Thabane Lehana; Odueyungbo Adefowope; Browne Dillon T; Byrne Carolyn; Smart Lindsay A
Abstract Background Research has shown strong links between parenting and child psychopathology. The moderating role of child gender is of particular interest, due to gender differences in socialization history and in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Currently there is little agreement on how gender moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychopathology. This study attempts to address this lack of consensus by drawing upon two theories (self-salience vs. gender stereot...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown strong links between parenting and child psychopathology. The moderating role of child gender is of particular interest, due to gender differences in socialization history and in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Currently there is little agreement on how gender moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychopathology. This study attempts to address this lack of consensus by drawing upon two theories (self-salience vs. gender stereotyped misbehaviour to determine how child gender moderates the role of parenting, if at all. Methods Using generalized estimating equations (GEE associations between three parenting dimensions (hostile-ineffective parenting, parental consistency, and positive interaction were examined in relationship to child externalizing (physical aggression, indirect aggression, and hyperactivity-inattention and internalizing (emotional disorder-anxiety dimensions of psychopathology. A sample 4 and 5 year olds from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY were selected for analysis and followed over 6 years (N = 1214. Two models with main effects (Model 1 and main effects plus interactions (Model 2 were tested. Results No child gender-by-parenting interactions were observed for child physical aggression and indirect aggression. The association between hostile-ineffective parenting and child hyperactivity was stronger for girls, though this effect did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance (p = .059. The associations between parenting and child emotional disorder did vary as a function of gender, where influences of parental consistency and positive interaction were stronger for boys. Discussion Despite the presence of a few significant interaction effects, hypotheses were not supported for either theory (i.e. self-salience or gender stereotyped misbehaviour. We believe that the inconsistencies in the literature regarding child gender
Donenberg, Geri R.; Nelson, Dana
Previous research has not correlated parent-child interaction patterns with different forms of child psychopathology. This study examined whether parent-child interaction corresponded with childhood depression/anxiety and childhood aggression. Forty-two clinically-referred children and adolescents, 8 to 16 years old, were classified into four…
J. Reef (Joni)
textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem a
Bodzy, Mary E; Barreto, Steven J; Swenson, Lance P; Liguori, Gina; Costea, Geanina
This study examined self-reported psychopathology, trauma symptoms, and emotion coping in 7 to 12 year old children with suicidal ideation and attempts. This study compared 70 psychiatric inpatient children with current suicidal ideation to 59 psychiatric inpatient children with recent suicide attempts on measures of depression, anxiety, anger, emotional intelligence, and family/contextual factors. Results revealed greater self-reported anger as well as psychological distress associated with traumatic experiences (dissociation, anger, depression), among children who attempted suicide, in addition to increased reports of special education utilization, when compared to ideators only. These relationships were not affected by age or gender. Overall, the findings suggest self-reports of younger children who attempt suicide share similarities with older children and adolescent attempters, when compared with ideators who do not attempt. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:25751265
Liu, Xianchen; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Zhao, Zhongtang
This case control study examined the relationship between psychopathological profiles and self reported suicide attempts among rural adolescents of China. Cases consisted of 142 adolescents who reported a suicide attempt in the past 6 months in a questionnaire survey (n = 1,365). An equal number of adolescents without reporting a suicide attempt,…
Individuals afflicted with childhood and adolescent mental disorders have an increased risk for poor outcome in adulthood. The progression of psychopathology from childhood to adult life may be influenced by a multitude of interacting variables, both biological and psychosocial. There is limited information on the relationships between child psychopathology and adult personality and personality disorders. The main aim of this thesis was therefore to gain better knowledge concerning adult pers...
Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.
In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalizing behavior (i.e., ADHD, CD), ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalizing behavior, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention. PMID:27199803
In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalizing behavior (i.e., ADHD, CD), ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalizing behavior, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention. PMID:27199803
Psychogiou, Lamprini; Daley, Dave; Thompson, Margaret J.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.
Background: Parenting empathy, the understanding by parents, and the sharing in their child's perspective, represents an important element of competent parenting. The present study tested the hypotheses that maternal empathy might be lower where mothers or their children display symptoms of psychopathology. Method: Mothers (N=268) of school-aged…
Hoffman, Ellen J.; State, Matthew W.
Objective: This review considers the impact of chromosomal studies on the understanding of childhood neuropsychiatric syndromes, highlighting key discoveries, advances in technology, and new challenges faced by clinicians trying to interpret recent findings. Method: We review the literature on the genetics of child psychiatric disorders, including…
F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)
textabstractChild psychiatric epidemiology has developed rapidly from descriptive, cross-sectional studies in the 1960s to the current large-scale prospective cohorts that unravel aetiological mechanisms. The objective of the study was to give an overview of epidemiological studies that have influen
One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.
Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel
This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…
Prat, Sebastien; Jonas, Carol
Child pornography is a form of child sexual exploitation which has been modified by the use of the Internet. The use of child pornography does not necessarily lead to actual child abuse. Victims of child pornography can be classified as direct victims, who have been sexually abused, and indirect victims, who receive images to groom them for actual abuse in the future. Based on a review of the literature, we present the psychopathological characteristics of child pornographers and their victims. PMID:22962006
Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.
Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…
Gunlicks, Meredith L.; Weissman, Myrna M.
The article identifies and evaluates the current research evidence of associations between improvement in parents' depression and their children's psychopathology. Findings indicate some evidence of associations between successful treatment of parents' depression and improvement in children's symptoms and functioning but further studies on these…
Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.
Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…
Raposa, Elizabeth B.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.
In light of recent research highlighting the potential effects of children's behavior on mothers' mental health, the current study examined 679 mothers and their adolescent children from a community-based sample to determine the effects of youth psychopathology on maternal depression and levels of child-related stress in mothers' lives. It was…
Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M
Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually
Middeldorp, Christel M; Wesseldijk, Laura W; Hudziak, James J; Verhulst, Frank C; Lindauer, Ramon J L; Dieleman, Gwen C
Knowledge is lacking regarding current psychopathology in parents whose children are evaluated in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. This especially accounts for fathers. We provide insight into the prevalence rates of parental psychopathology and the association with their offspring psychopathology by analyzing data on psychiatric problems collected in 701 mothers and 530 fathers of 757 referred children. Prevalence rates of parental psychopathology were based on (sub)clinical scores on the adult self report. Parent-offspring associations were investigated in multivariate analyses taking into account co-morbidity. Around 20 % of the parents had a (sub)clinical score on internalizing problems and around 10 % on attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) problems. Prevalence rates did not differ between mothers and fathers. Parent-offspring associations did not differ between girls and boys. Maternal anxiety was associated with all offspring problem scores. In addition, maternal ADH problems were associated with offspring ADH problems. Paternal anxiety and ADH problems scores were specifically associated with offspring internalizing and externalizing problem scores, respectively. Associations with offspring psychopathology were of similar magnitude for mothers and fathers and were not influenced by spousal resemblance. Our study shows that both fathers and mothers are at increased risk for psychiatric problems at the time of a child's evaluation and that their problems are equally associated with their offspring problems. The results emphasize the need to screen mothers as well as fathers for psychiatric problems. Specific treatment programs should be developed for these families in especially high need. PMID:26757722
The foundations of the modern psychopathology of pictorial expression were laid more than a half-century ago by a Frenchman, Marcel Réja (1907), à Swiss, Morgenthaler (1921), and a German, Prinzhorn (1922). In the early days, this was a matter of marginal interest for a handful of psychiatrists and it attracted little official attention. Since the last war however, and especially since the establishment of the S.I.P.E., this special branch of psychopathology has won the recognition to which it is entitled. In French-speaking and other Latin language countries, Volmat's book (1956) provided a powerful stimulus to research. Numerous studies were also undertaken in German-speaking countries. A Swiss psychiatrist, living in a polyglot country, surrounded by some of the world's major linguistic zones, is especially well situated to follow the evolution of ideas. He soon comes to realize that these language areas are sharply separated by very real barriers. In the past few years, the lack of communication between French and German-speaking investigators has become increasingly apparent. Within the limits of a single report, it is impossible to cover all of the work that has been published in German since the time of Prinzhorn. The author has restricted himself to a selection of studies which he personally regards as important. He has sought to retrace and bring into view a line of thought which has proved to be productive and which has not received the attention it deserves in the French-language literature. PMID:942164
Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children. PMID:26726964
Kim, Jun Won; Lee, KounSeok; Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Min, Kyung Joon; Song, Sung Hwan; Park, Ga Na; Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Jae Ock
Purpose Low socioeconomic status is an important risk factor for child psychiatric problems. Low socioeconomic status is also associated with psychiatric problems later in life. We investigated the effects of group bullying on clinical characteristics and psychopathology in elementary school students using child-welfare facilities. Methods Three hundred and fifty-eight elementary school students using child-welfare facilities were recruited. The School Bullying Self Rating Questionnaire was used to assess group bullying. To evaluate related psychopathology, the Children’s Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire, the Children’s Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, Young’s Internet Addiction Scale, and Conners–Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale were applied. Samples were classified according to school grade (lower or upper), and each group’s characteristics were compared as they related to bullying victims versus non-victims. Results The prevalence rate of group bullying was 22% in the lower-grade group and 12% in the higher-grade group. Bullying victims in lower grades reported high somatization, depressive symptoms, Internet addiction, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder tendencies, whereas those in upper grades reported cognitive problems, symptoms of depression and anxiety, suicidal ideation, Internet addiction, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder tendencies. Somatization and depressive symptoms were significant predictors of bullying in the lower-grade group, and anxiety was a significant predictor of bullying in the upper-grade group. Conclusion This study demonstrated that elementary school students using child-welfare facilities might have an increased risk of being bullied and that bullying victims may have different psychopathologies depending on their ages. PMID:25897236
Background Arguably, the sexual abuse of children raises a number of important questions for researchers at different times. Thus, the present study was aimed to examine psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse. Methods This cross-sectional survey study compared the degree of vulnerability to psychopathological variables among respondents with a history of sexual abuse and their unabused counter parts in Jimma Zone. To this end, 400 female students were selected from five high scho...
Ledoux, M H
Through the case study of a psychotic girl, we have tried to outline the psychotic mechanisms involved in this mental functioning. Anxieties of an autistic type have been found, as well as anxieties of a more psychotic type (i.e. symbiotic and schizophrenic). Characteristics of this psychotic functioning were: omnipotence, primitive identification mechanisms, fragmenting separation anxiety, search for sameness and for a low of identical repetition, difficulties in accessing to symbolism. Difficulties in defusion from the symbiotic object and the potential role played by this object in the difficulties are noteworthy. But it is not possible to conceptualize them in terms of direct causal relationship, because the object has also a counterphobic function and compensates for the void of subject as well as for the dissolution of the self. Also present is a schizoparanoïd aspect, with a temptation to cuddle inside the object. The sudden breaking through of informations or requirements from reality provokes surprise, panic reactions and retirement from the objectal world. Otherness triggers psychic pain and vacillation of symbiotic bounds. Thus the avoidance of, and retirement from, reality and the recourse to delusional thinking, especially when attempts to controlling with a rigid system are failing and deceiving. Threats of intrusion and loss of control are experienced as a threat of fragmentation and dissolution of the psyche. Far less threatening to the subject's internal balance is the policy of rigidly maintaining sameness and cuddling inside the object. PMID:7689733
Full Text Available Jun Won Kim,1,2 KounSeok Lee,3 Young Sik Lee,4 Doug Hyun Han,4 Kyung Joon Min,4 Sung Hwan Song,5 Ga Na Park,6 Ju Young Lee,1 Jae Ock Kim5 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Neuropsychiatry, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Gongju National Hospital, Gongju, South Korea; 6Department of Special Education, Graduate School, Dankook University, Jukjeon, South Korea Purpose: Low socioeconomic status is an important risk factor for child psychiatric problems. Low socioeconomic status is also associated with psychiatric problems later in life. We investigated the effects of group bullying on clinical characteristics and psychopathology in elementary school students using child-welfare facilities.Methods: Three hundred and fifty-eight elementary school students using child-welfare facilities were recruited. The School Bullying Self Rating Questionnaire was used to assess group bullying. To evaluate related psychopathology, the Children’s Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire, the Children’s Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, Young’s Internet Addiction Scale, and Conners–Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale were applied. Samples were classified according to school grade (lower or upper, and each group’s characteristics were compared as they related to bullying victims versus non-victims.Results: The prevalence rate of group bullying was 22% in the lower-grade group and 12% in the higher-grade group. Bullying victims in lower grades reported high somatization, depressive symptoms, Internet addiction, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder tendencies, whereas
Lengua, L J; Sadowski, C A
This article is a response to T. M. Achenbach and L. Dumenci's (2001) commentary concerning L. J. Lengua, C. A. Sadowski, W. N. Friedrich, and J. Fisher's (2001) article proposing an alternative scoring approach for the Child Behavior Checklist. The authors note that T. M. Achenbach and L. Dumenci do not comment on the stated goals of the alternative scoring approach and focus on a limited set of the results to make their argument. Although the original and proposed scoring approaches operate similarly, important differences suggest that the proposed scoring approach is promising for use in specific instances, including identifying distinct etiologies, developmental course, and co-occurrence of specific syndromes. The importance of combining rational and empirical approaches in articulating conceptual definitions and developing measures of child psychopathology is discussed. PMID:11550736
Saile, Regina; Ertl, Verena; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia
In postconflict settings risk factors at multiple levels of the social ecology, including community, family, and relationship factors, potentially affect children's mental health. In addition, intergenerational risk factors such as guardians' history of childhood family violence, war exposure, and psychopathology may contribute to children's psychopathological symptoms. In this study, we aimed to identify risk constellations that predict child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, depression, and posttraumatic stress symptoms in the postconflict setting of northern Uganda. In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, 513 second-grade students and their female guardians were interviewed using standardized clinical questionnaires. A higher exposure to traumatic events, more witnessed or experienced violence within the family, and lower child-reported care from female guardians independently predicted psychopathological symptoms in children. While controlling for intergenerational risk factors in female guardians, serial mediation modeling revealed that the effect of trauma exposure on children's psychopathological symptoms was partially mediated by higher exposure to family violence and lower child-perceived care from female guardians. The mediation appeared to be stronger for children's depression symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems than for posttraumatic stress symptoms. The current findings support the need for targeted interventions at the individual and family system levels that are matched to children's psychopathological symptoms. PMID:26612004
De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; De Clercq, Barbara J.; De Fruyt, Filip; Tremmery, Sabine; Deboutte, Dirk
Research on adulthood posits personality and self-esteem as important predictors of psychopathology. In childhood, however, the study of these relationships is complicated by the lack of consensus on how to combine data from multiple informants of child behavior. This study evaluates the relationships among personality symptoms, self-esteem and…
Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Burnette, Mandi; Cicchetti, Dante
Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence (Clark, Thatcher, & Martin, 2010; Ellis & Wolfe, 2009). However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study uses path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms...
McWilliams, Kelly; Harris, Latonya S; Goodman, Gail S
Two experiments were conducted to examine eyewitness memory in children and adolescents (9- to 15-years-old) with and without known histories of maltreatment (e.g., physical abuse, exposure to domestic violence). In Experiment 1, participants (N = 35) viewed a positive film clip depicting a congenial interaction between family members. In Experiment 2, participants (N = 31) watched a negative film clip in which a family argument was shown. Younger age and higher levels of trauma-related psychopathology significantly predicted commission errors to direct questions when the positive family interaction had been viewed, but not when the negative family interaction had been shown. Maltreatment history was not a significant unique predictor of memory performance for the positive or negative film clip. Implications for a scientific understanding of the effects of child maltreatment on memory are discussed. PMID:25537437
Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke
textabstractUp to now research tradition particularly focused on the influence of maternal psychopathology on the early developing infant. There are two main reasons to focus on paternal psychopathology during pregnancy. Firstly, fathers contribute 50% of their childrenâ€™s genes and depression and anxiety are highly heritable in infants. Secondly, paternal psychopathology can be an important confounder in associations between maternal psychopathology during pregnancy and the developing infan...
evrim AKTEPE; sema KANDİL; göker, zeynep; Kadir SARP; Topbaş, Murat; Özkorumak, Evrim
Assesment of sociodemographic and psychiatric characteristics of attempted suicide in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors and sociodemographic, psychiatric characteristics of adolescents and children who attempted suicide. Suicide attempters (range 7-15 years, fifty-eight cases) who referred to Karadeniz Technical University, School of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry outpatient clinic between January 2003 and January 2005 were an...
Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.
The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.
Full Text Available Current civil wars are characterized by the increasing involvement of civilian populations and the systematic employment of child soldiers. An example of such wars was the conflict in Northern Uganda, where the war-affected population is still challenged by the reintegration of formerly abducted children and youths. A cross-sectional, population-based survey, using a multistage cluster sampling approach of 1,113 Northern Ugandans aged between 12 and 25 in camps for internally displaced persons and locally validated instruments was conducted to assess symptoms and diagnoses of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and probable Depression in war-affected, as well as formerly abducted individuals. Further objectives were to determine predictors of psychopathology and to relate indicators of maladjustment (i.e., impairments in daily and community functioning, somatic complaints, suicidality, aggressiveness and discrimination to abduction, level of exposure to violence and psychopathology. 43% of the sample reported abduction by the rebel army. Exposure to violence among this group was higher than for non-abducted youths (t = 28.05; p<.001. PTSD point prevalence rates were 25% among former child soldiers and 7% among the comparison group. High suicidal ideation was present in 16% and 6% respectively. A higher amount of experienced and witnessed event-types (β = . 32. p<.001, loss of first-degree relatives (β = .13. p<.001 and the number of event-types involving forced perpetration (β = .23. p<.001 were identified as risk factors of PTSD symptoms in former child soldiers. The associations between abductee-status and indicators of maladjustment were fully mediated by level of trauma exposure and psychopathology. Results show that child soldiering and its psychological sequelae affect a substantial proportion of children and youths. After release or flight, their readjustment depends at least partly on their level of mental
Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael
Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)
Grant, Kathryn E.; Compas, Bruce E.; Thurm, Audrey E.; McMahon, Susan D.; Gipson, Polly Y.
This article reviews existing research on the association between stressors and symptoms of psychopathology in children and adolescents with a focus on measurement issues and prospective effects. The first half of the article focuses on the measurement of stressors, emphasizing checklists and interviews. Available measures of stressful experiences…
Affrunti, Nicholas W; Woodruff-Borden, Janet
The current study examined the effects of maternal anxiety, worry, depression, child age and gender on mother and child reports of child anxiety using hierarchical linear modeling. Participants were 73 mother-child dyads with children between the ages of 7 and 10 years. Reports of child anxiety symptoms, including symptoms of specific disorders (e.g., social phobia) were obtained using concordant versions of the Screen for Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Children reported significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms relative to their mothers. Maternal worry and depression predicted for significantly lower levels of maternal-reported child anxiety and increasing discrepant reports. Maternal anxiety predicted for higher levels of maternal-reported child anxiety and decreasing discrepant reports. Maternal depression was associated with increased child-reported child anxiety symptoms. No significant effect of child age or gender was observed. Findings may inform inconsistencies in previous studies on reporter discrepancies. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:25863825
Full Text Available Assesment of sociodemographic and psychiatric characteristics of attempted suicide in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors and sociodemographic, psychiatric characteristics of adolescents and children who attempted suicide. Suicide attempters (range 7-15 years, fifty-eight cases who referred to Karadeniz Technical University, School of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry outpatient clinic between January 2003 and January 2005 were analyzed retrospectively, in terms of sex, age, living residence, number of suicide attempts, educational achievement and level, psychiatric examinations, method of suicide, precipitating events, psychiatric evaluations of parents, socioeconomic status in our study. The majority of subjects were girls (89.7%. The commonest age group involved was 15-16 years (46.6%. Girls, aged 15-16 years, from middle-low socioeconomic status with low achievement at school, living in urban area were found to be risky group for suicide attempt. From the view of low tolerance to problems, insufficient coping abilites in youth; acquirement of problem solving capacity and aiding in familiar problems solutions may be efficient in prevention and treatment of suicide. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 444-454
Baker, Courtney N.; Hoerger, Michael
This study examined the association between recollected parental child-rearing strategies and individual differences in self-regulation, socio-emotional adjustment, and psychopathology in early adulthood. Undergraduate participants (N = 286) completed the EMBU – a measure of retrospective accounts of their parents’ child-rearing behaviors – as well as self-report measures of self-regulation and socio-emotional adjustment across the domains of eating disorder symptoms, physically risky behavio...
Daray, Federico M; Rojas, Sasha M; Bridges, Ana J; Badour, Christal L; Grendas, Leandro; Rodante, Demián; Puppo, Soledad; Rebok, Federico
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes, including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. The current study aims to understand the relations among CSA, impulsivity, and frequency of lifetime suicide attempts among a female patient sample admitted for suicidal behavior. Participants included 177 female patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years admitted at two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Number of previous suicide attempts and CSA were assessed via structured interviews, while impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A model of structural equations was employed to evaluate the role of impulsivity in the relation between CSA and suicide attempts. CSA (β=.18, p.05). CSA and impulsivity are independently associated with lifetime suicide attempts among female patients with recent suicidal behavior. PMID:27352091
Braden, Abby; Rhee, Kyung; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Boutelle, Kerri
Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8 to 12 years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mothers' general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices. PMID:24780349
Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema
Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...
Grimbos, T.; Granic, I.; Pepler, D.
Little is known about which processes explain the well-established link between maternal and child symptomatology. Interpersonal coping processes may be worth exploring, as depressed mothers have characteristic coping styles that may influence interactions with their children. We examined two interp
Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante
The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…
Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E.;
Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC...... 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish registers and data collected prospectively from birth in a general child health surveillance programme. Mental health outcome at 11/2 years was assessed by clinical and standardised measures including the Child Behavior Check List 11/2-5 (CBCL 11....../2-5), Infant Toddler Symptom Check List (ITSCL), Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II), Mannheim Eltern Interview (MEI), Parent Child Early Relational Assessment (PC ERA) and Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS), and disordered children...
Kim JW; Lee K.; Lee YS; DH Han; Min KJ; Song SH; Park GN; Lee JY; Kim JO
Jun Won Kim,1,2 KounSeok Lee,3 Young Sik Lee,4 Doug Hyun Han,4 Kyung Joon Min,4 Sung Hwan Song,5 Ga Na Park,6 Ju Young Lee,1 Jae Ock Kim5 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Neuropsychiatry, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chung-Ang University, College...
Pitrou, Isabelle; Shojaei, Taraneh; Wazana, Ashley; Gilbert, Fabien; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of child overweight in a regional sample of primary school-aged children, and to examine the relationships among child overweight, psychopathology, and social functioning. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 in 100 primary schools of a large French region, with 2,341 children aged 6-11 randomly selected. Child weight and height, lifestyle variables (leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), watching television (TV), playing video games), and socioeconomic characteristics were collected in parent-administered questionnaires. Child psychopathology outcomes were assessed using child- and parent-reported instruments (Dominic Interactive (DI) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)). Overweight and obesity were estimated according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) definition. Response rates to the parent questionnaire and DI were 57.4 and 95.1%, respectively. Final sample size was 1,030 children. According to the IOTF, 17.3% of the children were overweight, of whom 3.3% were obese. In univariate analysis, correlates of overweight were low parental education, low monthly income, Disadvantaged School Areas (DSAs), self-reported generalized anxiety, parent-reported conduct disorders, emotional problems, and peer difficulties. High monthly income was less frequently associated with overweight. In multivariate analysis, parent-reported peer difficulties (odds ratio (OR) = 2.06; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-3.35) and DSAs (1.88; 1.03-3.44) were independent factors significantly associated with child overweight. There was a trend of being overweight with elevated TV times (P for trend = 0.02). The psychosocial burden of excess weight appears to be significant even in young children. Findings should be considered for preventing strategies and public health interventions. School-based overweight prevention programs should be implemented first in disadvantaged areas together with information
Piachaud, David; Sutherland, Holly
The new Labour Government in Britain has made the reduction of child poverty one of its central objectives. This paper describes the specific initiatives involved in Labour's approach and weighs them up in terms of their potential impact. After setting out the extent of the problem of child poverty, the causes are discussed and Britain's problem is set in international perspective. The impact on child poverty of policies designed to raise incomes directly is analysed using micro-simulation mo...
David Piachaud; Holly Sutherland
The new Labour Government in Britain has made the reduction of child poverty one of its central objectives. This paper describes the specific initiatives involved in Labour's approach and weighs them up in terms of their potential impact. After setting out the extent of the problem of child poverty, the causes are discussed and Britain's problem is set in international perspective. The impact on child poverty of policies designed to raise incomes directly is analysed using micro-simulation mo...
Piachaud, David; Sutherland, Holly
The new Labour Government in Britain has made the reduction of child poverty one of its central objectives. This paper describes the specific initiatives involved in Labour's approach and weighs them in terms of their potential impact. After setting out the extent of the problem of child poverty, the causes are discussed, and Britain's problem is…
in infancy correlate poorly with temperamental characteristics measured at age 4 or 5 years, they appear to be much more stable and correlate well with temperament at ages 8 and 12 years. Some of these temperamental characteristics, particularly aggressivity and negativity at age 5 years, are serious risk factors for behavioral psychopathology at age 8 or 12 years and, possibly, at later ages as well. Aggressive, negative 5-year-olds do not necessarily grow out of their problems. Their problems are important and should be dealt with when children are age 5 years. What does appear important is early language development. Delays in language development or developmental language disorders are risk factors for later psychopathology. Fifty percent of school-age children with language problems requiring speech and language therapy also have diagnosable psychopathology. Hyperactivity and short attention span are characteristics that tend to persist in later childhood--even adulthood. Alone, each of these characteristics may not be a risk factor for later psychopathology, but, when accompanied by oppositional behavior and conduct disorder, the outcome is detrimental to the child. Many studies have shown that children with these comorbid problems are at risk later for becoming delinquent and antisocial. Conduct disorder in childhood, which is much more common in males, is a risk factor for later delinquency, even if it is not associated with hyperactivity. Again, early intervention is important. The effects of comorbidity in this instance can be serious. Comorbidity in general, especially as children grow older, leads to adverse social, academic, and psychopathological outcomes. Depression does occur in children, in all of its adult manifestations. Mania, in contrast, is rarely seen in children younger than age 12 years. Depression in school-age children can be severe or mild. In contrast to adolescents with depression, depressed children are most likely to have somatic
Plana, Teresa; Gracia, R.; Méndez, I.; Pintor, L.; Lazaro, L; Castro-Fornieles, J.
Abstract Associations between cholesterol and suicidal behavior in adolescent patients have not been explored in depth. In this study, 66 patients consecutively admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit following attempted suicide were compared with a control group of 54 patients with no history of suicide attempts. The age range of the sample was from 8 to 18 years old. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in attempted suicide patients than in controls (p < 0.02), supporting...
Walker, Elaine; And Others
Examined effects of parental psychopathology and maltreatment on behavior of 102 children with mean ages of 9.75 years. Parental psychiatric status and maltreatment interacted significantly, so that offspring of schizophrenic parents from maltreating families showed increases in externalized behavior problems over time. (RJC)
The new Labour Government in Britain has made the reduction of child poverty one of its central objectives. An earlier paper described the specific initiatives involved in Labourís approach and weighed them up in terms of their potential impact (Piachaud and Sutherland, 2000). This paper - referred to henceforth as P&S - covered the policies that were announced between the 1997 election and January 2000. Here, the findings are updated to take account of the further policy changes announced in...
Full Text Available Assesment of sociodemographic and psychiatric characteristics of attempted suicide in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors and sociodemographic, psychiatric characteristics of adolescents and children who attempted suicide. Suicide attempters (range 7-15 years, fifty-eight cases who referred to Karadeniz Technical University, School of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry outpatient clinic between January 2003 and January 2005 were analyzed retrospectively, in terms of sex, age, living residence, number of suicide attempts, educational achievement and level, psychiatric examinations, method of suicide, precipitating events, psychiatric evaluations of parents, socioeconomic status in our study. The majority of subjects were girls (89.7%. The commonest age group involved was 15-16 years (46.6%. Girls, aged 15-16 years, from middle-low socioeconomic status with low achievement at school, living in urban area were found to be risky group for suicide attempt. From the view of low tolerance to problems, insufficient coping abilites in youth; acquirement of problem solving capacity and aiding in familiar problems solutions may be efficient in prevention and treatment of suicide.
Cantelmi, Tonino; Talli, Massimo
The authors, after a initial description of the "Internet phenomenon" and more specifically concerning the psychological and psychopathological risks related to its use, propose a series of unpublished papers on this theme, developed during the last year. PMID:19592724
Lindsey, Michael A.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Thompson, Richard; Graham, J. Christopher; Hawley, Kristin M.; Weisbart, Cindy; Browne, Dorothy; Kotch, Jonathan B.
Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the relationship of caregiver network support on caregiver and child mental health need, as well as child mental health service use among 1075 8-year-old children participating in the LONGSCAN study. The final model showed acceptable fit (χ2 = 301.476, df = 136, p
Liu, X; Kurita, H; Sun, Z; Wang, F
The present study was designed to examine the family environment and child characteristics associated with psychopathology among Chinese children. A large epidemiological sample of 1695 children aged 6-11 was drawn from 12 elementary schools in Linyi Prefecture of China. Parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist, the Family Environment Scale, and a self-administered questionnaire including a number of items with regard to family, parental, and child characteristics. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of child psychopathology was 17.2%. Logistic regression analyses showed that a number of family and parental, as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors had significant association with child psychopathology. The most notable risks were derived from poor parental rearing with regard to the child's misbehaviour, low birthweight, and poor marital relations of the parents after controlling for other factors. These findings are consistent with previously reported risk factors for child psychopathology, highlighting the importance of family and early childhood intervention as a measure to prevent child psychopathology in China. PMID:10498232
Full Text Available Introduction. Filicide is the killing of a son or daughter by a parent. The paper examines interaction between stress and maternal psychopathology that led to the killing. Case Outline. After prolonged conflict with her ex-husband and father of her only child, the respondent committed filicide. Two years before committing filicide, after she had divorced the father of the child, the respondent attempted suicide and had to be hospitalized. On that occasion, she was diagnosed with depressive disorder, which was not treated after hospitalization. Having killed her daughter by cutting her throat, she tried to commit suicide in the same manner, by slitting her throat. During further observation, the respondent was found to suffer from acute psychotic disorder, depressive disorder and histrionic personality disorder. These disorders in interaction with stress do not provide us with an explanation for an unusual and psychopathological motivation analysis of killing the child. Conclusion. Filicide is a violent act, most frequently multifactorial in its nature. Histrionic personality disorder in mother cannot explain the filicide act. Only interactive and dynamic evaluation of this psychiatric disorder in its longitudinal, development aspects and its potentiality to enable the expression of some other psychiatric disorders, especially dissociative states, as well as the importance of prolonged and acute stress and its subjective importance for the individual can shed some more light on the mental state of the mother at the time of filicide.
Fagel, Selene Sofia Alexandra Agnes
In conclusion, the results of the present studies show how schizotypal symptoms may develop following child psychiatric psychopathology and how these symptoms unfavorably influence a persons’ quality of life. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the complex dynamics of psychopathology and the higher risk for adult schizotypal symptomatology following behavioral problems and psychiatric disorders at child and adolescent age.
Skovgaard, A M; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E; Houmann, T; Landorph, S L; Jørgensen, T
Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life.......Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life....
Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior
Reiss, Allan L; Dant, Christopher C
Analyzing gene-brain-behavior linkages in childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, a research approach called "behavioral neurogenetics," has provided new insights into understanding how both genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex variations in typical and atypical human development. Research into etiologically more homogeneous disorders, such as fragile X syndrome, in particular, allows the use of more precise metrics of genetic risk so that we can more fully understand the complex pathophysiology of childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we review our laboratory's behavioral neurogenetics research by examining gene-brain-behavior relationships in fragile X syndrome, a single-gene disorder that has become a well-characterized model for studying neurodevelopmental dysfunction in childhood. Specifically, we examine genetic influences, trajectories of cognition and behavior, variation in brain structure and function, and biological and environmental factors that influence developmental and cognitive outcomes of children with fragile X. The converging approaches across these multilevel scientific domains indicate that fragile X, which arises from disruption of a single gene leading to the loss of a specific protein, is associated with a cascade of aberrations in neurodevelopment, resulting in a central nervous system that is suboptimal with respect to structure and function. In turn, structural and functional brain alterations lead to early disruption in emotion, cognition, and behavior in the child with fragile X. The combination of molecular genetics, neuroimaging, and behavioral research have advanced our understanding of the linkages between genetic variables, neurobiological measures, IQ, and behavior. Our research and that of others demonstrates that neurobehavior and neurocognition, genetics, and neuroanatomy are all different views of the same intriguing biological puzzle, a puzzle that today is rapidly emerging into a
Topitzes, James; Mersky, Joshua P.; McNeil, Cheryl B.
This paper describes an innovative adaptation of an evidence-based intervention – Parent Child Interaction Therapy or PCIT – to foster parent training services. The authors faced multiple problems that commonly plague translational child welfare research as they developed, implemented and tested their model. The paper discusses how the authors addressed these problems when: 1) specifying the child welfare context in which the intervention model was implemented and tested, choosing an interven...
Downey, Geraldine; Walker, Elaine
Tested 2 models of the effect of social cognition on the link between child adjustment and the 2 family risk factors of maltreatment and parental psychopathology. In 83 subjects of 7-14 years, maltreatment predicted aggression and peer rejection, but parental psychopathology did not. Adjustment of subjects with a disturbed parent depended on…
Serin, Ralph C.; And Others
Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…
Fagel, Selene Sofia Alexandra Agnes
In conclusion, the results of the present studies show how schizotypal symptoms may develop following child psychiatric psychopathology and how these symptoms unfavorably influence a persons’ quality of life. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the complex dynamics of psychopathology and t
Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert
Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…
Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; GALLOP, ROBERT
Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own developmental symptom histories and other predictors of psychopathology. This study used latent difference score structural equation modeling to test ...
Parental depression has been highlighted as a major risk factor for the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents (Mars et al, 2012; Sellers et al, 2013). Garber & Martin (2002) suggest that the primary environmental stressor that children living with depressed parents are exposed to relates to the impact of maternal depression on marital conflict. Interparental conflict has been demonstrated to have negative effects on various aspects of family functioning and relationships....
This paper discusses the concept of exoconsciousness within the framework of Karl Jaspers’ General Psychopathology, presenting evidence for the UFO extraterrestrial experience to be reclassified from pathological to normal. The recommended reclassification is based on psychiatric advancements in Jaspers’ psychopathology that lead to acceptance of the quantum-based concept of exoconsciousness. A physician and philosopher of his time, Jaspers’ psychopathology fits comfortably in a Western Newto...
Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K Paige; Teachman, Bethany A
Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone. To explain the contradictory findings, developmental models of disability and psychopathology are applied. Within a multi-factorial developmental psychopathological perspective and a dialectical model of disability (Vygotsky, 1993), it is suggested that disability can be understood as an incongruence between the individual development of the child and demands and expectations in the specific relations and institutions in which the child participates. This incongruence creates and strengthens negative factors for the child with disability and results in a higher risk of psychopathology. PMID:23962606
A. WIDIGER, THOMAS
Personality and psychopathology can relate to one another in three different ways: personality and psychopathology can influence the presentation or appearance of one another (pathoplastic relationships); they can share a common, underlying etiology (spectrum relationships); and they can have a causal role in the development or etiology of one another. Each of these possible forms of inter-relationship is considered in this paper.
Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I
This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers' psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices. PMID:26267238
Bools, Christopher; And Others
This study evaluated 100 mothers with Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (the fabrication of illness by a mother in her child). Approximately half of the mothers had either smothered or poisoned their child as part of their fabrications. Lifetime psychiatric histories were reported for 47 of the mothers. The most notable psychopathology was personality…
Armstrongh, K.P. Lincoln; Chandrasekaran, R.; Perme, Bojir
25 inpatients with schizophrenia were examined to explore the relationship between insight and psychopathology and illness severity over a four-week period. The average degree of insight improved irrespective of the type of recovery. There was no consistent relationship between the changes in insight and changes in psychopathology. The severity of mental illness and awareness of mental disorder showed a semi-independent pattern of association. It is concluded that insight operates to some ext...
Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.
Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…
textabstractIn the past few decades, considerable advances have been made in understanding childhood psychopathology. This progress is the result of four primary developments in the field. First, both in the research and in the clinical framework, psychopathology has been conceptualized across a spectrum of severity of symptoms and impairment. Second, psychopathology has been studied in the context of young children’s real life parallel to referral settings. Third, studying child psychopathol...
de Ruiter, Karen P.; Dekker, Marielle C.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Koot, Hans M.
Background: We aimed to describe similarities and differences in the developmental course of psychopathology between children with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: Multilevel growth curve analysis was used to analyse the developmental course of psychopathology, using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), in two longitudinal…
Fernandez, Eduard Bayarri; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Domenech, Josep Maria
There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and…
Muris, Peter; van der Heiden, Simone; Rassin, Eric
There is clear evidence in the adult literature that disgust sensitivity is implicated in various psychopathological syndromes. The current study examined the link between disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in youths. In a sample of non-clinical children aged 9-13 years, disgust sensitivity was assessed by two self-report questionnaires (i.e., the Disgust Scale and the Disgust Sensitivity Questionnaire) and a behavioural test. Furthermore, children completed scales for measuring the personality trait of neuroticism and various types of psychopathological symptoms. Results showed that disgust measures had sufficient to good convergent validity. Further, significant positive correlations were found between disgust sensitivity and symptoms of specific phobias (i.e., spider phobia, blood-injection phobia, small-animal phobia), social phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and eating problems, and these links were not attenuated when controlling for neuroticism. The possible role of disgust sensitivity in the aetiology of child psychopathology is discussed. PMID:17433251
Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)
For a lot of people, because of the joy and happiness of a new life, pregnancy means being on cloud nine. The general population may not be aware that this does not apply to every woman. Psychopathology during and after pregnancy should not be underrated. For as much as 10-20% of all pregnant women, pregnancy results in black clouds, gathering over them. This thesis focuses on several aspects of psychopathology around pregnancy. In almost 8000 pregnant women, we investigated risk factors for ...
Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard;
The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population.......The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population....
This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…
For a lot of people, because of the joy and happiness of a new life, pregnancy means being on cloud nine. The general population may not be aware that this does not apply to every woman. Psychopathology during and after pregnancy should not be underrated. For as much as 10-20% of all pregnant women,
Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.
Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…
The term "dyspraxia" was coined by Julian de Ajuriaguerra and Mira Stambak in 1964. This clinical term was treated very differently according to which explanatory model was adopted. Nowadays, it is used to refer to developmental coordination disorder in view of its neuro-developmental origin. In any case, the actual clinical situations vary and are often complex. In our opinion, it is first necessary to examine the differential diagnosis: apraxia in children caused by lesions, dysgraphia, simply delayed motor development, non-verbal learning disability syndrome, hemispheric specialisation deficits, pervasive developmental disorders (autisms, Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and other pervasive developmental disorders), mixed specific developmental disorders, multiple developmental disorder, and children with high potential. Next we focus on co-morbidity. Firstly, we look at psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia: autism and pervasive developmental disorders, dyscalculia/math disability, dyslexia/reading difficulties, dysphasia accompanied by verbal dyspraxia, intelligence deficiency, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Secondly, we examine psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia. Children with developmental coordination disorder are less inclined to participate in collective games. As a result, there is a greater risk of them becoming lonely and isolated. They have higher child behaviour checklist (CBCL) scores in the somatic problems scale as well as for anxiety, depression and social withdrawal. They have low self-perception in sports as well as at school, which is related to their physical appearance and their self-esteem, attention deficit and externalized behaviour. These children are often at risk of academic failure and they suffer from oppositional defiant disorder and functional disorders. And finally, we believe that it is important to touch on the impact of these disorders on the family
Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.; Perkins, Susan M.
Few studies have utilized both categorical and dimensional measures of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. We evaluated 173 children (88 males, 85 females; mean age 11.7y [SD 1.8]; range 9-14y) who had epilepsy (generalized 36%, partial 61%) for at least 6 months. The primary caregiver completed a dimensional measure, the Child Behavior…
Hankir, Ahmed; Zaman, Rashid
Not all poets have experienced psychopathology. Conversely, not all those who have experienced psychopathology become poets. The notion, nonetheless, of there being an association between 'craziness' and creativity, contentious though it may be, remains a seductive one. Poetry is both beneficial for the person who is composing or reciting it as well as the person who may be reading or listening to it. Poetry Therapy, which falls under the remit of Art Therapy, is increasingly being recognised as an effective form of adjunctive therapy for the treatment of mental health problems. The main aims of this paper are to explore (and to attempt to elucidate) if there is indeed a relationship between the artistic temperament and mental illness and to comment on the rise and recognition of Art Therapy. PMID:26417752
The Mad Genius is a recurring stereotype of contemporary cultural expression. However, starting with Lombroso’s investigation of genius and madness in 1888, recent decades have seen an increasing number of empirical studies suggesting that there really is an association between creativity and psychopathology. Still, taken together, the empirical support is unconvincing - largely due to a heavy reliance on biographical data and small cohorts. The primary aim of this thesis is t...
Full Text Available Any psychological paradigm needs a psychopathological system that helps professionals to describe and explain the behavioral expressions that deviate from “normal” (whether this term is used with the semantic property of statistical or ideal adaptations. In this work, I seek to present the system that I have been developing since 1998 among the psychologists at the Instituto Vegotsky de Lisboa (Vygotsky Institute of Lisbon, Portugal, to understand psychopathology with regard to the vygotskian approach. It was conceived and designed according to the work of Rita Mendes Leal and her contribution to socioemotional development theory, AR Luria’s systemic and dynamic theory of the human brain, the theory of Activity (dyatel’nost of AN Leont’ev, and the psychopathological German school of E Kraepelin, presented and disseminated in Portugal in the early twentieth century by Professor Sobral Cid. It is intended to be a proposal to colleagues who are interested in postnonclassical psychology and a request for arguments.
Jorge Caraveo Anduaga
Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders affect up to one third of patients with non-psychiatric diseases.1-5 Nevertheless, despite the high prevalence of psychopathology in general medical patients, only between 30-50% of all cases are detected.2,6-8 Some have suggested that the difficulty in the detection and diagnosis of mental disorders among patients who seek medical attention for other reasons, lies in the lack of screening questions that might alert the physician to the possibility of a psychiatric co-morbidity.9 Such questions would identify medical patients at high risk of psychiatric problems. Previous work on clinical predictors of psychopathology have identified the following: specific physical symptoms10-11; patient report of severity of illness11; recent stress12,13; low self-perception of health status13; and age less than 50.14 Two specific studies on the detection of psychopathology in the general medical population are worth highlighting. The first, by Jackson and his research team13 updating a 2001 study evaluating a prediction model with four parameters (recent stress, severity of physical symptoms, five or more specific symptoms, self-assessment of physical condition. They found that those patients who report recent stress, have five or more physical symptoms or a low self-perception of their health state are at a higher risk of having a psychiatric disorder. The second study, by Lowe et al. published in 2003,9 examines a series of factors that could serve as indicators of psychopathology in ambulatory medical (i.e. non-psychiatric patients. After evaluating several different models they found that the combination of four of factors (taken as a group had a high sensitivity (86%, specificity (100%, positive predictive value (100%, and negative predictive value (91%. This suggests that a physician could use the combination of these four indicators to evaluate for the presence of co morbid mental disorders. These factors are: self
Merchant, Christopher; Kramer, Anne; Joe, Sean; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; King, Cheryl A.
Psychopathology, social support, and interpersonal orientation were studied in relation to suicide attempt status in acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized Black adolescents and a matched sample of White adolescents. In the total sample, multiple attempters were differentiated by lower perceived support. Within the Black youth subsample,…
Meuret, Alicia E; Ehrenreich, Jill T; Pincus, Donna B; Ritz, Thomas
Our objective was to determine the prevalence rate of parent-reported asthma in children with internalizing disorders seeking psychological treatment, and to study the level of internalizing and externalizing problems in these patients compared to patients without asthma. Participants were 367 children (ages 5-18 years) with internalizing disorders seeking psychological treatment. Children's psychiatric diagnosis was established with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV-Child and Parent versions. Parents reported on their child's asthma diagnosis, medical history, and medication usage. Child psychopathology was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist and by child self-report with the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children and the Children's Depression Inventory. We assessed internalizing psychopathology of the mothers with the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. An additional diagnosis of parent-reported asthma was established for 15% of the children diagnosed with an Axis I internalizing disorder, a prevalence rate markedly higher than reported for current parent-reported childhood asthma in the U.S. population. Patients with asthma showed higher levels of internalizing problems than their nonasthmatic counterparts. Internalizing psychopathology was not higher for mothers of patients with asthma. Asthma is a significant problem within the population of patients with childhood internalizing disorders. It can be accompanied by a greater severity of internalizing problems and may require specific precautions in the treatment protocol. Though parent report of asthma diagnosis is commonly used in surveys of childhood asthma, our findings have to be viewed in the light of its limitations. PMID:16841339
Francesca Romana Montecchi
Full Text Available In Western societies many immigrants live in difficult social and working conditions. Together with other factors, this state of affairs represents a risk for the well being of their children. This article will consider the principle risk factors for child psychopathology and/or distress, with a distinction between temporary and permanent factors and with a peculiar attention to the interplay between risk and protective factors. Risk factors can be ordered in cultural, social, familiar/parental and individual factors. Some of these are general risk factors, applying to child and adolescent psychopathology and distress independently from the status of immigrants’ offspring (among them there are some risk factors related to poor social conditions, independently from being an immigrant or a low-social-class Western citizen. Other factors are specific of migration, some of them being related to: a different ways of immigrated families to situate themselves within the host society (assimilation, separation, integration, marginality; b cultural/familiar attitudes in child’s nurture and education; c the family role of women as well as factors specific of the pregnancy period in immigrants; d the ability of the school system to enhance and support children’s abilities to integrate within the new society; e the political/bureaucratic facilitation/impediment to the regularization of VISA, with the consequent effect on the sense of identity/rejection within/from the host society.In conclusion, the programs for monitoring immigrants’ living and health conditions should also include: the assessment of parental skills, the dynamic indicators of risk and protection indexes, the assessment of living conditions and social school environment, with a careful attention to those early signs of discomfort that might precede possible later onset of psychopathology and/or social distress.
Jorge Caraveo Anduaga; Ingrid Vargas-Huicochea
Psychiatric disorders affect up to one third of patients with non-psychiatric diseases.1-5 Nevertheless, despite the high prevalence of psychopathology in general medical patients, only between 30-50% of all cases are detected.2,6-8 Some have suggested that the difficulty in the detection and diagnosis of mental disorders among patients who seek medical attention for other reasons, lies in the lack of screening questions that might alert the physician to the possibility of a psychiatric co-mo...
Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.
Background: A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry.…
Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier
The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…
Leonardo Y. Álvarez R
Full Text Available The paradigm of complexity states that reality conveys a chaotic dynamics, ambiguous, blurred, and paradoxical, and that it does not fulfill the values of order, harmony nor perfection. However, such a chaos represents a specific way of organization and order. Human behavior explained by this paradigm vindicates on this way the outstanding role of contradiction and irregularity aside of what is linear and predictable. The purpose of this review has the primary aim to describe some concepts and assumptions that give support to the approach to complexity in behavior, especially concerning the psychopathological behavior of an individual. Some comparisons with concepts associated to complexity in scientific approaches to psychology (contextual and paradigmatical behaviorism and interbehaviorism from its own persepctive are stablished. All these elements are developed underlining the concepts of reciprocal multicausality, complex and hierarchical learning, historical and contextual factors in the comprehension of behavior, and trying to make some extrapolations on the psychopathological behavior. This approach is hence considered appropriate and necessary to understand gnosiological entities and to intervene them in their role of clinical challenges.
Parmigiani, Giovanna; Gentili, Paolo
Nightmares are long frightening dreams, quite common in psychiatric and general population; they may cause psychological distress and social or occupational dysfunction and are the most common form of parasomnia. They can be divided into post-traumatic nightmares, which are part of post-traumatic stress reaction, idiopathic and stress-induced. This article is a review of studies evaluating the relationship between nightmares and psychopathology, especially in regard to their intensity and content. For example, prepsychotic patients often report nightmares, particularly of body fragmentation and death of the dreamer. Nightmares have been repeatedly associated with the general level of psychopathology and with the personality factor "neuroticism". Nightmare distress, the impact on daily functioning caused by nightmares, may function as a mediating variable. Several studies in the last years have shown that nightmares can be treated with several cognitive-behavioral techniques. Have been also reported promising effects of pharmacological agents, especially prazosin, but they need to be evaluated in larger placebo-controlled trials. In summary, many findings on nightmares are preliminary and this field needs to be further investigated. Nevertheless psychiatry and general medicine need to pay more attention to nightmares; they are not merely a nightly symptom of anxiety, but a separate sleep disorder that should receive specific treatment. PMID:20066794
Beauchaine, Theodore P.; McNulty, Tiffany
Research on child and adolescent mental health problems has burgeoned since the inaugural issue of Development and Psychopathology was published in 1989. In the quarter century since, static models of psychopathology have been abandoned in favor of transactional models, following the agenda set by editor Dante Cicchetti and other proponents of the discipline. The transactional approach, which has been applied to autism, depression, self-injury, and delinquency, (a) specifies vulnerabilities a...
Olaya Guzmán, Beatriz
Descripció del recurs: 17-06-2010 Exposure to domestic violence is a current, complex concern with negative aftermath on the child's mental health. Aim: to answer the following questions about the effects that this exposure has on children's mental health: a) what should be assessed; b) what kind of psychopathology do outpatient exposed children have; c) which characteristics of the situation are more influential; and d) what is the role of parenting styles. Method: A retrospective cohort ...
In face of the apparent contradiction between psychoanalysis and observational-experimental methods, the author briefly summarizes the input of direct observation to the knowledge of child development and suggests that the reservations of many psychoanalysts to these methods may be explained by the greater importance given to external events in such research, as if the causal role of fantasy was thus being questioned. The author further reviews most recent experimental works, particularly those around the concepts of "competence of the infant", "self", "attachment and security", and suggests that the main object of these research endeavors more and more concerns the foundations and origins of the child's fantasy life. Other recent experimental works bring out the continuity between the observations made during the first year of the child's life and those made of these children now up to the age of six. The author comes to the conclusion that the whole of these observational and experimental works, far from contradicting psychoanalytic hypotheses based on reconstruction, confirms institutions and hypotheses which have become essential to psychoanalysis, particularly concerning the importance of the child's first year of life and of mother-child interaction. PMID:1946806
Miranda, Regina; Scott, Michelle; Hicks, Roger; Wilcox, Holly C.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Shaffer, David
The study compares psychiatric diagnoses and future suicide attempt outcomes of multiple attempters (MAs), single attempters (SAs) and ideators. The results conclude that MAs strongly predict later suicide attempts and diagnosis than SAs and ideators.
Falbo, Toni; Hooper, Sophia Y.
The goal of this study is to synthesize quantitatively the results of studies of psychopathology among Chinese only children. Since 1979, China's one-child policy has generated large numbers of only children, especially in large urban centers, where the one-child family has become a social norm. Motivated by concern for mental health, 22 studies, based on the SCL-90, have been published that compare the scores of only children to their peers with siblings. The raw effect sizes generated by ea...
Karin Ensink; Michaël Bégin; Lina Normandin; Peter Fonagy
Background: Sexual abuse is a well-recognised risk factor for child psychopathology. Little is known regarding whether child and maternal mentalization can be considered a potential resource or protective factor in this context, respectively, mediating or moderating the relationship between sexual abuse and psychopathology. Objective: The aims of this study were (1) to explore the relationships between child and maternal mentalizing, measured as reflective functioning (RF), and child depressi...
Banzato Claudio EM; Rodrigues Adriano CT
Abstract Background Delusion is one of the most intriguing psychopathological phenomena and its conceptualization remains the subject of genuine debate. Claims that it is ill-defined, however, are typically grounded on essentialist expectations that a given definition should capture the core of every instance acknowledged as delusion in the clinical setting. Objective In this paper, we attempt to show the major limitations of the definition of delusion from a non-essentialist point of view. M...
Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P
Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps anxiety, those with generalized anxiety made fewer recognition errors on adult happy faces even when controlling for group status (p Adolescent inpatients engaged in NSSI showed greater deficits in emotional face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination of the role of context-dependent emotional processing are needed moving forward. PMID:26048103
Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim
Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…
Malhotra, Savita; Varma, V.K.; Verma, S.K.; Malhotra, Anil
SUMMARY Development and standardization of an instrument Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) to assess psychopathology in children is reported. CPMS is standardized on Indian population and is applicable to children of both sexes in the age range of 4-14 years. It measures overall psychopathology in the form of a total scores and also the type of psychopathology in the form of eight factorially derived syndromes which have satisfactory reliability and validity. CPMS is propo...
Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.
Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analo...
Hedeland, Rikke; Jørgensen, Marianne H; Teilmann, Grete;
Aims: To explore: (1) The relationship between children admitted to our paediatric department as a result of suicide attempts with acetaminophen and their parents and friends. (2) The extent to which the children had attempted to speak to their parents about their problems before their suicide...... attempts. (3) The frequency of self-mutilation among children with suicidal behaviour. (4) The purposes and reasons for childhood suicide attempts. Methods: A retrospective case-control study based on medical records and in-hospital child psychiatric assessments at the Paediatric Department, Hillerød....... There was a significant association between a dissociated parental relationship and 'the feeling of not being heard' (p = 0.004), the discovery of the suicide attempt (p = 0.008), the reasons for the suicide attempt (p = 0.006), academic school problems (p = 0.03), and the child's relationships with...
Rutter, M; Sroufe, L A
The defining features of developmental psychopathology concepts include attention to the understanding of causal processes, appreciation of the role of developmental mechanisms, and consideration of continuities and discontinuities between normality and psychopathology. Accomplishments with respect to these issues are reviewed in relation to attachment disorders, antisocial behavior, autism, depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and intellectual development. Major research challenges remain in relation to measurement issues, comorbidity, gender differences, cognitive processing, nature-nurture interplay, heterotypic continuity, continuities between normal variations and disorders, developmental programming, and therapeutic mechanisms in effective treatments. PMID:11014739
João Gama Marques
Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in
Rackauskaite, Gija; Bilenberg, Niels; Bech, Bodil Hammer;
Cerebral palsy (CP) is often accompanied by psychopathology and learning disability. AIMS: (1) to evaluate the prevalence of psychopathology as estimated by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) parental questionnaire in 8- to 15-year-old Danish children with CP and to analyze its association...... the CBCL. The cutoff for psychopathology was the Total CBCL score or DSM-oriented scores above the 93rd percentile in an age- and gender-stratified population. RESULTS: The psychopathology screening was positive in 46.2% (CI 41.6-50.8%) against 15.1% in general population. Cognitive disability...... for psychopathology should be a part of multidisciplinary follow-up of CP. The CBCL can be used as a screening instrument in children with CP without severe motor and cognitive disability....
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. AIM: To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. METHODS: 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS. An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS was optimized using a previously published technique. RESULTS: In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. CONCLUSION: We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.
Psychopathology in patients with DCM is as complex as its clinical forms where the factors are numerous and often intricate. It combines psychophysiological, psychopathological factors, behavioral disorders which can be the cause or the consequence of DCM but also the negative impact on quality of life and the simplest daily activities. DCM affects the quality of life of every patient, regardless of the severity. Women are more affected by the DCM that man older age, male sex, atopy and the existence of a contact sensitization are independent risk factors of severity. Depression may affect up to 10 % of patients, should involve greater attention from dermatologists and general practitioners. Health authorities and all health actors should be aware of interactions between secondary cognitive troubles or inherent to DCM and efforts required in terms of preventive measures. Thus, the presence of psychiatric comorbidity is more common in patients with chronic dermatoses. Today it is considered that the emotional environment, built by the mother - child relationship must be optimal, otherwise the mental stability of body image may be compromised. Diminished self-esteem, affects less well managed and somatic expression of emotional content. Recently, a surprising study showed that most patients with refractory occupational dermatitis were not able to recognize the warning sign of flare or the role of psychological factors in the formation and maintenance of the dermatose. In fact, they rejected their personal responsibility in the occurrence of the new flare. To address this public health problem, health authorities, trainers and caregivers should be aware of the cognitive impact of DCM in these patients and interactions with current means of prevention. The role of obsessive-compulsive washing as part of an anxiety disorder or personality disorder is most likely a contributing or maintaining factor systematically underestimated in the pathogenesis of DCM and in the
Sellers, Ruth; Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon T.; Mahedy, Liam; Potter, Robert; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Ajay; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan
Depression is known to be influenced by psychosocial stressors. For mothers with recurrent depressive illness, the presence of psychopathology in their children may have important effects on their own mental health. Although the impact of maternal depression on child mental health is well-established, no study to date, as far as we are aware, has examined the extent to which offspring psychopathology influences the course of depression in mothers with a history of recurrent depressive illness...
Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian
This study examined event memory and suggestibility in 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of child maltreatment. A total of 322 children were interviewed about a play activity with an unfamiliar adult. Comprehensive measures of individual differences in trauma-related psychopathology and cognitive functioning were administered.…
Allely, C. S.; Purves, D.; McConnachie, A.; Marwick, H.; Johnson, P.; Doolin, O.; Puckering, C.; Golding, J.; Gillberg, C.; Wilson, P.
This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant…
Stone, Lisanne L.; van Daal, Carlijn; van der Maten, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Otten, Roy
Background: While child self-reports of psychopathology are increasingly accepted, little standardized instruments are utilized for these practices. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) is an age-appropriate instrument for self-reports of problem behavior by young children. Objective: Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the BPI will be…
Collishaw, Stephan; Pickles, Andrew; Messer, Julie; Rutter, Michael; Shearer, Christina; Maughan, Barbara
Objective: Child abuse is an important risk for adult psychiatric morbidity. However, not all maltreated children experience mental health problems as adults. The aims of the present study were to address the extent of resilience to adult psychopathology in a representative community sample, and to explore predictors of a good prognosis. Methods:…
Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong
This study examined sleep problems and their correlates and comorbid psychopathology in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Participants consisted of 166 ASD children and 111 unaffected siblings aged 4-15 years. Parents completed a self-administered child sleep questionnaire. Of the children with ASDs, 47.0% (78/166) had at least one…
Cole, Pamela M.; Putnam, Frank W.
Proposes model based on developmental psychopathology for conceptualizing effects of child sexual abuse. Argues that incest has negative effects on self and social functioning, by jeopardizing self-definition and integration, self-regulatory processes, and sense of security and trust in relationships. Reviews self and social development…
Full Text Available Children with epilepsy are usually treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDS. Some AEDs adversely affect behavior in susceptible children. Since psychiatric comorbidity is prevalent in pediatric epilepsy, this paper attempts to disentangle these AED side effects from the psychopathology associated with this illness. It first outlines the clinical and methodological problems involved in determining if AEDs contribute to the behavior and emotional problems of children with epilepsy. It then presents research evidence for and against the role AEDs play in the psychopathology of children with epilepsy, and outlines how future studies might investigate this problem. A brief description of how to clinically separate out AED effects from the complex illness-related and psychosocial factors that contribute to the behavior difficulties of children with epilepsy concludes the paper.
Banzato Claudio EM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Delusion is one of the most intriguing psychopathological phenomena and its conceptualization remains the subject of genuine debate. Claims that it is ill-defined, however, are typically grounded on essentialist expectations that a given definition should capture the core of every instance acknowledged as delusion in the clinical setting. Objective In this paper, we attempt to show the major limitations of the definition of delusion from a non-essentialist point of view. Method The problem is analyzed within the framework of constructs and their translation into definitions. Different linguistic and epistemological perspectives that do concur when one deals with psychopathological phenomena are also considered. Results The 'construct of delusion', rather than its clinical instances, is the reference in which its definition appears inept. Here we claim that the broad contextual and pragmatic bases that underpin the construct of delusion tend to be either overlooked or downplayed in the quest for a satisfactory definition of this phenomenon.
Iorio, Gennaro; Prisco, Vincenzo; Iorio, Nicola
The authors, after examining a clinical case of obsessive-compulsive disorder, associated to Pica syndrome, analyse psychopathological development of the symptomatology in its complex, refuting some statements of published studies, that include Pica within obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum. On the contrary, they think the coexistence of the two symptomatologies simply as an expression of a comorbidity, explaining why they are prone to link Pica with eating disorders. PMID:25000892
The issue of violence in prisons concerns the people detained there, the conditions of the imprisonment and the relations which are established between the prisoners and the guards. The deprivation of liberty in prison, by suppressing desire, stirs up violence. Security contingency measures are not sufficient to control aggressive urges. Violence in prison stems from the internal regulations, the architecture of the building, the organisation of the surveillance and from the psychopathological dynamics of the deprivations resulting from being locked up. PMID:26948194
Shame has been theorised to contribute to several areas of psychopathology that are particularly prominent in adolescence. However, it is an area that has received little attention in empirical research to date. In order to explore the role of shame in the development of adolescent psychological problems, a cross-sectional study was conducted which involved one hundred and sixty teenagers from an Inner London school. Data regarding psychological problems, current shame-proneness, and percepti...
Yuen, Noelle; And Others
Surveyed native Hawaiian high school students (n=1,779) for symptoms of psychopathology and suicide attempts in the previous 6 months. Seventy-seven students reported making a suicide attempt. There were no significant differences in prevalence rates for males and females. Depression, anxiety, aggression, substance abuse symptoms, and low family…
Pisetsky, Emily M; Thornton, Laura M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy L; Bulik, Cynthia M
We evaluated whether the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts/completions was higher in women with a lifetime history of an eating disorder than in women with no eating disorder and assessed whether eating disorder features, comorbid psychopathology, and personality characteristics were associated with suicide attempts in women with anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype (ANR), anorexia nervosa, binge-purge subtype (ANBP), lifetime history of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (ANBN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD). Participants were part of the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment (N = 13,035) cohort. Lifetime suicide attempts were identified using diagnoses from the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. General linear models were applied to evaluate whether eating disorder category (ANR, ANBP, ANBN, BN, BED, PD, or no eating disorder [no ED]) was associated with suicide attempts and to identify factors associated with suicide attempts. Relative to women with no ED, lifetime suicide attempts were significantly more common in women with all types of eating disorder. None of the eating disorder features or personality variables was significantly associated with suicide attempts. In the ANBP and ANBN groups, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric conditions was higher in individuals with than without a lifetime suicide attempt. The odds of suicide were highest in presentations that included purging behavior (ANBN, ANBN, BN, and PD), but were elevated in all eating disorders. To improve outcomes and decrease mortality, it is critical to be vigilant for suicide and identify indices for those who are at greatest risk. PMID:24364606
Eyre, Olga; Jones, Rhys Bevan; Mars, Becky; Hammerton, Gemma; Sellers, Ruth; Potter, Robert; Thapar, Ajay; Rice, Frances; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita
Aims and method To determine rates of parent-reported child awareness of parental depression, examine characteristics of parents, children and families according to child awareness, and explore whether child awareness is associated with child psychopathology. Data were available from 271 families participating in the Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression (EPAD) study, a longitudinal study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Results Seventy-three per cent of participating ch...
Reviews of animal models of affective disorders commonly concentrate on the behavioural features thereof, the supposed neurochemical substrates, the mode of production and the response to treatment of the state in question but ignore questions of psycho pathology. An attempt is made to deal critically with the psychopathology of human and animal affective disorders in the light of current operational criteria for the diagnosis of major depressive disorders. It is argued thatthe psychopathological tradition stemming from Jaspers may be more appropriate to a consideration of animal models of affective disorders than the psychopathological positions implicit in psychoanalysis, behaviourism or current cognitive psychologies and in addition more suited to meet these criteria. The adoption of such a perspective results in a shift of emphasis from abnormalities of psychological content to demonstrable neuropsychological deficits and a definition of affective disorders, whether in animals or humans, as psychosomatic illnesses, possibly involving a pathology of circadian rhythmicity. This perspective also suggests that animal models may be useful in the devel opment of more refined diagnostic criteria for affective disorders in humans. PMID:22158981
胡毅; 郭菲; 陈祉妍
儿童、青少年心理病理研究中经常使用多报告者的评估方法.不同报告者间的评价差异导致了研究者分析、理解数据的困难,因此引发了针对这一问题的大量研究.研究发现子女的人口学特征、被评估问题的特征和家庭环境特征等均对报告者差异有显著影响.从报告者获取信息和认知的角度整合当前研究结果有利于对报告者差异的产生进行更深入的分析,相关因素通过影响信息获得和作答过程对报告者差异产生影响.目前缺乏对报告者差异的系统理解和理论框架,进一步分析报告者差异对相关研究设计、数据处理和临床实践有实际意义.%In research on children's psychopathology, multiple informants' report is a widely used method. Since discrepancies among informants bring difficulties to researchers in data analysis, more and more studies have been done to investigate the phenomenon. Researchers explored factors influencing the direction and magnitude of discrepancies from different areas, including demographic factors of children, types of target problems, characteristics of informants and their families. Deeper understanding of how the discrepancies generates can be got by connecting present findings to behavior observation and cognitive process of respondents, whose information gathering and questionnaire responding process may be influenced by different factors. Systemic understanding and theoretical framework for the generation of discrepancies are needed. Further researches on the informant discrepancy would be significant to research design, data analysis and clinical practice.
Tran Thi Thanh, Huong
Suicide and attempted suicide is currently a major public health problem in rapidly developing countries but there are limited studies on this field in Asian countries. These are the first studies on suicidal behavior in Vietnam. The aim of the studies was to: 1) investigate the prevalence of suicide attempts, plans, ideation and medical attention following a suicide attempt in Vietnam and in nine other countries, 2) investigate the relation between lifetime suicidal tho...
Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.
This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…
Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa
Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…
Theunissen, Stephanie Carla Petra Maria
Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychopathology, which has detrimental consequences for academic and psychosocial functioning. Therefore, the aims of this thesis were to objectify levels of psychopathology in hearing-impaired children, and to investigate the influence of variou
Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank
The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...... high-risk groups. Data collection for the RSA started in 1989....
Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Gruszczynski, Wojciech; Lewik-Tsirigotis, Marta
The method of suicide attempt is related to motivational processes and the psycho(patho)logical mechanisms and traits of an individual. Indirect self-destructiveness is related to direct self-destructiveness. It is presumed that it can transform to the latter thus leading to suicide attempts or death by suicide. The study objective was to examine the relationship between individual manifestations of indirect self-destructiveness and the methods of suicide attempt as well as to explore the ind...
Narang, R.L.; Mishra, B.P.; Nitesh, Mohan
This study assesses the various socio-demographic correlates, the method adopted and the psychiatric disorders in patients with attempted suicide. Out of 208 cases presented to the hospital, one hundred individuals with suicide attempt were included in the present study. They were evaluated for socio-demographic profile and psychiatric illness on the basis of ICD-10 criteria. Analysis of the results showed that single males outnumbered single females, whereas married females outnumbered marri...
A suicide attempt constitutes not only a risk factor for suicide, but also an expression of human suffering. As therapists, physicians and caring personnel we have an opportunity to reach out to this suffering individual and offer help. However, suicidal individuals often decline psychiatric follow-up or drop out of treatment prematurely. An improved understanding of these patients’ needs and problems may enhance our capability to treat them. This thesis is focusing on attempted suicide...
textabstractThis manuscript contains results of an epidemiological study of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults. The first aim of the study was to determine the development of psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood. The second aim was to validate recently developed' procedures to assess psychopathology in young adults. The third aim was to assess the prevalence of psychopathology in young adults.
Catheline-Antipoff, N; Soulayrol, R
Through a clinical case, the authors propose a psychological approach of tagging. The phenomenon that started in Harlem's black ghettos at the end of seventies and appeared in France less than ten years after, does not seem to be a simple sociological one, but seems to take place within the psychic economy of certain adolescents as an attempt to operate the necessary identity work to become an adult. Tagging as well as wandering can be considered adolescents' acting out behaviors and show the externalization of the psychic processes, thus proving a basic insecurity in their psychic space, invaded by anaclitic depression. Graffing, on the other hand, bears a resemblance to strolling in a psychopathologic approach, and already shows an attempt to become a person, and a quest of the Other. PMID:8657804
Havaki-Kontaxaki Beata J
Full Text Available Abstract Isotretinoin, a synthetic oral retinoid that is used against severe nodulocystic acne, has been associated with various psychiatric side effects such as depression, suicidality and psychotic symptoms. A great number of reports on its effects have been published since its introduction into the market. However, a causal relationship has not been established and the link between isotretinoin use and psychiatric events remains controversial. The present paper reviews the available evidence regarding the association of isotretinoin and psychiatric side effects. All published material reporting psychiatric side effects following isotretinoin treatment, including case reports, case series, reports from adverse drug event reporting systems, prospective surveys and retrospective case-control studies, are presented. In addition, the neurobiology of the retinoids and possible biological mechanisms that may lead to psychopathology are described.
George, Carrie; Herman, Keith C.; Ostrander, Rick
Prior studies have found remarkable similarity in the family characteristics across a wide range of child psychopathologies. This study investigated the unique relationships between symptoms of depression, conduct problems/aggression, and inattention/hyperactivity and characteristics of the family environment. Parents and teachers completed…
Haltigan, John D.; Vaillancourt, Tracy
The joint development of trajectories of bullying perpetration and peer victimization from Grade 5 to Grade 8 and concurrent and predictive associations with parent- and child-reported symptoms of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and somatization) were examined in a large sample (N = 695) of Canadian…
Sroufe, L Alan
So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline-"developmental psychopathology"-which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and interpret research findings. From this perspective, disorders are complex products of development; for example, we can view neurophysiological associates of disorder not as causes but as markers, the development of which we need to understand. Research on developmental psychopathology requires an examination of the history of problem behavior from early in life, and it unites multiple features of adaptation and maladaptation (contextual, experiential, physiological, and genetic). PMID:20161376
Sroufe, L A; Carlson, E A; Levy, A K; Egeland, B
Bowlby's attachment theory is a theory of psychopathology as well as a theory of normal development. It contains clear and specific propositions regarding the role of early experience in developmental psychopathology, the importance of ongoing context, and the nature of the developmental process underlying pathology. In particular, Bowlby argued that adaptation is always the joint product of developmental history and current circumstances (never either alone). Early experience does not cause later pathology in a linear way; yet, it has special significance due to the complex, systemic, transactional nature of development. Prior history is part of current context, playing a role in selection, engagement, and interpretation of subsequent experience and in the use of available environmental supports. Finally, except in very extreme cases, early anxious attachment is not viewed as psychopathology itself or as a direct cause of psychopathology but as an initiator of pathways probabilistically associated with later pathology. PMID:10208353
Eftekhari, Afsoon; Zoellner, Lori A.; Vigil, Shree A.
Emotion regulatory strategies such as higher expressive suppression and lower cognitive reappraisal may be associated with increased psychopathology (Gross & John, 2003). Yet, it is unclear whether these strategies represent distinct cognitive styles associated with psychopathology, such that there are individuals who are predominantly “suppressors” or “reappraisers.” Using cluster analysis, we examined whether women with and without exposure to potentially traumatic events evidence distinct ...
Sroufe, L. Alan
So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline—“developmental psychopathology”—which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and inte...
Fatma Gül Cirhinlioğlu; Gülden Güvenç
In this work some definitions concerning shame and guilt and also some similarities and differences between these two concepts are dwelled on. The role of shame and guilt within psychopathology and some empirical researches on the relationship between psychopathology and shame/guilt are presented. Another point is the relationship between gender and the proneness to shame and guilt.It is generally argued that shame and guilt are originated from the negative emotions as a reaction to personal ...
Full Text Available The paper deals with two central issues in the philosophy of neuroscience and psychiatry, namely those of the nature and the major kinds and types of psychopathological mechanisms. Contrary to a widespread view, I argue that mechanisms are not kinds of systems but kinds of processes unfolding in systems or between systems. More precisely, I argue that psychopathological mechanisms are sets of actions and interactions between brain-systems or circuits as well as between the latter and other systems in one's body and external environment, both physical and social, involved in human psychopathology. According to the kinds of properties of the interacting systems or their component-parts, psychopathological mechanisms may be physical, chemical, biological, psychological, social, or, typically, mixed ones. Furthermore, I focus on two main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms involved in the causation of mental disorders, namely the pathogenetic and pathophysiological ones, stressing the importance of their careful distinction for the integrative understanding of otherwise disparate and apparently incommensurable psychiatric research findings. I illustrate my analysis with an example drawn from contemporary research on the mechanisms of acute psychosis. Finally, I stress the relevance of psychopathological mechanisms to a more scientifi cally-grounded classifi cation of mental disorders.
Maltreatment of children by their parents or other caregivers is widely spread, and can cause serious injury and severe long-term consequences. Child maltreatment encompasses any acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that result in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child or adolescent (usually interpreted as up to 18 years of age), even if harm is not the intended result. In the past two decades, four forms of maltreatment have been increasingly recognis...
Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi
This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction. PMID:23242708
McCauley Ohannessian, Christine; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Mark A.; Nurnberger, John I.
The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between parental psychopathology (specifically, alcohol dependence and depression) and adolescent psychopathology, by the gender of the adolescent and the gender of the parent. The sample included 426 13- to 17-year-old adolescents and their parents. All participants were administered…
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Nurnberger, John I., Jr.
The relationship between parental alcohol dependence (with and without comorbid psychopathology) and adolescent psychopathology was examined in a sample of 665 13-17 year-old adolescents and their parents. Results indicated that adolescents who had parents diagnosed with alcohol dependence only did not significantly differ from adolescents who had…
Full Text Available Background: Chronic conditions like epilepsy in a child can affect his/her entire family. The failure of the family members to adapt adequately to the unique demands of this childhood chronic illness can be considered as an important risk factor for development of psychopathology. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to study the profile of parenting stress in parents of children with epilepsy and its correlates; and, to examine the correlates of psychopathology in these children. Material and Methods: Twenty three epileptic children and their families were subjected to Parenting Stress Index (PSI, Scores for indices such as The Children′s Depression Inventory (CDI, Benton Visual Retention test, Spence anxiety scale for children, The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children were calculated. Results: Mean verbal and performance IQ score was 94, while the mean total IQ score was 95. Mean scores for all Wechsler IQ Scores as well as Benton Visual retention test were within the average range. Means for total internalizing CBCL t scores (M, Mean=70; Standard Deviation, SD=4.4, total externalizing CBCL t scores (M=60, SD=9.6, and total behavior problems CBCL t scores (M=67, SD=5.2 were above the standard cut off levels of 65 for clinical behavioral problems. Mean score on CDI was 42 ± 2. Scores of the PSI equal to or higher than 85 th percentile were considered pathologically high. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that pediatric patients with epilepsy, specifically with intractable cases, are correlated with high levels of parental stress.
Full Text Available Background: Sexual abuse is a well-recognised risk factor for child psychopathology. Little is known regarding whether child and maternal mentalization can be considered a potential resource or protective factor in this context, respectively, mediating or moderating the relationship between sexual abuse and psychopathology. Objective: The aims of this study were (1 to explore the relationships between child and maternal mentalizing, measured as reflective functioning (RF, and child depressive symptoms and externalising difficulties; and (2 to examine whether child mentalizing mediates the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA and psychopathology. Method: A total of 168 children aged 7–12 years and their mothers participated in the study. The sample included 74 dyads where children had experienced sexual abuse. The Child Attachment Interview was rated by using the Child Reflective Functioning Scale to assess children's mentalization, and the Child Depression Inventory was used to assess depressive symptoms. Mothers completed the Parent Development Interview to assess maternal RF and the Child Behavior Checklist to assess their child's externalising difficulties. A model involving direct and indirect paths from CSA, child and maternal RF to child psychopathology was examined using Mplus software. Results: Child mentalization partially mediated the relationships between CSA and depressive symptoms, as well as the relationship between CSA and externalising difficulties. Maternal mentalization was an independent predictor of child externalising difficulties, with higher maternal RF associated with less externalising difficulties. Discussion: The findings indicate that by ages 7–12, child mentalization is an important inner resource associated with lower depression and externalising. In addition, this study provides new evidence of the importance of the parent's mentalizing stance for the development of self-regulation and externalising
Ensink, Karin; Bégin, Michaël; Normandin, Lina; Fonagy, Peter
Background Sexual abuse is a well-recognised risk factor for child psychopathology. Little is known regarding whether child and maternal mentalization can be considered a potential resource or protective factor in this context, respectively, mediating or moderating the relationship between sexual abuse and psychopathology. Objective The aims of this study were (1) to explore the relationships between child and maternal mentalizing, measured as reflective functioning (RF), and child depressive symptoms and externalising difficulties; and (2) to examine whether child mentalizing mediates the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and psychopathology. Method A total of 168 children aged 7–12 years and their mothers participated in the study. The sample included 74 dyads where children had experienced sexual abuse. The Child Attachment Interview was rated by using the Child Reflective Functioning Scale to assess children's mentalization, and the Child Depression Inventory was used to assess depressive symptoms. Mothers completed the Parent Development Interview to assess maternal RF and the Child Behavior Checklist to assess their child's externalising difficulties. A model involving direct and indirect paths from CSA, child and maternal RF to child psychopathology was examined using Mplus software. Results Child mentalization partially mediated the relationships between CSA and depressive symptoms, as well as the relationship between CSA and externalising difficulties. Maternal mentalization was an independent predictor of child externalising difficulties, with higher maternal RF associated with less externalising difficulties. Discussion The findings indicate that by ages 7–12, child mentalization is an important inner resource associated with lower depression and externalising. In addition, this study provides new evidence of the importance of the parent's mentalizing stance for the development of self-regulation and externalising difficulties in both
Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav
Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide. PMID:24338268
Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn
Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women
East, Allison J; Berman, Mitchell E; Stoppelbein, Laura
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental (biological mother and father) and adult-offspring anxiety sensitivity (AS), and to determine whether parental AS is related to psychopathology in offspring. We obtained offspring (N=174) self-ratings of anxiety, mood, and stress symptoms, and assigned psychiatric diagnoses using a semistructured clinical interview. Biological mothers, fathers, and offspring independently completed a self-report measure of AS. We hypothesized that (1) there would be a positive relation between parental and offspring AS, and (2) AS in parents would be positively associated with psychopathology in offspring. Results indicated that paternal (but not maternal) AS was associated with offspring AS and psychopathology. PMID:17004235
Fitzhenry, Mark; Harte, Elizabeth; Carr, Alan; O'Hanrahan, Kevin; White, Megan; Cahill, Paul; et al.
One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases wi...
Andrew E. Czeizel
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the Budapest Monitoring System of Self-Poisoning Pregnant Women was to evaluate the potential congenital abnormality inducing effect of extremely large doses of drugs among pregnant women who attempted suicide. This system was appropriate to describe the characteristics of these pregnant women as a secondary finding from this model. METHODS: All self-poisoned patients were cared for at a toxicological inpatient clinic in Budapest, between 1960 and 1993. Of a total of 1,044 pregnant women identified from the three different periods of the project, only 19 (1.8% died. Women who survived were visited at home to reveal birth outcomes, and their exposed children were examined medically to identify congenital abnormalities and tested to estimate their cognitive-behavioral status. The previous or subsequent children of these pregnant women were used as controls with a similar examination protocol. RESULTS: In general, self-poisoned pregnant women were young (peak age was between 18 and 20 years, 62% had their first pregnancy, 55% were unmarried, they had lower socioeconomic status, 46% were smokers and 22.5% drinkers, but depression/panic disorder occurred only among 17 pregnant women. Suicide attempts with drugs were most frequent in the fourth post-conceptional week and second month of pregnancy. In general they used smaller doses of drugs for suicide than non-pregnant age-matched women. Of 1,044 self-poisoned pregnant women, 926 had known pregnancy outcomes and 411 (44.4% delivered live-born babies. CONCLUSIONS: The self-poisoning model appears to have several benefits (e.g., dose-response estimation of drugs in comparison with other methods when evaluating teratogenic/fetotoxic effect of drugs. It is suggested that an international monitoring system of self-poisoned pregnant women should be established to provide a larger data base.
Satija, D.C.; Sharma, D. K.; Gaur, Arun; Nathawat, S. S.
SUMMARY The aim of the present study was to find out the influence of psychopathology on abstinence from opiate addiction. A group of 54 opiate addicts with psychopathology was compared with another group of 55 opiate addicts without psychopathology. Both the groups were detoxified and followed up for a period of 12 months. Common psychopathology in opiate addicts consisted of psychopathic personality disorder, manic depressive psychosis, schizophrenia and psychosomatic and neurotic disorders...
Skovgaard, A M; Houmann, T; Landorph, S L; Christiansen, E
The research of psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age is dominated by clinical case studies and theoretical reflections, and epidemiological studies are few. This paper reviews methods to assess and classify psychopathology in children 0-3 years old in an epidemiological context. Diagnostic...... psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age: screening instruments with established psychometric properties, such as the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), and methods of in-depth assessment known from both clinical practice and research: developmental tests, such...... as the Bayley Scales, and relationship assessments, such as the Early Relational Assessment (ERA). Theclassification of psychopathology in young children can be approved by the Diagnostic Classification 0-3. The reliability and validity of DC 0-3 have not yet been established, but preliminary results...
Skovgaard, A M; Houmann, T; Landorph, S L;
The research of psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age is dominated by clinical case studies and theoretical reflections, and epidemiological studies are few. This paper reviews methods to assess and classify psychopathology in children 0-3 years old in an epidemiological context. Diagnostic...... psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age: screening instruments with established psychometric properties, such as the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), and methods of in-depth assessment known from both clinical practice and research: developmental tests, such...... as the Bayley Scales, and relationship assessments, such as the Early Relational Assessment (ERA). The classification of psychopathology in young children can be approved by the Diagnostic Classification 0-3. The reliability and validity of DC 0-3 have not yet been established, but preliminary...
Falbo, Toni; Hooper, Sophia Y.
The goal of this study is to synthesize quantitatively the results of studies of psychopathology among Chinese only children. Since 1979, China's one-child policy has generated large numbers of only children, especially in large urban centers, where the one-child family has become a social norm. Motivated by concern for mental health, 22 studies, based on the SCL-90, have been published that compare the scores of only children to their peers with siblings. The raw effect sizes generated by each study underwent adjustments in order to enhance the reliability of the findings, including the identification and replacement of outliers, and weighting by inverse-sample size. In addition, analyses were conducted to evaluate the degree of publication bias exhibited by this collection of studies and the results from the SCL-90 studies were compared to studies using alternative measures of anxiety and depression. Overall, the synthesis found small, but significant advantages for only children compared to their peers with siblings, regardless of subscale. However, moderators of this only-child effect were also found: only children as college students reported significantly fewer symptoms, regardless of subscale; while only children as military recruits reported more symptoms, although the findings about military recruits received less support from the analyses. Furthermore, the size of the only-child advantage was found to be greater for only children born after the policy. Conclusions based on this synthesis are limited by the fact that this body of studies is based on convenience samples of relatively successful youth. PMID:25894306
Ormel, Johan; Rosmalen, Judith; Farmer, Ann
BACKGROUND: Neuroticism measures are very popular in psychopathological research, but it is unclear how useful neuroticism is in studies of the aetiology of psychopathology. METHOD: A conceptual examination was made of the literature on the association of neuroticism and psychopathology, the ontolog
We describe attempts to construct a phenomenologically viable model which embeds a unified theory of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions in an extended supergravity theory. Following Cremmer and Julia, we assume that the local unitary symmetry which they found for SO(N) supergravity theories is realized dynamically, and that the usual quarks, leptons, gauge bosons and Higgs scalars of the renormalizable gauge theory are composite states which appear point-like on a mass scale below the Planck mass. We argue that this picture leads uniquely to SO(8) (or SO(7)) supergravity with SU(5) as the grand unification gauge group. We find that conventional symmetry breaking schemes according to which particles acquire all allowed invariant masses at each stage of a step by step symmetry breakdown do not yield an acceptable particle spectrum. We argue that the original symmetries of the composite supermultiplet may break dynamically to an effective anomaly free renormalizable sub-theory, with the underlying supersymmetry serving at most to restrict the particle spectrum and to specify the couplings of the effective renormalizable Lagrangian at the Planck mass. Preliminary investigations suggest that this approach may be more promising
Wonderlich, Stephen A; Rosenfeldt, Steven; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G; Smyth, Joshua; Miltenberger, Raymond
A study of bulimic women examined the relationship between histories of childhood trauma and psychiatric disorders, as well as daily measures of mood and behavior. One hundred twenty-three women with bulimia nervosa were assessed with interviews and completed an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) protocol in which they carried a palmtop computer for 2 weeks. Sexual abuse was associated with a history of mood and anxiety disorders, and emotional abuse with eating disorder psychopathology. In the EMA assessment, sexual abuse was associated with daily purging frequency and self-destructive behavior. Emotional abuse was associated with average daily mood and mood lability. These findings support the idea that child maltreatment may be associated with various aspects of bulimia-related psychopathology. PMID:17345648
Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Hattier, Megan A.; Bamburg, Jay W.
In the typically developing population, comorbid psychopathology refers to the co-occurrence of two different psychopathologies other than cognitive impairments. With respect to individuals with intellectual disability, comorbidity is often described as cognitive deficits and one additional psychopathology manifesting together. However, just as…
The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…
Davis, Andrew S.
A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…
Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew R
We argue that psychopathology, as the discipline that assesses and makes sense of abnormal human subjectivity, should be at the heart of psychiatry. It should be a basic educational prerequisite in the curriculum for mental health professionals and a key element of the shared intellectual identity of clinicians and researchers in this field. PMID:25179621
Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John
Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…
J.A. Sergeant; P.J.M. Prins
(from the chapter) Discusses the definition of abnormality, the association between disorders, role of age, maturation and developmental processes in the manifestation, recognition, and assessment of developmental psychopathology in children using the life-span approach. Questions of how the predict
Konstantinos Kontoangelos; Sofia Tsiori; Kalliopi Koundi; Xenia Pappa; Pavlos Sakkas; Charalambos C. Papageorgiou
Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ); (b) The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (c) The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (d) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.
Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)
A. Roefs; J. Huijding; F.T.Y. Smulders; C.M. MacLeod; P.J. de Jong; R.W. Wiers; A.T.M. Jansen
Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)
Fatma Gül Cirhinlioğlu
Full Text Available In this work some definitions concerning shame and guilt and also some similarities and differences between these two concepts are dwelled on. The role of shame and guilt within psychopathology and some empirical researches on the relationship between psychopathology and shame/guilt are presented. Another point is the relationship between gender and the proneness to shame and guilt.It is generally argued that shame and guilt are originated from the negative emotions as a reaction to personal failures and transgressions. Despite of some similarities between shame and guilt, augmenting theoretical and empirical literature on the subject have underlined some considerable differences between these two emotional experiences. Majority of the researches asserted that these two emotions can be distinguished from each other according to the fact that individual focuses on whether his/her own behaviour or his/her self in the process of self evaluation. Shame experience is related to the self as a focus of direct evaluation. The focus in guilt is rather on the behaviour” itself which is either conducted or not. Although shame and guilt are functional for individual and social life, undoubtly they may also lead some serious social and emotional problems if they are experienced in a intense and chronic way. The most comprehensive discussion of shame and guilt in psychopathology can be found in analytically oriented theories. These theories, however, vary considerably in their emphasis on shame and guilt. Earlier psychoanalytic perspective mainly focused on the psychopathological implications of guilt. More recently the shame has been the key concept in psychodynamic consideration of psychopathology. Because of the difficulties in measuring shame and guilt, empirical researches on the relationship between psychopathology and shame and guilt are far behind of theoretical approaches on the subject. It is explored that in the researches in which the measuring
Greene-Palmer, Farrah N; Wagner, Barry M; Neely, Laura L; Cox, Daniel W; Kochanski, Kristen M; Perera, Kanchana U; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan
This study examined parental reactions to adolescents' suicide attempts and the association of reactions with future suicidal self-directed violence. Participants were 81 mothers and 49 fathers of 85 psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Maternal hostility and paternal anger and arguing predicted future suicide attempts. From pre- to post-attempt, mothers reported feeling increased sadness, caring, anxiety, guilt, fear, and being overwhelmed; fathers reported increased sadness, anxiety, and fear. Findings have clinical implications; improving parent-child relationships post-suicide attempt may serve as a protective factor for suicide. PMID:26452767
Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes
The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys).…
Sheikholeslami, Homayoun; Kani, Camellia; Ziaee, Amir
Predictors of suicide attempts in Iran, to distinguish any similarities and differences of these predictors between suicide attempts in Iran and other developed and developing countries and to investigate the relation between general psychiatric symptoms and repetition of suicidal attempts were assessed. The validated Farsi version of the General…
Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind
Objective To investigate correlates of eating disorder psychopathology in adolescent males and females with type 1 diabetes. Method A total of 105 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (42% males), aged 12–20 years, were recruited from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry in this population-based study. All participants were interviewed with the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Additionally, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experience...
Miranda, Jenniffer K; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes
The aim of the study was to examine whether maternal depression, mothers' and fathers' parenting, child physical punishment and negative life events (NLE) mediate the effect of maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV) and cumulative violence (both CA and IPV) on Spanish children's and adolescents' psychopathology. Furthermore, multiple mediator models examine whether IPV mediates the effect of CA on the contextual and family factors mentioned above. Three hundred and eighteen Spanish outpatients aged 7 to 18 and their parents were assessed using a structured interview and other instruments for measuring the study variables. Structural equation models (SEMs) showed multiple pathways explaining psychopathological problems among offspring of mothers who suffered CA, IPV and both of these violent experiences. In particular, mothers' depression mediated the link between maternal CA, IPV, cumulative violence and children's externalizing, and total behavior problems. Child NLE was an important pathway between maternal CA and total behavior problems, as well as between cumulative violence and both externalizing and total problems. IPV contributed to explaining the link between maternal CA and contextual and family factors, such as child physical punishment and NLE, which were in turn, associated with children's behavior problems. Findings show the complex interconnections between different types of violence and their harmful effects on the mental health of women and their offspring, as well as the need to extend our knowledge on this subject. PMID:23686620
The main purpose of the present studies has been to develop the Defense Mechanism Test (DM1) for clinical assessment of severe psychopathology with the focus on the concept of Borderline Personality Organization (BPO) according to Kemberg. By relating the DMT and the Structural Interview to each other, the concurrent validity of the concept of Personality Organization (PO) for psychiatric inpatients has been investigated. Two different assessment approaches have been used for this purpose. On...
Lešić Aleksandar; Opalić Petar D.
The idea to monitor and research psychopathological responses of physically injured persons in a more systematic manner has come from our observation of huge differences in patient behavior, whose psychological responses were noticeably changed and often inappropriate. The behavior aberrations were all the more striking because we treated wartime injuries in addition to peacetime ones. Our sample had 175 patient subjects, of both sexes different ages, marital status and professions. A group o...
Kleinman, P H; Miller, A B; Millman, R B; Woody, G E; Todd, T; Kemp, J; Lipton, D S
A number of different indicators of psychopathology were assessed in this study of 76 cocaine and crack abusers who entered outpatient treatment in New York City between June and December 1987. The majority (75%) had used cocaine for 4 years or more, and the majority (62%) spent over one thousand dollars a month on cocaine in the 6 months before entry into treatment. Forty-seven percent of the sample were found to be clinically depressed. Phobic disorders were the only other axis I diagnoses found in addition to depression, and all persons who were found to have phobic disorders also were diagnosed as having some form of depressive disorder. The four most common axis II diagnoses were antisocial personality (21%), passive-aggressive (21%), borderline (18%) and self-defeating (18%). Subjects were classified as falling into one of the following three categories of a newly developed "psychopathology classification": a) no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse or dependency; b) one or more axis II diagnoses, but no axis I diagnoses except for substance abuse or dependency; c) at least one axis I diagnosis in addition to drug disorders whether or not accompanied by an axis II diagnosis. Mean scores on subscales and total score on the SCL-90, as well as total score on the Beck Depression Inventory, were ordered by category of the classification scheme, with those having no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse having the lowest score and persons in the third category having the highest score.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2366058
Frick, P. J.; Viding, E.
This paper reviews research on chronic patterns of antisocial behavior and places this research into a developmental psychopathology framework. Specifically, research suggests that there are at least three important pathways through which children and adolescents can develop severe antisocial behaviors. One group of youth shows antisocial behavior that begins in adolescence, and two groups show antisocial behavior that begins in childhood but differ on the presence or absence of callous-unemo...
Moberg, Tomas; Stenbacka, Marlene; Jönsson, Erik G.; Nordström, Peter; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi
Background Suicidal and violent behaviours are interlinked and share common biological underpinnings. In the present study we analysed the association between violent behaviour as a child, childhood trauma, adult psychiatric illness, and substance abuse in relation to interpersonal violence as an adult in suicide attempters with mood disorders. Methods A total of 161 suicide attempters were diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interviews and assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence S...
Skovgaard, Anne Mette
pre- and perinatal biological risks and predictors were deviant language development and impaired communication, recorded by health nurses in the first ten months of life. The findings correspond to results from studies of older children and adolescents and point to an earlier emergence of...... neurodevelopmental psychopathology than has been described hitherto. Risk factors of emotional, behavioural and eating and sleeping disorders were psycho-social adversities in parents, and parent-child relationship disturbances seem to be the key mediator in the risk mechanisms. Risk factors of relationship...
O'Connor, Thomas G; Moynihan, Jan A; Caserta, Mary T
Experimental animal and adult human data suggest that stress exposure is associated with alterations in immune system function that may underlie increased susceptibility to disease and behavioral disorders. The implications of these data for child psychology and psychiatry are not yet clear. The current review seeks to distil and translate the relevant animal and adult human work to children to advance a developmental model of psychoneuroimmunology. In addition to reviewing key specific findings, we consider biological/conceptual models and technical aspects of psychoneuroimmunology work in pediatric populations, and outline the rationales and advantages of integrating hypotheses concerning neuroinflammation in developmental studies of psychopathology. PMID:24372371
Ho, Wing-yee; 何穎怡
Previous studies have shown that a child’s attachment relationship with the mother and the mother’s psychosocial functioning are influential to the child’s psychosocial functioning in terms of the development of psychopathology. The current study aimed to examine the relationships between maternal and child psychosocial functioning in terms of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and sleep problems, as well as child attachment quality. The potential mediating or moderating role of attachm...
Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa
The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers. PMID:25572134
Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria;
The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...... therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide......, although no increased risk for suicide attempts was found in MS patients. No difference in number of suicide attempts in treated and untreated patients was found....
Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cunningham, Amy; Wenzel, Amy; Mattei, Stephanie; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T
Although theorists have posited that suicidal individuals are more likely than non-suicidal individuals to experience cognitive distortions, little empirical work has examined whether those who recently attempted suicide are more likely to engage in cognitive distortions than those who have not recently attempted suicide. In the present study, 111 participants who attempted suicide in the 30 days prior to participation and 57 psychiatric control participants completed measures of cognitive distortions, depression, and hopelessness. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who recently attempted suicide are more likely than psychiatric controls to experience cognitive distortions, even when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Fortune telling was the only cognitive distortion uniquely associated with suicide attempt status. However, fortune telling was no longer significantly associated with suicide attempt status when controlling for hopelessness. Findings underscore the importance of directly targeting cognitive distortions when treating individuals at risk for suicide. PMID:25294949
Mansur, Rodrigo B.; Cunha, Graccielle R.; Asevedo, Elson; Zugman, André; Zeni-Graiff, Maiara; Rios, Adiel C.; Sethi, Sumit; Maurya, Pawan K.; Levandowski, Mateus L.; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro M.; Stertz, Laura; Belangero, Síntia I.; Kauer-Sant' Anna, Márcia; Teixeira, Antônio L.; Mari, Jair J.; Rohde, Luis A.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; McIntyre, Roger S.; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Brietzke, Elisa
Background Socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) has been consistently associated with early life mental health problems. SED has been shown to impact multiple biological systems, including the regulation of neurotrophic proteins, immune-inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, which, conversely, have been reported to be relevant to physiological and pathological neurodevelopment This study investigated the relationship between SED, different domains of psychopathology, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL6), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We hypothesized that a composite of socioeconomic risk would be associated with psychopathology and altered levels of peripheral biomarkers. In addition, we hypothesized that SED would moderate the associations between mental health problems, IL6, TBARS and BDNF. Methods and Findings Using a cross-sectional design, we measured the serum levels of IL6, TBARS and BDNF in 495 children aged 6 to 12. We also investigated socio-demographic characteristics and mental health problems using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) DSM-oriented scales. SED was evaluated using a cumulative risk model. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations between SED, biomarkers levels and psychopathology. SED was significantly associated with serum levels of IL6 (RR = 1.026, 95% CI 1.004; 1.049, p = 0.020) and TBARS (RR = 1.077, 95% CI 1.028; 1.127, p = 0.002). The association between SED and BDNF was not statistically significant (RR = 1.031, 95% CI 0.997; 1.066, p = 0.077). SED was also significantly associated with all CBCL DSM-oriented scales (all p psychopathology were moderated by SED, with stronger correlations between mental health problems, IL6, TBARS, and BDNF being observed in children with high SED. Conclusions In children, SED is highly associated with mental health problems. Our findings suggest that this association may be moderated via effects on multiple interacting
Cai Lian Tam
Full Text Available Teenage suicide has become a very serious problem and has been labeled as a growing epidemic by many health professionals worldwide. Through a questionnaire survey, the study aims to examine gender difference in public perceptions on various reasons for and methods used in suicidal attempts among teenagers. 90 college students participated in this study. The results showed a significant difference among males and females for the reasons why teenagers attempt suicide. The reasons were secularism, poor parent-child relationship and atheism. For the methods of suicidal attempts, a significant gender difference was also obtained for the slit wrist method.
Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.
Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and functioni
Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Boot, Nathalie C.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.
Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be
Mehrabian, Albert; Weinstein, Lisa
In a preliminary study of a single group of suicide attempters, male and female subjects did not differ in temperament characteristics. Data from both sexes indicated that suicide-prone individuals have unpleasant, arousable, and submissive temperaments, with arousability a strong discriminator of suicide attempters relative to the general…
Baby, Sanjush; P, Manju; KF, Yesudas
This is a retrospective study which assesses the various socio-demographic correlates, the methods adopted to commit suicide and the psychiatric disorders in patients attempting suicide. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was found to be Adjustment disorder followed by Depressive disorder. Organo-phosphorous compounds were the most frequent agent used among suicide attempt patients.
Kaess, Michael; Durkee, Tony; Brunner, Romuald; Carli, Vladimir; Parzer, Peter; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Balint, Maria; Bobes, Julio; Cohen, Renaud; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Fischer, Gloria; Floderus, Birgitta; Iosue, Miriam; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Musa, George J; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Varnik, Airi; Žiberna, Janina; Wasserman, Danuta
Rising global rates of pathological Internet use (PIU) and related psychological impairments have gained considerable attention in recent years. In an effort to acquire evidence-based knowledge of this relationship, the main objective of this study was to investigate the association between PIU, psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours among school-based adolescents in eleven European countries. This cross-sectional study was implemented within the framework of the European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe. A representative sample of 11,356 school-based adolescents (M/F: 4,856/6,500; mean age: 14.9) was included in the analyses. PIU was assessed using the Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire. Psychopathology was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Self-destructive behaviours were evaluated by the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory and Paykel Suicide Scale. Results showed that suicidal behaviours (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), depression, anxiety, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention were significant and independent predictors of PIU. The correlation between PIU, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention was stronger among females, while the link between PIU and symptoms of depression, anxiety and peer relationship problems was stronger among males. The association between PIU, psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours was stronger in countries with a higher prevalence of PIU and suicide rates. These findings ascertain that psychopathology and suicidal behaviours are strongly related to PIU. This association is significantly influenced by gender and country suggesting socio-cultural influences. At the clinical and public health levels, targeting PIU among adolescents in the early stages could potentially lead to improvements of psychological well-being and a reduction of suicidal behaviours. PMID:24888750
Pauchard, J P
Man in our society is less and less able to manage his own aggression or aggression of others. Psychopathologic patterns of reaction appearing thereby are demonstrated on the example of the soldier, and relations to stress theories are discussed. Conditions of formation and consequences of suppression of aggression are shown on the example of the recruit with fear of shooting or failure in basic training; similar manifestations in non-military life are referred to. The necessity of an education to adequate management of aggression is stressed. PMID:7313590
Bohnert, Amy M.; Garber, Judy
This longitudinal study examined psychopathology as a predictor and outcome of organized activity involvement during high school among 198 adolescents who varied in risk for psychopathology as a function of their mother's depression history. Higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in eighth grade significantly predicted lower…
Strickland, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer; Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen; Hopkins, Joyce; LeBailly, Susan
Despite growing interest in the development of alternative diagnostic classification systems for psychopathology in young children, little is known about the adequacy of the DSM symptom structure for describing psychopathology in this population. This paper examines the fit of the DSM-IV emotional (ED) and disruptive behavior disorder (DD) symptom…
Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.
Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…
This review addresses three questions regarding the relationships among gender, emotion regulation, and psychopathology: (a) are there gender differences in emotion regulation strategies, (b) are emotion regulation strategies similarly related to psychopathology in men and women, and (c) do gender differences in emotion regulation strategies account for gender differences in psychopathology? Women report using most emotion regulation strategies more than men do, and emotion regulation strategies are similarly related to psychopathology in women and men. More rumination in women compared to men partially accounts for greater depression and anxiety in women compared to men, while a greater tendency to use alcohol to cope partially accounts for more alcohol misuse in men compared to women. The literature on emotion regulation is likely missing vital information on how men regulate their emotions. I discuss lessons learned and questions raised about the relationships between gender differences in emotion regulation and gender differences in psychopathology. PMID:22035243
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to carry out a comparative analysis of selected psychopathological and personality variables in patients with allergic and non-allergic asthma, as well as an attempt to determine the significance and strength of these variables in the clinical picture of both forms of the disease. Methods. In all patients structured anamnesis, basic spirometry, and dyspnea measurement were carried out. The level of anxiety was determined using Spielberger’s questionnaire. The intensity of depression was evaluated with Beck’s Inventory. Neuroticism and extroversion-introversion were assessed by Eysenck’s Inventory. The I-E scale was used to determine the perception of the locus of control. Results. The lack of significant differences in the area of psychopathological and personality variables was found between the two types of asthma. The gender differentiated patients with respect to psychopathology. The intensity of extroversion correlated with the duration of the disease. In the case of neuroticism, the clinical form of the disease was associated with blurring the differences between genders. The intensity of dyspnea and the spirometric results correlated with the psychological background of the disease. Conclusions. No significant differences in the area of psychopathology and personality dimensions between the groups of patients with allergic and non-allergic asthma were found although psychological variables are associated with the course of asthma in adults.
John M. de Figueiredo
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objectives of the manuscript are: (a to review the understanding of demoralization and its assessment; (b to describe its clinical progression; (c to explain the differences between demoralization and other form of psychological distress; (d to propose a set of criteria for future research on demoralization. Methods: A MEDLINE search using the keywords distress, subjective incompetence, depression, demoralization, helplessness, hopelessness and psychopathology was conducted. This was supplemented by a manual search of the literature. Results: Demoralization can be distinguished from passing or transient distress, non-specific distress, sub-threshold depression or anxiety, and certain mental disorders. Demoralization can be a risk factor for the manifestation of psychopathology, the prodromal phase of a mental disorder, or a trigger for exacerbation or recurrence of psychiatric distress symptoms. The domains of distress and demoralization are described and research diagnostic criteria for demoralization are presented. Conclusions: The scales discussed in this article differ in their time frames and have not yet been applied to the same population at the same time. The role of demoralization as a risk factor for mental disorders is just beginning to be understood. The domains and the diagnostic criteria for demoralization presented in this article need to be confirmed by epidemiological and empirical studies. Future research should continue to clarify its role in the pathogenesis of both mental disorders and physical illnesses and identify appropriate interventions for its arrest or prevention.
Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria
This study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pre-professional and professional dancers (n=209) who were exposed to traumatic events. Nine self-report instruments assessed (1) adverse childhood experiences, (2) past traumatic events, (3) coping strategies under stressful situations, and (4) fantasy proneness. The psychopathology variables included (5) anxiety, (6) depression, (7) dissociation, (8) shame, and (9)) PTSD diagnostic scale. Statistical calculations included descriptive, distributional, and multivariate analysis of covariates (MANCOVA). Results indicate that dancers had a significantly higher distribution of PTSD (20.2%) compared to the normal population (7.8%). They also had a higher frequency of family members with mental illness, an inability to speak about their trauma, and more suicidal thoughts. The PTSD group of dancers had higher levels of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, dissociation, and shame) and they had more childhood adversity and adult trauma. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group had higher scores on fantasy proneness and emotion-oriented coping strategies. These coping strategies may increase psychological instability. Addressing early abuse and trauma is recommended. Clinicians may help dancers alter their internal working models that their self is worthless, others are abusive, and the world is threatening and dangerous. By understanding PTSD in dancers, medical and mental health treatment protocols may be established to address the debilitating, and often hidden, symptoms of PTSD. PMID:26395617
Full Text Available Background: The current study explored the relationship between parenting experience in childhood as a specific aspect of the non-shared environment and the amount of psychopathology in adulthood. Sampling and Methods: 27 same-sex sibling pairs were studied. In each pair, one proband was a psychiatric outpatient, the other proband a non-patient. All probands filled in the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. Results: The patients rated higher on practically all SCL-90-R scales whereas no significant differences were found with regard to the PBI ratings. With only one exception, there were no significant correlations between PBI and SCL-90-R ratings in the group of patients. In contrast, all SCL-90-R subscales correlated negatively with paternal care and half of them positively with paternal control in patients' healthy siblings. Conclusions: The degree of paternal care seems to be most closely related with lack of mental symptoms in psychiatric non-patients. In contrast, parenting does not seem to play a substantial role in patients, presenting with a higher degree of psychopathology. Obviously, environmental factors become less important, the more pronounced the pathology.
Full Text Available Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile. The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48, were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44, reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41, of phobic tendencies (r=40, of anxiety (r=0.39, and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38, and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43.
Psychopathology as the investigation and classification of experience, behavior and symptoms in psychiatric patients is an old discipline that ranges back to the end of the 19th century. Since then different approaches to psychopathology have been suggested. Recent investigations showing abnormalities in the brain on different levels raise the question how the gap between brain and psyche, between neural abnormalities and alteration in experience and behavior can be bridged. Historical approaches like descriptive (Jaspers) and structural (Minkoswki) psychopathology as well as the more current phenomenological psychopathology (Paarnas, Fuchs, Sass, Stanghellini) remain on the side of the psyche giving detailed description of the phenomenal level of experience while leaving open the link to the brain. In contrast, the recently introduced Research Domain Classification (RDoC) aims at explicitly linking brain and psyche by starting from so-called 'neuro-behavioral constructs'. How does Spatiotemporal Psychopathology, as demonstrated in the first paper on depression, stand in relation to these approaches? In a nutshell, Spatiotemporal Psychopathology aims to bridge the gap between brain and psyche. Specifically, as demonstrated in depression in the first paper, the focus is on the spatiotemporal features of the brain's intrinsic activity and how they are transformed into corresponding spatiotemporal features in experience on the phenomenal level and behavioral changes, which can well account for the symptoms in these patients. This second paper focuses on some of the theoretical background assumptions in Spatiotemporal Psychopathology by directly comparing it to descriptive, structural, and phenomenological psychopathology as well as to RDoC. PMID:26071797
Apter-Levi, Yael; Pratt, Maayan; Vakart, Adam; Feldman, Michal; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth
Maternal depression across the first years of life negatively impacts children's development. One pathway of vulnerability may involve functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We utilize a community cohort of 1983 women with no comorbid risk repeatedly assessed for depression from birth to six years to form two groups; chronically depressed (N=40) and non-depressed (N=91) women. At six years, mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis, child salivary cortisol (CT) was assessed three times during a home-visit, mother-child interaction was videotaped, and child empathy was coded from behavioral paradigms. Latent Growth curve Model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) estimated the links between maternal depression and mother's negative parenting and three child outcomes; psychopathology, social withdrawal, and empathy as related to child CT baseline and variability. Depressed mothers displayed more negative parenting and their children showed more Axis-I psychopathology and social withdrawal. SEM analysis revealed that maternal depression was associated with reduced CT variability, which predicted higher child psychopathology and social withdrawal. Whereas all children exhibited similar initial levels of CT, children of controls reduced CT levels over time while children of depressed mothers maintained high, non-flexible levels. Mother negativity was related to lower initial CT levels, which predicted decreased empathy. Findings suggest that chronic maternal depression may compromise children's social-emotional adjustment by diminishing HPA-system flexibility as well as limiting the mother's capacity to provide attuned and predictable caregiving. PMID:26610204
Child marriage is a major health and security concern that still prevails in Bangladesh. The paper attempts to investigate and tries to understand the societal and cultural context of the problem. By applying Mary Douglas’ Socio-Cultural Viability theory and her parsimonious model onto the issue of child marriage in Bangladesh the four major opposing cultural camps are pointed out (Plan Bangladesh, Bangladesh government, the garment factory owners, and the individual Bangladeshi citizen). The...
Becker, Andreas; Roessner, Veit; Breuer, Dieter; Döpfner, Manfred; Rothenberger, Aribert
Although ADHD significantly affects the quality of life (QoL) of patients and their families, QoL in children with ADHD has rarely been investigated in association with psychopathological profile, and the relationship remains unclear. The open-label OBSEER study evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of Equasym XL(®), a modified-release methylphenidate, in routine care of children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with ADHD. At baseline, questionnaires assessing psychopathological profile (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ; parental ratings) and QoL (KINDL; parent, child or adolescent versions) were completed; QoL was reassessed at final visit. We analysed the relationship between psychopathology and parent/patient-rated QoL in ADHD at baseline. Data from 721 consecutively referred children and adolescents were analysed. QoL was similarly low from parent and self-ratings and independent of severity on the SDQ subscale hyperactivity/inattention. Self-ratings indicated that additional conduct disorder was associated with further reduction in QoL. Similarly, children with high scores from parent and adolescent ratings on the SDQ subscale conduct problems had reduced QoL on some KINDL subscales. Adolescents with ADHD not receiving medication at baseline reported lower QoL than those already on medication. Results show that children and adolescents with ADHD have low QoL, independent of core symptom severity. Additional conduct problems may further impact QoL negatively, while ADHD medication use may show a trend towards improved QoL. Not all psychopathological problems associated with ADHD affect QoL similarly. As parents appear to have a less critical view of QoL compared with children's self-ratings, both parent and child ratings should be included in clinical assessments. PMID:21901415
Fellows, Robert P; Spahr, Nayeli A; Byrd, Desiree A; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Morgello, Susan
This study examined the association between trauma exposure, PTSD, suicide attempts, and other psychopathology among 316 racially/ethnically diverse HIV-infected men and women who underwent semi-structured psychiatric assessment. In addition, the role of psychological resilience in trauma exposure was examined in the context of neurological symptoms and functional status. Nearly half (47.8%; 151/316) of the participants reported trauma exposure, of which 47.0% (71/151) developed PTSD. Among trauma-exposed individuals, those with a current psychiatric diagnosis reported more neurological symptoms and lower functional status. Trauma exposure without PTSD was associated with a higher rate of panic disorder and substance-induced mental disorders. Trauma-exposed individuals who did not develop PTSD were less likely than those who reported no trauma exposure to meet criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Trauma exposure, MDD, borderline personality disorder, and substance-induced mental disorders were independently associated with increased odds of suicide attempt. These results indicate that co-morbid psychiatric disorders are common among trauma exposed individuals with a history of PTSD, but those with trauma exposure who do not develop PTSD are less likely to experience MDD. The role of other co-morbid psychopathologies in the genesis of suicidal behavior among individuals living with HIV deserves further study. PMID:26599389
Aldao, Amelia; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
In recent work, we showed that putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as reappraisal and acceptance, have a weaker association with psychopathology than putatively maladaptive strategies, such as rumination, suppression, and avoidance (e.g., Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2010; Aldao, Nolen-Hoeksema, & Schweizer, 2010). In this investigation, we examined the interaction between adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in the prediction of psychopathology symptoms (depression, anxiety, and alcohol problems) concurrently and prospectively. We assessed trait emotion regulation and psychopathology symptoms in a sample of community residents at Time 1 (N = 1,317) and then reassessed psychopathology at Time 2 (N = 1,132). Cross-sectionally, we found that the relationship between adaptive strategies and psychopathology symptoms was moderated by levels of maladaptive strategies: adaptive strategies had a negative association with psychopathology symptoms only at high levels of maladaptive strategies. In contrast, adaptive strategies showed no prospective relationship to psychopathology symptoms either alone or in interaction with maladaptive strategies. We discuss the implications of this investigation for future work on the contextual factors surrounding the deployment of emotion regulation strategies. PMID:21553934
Santosh, P. J.
Neuroimaging in child psychiatry is a rapidly developing field and the number of different techniques being used is increasing rapidly. This review describes the current status of neuroimaging in childhood psychopathology and discusses limitations of the various studies. As yet, no specific and consistent abnormality has been detected in childhood psychiatric disorders. Obsessive compulsive disorder has shown the most consistent findings so far, with orbitofrontal cortex and...
Vidair, Hilary B.; Reyes, Jazmin A.; Shen, Sa; Parrilla-Escobar, Maria A.; Heleniak, Charlotte M.; Hollin, Ilene L.; Woodruff, Scott; Turner, J. Blake; Rynn, Moira A.
Objective: Children of depressed and/or anxious parents are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders. Little research has focused on screening parents bringing their children for psychiatric evaluation, and few studies have included fathers or Hispanic children. This study had the following aims: 1) to identify current symptom rates…
Full Text Available HIV infection has been studied by various sciences, since it articulates biological, clinical and social realities. Since the time of its appearance to the present, advances in the treatment of HIV infection have been notorious and fascinating. Antiretroviral therapy promotes an improved quality of life for patients and increases life expectancy but has had difficulties with treatment associated behaviour, i.e., adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of psychopathological and behavioral determinants of HIV-positive patients. We have found that behavioral risk pattern exists in both genders and predominantely sexual in nature. Men are more compliant than women regarding treatment, but exhibit high levels in the hostility dimension. Indeed, in HIV infection, there's a limited perception of control over disease, which contributes to an adaptation guided by feelings of inadequacy. We underline the vulnerability in the female gender, since women had a behavioral pattern of significant risk.
Pani, P P; Carta, M; Rudas, N
The aim of the study was to assess the presence and nature of psychiatric disorders in opium drug addicts. One hundred and six subjects receiving treatment at the CMAS in Cagliari were included in the study. Hathawai and McKinley's MMPI test was preventively carried out on all subjects; each drug addict was then interviewed three times in the space of three weeks in order to formulate a diagnosis in line with DSM III R criteria. The results obtained show a high incidence of psychopathological disorders which are not included among those caused by drug abuse, and a high degree of diagnostic heterogeneity on both axis I and axis II. The comparative assessment of three subsamples undergoing different phases of treatment reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences. PMID:1749353
Being the signatory of UNCRC (1992), India globally recognized the significance of child rights. The Constitutions of India also guarantees certain child rights covering basic issues, like ‘health’, ‘education’ and protection from ‘hazardous employment’ and ‘exploitation’. However, despite the existence of many legal provisions, the vulnerability of Indian children in different dimensions cannot be undermined. This paper attempts to locate the status of child in development ladder of Indian e...
Opalić Petar D.
Full Text Available The study examined mental and psychopathological consequences of refugeeism and included (109 refugees from refugee camp in Krnjača. Their reactions were compared with the reactions of (70 somatically injured patients from Orthopedic Hospital of the Clinical Centre in Belgrade and subjects (105 from Belgrade denying any traumatic experience whatsoever. Apart from the questionnaire on socio-demographic features, subjects were asked to provide answers to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-10 scale, Brief Eysenck’s Personality Inventory, Family Homogeneity Inventory and Impact of Events Scale. By implementation of appropriate statistical procedures (variance analysis, the significance of differences among certain features within the experimental group of refugees was examined, as well as the difference concerning presence of mental and psychopathological features among all three subgroups. It was determined that within the refugee group, males more significantly and more frequently reacted with PTSD symptoms, as well as with signs of general neuroticism and that married refugees more frequently presented with PTSD symptoms. In comparison to non-refugees, refugees more significantly and more frequently present with PTSD symptoms, which is probably caused by PTSD chronicity in this category of subjects. Subjects denying any significant traumatic experience in their lives presented with symptoms of general neuroticism more than the rest of examinees. This is an interesting finding that can be explained by the fact that the same group achieved the highest values on the extraversion scale (using the same Eysenck instrument, or may be correlated to the increase of neurotic reactions in the whole population of Serbia and Montenegro. The above mentioned and other results were compared to the findings of similar researches performed by other authors.
Fern, Tami L.
This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…
Arturo Arrona Palacios
Full Text Available Psychopathology is responsible for the study and analysis of deviant behaviour, it can only be called psychopathological what manages to upset the psychopathological functioning. The demonologic concept is the most primitive form of understanding abnormal behavior. It is to the brain as a principal organ of the intellectual life. The psychopathological study has been making inroads since the beginnings of the structuring of the society to research in psychopathology, who came to bring a new panorama of studies.
Draguns, Juris G; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko
Research based information on the impact of culture on psychopathology is reviewed, with particular reference to depression, somatization, schizophrenia, anxiety, and dissociation. A number of worldwide constants in the incidence and mode of expression of psychological disorders are identified, especially in relation to schizophrenia and depression. The scope of variation of psychopathological manifestations across cultures is impressive. Two tasks for future investigations involve the determination of the generic relationship between psychological disturbance and culture and the specification of links between cultural characteristics and psychopathology. To this end, hypotheses are advanced pertaining to the cultural dimensions investigated by Hofstede and their possible reflection in psychiatric symptomatology. It is concluded that the interrelationship of culture and psychopathology should be studied in context and that observer, institution, and community variables should be investigated together with the person's experience of distress and disability. PMID:12781244
Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Schredl, Michael; Jenni, Oskar G; Landolt, Markus A
Posttraumatic nightmares are considered as a reexperiencing symptom of the DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Different types of posttraumatic nightmares, however, may differ in their relation to psychopathology. Thirty-two children were longitudinally assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after traffic accidents. Occurrence and characteristics of nightmares were examined and their relation to psychopathology assessed. Thirty-four percent of children reported posttraumatic nightmares during at least one assessment. Exact replicative nightmares at baseline assessment predicted PTSD symptoms 2 and 6 months postaccident, but not depressive symptoms. Exact replicative nightmares revealed the strongest cross-sectional association with trauma-specific psychopathology but not with depression. The authors conclude that posttraumatic nightmares--especially exact replicative ones--may be closely related to psychopathological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress in children. PMID:20419731
Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet
This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…
Full Text Available Objective. The difficulties to distinguish between infanticide and murder of the woman own child, experienced by both experts and the court, have been discussed on the example of the psychopathological description of the perpetrator killing five of her children, and data from the literature. Case. This paper describes an extremely rare case of the woman who has killed five of her children immediately after their birth over several years. Comment. It is very difficult to decide whether the seemingly rational motivation to kill her own child shortly after their birth can be a proof of specific psychopathological state which is a consequence of childbirth or an assassination planned in cold blood. The act of killing a child by their own mother is so contrary to nature that it seems easy to find the ground for psychosis or a state of emergency. However, when neither of them has been proven the experts are left with the conviction of both diagnostic deficiency and inexplicability of human behaviour.
Chhetri, Kishore Kumar
This dissertation attempts to contextualize the practice of child labour in Bhutan by examining various socio-economic and cultural aspects. By reviewing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, this dissertation looks into the policies, Acts and strategies adopted by the Royal Government of Bhutan in reducing child labour. It describes various characteristics of child labour in Bhutan. It also provides an analysis of domestic child labour in the country. The study is mo...
With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as “static understanding,” ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, “genetic understanding” based on e...
Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara
This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…
Based on the Kharkov Regional Clinical Psychiatric Hospital № 3 examined 100 male patients aged 38,35 ± 0,96 years, with psychopathological consequences of craniocerebral injury (TBI). The control group consisted of 73 healthy male volunteers aged 36,97 ± 1,73 years. The frequency of different degrees of Internet use was assessed by using AUDIT-like test INTERNET-UDIT (Internet Use Disorders Identification Test) and calculation of addictive potential in groups. In patients with psychopatholog...
Allen, Karina L; Gibson, Lisa Y; McLean, Neil J; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Byrne, Susan M.
Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body ...
Shanmugam, V; Jowett, S; Meyer, C
The present study sought to determine the predictive role of interpersonal difficulties on eating psychopathology among competitive British athletes (ranging from university to international competition level). A total of 122 athletes (36 males and 86 females) with a mean age of 21.22 years (SD = 4.02), completed a multisection questionnaire that measured eating psychopathology, attachment styles, and quality of relationships with parents, coaches and teammate over a 6-month period. Partial correlations revealed that when controlling for baseline eating psychopathology, only the quality of the relationship with coach and closest teammate were related to athletes' eating psychopathology 6 months later. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that athletes' eating psychopathology was only predicted by perceived levels of interpersonal conflict with the coach. The current findings provide evidence to suggest that conflict within the coach-athlete relationship is a potential risk factor for eating disorders among athletes and thus it would seem appropriate to raise awareness for its potentially toxic role in athletes' eating psychopathology. PMID:23992547
Full Text Available The idea to monitor and research psychopathological responses of physically injured persons in a more systematic manner has come from our observation of huge differences in patient behavior, whose psychological responses were noticeably changed and often inappropriate. The behavior aberrations were all the more striking because we treated wartime injuries in addition to peacetime ones. Our sample had 175 patient subjects, of both sexes different ages, marital status and professions. A group of 70 patients treated in the Institute for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology were divided into two subgroups. The first experimental subgroup (E1 consisted of 26 (37.1% patients physically injured in combat. The second subgroup (E2 had 44 (62.9% patients physically injured in peacetime circumstances (car accidents, work accidents, etc. The physical injuries encompassed injuries to spinal column and extremities. The control (K consisted of 105 subjects without physical injuries. The clinical picture and psychological reactions of the patients were examined by means of 4 instruments - PTSD-10 scale or posttraumatic symptoms scale [1 ], Family Homogeneity Index /FHI with 19 variables, applied to measure the relation between the family system homogeneity and accident effects , Short Eysenck's Personality Inventory applied to investigate neuroticism and extroversion and introversion traits , Late Effects of Accidental Injury Questionnaire . Our observations of psychological responses of patients in our ward (insomnia, sedatives intake were mostly confirmed by tests conducted with the above instruments. In the group of the wartime injured (E1, as well as in the control (K, Eysenck's scale proved a significantly higher degree of neuroticism in comparison to the peacetime injured. Such results indicated that the wartime injured would most probably develop the picture of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Such a conclusion was related not only to the
Paola De Rose
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate the current psychopathological problems of different forms associated with maltreatment on children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Ninety-five females and ninety males with a mean age of 8.8 years who have suffered in the last six months different forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional and neglect were included in the study. The current reaction to trauma as directly observed by clinical instruments was examined. Differences in gender, age at the time of medical examination, familial psychiatric disorders, neuropsychiatric status, and type of maltreatment were also taken into account. Results documented that 95.1% of abused children and adolescents developed a psychiatric disorder or a subclinical form of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Moreover, our data demonstrate a role for gender, age, and familial psychiatric comorbidity in the current psychopathological problems associated with maltreatment. Overall, our findings can help clinicians make a diagnosis and provide efficient treatment and prevention strategies for child maltreatment and abuse.
Segura, Anna; Pereda, Noemí; Guilera, Georgina; Abad, Judit
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of poly-victimization on symptom severity among adolescents being cared for by the child welfare system in a southwestern European country. The sample consisted of 127 youths (62 males and 65 females) aged 12-17 years (M=14.60, SD=1.61) who were recruited from short- and long-term residential centers. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) and the Youth Self-Report (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) were used to assess interpersonal victimization experiences and psychopathology, respectively. Victim (n=68), low poly-victim (n=48), and high poly-victim (n=18) groups had comparable rates of psychopathology severity, with the exception of rule-breaking behavior, which was more severe among those with more victimization experiences (Cramer's V=.342). Poly-victimization was shown to be a significant predictor of clinically severe rule-breaking behavior, thought problems, and anxiety/depression symptoms. Among victimization types, sexual and electronic victimization significantly predicted withdrawn/depressed and aggressive behavior, and attention problems, respectively. The results of this study highlight the importance of assessing a wide range of victimization experiences among adolescents in care, since poly-victimization seems to underlie the serious psychological problems these youth present. PMID:27082753
Chalita, Pablo J; Palacios, Lino; Cortes, Jose F; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Bloch, Michael H
School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odds ratio (OR) of school dropout associated with students' self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty-seven students participated in the study. Psychosis [OR = 8.0 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.7-37.2)], depression [OR = 4.7 (95% CI: 2.2-9.7)], tic disorders [OR = 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.5)], ADHD [OR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.5-6.4)], and social phobia [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.8)] were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students' self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico. ADHD and depression may be particularly useful childhood psychiatric disorders to target with public health interventions because they explain the greatest amount of the variance in school dropout of child psychiatric disorders. PMID:22419912
Bergonzini, Paola; Cirillo, Flavia; Demaria, Francesco; Casini, Maria Pia; Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the current psychopathological problems of different forms associated with maltreatment on children's and adolescents' mental health. Ninety-five females and ninety males with a mean age of 8.8 years who have suffered in the last six months different forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional) and neglect were included in the study. The current reaction to trauma as directly observed by clinical instruments was examined. Differences in gender, age at the time of medical examination, familial psychiatric disorders, neuropsychiatric status, and type of maltreatment were also taken into account. Results documented that 95.1% of abused children and adolescents developed a psychiatric disorder or a subclinical form of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Moreover, our data demonstrate a role for gender, age, and familial psychiatric comorbidity in the current psychopathological problems associated with maltreatment. Overall, our findings can help clinicians make a diagnosis and provide efficient treatment and prevention strategies for child maltreatment and abuse. PMID:27579345
De Rose, Paola; Salvaguardia, Fortunata; Bergonzini, Paola; Cirillo, Flavia; Demaria, Francesco; Casini, Maria Pia; Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the current psychopathological problems of different forms associated with maltreatment on children's and adolescents' mental health. Ninety-five females and ninety males with a mean age of 8.8 years who have suffered in the last six months different forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional) and neglect were included in the study. The current reaction to trauma as directly observed by clinical instruments was examined. Differences in gender, age at the time of medical examination, familial psychiatric disorders, neuropsychiatric status, and type of maltreatment were also taken into account. Results documented that 95.1% of abused children and adolescents developed a psychiatric disorder or a subclinical form of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Moreover, our data demonstrate a role for gender, age, and familial psychiatric comorbidity in the current psychopathological problems associated with maltreatment. Overall, our findings can help clinicians make a diagnosis and provide efficient treatment and prevention strategies for child maltreatment and abuse. PMID:27579345
Arnberg, Filip K.; Gudmundsdóttir, Ragnhildur; Butwicka, Agnieszka; Fang, Fang; Lichtenstein, Paul; Hultman, Christina M; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A.
Background Survivors of natural disasters are thought to be at an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, however the extent of this risk, and whether it is linked to pre-existing psychopathology, is not known. We aimed to establish whether Swedish survivors of tsunamis from the 2004 Sumatra–Andaman earthquake had increased risks of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts 5 years after repatriation. Methods We identified Swedish survivors repatriated from southeast Asia (8762 adults and 3...
Donaldson, Deidre; Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne
Objective: To compare the efficacy of a skills-based treatment protocol to a supportive relationship therapy for adolescents after a suicide attempt. Method: Thirty-nine adolescents (12-17 years old) and parents who presented to a general pediatric emergency department or inpatient unit of a child psychiatric hospital after a suicide attempt were…
Musetti, Alessandro; Terrone, Grazia; Corsano, Paola; Magnani, Barbara; Salvatore, Sergio
Background: In the present study, we have explored the link among styles of attachment and psychopathology in drug users. We know that insecure attachment predisposes the individuals the development of drug-addiction and psychopathological symptoms. However, we do not know which attachment is more frequent in drug users and which is related to particular psychopathological symptoms. The aim of the present work is to explore the relationship between childhood attachment state of mind, attachment in close relationships, parental bonding and psychopathology in sample of Italian substance users. Methods: We explored, in a sample of 70 drug users and drug-addicted patients, the childhood attachment state of mind measured by the Adult Attachment Interview, the attachment in close relationships by the Relationship Questionnaire and parental bonding measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument. The Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R) measured psychopathological symptoms. Results: We found that parental bonding, rather than state of mind concerning childhood attachment or attachment in close relationships, is related to the psychopathological manifestation of anxiety, hostility, depression, and paranoid ideation in the sample. The latter occurs frequently in our sample, independent of state of mind concerning child attachment, attachment in close relationships, and parental bonding, suggesting its role either as a factor that favors a bad image of the participants’ own relationships or as a direct effect of consuming drugs. Conclusion: These results have clinical implications on suggesting ways of interventions that prevent drug-addiction, which should include the evaluation of attachment in the prodromic phases of substance use onset or rehabilitation programs to prevent and manage psychotic-like symptoms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131 were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5% patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4% achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context
Weiss, Elliott; Wolfish, Martin G.
Suicide is a leading cause of death among North American adolescents. Drugs are the commonest method used, and are most frequently those found in the home. Common factors such as frequent moves, marital difficulties of the parents, and a family history of depression occur in these patients. In 47 cases seen at a Toronto hospital, 22 patients were admitted. Of these, 20 had made suicidal gestures; two had made serious attempts. Most were of lower or middle class background. There is often a lo...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.
Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel
Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning. PMID:24601904
Full Text Available Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ; (b The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90; (c The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; (d State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results: State anxiety and trait anxiety were correlated, to a statistically significant degree, with the family status of the students (p = 0.024 and the past visits to the psychiatrist (p = 0.039 respectively. The subscale of psychoticism is significantly related with the students’ origin, school, family status and semester. The subscale of neuroticism is significantly related with the students’ school. The subscale of extraversion is significantly related with the students’ family psychiatric history. Students, whose place of origin is Attica, have on average higher scores in somatization, phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation than the other students. Students from abroad have, on average, higher scores in interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism than students who hail from other parts of Greece. The majority of the students (79.7% do not suffer from depression, according to the Beck’s depression inventory scale. Conclusions: Anxiety, somatization, personality traits and depression are related with the students’ college life.
A psychodynamic formulation of borderline psychopathology includes the understanding of the borderline patient's aloneness problems, need-fear dilemma issues, and difficulties with primitive guilt. The aloneness problems are at the core of the disorder, and involve an inability to maintain an evocative memory, and holding and soothing introjects of significant people when under stress of separation. The possible childhood origins of these difficulties are explored and related to the ways these issues emerge in psychotherapy. The psychodynamic formulation is crucial in the psychotherapeutic approach to the aloneness problems. It helps the therapist work with the aloneness difficulties and understand the options as the therapy continues. Since rapid therapeutic decisions are often necessary with borderline patients, the formulation provides the necessary framework, and helps the therapist process and utilize countertransference feelings. Projective identification is an important concept that helps explain the complex transference/countertransference experiences, and is used in defining the resolution of the aloneness problems of borderline patients. Finally, limit-setting and the use of transitional objects are explored, utilizing the psychodynamic framework that has been defined. PMID:8517469
Blázquez, Ana; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Morer, Astrid; Martínez, Esteban; Lázaro, Luisa
It has been postulated that immigrant children are at increased risk of mental health problems. This study examined differences in psychopathology between immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents admitted for the first time to a child and adolescent inpatient psychiatry unit. Participants were 234 adolescents (191 non-immigrants and 43 immigrants). There were significant differences between the two groups in relation to certain stressors: parental separation, family breakdown, being under state custody, physical and/or psychological maltreatment and sexual abuse. Differences between the main diagnoses of the two groups were found in relation to schizophrenia and anorexia nervosa. There are differences between immigrants and natives in terms of diagnosis, and these differences are influenced by ethnicity and stressors. Future studies should seek to identify protective factors in order to prevent mental health disorders in the immigrant population. PMID:25476167
Makwinja, Simon Matthias
The study attempts to determine the extent to which child labour constitutes a violation of child rights. The international documents, especially the CRC, depart from the universal conception of childhood, making children all over the world the same and deserving similar treatment, more so claiming their rights. Using the case of child workers on tea and tobacco estates in Malawi, it examines the notion of childhood which forms the basis to any child rights claims. Employing the cultural poli...
... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known about the long-term psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia. The existing literature describes more severe courses of illness in these patients compared with adult-onset schizophrenia. This article reports preliminary data of a study exploring the outcome of early-onset schizophrenia 13.4 years (mean after first admission. Predictors for interindividual outcomes were investigated. Methods We retrospectively assessed 27 former patients (mean age at first admission 15.5 years, SD = 2.0 that were consecutively admitted to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Wuerzburg between 1990 and 2000. A multidimensional approach was chosen to assess the outcome consisting of a mail survey including different questions about psychopathological symptoms, psychosocial parameters, and standardized self-reports (ESI and ADS. Results Concerning the psychopathological outcome, 22.2% reported having acute schizophrenic symptoms. Almost one third (30.8% described symptoms of depression and 37.0% reported having tried to commit suicide or seriously thought about it. 77.8% of the former patients were still in outpatient treatment. Compared to the general population, the number of patients without a school graduation was relatively high (18.5%. Almost half of participants still live with their parents (48.1% or in assisted or semi-assisted living conditions (33.3%. Only 18.5% were working in the open market. Conclusion Schizophrenia with an early onset has an unfavourable prognosis. Our retrospective study of the psychopathological and psychosocial outcome concludes with a generally poor rating.
Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara
Very preterm birth (VPT; self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26903895
Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara
Very preterm birth (VPT; emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset. Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26903895
Full Text Available Very preterm birth (VPT; <32 weeks of gestation has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset.Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity.However, the aetiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies.Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological and psychosocial factors.
Burkey, Matthew D; Ghimire, Lajina; Adhikari, Ramesh Prasad; Wissow, Lawrence S; Jordans, Mark J D; Kohrt, Brandon A
Commonly used paradigms for studying child psychopathology emphasize individual-level factors and often neglect the role of context in shaping risk and protective factors among children, families, and communities. To address this gap, we evaluated influences of ecocultural contextual factors on definitions, development of, and responses to child behavior problems and examined how contextual knowledge can inform culturally responsive interventions. We drew on Super and Harkness' "developmental niche" framework to evaluate the influences of physical and social settings, childcare customs and practices, and parental ethnotheories on the definitions, development of, and responses to child behavior problems in a community in rural Nepal. Data were collected between February and October 2014 through in-depth interviews with a purposive sampling strategy targeting parents (N = 10), teachers (N = 6), and community leaders (N = 8) familiar with child-rearing. Results were supplemented by focus group discussions with children (N = 9) and teachers (N = 8), pile-sort interviews with mothers (N = 8) of school-aged children, and direct observations in homes, schools, and community spaces. Behavior problems were largely defined in light of parents' socialization goals and role expectations for children. Certain physical settings and times were seen to carry greater risk for problematic behavior when children were unsupervised. Parents and other adults attempted to mitigate behavior problems by supervising them and their social interactions, providing for their physical needs, educating them, and through a shared verbal reminding strategy (samjhaune). The findings of our study illustrate the transactional nature of behavior problem development that involves context-specific goals, roles, and concerns that are likely to affect adults' interpretations and responses to children's behavior. Ultimately, employing a developmental niche framework will elucidate setting
Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Joyce, Ann Marie
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by excessive daydreaming, mental confusion, slowness, and low motivation. Several teacher- and parent-report measures of SCT have recently been developed but a child self-report measure of SCT does not yet exist despite clear links between SCT and internalizing psychopathology (for which self-report is often desired). This study examined the initial reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory (CCI), a child self-report measure of SCT symptoms, in a school-based sample of 124 children (ages 8-13; 55% female). Children completed the CCI and measures of academic/social functioning, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. Teachers completed measures of psychopathology symptoms (including SCT) and academic/social functioning. Although exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) supported a 3-factor model of the CCI (consisting of slow, sleepy, and daydreamer scales closely resembling the factor structure of the parent-report version of this measure), bifactor modeling and omega reliability indices indicated that the CCI is best conceptualized as unidimensional. CCI scores were significantly correlated with teacher-rated SCT and were statistically distinct from teacher-rated ADHD and child-rated anxiety/depression. After controlling for sex, grade, and other psychopathology symptoms, the CCI total score was significantly associated with poorer child-reported academic/social functioning and self-worth in addition to increased loneliness and emotion dysregulation. Child ratings on the CCI were moderately to strongly correlated with poorer teacher-rated academic/social functioning but these associations were reduced to nonsignificance after controlling for demographics and other psychopathology symptoms. Findings provide preliminary support for the CCI, and future directions include replication with adolescents and clinical samples in order to further examine the CCI's factor structure, reliability, validity
Fearon, R M Pasco; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Ganiban, Jody M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M
Past research has documented pervasive genetic influences on emotional and behavioral disturbance across the life span and on liability to adult psychiatric disorder. Increasingly, interest is turning to mechanisms of gene-environment interplay in attempting to understand the earliest manifestations of genetic risk. We report findings from a prospective adoption study, which aimed to test the role of evocative gene-environment correlation in early development. Included in the study were 561 infants adopted at birth and studied between 9 and 27 months, along with their adoptive parents and birth mothers. Birth mother psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms scales were used as indicators of genetic influence, and multiple self-report measures were used to index adoptive mother parental negativity. We hypothesized that birth mother psychopathology would be associated with greater adoptive parent negativity and that such evocative effects would be amplified under conditions of high adoptive family adversity. The findings suggested that genetic factors associated with birth mother externalizing psychopathology may evoke negative reactions in adoptive mothers in the first year of life, but only when the adoptive family environment is characterized by marital problems. Maternal negativity mediated the effects of genetic risk on child adjustment at 27 months. The results underscore the importance of genetically influenced evocative processes in early development. PMID:25216383
Full Text Available The case history and management of a 26 years old adult is reported who presented with an unusual symptom of sexual experience, in the background of symptoms of depression and anxiety; had been given multiple diagnoses at multiple points of time and treated with multiple medications. On establishment of rapport, he revealed details of his unusual experiences, which had been unexplored. When he was about 11 years and ten months, he sat next to a lady; he could perceive a particular experience for the first time in his life. And next time with another lady too he perceived a particular type of smell (“madaka gandha” meaning an intoxicating smell along with the other feelings. He began to have these feelings whenever he was in the vicinity of a female except his mother and sister. The smell reminded him of roses vaguely and was at least ten to 20 times more pleasurable than an orgasm that he got with masturbation. These feelings were more pleasurable than he could ever imagine and happened always with the presence of a female in the vicinity. This was never associated with periods of unresponsiveness or any other history suggestive of seizures. He titled the experience as “anubhoothi”. These experiences occurred on a regular basis for a period of ten months following which there was abrupt cessation of the same, without any intervention. Later he developed all symptoms. A coordinated management plan spearheaded by the multi-disciplinary treatment team could bring down his symptoms as well as make him functional. This case indicates that it is essential to explore abnormalities of experiences to understand the psychopathology and plan management.
Introduction: Self-harming behavior is prevalent both in community and in clinical population of adolescents. Potential negative outcomes of such behavior range from low quality of life, academic failure, development of mental health problems in later life to risk of suicide attempts and completition. Broadening and deepening of understanding of psychopathological and enviromental background and function of self-harming behavior is needed. Main goal of this study was identification of psyc...
Full Text Available Field study to assess the concurrence of the psychopathology of drug addiction, and to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatment versus drug-free treatments for the psychopathology of drug addiction. A total of 261 patients treated for drug addiction, 131 on a drug-free treatment and the remaining 130 patients received a drug regime, of which 113 were, according to the Prochaska and Decrement’s Transtheorical Model, in a initial phase of the treatment (from 15 days to 6 months of treatment and 148 in a maintenance phase in drug treatment (> 6 months, were psychopathologically assessed using the SCL-90-R (Derogatis, 2002. A field study with a 2 X 2 design (treatment: drug-free vs. drug-regime and (treatment phase: initial phase vs. maintenance in drug treatment was carried out. The results support the hypothesis of a dual diagnosis, that is, the comorbidity of psychopathology and drug addiction. On the whole, treatment for drug addiction had a significant impact on reducing associated psychopathology. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of the implications for the treatment of drug addiction.
A. A. Lukshina
Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on meningiomas and their psychopathological manifestations that occupy a central position in the clinical picture in almost every 5 patients with these tumors. The authors provide a clinical and psychopathological analysis of a female patient with multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere: a giant meningioma in the posterior third of the falx, a large meningioma in the temporal region, and three small meningiomas in the frontal and parietal regions. The disease started as headache; however, psychopathological symptoms remained missed by physicians, such as emotional lability; personality changes leading to family dissension; lower criticism; spatial orientation problems; hypomnesia; left-sided visual inattention,occurred in parallel. Surgical treatment was performed by stages: the two largest meningiomas were removed at an 11-day interval, which presented a means of observing psychopathological changes after each operation. It is concluded that greater attention should be given to the psychopathological manifestations of the disease, which is important to make a primary diagnosis and to define further treatment policy.
Keren, Miri; Tyano, Sam
Parenting is, in its essence, the domain where adult mental health and infant's mental and physical health meet in a complex and dynamic interplay. Becoming a parent is a developmental challenge in itself, and often exacerbates an existing mental illness, and in turn, maladaptive parenting impinges on the early parent-infant relationship, and on the infant's socio-emotional development and later functioning. The capacity for mentalization is brought as a bridging concept between adult and infant psychiatry. A few clinical vignettes illustrate the dynamic interplay between very young children's vulnerabilities and needs and their parents' strengths and weaknesses, leading to a complex interaction and often to symptoms in both child and parent. In the light of the compelling data about the impact of parental psychopathology on parenting behaviors and children outcomes, there is an imperative need for a working alliance and on-going communication between child and adult psychiatrists. PMID:26431412
Schleider, Jessica L; Weisz, John R
Research shows relations between entity theories-i.e., beliefs that traits and abilities are unchangeable-and youth psychopathology. A common interpretation has been that entity theories lead to psychopathology, but another possibility is that psychopathology predicts entity theories. The two models carry different implications for developmental psychopathology and intervention design. We tested each model's plausibility, examining longitudinal associations between entity theories of thoughts, feelings, and behavior and psychopathology in early adolescents across one school year (N = 59, 52 % female, ages 11-14, 0 % attrition). Baseline entity theories did not predict increases in psychopathology; instead, baseline psychopathology predicted increased entity theories over time. When symptom clusters were assessed individually, greater youth internalizing (but not externalizing) problems predicted subsequent increases in entity theories. Findings suggest that the commonly proposed predictive model may not be the only one warranting attention. They suggest that youth psychopathology may contribute to the development of certain kinds of entity theories. PMID:26443503
Henrichs, J.; Bogaerts, S.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Klerx, F.
This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and v
Lamers, Sanne M.A.; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Glas, Cees A.W.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.
Background: There is accumulating evidence that positive mental health and psychopathology should be seen as separate indicators of mental health. This study contributes to this evidence by investigating the bidirectional relation between positive mental health and psychopathological symptoms over t
Riva, G; Ragazzoni, P; Molinari, E
The aim of this study was to verify the link between psychopathological disorders and eating attitude in a clinical sample of 195 female obese subjects. A battery of psychological tests, including the Italian versions of the MMPI2, ASQ and EAT scales were administered to all the patients. We analyzed the link between psychopathological traits and eating attitudes by using both Multiple Regression analysis and non-parametric Segmentation Modeling. The results showed that psychopathological aspects, and depression in particular, are strongly linked to the eating attitude of clinically obese subjects. This is an important result also for therapeutic purposes, as it highlights the need for psychological support in diet therapy to intervene on the psychological perceptions and experiences of the patient. PMID:10728154
Antonio Souto; Luis Fernandez-Rios; Manuel Isorna
Field study to assess the concurrence of the psychopathology of drug addiction, and to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatment versus drug-free treatments for the psychopathology of drug addiction. A total of 261 patients treated for drug addiction, 131 on a drug-free treatment and the remaining 130 patients received a drug regime, of which 113 were, according to the Prochaska and Decrement’s Transtheorical Model, in a initial phase of the treatment (from 15 days to 6 months of tre...
Manly, Jody Todd; Oshri, Assaf; Lynch, Michael; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne
Given the high prevalence of child neglect among maltreatment subtypes, and its association with exposure to additional environmental adversity, understanding the processes that potentiate child neglect and link neglect to subsequent child externalizing psychopathology may shed light on key targets for preventive intervention. Among 170 urban low-income children (ages four-nine years) and their mothers, this five-year prospective study examined the effects of early neglect severity and matern...
or open interviews and assessment scales to evaluate the level of depression and/or anxiety. For cognitive assessment, short-term batteries focusing on the main dysfunctions are recommended. Psychometric evaluation should not be performed during a period of relapse, hospitalization or immediately after starting drug therapy for depression or anxiety. The cognitive evaluation should be explained to the patient and should include a parallel assessment by a psychologist well trained in MS. The evaluations will be adapted to the situation and the goals. Early interviews evaluate the psychopathological profile that can then be reevaluated during each consultation. Cognitive assessment is mainly proposed in case of interferon therapy, spontaneous complaints of the patient or abnormal difficulties in daily life or occupational activities. In all cases, patient management requires a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:11787345
McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine
Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…
Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David; Barlow, David H.
Much current psychopathology research is framed by categorical constructs. Limitations of categorical constructs have been articulated, and dimensional constructs are often proposed as viable alternatives to categories of psychopathology. The purpose of this Special Section is to articulate and discuss diverse issues that arise in contemplating dimensional constructs as targets for psychopathology research.
Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W.
Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms…
Full Text Available Aim: Review of conclusions from cluster analysis research on suicide risk factors published after the year 1993. Methods: Search and analysis of cluster analysis research papers on suicidal behaviour. Results: Following groups where distinguished: (1 persons with comorbid mental disorders or with severe symptoms, (2 persons without mental disorders or with mild symptoms, (3 persons with personality disorders and externalizing psychopathology, (4 socially withdrawn persons with a tendency to avoid social contacts, (5 depressive persons Conclusions: Analysis of studies on characteristics of suicide attempters, with the application of cluster analysis, has indicated the possibility of differentiation of several groups of persons with significantly increased risk of suicide attempt. The reviewed cluster analysis research had multiple methodological limitations. Studies employing cluster analysis on large, representative and homogeneous population are needed.
Batten, Lisa A.; Hernandez, Mariely; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Blier, Pierre; Flament, Martine F.; Poh, Ernest; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M.
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of current psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents (collectively called children) of mothers entering treatment for depression; to examine maternal predictors of child psychopathology among children of depressed mothers; and to determine consistency of findings with a similar child study ancillary…
... fullstory_159029.html Predeployment Riskiest Time for Military Suicide Attempts Two months into service is a pivotal period, ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Suicide attempts in the military aren't necessarily combat-driven. ...
Moor, Sasha; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Beumont, P. J. V.
Do the levels of psychopathology displayed by patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) more closely resemble those displayed by full-criteria anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients than they do those of non-eating-disorder controls? Three groups of eating disorder patients (anorexia nervosa, n = 27; bulimia nervosa, n = 23;…
Sayed, Sehrish; Iacoviello, Brian M; Charney, Dennis S
Traumatic experiences can lead to a range of mental health problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) leading as the most documented disorder following trauma. Epidemiological research has found the rate of exposure to trauma to far outweigh the prevalence of PTSD. Indicating that most people do not develop PTSD following a traumatic event, this phenomenon has led to an interest in evaluating risk factors to determine who develops PTSD. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma exposure fall into three categories: pre-trauma, peri-trauma and post-trauma factors. Pre-trauma factors can include age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, prior psychopathology, and neurobiological factors. Peri-trauma factors can include the duration/severity of trauma experience and the perception that the trauma has ended. Post-trauma factors can include access to needed resources, social support, specific cognitive patterns, and physical activity. To date, several important risk factors have been found to impact the risk of developing PTSD including gender, age, education, IQ, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, pre-trauma psychopathology, prior trauma exposure, familial psychiatric history, and neurobiological factors. This article outlines the state of research findings on pretraumatic, peritraumatic, and posttraumatic risk factors for the development of PTSD and associated psychopathology following trauma. PMID:26206108
van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Kleen, Marco; Boelen, Paul A
In the literature on bereavement, claims are made that homicidal loss is associated with posttraumatic stress reactions, depression, and other severe mental health problems. It is surprising that only a few studies have investigated the nature and prevalence of emotional symptoms following homicidal bereavement and a reference to systematic, empirical research is seldom provided. This article reviews the available literature to investigate whether these claims have empirical evidence. Three databases were searched to identify relevant studies. This approach was supplemented with a bibliography search. Eligible studies included English-language peer-reviewed articles that assessed psychopathology in the homicidally bereaved, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Of the 360 potentially relevant articles, 8 studies (13 references) met predefined inclusion criteria. Homicide-related psychopathology among the bereaved assessed in these studies includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, complicated grief, and substance abuse. Prevalence of lifetime homicide-related PTSD varied from 19.1% to 71% across studies. Current PTSD varied between 5.2% and 6%. The reviewed literature was inconclusive regarding the course of symptoms over time and the severity of psychopathology among the homicidally bereaved, compared to individuals bereaved by other causes of death. A comparison of the nature and prevalence of psychopathology between studies was complicated by unequal sample sizes and type, recruitment strategy, study design, and time since loss. Limitations of the included studies are discussed, as well as implications for clinical practice, policy, and future research. PMID:24346707
Norbury, Agnes; Husain, Masud
Sensation-seeking (SS) is a personality trait that refers to individual differences in motivation for intense and unusual sensory experiences. It describes a facet of human behaviour that has direct relevance for several psychopathologies associated with high social cost. Here, we first review ways of measuring SS behaviour in both humans and animals. We then present convergent evidence that implicates dopaminergic neurotransmission (particularly via D2-type receptors) in individual differences in SS trait. Both high tonic dopamine levels and hyper-reactive midbrain dopaminergic responses to signals of forthcoming reward are evident in higher sensations-seekers. We propose that differences in the efficacy of striatal dopaminergic transmission may result in differential expression of approach-avoidance reactions to same intensity stimuli. This constitutes a quantitative trait of intensity preference for sensory stimulation that may underlie core features of the SS personality. We review the evidence that high trait SS is a vulnerability factor for psychopathologies related to changes in brain dopamine function, in particular substance and gambling addictions. Conversely, we consider the possibility that increased tolerance of high intensity stimulation may represent a protective mechanism against the development of trauma-related psychopathologies (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) in high sensation-seeking individuals. Further understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying SS trait might not only to shed light on the aetiology of these disorders, but also aid in developing individualised therapies and prevention strategies for psychopathologies. PMID:25907745
The Kantian idea of freedom was introduced to psychiatry methodologically by Karl Jaspers. It influenced the genesis and design of his doctrine of understanding, General Psychopathology, even more decisively than Nietzsche's topos of resentment did. This article places Jaspers' work in the framework of a history of ideas. It begins by pursuing Nietzsche's perspective in the context of Darwinism, then focuses on the role concealed resentment played for Jaspers' genealogical concept of understanding in the first (1913) edition of General Psychopathology, which is primarily oriented towards Max Weber, before examining the idea of Kantian freedom, which was to become crucial for Jaspers' later work. The antinomy of freedom already shapes the suicidology contained in Jaspers' Philosophy of 1931. The idea gains prominence in the final, philosophically grounded revision of GeneralPsychopathology published in 1941/1942. Jaspers' reception of Kantian idealism leads him to develop a concept of critical understanding that clearly distinguishes itself from speculative understanding, whose hazards Jaspers illustrates on the basis of Viktor von Weizsäcker's theory of medicine. This goes far beyond Kant, embracing Schelling and Hegel philosophically. As it were, Jaspers and von Weizsäcker represent critical and postcritical thought in psychopathology and psychosomatics. The epilogue sums up by placing the inquiry in the context of Jaspers' life and work. PMID:23942461
Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam
Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…
Anderson, Kristen G.; Frissell, Kevin C.; Brown, Sandra A.
The relationship of diagnosis, developmentally relevant factors (e.g., life stress, peer substance use) and mental health symptoms to contexts of a return to substance use were examined for 103 substance abusing adolescents with Axis I psychopathology (ages 12-17) following inpatient treatment. Proximal psychiatric symptoms and developmentally…
Full Text Available Aim. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII is used as an option in patients with diabetes failing to multiple daily injections (MDI. Psychological factors may play a relevant role in the failure to attain therapeutic goals in patients on MDI. This could lead to an overrepresentation of psychopathology in patients treated with CSII. Methods. A consecutive series of 100 patients with type 1 diabetes was studied, collecting main clinical parameters and assessing psychopathology with the self-reported questionnaire Symptom Checklist 90-revised. Patients on CSII were then compared with those on MDI. Results. Of the 100 enrolled patients, 44 and 56 were on CSII and MDI, respectively. Among men, those on CSII were younger than those on MDI; conversely, no difference in age was observed in women. Women on CSII showed higher scores on most Symptom Checklist 90 subscales than those on MDI, whereas no differences were observed in men. Conclusion. Women with type 1 diabetes treated with CSII display higher levels of psychopathology than those on MDI. This is probably the consequence of the fact that patients selected for CSII are those failing to MDI. Higher levels of psychopathology could represent a limit for the attainment and maintenance of therapeutic goals with CSII.
Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.
Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…
The purpose of this study is descriptive study of familial psychopathology of Tehran correction & education centre clients. The samples are 250 boys and 40 delinquent girls. The instrument of research is questionnaire that complete by interview. The results of research are: 90% girls and 69% boys has reported divorce in family.
Witwer, Andrea N.; Lecavalier, Luc
The purpose of this literature review was to summarize studies examining risk factors, markers, and correlates of psychopathology in youngsters with intellectual disability. A total of 26 studies met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Due to the limitations of research methods (i.e., not establishing precedence), no risk factors were…
R. Rodenburg; G.J. Stams; A.M. Meijer; A.P. Aldenkamp; M. Dekovic
Objective To examine the types and severity of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. Methods A series of meta-analyses were conducted to review 46 studies, including 2,434 children with epilepsy. Results Effect sizes were medium to large for comparisons with children from the general population
Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans
We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…
Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…
Full Text Available We describe the case of a 44-year-old woman, without known previous psychiatric history, hospitalized after a significant hemorrhage caused by self-inflicted deep facial dermal lesions (with muscle exposition. Psychopathological possible explanations of this case, as in similar reviewed ones, are related to frustration, aggression, and impulsivity.
Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Porter, Guy; Fenech, Pauline
The objective of this study was to examine associations between problem video game use and psychopathology. The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users and SCL-90 assessed dimensions of…
Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo
The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. PMID:26315665
Bradshaw, J.; M Huby
European countries vary in the extent to which they succeed in reducing poverty using social transfers. However, we do not have good ways of understanding how these different outcomes are achieved. It is therefore very difficult to learn lessons from abroad. This paper uses micro data from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Condition (SILC), and attempts to decompose reductions in child poverty rates and gaps into the contribution made by children, old age, social exclusion, housing and w...
Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec
We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…
Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon
This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…
Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Stanton, Kasey
The goal of this study was to explicate how the lower order facets of extraversion are related to psychopathology. We used a "bottom-up" approach in which specific extraversion scales from 3 comprehensive personality inventories were used to model these facets as latent factors. We collected both self-report and interview measures of a broad range of psychopathology from a large community sample. Replicating previous findings using a similar approach (Naragon-Gainey & Watson, 2014; Naragon-Gainey, Watson, & Markon, 2009), structural analyses yielded four factors: Positive Emotionality, Sociability, Assertiveness, and Experience Seeking. Scores on these latent dimensions were related to psychopathology in correlational analyses and in two sets of regressions (the first series used the four facets as predictors; the second included composite scores on the other Big Five domains as additional predictors). These results revealed a striking level of specificity. As predicted, Positive Emotionality displayed especially strong negative links to depressive symptoms and diagnoses. Sociability also was negatively related to psychopathology, showing particularly strong associations with indicators of social dysfunction and the negative symptoms of schizotypy (i.e., social anxiety, social aloofness, and restricted affectivity). Assertiveness generally had weak associations at the bivariate level but was negatively related to social anxiety and was positively correlated with some forms of externalizing. Finally, Experience Seeking had substantial positive associations with a broad range of indicators related to externalizing and bipolar disorder; it also displayed negative links to agoraphobia. These differential correlates demonstrate the importance of examining personality-psychopathology relations at the specific facet level. PMID:25751628
Puetz, Vanessa B; Zweerings, Jana; Dahmen, Brigitte; Ruf, Caroline; Scharke, Wolfgang; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin
It has been debated whether children who have experienced early life stress (ELS), such as early caregiver separation show elevated risk for stress-related psychiatric disorders and a multi-symptom psychopathological profile that is not fully reflected in categorical assessments. In this study, we investigated dimensional measures of stress-related psychopathology in children in permanent out-of-home care, taking into account potential neuroendocrine interactions. In the current study, 25 children who had been placed in permanent out-of-home care before age 3 (years) and 26 controls (aged 10.6 ± 1.75 years) were investigated with categorical (DSM-IV) and dimensional assessments (CBCL) of psychopathology and diurnal salivary cortisol levels were assessed. Semi-structured interviews (K-DIPS) revealed no significant group differences in full-scale psychiatric diagnoses, whereas dimensional assessment (CBCL) revealed significant group differences in externalizing and total problem behaviours within the clinical range for children with ELS. Only children with ELS showed a combined symptom profile of clinical-range internalizing and externalizing problems. Lower morning cortisol values and subsequent flatter decline was found in subjects with ELS children compared to controls, showing group differences in diurnal cortisol secretion. Lower morning cortisol values were associated with more problem behaviour in the ELS group. Results show that ELS children exhibited increased psychopathological symptom severity and complexity associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which was not fully reflected in categorical assessments. This highlights the importance of incorporating dimensional assessments and neurobiological factors into psychopathological evaluations of children in out-of-home care in order to facilitate early identification of children at high risk for stress-related disorders. PMID:26875183
Bradshaw, J. (Jonathan)
Child support is a private transfer, which for many people is mediated by the government, and which mainly benefits lone parents. Children in lone parent families represented 42 per cent of all poor children in 2003/4. Therefore child support might play an important part in reducing child poverty. Although this was not an aspiration of the 1991 Child Support Act it was certainly the main aspiration of the Child Support, Pensions and Social Security Act 2000. This paper is a review of the pote...
Drusilla K. Brown; Deardorff, Alan V.; Stern, Robert M.
There is a growing theoretical and empirical literature concerning the causes and consequences of child labor. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the policy initiatives targeted on child labor in light of the newly emerging theoretical argumentation and empirical evidence. We focus in particular on programs to address child-labor practices, and we attempt to evaluate these programs, given the empirical evidence concerning the primary determinants of when and why children work. Through...
Bottesi, Gioia; Cerea, Silvia; Razzetti, Enrico; Sica, Claudio; Frost, Randy O; Ghisi, Marta
Trichotillomania (TTM) is still a scarcely known and often inadequately treated disorder in Italian clinical settings, despite growing evidence about its severe and disabling consequences. The current study investigated the phenomenology of TTM in Italian individuals; in addition, we sought to examine patterns of self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and OCD-related symptoms in individuals with TTM compared to healthy participants. The current study represents the first attempt to investigate the phenomenological and psychopathological features of TTM in Italian hair pullers. One hundred and twenty-two individuals with TTM were enrolled: 24 were assessed face-to-face (face-to-face group) and 98 were recruited online (online group). An additional group of 22 face-to-face assessed healthy controls (HC group) was included in the study. The overall female to male ratio was 14:1, which is slightly higher favoring female than findings reported in literature. Main results revealed that a higher percentage of individuals in the online group reported pulling from the pubic region than did face-to-face participants; furthermore, the former engaged in examining the bulb and running the hair across the lips and reported pulling while lying in bed at higher frequencies than the latter. Interestingly, the online TTM group showed greater functional and psychological impairment, as well as more severe psychopathological characteristics (self-esteem, physiological and social anxiety, perfectionism, overestimation of threat, and control of thoughts), than the face-to-face one. Differences between the two TTM groups may be explained by the anonymity nature of the online group, which may have led to successful recruitment of more serious TTM cases, or fostered more open answers to questions. Overall, results revealed that many of the phenomenological features of Italian TTM participants matched those found in U.S. clinical settings, even though some notable differences were observed
Full Text Available Trichotillomania (TTM is still a scarcely known and often inadequately treated disorder in Italian clinical settings, despite growing evidence about its severe and disabling consequences. The current study investigated the phenomenology of TTM in Italian individuals; in addition, we sought to examine patterns of self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and OCD-related symptoms in individuals with TTM compared to healthy participants. The current study represents the first attempt to investigate the phenomenological and psychopathological features of TTM in Italian hair pullers. One hundred and twenty-two individuals with TTM were enrolled: 24 were assessed face-to-face (face-to-face group and 98 were recruited online (online group. An additional group of 22 face-to-face assessed healthy controls (HC group was included in the study. The overall female to male ratio was 14:1, which is slightly higher favoring female than findings reported in literature. Main results revealed that a higher percentage of individuals in the online group reported pulling from the pubic region than did face-to-face participants; furthermore, the former engaged in examining the bulb and running the hair across the lips and reported pulling while lying in bed at higher frequencies than the latter. Interestingly, the online TTM group showed greater functional and psychological impairment, as well as more severe psychopathological characteristics (self-esteem, physiological and social anxiety, perfectionism, overestimation of threat, and control of thoughts, than the face-to-face one. Differences between the two TTM groups may be explained by the anonymity nature of the online group, which may have led to successful recruitment of more serious TTM cases, or fostered more open answers to questions. Overall, results revealed that many of the phenomenological features of Italian TTM participants matched those found in U.S. clinical settings, even though some notable differences were
Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle- to upper-middle-class, predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11-16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning, including normative, subclinical, and clinical levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a 2-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, (i.e., more problem solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers). Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents' coping across the discussion except boys' initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers' angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over 2 years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as on how these processes impact youth well-being and dysfunction over time. PMID:26439060
Silviken, Anne; Kvernmo, Siv
The prevalence of suicide attempts and associated risk factors such as sociodemographic conditions, emotional/behavioural problems and parent-child relationships were examined among 591 indigenous Sami and 2100 majority adolescents in Arctic Norway. There were no significant ethnic differences in prevalence of suicide attempts. In both ethnic…
Wiklander Maria; Samuelsson Mats; Jokinen Jussi; Nilsonne Åsa; Wilczek Alexander; Rylander Gunnar; Åsberg Marie
Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy...
Sukhawaha, Supattra; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Rungreangkulkij, Somporn
The study goal was to describe attempted suicide triggers in Thai adolescents. A descriptive exploratory qualitative study approach was used utilizing in-depth interviews with twelve adolescents who had attempted suicide and six of their parents. Content analysis was conducted. Attempted suicide triggers were (1) severe verbal criticisms and expulsion to die by a significant family member, (2) disappointed and unwanted by boyfriend in first serious relationship, (3) unwanted pregnancy, and (4) mental illness leading to intense emotions and irresistible impulses. These attempted suicide triggers should be of concern and brought into suicide prevention management programs such as emotional management, effective communication for adolescents and family. PMID:27256938
Ager, Alastair; Stark, Lindsay; Chu, Erin; Dewan, Shweta; Boothby, Neil
Objectives: What impact does the strengthening of child rights have on the experience and circumstances of children? CRC General Comment 13 emphasizes that defining measurable targets for improvements in child protection is a key element of efforts to strengthen child rights and well-being across the world. This paper describes an attempt to…
Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A
Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26450815
Aneja, Jitender; Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Mahajan, Sudhir; Pokhrel, Prabhakar; Triveni, Davuluri
Masturbation is common in all societies. Despite being common, it is admonished culturally and almost all religions prohibit masturbation and consider it an act of immorality. The prohibition for masturbation leads to a lot of cultural beliefs, including certain myths, which influence sexual behavior of the person. The impact of these common cultural myths associated with masturbation, are clinically understood as Dhat syndrome and masturbatory guilt. Although there is a reasonable literature on Dhat syndrome, there is limited literature with regard to masturbatory guilt especially linking the same with axis-I psychopathology. In this case series, three cases of masturbatory guilt are presented in whom masturbatory guilt was associated with manifestation of severe psychopathology. This report suggests that masturbatory guilt must be enquired for in patients presenting with severe mental disorder. PMID:25722518
Full Text Available Masturbation is common in all societies. Despite being common, it is admonished culturally and almost all religions prohibit masturbation and consider it an act of immorality. The prohibition for masturbation leads to a lot of cultural beliefs, including certain myths, which influence sexual behavior of the person. The impact of these common cultural myths associated with masturbation, are clinically understood as Dhat syndrome and masturbatory guilt. Although there is a reasonable literature on Dhat syndrome, there is limited literature with regard to masturbatory guilt especially linking the same with axis-I psychopathology. In this case series, three cases of masturbatory guilt are presented in whom masturbatory guilt was associated with manifestation of severe psychopathology. This report suggests that masturbatory guilt must be enquired for in patients presenting with severe mental disorder.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the distress associated to psychopathology in children and adolescents. The sample included 330 children aged 8 to 17 years attending outpatient mental health services of the public network in Barcelona(Spain assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. A substantial part of children brought to treatment suffered distress associated to internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms. Psychological distress was most frequent among girls and among adolescents, and was more frequently reported by children and adolescents than by their parents. It was also a marker of perception of need of psychological help, and it was significantly related to diagnosis, subthreshold conditions and functional impairment. Individual symptoms of depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder were most associated with psychological distress. Given the potential importance of subjective distress as well as impairment for the identification and definition of psychopathology and planning of treatment, diagnostic assessment should include questions related to distress.
Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik
the psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...... components of affect regulation by self-report measures than the comparison group of healthy subjects. Our results also provided partial support for the psychometric appropriateness and clinical relevance of the translated Danish version of affect regulation measures. CONCLUSION: The normative reference...
Witt, Andreas; Münzer, Annika; Ganser, Helene G; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Plener, Paul L
We present data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology of 358 children and adolescents (4-17 years). Data on maltreatment profiles has been categorized into six major maltreatment types: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, sexual abuse with penetration, exposure to intimate partner violence and neglect. The data on history of maltreatment is based on the interview version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Additionally data on psychopathology in general as well as specific disorders according to DSM-IV based on K-SADS-PL is presented. The data was used to examine patterns of co-occurrences of maltreatment and associated clinical outcome variables using latent class analysis (LCA), "Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables" (Witt et al.,) . PMID:27583341
Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina
psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...... components of affect regulation by self-report measures than the comparison group of healthy subjects. Our results also provided partial support for the psychometric appropriateness and clinical relevance of the translated Danish version of affect regulation measures. CONCLUSION: The normative reference...
Nakagawa Makiko; Kawanishi Chiaki; Yamada Tomoki; Iwamoto Yoko; Sato Ryoko; Hasegawa Hana; Morita Satoshi; Odawara Toshinari; Hirayasu Yoshio
Abstract Background Family history of suicide attempt is one of the risks of suicide. We aimed at exploring the characteristics of Japanese suicide attempters with and without a family history of suicide attempt. Methods Suicide attempters admitted to an urban emergency department from 2003 to 2008 were interviewed by two attending psychiatrists on items concerning family history of suicide attempt and other sociodemographic and clinical information. Subjects were divided into two groups base...
Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis A.; ZAHAVI, DAN
Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the “psychiatric object” (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers’ book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary “operationalist” epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers’ views. Sympto...
Makinson, Jenny Elizabeth
Schema therapy was developed by Jeffery Young to treat adults with personality disorders, and has been evidenced to be effective in treating both Axis I and Axis II disorders. While Young stipulates that schemas are likely to be in place by adolescence, there is currently little agreement over the appropriateness of schema theory and therapy in understanding and treating psychopathology in adolescence. This thesis aims to explore the evidence–base and potential utility of apply...
Norbury, A. E.; M. Husain
Sensation-seeking (SS) is a personality trait that refers to individual differences in motivation for intense and unusual sensory experiences. It describes a facet of human behaviour that has direct relevance for several psychopathologies associated with high social cost. Here, we first review ways of measuring SS behaviour in both humans and animals. We then present convergent evidence that implicates dopaminergic neurotransmission (particularly via D2-type receptors) in individual differenc...
Valleau, Jeanette C.; Sullivan, Elinor L.
Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin’s role and profile during development i...
Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A.; Mozova, Katarina; Page, Thomas; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte
Objective: Female firesetters are reported to commit nearly a third of deliberately set fires, yet there are limited studies examining the characteristics that distinguish them from suitable comparison groups. The aim of this study is to compare incarcerated female firesetters with incarcerated male firesetters and female offender controls on psychopathological and psychological features that could be targeted via therapeutic interventions. Method: Sixty-five female firesetters, 128 male ...
The objective of this study is to present a theoretical paper about a clinical issue. Our aim is to propose some clinical and semiological considerations for a psychopathological conception of psychopathy. We will discuss several major theoretical works dedicated to this nosographic entity (mainly those of Schneider, Cleckley and Hare). We will also examine a significant issue raised by Cooke et al., namely whether psychopathic functioning is consistently related to antisocial behavior. This ...
McLaughlin, Katie A.
Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanis...
Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett,; Kim, Young Shin; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il
To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators...
Popov Tzvetan; Awiszus Barbara; Borgelt Jens; Rockstroh Brigitte; Weber Katja; Hoffmann Klaus; Schonauer Klaus; Watzl Hans; Pröpster Karl
Abstract Background Childhood stress and trauma have been related to adult psychopathology in different psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed at verifying this relationship for stressful experiences during developmental periods by screening stress load across life in adult psychiatric inpatients with different diagnoses compared to healthy subjects. In addition, a relationship between the amount of adverse experiences and the severity of pathology, which has been described as a 'buil...
Oluyemi Stephen ILORI; Sulaiman Olanrewaju Adebayo; Adedeji Julius OGUNLEYE
This study was carried out to determine the influence of religiosity and paranormal beliefs on the development of psychopathological symptoms among groups of people from two different ethnic origin. A survey research was adopted using a purposive sampling method to draw the sample from Igbo and Yoruba ethnic groups. The sample consisted of two hundred and four respondents with the age range of 14 and 65 years. 101 were females and 103 were males; 6 traditional, 66 Islamic and 132 Christian re...
Beauchaine, Theodore P; Thayer, Julian F
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), developed by the National Institute of Mental Health as a neuroscience-informed alternative to traditional psychiatric nosology, is an explicitly dimensional system in which classification of psychopathology is derived inductively (i.e., from basic science), across multiple levels of analysis (e.g., genetic, neural, psychophysiological, and behavioral). Although RDoC is often presented as paradigmatically revolutionary, a review of the history of psychophysiology suggests that roots of RDoC thinking extend at least as far back as the mid-20th Century. In this paper, we briefly and selectively review the historical emergence of neurobiologically-informed dimensional trait models of psychopathology, and we summarize our thinking regarding high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) as a transdiagnostic biomarker of self-regulation and cognitive control. When functional interactions between HF-HRV and systems of behavioral approach and avoidance are considered, diverse patterns of behavioral maladjustment can be subsumed into a single model. This model accommodates the general bifactor structure of psychopathology, and suggests that HF-HRV can be viewed as an autonomic, transdiagnostic biomarker of mental illness. PMID:26272488
Full Text Available Background/Aim. To examine gender differences in the major psychopathologic features in agoraphobia with panic disorder. Method. The study was conducted as a clinical study. The sample consisted of 119 patients, 32 men (26.9% and 87 women (73.1% with the basic diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic disorder. All the patients were evaluated with the clinical instruments suitable for the assessment of various clinical features associated with agoraphobia with panic disorder - questionnaires (the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 90, the Panic Appraisal Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory, and the clinical rating scale (the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. After the data collection, the sample was divided into two groups by the gender. Then the groups were compared. Results. There were no differences between the genders in the global psychopathologic features (the age at the onset of a disorder, duration of a disorder, severity and frequency of panic attacks, intensity of general psychiatric symptoms, intensity of general anxiety and depression. The women, however, reported a subjective perception of a more severe agoraphobic avoidance and males were significantly more likely than the females to anticipate the serious somatic consequences of panic attacks and worry about somatic health. Conclusion. There were a few gender specific psychopathologic features in patients with agoraphobia with panic disorder, so further studies would be necessary to come to a more precise conclusion.
Marcelo C. Zappitelli
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated high rates of psychopathology in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to identify psychiatric diagnoses in a sample of children of bipolar parents. METHOD: This case series comprised 35 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years, with a mean age of 12.5 + 2.9 years (20 males and 15 females, who had at least one parent with bipolar disorder type I. The subjects were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL. Family psychiatric history and demographics were also evaluated. RESULTS: Of the offspring studied, 71.4% had a lifetime diagnosis of at least one psychiatric disorder (28.6% with a mood disorder, 40% with a disruptive behavior disorder and 20% with an anxiety disorder. Pure mood disorders (11.4% occurred less frequently than mood disorders comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (17.1%. Psychopathology was commonly reported in second-degree relatives of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (71.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support previous findings of an increased risk for developing psychopathology, predominantly mood and disruptive disorders, in the offspring of bipolar individuals. Prospective studies with larger samples are needed to confirm and expand these results.
Floros, Georgios; Paradisioti, Anna; Hadjimarcou, Michalis; Mappouras, Demetrios G; Karkanioti, Olga; Siomos, Konstantinos
This paper presents results from the study of gambling behaviors in a representative sample of Cypriot high-school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain epidemiology of adolescent online gambling in Cyprus and possible correlates. The sample consisted of 2,684 students (48.5% boys, 51.5% girls) from the first grades of junior (Gymnasium) and senior (Lyceum) high school. Our results indicate that gamblers presented with lower school achievement and related expectations while scoring consistently higher on measures of Internet addiction, parental bonding and psychopathology. Discriminant analysis revealed two profiles which explained the most variance in gambling behavior; the first profile that corresponded to more explained variance was the student with higher psychopathology, less prosocial behavior, higher Internet addiction score with higher frequencies of online activities and moderate levels of truancy and lower expectation of school achievement. The second profile was that of a student who reported less psychopathology, more prosocial behavior, less involvement with the Internet in general but skipped classes more and his prospects on finishing high school were even slimmer. These results will be utilized in the design of a comprehensive prevention program in an effort to combat online addictive behaviors. PMID:24293015
Miller, Michael L.; And Others
Contrasted 30 delinquent adolescents who had attempted suicide with 120 delinquent controls. Suicidal ideation, depression, gender, a tendency to act out, conflict with parents, childhood hyperactivity, and the interactions of gender with depression and with acting out accounted for 49 percent of the variance in suicide attempts. (Author)
Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Knud
analgesics for pain. Patients that suffered from a somatic disease differed from other suicide attempters in depression score, age, pain and the presence of psychosis. Fewer of the somatically ill suicide attempters had a psychosis. Patients complaining of pain were more often depressed and abused medicine...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that Chinese religious believers are more likely to commit suicide than those identifying as non-religious among rural young adults, contrary to findings in Western countries. However, one cannot conclude that religiosity is associated with elevated suicide risk without examining the effect of political and religious beliefs in a generally atheist country like China where political belief plays a dominant role in the belief system of young adults. The present study investigated the effects of political and religious belief on suicidality with meaningfulness and psychopathology as potential mediators in a large representative sample of Chinese college students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1390 first-year college students randomly sampled from 10 colleges and universities in mainland China. Results A total of 1168 respondents (84.0% provided complete data on all variables. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt were 45.1%, 6.8%, and 1.9% respectively, with one-year suicidal ideation showing at 19.3%. Female gender was associated with elevated risk of suicidality. Political belief but not religious belief was associated with decreased suicide risk. A significant interactive effect of political belief and religious belief was found, indicating that for political believers, being religious was associated with decreased suicide risk; for non-political believers, being religious was associated with increased suicide risk. Multi-group structural equation modeling showed that meaningfulness completely mediated and psychopathology partially mediated the effect of belief system on suicidality. Gender differences were found in pathways of political belief by religious beliefs to suicidality and political belief to psychopathology. The coefficients were significant for males but not for females. Conclusions In less religious societies, political belief may serve as a means of
Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan
Objective Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Method Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers’ first 11 years of their child’s life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. PMID:25901775
McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Shin, Sunny; Corona, Rosalie; Maternick, Anna; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Ascione, Frank R; Herbert Williams, James
The majority of analytic approaches aimed at understanding the influence of environmental context on children's socioemotional adjustment assume comparable effects of contextual risk and protective factors for all children. Using self-reported data from 289 maternal caregiver-child dyads, we examined the degree to which there are differential effects of severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure, yearly household income, and number of children in the family on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and psychopathology symptoms (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) among school-age children between the ages of 7-12 years. A regression mixture model identified three latent classes that were primarily distinguished by differential effects of IPV exposure severity on PTS and psychopathology symptoms: (1) asymptomatic with low sensitivity to environmental factors (66% of children), (2) maladjusted with moderate sensitivity (24%), and (3) highly maladjusted with high sensitivity (10%). Children with mothers who had higher levels of education were more likely to be in the maladjusted with moderate sensitivity group than the asymptomatic with low sensitivity group. Latino children were less likely to be in both maladjusted groups compared to the asymptomatic group. Overall, the findings suggest differential effects of family environmental factors on PTS and psychopathology symptoms among children exposed to IPV. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27337691
Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity. While various abnormalities have been observed during this activity, their meaning and significance for depression, along with its various psychopathological symptoms, are yet to be defined. Based on findings in healthy brain resting state activity and its particular spatial and temporal structure - defined in a functional and physiological sense rather than anatomical and structural - I claim that the various depressive symptoms are spatiotemporal disturbances of the resting state activity and its spatiotemporal structure. This is supported by recent findings that link ruminations and increased self-focus in depression to abnormal spatial organization of resting state activity. Analogously, affective and cognitive symptoms like anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and thought disorder can be traced to an increased focus on the past, increased past-focus as basic temporal disturbance o the resting state. Based on these findings, I conclude that the various depressive symptoms must be conceived as spatiotemporal disturbances of the brain's resting state's activity and its spatiotemporal structure. Importantly, this entails a new form of psychopathology, "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology" that directly links the brain and psyche, therefore having major diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinical practice. PMID:26048657
Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E.
Research on psychopathology is at a historical crossroads. New technologies offer the promise of lasting advances in our understanding of the causes of human psychological suffering. Making the best use of these technologies, however, requires an empirically accurate model of psychopathology. Much current research is framed by the model of psychopathology portrayed in current versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). A...
Full Text Available O texto se propõe a uma reflexão em torno de uma perspectiva antropológica da questão da psicopatologia. Partindo da análise antropológica de Tzvetan Todorov, perpassa o ensaio histórico de Theodore Zeldin, alcançando a crítica de Thomas Szasz e a abordagem histórico-antropológica de Michel Foucault, na tentativa de clarear a compreensão do fenômeno psicopatológico. Nesta perspectiva crítico-histórica, a psicopatologia é vista como um fenômeno contextualizado, inserido na construção das mentalidades específicas da cultura ocidental.The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon an anthropological approach of psychopathology. It intends to throw some light upon the phenomenon of the "psychopathologic". It begins with some remarks on the anthropological concept of Tzevan Todorov. It also analyses Theodore Zeldin’s historical essay, Thomas Szasz’s critical reflections and Michel Foucault’s historic-anthropological approach. In this historical perspective, "Psychopathology" is conceived as a rather contextualized phenomenon, part of the specific mentalities constructed by the Western culture.
Tambelli, Renata; Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Ballarotto, Giulia
Early maternal relational traumas and psychopathological risk can have an impact on mother-infant interactions. Research has suggested the study of fathers and of their psychological profiles as protection or risk factors. The aim of the paper is to assess the quality of parental interactions during feeding in families with mothers with early traumatic experiences. One hundred thirty-six (N = 136) families were recruited in gynecological clinics: Group A included families with mothers who experienced early sexual/physical abuse; Group B was composed of families with mothers who experienced early emotional abuse or neglect; and Group C comprised healthy controls. The subjects participated in a 10-month longitudinal protocol [at the fourth month of pregnancy (T0), 3 months after child birth (T1), and 6 months after child birth (T2)] that included an observation of mother-infant and father-infant interactions during feeding (Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare [SVIA]) and a self-reporting 90-item Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R). Maternal higher rates of depression and early traumatic experiences of neglect and emotional abuse predicted more maladaptive scores on the affective state of the dyad SVIA subscale. Paternal anxiety predicted more severe levels of food refusal in the child during feeding. PMID:26354733
Fuller, A K
Child sexual abuse is a serious, pervasive problem with clinical, social, moral, and legal implications. Between 100,000 and 500,000 children in the United States are thought to be sexually molested annually. Physicians in all specialties may detect sexual exploitation of youngsters and are mandated to report such cases. Failure to diagnose child molestation and pedophilia and to treat their cause can have serious, long-lasting consequences for innocent victims and continued distress for the perpetrator and for the professional who missed the diagnosis. A single child molester may commit hundreds of sexual acts on hundreds of children. The etiology of paraphilic syndromes is multifactorial. There are substantial differences among sexual abusers of children in their personalities and psychopathologies. Although available interventions are symptomatically palliative rather than curative, many pedophiles can benefit from appropriate treatment. Primary prevention may be the key to reducing the frequency of child sexual abuse. PMID:2642565
Nagendra Gouda M
Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.
Seyed Ghafur Mousavi
Full Text Available Background: Because of more frequency of suicidal attempts in females, we need to study about its relationship with the female hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum estrogen and progesterone concentration and their relationship with suicidal attempt ranking in the attempted females. Materials and Methods: The studied cases chose from patients who had referred to clinical toxicology emergency of Noor Hospital (Isfahan, Iran, during 2012, because of suicidal attempt. The estrogen and progesterone serum level of the 111 females were measured during 24 hours after suicidal attempt. The rank of their suicide, the demographic properties, and the menstrual cycle phase of them were also registered, as the patient′s statement. The results were analyzed by ANCOVA and Kruscal-Wallis under SPSS16. Results: Mean serum concentration of the estrogen was 76.8 pg/mL, and the mean serum concentration of progesterone was 2.99 ng/mL. Of them, 62.2% were in the luteal phase, and 37.8% were in the follicular phase, as they said. The serum progesterone concentration of the patients with more than two times suicidal attempts was significantly higher than the others. Conclusion: The suicidal attempt ranks significantly related to the serum progesterone concentration and the luteal phase.
Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence rates of suicidal intent and its correlates among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11-18 years and diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of suicide with individual, family, peer, ADHD, and psychopathology factors. A total of 12.2% of the participants reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. A logistic regression analysis model showed that adolescents who were older, were bullying perpetrators, and reported high depression level were more likely to have suicidal intent. These three factors were also significantly correlated with suicidal ideation; however, only having high depression level was significantly correlated with suicidal attempts. The results of this study showed that a high proportion of adolescents with ADHD reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. Multiple factors were significantly associated with suicidal intent among adolescents with ADHD. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents with ADHD should monitor the possibility of suicide in adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the correlates of suicidal intent identified in this study. PMID:26867785
Suzielle M. Flores
Full Text Available Introduction: The study of the association between specific characteristics of family environments and different types of psychopathology may contribute to our understanding of these complex disorders and ultimately inform therapeutics.Objective: To compare the family characteristics of four groups: typically developing children; children with anxiety disorders only; children with externalizing disorders only; and children with both anxiety and externalizing disorders.Methods: This study enrolled 115 individuals from the community. Child psychiatrists made psychiatric diagnoses using a structured clinical interview. The Family Environment scale was used to evaluate six domains of family function.Results: The group with both anxiety and externalizing disorders had higher levels of conflict in family environment and lower levels of organization when compared with typically developing children. In addition, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were positively associated with conflict and negatively with organization. Maternal depressive and anxious symptoms were also associated with higher conflict and lower organization scores.Conclusion: An important between-group difference in comorbid cases of anxiety and behavioral disorders suggests that children with this comorbidity are potential candidates for family interventions to address family conflicts and organizational aspects.
Raman, Vijaya; Prasad, Suveera; Appaya, M. Prakash
Background: Children of people with alcohol dependence (COAs) are at high risk for behavioral and cognitive problems. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of these problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: 32 children (17 in study group and 15 controls) were evaluated for psychopathology, neurodevelopment, cognitive functioning and family environment. Tools used were: Socio-demographic data sheet, Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC), Child Behavior Checklist, Trail Making Test, Neurodevelopment Scale and the Family Environment Scale. Results: Children of men with alcohol dependence had higher externalizing than internalizing scores. Children of alcohol-dependent fathers had higher scores on the neurodevelopment scale and lower scores on the performance scale of the MISIC than the children in control group. These children also made more errors on the Trail Making Test. The family environment of COAs was characterized by lack of independence for its members, greater perceived control and lack of adequate cultural and intellectual activities. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that children of men with alcohol dependence have difficulties with frontal lobe functions and neurodevelopmental tasks. There are also difficulties in the family, which are related to alcohol consumption by the father. PMID:21267372
Cole, P M; Putnam, F W
The effects of child sexual abuse have become a leading concern of mental health service providers. Despite an explosion of studies, one major difficulty in this research is the lack of a developmentally sensitive model for conceptualizing short- and long-term effects and continuity and discontinuity of effects over time. This article proposes a model based in the perspective of developmental psychopathology. It is argued that incest has its unique negative effects in the domains of self and social functioning, specifically in jeopardizing self-definition and integration, self-regulatory processes, and a sense of security and trust in relationships. Studies with clinical samples indicate that diagnostic conditions associated uniquely with a history of incest reflect serious self- and social impairments. A review of the developmental literature on self and social development summarizes each major developmental transition from infancy to middle adulthood, and the implications for the negative effects of incest on development are discussed. Finally, implications for developmentally sensitive research are discussed. PMID:1592946
CHANG, HYEIN; Shaw, Daniel S.
Parent-child coercion typically emerges in toddlerhood with the child’s first acts of willful defiance and the parent’s first disciplinary attempts. We explored how parents and children may contribute to this process by examining bidirectional and interactive effects between child and maternal negative behavior in 310 low-income, ethnically diverse boys. Using multiple informants and methods, child negative emotionality and maternal negative control were assessed at 18 months and child disrup...
Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender
Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…
Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A.; Blanco, Carlos
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death, and suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. However, little is known about the relationship between ethnicity and suicidal behaviors.
Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Eyden, Julie; Singh, Swaran P
Controversy surrounds the diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in youth. This meta-analysis summarised evidence regarding the aetiological and psychopathological validity of youth BPD (the extent to which youth and adult BPD share common risk factors and psychopathology). We identified 61 studies satisfying predetermined inclusion criteria. Statistically significant pooled associations with youth (19years of age and under) BPD were observed for sexual abuse (all youth: odds ratio=4.88; 95% confidence interval=3.30, 7.21; children: OR=3.97; 95% CI=1.51, 10.41; adolescents: OR=5.41; 95% CI=3.43, 8.53); physical abuse (all youth: 2.79 [2.03, 3.84]; children: 2.86 [1.98, 4.13]; adolescents: 2.60 [1.38, 4.90]); maternal hostility/verbal abuse (all youth: 3.28 [2.67, 4.03]; children: 3.15 [2.55, 3.88]; adolescents: 4.71 [1.77, 12.53]); and neglect (all youth: 3.40 [2.27, 5.11]; children: 2.87 [1.73, 4.73]; adolescents: 4.87 [2.24, 10.59]). Several psychopathological features were also associated with youth BPD, including comorbid mood (3.21 [2.13, 4.83]), anxiety (2.30 [1.44, 3.70]) and substance use (2.92 [1.60, 5.31]) disorders; self-harm (2.81 [1.61, 4.90]); suicide ideation (all youth: 2.02 [1.23, 3.32]; children: 6.00 [1.81, 19.84]; adolescents: 1.75 [1.20; 2.54]) and suicide attempt (2.10 [1.21, 3.66]). Results demonstrate that adult and youth BPD share common aetiological and psychopathological correlates. This offers some support for the diagnostic validity of youth BPD and indicates the need for clinical recognition in this age group. PMID:26709502
Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan
Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghi...
Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna
Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personalit...
Anja Gysin-Maillart; Simon Schwab; Leila Soravia; Millie Megert; Konrad Michel
Editors' Summary Background Suicide is a serious public health problem. Over 800,000 people worldwide die by suicide every year. In the US, one suicide death occurs approximately every 12 minutes. While the causes of suicide are complex, the goals of suicide prevention are simple—reduce factors that increase risk, and increase factors that promote resilience or coping. Factors that increase suicide risk include family history of suicide, family history of child abuse, previous suicide attempt...
Cowen, P S
Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the United States. Researchers have indicated that child neglect is strongly correlated with poverty, single-parent caretakers, unemployment, and multifaceted family problems. When neglect is present, it is usually pervasive in the lives of all family members, with both parents and children often perceiving themselves to be powerless and viewing attempts at goal achievement to be futile. Treatment for neglectful families requires multidisciplinary efforts to improve family functioning and promote a safe and supportive environment. Nurses have a variety of roles in the assessment of and primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions for child neglect, with child safety and optimal family functioning as the desired outcomes. Early identification and intervention has the potential for reducing or preventing the developmental consequences associated with the deprivations of neglect. The nurse's role as child/family advocate is often the critical determinant of whether "at-risk" families are identified and receive the therapeutic interventions and tangible services they need. Additionally, nurses often have direct responsibilities for monitoring and remediating parenting patterns that have placed the child in hazardous conditions. PMID:12024360
The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood stress and trauma have been related to adult psychopathology in different psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed at verifying this relationship for stressful experiences during developmental periods by screening stress load across life in adult psychiatric inpatients with different diagnoses compared to healthy subjects. In addition, a relationship between the amount of adverse experiences and the severity of pathology, which has been described as a 'building block' effect in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, was explored for non-traumatic events in psychiatric disorders other than PTSD. Methods 96 patients with diagnoses of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, schizophrenia, drug addiction, or personality disorders (PD and 31 subjects without psychiatric diagnosis were screened for adverse experiences in childhood (before the age of six years, before onset of puberty, and in adulthood using the Early Trauma Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. Effects of stress load on psychopathology were examined for affective symptoms, PTSD, and severity of illness by regression analyses and comparison of subgroups with high and low stress load. Results High stress load in childhood and before puberty, but not in adulthood, was related to negative affect in all participants. In patients, high stress load was related to depressive and posttraumatic symptoms, severity of disorder, and the diagnoses of MDD and PD. Conclusion Results support the hypothesis of stress-sensitive periods during development, which may interact with genetic and other vulnerability factors in their influence on the progress of psychiatric disorders. A 'dose' effect of stress load on the severity of psychopathology is not restricted to the relationship between traumata and PTSD.
Matson, Johnny L; Cervantes, Paige E
The study of comorbid psychopathology among persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is picking up steam. The purpose of this paper was to review and describe important characteristics of existing studies. Among the current crop of papers, depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been frequently evaluated. Groups studied have most frequently been children. Persons with ASD and normal intelligence quotient (IQ) scores have been studied more often than individuals with ASD and intellectual disability. Additional characteristics are discussed, and the implications of these data for future developments in the field are reviewed. PMID:24629541
Valleau, Jeanette C; Sullivan, Elinor L
Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin's role and profile during development is examined in available human studies, and the validity of applying studies conducted in animal models to the human population are discussed. Rodents experience a postnatal leptin surge, which does not occur in humans or larger animal models. This suggests that further research using large mammal models, which have a leptin profile across pregnancy and development similar to humans, are of high importance. Maternal obesity and hyperleptinemia correlate with increased leptin levels in the umbilical cord, placenta, and fetus. Leptin levels are thought to impact fetal brain development; likely by activating proinflammatory cytokines that are known to impact many of the neurotransmitter systems that regulate behavior. Leptin is likely involved in behavioral regulation as leptin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and leptin influences cortisol release, the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway, serotonin synthesis, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In humans, both high and low levels of leptin are reported to be associated with psychopathology. This inconsistency is likely due to differences in the metabolic state of the study populations. Leptin resistance, which occurs in the obese state, may explain how both high and low levels of leptin are associated with psychopathology, as well as the comorbidity of obesity with numerous mental illnesses. Leptin resistance is likely to influence disorders such as depression and anxiety where high leptin levels have been correlated
In psychopathology, few studies have been focused on the psychiatric complications of medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). The aim of the present study was to study NG's capacities, who presented emotional change after right temporal epilepsy surgery with phobias and empathy disorders. NG was examined in two emotional judgment tasks: one explicit and another implicit. For negative stimuli, NG had attraction in the explicit task and dependency in the implicit task. This study suggests that surgical intervention might be one of the causes of postoperative psychiatric disorders in patients with MTLE. MTLE patients have to be explored with neuropsychological paradigms. PMID:18675038
Mazur, V M-L; Chahraoui, K; Bissler, L
Refugees seeking asylum are a particularly vulnerable population. It has been observed that among the most commonly-occurring disorders exhibited in this population, there is a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and depression. These disorders may be linked to the difficult paths that refugees are forced to undertake, as well as to different traumatic events which are particularly destructive psychologically (deliberate physical, sexual and/or psychological violence, traumatic bereavements in the context of war, or social and political instability, socio-economic, familial or administrative difficulties), which compromise their view of their short-term futures. In the face of the weight of these life events, the question of the psychological resources of the individual is at the forefront of our understanding of mental health and the capacity to adjust to trauma. Our study aims to apprehend in a dynamic way, the different strategies used by asylum seekers in our western countries to adjust psychologically to traumatic and stressful events. The aim of this research is to study the links between mental health and anxious and depressive psychopathologies as well as the defensive modalities of these subjects. One hundred and twenty adult asylum seekers, living in refugee centres in Slovakia, France and Norway have agreed to participate in this study. We tried to assess the psychopathological disorders manifesting in these populations, notably PTSD, major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Using the DSQ-60 we also tried to establish the links between the psychopathologies observed in this population and the defence mechanisms employed. Our results reveal that 60% of subjects do indeed suffer from psychopathological disorders with an important comorbidity of PTSB and depression (64.2%). Furthermore, the seriousness of the symptoms is correlated with less adaptive defence mechanisms (a higher incidence of defence
Schoeneman, T J
The psychopathological interpretation of the European witch hunts of the 16th and 17th centuries, which has been prominent in histories of psychiatry, contends that demonology overwhelmed psychiatry in the late middle Ages, with the result that the mentally ill were executed by the thousands as witches. The author reviews the criticisms and contrary evidence that have been brought to bear on this paradigm in the past 20 years, including critiques of its data collection and interpretation, historical evidence which has failed to support its contentions, and questions about its implicit approach to the history and philosophy of science. PMID:7046480
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety. Methods The study was conducted as a web-based Internet survey of participants (N = 995 who had social anxiety symptoms falling within the high range, and including many respondents who had scores in the clinical range. The assessment included measures of child maltreatment, emotional peer victimization, social anxiety symptoms and general psychopathology. Results Regression and mediation analyses revealed that parental emotional maltreatment and emotional peer victimization were independently related to social anxiety and mediated the impact of physical and sexual maltreatment. Subjects with a history of childhood emotional maltreatment showed higher rates of psychopathology than subjects with a history of physical maltreatment. Conclusions Although our findings are limited by the use of an Internet survey and retrospective self-report measures, data indicated that social anxiety symptoms are mainly predicted by emotional rather than physical or sexual types of victimization.
Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.
The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress ha
H.M. Schuppert; C.J. Albers; R.B. Minderaa; P.M.G. Emmelkamp; M.H. Nauta
The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress ha
Anagnostopoulos, D C; Korlou, S; Sakellariou, K; Kondyli, V; Sarafidou, J; Tsakanikos, E; Giannakopoulos, G; Liakopoulou, M
Comorbid psychopathology in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been investigated in a number of studies over the last twenty years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomenology of illness and broader psychopathology in a group of Greek children and adolescents with OCD. The investigation of parental psychopathology in children and adolescents with OCD was a secondary aim of the present study. We studied 31 children and adolescents with OCD (n=31, age range 8-15 years) and their parents (n=62, age range 43-48 years) and compared to children and adolescents with specific reading and written expression learning disorders (n=30, age range 7-16 years) and their parents (n=58, age range 40-46 years). Appropriate testing showed specific reading and learning disorders, which were of mild to moderate severity for the 85% of this latter group. The diagnosis of learning disorder of reading and written expression was made through the use of standardized reading material, appropriate for ages 10-15 years. Reading comprehension and narration were tested. The written expression (spelling, syntax, content) was examined by a written text, in which the subject developed a certain theme from the reading material. Based on their level of education and occupation, the index families were classified as high (29%), average (45%) and low (26%) socioeconomic status, whereas 6.7% of control families belonged to high, 63.3% to average, and 30% to low status. In order to investigate psychopathology, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children, Present and Life-time version was administered to children and their parents, as well as the Child Behavior Checklist 4/18 (CBCL) to both parents and adolescents (Youth Self-Report). Also the Yale- Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was rated for both children and parents. Moreover, the children were given the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the
Polewka, Andrzej; Szkolnicka, Beata; Targosz, Dorota; Groszek, Barbara; Kroch, Stanisław; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Zieba, Andrzej
The aim of the study was to analyze seasonality and temporal fluctuations in suicide attempts by persons living in Krakow and hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CMUJ in the years 2000-2002. The research focussed on the frequency of suicide attempts in relation to the time of the day, day of the week, and month of the year. Temporal fluctuations in the frequency of suicide attempts have been assessed on the basis of the data from medical documentation concerning 2757 suicide attempts by individuals ranging in age from 14 to 90 years. The group consisted of 1607 females and 1150 males. According to the results of the research, seasonality and temporal fluctuations in the frequency of suicide attempts is different for males and females. In the case of the males examined, no dependence between the frequency of suicide attempts and a particular month or season has been observed. In the case of females, on the contrary, the data indicate the existence of a seasonal pattern with the peak in the spring (or early part of the summer), and in the autumn--in October and November. In males, the peak day for attempted suicide was Monday, whereas in females--Sunday and Monday. As regards the time of the day, both the results of the present research and data collected by WHO/EURO indicate that suicide attempts occurred most frequently in the evening, late in the evening or in the early part the night. In conclusion, it has been emphasized that the majority of suicide attempts, especially by females, occurs late in the evening or early in the night. This finding seems to be of particular importance for suicide prevention--it can contribute to the increase in the effectiveness of the organization of work in the Crisis Intervention Centres and make therapists and patients' families aware of the existence of periods of an increased suicide risk. The research has been conducted owing to the cooperation between the department of Clinical Toxicology, CMUJ and the
The functional linkage between platelet MAO activity and psychopathology was explored by analyzing temperamental correlates in 40 male subjects by means of scales from the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Inventory, and the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). Linear correlation were found with two sensation seeking scales, replicating earlier findings. However, nonlinear correlations predominated. Subjects with intemediate platelet MAO activity had higher scores in conformity scales and lower scores in anxiety and hostility scales than low and high MAO subgroups. Low MAO subjects showed a pattern of higher scores in KSP Impulsiveness, EPQ Neuroticism, and KSP Somatic Anxiety and Irritability and lower scores in KSP Socialization, in line with personality profiles found in alcoholics, phychopaths, and suicide attempters who also tend to have low platelet MAO activity. High MAO subject scored lower in sensation seeking and conformity scales and higher in KSP Phychasthenia, Muscular Tension and Suspicion scales, consistent with clinical links between high platelet MAO activity and anxiety and paranoia. (author)
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
. To explain the contradictory findings, developmental models of disability and psychopathology are applied. Within a multi-factorial developmental psychopathological perspective and a dialectical model of disability (Vygotsky, 1993), it is suggested that disability can be understood as an incongruence between...
Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael
The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) is a model of personality psychopathology assessed in adult populations with a set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales. The authors examine the reliability and validity of recently developed lower-order facet subscales for each of these five domains, with an emphasis on…
Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.
Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…
Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Im-Bolter, Nancie; Cohen, Nancy J.
The present study integrates findings from three lines of research on the association of social cognition and externalizing psychopathology, language and externalizing psychopathology, and social cognition and language functioning using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). To date these associations have been examined in pairs. A sample of 354…
Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit
We review theory and empirical study of distress tolerance, an emerging risk factor candidate for various forms of psychopathology. Despite the long-standing interest in and promise of work on distress tolerance for understanding adult psychopathology, there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature focused on the…
Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.
Over the past decades, developmental psychopathology has coalesced into a discipline that has made significant contributions toward the understanding of risk, psychopathology, and resilience in individuals across the life course. The overarching goal of the discipline has been to elucidate the interplay among biological, psychological, and…
A. Ghassabian (Akhgar)
textabstractIn the past few decades, considerable advances have been made in understanding childhood psychopathology. This progress is the result of four primary developments in the field. First, both in the research and in the clinical framework, psychopathology has been conceptualized across a spe
M.C. Dekker (Marielle)
textabstract__Abstract__ This study’s main focus is psychopathology in children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). The main topics addressed in this study are the assessment of psychopathology in children (also including adolescents) with ID, the prevalence and impact of psychopatho
Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria
Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's Depression…
McGoron, Lucy; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Smyke, Anna T.; Drury, Stacy S.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.
Objective: Children exposed to early institutional rearing are at risk for developing psychopathology. The present investigation examines caregiving quality and the role of attachment security as they relate to symptoms of psychopathology in young children exposed to early institutionalization. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Bucharest…
Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K
In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct...
Rhee, Soo Hyun; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.
In this article, we review evidence from recent behavior genetic studies that examined the covariance among common childhood psychopathological conditions and tested specific hypotheses regarding common and broadband-specific underlying features of childhood psychopathology. Specifically, we review the distinction between internalizing and externalizing disorders, the support for the generalist genes and specialist environments model, negative emotionality as a heritable underlying feature co...
Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.
Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…
Mattison, Richard E.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson
Objective: Learning disabilities (LD), executive function (EF), and psychopathology were investigated to clarify their relationships in 595 children with ADHD. Method: Standard instruments for IQ, achievement, EF, and parent and teacher ratings of psychopathology were obtained at the time of outpatient evaluation. Results: Comparisons between the…
Penney, Stephanie R.; Skilling, Tracey A.
A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits;…
Mayank; Sameer; Manju; Rajinderpal; Kuldeep Singh
This is a cross sectional comparative case control study assessing the Relationship between psychopathology and socio demographic and clinical variables in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and Bronchial Asthma in comparison to healthy individuals. The investigation reveals that there is psychopathology in all the three groups. The psychopathology is significantly more in patients with COPD. Psychopathology in COPD patients is related to age, duration, severity ...
Caron, Annalise; Weiss, Bahr; Harris, Vicki; Catron, Tom
This study examined the specificity of relations between parent / caregiver behaviors and childhood internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 70 fourth grade children (64% male, mean age = 9.7 years). Specificity was assessed via (a) unique effects, (b) differential effects, and (c) interactive effects. When measured as unique and differential effects, specificity was not found for warmth or psychological control but was found for caregiver’s use of behavior control. Higher leve...
... of their parents' rules and of their own self-control. Sometimes, however, these conflicts are more than occasional ... a timeout until he calms down and regains self-control. When your child is obedient and respectful, compliment ...
1978-1980 we examined 451 patients of the Psychiatric University Clinic of Bonn by computerized tomography. From 260 patients with characterized diseases of the brain and brain damages 78 patients had neuropsychiatric diseases of old age, i.e. cerebro-vascular processes (average age of 63.7 years) and 9 patients had primary degenerative processes of the brain (average age of 62.1 years). Patients with diseases of the cerebral vessels showed irreversible psychopathological syndromes in 87%. The rate of pathological findings in CT increases in relation to degree of severity of the chronic (irreversible) organic psychosyndromes from 76% in pseudoneurasthenics syndromes to 93% in patients with organic changes of personality and to 100% in patients with dementia. The ambiguity of the conception of the multi-infarct-dementia is discussed. Only 19% of the sample with irreversible psychopathological changes showed localized neurological deficits and infarctions in CT, but none of them more than one. In all patients with dementia a cortical atrophy was found. There is a significant positive correlation between cerebral atrophy in CT and irreversible organic psychosyndrome. These findings with computerized tomography demonstrate in accordance with earlier pneumoencephalographic findings that distinct types of irreversible psychosyndromes can be correlated to distinct types of cerebral atrophy. But these statistical correlations between the degree of the severity of the loss of psychic functions and the reduction of cerebral tissue are not necessarily valid for any single case. (orig.)
Gross, G.; Huber, G.; Schuettler, R.
1978-1980 we examined 451 patients of the Psychiatric University Clinic of Bonn by computerized tomography. From 260 patients with characterized diseases of the brain and brain damages, 78 patients had neuropsychiatric diseases of old age, i.e. cerebro-vascular processes (average age of 63.7 years) and 9 patients had primary degenerative processes of the brain (average age of 62.1 years). Patients with diseases of the cerebral vessels showed irreversible psychopathological syndromes in 87%. The rate of pathological findings in CT increases in relation to degree of severity of the chronic (irreversible) organic psychosyndromes from 76% in pseudoneurasthenics syndromes to 93% in patients with organic changes of personality and to 100% in patients with dementia. The ambiguity of the conception of the multi-infarct-dementia is discussed. Only 19% of the sample with irreversible psychopathological changes showed localized neurological deficits and infarctions in CT, but none of them more than one. In all patients with dementia a cortical atrophy was found. There is a significant positive correlation between cerebral atrophy in CT and irreversible organic psychosyndrome. These findings with computerized tomography demonstrate in accordance with earlier pneumoencephalographic findings that distinct types of irreversible psychosyndromes can be correlated to distinct types of cerebral atrophy. But these statistical correlations between the degree of the severity of the loss of psychic functions and the reduction of cerebral tissue are not necessarily valid for any single case.
Sroufe, L Alan
Progress in the field of developmental psychopathology is appraised in general and with regard to the particular lens of our understanding of the development of disorder. In general, the outpouring of research on various features of disorder and underlying processes could not have even been imagined 25 years ago. The progress is dazzling. At the same time, work on the development of disorders, beginning with antecedent patterns of adaptation, pales in comparison with work on the correlates of disorder. However, progress has been made. It is well established that the brain develops in the context of experience and that organism and environment continually interact over time. Something is now known about pathways leading to certain disorders and what initiates and impels individuals along them. If developmental psychopathology is to completely fulfill its promise of offering new ways of conceptualizing disorder and new guidance for prevention and intervention, much more work on developmental processes and a new way of exploring the development of disorder will be needed. Such a path is suggested. PMID:24342836
Smith, K.; And Others
Presents an 11-point scale for measuring the degree of lethality of suicide attempts. The scale has nine example "anchors" and uses the relative lethality of an extensive table of drugs. The scale can be used reliably by nonmedical personnel with no prior training. (Author/BL)
Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.
According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…
Salem Bilal A
Full Text Available Abstract The possible increase of suicidal ideation with some antidepressants is still a matter of debate. We are reporting two cases of suicidal attempt that occurred concomitantly with the use of Duloxetine. To our knowledge there is no prior publication about a possible Duloxetine related increase in the risk of suicidality.
Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul
Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the variables, with…
Kim, Sung-Wan; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Jung, Sung-Won; Lee, Min-Soo; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Jun, Tae-Youn
This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of a history of a suicide attempt in people with depression and their relationship with treatment outcomes and subsequent suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harm. Patients with depressive disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, were recruited from 18 hospitals across South Korea. Data on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were obtained, and scales assessing depression, anxiety, and general functioning were administered during the first 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment. Baseline characteristics, responses to treatment, and suicidal ideation/deliberate self-harm during the follow-up period were compared according to a reported history or not of a suicide attempt. In a total of 723 participants, 143 (19.8%) with a history of a suicide attempt had an earlier age of onset, longer duration of illness, and a greater number of depressive episodes. Levels of depression and anxiety were significantly higher at baseline in this group who also experienced significantly lower remission and response rates, as well as longer time to remission. The case group was more likely to experience new suicidal ideation and carry out a deliberate self-harm act during the 12-week treatment period. In conclusion, a history of a suicide attempt in a Korean population with depression was characterized by more severe psychopathology, poorer treatment outcomes, and higher subsequent suicidal ideation and self-harm. Therefore, more intensive and longer-term treatment with particular ongoing clinical attention to risk is indicated in patients with these distinct, chronic, and severe forms of depression and ongoing high suicide risk. PMID:21694625
Latife UTAŞ AKHAN
Full Text Available The human being has to socialize once he is born as an individual and is under the influence of the environment, and the ethical, esthetic and moral values since his childhood. The thoughts, wants and wishes of the individual that conflict with the environmental order and values are repressed outside the consciousness. The repressed feelings and thoughts are converted into symbols in the form of visual images outside the consciousness. Unformed symbols provide the purest hint regarding the internal conflicts causing mental disorders. There is regression in verbal expression in some psychiatric disorders and especially in psychosis. Symptoms specific for the abstract thoughts and verbal language pathology appear. Visual language as graphic language may become the single way of communication in such instances. This constitutes the rationale and main principle of “Diagnosis and Treatment by Art'' in the psychiatric field. The three-function method of spontaneous psychopathological art enables the use of art in individuals with a psychiatric disorder. This is the projection of the complexes and conflicts that are subconscious or outside consciousness with spontaneous images as graphic and plastic expressions and enables making a diagnosis. The second function of psychopathological art is to monitor the disease progress. A series of artistic work enable the step by step monitoring of the disorder's progress. Pathological changes can be reflected in the works of art even before the clinical symptoms of the disorder appear. The third function is enabling treatment. The individual who has severed connections with the environment is in a chaotic word. During the time the psychopathological art method is used, the patients start to see the artistic work as a mirror where they find and watch themselves and their behaviors. When the artistic endeavor of patients with a mental disorder does not take place under suitable control, it becomes a tool that
AKIN, Elif; Berkem, Meral
Objective: In this study we aimed to asses psychiatric, demographic and clinical characteristics of adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18. Materials and Methods: For this study, 36 adolescent patients between the ages of 12 and 18 who refer or are referred to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic because of suicide attempt between June 2009 and May 2010 were included. Sociodemographic characteristics of the participants were measured with a detailed form, clinical assesment was made w...
Grignard, Sophie; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Born, Michel; Mairiaux, Philippe; Vandoorne, Chantal
This study evaluates the actions taken by obese adolescents in an attempt to lose weight in relation to changes in weight. Particular emphasis is put on the context surrounding the management process. Thirty one obese adolescents aged 14-18 participated in this study. The adolescents answered a written questionnaire, took a body-size dissatisfaction test and were interviewed. Their family physicians were interviewed by telephone. Quantitative data concerned changes in weight and body-size dis...
Paul F. Diehl; Patrick Regan
Standard conflict management studies treat individual conflict management attempts, whether the same or different techniques, as independent of one another across time and space. This article considers the implications and lays out research agenda for several configurations that relax that assumption: (a) multiple approaches in the same conflict; (b) spatial and temporal interrelationships; (c) interactions with ongoing hostilities; and (d) techniques in different phases of the conflict. Incl...
Bursztein Lipsicas, Cendrine
Introduction and Aims: Immigrants comprise about 10% of the total population of Europe, but our knowledge about their suicidal behaviour is still insufficient. This study presents an overview of suicidal behaviour of immigrants in Europe compared to host populations focusing on: (I) The frequencies of attempted suicide, compared between immigrants and their hosts, between different immigrant groups, and between immigrants and their countries of origin, (II) the variations of these frequencies...
Background: Millions of people die from suicide globally every year. Suicide is strongly associated with mental disorders. More than 90% of those who die by suicide have at least one diagnosable mental disorder at the time of their death. Attempted suicide is also a major public health concern since it is an important predictor of subsequent completed suicide and an indicator of mental health problems. Aims: There are four aims which correspond to four papers. First, we validated the Vietn...
Zeppegno, Patrizia; Gramaglia, Carla; Castello, Luigi Mario; Bert, Fabrizio; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Ressico, Francesca; Coppola, Isabella; Avanzi, Gian Carlo; Siliquini, Roberta; Torre, Eugenio
Background Suicidal behaviours are major public health concerns worldwide. They are associated with risk factors that vary with age and gender, occur in combination, and may change over time. The aim of our study was to investigate how frequently patients visiting a hospital emergency room (ER) require a psychiatric consultation for attempted suicide, and to outline the characteristics of this population. Methods Determinants of emergency room visits for psychiatric reasons were studied prosp...
Tuba Cimilli Ozturk; Ozlem Guneysel; Onur Yesil; Sebnem Eren Cevik
Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II) lesions on the esophagus and cardi...
Jacobson, Nicholas C
This study sought to evaluate the current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychopathology by examining whether these disorders impact the quantity of offspring or the quality of the parent-child relationship across the life span. Using the National Comorbidity Survey, this study examined whether DSM-III-R anxiety, posttraumatic stress, depressive, bipolar, substance use, antisocial, and psychosis disorders predicted later fertility and the quality of parent-child relationships across the life span in a national sample (N = 8,098). Using latent variable and varying coefficient models, the results suggested that anxiety in males and bipolar pathology in males and females were associated with increased fertility at younger ages. The results suggested almost all other psychopathology was associated with decreased fertility in middle to late adulthood. The results further suggested that all types of psychopathology had negative impacts on the parent-child relationship quality (except for antisocial pathology in males). Nevertheless, for all disorders, the impact of psychopathology on both fertility and the parent-child relationship quality was affected by the age of the participant. The results also showed that anxiety pathology is associated with a high-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy followed by a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy. Further, the results suggest that bipolar pathology is associated with an early high-quantity and a continued low-quality parenting strategy. Posttraumatic stress, depression, substance use, antisocial personality, and psychosis pathology are each associated with a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy, particularly in mid to late adulthood. These findings suggest that the evolutionary impact of psychopathology depends on the developmental context. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362490
... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...
In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...
Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)
Human Resources Division
HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.
del Carmen, R; Huffman, L
Clinicians and researchers are beginning to acknowledge the importance of integrating a developmental perspective into the understanding of clinical disorders. The application of findings from basic attachment research to this understanding of psychopathology is a prototype for interdisciplinary research. However, major gaps continue to exist between basic research on attachment processes and clinical issues of assessment, classification, and treatment of mental disorders from infancy through adolescence. This epilogue highlights the importance of more integrative research. As a reflection of growth in this direction, National Institute of Mental Health funding patterns are reviewed, and promising areas for future research are suggested. The field is well positioned for conceptual advancement if more integrative approaches are used. PMID:8871413
Ait Bentaleb, L; Stip, E; Beauregard, M
Cognitive therapies of delusions and hallucinations are increasingly common and offer a complementary or interesting alternative to neuroleptic medication. But then again must these therapeutic approach relie on an explanatory neuropsychological basis. According to many observers, the study of the cardinal symptoms of schizophrenia is the " royal path " leading to the elucidation of this disabling and chronic illness affecting around 0,5% to 1% of the population. In this perspective, auditory hallucinations are one of the major symptoms of schizophrenia found in 50% to 80% of cases. Recently, experimental data drawn from cognitive neuropsychology and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have allowed the elaboration of many models regarding this symptomatic manifestation. This article proposes a literature review on the subject of psychopathology and neurobiological bases of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and aims at proposing some leads that could contribute to a better undertanding of this phenomenon. PMID:18253579
José M. Pozueco-Romero
Full Text Available This theoretical study reviews two of the most cited profiles of intimate partner batterers in the scientific literature, paying special attention to the most notable differences between them, as well as to their common criteria. The study also discusses one of the longest standing controversies in various research studies, including the particular overview with respect to Spain: it being the constant yet erroneous reference to the equivalence of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Similarly, special attention is paid to the implications of considering intimate partner batterers as having either a psychopathological or psychopathic profile, while also stressing the specific role played by psychopathy in the intimate partner batterer and, concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers, such aspects as their specific motives for perpetrating intimate partner violence and the evaluation instruments of this particular profile. Finally, a series of future directives for research concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers are also pointed out.
Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto
Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships. PMID:17479554
Stanton, Kasey; Watson, David
General individual differences in positive emotionality are negatively related to depression, social anxiety, and schizotypy/schizophrenia, and positively related to mania. However, the structure of positive emotionality remains unclear at the facet level, as there are significant disparities in the types of content assessed across emotionality measures. This study analyzed the lower order structure of positive emotionality in two samples, finding evidence for a replicable two-factor structure of Joviality and Experience Seeking. These factors demonstrated a markedly different pattern of relations in both direction and magnitude with internalizing, externalizing, and schizotypal symptoms. Joviality seems to represent an adaptive variant of positive emotionality, as it showed strong positive relations with well-being and moderate negative relations with measures of depression, social anxiety, and social anhedonia. In contrast, Experience Seeking appears to be somewhat maladaptive. It generally related positively to psychopathology, correlating most strongly with indicators of manic and externalizing symptoms. PMID:25260942
Séguin, Monique; Boyer, Richard; Lesage, Alain; McGirr, Alexandre; Suissa, Amnon; Tousignant, Michel; Turecki, Gustavo
The aim of this study was to evaluate suicides with a history of problem gambling (PG) and others with no such history (NPG) and to compare the two on mental health problems and service utilization. Data on a sample of 49 PG suicides and 73 NPG suicides were obtained from informants and hospital records. Psychopathology was prevalent in both groups, but problem gamblers were twice as likely to have a personality disorder. Moreover, PG suicides were less in contact with mental health services in their last month, their last year, and their lifetime. NPG suicides consulted specialized services from 3 (last month and last year) to 13 times (lifetime) as often as their PG counterparts. Lower service utilization associated with PG suicides argues in favor of stepping up detection, engagement in care and treatment with respect to problem gambling, especially when comorbidity is present. PMID:20853941
Romi, Juan Carlos
This article reviews the concept of serial crime, including murder as well as any action for the purpose of inflicting bodily harm upon any person. It characterizes three types of multi-murderers: serial killers, mass murderers, and spree killers. These offenders often have a specific (ritual) behavior that is idiosyncratic and repeated on each crime, which allows the psychological profiling of the murderer. Examples, a psychopathological background, and a description of both their criminal behavior and dynamics are provided for each of these criminals. They are further classified according to their different motivations: psychotic, prophetic or enlightened, pleasure, secondary or pecuniary profits, power or control. Finally, the author shares his personal experience over 20 years in the assessment of sexual offenders. PMID:22091451
Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Francesco Craig,2 Lucia Margari,2 Emilia Matera,2 Anna Linda Lamanna,2 Paola Alessandra Lecce,2 Donatella La Tegola,3 Felice Carabellese3 1Psychiatry Unit, 2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs of the Aldo Moro University of Bari, 3Section of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed.Methods: The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes.Results: Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01 and conduct problems (P=0.034. Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18% and conduct problems (20% than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement.Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. Keywords: juvenile offenders
Full Text Available Background:Patients with chronic conditions like hypertension may experience many negative emotions which increase their risk for poor quality of lifeas well as the development of anxiety and depression symptomatology. However little is known about hypertension accompanied by dyslipidaemia. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the possible differences between hypertensive patients with dyslipidaemia and hypertensive patients without dyslipidaemia on quality of life and mental health. Methods:One hundred and nineteen-seven patients with essential hypertension participated and classified into two groups― dyslipidemic and non dyslipidaemic ― based on the levels of hypertension and cholesterol after medical examination. Along with a questionnaire regarding demographics and clinical features the SF-36 Health Survey, the Symptom Checklist-90-R, and the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire were administered. Results: Lower levels of Physical Functioning (p=.001, Role –Physical (p=.046, Vitality (p=.000, Bodily Pain (p=.004, General Health (p=.000 and Physical Component Summary (p=.000betweendyslipidemic and non dyslipidaemichypertensive patients were found. Significant differences between groups were also observed in all dimensions of psychopathology with exception to Hostility (p=.097, and Phobic Anxiety (p=.472. Apart from the avoidance subscale (p=.018, no difference onheart focused anxiety between the two groups was found. Logistic regression model found that dyslipidaemic hypertensive patients had in general a higher risk of impairment regarding quality of life and psychopathology. Conclusions: There is a significant association between presence of dyslipidaemia and deteriorated quality of life as well as mental symptomatology inhypertensive patients. The need for a more target therapeutic schema is outlined.
McGough, JJ; McCracken, JT; Cho, AL; Castelo, E; Sturm, A; Cowen, J; Piacentini, J; Loo, SK
Objective The Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL/DP) identifies youth at increased risk for significant psychopathology. Although the genetic architecture and several biological correlates of the CBCL/DP have been described, little work has elucidated its underlying neurobiology. We examined the potential utility of electroencephalography (EEG), along with behavioral and cognitive assessments, in differentiating individuals based on the CBCL/DP. Method Participants aged 7 to...
Boyd, Rhonda C; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden
Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depressio...
Rimkeviciene, Jurgita; O'Gorman, John; De Leo, Diego
Inconsistencies in the definition of impulsive suicide attempts hamper research integration. To expand the currently limited data on how this construct is used in clinical practice, researchers interviewed eight suicide attempters to create timelines of their suicide process, then had seven experienced clinicians review these timelines. Thematic analysis of the patient and clinician data revealed three themes: "thinking out," build-up, and unclear intentionality. The results imply that assessing build-up of agitation and exhaustion symptoms can contribute to understanding acuteness of suicide risk. In addition, uncertainty about one's intentions during the attempt should not be equated to low intent to die. PMID:26399157
Human trafficking is the third biggest beneficial industry on the planet. Child trafficking unlike many other issues is found in both developed and developing nations. NGOs evaluate that 12,000 - 50,000 ladies and kids are trafficked into the nation every year from neighboring states for the sex exchange.
Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others
Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anorexia nervosa often requires inpatient treatment that includes psychotherapeutic intervention in addition to physical and nutritional management for severe low body weight. However, such patients sometimes terminate inpatient treatment prematurely because of resistance to treatment, poor motivation for treatment, unstable emotions, and problematic behaviors. In this study, the psychopathological factors related to the personality of anorexic patients that might predict discontinuation of inpatient treatment were investigated using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. Methods Subjects were 75 consecutive anorectic inpatients who received cognitive behavioral therapy with a behavior protocol governing privileges in a university hospital based general (not psychiatric ward. The MMPI was done on admission for all patients. A comparison was done of patients who completed the process of inpatient treatment, including attainment of target body weight (completers, and patients who dropped out of inpatient treatment (dropouts. Results: No significant differences between completers (n = 51 and dropouts (n = 24 were found in the type of eating disorder, age of onset, duration of illness, age, or BMI at admission. Logistic regression analysis found the MMPI scales schizophrenia (Sc, hypomania (HYP, deviant thinking and experience, and antisocial attitude to be factors predicting completion or dropout. Conclusion Dropouts have difficulty adapting to inpatient treatment protocols such as our behavior protocol governing privileges because they have social and emotional alienation, a lack of ego mastery (Sc, emotional instability (HYP and an antisocial attitude. As a result, they have decreased motivation for treatment, leave the hospital without permission, attempt suicide, or shoplift, which leads them to terminate inpatient treatment prematurely. Treatments based on cognitive behavioral therapy with a behavior
Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank
This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these.......This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these....
Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Perez-Rodriguez, Maria de las Mercedes; Jaussent, Isabelle; Alegria, Analucia,; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Freed, Peter; Guillaume, Sébastien; Jollant, Fabrice; Leiva-Murillo, Jose Miguel; Malafosse, Alain; Oquendo, Maria,; De Prado-Cumplido, Mario; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Courtet, Philippe
BACKGROUND: In spite of the high prevalence of suicide behaviours and the magnitude of the resultant burden, little is known about why individuals reattempt. We aim to investigate the relationships between clinical risk factors and the repetition of suicidal attempts. METHODS: 1349 suicide attempters were consecutively recruited in the Emergency Room (ER) of two academic hospitals in France and Spain. Patients were extensively assessed and demographic and clinical data obtained. Data mining w...
The literature review examines issues of child abuse and neglect, attempts to define child abuse, and gives information on: incidence figures; symptoms of abuse; characteristics of the abused and their families; knowledge level of educators; and the role of the schools in preventing, detecting, and reporting abuse or neglect. Teachers often do not…
NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander collected a soil sample and attempted to deliver some of it to a laboratory oven on the deck during the mission's 62nd Martian day, or sol, (July 28, 2008). The sample came from a hard layer at the bottom of the 'Snow White' trench and might have contained water ice mixed with the soil. This image taken after the attempt to deliver the sample through the open doors to cell number zero on the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer shows that very little of the soil fell onto the screened opening. Not enough material reached the oven, through a funnel under the screen, to proceed with analysis of the sample material. Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera took this image at 7:54 a.m. local solar time on Sol 62. The size of the screened opening is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) long by 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) wide. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.
Full Text Available The objective in this study was to analyze to what extent inter parental conflicts and divorce act as predictors of psychopathological development in young people from intact and divorced families. The participants were 827 Portuguese young people between 13 and 25 years of age. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Children’s Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale and the Brief Symptom Inventory were used. Significant difference in the psychopathology were found with regard to gender, age and family structure. As verified, the intensity and lack of solution of the inter parental conflicts positively predict the development of psychopathology. In conclusion, the children whose parents are separated or divorced perceive the frequency and intensity of inter parental conflicts more highly, but present a higher solution level of the inter parental conflicts and higher psychopathology levels. Nevertheless, the family structure has no moderating effect on the interaction between the inter parental conflicts and the development of pyschopathology.
Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W
Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms was examined in 124 adults with severe to profound ID. Then, trends in symptoms of psychopathology over time were studied in 74 of those individuals who had data collected quarterly over the span of one year. Data from the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-Second Edition (DASH-II) were evaluated for each of the 13 subscales, as well as the total DASH-II score. For all of the scales except PDD/Autism, symptoms did not fluctuate significantly over the one year period. The PDD/Autism scale revealed a significant change in symptoms from Time 1 to Time 3. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21144701
Feldman, Ruth; Monakhov, Mikhail; Pratt, Maayan; Ebstein, Richard P
Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide signaling molecule originating from an ancestral peptide, appears in different variants across all vertebrate and several invertebrate species. Throughout animal evolution, neuropeptidergic signaling has been adapted by organisms for regulating response to rapidly changing environments. The family of OT-like molecules affects both peripheral tissues implicated in reproduction, homeostasis, and energy balance, as well as neuromodulation of social behavior, stress regulation, and associative learning in species ranging from nematodes to humans. After describing the OT-signaling pathway, we review research on the three genes most extensively studied in humans: the OT receptor (OXTR), the structural gene for OT (OXT/neurophysin-I), and CD38. Consistent with the notion that sociality should be studied from the perspective of social life at the species level, we address human social functions in relation to OT-pathway genes, including parenting, empathy, and using social relationships to manage stress. We then describe associations between OT-pathway genes with psychopathologies involving social dysfunctions such as autism, depression, or schizophrenia. Human research particularly underscored the involvement of two OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs53576, rs2254298) with fewer studies focusing on other OXTR (rs7632287, rs1042778, rs2268494, rs2268490), OXT (rs2740210, rs4813627, rs4813625), and CD38 (rs3796863, rs6449197) single nucleotide polymorphisms. Overall, studies provide evidence for the involvement of OT-pathway genes in human social functions but also suggest that factors such as gender, culture, and early environment often confound attempts to replicate first findings. We conclude by discussing epigenetics, conceptual implications within an evolutionary perspective, and future directions, especially the need to refine phenotypes, carefully characterize early environments, and integrate observations of social behavior across
Ozcan Dagdemir; Hakan Acaroglu
Child labour widely measured by child labour participation rates in literature is considered by non-attendance rates in primary education in this study. Along with this approach, it is attempted to investigate in what closeness the child labour ratios of countries are also measured by school non-attendance rates. The data is collected from UNICEF and World Bank. 85 developing countries take part in cross-country analysis by ordinary least square technique. The time period interval is 2000-200...
Trepat de Ancos, Esther; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, L.
Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is very frequent in preschoolers. The severity and the long-term negative outcomes make the understanding of this disorder a priority. The goal in this study was to assess the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between parents’ psychopathology and ODD in preschoolers. Method: A community sample of 622 children was assessed longitudinally at age 3 and age 5. Parents reported on children’s psychopathology through a diagnosti...
van Os, Jim; Lataster, Tineke; Delespaul, Philippe; Wichers, Marieke; Myin-Germeys, Inez
Background For the purpose of diagnosis, psychopathology can be represented as categories of mental disorder, symptom dimensions or symptom networks. Also, psychopathology can be assessed at different levels of temporal resolution (monthly episodes, daily fluctuating symptoms, momentary fluctuating mental states). We tested the diagnostic value, in terms of prediction of treatment needs, of the combination of symptom networks and momentary assessment level. Method Fifty-seven patients with a ...
Murray, Stuart B; Boon, Evelyn; Touyz, Stephen W
This report documents two transgendered biological males who met criteria for an eating disorder, who interchangeably reported periods of endorsing masculine and feminine gender identities, allowing an exploration of how their preferred gender orientation impacted their eating disorder psychopathology. This report suggests that the divergence of body image psychopathology amongst men may be impacted by gender role orientation, which is consistent with a developing body of research. PMID:23241091
Long, Elizabeth C.; Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C.; Lind, Penelope A.; Hickie, Ian B; Martin, Nicholas G; Gillespie, Nathan A.
Excessive internet use has been linked to psychopathology. Therefore, understanding the genetic and environmental risks underpinning internet use and their relation to psychopathology is important. This study aims to explore the genetic and environmental etiology of internet use measures and their associations with internalizing disorders and substance use disorders. The sample included 2,059 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) young adult twins from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS...
Joe, Sean; Clarke, Jenell; Ivey, Asha Z.; Kerr, David; King, Cheryl A.
Racial differences in familial factors, psychopathology, perceptions of social support, and socioeconomic status were examined in a matched sample of African American and White suicidal adolescents (N = 90) during a psychiatric hospitalization. Exploratory analyses suggest that significant differences were found in family support and its association with psychopathology, but most noteworthy were the many similarities between the two adolescent groups. The results presented in this study repre...
Joormann, Jutta; Goodman, Sherryl H
This special section honors Dr. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's influential work dedicated to improving our understanding of psychopathology. Dr. Nolen-Hoeksema adopted a transdiagnostic perspective to identify mechanisms that underlie many emotional disorders such as cognitive processes and emotion regulation. Her work on the role of rumination and the role of gender differences in psychopathology not only advanced our understanding of important risk factors that cut across disorders but also inspired the development of improved prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:24661158
Russell, Sushila; Subramanian, Balakrishnan; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar
Background In developing countries, primary health care facilities, such as adolescent health clinics, are frequently the first contact for an adolescent with a health professional for a myriad of health problems including mental health issues. Psychopathology is prevalent among adolescents, and causes significant educational, occupational and social impairment. The presence of psychopathology with impairment requires the development of treatment models to address both of these components. We...
Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
Evolutionary Psychology is a potentially unifying research program for evolutionary studies of psychopathology: Evolutionary Psychopathology. Although there are many competing research programs and researchers who study human or other animals’ minds or behaviour from an evolutionary perspective, these have a fundamental weakness in their reduced potential to aid accumulative theory building, due to the many diverging approaches, subtheories, and lack of overarching meta-theory. Most research ...
Micali, N; D. Stahl; Treasure, J; Simonoff, E.
Background Very few studies have investigated psychopathology in children of mothers with eating disorders (ED). We aimed to determine the effect of maternal ED on childhood psychopathology in a large population-based cohort and investigate relevant risk pathways using structural equation modeling (SEM). Methods Data on emotional and behavioral problems at 3½ years were obtained prospectively on 8,622 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Children of expo...
Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene Raskin; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda
Few prospective studies have examined the relation between early adolescent conduct disorder symptoms and the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) by young adulthood. The relative contribution of other forms of adolescent psychopathology (i.e., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, anxiety/withdrawal) to the development of AUD also remains poorly understood. There is some suggestion that the co-occurrence of conduct disorder symptoms with other forms of psychopathology m...
Ersin Budak; Ibrahim Taymur; Rustem Askin; Buket Belkiz Gungor; Hakan Demirci; Almila Ikra Akgul; Zeynep Anil Sahin
Objectives. Internet addiction is closely associated with general psychopathology and interpersonal relationships. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between internet addiction, psychopathology and selfesteem among university students. Methods. One hundred and eighty-five volunteer university students were involved in this study. The participants are evaluated with socio-demographic data form, Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), Symptom Check List (SCL-90), Rosenberg Self-Est...
Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Michelle P. Warren
This study investigated the impact of social stress on symptoms of psychopathology at the entry into adolescence (111 girls, Mage=11.84, SD=0.77). We examined whether peer stress and pubertal timing were associated with internalizing distress and aggression, and whether responses to stress and cortisol reactivity mediated or moderated these associations. Cortisol samples were collected from saliva samples during in-home visits, and the YSR was used to assess psychopathology. Interestingly, pu...
Hodge, Jennelle C.; Mitchell, Elyse; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Toler, Tomi L.; Bartel, Frank; Hutton M Kearney; Zou, Ying S; Tan, Wen-Hann; Hanscom, Carrie; Kirmani, Salman; Hanson, Rae R.; Skinner, Steven A.; Rogers, Curtis; Everman, David B.; Boyd, Ellen
Microdeletions of chromosomal region 2q23.1 that disrupt MBD5 contribute to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes, however the impact of this locus in human psychopathology has not been described. To characterize the structural variation landscape of MBD5 disruptions and the associated psychopathology, 22 individuals with genomic disruption of MBD5 (translocation, point mutation, and deletion) were identified through whole-genome sequencing or cytogenomic microarray at 11 molecular diag...
Douet, Vanessa; Tanizaki, Naomi; Franke, Adrian; Li, Xingnan; Chang, Linda
HIV-infection is associated with neuroinflammation and greater psychopathological symptoms, which may be mediated by imbalances in the kynurenic pathway (KP). Two key KP enzymes that catabolize kynurenine include kynurenine-aminotransferase II (KATII), which yields antioxidative kynurenine acid [KYNA] in astrocytes, and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), which produces neurotoxic metabolites in microglia. The relationships between polymorphisms in KMO and KATII, psychopathological symptoms, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [KYNA] were evaluated in subjects with and without HIV-infection. Seventy-two HIV-positive and 72-seronegative (SN) participants were genotyped for KATII-rs1480544 and KMO-rs1053230. Although our participants were not currently diagnosed with depression or anxiety, they were assessed for psychopathological distress with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. CSF-[KYNA] was also measured in 100 subjects (49 HIV/51 SN). HIV-participants had more psychopathological distress than SN, especially for anxiety. KATII-by-HIV interactions were found on anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and obsessive compulsivity; KATII-C-carriers had lower scores than TT-carriers in SN but not in HIV. In contrast, the KMO-polymorphism had no influence on psychopathological symptoms in both groups. Overall, CSF-[KYNA] increased with age independently of HIV-serostatus, except KATII-TT-carriers tended to show no age-dependent variations. Therefore, the C-allele in KATII-rs1480544 appears to be protective against psychopathological distress in SN but not in HIV individuals, who had more psychopathological symptoms and likely greater neuroinflammation. The age-dependent increase in CSF-[KYNA] may reflect a compensatory response to age-related inflammation, which may be deficient in KATII-TT-carriers. Targeted treatments that decrease neuroinflammation and increase KYNA in at risk KATII-TT-carriers may reduce psychopathological symptoms
Matthias K Auer; Nina Höhne; María Ángeles Bazarra-Castro; Hildegard Pfister; Johannes Fuss; Stalla, Günter K.; Caroline Sievers; Marcus Ising
OBJECTIVE: Investigating psychopathological profiles of transsexuals raises a very basic methodological question: are control groups, which represent the biological or the phenotypic sex, most suited for an optimal evaluation of psychopathology of transsexuals? METHOD: Male-to-female (MtF) (n=52) and female-to-male transsexuals (FtM) (n=32), receiving cross-sex hormone treatment, were compared with age matched healthy subjects of the same genetic sex (n=178) and with the same phenotypic sex (...
Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A; Boot, Nathalie C; De Dreu, Carsten K W
Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be linked to basic motivational approach and avoidance systems, and that approach and avoidance motivation differentially influences creativity. Based on this reasoning, we predict that propensity for approach-based psychopathologies (e.g., positive schizotypy and risk of bipolar disorder) associates with increased creativity, whereas propensity for avoidance-based psychopathologies (e.g., anxiety, negative schizotypy, and depressive mood) associates with reduced creativity. Previous meta-analyses resonate with this proposition and showed small positive relations between positive schizotypy and creativity and small negative relations between negative schizotypy and creativity and between anxiety and creativity. To this we add new meta-analytic findings showing that risk of bipolar disorder (e.g., hypomania, mania) positively associates with creativity (k = 28, r = .224), whereas depressive mood negatively associates (albeit weakly) with creativity (k = 39, r = -.064). Our theoretical framework, along with the meta-analytic results, indicates when and why specific psychopathologies, and their inclinations, associate with increased or, instead, reduced creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950008
Full Text Available Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s. None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants’ real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed.
Katrin E. Giel
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in obese adolescents participating in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss and to investigate possible relationships with weight change, general psychopathology, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Method: At the beginning and after completion of a 6-month lifestyle intervention, 41 participants (20 females; age: 13.7 ± 1.4 years reported on core symptoms of eating disorders (SCOFF, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, RSES, and HRQOL (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents, KINDL, while parents filled in a questionnaire assessing their children's internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems (Child Behavior Checklist, CBCL. Results: Compared to age-matched normative samples, patients showed increased behavior problems and an impaired HRQOL. 43% of the patients were screened positive for an eating disorder pathology, and this subgroup showed an increased psychopathological burden compared to patients that were screened negative. The lifestyle intervention resulted in a significant weight loss which was unaffected by the presence of an eating disorder pathology. The screening rate for eating disorders remained stable after the intervention. Conclusion: The large overlap, mutual interaction, and high burden of eating and weight problems in children and adolescents underpin the need for an integrated view in both prevention and treatment approaches in pediatric obesity.
Pavlović, Zoran S.; Petković, Nikola; Matijašević Obradović, Jelena
The abuse of children for pornographic purposes is a serious sociological, criminological and victimological problem of today which, despite all preventive and restrictive activities on an international level, shows a tendency of global expansion. The fact that the Republic of Serbia has only recently actively joined the fight against child pornography on the Internet indicates the need for critical analysis of the existing national, penal, and legal solutions and their harmonization with the...
Tuba Cimilli Ozturk
Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.
Srinivasagopalan, Nappinnai, Solayappan
Background It is unclear whether any particular time of the day is Vulnerable for suicide attempts. Suicide attempt is a known risk factor for future completed suicide. Aim To investigate the relationship between the time of suicide attempt and the sociodemograpic and illness characteristics of suicide attempters. Method Time of attempt, clinical and demographic data and illness variables of 74 patients presenting to hospital following suicide attempt were analyzed. Results Our results showed...
Most scholars consider gratitude as a moral emotion, with only few seeing it as a character trait. As a result, no systematic mechanism has ever been attempted to develop gratitude in children. Given the social issue of widespread lack of gratitude in the one-child generations of China, this article attempts to outline a mechanism of parental…
McKenna, Áine E; Gillen, Allison M C
There has been a rise in suicide rates among men who grew up during the 1970's in Northern Ireland (NI). Conflict exposures (CEs) have been linked with suicide ideation but not attempts. Civil conflict has also been linked with aggressive parenting which is associated with the development of aggressive drives, psychopathology and suicidality. This study investigated (1) cohort specific associations between latent classes (LCs) of maltreatment and (2) associations between LCs, CEs, psychopathology and suicidality. Data were from NI Study of Health and Stress (N = 1986). Maltreatment and suicidality were queried using validated measures. Psychiatric assessments were based on DSM-IV criteria. Logistic regression, latent class analysis, chi square tests and mediation analyses were conducted. Two at risk LCs were identified, entitled "family violence exposure" (FVE, 10.4%; Male, 55.4%) and "family violence and sexual abuse exposure" (FVSAE, 1.2%; Female, 90.5%). Both were more likely to have experienced CEs (FVE = 71%; FVSAE = 77.5%) than the low risk class. The FVE were more likely to be male; aged 35-49 and to suffer from a mental disorder. The FVSAE class all endorsed rape, were more likely to be separated and to suffer from a mental disorder. CEs uniquely predicted ideation but not enactment. Psychopathology partially mediated the relationship between LCs and suicidality. FVE and FVSAE directly increased the odds of enactment. These findings are original and highly pertinent and they should be used to inform any strategy for addressing the cohort specific and trauma related rise in suicide rates in NI. PMID:26606724
Full Text Available This is a cross sectional comparative case control study assessing the Relationship between psychopathology and socio demographic and clinical variables in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and Bronchial Asthma in comparison to healthy individuals. The investigation reveals that there is psychopathology in all the three groups. The psychopathology is significantly more in patients with COPD. Psychopathology in COPD patients is related to age, duration, severity of illness and steroid medication. It is found that psychopathology in bronchial asthma patients are more than those of healthy controls but there is no significant difference. The psychopathology is significantly related to relate to age, marital status, occupational status, and smoking. Duration severity of illness and steroid medication.
Webber, Troy A; Kiselica, Andrew M; Arango, Alejandra; Rojas, Elizabeth; Neale, Michael C; Bornovalova, Marina A
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a barrier to treatment, yet the relationship between BPD features and other psychopathology symptoms in residential addictions treatment samples is understudied. Using a sample of adults enrolled in a residential drug treatment facility measured at baseline and 2-3 month follow-up, the authors examined the prospective relationship between BPD features and five indices of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism, as well as psychopathology global severity. There was no effect of time on any of the forms of psychopathology, but females reported higher levels of BPD features, anxiety symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity than males. A series of latent change score models indicated that BPD features predicted increases in all psychopathology scales at follow-up, while the reverse was not true. These results suggest that targeting BPD features in residents of drug treatment facilities may reduce the emergence of new psychopathology in the short term. PMID:25562538
Full Text Available This paper highlights Professor Ronald Melzack's theoretical contributions to the understanding of psychological factors in pain. His work continues to have profound influences on pain theory, research, management and public policy. His ideas have been pivotal to the acceptance of the role of the brain and psychological factors in the experience of pain. This article briefly outlines the prevailing theories of the psychology of pain before the gate-control theory. Melzack's contributions argue against the simplistic linear thinking inherent in specificity theory, which leads to the attribution of pain to either 'organic' or 'psychogenic' causes. Nevertheless, Cartesian dualism continues to thrive. The authors illustrate the nature and extent to which dualistic thinking pervades the field, show that a dualistic conceptualization of pain introduces an element of distrust to the relationship between patient and health professional, and conclude that the available data fail to reach today's standards for an evidence-based approach to pain. The authors believe that medically unexplained pain is not a symptom of a psychological disorder and that it is time to abandon the thinking that separates mind and body. The challenge remains for proponents to provide the empirical evidence to prove that psychopathology causes pain and, in so doing, to specify the mechanisms by which it is generated.
De Pasquale, Concetta; Veroux, Massimiliano; Indelicato, Luisa; Sinagra, Nunzia; Giaquinta, Alessia; Fornaro, Michele; Veroux, Pierfrancesco; Pistorio, Maria L
Renal transplantation is a well established treatment for end-stage renal disease, allowing most patients to return to a satisfactory quality of life. Studies have identified many problems that may affect adaptation to the transplanted condition and post-operative compliance. The psychological implications of transplantation have important consequences even on strictly physical aspects. Organ transplantation is very challenging for the patient and acts as an intense stressor stimulus to which the patient reacts with neurotransmitter and endocrine-metabolic changes. Transplantation can result in a psychosomatic crisis that requires the patient to mobilize all bio-psycho-social resources during the process of adaptation to the new foreign organ which may result in an alteration in self-representation and identity, with possible psychopathologic repercussions. These reactions are feasible in mental disorders, e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and psychosomatic disorders. In organ transplantation, the fruitful collaboration between professionals with diverse scientific expertise, calls for both a guarantee for mental health and greater effectiveness in challenging treatments for a viable association between patients, family members and doctors. Integrated and multidisciplinary care should include uniform criteria and procedures for standard assessments, for patient autonomy, adherence to therapy, new coping strategies and the adoption of more appropriate lifestyles. PMID:25540735
Perry, Ronald W.
For some years, social scientists have been unable to agree on the extent to which experiencing a natural disaster is related to the presence of psychopathological symptoms Indeed, social scientists appear to be well-polarized, some arguing that disasters cause severe negative psychological reactions in victims, with others claiming that any psychological effects, if they exist at all, are minor and transient This paper reviews the controversy and identifies numerous conceptual and methodological difficulties associated with the competing positions. It is argued that the preoccupation of researchers with documenting positive or negative instances of psychological effects has lead them to ignore the issue of identifying processes through which disasters might impinge upon an individual's emotional stability. As a first step toward sketching out these processes, an extensive review of the literature on human response to natural disasters is undertaken. Eleven variables—level of community preparedness, scope of impact, duration of impact, destruction of kin and friendship networks, property damage, pre-impact psychological stability, social support, grief reactions, availability of institutional help, and successful coping skills—are identified as important in determining the psychological impact of disasters. These variables are operationalized and arranged into an interpretative framework that postulates the nature and magnitude of the interrelationships among them based upon the existing research literature
Full Text Available The exchange of goods, facilities and services, according to a neoliberal, as well as being the main occupation of people constitutes the normative basis underpinning all other devices of industry and in particular those that organize the work, the relations between social groups and, finally, also inform the more intimate and personal relationship. If we look at how both have changed employment contracts, and relational habits and customs related to them, we'll see that there is a close correlation between the organization of work, social life and emotional exchanges. The job now requires: cooperation, spirit of competition, individual initiative, ability to adapt to the speed at which processing takes place. These reasons are now perceived as inevitable cultural, habitual, instinctive, and not to think about. The propensity to consume up to the waste, the need to update what the technology we have, the change of taste in every season has become a matter of status, an inevitable narcissistic brand witch penetrates in the minds causing apprehension and discomfort.Keywords:Psychopathology of bondings; Post-modernity; Social and psychological changes
Beauchamp, M H; Anderson, V
Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent cause of acquired disability in childhood and can have a serious impact on development across the lifespan. The consequences of early TBI vary according to injury severity, with severe injuries usually resulting in more serious physical, cognitive and behavioral sequelae. Both clinical and research reports document residual deficits in a range of skills, including intellectual function, attention, memory, learning, and executive function. In addition, recent investigations suggest that early brain injury also affects psychological and social development and that problems in these domains may increase in the long term postinjury. Together, these deficits affect children's ability to function effectively at school, in the home, and in their social environment, resulting in impaired acquisition of knowledge, psychological and social problems, and overall reduced quality of life. Ultimately, recovery from childhood TBI depends on a range of complex biological, developmental, and psychosocial factors making prognosis difficult to predict. This chapter will detail the cognitive (intellectual, attentional, mnesic, executive, educational, and vocational) and psychopathological (behavioral, adaptive, psychological, social) sequelae of childhood TBI with a particular focus on postinjury recovery patterns in the acute, short-, and long-term phases, as well as into adulthood. PMID:23622301
This paper examines the parapraxes made by, to or about Jewish-identified individuals discussed by Freud in Psychopathology of everyday life. Each of these errors and slips is occasioned by what he terms a 'mesalliance' between a Jew and a Gentile. Such incidents of distorted language betray unresolved ambivalences and unformulated anxieties endemic to Jewish-Gentile interaction in Freud's Vienna. First, the disturbed relationships between German-speaking Gentiles and their threatening Doppelganger, the Jews, are analyzed by means of Freud's analysis of the 'uncanny' and an examination of the particular restrictions placed upon the 'officially' emancipated Jews in the Habsburg Empire, especially with regard to intermarriage. Then, the paper turns to Freud's discussions of explicitly Jewish-identified individuals and their limitation to illustrating parapraxes associated with what should be the most pleasurable and intimate relationships between Jew and Gentile, namely sexual and connubial relations. His focus upon this conflicted conjunction diagnosed the intrinsically problematic character of Jew-Gentile interaction in his Vienna. PMID:15509339
Papageorgiou, V; Frangou-Garunovic, A; Iordanidou, R; Yule, W; Smith, P; Vostanis, P
This paper describes the pattern of psychopathology in a sample of 95 children of 8-13 years, who had experienced war in Bosnia. The children were assessed with a battery of standardised measures during a psychosocial support programme in Northern Greece. They either came from refugee families (44%) or had suffered significant family loss (a parent had been killed in 28% and the father was injured or absent in 27% of cases). Children recalled a substantial number of war traumatic experiences. According to previously established cut-off scores on self-report measures, 45 children (47%) scored within the clinical range on the Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children, 28 (23%) on the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and 65 (28%) on the Impact of Event Scale (IES) measuring PTSD reactions. There was a significant association between the number of war traumatic experiences and the intrusion and avoidance scores on the IES. The findings are discussed in relation to setting up intervention programmes for children victims of war and their families. PMID:10926057
D'Augelli, Anthony R.; Grossman, Arnold H.; Salter, Nicholas P.; Vasey, Joseph J.; Starks, Michael T.; Sinclair, Katerina O.
In this study predictors of serious suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth were examined. Three groups were compared: youth who reported no attempts, youth who reported attempts unrelated to their sexual orientation, and youth whose attempts were considered related to their sexual orientation. About one third of respondents…
Beautrais, Annette L.
Analysis of rates of further suicidal behavior among individuals making medically serious suicide attempts may help to predict suicide and suicide attempt from baseline characteristics of the individual and the index suicide attempt. Data are drawn from a 5-year study of 302 individuals making medically serious suicide attempts with information…
Sroufe, L. Alan; Egeland, Byron
A longitudinal investigation focused on the etiology of psychiatric and behavioral disorders in a sample of 190 children at risk for developmental problems. Data collection began during pregnancy and included assessments of: (1) parental personality, intelligence, and parenting attitudes; (2) parent-child interaction and relationship quality; (3)…
Lemos, Ida Timoteo; Faisca, Luis Madeira; Valadas, Sandra Teodosio
The psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale-Short Form (APS-SF) were studied in a sample of 656 Portuguese adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years, assessed in school context. Also, the aim of the study was to gather data concerning age- and gender-related differences in the expression of psychopathological…
Herbst, Chris M; Tekin, Erdal
A complete account of the US child care subsidy system requires an understanding of its implications for both parental and child well-being. Although the effects of child care subsidies on maternal employment and child development have been recently studied, many other dimensions of family well-being have received little attention. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the impact of child care subsidy receipt on maternal health and the quality of child-parent interactions. The empirical analyses use data from three nationally representative surveys, providing access to numerous measures of family well-being. In addition, we attempt to handle the possibility of non-random selection into subsidy receipt by using several identification strategies both within and across the surveys. Our results consistently indicate that child care subsidies are associated with worse maternal health and poorer interactions between parents and their children. In particular, subsidized mothers report lower levels of overall health and are more likely to show symptoms consistent with anxiety, depression, and parenting stress. Such mothers also reveal more psychological and physical aggression toward their children and are more likely to utilize spanking as a disciplinary tool. Together, these findings suggest that work-based public policies aimed at economically disadvantaged mothers may ultimately undermine family well-being. PMID:23832797
... might do so anyway because they lack enough self-control . Preteens and teens know they're not supposed ... About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood Stress Nine Steps to ...
... Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) defines ... person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime to ...
Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...
Hagan, Melissa J; Sulik, Michael J; Lieberman, Alicia F
Studies of the association between traumatic experiences and psychopathology in early childhood have primarily focused on specific types of events (e.g., sexual abuse) or aggregated different types of events without differentiating among them. We extend this body of work by investigating patterns of traumatic event exposure in a high-risk, ethnically diverse sample of children ages 3-6 (N = 211; 51 % female) and relating these different patterns to parents' reports of child externalizing, internalizing, and post-traumatic stress symptomatology. Using latent class analysis, which divides a heterogeneous population into homogenous subpopulations, we identified three patterns of traumatic events based on parents' responses to an interview-based assessment of trauma exposure in young children: (1) severe exposure, characterized by a combination of family violence and victimization; (2) witnessing family violence without victimization; and (3) moderate exposure, characterized by an absence of family violence but a moderate probability of other events. The severe exposure class exhibited elevated internalizing and post-traumatic stress symptoms relative to the witness to violence and moderate exposure classes, controlling for average number of traumatic events. Results highlight the need for differentiation between profiles of traumatic life event exposure and the potential for person-centered methods to complement the cumulative risk perspective. PMID:26354023
Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie
Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi
The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…
Park, Soyoung; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk
Case management interventions for suicide attempters aimed at helping adjust their social life to prevent reattempts have high nonparticipation and dropout rates. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the group who refused to participate in the suicide prevention program in Korea. A total of 489 patients with a suicide attempt who visited Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, from December 2009 to December 2013 were analyzed. All patients were divided into the participation group (n = 262) and the refusal group (n = 227) according to their participation in the case management program. Demographic and clinical characteristics of each group were examined. Results showed that the refusal group had low risks for suicide in terms of risk factors related with psychopathologies and presenting suicide behavior. That is, the refusal group had less patients with co-morbid medical illnesses and more patients with mild severity of depression compared to the participation group. However, the refusal group had more interpersonal conflict, more isolation of social integrity, and more impaired insight about suicide attempt. The results suggest that nonparticipation in the case management program may depend upon the patient's impaired insight about the riskiness of suicide and lack of social support. PMID:26425048
... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...
May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David
Suicide attempts are often regarded as impulsive acts. However, there is little consensus regarding the definition or clinical characteristics of an "impulsive" attempt. To clarify this issue, we examined 3 indicators of the impulsivity of an attempt: (a) preparation, (b) time contemplating the attempt, and (c) self-report that impulsivity motivated the attempt. We examined relationships among the indicators and their relationship to trait impulsivity and characteristics of the suicide attempt. Adult participants (N = 205) with a history of suicide attempts were administered validated interviews and questionnaires. In general, the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators correlated only moderately with each other and not at all with trait impulsivity or with important characteristics of the attempt (e.g., lethality, preattempt communication, motivations). However, there were 2 exceptions. First, intent to die was inversely related to the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators (rs ranged from -.17 to .45) such that more impulsive attempts were associated with lower intent. Second, self-report that the attempt was motivated by impulsivity was related to 3 facets of trait impulsivity (rs ranged from .16 to .41). These findings suggest that individuals endorsing trait impulsivity are likely to describe their attempts as motivated by impulsivity, regardless of the presence of preparation or prolonged contemplation. Overall, study results suggest that the common conception of a unidimensional impulsive attempt may be inaccurate and that the emphasis on general impulsivity in prevention guidelines should be tempered. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26653582
de Pourtalès, Marie-Atéa; Hazen, Constance; Cottencin, Olivier; Consoli, Silla M
Suicide represents, in France, the second cause of death in youth aged 15 to 24. Sixteen per cent of juvenile mortality is attributable to suicide. The annual incidence of suicide attempts in this age group is estimated at about 40 000 cases. Jumping from high represents 6% of deaths from suicide: girls resort to this method twice as often as boys. The severity of somatic consequences and the frequency of sequels following a jumping from a window can hold center stage for a long time, at the risk of trivializing the psychopathology underlying such a violent acting-out. These clinical situations particularly involve a multidisciplinary follow up including an early and active participation of psychiatric consultation-liaison teams. Jumping from a window can occur even apart from established mental disorders, such as psychotic or mood disorders. Our four case-reports draw attention to risk factors represented by: substance abuse (alcohol, cannabis, but also cocaine, ecstasy...), the notion of previous suicide attempts and various drive disorders having a self-harm value or displaying an underlying impulsiveness (eating disorders, scarifications, shoplifting, running away...), the precipitating role of a recent loss of a parent or an important removal from family environment, the potential influence, especially in this age group, of spectacular cases of suicide amplified by the Medias ("Werther effect"). Paradoxically, to belong to a well-off milieu can also contribute to the risk of such acting-out, when parents replace affection and availability by an easy access to various consumer goods and a permissive education, thus opening the way to the encounter with different substances. PMID:19944561
Janssen, Diederik F
A scientific nomenclature of erotic age preferences informed the mid- through late nineteenth century joint appearance of homosexuality and sexual abuse of minors on the medico-legal scene. Yet, even in the twenty-first century, legal, psychiatric and culture-critical dimensions of related terms are rarely cleanly distinguished. Review of primary sources shows the ongoing Western suspension of notions of 'sick desire', alongside and beyond the medicalisation of homosexuality, between metaphor, legal interdiction and postulated psychopathology. Virtually all early attention to erotic age preference occurred in the context of emergent attention to erotic gender preference. Age of attraction and age difference centrally animate modern homosexuality's pre-modern past; its earliest psychiatric nomenclature and typologies (1844-69); its early aetiologies stipulating degrees of sexual differentiation (1890 s); its concomitant sub-classification (1896-1914); its earliest psychophysiological tests (1950s); and, finally, its post-psychiatric, social scientific typologies (1980s). Several identifications of 'paedophilia' were seen throughout the 1890 s but as a trope it gained cultural momentum only during, and as a seemingly intriguing corollary of, the progressive depsychiatricisation of homosexuality across the Anglo-European world (late 1950s through 1980s). Early twentieth century sources varied in having it denote (1) a distinct perversion, thus possible 'complication' of sexual inversion (2) a discrete corollary of psychosexual differentiation akin to gender preference (3) a distinct subtype of fetishism, thus a likely imprint of early seduction (4) a more intricate expression of erotic symbolism or psychosexual complex or (5) a taste answering to culture, a lack of it, or a libertine disregard for it. PMID:26352305
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children of parents with alcohol dependence syndrome are particularly at high risk of emotional and behavioral problems such as learning disability, hyperactivity, psychomotor delays, somatic symptoms and emotional problems. Neuropsychological functions in these children have been the focus of attention over the last decade. AIM: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of behavioral and cognitive problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children of patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome, with no known psychiatric illness; aged between 5 and 10 years (B oth male & female; with mother having GHQ scores less than 4, formed the study group and control group formed by the children of normal. 108 such Children (54 in Study group and 54 in Control group were evaluated for psychopathology, neuro development and cognitive functioning. Tools used were: DSM IV criteria for diagnosis of Alcohol Dependence Syndrome, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ - 28, and Socio - demographic data sheet, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – IV (WISC - IV, Trail Making Test (TMT and Neurodevelopment Scale. RESULTS: Behavioral, emotional difficulties and Neuro developmental deficits are commonly seen in children of alcohol - dependent parents as they scored statistically significant high scores on Neurodevelopmental Scale, Externalizing subscale and a marginal high score on Internalizing Subscale of CBCL. On the WISC - IV , there was a statistically significant difference in various subtests and indices including verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed and total intellectual quotient ; indicating a global dysfunction. On the TMT, children of alcohol - dependent parents took as much time to do the task as the control group but tended to make more errors and this difference is
MacBeth, Angus; Gumley, Andrew
Compassion has emerged as an important construct in studies of mental health and psychological therapy. Although an increasing number of studies have explored relationships between compassion and different facets of psychopathology there has as yet been no systematic review or synthesis of the empirical literature. We conducted a systematic search of the literature on compassion and mental health. We identified 20 samples from 14 eligible studies. All studies used the Neff Self Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003b). We employed meta-analysis to explore associations between self-compassion and psychopathology using random effects analyses of Fisher's Z correcting for attenuation arising from scale reliability. We found a large effect size for the relationship between compassion and psychopathology of r=-0.54 (95% CI=-0.57 to -0.51; Z=-34.02; p<.0001). Heterogeneity was significant in the analysis. There was no evidence of significant publication bias. Compassion is an important explanatory variable in understanding mental health and resilience. Future work is needed to develop the evidence base for compassion in psychopathology, and explore correlates of compassion and psychopathology. PMID:22796446
Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Rodrigues, Tânia
The current study examined the associations between peer victimization, body image shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, depressive symptoms and eating psychopathology in 609 female adolescents. Correlational analyses showed that being the victim of bullying was positively associated with body image shame, self-criticism, with low self-reassurance, depressive symptoms and eating psychopathology. A path analysis indicated that victimization experiences were associated with increased depressive symptoms partially through increased levels of body image shame, and a severe form of self-criticism - hated self. Body image shame and hated-self self-criticism fully mediated the association between victimization experiences eating psychopathology. The tested model accounted for a total of 51% of depressive symptoms variance and for 52% of eating psychopathology variance. These findings may have important intervention and prevention implications, by suggesting that bullying experiences fuel body image shame and consequent self-directed hostility and anger, which, in turn, predict increased depressive symptomatology and eating psychopathology in female adolescents. PMID:26318063
Aldao, Amelia; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Schweizer, Susanne
We examined the relationships between six emotion-regulation strategies (acceptance, avoidance, problem solving, reappraisal, rumination, and suppression) and symptoms of four psychopathologies (anxiety, depression, eating, and substance-related disorders). We combined 241 effect sizes from 114 studies that examined the relationships between dispositional emotion regulation and psychopathology. We focused on dispositional emotion regulation in order to assess patterns of responding to emotion over time. First, we examined the relationship between each regulatory strategy and psychopathology across the four disorders. We found a large effect size for rumination, medium to large for avoidance, problem solving, and suppression, and small to medium for reappraisal and acceptance. These results are surprising, given the prominence of reappraisal and acceptance in treatment models, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and acceptance-based treatments, respectively. Second, we examined the relationship between each regulatory strategy and each of the four psychopathology groups. We found that internalizing disorders were more consistently associated with regulatory strategies than externalizing disorders. Lastly, many of our analyses showed that whether the sample came from a clinical or normative population significantly moderated the relationships. This finding underscores the importance of adopting a multi-sample approach to the study of psychopathology. PMID:20015584
The paper presents a model where the interplay between fertility, child labour, and education can explain economic stagnation when parents live in an environment of high child mortality. If in contrast child mortality is low, the solution of the parental decision problem leads to perpetual economic growth. The two long-run states are connected by a path of demographic transition and economic take-off along which the incidence of child labour disappears. The paper also discusses alternative po...
Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal
Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the implications of child care subsidies for child development. In this paper, we provide a systematic assessment of the impact of subsidy receipt on a wide ran...
Goodman, Gail S.; Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, Latonya S.; Larson, Rakel P.; Augusti, Else-Marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony
The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive DRM lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the ...
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are multifactorial diseases, which are among the most prevalent disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry. Aesthetic sports are often considered as a risk factor for the development of an eating disorder. The present professorial dissertation for the first time demonstrates no higher risk for competitive athletes aged 12 to 18 years to develop an eating disorder. Research shows that psychiatric comorbidity is a very unfavorable prognostic ...
... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...
V. Hendriks (Vincent)
textabstractThe etiology of addiction has a long history of clinical and scientific interest, which is characterized by differences in conceptual approach, conflicting data and public controversy. There have been numerous attempts to describe the antecedents and consequences of addiction in theoreti
Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos
A study examines the role of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results show that risk accumulation matters instead of specificity and that the number of adverse life events is nonmultiplicative with psychopathology.