use of external emotion regulation strategies (i.e., support seeking). In addition, increased HRV and decreased interoceptive sensitivity were associated with maternal internalizing and there was evidence for a possible mediation effect of HRV in the relationship between maternal internalizing and child external emotion regulation. This study elucidates the link between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and underlying physiological regulation in adolescents but also indicates a putative influence of maternal internalizing symptoms on emotion regulation in their offspring. PMID:27741261
Hagan, Melissa J; Sulik, Michael J; Lieberman, Alicia F
Studies of the association between traumatic experiences and psychopathology in early childhood have primarily focused on specific types of events (e.g., sexual abuse) or aggregated different types of events without differentiating among them. We extend this body of work by investigating patterns of traumatic event exposure in a high-risk, ethnically diverse sample of children ages 3-6 (N = 211; 51 % female) and relating these different patterns to parents' reports of child externalizing, internalizing, and post-traumatic stress symptomatology. Using latent class analysis, which divides a heterogeneous population into homogenous subpopulations, we identified three patterns of traumatic events based on parents' responses to an interview-based assessment of trauma exposure in young children: (1) severe exposure, characterized by a combination of family violence and victimization; (2) witnessing family violence without victimization; and (3) moderate exposure, characterized by an absence of family violence but a moderate probability of other events. The severe exposure class exhibited elevated internalizing and post-traumatic stress symptoms relative to the witness to violence and moderate exposure classes, controlling for average number of traumatic events. Results highlight the need for differentiation between profiles of traumatic life event exposure and the potential for person-centered methods to complement the cumulative risk perspective.
Veen, Violaine; Stevens, Gonneke; Doreleijers, Theo; van der Ende, Jan; Vollebergh, Wilma
Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent among incarcerated youth. However, whereas ethnic minority youths are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, limited research is available on their mental health. In this study, differences in mental health problems between incarcerated adolescents of native Dutch and Moroccan origin, were examined. Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self-Report scores were compared between incarcerated adolescents of native Dutch and Moroccan origin. Their scores were also compared to those of native Dutch and Moroccan immigrant youths in the general, non-incarcerated population. Native Dutch incarcerated adolescents showed higher levels of various mental health problems than incarcerated adolescents with a Moroccan background. Compared to the general population, incarcerated youths showed higher levels of mental health problems, but this deviation was much larger for native Dutch than for Moroccan immigrant youths. These ethnic differences in mental health problems could not be explained by ethnic differences in socio-economic background and social desirable answering tendencies. Incarcerated youths of Moroccan origin show less psychopathology than incarcerated native Dutch youths, which might be explained by disparities in sentencing procedures.
Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie
Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling.
Karatzias, Thanos; Jowett, Sally; Begley, Amelie; Deas, Suzanne
Background Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82). We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78). We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. Highlights of the article Interpersonal trauma survivors are distinguished primarily by a generalised elevation of their maladaptive schemas, rather than a unique schema profile
Nugnes, Rosa; Zito, Eugenio; Mozzillo, Enza; Camarca, Maria Erminia; Riccio, Maria Pia; Terrone, Gaetano; Melis, Daniela; Bravaccio, Carmela; Franzese, Adriana
We report the case of a child affected by Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) with good cognitive performances and without relevant behavioral abnormalities.The diagnosis of PWS, suspected on the basis of clinical features and past history, was confirmed by DNA methylation analysis. Additional genetic testing revealed a maternal uniparental disomy. Intellectual profile was analyzed by WISC-III and Raven's Progressive Matrices CPM, while the behavior was evaluated by K-SADS-PL and Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 to the parents.WISC-III test showed a Total Intelligence Quotient (T-IQ = 79) at the border level for age. The Verbal Intelligence Quotient (V-IQ) showed a lower score than the Performance Intelligence Quotient (P-IQ) (78 and 85, respectively). Raven's Matrices CPM showed an intelligence level at 75-90° percentile for age. Concerning behavioral evaluation, a difficulty in impulse control was observed, with persistent but controllable search for food, without a clear psychopathological meaning. Also according to K-SADS-PL no areas of psychopathological dimensions were detected. In conclusion, in presence of consisting clinical features of PWS and high diagnostic suspicion, the diagnosis of PWS should be considered even in presence of a borderline IQ and in absence of psychopathological abnormalities.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between negative life events (NLEs and attempted suicide in rural China. METHODS: Six rural counties were selected from disease surveillance points in Shandong province, China. A total of 409 suicide attempters in rural areas between October 1, 2009, and March 31, 2011, and an equal number of matched controls were interviewed. We compared negative life events experienced within 1 month, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-2 months prior to attempted suicide for cases and prior to interview for controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between NLEs and attempted suicide. RESULTS: Suicide attempters experienced more NLEs within the last year prior to suicide attempt than controls prior to interview (83.1% vs. 33.5%. There was a significant dose-response relationship between NLEs experienced within the last year and increased risk of attempted suicide. Timing of NLEs analysis showed that NLEs experienced in the last month and 6-12 months prior to suicide attempt were significantly associated with elevated risk of attempted suicide, even after adjusting for mental disorders and demographic factors. Of NLEs, quarrelling with spouse, quarrelling with other family members, conflicting with friends or neighbors, family financial difficulty, and serious illness were independently related to attempted suicide. CONCLUSION: NLEs are significantly associated with increased risk for attempted suicide in rural China. Stress management and intervention may be important to prevent suicidal behavior in rural China.
Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Oga, Hidefumi; Kagaya, Ryo; Kitabayashi, Makiko; Kanaya, Yuki
Psychological approaches such as mindfulness-based stress reduction or mindfulness-based cognitive therapy could be effective for relieving a wide range of psychosocial stresses or frictions between parents and children. Several interventional approaches based on mindfulness have been shown to be useful for improving parent-child relationships not only among healthy families but also among those with difficult psychopathologies. Particularly in the relationships of parents with their children with developmental disorders such as autism or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders, these approaches may play an important role in that the motivations of both parents and children could be enhanced because they can actually feel that their mental condition improves through meaningful parent-child interactions that they experience in their daily lives. These approaches are also expected to improve communications between mothers and children through the development of a finely honed sensitivity. One practical example is shown for the mental growth of children by the mindfulness-based dietary education and the secondary effects of this education on the parents. We can also apply these effective methods to the improvement of general interpersonal relationships.
Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild; Kragh Andersen, Per;
who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. METHOD: We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses......OBJECTIVES: Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees...... were conducted on incidence rates of attempted suicide in biological and adoptive siblings given occurrence of attempted suicide in the adoptees while also taking into account psychiatric disorders. Information about suicidal attempt and history of psychiatric disorder was based on hospital admissions...
Full Text Available Sau Man Sandra Chan,1 Fung Kum Helen Chiu,1 Chiu Wa Linda Lam,1 Sau Man Corine Wong,1 Yeates Conwell2 1Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA Background: Elderly suicide is a public health problem worldwide, and the risk factors are multidimensional. Chronic mental health problems, personality traits, stressful life events, comorbid medical conditions, social isolation, unemployment, and poverty are associated with higher risk for suicide in later life. There was a relative paucity of data on the neurobiological markers of elderly suicide. Objective: This study examines the conjoint roles of cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRFs and other established biopsychosocial risk factors in older adults who had made a recent suicide attempt.Design: A cross-sectional, case-controlled study.Setting: A tertiary care setting in a public sector and a community setting.Subjects and methods: Cases (N=77 were nondemented Chinese adults aged ≥65 years, enrolled in a regional psychogeriatric service following a suicide attempt; comparison subjects (N=99 were community-dwelling nondemented older adults with no lifetime history of suicide. Measures of sociodemographic profile, life events, suicidal behavior, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV Axis I psychopathology, personality traits, functional status, physical health, CVRFs, and executive cognitive functions were administered. Results: Weighted sum of CVRF score was significantly higher in older women who had made a recent suicide attempt (mean: 10.56; standard deviation [SD]: 5.46 than comparison subjects (mean: 7.24; SD: 4.04 (t=3.52, P=0.001; df=99. Logistic regression showed that CVRF score (Exp[B]: 1.289, P=0.033, DSM-IV depressive disorders (current (Exp[B]: 348, P<0.001, number of life events in the past 12 weeks (Exp[B]: 10.4; P
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children of parents with alcohol dependence syndrome are particularly at high risk of emotional and behavioral problems such as learning disability, hyperactivity, psychomotor delays, somatic symptoms and emotional problems. Neuropsychological functions in these children have been the focus of attention over the last decade. AIM: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of behavioral and cognitive problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children of patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome, with no known psychiatric illness; aged between 5 and 10 years (B oth male & female; with mother having GHQ scores less than 4, formed the study group and control group formed by the children of normal. 108 such Children (54 in Study group and 54 in Control group were evaluated for psychopathology, neuro development and cognitive functioning. Tools used were: DSM IV criteria for diagnosis of Alcohol Dependence Syndrome, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ - 28, and Socio - demographic data sheet, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – IV (WISC - IV, Trail Making Test (TMT and Neurodevelopment Scale. RESULTS: Behavioral, emotional difficulties and Neuro developmental deficits are commonly seen in children of alcohol - dependent parents as they scored statistically significant high scores on Neurodevelopmental Scale, Externalizing subscale and a marginal high score on Internalizing Subscale of CBCL. On the WISC - IV , there was a statistically significant difference in various subtests and indices including verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed and total intellectual quotient ; indicating a global dysfunction. On the TMT, children of alcohol - dependent parents took as much time to do the task as the control group but tended to make more errors and this difference is
Janssen, Diederik F
A scientific nomenclature of erotic age preferences informed the mid- through late nineteenth century joint appearance of homosexuality and sexual abuse of minors on the medico-legal scene. Yet, even in the twenty-first century, legal, psychiatric and culture-critical dimensions of related terms are rarely cleanly distinguished. Review of primary sources shows the ongoing Western suspension of notions of 'sick desire', alongside and beyond the medicalisation of homosexuality, between metaphor, legal interdiction and postulated psychopathology. Virtually all early attention to erotic age preference occurred in the context of emergent attention to erotic gender preference. Age of attraction and age difference centrally animate modern homosexuality's pre-modern past; its earliest psychiatric nomenclature and typologies (1844-69); its early aetiologies stipulating degrees of sexual differentiation (1890 s); its concomitant sub-classification (1896-1914); its earliest psychophysiological tests (1950s); and, finally, its post-psychiatric, social scientific typologies (1980s). Several identifications of 'paedophilia' were seen throughout the 1890 s but as a trope it gained cultural momentum only during, and as a seemingly intriguing corollary of, the progressive depsychiatricisation of homosexuality across the Anglo-European world (late 1950s through 1980s). Early twentieth century sources varied in having it denote (1) a distinct perversion, thus possible 'complication' of sexual inversion (2) a discrete corollary of psychosexual differentiation akin to gender preference (3) a distinct subtype of fetishism, thus a likely imprint of early seduction (4) a more intricate expression of erotic symbolism or psychosexual complex or (5) a taste answering to culture, a lack of it, or a libertine disregard for it.
V. Hendriks (Vincent)
textabstractThe etiology of addiction has a long history of clinical and scientific interest, which is characterized by differences in conceptual approach, conflicting data and public controversy. There have been numerous attempts to describe the antecedents and consequences of addiction in theoreti
Pezard, L; Nandrino, J L
that non-linear dynamical process may be involved in the recurrence of symptoms in troubles such as manic-depressive illness (9) or schizophrenia (51). These observations can contribute to more parcimonious interpretation of the time course of these illnesses than usual theories. In the search of a relationship between brain dynamics and mental troubles, it has been shown in three depressed patients an important correlation between the characteristics of brain dynamics and the intensity of depressive mood (49). This preliminary observation is in accordance with the emergence hypothesis according which changes in neuronal dynamics should be related to changes in mental processes. We reviewed here some theoretical and experimental results related to the use of "physical" dynamical theory in the field of psychopathology. It has been argued that these applications go beyond metaphor and that they are empirically founded. Nevertheless, these studies only constitute first steps on the way of a cautious development and definition of a "dynamical paradigm" in psychopathology. The introduction of concepts from dynamics such as complexity and dynamical changes (i.e. bifurcations) permits a new perspective on function and dysfunction of the mind/brain and the time evolution of symptoms. Moreover, it offers a ground for the hypothesis of the emergence of mental properties on the basis of neuronal dynamics (42). Since this theory can help to throw light on classical problems in psychopathology, we consider that a precise examination of both its theoretical and empirical consequences is requested to define its validity on this topic.
Micali, Nadia; Kothari, Radha; Nam, Kie Woo; Gioroukou, Elena; Walshe, Muriel; Allin, Matthew; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara
This study investigates the prevalence of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, neuropsychological function, structural brain correlates and risk mechanisms in a prospective cohort of very preterm (VPT) young adults. We assessed ED psychopathology and neuropsychological correlates in 143 cohort individuals born at childhood and adolescence, were investigated using prospectively collected data throughout childhood/adolescence. VPT-born individuals had high levels of ED psychopathology at age 21 years. Executive function did not correlate with ED symptomatology. VPT adults presenting with ED psychopathology had smaller grey matter volume at age 14/15 years in the left posterior cerebellum and smaller white matter volume in the fusiform gyrus bilaterally, compared with VPT adults with no ED psychopathology. Caesarean delivery predicted engaging in compensatory behaviours, and severe eating difficulty at age 14 years predicted ED symptomatology in young adulthood. VPT individuals are at risk for ED symptomatology, with evidence of associated structural alterations in posterior brain regions. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the pathways that lead from perinatal/obstetric complications to ED and relevant neurobiological mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley &Sons, Ltd.
MacBeth, Angus; Gumley, Andrew
Compassion has emerged as an important construct in studies of mental health and psychological therapy. Although an increasing number of studies have explored relationships between compassion and different facets of psychopathology there has as yet been no systematic review or synthesis of the empirical literature. We conducted a systematic search of the literature on compassion and mental health. We identified 20 samples from 14 eligible studies. All studies used the Neff Self Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003b). We employed meta-analysis to explore associations between self-compassion and psychopathology using random effects analyses of Fisher's Z correcting for attenuation arising from scale reliability. We found a large effect size for the relationship between compassion and psychopathology of r=-0.54 (95% CI=-0.57 to -0.51; Z=-34.02; pCompassion is an important explanatory variable in understanding mental health and resilience. Future work is needed to develop the evidence base for compassion in psychopathology, and explore correlates of compassion and psychopathology.
Baucom, Donald H; Belus, Jennifer M; Adelman, Caroline B; Fischer, Melanie S; Paprocki, Christine
This article provides a rationale and empirical support for providing couple-based interventions when one partner in a relationship is experiencing individual psychopathology. Several investigations indicate that relationship distress and psychopathology are associated and reciprocally influence each other, such that the existence of relationship distress predicts the development of subsequent psychopathology and vice versa. Furthermore, findings indicate that for several disorders, individual psychotherapy is less effective if the client is in a distressed relationship. Finally, even within happy relationships, partners often inadvertently behave in ways that maintain or exacerbate symptoms for the other individual. Thus, within both satisfied and distressed relationships, including the partner in a couple-based intervention provides an opportunity to use the partner and the relationship as a resource rather than a stressor for an individual experiencing some form of psychological distress. The authors propose that a promising approach to including the partner in treatment involves (a) integrating intervention principles from empirically supported interventions for individual therapy for specific disorders with (b) knowledge of how to employ relationships to promote individual and dyadic change. Based on this logic, the article includes several examples to demonstrate how couple-based interventions can be focused on a specific type of psychopathology, including encouraging empirical findings for these interventions. The article concludes with recommendations for how clinicians and researchers can adapt their knowledge of couple therapy to assist couples in which one partner is experiencing notable psychological distress or diagnosable psychopathology.
Harris, Latonya S; Block, Stephanie D; Ogle, Christin M; Goodman, Gail S; Augusti, Else-Marie; Larson, Rakel P; Culver, Michelle A; Pineda, Annarheen R; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony
Individuals with histories of childhood trauma may adopt a nonspecific memory retrieval strategy to avoid unpleasant and intrusive memories. In a sample of 93 adolescents and adults with or without histories of child sexual abuse (CSA), we tested the hypothesis that nonspecific memory retrieval is related to an individual's general tendency to use avoidant (i.e., distancing) coping as a personal problem-solving or coping strategy, especially in victims of CSA. We also examined age differences and other individual differences (e.g., trauma-related psychopathology) as predictors of nonspecific memories. Distancing coping was significantly associated with less specific autobiographical memory. Younger age, lower vocabulary scores, and non-CSA childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical and emotional abuse) also uniquely predicted less autobiographical memory specificity, whereas trauma-related psychopathology was associated with more specific memory. Implications for the development of autobiographical memory retrieval in the context of coping with childhood maltreatment are discussed.
Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child's growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes numerical data and sectoral distribution relating to child labor in Turkey. The information is taken the labor force research data collected by the Turkish Statistical Institute. Several attempts have been made to resolve the problems of child workers in Turkey. The first stage was the implementation of the International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (ILO/IPEC. After introduction of the program, many organizations started various activities directed towards children workers in Turkey. Since these initiatives were coordinated and complementary activities there were remarkable developments in the fight against problems of the child workers. The Turkish Statistical Institute examined the child labor force proportion by means of three separate statistical components and the results revealed that number of the child workers has a tendency to decrease. Despite some statistical research carried out in Turkey, the precise number of children that are working cannot be determined. Some of the leading factors can be listed as paucity of research carried out in this area, inaccurate official statistical data regarding the number of children who are working illegally, employed as unpaid family workers, working in the streets, working on the temporary or seasonal basis, and other related factors.
Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.
O'Donoghue, J M
In the Western World self-immolation is an uncommon but dramatic method of attempting suicide. In-patients who attempt suicide by fire-setting tend to be female with severe psychopathology. In a previous study from the South of Ireland, seven cases from a psychiatric and prison population were identified in a five year period from 1984 to 1989. This would represent an annual rate of 1.07 per cent of burns treated in the burns unit at Cork University Hospital. In this study 12 cases were identified for the years 1994 and 1995. This represents an increase of 3.5 per cent from 1.07 to 4.6 per cent of all burns treated at the same institution. Ten of these patients had a previous psychiatric history and eight of them were resident on a psychiatric ward when they committed the act. Seven of the patients were found to have a high degree of suicide intent of whom four died of their injuries, which gives a mortality rate for this group of 33 per cent. Effective prevention policies are necessary if this increasing problem is to be curtailed.
O'Donoghue, J M; Panchal, J L; O'Sullivan, S T; O'Shaughnessy, M; O'Connor, T P; Keeley, H; Kelleher, M J
In the Western World self-immolation is an uncommon but dramatic method of attempting suicide. In-patients who attempt suicide by fire-setting tend to be female with severe psychopathology. In a previous study from the South of Ireland, seven cases from a psychiatric and prison population were identified in a five year period from 1984 to 1989. This would represent an annual rate of 1.07 per cent of burns treated in the burns unit at Cork University Hospital. In this study 12 cases were identified for the years 1994 and 1995. This represents an increase of 3.5 per cent from 1.07 to 4.6 per cent of all burns treated at the same institution. Ten of these patients had a previous psychiatric history and eight of them were resident on a psychiatric ward when they committed the act. Seven of the patients were found to have a high degree of suicide intent of whom four died of their injuries, which gives a mortality rate for this group of 33 per cent. Effective prevention policies are necessary if this increasing problem is to be curtailed.
farideh faraji; Neda Kakayi; Mohammad Kazem Atef Vahid; Ahmad Sohraby; Samira Purghorbani
Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II), Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress), and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was fou...
Stenager, E N; Jensen, Knud
In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newly...... with their general practitioner prior to the suicide attempt. Postgraduate courses for practitioners on depression diagnostics and suicidal behaviour are proposed as a measure in suicide prevention....
Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K
In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.
Andersch, Norbert; Cutting, John
The philosopher Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945) wrote in 1929: 'For what it [the philosophy of symbolic forms] is seeking is not so much common factors in being as common factors in meaning. Hence we must strive to bring the teachings of pathology, which cannot be ignored, into the more universal context of the philosophy of culture' (Cassirer, 1955: 275). This statement summarizes his approach in shifting the focus on psychopathological theory from the brain and its localizations to the living interaction between the self and his/her social environment. The present article looks at the impact of symbol theory on psychopathology - pre- and post-Cassirer's main oeuvre Philosophie der symbolischen Formen - and whether his concept still has a role to play in an ontology of psychopathology.
De Panfilis, Chiara; Meehan, Kevin B; Cain, Nicole M; Clarkin, John F
This study examined whether the relationship between low effortful control (EC), general psychopathology and interpersonal maladjustment previously reported among children extends to adulthood. Two hundred and forty undergraduate students were assessed using the EC scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, the General Severity Index of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-GSI) and the interpersonal distress index of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (IIP-distress). Both the BSI-GSI and the IIP-distress scores were related to low levels of EC. Furthermore, interpersonal distress mediated the association between low EC and greater psychopathology severity. These results suggest that deficits in regulatory temperament among adults may be associated with experiencing greater psychopathology distress, and that this relationship may be explained by an impairment in interpersonal adjustment. Such preliminary findings may constitute a useful starting point for investigating this hypothesis among clinical populations.
Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios
The purpose of this study is to assess any underlying links between personality, defense styles, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and psychopathology in a college student sample. This is a cross-sectional study of fourth-year Greek Medical students who responded in a comprehensive test battery, which included validated questionnaires on IAD, personality traits, patterns of psychological defense styles, and psychopathology symptoms. A path model that was tested using Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology showed that the defense styles employed by the students and certain personality traits (Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Neuroticism/Anxiety, and Aggression-Hostility) contributed to the prediction of variability in IAD, with IAD in turn predicting variability in overt psychopathology.
Pinto, Raquel Q; Soares, Isabel; Carvalho-Correia, Eduarda; Mesquita, Ana R
Up to 20% of children and adolescents worldwide suffer from mental health problems. Epidemiological studies have shown that some of these problems are already present at an early age. The recognition that psychopathology is a result of an interaction between individual experiences and genetic characteristics has led to an increase in the number of studies using a gene-environment approach (G×E). However, to date, there has been no systematic review of G×E studies on psychopathology in the first 6 years of life. Following a literature search and a selection process, 14 studies were identified and most (n=12) of the studies found at least one significant G×E effect. This review provides a systematic characterization of the published G×E studies, providing insights into the neurobiological and environmental determinants involved in the etiology of children's psychopathology.