Sample records for child preschool

  1. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna


    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  2. Parental perception of preschool child body weight. (United States)

    Garrett-Wright, Dawn


    Obesity in preschoolers has risen dramatically in the last decade. Although studies have demonstrated that parents of preschoolers have incorrect perceptions of their child's body weight, little is known about the factors that may be associated with these perceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental perceptions of preschool child body weight and parental psychosocial factors. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression analyses. More than one third of the children in the sample were at risk for being overweight or were already overweight. However, less than 6% of parents felt that their child had an elevated body weight. Results from univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the parent's health literacy level was a significant predictor of the accuracy of their perceptions regarding their child's body weight (p perceptions. Results from this study indicate that assessing parental perceptions of preschool child body weight can help providers accurately understand how parents view their children and lead to tailored educational interventions. In addition, the results support previous research suggesting that parental health literacy is a key to providing high-quality family-centered care.

  3. Remediating Child Poverty via Preschool: Exploring Practitioners' Perspectives in England (United States)

    Simpson, Donald


    Within developed countries child poverty is a social problem with significant negative effects. With a backdrop of austerity, the UK's first child poverty strategy was released in 2011. Pervaded by neo-liberal ideology this strategy identifies preschool services as key to remediating the negative effects of child poverty on children and families…

  4. Child-Mother and Child-Father Play Interaction Patterns with Preschoolers (United States)

    John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy


    The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…

  5. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly


    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  6. Values and Values Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika


    The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…

  7. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families (United States)

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.


    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  8. Teacher-Child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills (United States)

    Yoleri, Sibel


    The aim of this study was to determine how children's temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher-child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational…

  9. Preschool and Early Childhood: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography cites 67 items relating to preschool and early childhood selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts." Bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts are provided for each entry. One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings in the area of handicapped and gifted…

  10. Renovascular hypertension and intrarenal artery aneurysms in a preschool child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, David J.; Barletta, Gina-Marie; Bunchman, Timothy E. [Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Helen DeVos Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Mowry, Jeanne A. [Oregon Health Sciences University, Pediatric Nephrology, Northwest Permanente, P.C. and Doernbecher Children' s Hospital, Portland, OR (United States)


    Renovascular hypertension from renal artery aneurysmal formation is a rare complication of fibromuscular dysplasia. Few data exist to direct the management of intrarenal artery aneurysms in pediatric patients. We report the presentation, diagnosis and management of renovascular hypertension and intrarenal aneurysmal disease in a preschool child. (orig.)

  11. Teacher-child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel YOLERİ


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine how children’s temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher–child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational survey method was used in this study. The sample consisted of 195 preschool children. According to the results, a negative significant relationship was found between the teacher-child relationships scores and the reactivity sub-dimension of temperament. Also, there are positive significant relationships between teacher-child relationship scores and language skills. In addition, both the reactivity sub dimension of temperament and language skills demonstrate a predictor effect on the teacher-child relationships. Reactivity was the most important temperament trait factor affecting relationships.

  12. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background...... as well as an instrumental variable approach based on wider geographic area aggregates to test whether those correlations reveal unbiased causal effects. The identification of truly effective quality characteristics of day-care centres enhances policymakers' resource allocation to make all children...

  13. Associations among Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschoolers and Child Language Skills (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca


    This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…

  14. Comparative Study of Child Assessment Practices in English and Korean Preschools (United States)

    Nah, Kwi-Ok


    Child assessment practices in English and Korean preschools were compared by analysing data from interviews with educators, examples of child assessment, and official documents from each country. Child assessment in England was systematically implemented and characterised by several methodological and procedural strengths, whereas assessment in…

  15. Does Professional Development of Preschool Teachers Improve Child Socio-Emotional Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ...

  16. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Preschool Teacher Cognitions and Responses to Child Aggression (United States)

    Pochtar, Randi; Del Vecchio, Tamara


    The associations among preschool teachers' attributions about child responsibility, intentionality, knowledge, and the seriousness of hypothetical displays of children's aggressive behavior are examined in United States ("N"?=?82) and Vietnamese ("N"?=?91) preschool teachers. The results suggest cross-cultural differences as…

  17. Maternal Socialization and Child Temperament as Predictors of Emotion Regulation in Turkish Preschoolers (United States)

    Yagmurlu, Bilge; Altan, Ozge


    This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…

  18. Circle of Security in Child Care: Putting Attachment Theory into Practice in Preschool Classrooms (United States)

    Cooper, Glen; Hoffman, Kent; Powell, Bert


    This article describes the Circle of Security-Classroom (COS-C) approach to applying attachment theory in preschool settings. Early childhood is an incubator for a wide range of development including the underpinnings of school readiness. Secure teacher-child relationships support this process. However, most preschool staff members lack guidance…

  19. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie


    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  20. An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in Izmir, Turkey. (United States)

    Karadag, Sevinç Çırak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobalı, Nilay


    Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect.

  1. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study. (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben


    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction.

  2. Parent Physical Punishment and Child Aggression in a Singapore Chinese Preschool Sample (United States)

    Ngee Sim, Tick; Ping Ong, Lue


    We examine how parental physical punishment (caning and slapping) and child aggression are related, and possible moderation by authoritative control and rejection. A sample of 286 Singapore Chinese preschoolers ages 4-6 reported on rejection; their parents reported on control, caning, and slapping; and their teachers rated child aggression.…

  3. Preschoolers' Emotion Regulation Strategy Understanding: Relations with Emotion Socialization and Child Self-Regulation (United States)

    Cole, Pamela M.; Dennis, Tracy A.; Smith-Simon, Kristen E.; Cohen, Laura H.


    Preschool-age children's ability to verbally generate strategies for regulating anger and sadness, and to recognize purported effective strategies for these emotions, were examined in relation to child factors (child age, temperament, and language ability) and maternal emotion socialization (supportiveness and structuring in response to child…

  4. Volunteers as Teachers of Child Management to Parents of Behaviour-Disordered Preschoolers. (United States)

    Seymour, Frederick W.; France, Karyn G.


    Ten women volunteers were trained as teachers of child management skills to parents of behavior-disordered preschoolers. Evaluation of the project's outcomes using a consumer satisfaction survey, parent ratings on a problem behavior checklist, and staff ratings of goal attainment, showed major changes in child behavior maintained at three-month…

  5. How to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family (United States)

    ... to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to inform and guide ... two to five year old child after a suicide attempt in the family. It is not intended to replace the advice ...

  6. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary


    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  7. Using Reinforcer Pairing and Fading to Increase the Milk Consumption of a Preschool Child


    Tiger, Jeffrey H; Hanley, Gregory P


    The present study replicates and extends previous research on the treatment of food selectivity by implementing pairing and fading procedures to increase a child's milk consumption during regularly scheduled preschool meals. The treatment involved mixing a small amount of chocolate syrup into a glass of milk and gradually eliminating the chocolate. The procedure and data collection were implemented by preschool teachers and resulted in increased milk drinking at school, which was maintained a...

  8. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India. (United States)

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M


    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries.

  9. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal (United States)

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena


    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  10. Effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) in a preschool setting. (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Gershenson, Rachel A; Farahmand, Farahnaz K; Thaxter, Peter J; Behling, Steven; Budd, Karen S


    This research addressed the need for trained child care staff to support optimal early social-emotional development in urban, low-income, ethnic minority children. We evaluated effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), an approach adapted from Eyberg's Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). TCIT focuses on increasing preschool teachers' positive attention skills and consistent discipline in order to enhance children's psychosocial functioning and prevent mental health problems. A total of 12 teachers participated in small-group workshop sessions with in vivo coaching on their use of skills in the classroom. A multiple-baseline design across four classrooms (3 teachers each) evaluated effects of training on teacher behaviors during weekly classroom observations. Findings indicated systematic increases in trained skills during intervention, and consumer evaluations showed that the training was rated positively. Our results suggest that TCIT is a promising approach for enhancing positive teacher-child interactions in a preschool setting and should receive further investigation.

  11. Efficacy of steroid treatments in the asthmatic preschool child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H


    Asthma represents the most common chronic disease in preschool children. Hospital admission for wheezy disorders is the most common paediatric chronic disease causing hospital admission and more common in young children than later in life.......Asthma represents the most common chronic disease in preschool children. Hospital admission for wheezy disorders is the most common paediatric chronic disease causing hospital admission and more common in young children than later in life....

  12. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik


    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  13. Factors of Social Adjustment to School: Child's Personality, Family and Pre-School (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina


    The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…

  14. Using Reinforcer Pairing and Fading to Increase the Milk Consumption of a Preschool Child (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Hanley, Gregory P.


    The present study replicates and extends previous research on the treatment of food selectivity by implementing pairing and fading procedures to increase a child's milk consumption during regularly scheduled preschool meals. The treatment involved mixing a small amount of chocolate syrup into a glass of milk and gradually eliminating the…

  15. Variation in Children's Classroom Engagement Throughout a Day in Preschool: Relations to Classroom and Child Factors (United States)

    Vitiello, Virginia E.; Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Williford, Amanda P.


    This study examined sources of variability in preschool children's positive and negative engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks, and how that variability was related to both classroom activity settings (e.g., teacher-structured time, outdoor time, transitions) and child factors (age, gender). Participants were 283 socioeconomically and…

  16. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about and Experience with Child Abuse and Neglect (United States)

    Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine


    This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…

  17. More than Teacher Directed or Child Initiated: Preschool Curriculum Type, Parent Involvement, and Children's Outcomes in the Child-Parent Centers (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Clements, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Niles, Michael D.


    This study investigated the contributions of curriculum approach and parent involvement to the short- and long-term effects of preschool participation in the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Data came from the complete cohort of 989 low-income children (93% African American) in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, who attended preschool in the 20…

  18. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books (United States)

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice


    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  19. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children. (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M


    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  20. Acute lymphangitis in a preschool child: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh Huai Seng


    Full Text Available A 3-year old preschool boy presented with apruritic red streak at the dorsum of his right foot travelingupward from the affected site which was red and swollen.Insect sting was the more likely trigger which had causedthe cellulitis and subsequently the acute lymphangitis.

  1. Changing Teacher-Child Dyadic Interactions to Improve Preschool Children's Externalizing Behaviors. (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; DeCoster, Jamie; Hartz, Karyn A; Carter, Lauren M; Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Hatfield, Bridget E


    A randomized controlled trial was used to examine the impact of an attachment-based, teacher-child, dyadic intervention (Banking Time) to improve children's externalizing behavior. Participants included 183 teachers and 470 preschool children (3-4 years of age). Classrooms were randomly assigned to Banking Time, child time, or business as usual (BAU). Sparse evidence was found for main effects on child behavior. Teachers in Banking Time demonstrated lower negativity and fewer positive interactions with children compared to BAU teachers at post assessment. The impacts of Banking Time and child time on reductions of parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior were greater when teachers evidenced higher-quality, classroom-level, teacher-child interactions at baseline. An opposite moderating effect was found for children's positive engagement with teachers.

  2. Relationship between overall child development and caries severity in Chilean three-year-old preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Mufdi


    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between caries and overall child development in three-year-old children in the cities of Linares and Talca, Chile, 2014-2015. Method: Cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 170 preschool children attending daycare centers in Linares and Talca. Four dimensions of child development (language, cognition, motor skills and socio-emotional development were qualitatively assessed using the child learning and development test (TADI, for its acronym in Spanish. Nutritional development was calculated with the weight/height index. Caries history was assessed by the dmft index and compromised tissue quantification. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's rho, ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis. Results: A negative linear correlation was observed between dmft and total TADI score (r=-0.20, p=0.00, and the dimensions of language (r=-0.19, p=0.01, cognition (r=-0.18, p=0.02 and socio-emotional development (r=-0.21, p=0.01. Preschoolers with a dmft of >6.5 had a lower average TADI score than those with a dmft of <2.6 (p=0.009. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of compromised tissue quantification between preschool children with normal and altered development. No statistically significant association between dmft and nutritional development was found. Conclusion: A relationship between caries severity and overall child development in three-year-old preschool children was observed. Longitudinal studies are required to assess causality.

  3. Quality reform and "the learning pre-school child" in the making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.


    The article argues that Early Childhood Education & Care (ECEC) is being redesigned based on quality reform discourse with references to global knowledge economy across Nordic countries and the EU. This takes place in policy processes that extend from transnational agents like the OECD and EU to ...... playing, and the learning pre-school child emerges. Put together, this situation represents a paradigmatic challenge to professionals and the struggle about their autonomy and discretion....

  4. Estimation of the level of cognitive development of a preschool child using the system of situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Gorev


    Full Text Available The article describes a model of reliable estimation of cognitive development of a preschool child by means of the system of situations. Thus the leading technology is modeling the systems of open-type tasks of mathematical contents and the system analysis of big selections of experimental data based on the two-point scale of four parameters: optimality of the ideas offered by children; efficiency of the reasoning given by them; originality of their answer and level of decision development. As a result of the pilot study conducted in 2015 on selection of 3,800 preschool children, it was succeeded to approve the offered technology of estimation and to generalize results in the form of the integrated assessment of relative character – coefficient of cognitive development level. Mathematical-statistical processing of the results of the research allows to prove uniformity of experimental selection and to specify the level of cognitive development with a reliable accuracy of normal distribution for each age group of the preschool child basing on calculation of samples quartiles that in turn can define the further program of individual development of a child providing his transition to higher level of the general education and consequently, higher quality of education.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The authors’ in their exposure likes to point the most complicated problems, which appeared when the mentally retarded child was born in a family that is followed by dramatic changes of their wishes and aspirations. In this contexts the authors elaborated many questions as well as:· relation between the parents;· mentally retarded child in the setting and living ambient;· social problems of mentally retarded children and their families;· the rule of the treats in the work with parents of mentally retarded child.

  6. Making children laugh: parent-child dyadic synchrony and preschool attachment. (United States)

    Bureau, Jean-FrançOis; Yurkowski, Kim; Schmiedel, Sabrina; Martin, Jodi; Moss, Ellen; Pallanca, Dominique


    The current study examined whether dyadic synchrony of father-child and mother-child interactions in a playful context were associated with attachment organization in preschool children. One hundred seven children (48 boys, Mage = 46.67 months, SD = 8.57) and their mothers and fathers (counterbalanced order of lab visits) participated in a playful interaction without toys (Laughing Task procedure). Playful interactions were coded based on the degree to which the dyads demonstrated a variety of behavior representing dyadic synchrony and task management. Children's attachment behavior toward fathers and mothers was observed in a modified separation-reunion procedure adapted for the preschool period. Results demonstrate that mothers and fathers are similar in their effort to arouse and engage their child in a playful context, but mothers achieved a greater synchrony with their child. Disorganized attachment to either mother or father is linked with a lack of synchrony in dyadic interaction. Findings are in contrast with prevailing theory, suggesting that despite gender-related differences in parental playful behaviors, dyadic synchrony is equally important in both mother- and father-child relationships for the development of organized social and affectional bonds.

  7. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.


    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  8. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela


    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  9. Individuating "Sparks" and "Flickers" of "A Life" in Dance Practices with Preschoolers: The "Monstrous Child" of Colebrook's Queer Vitalism (United States)

    Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz; Palmer, Anna; Gustafsson, Lovisa


    What are the dominant images of the Child in contemporary Western societies? In order to challenge some dominant images of the Child, this essay explores the possibilities of analyzing an experimental dance practice with preschoolers aged 1-2 years with Claire Colebrook's theorizing on "the war on norms". Colebrook suggests a "Queer…

  10. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate


    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  11. Child personality measures as contemporaneous and longitudinal predictors of social behaviour in pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič


    Full Text Available Predictive relations from personality measures to children's social behaviour in pre-school were examined for 3 year old children (at Time 1; T1 who were reassessed one year later (at Time 2; T2. At both times, mothers and fathers separately rated children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003, while the pre-school teachers assessed the same children on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Three general predictive models were examined, contemporaneous (at T1 and T2, longitudinal, and cumulative. Mother- and father-rated child personality was contemporaneously predictive of children's social behaviour as assessed by their pre-school teachers. The most consistent predictions across the spouses and at both times of measurement were obtained for child externalizing behaviour. More disagreeable and emotionally stable children, as opposed to their less disagreeable and more in stable counterparts, were concurrently observed to exhibit more externalizing tendencies during the time spent in pre-school. Maternal reports were longitudinally predictive of children's social competence and internalizing behaviour and the father reports predicted internalizing and externalizing behaviour one year later. Neuroticism at age 3 was consistently linked to internalizing tendencies at age 4 across parents both longitudinally and cumulatively. Father-rated Disagreeableness at age 3 was predictive of externalizing behaviour one year later in both longitudinal and cumulative models, while the contemporaneous information on child Disagreeableness and Neuroticism (reversed at T2, independent of the respective child traits at T1, significantly improved the cumulative predictions of externalizing behaviour from maternal reports. In general, child personality scores derived from maternal data sets were more powerful predictors of children's social behaviour across

  12. Language Development in the Pre-School Child. (United States)

    Lenskyj, Helen

    This brief overview of child language acquisition begins with a discussion of the affective and cognitive dimensions of the transition period from babbling to speech. Three theories of language acquisition--reinforcement theory, social learning theory, and "innate mechanism" theory--are reviewed. Several theories of the function of language,…

  13. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children. (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla


    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  14. Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals. (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Harris, Jennifer; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A


    Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children.

  15. Social behaviour in pre-school children: a child-centred follow-up study

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    Maša Vidmar


    Full Text Available The contribution presents a study with 3-year-olds and examines relative contribution of children's age of entry to pre-school (1 and 3 years, their personality type (resilient, average, willful and maternal parenting style (optimal, less-than-optimal to the development of individual differences in social behavior. Employing The Family Environment Questionnaire (Zupančič, Podlesek, & Kavčič, 2004, 2 internally replicable parenting styles were identified with maternal and paternal self-report data sets. The styles differed mainly by authoritative parenting and stimulation, and appeared structurally similar between the spouses. Parental agreement on individual style membership significantly exceeded chance levels, but was relatively low. Therefore further analyses considered maternal parenting style only. The mothers also filled in The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003 and the teachers (concurrently and one year later filled in The Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation scales (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Child personality type membership was based on classifications derived in a previous study. Relatively, the personality type exerted the strongest and the most consistent effects on child social behavior in pre-school. Social functioning of the resilient and the willful children was somewhat more efficient in comparison to their counterparts with the average profile, even though the latter showed the most improvement in these domains between ages 3 and 4. With the willful children only, less-than-optimal parenting had an adverse effect on the development of externalizing behavior, while the development of social adjustment was negatively affected by the children's late entry to pre-school.

  16. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers (United States)

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  17. Parent Perspectives on How a Child-Centered Preschool Experience Shapes Children's Navigation of Kindergarten (United States)

    Recchia, Susan; Bentley, Dana Frantz


    The authors used qualitative case study methodology to explore parents' perceptions of their children's readiness for kindergarten. The authors interviewed parents, focusing on their children's experiences during their transition from a child-centered, play-based preschool setting guided by an emergent curriculum into a range of…

  18. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behaviour Problems (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.


    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…

  19. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship (United States)

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang


    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  20. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes Across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behavior Problems. (United States)


    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were assessed via maternal questionnaire at age 6. Path analyses using structural equation modeling were utilized to test the relations among the variables at ages 4, 5, and 6. A parent-driven model of emotion socialization emerged, wherein stronger relations were found among maternal negative affect and child externalizing emotions and behaviors than among maternal negative affect and child internalizing emotions and behaviors. Early child risk did not appear to alter the overall emotion socialization process, although higher levels of maternal and child negativity were observed for the children with a developmental risk. Results underscore the complexity of emotion socialization processes throughout the preschool period.

  1. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s (United States)

    Beatty, Barbara


    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…

  2. Styles of parent-child interactions in families with preschool-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedovskaya A.A.


    Full Text Available With regard to cultural-historical and activity approaches, collaborative activity with an adult, including communication as a type of meta-activity, is considered to be the necessary mechanism of child development. A child is considered to be an active partner, possessing his/her own motives, and is guided by mental representations of the parent and interactions with him/her. Russian psychologists have developed a range of parenting style classifications; however, these styles primarily emphasize a parent’s position, contrary to methodological perspectives, with inadequate consideration of a child’s own agency. The aims of the current research were to investigate actual goal-oriented interactions between preschoolers and their parents and to outline certain patterns (types of interactions, considering both partners and analyzing interac- tions according to the activity model. A total of 75 parent-child dyads (children aged from 4.6 years to 6.11 years participated in “collaborative activity trials” in which the observational method was based on the activity approach. Cluster analysis (k-means clusterization revealed five different groups of parent-child dyads: conflictual, harmonious, distant and two-fold dominant (with dominant parent or dominant child. Between-group comparisons (Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in a range of parameters of activity and emotional components of interactions. The harmonious type of interactions is not prevalent, although subgroups with different types of domination are the most common, which may be attributed to cultural peculiarities. Domination-subordination misbalance does not seem to seriously distort the normal developmental trajectory; however, in cases of conflictual and distant dyads, interactional issues might hinder the course of goal-oriented activity, which might serve as a predictor for potential difficulties in further learning.

  3. More than teacher directed or child initiated: Preschool curriculum type, parent involvement, and children's outcomes in the child-parent centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graue


    Full Text Available This study investigated the contributions of curriculum approach and parent involvement to the short- and long-term effects of preschool participation in the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Data came from the complete cohort of 989 low-income children (93% African American in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, who attended preschool in the 20 Child-Parent Centers in 1983-1985 and kindergarten in 1985-1986. We found that implementation of an instructional approach rated high by Head Teachers in teacher-directed and child-initiated activities was most consistently associated with children’s outcomes, including school readiness at kindergarten entry, reading achievement in third and eighth grades, and avoidance of grade retention. Parent involvement in school activities, as rated by teachers and by parents, was independently associated with child outcomes from school readiness at kindergarten entry to eighth grade reading achievement and grade retention above and beyond the influence of curriculum approach. Findings indicate that instructional approaches that blend a teacher-directed focus with child-initiated activities and parental school involvement are origins of the long-term effects of participation in the Child-Parent Centers.

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire among low-income African American families of preschool children. (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Nelson, Timothy D; Chamberlin, Leigh A; Valenzuela, Jessica M; Sherman, Susan N; Johnson, Susan L; Powers, Scott W


    This study examined the factor structure for three of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) subscales, a widely used measure of parental feeding practices, among 296 low-income parents of African American preschool children. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an overall poor fit among CFQ subscales; Restriction, Pressure to Eat, and Concern about Child Weight, (chi(2), (df=87=300.249, CFI=1.00, NNFI=1.07, RMSEA=.091). Additionally, Cronbach's Alpha coefficients for 2 of the three subscales were below acceptable recommendations (Restriction=0.69; Pressure to Eat=0.58). These results suggest further psychometric clarification is needed to understand commonly reported feeding practice constructs among low-income African American mothers of preschool aged children.

  5. Child Effortful Control as a Mediator of Parenting Practices on Externalizing Behavior: Evidence for a Sex-Differentiated Pathway across the Transition from Preschool to School (United States)

    Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.


    An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…

  6. Determinants of Child Outcomes in a Cohort of Children in the Free Pre-School Year in Ireland, 2012/2013 (United States)

    McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan


    The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…

  7. Maternal stress and family quality of life in response to raising a child with autism: from preschool to adolescence. (United States)

    McStay, Rebecca L; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl


    While the impact of raising a child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is well documented, with mothers reporting higher levels of stress than mothers of children with other disabilities, positive maternal outcomes have also been identified. What remains unclear, however, is the role of child age on maternal outcomes. We sought to clarify the role of child age in maternal stress and family quality of life (FQoL) in mothers raising a child with ASD. Participants included 140 mothers of children aged 3-16 years grouped to represent four key stages of childhood (preschool, early school years, middle school, early high school). Using a cross-sectional design, mothers completed questionnaires assessing potential risk (e.g., child problem behaviour, symptom severity) and protective (e.g., family characteristics) factors attributed to maternal outcomes. The results revealed significant age related group differences in child internalising behaviour and ASD symptomatology between the early and middle school years. Lower levels of adaptive social behaviour in older age groups were also found. Although mothers of older children reported significantly less support from professionals than mothers of younger children, no significant age effects were found to contribute to maternal reports of stress or FQoL. The current findings support the view that mothers appear to demonstrate stable levels of stress and FQoL despite fluctuations in key child variables and a reduction in supports, across age, highlighting the ongoing nature of maternal needs and heightened levels of child symptomatology during adolescence.

  8. The Relationship Between Parent Perception of Child Weight, Parent Feeding Style, and Child BMI Among Low-Income, African American Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Jhazmin


    Full Text Available In February 2011, First Lady Michelle Obama revealed her plan to end the childhood obesity epidemic in America. With childhood obesity considered a health crisis, it is crucial to begin serious prevention efforts. Shaping healthy eating habits and the physical activity of children at the preschool age is a great step toward life-long prevention. The U.S. populations most affected by and at-risk for childhood obesity are African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Overweight and obesity rates are also particularly on the rise among preschool children. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight status, parent feeding style and child body mass index (BMI. A total of 82 primary caregivers of preschool-age children participated in the study. Participants were low-income and primarily African American. Primary caregivers completed surveys that included a demographic questionnaire, caregiver feeding style questionnaire and a parent perception measure. The children’s BMI information was gathered from Head Start’s nutrition coordinator. Results showed that 35% of children in the current sample had a BMI at or above the 85th percentile, which is considered overweight. Results suggest that parents perceive their child’s weight status to be at a healthier level than objective BMI estimates suggest. Parent feeding style was not significantly related to child BMI in the current study.

  9. Parent–child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

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    Abrahamse Mariëlle E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. Methods This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI, obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5% dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59. Results The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively, which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an

  10. Parental child-care practices of Slovenian preschoolers' mothers and fathers: The Family Environment Questionnaire

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    Maja Zupančič


    Full Text Available The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ, and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Factor analysis of the 63 items reliably recovered a four-component solution in both, maternal and paternal self-reports indicating the following broad-band parenting practices: Authoritative Parenting, Ineffective Control, Power Assertion, and Stimulation. Variables loading high on more than one component and those that did not load on the same factor obtained from maternal and paternal data were excluded from further analyses. The 51 items that were retained and corresponded to the four factors demonstrate adequate internal consistency for both samples of respondents. In addition, parental stimulation was positively linked to authoritative parenting, while it was negatively related to ineffective control and power assertion. The mothers perceived themselves to be more authoritative and stimulative than did fathers, who described themselves as more power assertive and ineffective in control. The parent-pairs were also found to share, at least to some extent, similar parenting practices, whereas their self-perceived expression of these practices was not dependent on their child's gender.

  11. Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child

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    Mihić Ivana


    Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

  12. Experimental impacts of a teacher professional development program in Chile on preschool classroom quality and child outcomes. (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine


    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found moderate to large positive impacts on observed emotional and instructional support as well as classroom organization in prekindergarten classrooms after 1 year of the program. After 2 years of the program, moderate positive impacts were observed on emotional support and classroom organization. No significant program impacts on child outcomes were detected at posttest (1 marginal effect, an increase in a composite of self-regulation and low problem behaviors, was observed). Professional development for preschool teachers in Chile can improve classroom quality. More intensive curricular approaches are needed for these improvements to translate into effects on children.

  13. The neuromotor examination of the preschool child and its prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M


    The present paper reviews the methods available for neurological or neuromotor evaluation at preschool age. General textbooks on pediatric neurology describe the neurological examination at preschool age in terms of the assessment of the evaluation of cranial nerves, muscle tone, muscle power, refle

  14. Links between Preschoolers' Behavioral Regulation and School Readiness Skills: The Role of Child Gender (United States)

    Son, Seung-Hee; Lee, Kangyi; Sung, Miyoung


    Research Findings: We examined relations among preschoolers' behavioral regulation, gender, and school readiness outcomes in preacademic and classroom skills using a sample of South Korean preschoolers aged 3-5 ("N" = 229). Behavioral regulation was assessed using a direct measure, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which requires…

  15. The stories of adoptive gay parents about acceptance and discrimination in the pre-school of their child or children



    M.Ed. Gay adoption in South Africa is a most recent equal right bestowed on the Gay Lesbian Bisexual and Transgender (GLBT) community. To date little research has been done in South Africa and globally on this phenomenon, and even less in relation to the schools children from gay headed families attend. The purpose of the inquiry was to explore the stories of adoptive gay parents about acceptance and discrimination in the pre-school of their child or children. The inquiry draws on Queer Th...

  16. Conflict Competence of Preschool Children and its Relationship with the Sociometric Status of the Child in the Peer Group

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    Denisenkova N.S.,


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the conflict competence of children of preschool age and identification of its relationship with the child's sociometric status in the peer group. The hypothesis of the study was that there is a relationship between the sociometric status of preschoolers in the peer group and the strategy of their behavior in a conflict situation, a conflict of competence. The study involved children (41 children: 22 boys and 19 girls aged 5-7 years, attending preparatory groups in kindergartens in Moscow (in 2011-2013. The study was conducted using an experimental technique "Desk of cooperation" (M. Madsen, aimed at the study of conflict competence, the sociometric technique "Two Houses" (modification by R.I. Govorova, and a survey of educators aimed at identifying the status position in the preschool group peers. According to the survey, we can say that there are qualitative differences in the strategies of behavior in the conflict that children with different sociometric status choose.

  17. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and energy balance in the preschool child: opportunities for early obesity prevention. (United States)

    Reilly, John J


    Prevalence of obesity in preschool children has increased dramatically in recent years. The preschool years (age 3-6 years) have been regarded as critical for the programming of energy balance, via the concept of early 'adiposity rebound'. Children who undergo early adiposity rebound are at increased risk of later obesity. Recent evidence suggests that associations between timing of adiposity rebound and later obesity may not reflect programming, but might denote that 'obesogenic' growth trajectories are often established by the preschool period. Studies of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in preschool children show that levels of physical activity are typically low and sedentary behaviour high. The review of evidence presented here is supportive of the hypothesis that physical activity is protective against obesity in the preschool period, and that sedentary behaviour, particularly television viewing, is obesogenic. Definitive evidence on dose-response relationships between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity remain unclear. Dose-response evidence could be obtained fairly readily by intervention and longitudinal observational studies that use accelerometry in preschool children. The generalisability of much of the evidence base is limited and there is a need for research on the influence of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the preschool years in the aetiology of obesity in the developing world.

  18. One Year of Preschool or Two - Is It Important for Adult Outcomes? Results from the Chicago Longitudinal Study of the Child-Parent Centers. (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Humpage, Sarah; Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A


    Until the last year, public funding for preschool education had been growing rapidly over a decade with most state programs providing one year of preschool for four year olds. Fewer three year olds are enrolled in preschool. To investigate the importance of enrollment duration, this study is the first to estimate long-term dosage effects of years of preschool. We use data from a cohort of 1,500 students in the Chicago Longitudinal Study who enrolled in the Chicago Public Schools in the mid-1980s. Many of these students participated in a high-quality preschool program called Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for one or two years. To address selection with multiple treatments, we employ inverse propensity score weighting. Relative to children who attended one year of CPC preschool, the two-year group is significantly less likely to receive special education or be abused or neglected or to commit crimes. The findings provide support for the long-term benefits of greater exposure to preschool.

  19. La preparacion del maestro y la interaccion entre maestro y nino en programas preescolares (Teacher Preparation and Teacher-Child Interaction in Preschools). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Kontos, Susan; Wilcox-Herzog, Amanda

    It is generally agreed that because so much basic early learning occurs through interactive experiences when children are very young, the quality of teacher-child interactions contributes substantially to effects of group care and preschool education on children. Thus it is important to know if specialized teacher education in early childhood…

  20. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children. (United States)

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H


    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  1. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Lee Jones


    Full Text Available Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs, and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥ 7 hours/night and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score. The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥ 10 hours/night, family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤ 2 hours/day of TV, video, DVD, and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  2. Parental perception of child weight in the first two years-of-life: a potential link between infant feeding and preschoolers' diet. (United States)

    Musaad, Salma M A; Donovan, Sharon M; Fiese, Barbara H


    Approximately 23% of preschoolers are overweight or obese. Establishing a healthy dietary lifestyle at an early age can improve later child diet and body weight. This study examined the determinants of past infant feeding practices that do not follow standard feeding recommendations (breastfeeding for less than 6 months duration, cow's milk prior to the first year of age and solid foods at or before 4 months of age). It also examined the role of parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life on past infant feeding practices as well as current child diet and body weight. Families of 497 preschoolers aged 22-63 months (39.0 ± 8.2) were recruited from 30 child care centers in East-Central Illinois. Main findings indicate that past infant feeding practices were common and varied by socio-demographic factors including race/ethnicity, parental education and child gender. Children perceived as overweight in the first 2 years-of-life tended to breastfeed for lesser duration. Additionally, the majority (79.8%) of preschoolers who were classified as overweight using BMI percentile were perceived as non-overweight by the parent in the first 2 years-of-life. Mean daily total fatty/sugary food intake was higher among those perceived to be non-overweight in the first 2 years-of-life. These findings have identified parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life as a modifiable risk factor for unhealthy child diet and obesity among preschoolers.

  3. The Improvement of Prenatal, Postnatal, Newborn and Preschool ChildAND#8217;s Health Care Services in Istanbul: GEBLIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savas Basar Kartal; Aziz Gurhan Birler; Demet Ozkul; Selma Unluer; Selime Gurleyuk; Aysun Yamak; Yeliz Ozturk; Asya Banu Topuzoglu


    Full Text Available AIM: Keeping health records regularly is important for determining the health status of the population and planning health services. It is observed that the existing health record systems in Istanbul are insufficient in determining the number of pregnant women, puerperants, newborns and preschool children. METHODS: Therefore, an intervention study was planned by Istanbul Directorate of Health in order to provide systematic monitoring of pregnant women, puerperants, newborns and preschool children, and ensure that equity in the distribution of qualified prenatal and postnatal health care is maintained. This project called GEBLIZ has been started to be used since September 2008. RESULTS: According to this project all public and private health centers in which pregnant and child care are given have the responsibility to transfer necessary information about the patients to an electronic database. Through this computerized system, a connection between primary, secondary and tertiary health care settings has been maintained, and deficiencies of paper records have been completed. Health records have become more consistent. CONLUSION: Compared to one year before the start of the intervention, there have been important increases in the number of pregnant women, puerperants, newborns and infants detected by primary health care units. Besides, “home visits” which have been neglected were started actively by primary health care personnel, and preventive health service who stayed in the shadow of therapeutic health services came to life again. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 289-296

  4. Independence and Interplay between Maternal and Child Risk Factors for Preschool Problem Behaviors? (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie


    This study examined the independence and interplay between cognitive risk factors (poor executive function/emotion understanding) and maternal risk factors (low education/high depression) for preschool problem behaviors, indexed by multi-measure, multi-informant (mother/teacher/ researcher) ratings. A socio-economically diverse sample of 235…

  5. The Relationship of Parenting Stress and Child Temperament to Language Development among Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah


    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to…

  6. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.


    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  7. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine


    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  8. Age, Sex, Intelligence and Parents' Occupation and the Moral Development of the Preschool Child. (United States)

    Flynn, Timothy M.


    Results indicate that preschool children are capable of making moral judgments in both apology-restitution and guilt-innocence test contexts. Age and sex are significantly related to both moral judgment measures, while intelligence and parent occupation are unrelated to both measures. (Author/RH)

  9. Association Between Maternal Stress, Work Status, Concern About Child Weight, and Restrictive Feeding Practices in Preschool Children. (United States)

    Swyden, Katheryn; Sisson, Susan B; Morris, Amanda S; Lora, Karina; Weedn, Ashley E; Copeland, Kristen A; DeGrace, Beth


    Objectives To examine the relationship between maternal stress, work status, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive feeding practices among mothers of preschool children. Methods 285 mothers of 2-to-5-year-old children completed an on-line survey. Questions included demographics, items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Linear regression and ANOVA examined the relationship between maternal stress, work hours, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive practices for one 2-to-5-year-old child living within the home. Results Mothers were 32.6 ± 5.2 years of age and spent 39.7 ± 12.0 h/week at work. Seventy-one percent worked full time. Children were 3.4 ± 1.0 years of age and 51% male. Stress (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.001) and concern about child weight (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.00) were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Mothers with severe/extremely severe stress used restriction more than mothers with normal stress, respectively (3.63 ± 0.80, 3.30 ± 0.81, p = 0.03). No difference was found among mothers with mild/moderate stress (3.50 ± 0.63, p = 0.06). There was no association between work hours (p = 0.50) or work status (p = 0.91) and the use of restrictive feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal stress and concern about child weight were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Considering the current rates of childhood obesity in the United States, understanding factors that influence a child's food environment is advantageous and can help improve maternal and child health.

  10. The Legal Regulations of the Preschool Teachers Child Abuse Behavior%我国幼儿教师虐待儿童行为的法律干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    幼儿教师以暴力、体罚、冷漠和忽视等方式对幼儿进行虐待的现象已经引起了社会的广泛重视。幼儿阶段的身心发展非常重要,幼儿教师残忍的虐待行为不仅会伤害到幼儿的身体健康,更加会影响幼儿的心理发展,给童年记忆造成了无法磨灭的阴影,影响深远。针对幼儿教师的虐待行为,《教师法》、《刑法》、《行政处罚法》都存在可以干预的方式,建立幼儿教师准入机制,增设"虐待儿童罪",设立监管幼儿教师教学行为的专门机构等,都是约束幼儿教师虐待行为的可行手段。%Preschool teachers use the violence,corporal punishment,indifference and neglect for child abuse has such as the phenomenon has aroused widely attention of society.Preschool teachers cruel abusive behavior will not only harm children's health,but also will affect children's psychological development.According to preschool teacher's abusive behavior,the "Pedagogic law","Criminal law","The law on administrative punishments",establish the way can intervention preschool teachers access system,set up the "child abuse sin" and set up supervision of preschool teachers' teaching behaviors,are the abusive behavior of preschool teachers constraints viable method.

  11. Preschoolers' Aggression and Parent-Child Conflict: A Multiinformant and Multimethod Study (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Bishop, Christa M.


    This multiinformant and multimethod study (N = 47) investigated the link between the parent-child relationship system and the display of physical and relational aggression with peers at school during early childhood. Children (mean age = 43.54 months, SD = 8.02) were observed (80 min/child) during free play, and parents and teachers were asked to…

  12. Simple Justice: A Case for Mainstreaming the Severely Emotionally Handicapped Bilingual Preschool Child. (United States)

    O'Neill, Stephania; Levy, Linda

    The paper deals with a mental health program designed to treat the 2 1/2 to 5 year old Mexican American child with severe emotional or behavioral problems. Components of the program included a mutual agreement with Parent Child Centers (Headstart) in the community; staff who had expertise to evaluate, diagnose, design, and implement an individual…

  13. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.


    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…


    Gaumon, Sébastien; Paquette, Daniel; Cyr, Chantal; Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko; St-André, Martin


    This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety. The highest levels of anxiety were found in insecure children, and more specifically, in insecure-ambivalent children and insecure disorganized-controlling children of the caregiving subtype. Hypotheses regarding the relation between anxiety and activation were only partially confirmed. Finally, the activation relationship with the father was shown to have a moderating effect on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety; activation by the father may be considered either a protective or a risk factor. Results for this clinical population of young children are discussed in the light of attachment theory and activation relationship theory. The study's findings have the potential to contribute to the development of preventative, diagnostic, and intervention programs that take both parental figures into account.

  15. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children. (United States)

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey


    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy.

  16. Estimation of the Level of Cognitive Development of a Preschool Child Using the System of Situations with Mathematical Contents (United States)

    Gorev, Pavel M.; Bichurina, Svetlana Y.; Yakupova, Rufiya M.; Khairova, Irina V.


    Cognitive development of personality can be considered as one of the key directions of preschool education presented in the world practice, where preschool programs are educational ones, and preschool education is the first level of the general education. Thereby the purpose of the research is to create a model of reliable estimation of cognitive…

  17. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices : Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist


    Anna Ek; Kimmo Sorjonen; Karin Eli; Louise Lindberg; Jonna Nyman; Claude Marcus; Paulina Nowicka


    INTRODUCTION: Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Ques...

  18. [The use of therapeutic play in the intensive care of a preschool child with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome]. (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Hua; Feng, Jui-Ying


    Hospitalization is a stressful experience for children that increases their anxiety and fears, generates resistance and noncompliance, and, as a result, delays necessary treatments. Developing an age-appropriate intervention to reduce the hospitalization-related stress perceived by children is an important component of pediatric nursing. This case study used therapeutic play and drawing to care for a virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome preschooler who stayed in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between 11/13/2012 and 11/19/2012. Stressors faced by the patient included separation from primary caregiver, unfamiliarity with the medical environment and equipment, non-comprehension of the treatment and medication regimens, and loss of control. The patient displayed incorporative behaviors such as crying, screaming, refusing to be touched, and requesting parental accompaniment. Painting and picture books were used as developmentally appropriate interventions to understand the patient's feelings and to provide a means for him to project and release emotions. This strategy successfully assisted the child to overcome the perceived stress of hospitalization and to cooperate with healthcare providers on his treatment.

  19. Promoting preschool reading



    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  20. Use of computer access technology as an alternative to writing for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy--a case report. (United States)

    Dhas, Brightlin Nithis; Samuel, Preethy Sarah; Manigandan, C


    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of an outcome-driven model of decision-making in the implementation of computer access technology (CAT) for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy. The child did not have the fine motor skills required to hold a pencil but had the cognitive abilities to learn to write; therefore, we explored the use of a CAT device to enable written communication. Case study methodology was used to describe the selection process, child-level outcomes, and clinical challenges faced by the therapist in the use of a consortium model that was designed for an outcome-driven model of decision-making. The critical role of an occupational therapist in this process using a family-centered approach is discussed.

  1. Mothers' parenting and child sex differences in behavior problems among African American preschoolers. (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A; Scaramella, Laura V


    Sex differences in rates of behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing problems, begin to emerge during early childhood. These sex differences may occur because mothers parent their sons and daughters differently, or because the impact of parenting on behavior problems is different for boys and girls. In this study, we examined whether associations between observations of mothers' positive and negative parenting and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors vary as a function of child sex. The sample consisted of 137 African American low-income families with one sibling approximately 2 years old and the closest-aged older sibling who was approximately 4 years old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate clear sex differences regardless of child age. Mothers were observed to use less positive parenting with sons than with daughters. Higher levels of observed negative parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for boys, whereas lower levels of positive parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for girls. No child sex differences emerged regarding associations between observed positive and negative parenting and internalizing behaviors.

  2. Parents of preschool fire setters: perceptions of the child-play fire hazard. (United States)

    Pollack-Nelson, Carol; Faranda, Donna M; Porth, Don; Lim, Nicholas K


    The present study sought to learn about risk perceptions held by parents of preschool fire-setters. A 41-item survey was distributed to 60 parents whose children, aged 6 years and younger, had previously set fires and who were involved in intervention programmes throughout the US. Most parents did not think their children would play with matches/lighters, or knew how to use these items, although some had witnessed their children playing with matches/lighters previously. Most parents reported having taken precautions to keep matches/lighters out of reach and also educating their children about fire. Regardless, children not only set fires, but in 40% of cases climbed to access the match/lighter. Parents' perceptions of their children's proclivity for fire play were not consistent with their actual fire-play behaviour. Parents underestimated the likelihood that their children would play with matches/lighters. Although most reportedly undertook preventative measures aimed at thwarting fire play, these strategies were ineffective. Traditionally relied upon precautionary techniques, such as storing lighters out of reach and discussing the dangers of fire, were not sufficient to stem interest and resultant fire play.

  3. Objective measurement of posture and posture transitions in the pre-school child. (United States)

    Davies, Gwyneth; Reilly, John J; Paton, James Y


    Recent evidence suggests that between-individual variation in posture and posture transitions may have important health consequences in adults. The early life development of between-individual variation in posture and posture transitions has not been studied, and the physiological consequences of such variations in childhood are unknown, largely because of the absence of objective methods for measuring posture and posture transitions in young children. This study aimed to examine the objective measurement of posture transitions in pre-school children with the activPAL™ monitor (PAL Technologies, Glasgow). Single-unit activity monitors such as the activPAL™ have a limited output, with data categorized as 'sit/lie', 'stand' or 'walk' and the consequences of this for measurement of posture transitions in young children are unknown. Thirty children (mean age 4.1 years) were videoed for 1 h in nursery while wearing an activPAL™. Video was analysed on a second-by-second basis, with all postures categorized. From direct observation, time spent was sit/lie 46%; stand 35%; walk/run 16%; 3% was spent in heterogeneous non-sit/lie/upright postures (crawl, crouch, and kneel up). Despite these 'non-standard' postures being responsible for a low proportion of time, posture transitions involving them contributed to 34% of total transitions. There was a significant rank-order correlation (r = 0.79, p posture transitions measured by activPAL™ and by direct observation. 'Non-standard' postures in young children are probably not a problem if the aim is to measure total time sedentary or active, and the activPAL™ may measure between-individual variation in transitions adequately in young children. However, non-standard postures may present problems for the detailed characterization of posture transitions in early childhood.

  4. How is This Child Feeling? Preschool-Aged Children's Ability to Recognize Emotion in Faces and Body Poses (United States)

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.


    Research Findings: The study examined children's recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children ("N" = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills that…

  5. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study. (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn


    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the

  6. Childhood caries as influenced by maternal and child characteristics in pre-school children of Kerala-an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Retnakumari


    Full Text Available Purpose: The most common chronic disease of childhood is early childhood caries which is five times more prevalent than asthma and seven times higher than that of allergic rhinitis. Most children do not receive dental care until they are three years old, yet by the time more than thirty percent of children from lower socioeconomic groups already have caries. To determine the prevalence and severity of early childhood caries among pre-school children, to describe the child characteristics associated with the development of early childhood caries and to find the association of early childhood caries and maternal risk factors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out among children attending the immunization clinic of Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, Medical College, Trivandrum and children attending the randomly selected Anganwadies and Day care centres in Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala, wherein there are migrants from all over the State. A total of 350 children aged 12-36 months and their mothers were studied. The mother was first interviewed by a structured questionnaire; then the child′s and mothers clinical examination was carried out covering caries experience and oral hygiene status. Results: Among 350 children studied the prevalence of dental caries in this study population was found to be 50.6 %( 177. Statistically significant associations were found between the severity of decay and the child′s age(P<0.001, female gender(P<0.05,low socioeconomic status (P<0.05, feeding frequency (P<0.05, type of feeding(P<0.01, fell asleep with nipple in mouth (P<0.05, duration of breast feeding(P<0.001, consumption of cariogenic type of snacks(P<0.01, age of commencement of tooth brushing(P<0.05, brushing frequency(P<0.05, oral hygiene status of child(P<0.001, DMFS scores of mothers (P<0.001, and oral hygiene status of mother (P<0.001.

  7. Child fear reactivity and sex as moderators of links between parenting and preschool behavior problems. (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A; Scaramella, Laura V


    Reduced supportive parenting and elevated negative parenting behaviors increase risks for maladaptive social adjustment during early childhood (e.g., Campbell, Shaw, & Gilliom, 2000). However, the magnitude of these risks may vary according to children's individual characteristics, such as sex and temperament. The current study examines whether children's sex and fear reactivity moderate the associations between mothers' observed parenting and children's behavior problems 1 year later. The sample consists of 151 predominantly African American, low-income families with one sibling who is approximately 2 years old and the closest aged older sibling who is approximately 4 years old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate that fear distress (i.e., fearfulness) moderated associations between mothers' observed negative parenting and children's increased behavior problems, such that only those children with mean or higher observed fear distress scores showed increased behavior problems when exposed to mother's negative parenting. Child sex moderated associations between fear approach reactivity (i.e., fearlessness) and mothers' observed supportive parenting. Specifically, low fear approach combined with supportive parenting was associated with fewer behavior problems for boys only. Implications of these findings for preventive intervention are discussed.

  8. Raising a Fit Preschooler (United States)

    ... setting up a simple slalom course play freeze dance play wheelbarrow by holding your child's legs while he or she walks forward on hands Many parents are eager to enroll their preschool child in organized sports. Although some leagues may be open to kids ...

  9. Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in low-income Hispanic and African-American mothers with preschool-age children. (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Schiffer, Linda A; Campbell, Richard T


    Validation work of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in low-income minority samples suggests a need for further conceptual refinement of this instrument. Using confirmatory factor analysis, this study evaluated 5- and 6-factor models on a large sample of African-American and Hispanic mothers with preschool-age children (n = 962). The 5-factor model included: 'perceived responsibility', 'concern about child's weight', 'restriction', 'pressure to eat', and 'monitoring' and the 6-factor model also tested 'food as a reward'. Multi-group analysis assessed measurement invariance by race/ethnicity. In the 5-factor model, two low-loading items from 'restriction' and one low-variance item from 'perceived responsibility' were dropped to achieve fit. Only removal of the low-variance item was needed to achieve fit in the 6-factor model. Invariance analyses demonstrated differences in factor loadings. This finding suggests African-American and Hispanic mothers may vary in their interpretation of some CFQ items and use of cognitive interviews could enhance item interpretation. Our results also demonstrated that 'food as a reward' is a plausible construct among a low-income minority sample and adds to the evidence that this factor resonates conceptually with parents of preschoolers; however, further testing is needed to determine the validity of this factor with older age groups.

  10. How is this child feeling? Preschool-aged children’s ability to recognize emotion in faces and body poses


    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.


    The study examined children’s recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children (N = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills, which included five tasks (three with faces and two with bodies). Parents and teachers reported on children’s aggressive behaviors and social skills. Children’s emotion accuracy o...

  11. Should a Preschool Child with Acute Episodic Wheeze be Treated with Oral Corticosteroids? A Pro/Con Debate. (United States)

    Beigelman, Avraham; Durrani, Sandy; Guilbert, Theresa W


    Traditionally, preschool-aged children with an acute wheezing episode have been treated with oral corticosteroids (OCSs) based on the efficacy of OCSs in older children and adolescents. However, this practice has been recently challenged based on the results of recent studies. The argument supporting the use of OCSs underscores the observation that many children with recurrent preschool wheezing develop atopic disease in early life which predicts both an increased risk to develop asthma in later life and response to OCS therapy. Further, review of the literature demonstrates heterogeneity of study designs, OCS dosage, interventions, study medication adherence, and settings and overall lack of predefined preschool wheezing phenotypes. The heterogeneity of these studies does not allow a definitive recommendation discouraging OCS use. Advocates against the use of OCSs in this population argue that most of studies investigating the efficacy of OCSs in acute episodic wheeze in preschool-aged children have not demonstrated beneficial effects. Moreover, repeated OCS bursts may be associated with adverse effects. Finally, both sides can agree that there is a significant need to conduct efficacy trials evaluating OCS treatment in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing targeted at phenotypes that would be expected to respond to OCSs. This article presents a summary of recent literature regarding the use of OCSs for acute episodic wheezing in preschool-aged children and a "pro" and "con" debate for such use.

  12. Assessment of attention in preschoolers. (United States)

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E


    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  13. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5). (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children…

  14. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ek

    Full Text Available Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ.Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM, adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC. CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators.478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese. A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06 after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30 indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37. Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71.The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children

  15. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards). (United States)

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

  16. Transitioning to new child-care nutrition policies: nutrient content of preschool menus differs by presence of vegetarian main entrée. (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Hales, Sarah B; Baum, Angela C


    Children who attend child care outside the home may be at increased risk for developing obesity. In 2012, the South Carolina ABC Child Care program issued new standards for food and nutrition. The goal of our study (conducted June to December 2012) was to examine changes that occurred at a large, Columbia, SC, preschool during the implementation of the South Carolina ABC Child Care program standards using an observational design, including a survey of parents and nutrient analysis of menus. The nutrition content of menu items before (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) and after (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) implementation of the new standards was compared. In addition, parents (N=75) were surveyed to examine opinions and support for the changes. Independent samples t tests were used to compare nutrient values before and after menu changes and analysis of variance was used to compare pre- and post-change vegetarian menus and pre- and post-change nonvegetarian menus. There were no significant differences between before and after menus with the exception of a 0.3 cup/day increase in vegetables (PVegetarian menus after the revisions were significantly higher in fiber (13 ± 3 g) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (11 ± 3 g; Pvegetarian menu items has the potential to improve the nutrient content of menus while keeping energy intake, saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol levels at a more optimum level.

  17. Impact of requiring influenza vaccination for children in licensed child care or preschool programs--Connecticut, 2012-13 influenza season. (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Kudish, Kathy; Kennedy, Erin D; Sacco, Vincent; Cartter, Matthew L


    Preschool-aged children are at increased risk for severe influenza-related illness and complications. Congregate child care settings facilitate influenza transmission among susceptible children. To protect against influenza transmission in these settings, in September 2010, Connecticut became the second U.S. state (after New Jersey) to implement regulations requiring that all children aged 6-59 months receive at least 1 dose of influenza vaccine each year to attend a licensed child care program. To evaluate the impact of this regulation on vaccination levels and influenza-associated hospitalizations during the 2012-13 influenza season, vaccination data from U.S. and Connecticut surveys and the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) were analyzed. After the regulation took effect, vaccination rates among Connecticut children aged 6-59 months increased from 67.8% during the 2009-10 influenza season to 84.1% during the 2012-13 season. During the 2012-13 influenza season, among all 11 EIP surveillance sites, Connecticut had the greatest percentage decrease (12%) in the influenza-associated hospitalization rate from 2007-08 among children aged ≤4 years. Additionally, the ratio of the influenza-associated hospitalization rates among children aged ≤4 years to the overall population rate (0.53) was lower than for any other EIP site. Requiring vaccination for child care admission might have helped to increase vaccination rates in Connecticut and reduced serious morbidity from influenza.

  18. Parent-Child Interaction and the Development of Racial Group Identity and Self Concepts of Preschool Children. (United States)

    McAdoo, Harriette; McAdoo, John L.

    This study focuses on three areas: (1) mother-child and father-child verbal and nonverbal interactions; (2) racial differences in parent-child interactions, children's self esteem and children's racial attitudes; and (3) relationships between parenting style and children's feelings of self-worth and racial preferences. Subjects were 40 black and…

  19. Friendships in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Holds Them Back, Child Characteristics or Teacher Behavior? (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Shih, Wendy; Kasari, Connie


    Children begin to show preferences for specific playmates as early as the first 2?years of life. Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty making friends, even in elementary and middle school. However, very little is known about earlier friendships in children with autism such as preschool friendships. This study examined friendships…

  20. Friendships in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder: What holds them back, child characteristics or teacher behavior? (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Shih, Wendy; Kasari, Connie


    Children begin to show preferences for specific playmates as early as the first 2 years of life. Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty making friends, even in elementary and middle school. However, very little is known about earlier friendships in children with autism such as preschool friendships. This study examined friendships in preschool children with autism and explored how joint attention contributes to these friendships in mainstream settings. A secondary aim was to determine the extent to which teachers used strategies to facilitate friendship development. The participants were 31 mainstreamed preschool children (ages 2-5 years) with autism spectrum disorder. School observations were conducted individually to capture participants' interactions with peers and adults during free play. The results indicated that 20% of the participants had friendships at school. Children with friends were more likely than children without friends to be jointly engaged with their peers during free play, and they used higher joint attention skills. Teachers used few friendship facilitating strategies, and more often used behavioral management strategies within the classrooms. Future studies may want to examine the effects of early interventions and/or teacher training on the development of friendships in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder within the school setting.

  1. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.


    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  2. Psychometric Assessment of the Achenbach & Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist in Pre-schoolers between 4,0 and 5,5 years old of lower Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Zambrano Hernández


    Full Text Available The Achenbach and Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist was assessed psychometrically in a group of 100 preschool students between 4,0 and 5,5 years old who attend a public school at Bogota city. It was done by applying formats to parents and teachers. These formats were previously translated, linguistically adapted and piloted. The Cronbach’s Alpha for the total scale was 0,94 -0,94 for parents and 0,95 for teachers-. The analysis of factors by main components saturated the variance in 87%, although it did not correspond to the factors proposed by the original model. This measure gives diagnostic information about the children’s behavioral structure from a multiaxial perspective. Moreover, it identifies profiles of the internalizing and externalizing dimensions of behavior.

  3. 挫折-侵犯理论视野下的幼儿教师虐童事件%Preschool Teachers Violated Child Abuse under Frustration-Under Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    近年来,我国幼儿教师虐童事件频发,主要原因有幼儿教师生存压力过大、幼儿教师工作压力过重、幼儿教师队伍整体素质偏低、幼儿教师心理健康现状堪忧、“家园”合作管理不完善、法律及相关监管体系不健全等。%In recent years, China's preschool teachers frequent incidents of child abuse, the main reason there is too much pressure to survive early childhood teachers, preschool teachers working pressure is too low overall quality of early childhood teachers, preschool teachers' mental health status are worrying,"Homeland"co-management is not complete and the legal and regulatory system is not perfect and so on.

  4. Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton Susan J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. Methods One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating, child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food fussiness and interest in food, and mother reported child height and weight. The questionnaire was repeated 12 months later. Regression analyses were used to find longitudinal associations between maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and child body mass index (BMI. Results Modelling of healthy eating predicted lower child food fussiness and higher interest in food one year later, and pressure to eat predicted lower child interest in food. Restriction did not predict changes in child eating behaviour. Maternal feeding practices did not prospectively predict child food responsiveness or child BMI. Conclusion Maternal feeding practices appear to influence young children's eating behaviour but not weight status in the short term.

  5. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, A


    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.

  6. Early second language acquisition: a comparison of the linguistic output of a pre-school child acquiring English as a second language with that of a monolingual peer. (United States)

    Letts, C A


    Two pre-school children were recorded at regular intervals over a 9-month period while playing freely together. One child was acquiring English as a second language, whilst the other was a monolingual English speaker. The sociolinguistic domain was such that the children were likely to be motivated to communicate with each other in English. A variety of quantitative measures were taken from the transcribed data, including measures of utterance type, length, type-token ratios, use of auxiliaries and morphology. The child for whom English was a second language was found to be well able to interact on equal terms with his partner, despite being somewhat less advanced in some aspects of English language development by the end of the sampling period. Whilst he appeared to be consolidating his language skills during this time, his monolingual partner appeared to be developing rapidly. It is hoped that normative longitudinal data of this kind will be of use in the accurate assessment of children from dual language backgrounds, who may be referred for speech and language therapy.

  7. The Effects of Mother Participation in Relationship Education on Coparenting, Parenting, and Child Social Competence: Modeling Spillover Effects for Low-Income Minority Preschool Children. (United States)

    Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Garneau, Chelsea; Vaughn, Brian; McGill, Julianne; Harcourt, Kate Taylor; Ketring, Scott; Smith, Thomas


    Although suggestions are that benefits of relationship and marriage education (RME) participation extend from the interparental relationship with parenting and child outcomes, few evaluation studies of RME test these assumptions and the relationship among changes in these areas. This quasi-experimental study focuses on a parallel process growth model that tests a spillover hypothesis of program effects and finds, in a sample of low-income minority mothers with a child attending a Head Start program, that increases in mother reports of coparenting agreement for RME participants predict decreases in their reports of punitive parenting behaviors. Although improvements in parenting behaviors did not predict increases in teacher reports of children's social competence, improvements in coparenting agreement were associated with increases in children's social competence over time. In addition, comparative tests of outcomes between parents in the program and parents in a comparison group reveal that RME program participants (n = 171) demonstrate significant improvements compared to nonparticipants (n = 143) on coparenting agreement, parenting practices, and teachers' reports of preschool children's social competence over a 1 year period. The findings are offered as a step forward in better understanding the experiences of low-resource participants in RME. Implications for future research are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belousova, M.V.


    Full Text Available Results of research of 130 families having children of early and preschool age are given. The contingent of investigated has been divided into 2 groups: group №1 - children without speech and cognitive violations (n=80, group № 2 - are diagnosed manifestations of the general underdevelopment of the speech combined with like-autistic disturbances (n=50. All the children were divided into 2 groups: group №1 (n = 80, children are without speech disorders, group №2 (n = 50: signs of general underdevelopment of children’s speech are diagnosed, combined with like-autistic disturbances. Features of formation of skills of social interaction, development of a subject role-playing game and the child parent relations at against the active use of tablet devices and smartphones by them are studied. In both groups intensive and unfairly early game interaction with gadgets is marked. There is a clear hierarchy transformation of the family system towards the loss of parents dominant influence on children without an ability to use gadget as an obedience and encourage. Patterns of parental behavior in the study families demonstrate the priority of spending time with the gadget to joint leisure time and active integration of the gadget into child's life with delegating him an authority of development and game interaction with him.

  9. The Relationship between Parenting Stress, Parental Intelligence and Child Behavior Problems in a Study of Korean Preschool Mothers (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Yoon


    The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…

  10. Blind Pre-School. (United States)

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  11. A tale of two methods: comparing regression and instrumental variables estimates of the effects of preschool child care type on the subsequent externalizing behavior of children in low-income families. (United States)

    Crosby, Danielle A; Dowsett, Chantelle J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Huston, Aletha C


    We apply instrumental variables (IV) techniques to a pooled data set of employment-focused experiments to examine the relation between type of preschool childcare and subsequent externalizing problem behavior for a large sample of low-income children. To assess the potential usefulness of this approach for addressing biases that can confound causal inferences in child care research, we compare instrumental variables results with those obtained using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. We find that our OLS estimates concur with prior studies showing small positive associations between center-based care and later externalizing behavior. By contrast, our IV estimates indicate that preschool-aged children with center care experience are rated by mothers and teachers as having fewer externalizing problems on entering elementary school than their peers who were not in child care as preschoolers. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on associations between different types of community-based child care and children's social behavior, particularly within low-income populations. Moreover, we use this study to highlight the relative strengths and weaknesses of each analytic method for addressing causal questions in developmental research.

  12. Direct and indirect relations between parent-child attachments, peer acceptance, and self-esteem for preschool children. (United States)

    Pinto, Alexandra; Veríssimo, Manuela; Gatinho, Ana; Santos, António J; Vaughn, Brian E


    The present study aims to test Bowlby's suggestions concerning relations between the child's attachment quality with parents and subsequently constructed models of self-worth during early childhood. In most research on this question, attachment with mothers is considered in relation to self-worth but the child's attachment with fathers is not. Neither has the peer group been studied as an influence on child self-esteem, in the context of attachment research. This study addresses these relatively unstudied influences on child self-esteem. Attachment security to mother and father was measured by the Attachment Behavior Q-Set at two and half years of age. At five years of age social acceptance was measured using two sociometric techniques, and the self-esteem with the California Child Q-Sort. Our analyses indicated that security of the attachment to father and peer acceptance are both unique, significant predictors of the childrens' self-esteem. The security of the attachment to mother was also related to child self-esteem but did not emerge as a uniquely significant predictor. Peer acceptance appeared to moderate of the effect of the security of the attachment to father on the self-esteem of children. Our results extend the relatively sparse literature relating early attachments to self-esteem during early childhood.

  13. Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway. (United States)

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rudmin, Floyd Webster


    A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured interview on child-rearing were used as instruments. As would be expected from a developmental perspective, elevated scores of child behavior problems were associated with lower levels of parental cuddling and with higher levels of physical punishment. Family demographics such as low maternal age and single parenthood were also associated with more behavioral problems. Girls seemed to be more strongly influenced by child-rearing factors than boys. Subgroup analyses suggested that for harsh treatment, patterns of correlations differed between Sami and Norwegian groups, especially for boys. A positive correlation between physical punishment and externalizing problems emerged for Norwegian boys, but not for Sami boys. Teasing/ridiculing was positively correlated with internalizing problems for Norwegian boys, but inversely correlated for Sami boys. These findings emphasize the importance of taking the child's cultural context and gender into account when assessing parenting influences on behavioral problems in children.

  14. Child Negative Emotionality and Parental Harsh Discipline in Chinese Preschoolers: The Different Mediating Roles of Maternal and Paternal Anxiety (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Zhang, Hongli; Shao, Shuhui; Wang, Meifang


    Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated the relations between child negative emotionality and maternal psychological aggression and corporal punishment, but the mediating effects of paternal anxiety on the relations between child negative emotionality and paternal harsh discipline was not significant. The findings provide an important supplement and extension to previous examinations of the factors associated with Chinese parental use of harsh discipline and its mechanisms. PMID:28326056

  15. Association of anemia, child and family characteristics with elevated blood lead concentrations in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay. (United States)

    Queirolo, Elena I; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Kordas, Katarzyna


    Elevated blood lead levels (BPbs) have been identified in Uruguayan children in the La Teja neighborhood of Montevideo, but the extent of lead exposure in other city areas is unknown. Sources and predictors of exposure also remain understudied in this population. In 2007, the authors screened lead and hemoglobin levels in capillary blood of 222 preschool children from several areas of Montevideo, Uruguay, and identified predictors of elevated BPbs. Mean BPb was 9.0 +/- 6.0 microg/dL and 32.9% of children had levels >or= 10microg/dL. Mean hemoglobin level was 10.5 +/- 1.5 g/dL, with 44.1% having levels lead exposure, and fewer family possessions were also associated with higher BPbs. Pediatric lead exposure is a public health problem in Uruguay, with children experiencing elevated BPbs at a young age.

  16. Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW): a family-centered, community-based obesity prevention randomized controlled trial for preschool child-parent pairs. (United States)

    Po'e, Eli K; Heerman, William J; Mistry, Rishi S; Barkin, Shari L


    Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) is a randomized controlled trial that tests the efficacy of a family-centered, community-based, behavioral intervention to prevent childhood obesity among preschool-aged children. Focusing on parent-child pairs, GROW utilizes a multi-level framework, which accounts for macro (i.e., built-environment) and micro (i.e., genetics) level systems that contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic. Six hundred parent-child pairs will be randomized to a 3-year healthy lifestyle intervention or a 3-year school readiness program. Eligible children are enrolled between ages 3 and 5, are from minority communities, and are not obese. The principal site for the GROW intervention is local community recreation centers and libraries. The primary outcome is childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectory at the end of the three-year study period. In addition to other anthropometric measurements, mediators and moderators of growth are considered, including genetics, accelerometry, and diet recall. GROW is a staged intensity intervention, consisting of intensive, maintenance, and sustainability phases. Throughout the study, parents build skills in nutrition, physical activity, and parenting, concurrently forming new social networks. Participants are taught goal-setting, self-monitoring, and problem solving techniques to facilitate sustainable behavior change. The GROW curriculum uses low health literacy communication and social media to communicate key health messages. The control arm is administered to both control and intervention participants. By conducting this trial in public community centers, and by implementing a family-centered approach to sustainable healthy childhood growth, we aim to develop an exportable community-based intervention to address the expanding public health crisis of pediatric obesity.

  17. Evaluation of the Color Me Healthy Program in Influencing Nutrition and Physical Activity in Mississippi Preschool Child Care Facilities (United States)

    Huye, Holly F.; Bankston, Sarah; Speed, Donna; Molaison, Elaine F.


    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the level of implementation and perceived value in creating knowledge and behavior change from the Color Me Healthy (CMH) training program in child care centers, family day carehomes, or Head Start facilities throughout Mississippi. Methods: A two-phase survey was used to initially…

  18. Difference in mother–child interaction between preterm- and term-born preschoolers with and without disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Schuengel, C.; Last, B.F.; Wassenaer, van A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Houtzager, B.A.


    1000 g, and term children (n = 84) were assessed at corrected age of 5 using a mother–child interaction observation. Disabilities were assessed using an intelligence test, behaviour questionnaires for parents and teachers, and motor and neurological examinations. Results: Mothers of preterm-born chi

  19. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools (United States)

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena


    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…

  20. Predicting mothers' beliefs about preschool-aged children's social behavior: evidence for maternal attitudes moderating child effects. (United States)

    Hastings, P D; Rubin, K H


    Maternal beliefs about children's social behavior may be important contributors to socialization and development, but little is known about how such beliefs form. Transactional models suggest that children's characteristics may influence parents. At 2 years of age, the shy and aggressive behaviors of 65 toddlers (28 females) were observed during interactions with an unfamiliar peer; as well, mothers described the extent to which they advocated protective and authoritarian childrearing attitudes. These variables were used to predict mothers emotions, attributions, parenting goals, and socialization strategies in response to vignettes depicting aggressive and withdrawn child behaviors 2 years later. Most child effects were moderated by maternal attitudes or gender effects. Authoritarian mothers of aggressive toddlers were most likely to report high control and anger, to blame their children for aggression, and to focus on obtaining compliance rather than teaching skills to their children. Protective mothers reported that they would use warmth and involvement to comfort withdrawn children, especially their daughters.

  1. Preschool Teachers' Professional Training, Observational Feedback, Child-Centered Beliefs and Motivation: Direct and Indirect Associations with Social and Emotional Responsiveness (United States)

    Lang, Sarah N.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Hur, Eunhye


    Background: Young children's social and emotional competence is a key predictor of their current and future academic and social success. Although preschool teachers are critical socializing agent of children's social and emotional development, we know little about factors associated with preschool teachers' social and emotional responsiveness.…

  2. Now You See It, Now You Don't: The Preschool Child's Conception of Invisible Particles in the Context of Dissolving. (United States)

    Rosen, Aynn B.; Rozin, Paul


    Preschoolers made judgments about solutions in which substances were dissolved. Preschoolers (1) distinguished visual appearance from underlying reality; (2) recognized the conservation of taste, smell, and dangerous properties; and (3) by age five recognized that matter can be decomposed into pieces too tiny to be seen by the naked eye. (BC)

  3. 北京市51名幼儿教师对预防儿童性侵犯问题认识的调查研究%Awareness of child sexual abuse preventionamong 5 1 preschool teachers in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶琦; 于卜一; 李景壹; 张文静; 冯亚男; 赵晓霞; 刘成凤; 邱辰


    目的:了解幼儿教师预防儿童性侵犯知识、态度和教育活动,为做好幼儿教师预防儿童性侵犯教育培训提供参考。方法:在3所幼儿园对同意参加这项调查的51名教师进行不记名自填式问卷调查。调查内容涉及相关知识态度和开展的教育活动,以及接受相关培训情况和参加培训的意愿。结果:在被调查的51名幼儿教师中,很少有人知道性侵犯者多为儿童熟悉的人(29.4%)和受到性侵犯的儿童通常身体上不会留下明显的痕迹(17.6%)。尽管多数教师赞成在幼儿园开展预防性侵犯教育(74.5%),但也担心这种教育可能会使幼儿对“性”知道得太多,对孩子产生不好的影响(56.9%)。大多数(86.3%)的教师表示愿意参加预防儿童性侵犯教育培训。结论:幼儿教师预防儿童性侵犯知识有限,急需对幼儿教师进行培训。%Objectives:To understand preschool teachers’knowledge,attitudes and practice of child sexu-al abuse (CSA)prevention education in Beijing,and the results will be used as a reference for the CSA prevention education training of preschool teachers in Beijing.Method:Fifty-one preschool teachers were surveyed by the self-administered questionnaires anonymously in 3 preschools of Beijing.The survey included relative knowledge, attitudes and education practice,as well as willingness of training participation.Result:Among the 5 1 preschool teachers,a few teachers knew that children were most likely to be sexually abused by people familiar to them (29.4%)and usually no obvious physical evidence could be found in a sexually abused child (17.6%).Most pre-school teachers (74.5%)approved of CSA prevention education in preschools.However,at the same time,56.9%of them expressed concern that this education might induce children to learn too much about‘sex’.86.3%of pre-school teachers expressed that they were willing to participate in the

  4. Mainstream Preschool Program: Working Model in Rural Maine. (United States)

    Walsh, James Mackin


    The Richmond preschool is an innovative partnership between regular and special education. High school students taking a child care course act as aides to the preschool special education teacher and learn to apply and observe classroom-based theory and knowledge of child growth and development in a meaningful and concrete manner. (JHZ)

  5. Preventing Child Behavior Problems in the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study: Results from Preschool to Secondary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lösel


    Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.

  6. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie


    The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life...... was obtained from 99.7% of the children in the cohort. Of 5,898 eligible children, 3,501 participated in the SDQ assessment (59%). The overall estimated 6-month prevalence of mental health problems was 4.8% (95% CI 4.1-5.6). Conduct problems were found in 3.0% (95% CI 2.4-3.6), problems of hyperactivity...

  7. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.


    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  8. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer


    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…


    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.


  10. Understanding the Active Ingredients in an Effective Preschool Vocabulary Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Teacher and Child Talk during Book Reading (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.


    Research Findings: In order to identify the active ingredients in an effective professional development intervention focused on enhancing preschool vocabulary instruction, this study examines the frequency with which teachers and children discussed theme-related vocabulary words during shared book reading. Head Start teachers received 1 year of…

  11. Evaluacion de la Interaccion Adulto-Nino en Aulas Pre-escolares de Concepcion, Chile. [Evaluation Adult-Child Interaction in Preschool Classrooms of Concepcion, Chile. (United States)

    Mathiesen De G., Maria Elena; Herrera G., Maria Olivia; Villalon B., Malva; Suzuky S., Emy


    Presents findings from investigation of the validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale, CIS (1989), in preschools in Concepcion, Chile. Demonstrates the reliability and validity of the scale to evaluate the interaction of the childhood educator with young children, suggesting changes to the scale. Notes differences found for school type.…

  12. Fantasy Orientation Constructs and Related Executive Function Development in Preschool: Developmental Benefits to Executive Functions by Being a Fantasy-Oriented Child (United States)

    Pierucci, Jillian M.; O'Brien, Christopher T.; McInnis, Melissa A.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Barber, Angela B.


    This study explored unique constructs of fantasy orientation and whether there are developmental benefits for fantasy-oriented children. By age 3, children begin developing executive functions, with some children exhibiting high fantasy orientation in their cognitions and behaviors. Preschoolers ("n" = 106) completed fantasy orientation…

  13. Enjoyment of Learning and Learning Effort in Primary School: The Significance of Child Individual Characteristics and Stimulation at Home and at Preschool (United States)

    Richter, David; Lehrl, Simone; Weinert, Sabine


    The present paper was written under the auspices of the interdisciplinary research group "Educational Processes, Competence Development, and Selection Decisions at Preschool and Primary School Age (BiKS)" (FOR 543), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The surveys were conceptualised and supervised as part of the developmental…

  14. Preschooler development (United States)

    ... page: // Preschooler development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The normal social and physical development of children ages 3 to 6 years old ...

  15. Work of the Psychologist on Correction of Senior Preschool Children Self-Esteem (United States)

    Fedorenko, Marina V.; Bykova, Svetlana S.


    The relevance of the topic is due to the need of self-correction of senior preschoolers. Adequate self-esteem of preschoolers will give us an opportunity to prepare them for school more effectively, as well as to create some positive character traits. The preschool age is the initial period of development of a child's self-esteem. This is the most…

  16. Oral Health among Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study (United States)

    Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.


    Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…

  17. Mean F0 values obtained through standard phrase pronunciation compared with values obtained from the normal work environment: a study on teacher and child voices performed in a preschool environment. (United States)

    Lindstrom, Fredric; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Sjöholm, Jonas; Waye, Kerstin Persson


    Mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) values are often used in research on vocal load. In this study, we examine how the mean F(0) differs when evaluated through pronouncing a standard phrase as compared to the mean F(0) obtained in a real work/play environment. We also examine how the F(0) values change throughout the day. The study was performed in a preschool, nine adult female preschool teachers and 11 children participated. The participants wore a digital recorder equipped with an accelerometer, which was attached to the neck. In the study, the participant first pronounced a standard phrase in a controlled environment; thereafter, the voice was recorded in the environment where both children and adults normally reside throughout the day, denoted by the work/play environment. For each participant, the procedure was repeated four times throughout the day. Analyses showed that the F(0) values of the children's and adult's voices were significantly higher when recorded in the work/play environment as compared to the controlled environment. The average difference was 36 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. Previous studies have shown an increase of F(0) over the day for teachers. In this study, an increase between morning and afternoon values was found amounting to 8 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. For the child population, this increase was statistically significant. However, the total changes over the day revealed a somewhat more complex scheme, with an increase of F(0) in the morning, a decrease during lunch, and finally an increase in the afternoon. This pattern was verified statistically for the joint child-adult population.

  18. Problems of computerization in the brunch of preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podolyaka А.Е.


    Full Text Available The use of computer technologies was probed in preschool education. 27 pedagogical workers of child's preschool establishments took part in research. The differentiated approach is rotined in the selection of facilities of physical education of children of preschool age. The basic requirements are selected to the computer programs. Found out disparity between enhanceable demand on the computer programs and their introduction in an educational educate process. Multilevel classification and sequence is set in the selection of mobile games.

  19. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age (United States)

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine


    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  20. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne


    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  1. Shining Stars: Preschoolers Get Ready to Read--How Parents Can Help Their Preschoolers Get Ready to Read (United States)

    Goldman, Elizabeth; Adler, C. Ralph


    Parents are their child's first and most important teacher. This booklet introduces parents to techniques for helping their preschoolers learn to read. Included is a story about how one mother and father encourage their children to read, a sample reading activity, and a checklist for parents of preschoolers. This brochure is based on "A Child…

  2. An Immediate and Long-Term Study of a Temperament and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Based Community Program for Preschoolers with Behavior Problems (United States)

    Pade, Hadas; Taube, Daniel O.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Reiser, Paul J.


    The immediate and long-term effects of a Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) derived program offered at a Kaiser Permanente facility were evaluated. There were 73 participants in the initial sample and 23 in the 5-6 year follow-up sample. Child behaviors improved significantly immediately following treatment and some improvements were…

  3. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena


    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  4. The Intergenerational Congruence of Mothers' and Preschoolers' Narrative Affective Content and Narrative Coherence (United States)

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Grey, Izabela; Yates, Tuppett M.


    Intergenerational congruence of mothers' and preschoolers' narratives about the mother-child relationship was examined in a sample of 198 Hispanic (59.1%), Black (19.2%), and White (21.7%) mothers and their preschool child. Mothers' narratives were obtained with the Five Minute Speech Sample and were coded for negative and positive affective…

  5. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien


    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  6. Child Day Care Centers, Day_care_preschool_providers, Published in 2008, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as...

  7. Child Day Care Centers, Day Care Center point layer, combined with pre-school points., Published in 2005, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Reno County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2005. It is...

  8. Is My Child's Appetite Normal? (United States)

    ... child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in their preschool years. That is why your child may have a smaller appetite now. That is normal. If he or she is not hungry or does not finish a meal, relax. Take the food away. Your child probably is eating enough if ...

  9. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers (United States)

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo


    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  10. Aiding Cognitive Growth in Disadvantaged Preschoolers. (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis; Sunley, Robert M.

    Progress during the first two years (1967-1968 and 1968-1969) of a three-year home-based, mother-child intervention program called the Verbal Interaction Project is described. The project was planned for the cognitive enrichment of preschoolers 2 to 4 years old, from lower income families. The program utilized specially trained home visitors,…

  11. Child Care Centres. (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…

  12. Prognosis and Continuity of Child Mental Health Problems from Preschool to Primary School: Results of a Four-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Muller, Jorg M.; Furniss, Tilman


    In a four-year longitudinal study, changes in and continuity of behavioral and emotional problems were examined in 814 subjects from kindergarten to primary school. Mental health problems were assessed by means of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The distribution of the CBCL broadband groups revealed a high level of continuity of internalizing…

  13. Parent-Child Interactions among Low-Income Mexican American Parents and Preschoolers: Do Clinic-Referred Families Differ from Nonreferred Families? (United States)

    McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Argote, Carolina Bertely; Liang, June


    This study compared low-income Mexican American parents of young children referred for behavior problems to their nonreferred counterparts on an observational measure of parent-child interactions. Referred Mexican American parents demonstrated more negative behaviors than their nonreferred counterparts in both nondirective and highly directive…

  14. Verbal Interaction Project: Aiding Cognitive Growth in Disadvantaged Preschoolers through the Mother-Child Home Program; July 1, 1967 - August 31, 1970. Final Report. (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The design, procedure, and results of research conducted for three years in the Verbal Interaction Project are discussed. The major hypothesis tested was that the general and verbal intelligence of low-income subjects exposed to stimulation of verbal interaction in mother-child dyads would rise significantly. A second hypothesis tested was that…

  15. Parents and Schools as Partners in Preschool Education. (United States)

    Schmitt, Donald


    Describes a successful, cost-effective program for at-risk preschoolers designed to improve youngsters' test scores and social habits and develop parents' skills. The Mascoutah, Illinois, program involves guided child observation by parents, individually designed home activities for kindergarten readiness, parent-child cooperation, and a high…

  16. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer


    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other…

  17. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja


    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  18. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.


    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  19. Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit


    The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

  20. Predicting Preschool Effortful Control from Toddler Temperament and Parenting Behavior (United States)

    Cipriano, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.


    This longitudinal study assessed whether maternal behavior and emotional tone moderated the relationship between toddler temperament and preschooler's effortful control. Maternal behavior and emotional tone were observed during a parent-child competing demands task when children were 2 years of age. Child temperament was also assessed at 2 years…

  1. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhang


    Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.

  2. Preschool teacher attachment and attention skills. (United States)

    Commodari, Elena


    Attention underlies and energizes all cognitive and behavioral activities. Many studies showed that the quality of child attachment (both to parental and non parental figures) influences cognitive functions and attention. This study aimed to investigate the relationships among attachment to preschool teachers and attention in a sample of preschoolers. In particular, the study analyzed whether child attachment security to preschool teachers influences the different aspects of their attention skills. In addition, gender- and age-related differences in attention and teacher attachment were explored. Research was conducted using two standardized instruments: the Attention and Concentration Battery, and the Attachment Q Sort. Participants were 279 children (147 male, 132 female) who attended two preschools in a town in Southern Italy. Descriptive analyses, t-tests analyses, and correlation and regression analyses were carried out. Findings highlighted several interesting points concerning the relationships that occur among attachment to preschool teachers and attention. Children with secure attachments presented higher reaction time and better auditory, visual, and visual spatial selectivity and maintenance.

  3. A Little Bit of the Blues: Low-Level Symptoms of Maternal Depression and Classroom Behavior Problems in Preschool Children (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola Allison; Swindle, Taren; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bokony, Patti


    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and teacher-reported child behavioral outcomes. Participants included 442 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression by their child's preschool teacher. Teacher reports of child…

  4. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children (United States)

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.


    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  5. Effect of a child care center-based obesity prevention program on body mass index and nutrition practices among preschool-aged children. (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Asfour, Lila; Messiah, Sarah E


    This study examined the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention program on changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and nutrition practices. Eight child care centers were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control arm. Participants were a multiethnic sample of children aged 2 to 5 years old (N = 307). Intervention centers received healthy menu changes and family-based education focused on increased physical activity and fresh produce intake, decreased intake of simple carbohydrate snacks, and decreased screen time. Control centers received an attention control program. Height, weight, and nutrition data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Analysis examined height, weight, and BMI z-score change by intervention condition (at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months). Pearson correlation analysis examined relationships among BMI z-scores and home activities and nutrition patterns in the intervention group. Child BMI z-score was significantly negatively correlated with the number of home activities completed at 6-month post intervention among intervention participants. Similarly, intervention children consumed less junk food, ate more fresh fruits and vegetables, drank less juice, and drank more 1% milk compared to children at control sites at 6 months post baseline. Ninety-seven percent of those children who were normal weight at baseline were still normal weight 12 months later. Findings support child care centers as a promising setting to implement childhood obesity prevention programs in this age group.

  6. Children's Cortisol and the Quality of Teacher-Child Relationships in Child Care (United States)

    Lisonbee, Jared A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Payne, Amie Lapp; Granger, Douglas A.


    Teacher-child relationships were examined as predictors of cortisol change in preschool children. Saliva for assays was collected from one hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds (101 boys) in the mornings and afternoons on 2 days at child care, and before and after a series of challenging tasks and a teacher-child interaction session outside the…

  7. Empathy in Preschool Children: The Development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP) (United States)

    Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.


    In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…

  8. Societal Burden and Correlates of Acute Gastroenteritis in Families with Preschool Children


    Lapo Mughini-Gras; Roan Pijnacker; Moniek Heusinkveld; Remko Enserink; Rody Zuidema; Erwin Duizer; Titia Kortbeek; Wilfrid van Pelt


    Gastrointestinal infection morbidity remains high amongst preschool children in developed countries. We investigated the societal burden (incidence, healthcare utilization, and productivity loss) and correlates of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in families with preschoolers. Monthly for 25 months, 2000 families reported AGE symptoms and related care, productivity loss, and risk exposures for one preschooler and one parent. Amongst 8768 child-parent pairs enrolled, 7.3% parents and 17.4% children...



    Igor Stanojević


    The research was conducted on a sample of 36 examinees consisting of male children of preschool institutions in Niš, aged five and six ± 6 months. The main objective of the research was to determine the adaptive processes influenced by programmed exercise on the development of motor skills of preschool children. The aim was to provide the conditions for the establishment of rational procedures for optimal planning, programming and control of the motor exercise of preschool child...

  10. The development of communicative competence of preschool children in the multicultural space of kindergarten



    The analysis of the problem of communicative competence development of preschool children in conditions of multicultural educational organization is presented in article. The characteristic of competence-based approach in preschool education is given. The relevance of formation of key competencies at preschool age is shown. The role of multicultural space of kindergarten for formation the modern child identity, disclosure of his individual world, accumulation of experience of communication an...

  11. Early prediction of psychosocial risks and their prevention in preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mirimanova


    Full Text Available We review approaches to creation of safe learning environment in preschools: protecting, training, personally developing, creative. We explore the possibilities of this environment examination. We reveal child development risks and threats to educational environment security of preschool institutions. A special emphasis is on personal developmental and constructive approaches. Tolerance development in children is seen as a means of prevention and creation conditions for psychological security of educational environment, and indirect control of children social development process. At the same time, the aim is development of interactional culture in preschool educational institution, built on important tolerance principles: non-violence, voluntary choice, personal responsibility, accepting the Other.

  12. Sleep and Your Preschooler (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler Print A A A What's ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  13. Universal Preschool: Much To Gain But Who Will Pay? Working Paper Series. (United States)

    Scrivner, Scott; Wolfe, Barbara

    Beginning with the assumption that children across the full spectrum of family income, family composition, and prior experience with child care would benefit from being in a well-implemented preschool at 3 and 4 years of age, this working paper focuses on finding a feasible way to finance universal preschool for 4-year-olds. The paper begins with…

  14. "Then What Happened?" Studying Emergent Literacy in the Narrative Play of Preschool Children (United States)

    Heppner, Denise H.


    The focus of this research was on examining a play-based, child-centered instructional technique known as story telling/story acting (ST/SA) within a Canadian preschool setting. The goal was to examine the changes that occurred in the narrative features of preschool children's stories, and to investigate whether ST/SA fostered emerging literacy…

  15. Questioning as a Component of Scaffolding in Predicting Emotion Knowledge in Preschoolers (United States)

    Bailey, Craig S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.


    The following study expands Denham and Auerbach's (1995, "Mother-child dialogue about emotions and preschoolers' emotional competence." "Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs," 121, 313-337) findings, demonstrating a link between mothers' talk about emotions and preschoolers' knowledge of emotions. We investigate the maternal language…

  16. An Exploratory Study of Mothers' Perceptions of Acculturation within the Preschool Context. Working Paper. WR-523 (United States)

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Thomas, Audrey Alforque


    This exploratory study examines the mother's perceptions of her preschooler's acculturation process, using qualitative methods to collect data from six Latino immigrant mothers about their own acculturation and that of their preschool child. Three patterns emerged: parallel dyadic acculturation, vertex dyadic acculturation, and intersegmented…

  17. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.


    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  18. Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Science (United States)

    Lloyd, Sharon Henry

    In the United States, a current initiative, Advancing Active STEM Education for Our Youngest Learners, aims to advance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to understand preschool teachers' proficiency with science and address the problem of whether or not science learning opportunities are provided to young children based on teachers' attitudes and beliefs. A theoretical framework for establishing teachers' attitudes toward science developed by van Aalderen-Smeets, van der Molen, and Asma, along with Bandura's theory of self-efficacy were the foundations for this research. Research questions explored preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science in general and how they differed based on education level and years of preschool teaching experience. Descriptive comparative data were collected from 48 preschool teacher participants using an online format with a self-reported measure and were analyzed using nonparametric tests to describe differences between groups based on identified factors of teacher comfort, child benefit, and challenges. Results indicated that the participants believed that early childhood science is developmentally appropriate and that young children benefit from science instruction through improved school-readiness skills. Preschool teachers with a state credential or an associate's degree and more teaching experience had more teacher comfort toward science based on attitudes and beliefs surveyed. The data indicated participating preschool teachers experienced few challenges in teaching science. The study may support positive social change through increased awareness of strengths and weaknesses of preschool teachers for the development of effective science professional development. Science is a crucial component of school-readiness skills, laying a foundation for success in later grades.

  19. The Discourse of a Preschool Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Miškeljin


    Full Text Available The paper presents a critical analysis of the discourse of a preschool education curriculum. Its starting point is Foucault’s concept of discourse as language in use, which not only reflects the social order, but also shapes it through a network of conventions, knowledge and practices determining man’s – or, in this case, the reader’s – perception of reality. The analysis is based on identifying the discourse strategies and/or systems of rules laid out in the text The basic principles of the preschool education curriculum for three- to seven-year-old children – model A which make possible certain statements and insights regarding children and thus position the child and the preschool teacher by means of discourse repertoires. This approach helps contextualize the text and leads to an understanding of the basic discourse mechanism involved in the creation of specific versions of preschool education. As discourse analysis itself is related to interpretation and narratology, with the story as a constant, so is this paper a story about a preschool curriculum, for, like any other text, it tells an unfinished story that can yet evolve in different directions.

  20. 亲子户外真人秀节目的幼儿体育教育理念及启示--以《爸爸去哪儿》为例%Preschool Physical Education in Parent-child Outdoor Reality Television:Perceptions and Inspirations---Using“Dad,Where are We Going?”as a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭国强; 舒盛芳; 冯文昌


    运用文献法与个案分析法,辨析了亲子户外真人秀节目与幼儿体育的关系。在挖掘《爸爸去哪儿》节目中的“健康第一、探究学习、因材施教、交往与沟通”等幼儿体育教育理念的基础上,提出重构男性家庭教育的角色,推动幼儿体育的双性化教育进程;倡导“生活教育”,做好学校体育与家庭体育的有效衔接;重视幼儿体育中的“游学教育”,弥补“圈养教育”的不足;构建和谐的师生关系,推动幼儿体育教育公平等启示。%This study analyzes the relationship between parent-child outdoor reality television and preschool physi-cal education. The reality show“Dad, where are we going”manifests such preschool physical education ideas as“health first”,“inquiry learning”,“individualized learning”and“learning in communication”. We suggest that the male’s role in family education be reestablished to promote a gender-balanced physical education for preschoolers, that school physical education and family physical education be effectively cohered, that emphasis be placed on“traveling education”instead of“captivity education”, and that a harmonious relationship be fostered between the teacher and pupils to ensure a fair physical education for each preschooler.

  1. Preschool Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Problems as Predictors of (Pre)adolescent Disruptive Behavior


    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.


    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-12 and at age 13-15. ODD and ACD were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report, preschool behavior was evaluated by the parental questionnaire 'How was your child as a pre...

  2. Divorce, Single Parenting, and Child Development. (United States)

    Crossman, Sharyn M.; Adams, Gerald R.


    Investigated whether a preschool intervention program for children from single-parent households could be effective in establishing the conditions appropriate for allowing the child to recover from the harmful consequences of divorce and limited adult-child interaction. (Author/DB)

  3. Navy Child Care, 1980. (United States)


    months to 2 1/2 years) full-time. ............. 23.8 Preschool (2 1/2 to 5 years) such as Montessori or other nursery school developmental program...had beyond High School. *Naval Air Station, Miramar One Associate degree, five BA/ES, three Montessori Certified, three enrolled in Montessori training...comes in many forms. The child-care center at Naval Station, Adak, burned in November 1979 (Nida, 1980). Fortunately, there was no loss of life or

  4. Helping Your Child to Read. (United States)

    Foust, Betty Jean

    This booklet provides suggestions for parents in helping their children to learn how to read. The first section provides 34 suggestions and activities for parents to use with preschool children, such as reciting nursery rhymes, reading aloud, respecting the child's mood, and playing listening games. The second section offers 25 suggestions and…

  5. Understanding Cortisol Reactivity across the Day at Child Care: The Potential Buffering Role of Secure Attachments to Caregivers (United States)

    Badanes, Lisa S.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos


    Full-day center-based child care has been repeatedly associated with rising cortisol across the child care day. This study addressed the potential buffering role of attachment to mothers and lead teachers in 110 preschoolers while at child care. Using multi-level modeling and controlling for a number of child, family, and child care factors,…

  6. Long-Run Benefits from Universal High-Quality Preschooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz


    This paper investigates the role of preschool quality for children's school performance at the end of primary school. We construct five structural quality indicators based on unique Danish administrative register data. 30,444 children finishing primary school's 9th grade in 2008 and who attended...... a formal preschool institution in 1998 are used in the analyses. OLS analyses show that three out of five quality indicators, a higher staff-per-child ratio, a higher share of male staff, and a higher share of staff with formal preschool teacher training are associated with significant improvements...... in children's test results in Danish. Boys benefit more from preschool quality than girls. Ethnic minority children benefit from higher staff stability....

  7. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills. (United States)

    Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina


    According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade.

  8. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka eWolter


    Full Text Available According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading one year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N=135 and one boy (n=65 or one girl (n=70 we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade.

  9. Swimming Orientation for Preschoolers. (United States)

    Smith, Mary Lou


    Techniques which are designed to dispel fears and promote confident learning are offered to preschool swimming instructors. Safety, class organization, water games, and class activities are discussed. (IAH)

  10. Mother-Child Conversations about Emotions: Linkages to Child Aggression and Prosocial Behavior (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Southam-Gerrow, Michael


    We examined associations of maternal and child emotional discourse and child emotion knowledge with children's behavioral competence. Eighty-five upper middle-income, mostly White preschoolers and mothers completed a home-based bookreading task to assess discourse about emotions. Children's anger perception bias and emotion situation knowledge…

  11. Working with fairytales in preschool period in different media


    Lah, Mateja


    By reading stories we introduce preschoolers to the world of literature. With proper selection of stories we can expand and enrich the child's literary selection and introduce them to the literary arts. We need to pay attention to the quality of stories, the child's age, his ability to comprehend and experience, and to the appropriate means of conveying stories. Listening to stories is the best incentive for the child’s development; in this way we influence the child’s emotional, intellectual...

  12. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne


    universal preschool programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in preschool at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or the mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, longer hours in non-parental care lead to poorer child outcomes.......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudoexperiment generating variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  13. La Educacion Preescolar en Cuba [Preschool Education in Cuba]. (United States)

    Childhood Education, 2002


    Describes the "Educate Your Child" program, a Cuban family-based program supported by UNICEF and designed to enhance the total development of children from birth until the start of formal schooling for the 80 percent of Cuban children who do not attend the Children's Circle preschool program. Highlights the importance of the regional…

  14. Fathering and Mothering of Preschool Boys with Hyperactivity (United States)

    Keown, Louise


    This study examined links between paternal and maternal parenting factors and preschool hyperactivity in a community sample. Forty-one hyperactive and 38 comparison boys (aged 47-62 months) and their fathers and mothers were assessed on a range of interview, parent questionnaire, and observational measures of parenting and child behavior. Results…

  15. Using Current Resources to Implement Wellness Programming for Preschoolers (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.


    Currently, there is a nationwide effort to include preschool-aged children in wellness efforts for the prevention of obesity. National resources include guidelines, best practices, and tip sheets to assist in the implementation of these interventions. The Let's Move! Child Care Checklist is a resource that can be used to assess the level at…

  16. Thai and American Fathers' Involvement with Preschool-Age Children. (United States)

    Tulananda, Oracha; And Others


    Using the Paternal Involvement in Childcare Index, examined father involvement in caregiving and the socialization of preschool-age children in 40 Thai and 24 American families. American fathers were more likely than Thai fathers to be involved in child care and the socialization of their children. (MDM)

  17. Sexual abuse prevention training for preschoolers: Implications for moral development


    Berrick, JD


    Child sexual abuse prevention education is taught to children of all ages. The youngest students are preschool age children. Many programs focus on the moral ramifications of a sexual assault. The limitations of children's moral development, however, may hinder their ability to understand the concepts presented. In some instances, education may unwittingly foster sentiments of guilt in these very young children. © 1991.

  18. Promoting Prosocial Behaviours among Preschool Children with and without Disabilities. (United States)

    Davis, Mary Trotter; And Others


    An intervention using natural reinforcement and peer influence with three three-person groups of preschoolers, each containing one child with a disability, was evaluated. The design of the intervention (multiple probe across subjects) was found to be effective in increasing the subjects' positive social initiations. Some generalization was also…

  19. La Educacion Preescolar en Cuba [Preschool Education in Cuba]. (United States)

    Childhood Education, 2002


    Describes the "Educate Your Child" program, a Cuban family-based program supported by UNICEF and designed to enhance the total development of children from birth until the start of formal schooling for the 80 percent of Cuban children who do not attend the Children's Circle preschool program. Highlights the importance of the regional supervisor in…

  20. Impact of Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Following Exposure to the September 11 Attacks on Preschool Children's Behavior (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Yehuda, Rachel; Schwartz, Deena; Abramovitz, Robert


    To evaluate whether conjoined maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are associated with increased behavioral problems among terrorism-exposed preschool children (N = 116; 18-54 months), this study compared clinically significant child behavioral problem rates among the preschool children of mothers with PTSD and depression,…

  1. Relationship Between Parents and Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Ongider


    Full Text Available Parents play a key role in the emotional development of child especially in preschool age. There are many related factors in the relationship of child and parent. It is important to understand children’s subjective experiences with their parents. Temperamental characteristics of the mother have an important role to play in the quality of this relationship. Most parents desire to have deep, intimate relationships between their children. Also, children need emo-tional closeness, safety and security. Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between child and primary caregiver. The secure attachment style increases the emotional development of child positively and it may serve as a protective factor for psychological well-being. Children’s well-being often depends on how children perceive or interpret their parents behaviors. Poor parenting practices represent some of the most risk factors for psychological problems in childhood. There are many research results show that correlation between the parental negative attitudes and the psychopathology of the children. The present study aimed to review the relationship between parent and preschool children.

  2. Pedagogy and Quality in Indian Slum School Settings: A Bernsteinian Analysis of Visual Representations in the Integrated Child Development Service (United States)

    Chawla-Duggan, Rita


    This paper focuses upon the micro level of the pre-school classroom, taking the example of the Indian Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS), and the discourse of "child-centred" pedagogy that is often associated with quality pre-schooling. Through an analysis of visual data, semi-structured and film elicitation interviews drawn…

  3. American Preschoolers on Ritalin. (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan


    Discusses the controversial use of Ritalin among preschool children, examining research from two studies: "Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" and "Preschool ADHD Treatment Study." Examines issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD and concludes by examining the influence of the human…

  4. Preschool education impact on child development. (United States)

    Gur, Gokce; Cakar, Nilgun; Kiremitci, Saba; Taktak, Aysel; Basaran, Ozge; Uncu, Nermin


    Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis in children. Vasculitic processes can involve the lung. Although diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may be seen as one of the manifestation of HSP, it is not a frequent presentation. Here we reported the case of a 10-year-old girl with HSP nephritis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous methylprednisolone. A review of the literature revealed that young age may be a good prognostic sign and that immunosuppressive drugs and supportive management are essential in the treatment.

  5. [Preschool education impact on child development]. (United States)


    Presumed perinatal ischemic stroke is the term used for cases in which an old stroke is diagnosed by the consequences of it and not by the acute symptoms. Many presumed perinatal ischemic strokes have congenital hemiparesis as the first manifestation, which is usually noticed between the fourth and eighth month of life as early hand preference. That is why the clear and persistent handedness developed before one year of age must be assumed as a warning sign of probable motor sequelae. In this paper we review the medical records of 15 cases of presumed perinatal ischemic stroke to assess the age at which the consultation led to the diagnosis, reason for consultation and age at development of handedness.

  6. Predictors of Preschoolers' Appraisals of Conflict in Families Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence (United States)

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.


    Factors that may contribute to preschool-aged children's appraisals of their parent's violent conflicts in families experiencing recent intimate partner violence (IPV) were evaluated for 116 mother-child dyads. Mothers and children were interviewed using empirically-validated measures to assess level of violence, maternal and child mental health,…

  7. Preventive Intervention for Anxious Preschoolers and Their Parents: Strengthening Early Emotional Development (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Warner, Carrie Masia; Lerner, Amy B.; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L.; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P.; Brotman, Laurie Miller


    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent-child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent-child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate…

  8. Experimental Evaluation of a Preschool Language Curriculum: Influence on Children's Expressive Language Skills (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Mashburn, Andrew; Pence, Khara L.; Wiggins, Alice


    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate child impacts following implementation of a comprehensive language curriculum, the Language-Focused Curriculum (LFC; Bunce, 1995), within their preschool classrooms. As part of this larger purpose, this study identified child-level predictors of expressive language outcomes for children…

  9. Parenting Dimensions in Relation to Pre-Schoolers' Behaviour Problems in Latvia and Lithuania (United States)

    Sebre, Sandra B.; Jusiene, Roma; Dapkevice, Egle; Skreitule-Pikse, Inga; Bieliauskaite, Rasa


    The aim of the present study was to examine associations between parenting and child behaviour problems in two neighbouring countries with subtle, yet apparent cultural differences. Participants were mothers and fathers of preschool-age children from Latvia and Lithuania. Parents completed a measure of child-rearing attitudes and reported on their…

  10. Parenting Practices in Preschool Leading to Later Cognitive Competence: A Family Stress Model (United States)

    Nievar, M. Angela; Moske, Amanda Kay; Johnson, Deborah Jean; Chen, Qi


    Research Findings: This study investigates the effect of the early home environment on self-regulation in preschoolers, and how self-regulation relates to later school achievement, while taking into account family resources. Participants were part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and…

  11. Social Information Processing Patterns, Social Skills, and School Readiness in Preschool Children (United States)

    Ziv, Yair


    The links among social information processing, social competence, and school readiness were examined in this short-term longitudinal study with a sample of 198 preschool children. Data on social information processing were obtained via child interview, data on child social competence were obtained via teacher report, and data on school readiness…

  12. Security of attachment and preschool friendships. (United States)

    Park, K A; Waters, E


    Attachment theory proposes that the quality of the mother-child tie predicts the quality of a child's other close relationships. The purpose of this study was to test whether security of attachment to mother is related to the quality of a preschooler's best friendships. 33 4-year-old and their best friends participated (mean age = 46 months). Attachment Q-set data were collected to score security of mother-child attachment. Security data were used to classify the friend pairs as secure-secure or secure-insecure. Best friend dyads were observed for a 1-hour free-play session. Each pair's behavior was described with the Dyadic Relationships Q-set, a measure designed to describe the behavior of a pair of children. Secure-secure pairs were more harmonious, less controlling, more responsive, and happier than secure-insecure pairs. The results are related to previous work on attachment and social competence.

  13. Definition, assessment and treatment of wheezing disorders in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, P L P; Baraldi, E; Bisgaard, H;


    There is poor agreement on definitions of different phenotypes of preschool wheezing disorders. The present Task Force proposes to use the terms episodic (viral) wheeze to describe children who wheeze intermittently and are well between episodes, and multiple-trigger wheeze for children who wheeze...... preschool child with recurrent wheeze, but should be discontinued if there is no clear clinical benefit. Large well-designed randomised controlled trials with clear descriptions of patients are needed to improve the present recommendations on the treatment of these common syndromes....

  14. Relation between language experiences in preschool classrooms and children's kindergarten and fourth-grade language and reading abilities. (United States)

    Dickinson, David K; Porche, Michelle V


    Indirect effects of preschool classroom indexes of teacher talk were tested on fourth-grade outcomes for 57 students from low-income families in a longitudinal study of classroom and home influences on reading. Detailed observations and audiotaped teacher and child language data were coded to measure content and quantity of verbal interactions in preschool classrooms. Preschool teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary during free play predicted fourth-grade reading comprehension and word recognition (mean age=9; 7), with effects mediated by kindergarten child language measures (mean age=5; 6). In large group preschool settings, teachers' attention-getting utterances were directly related to later comprehension. Preschool teachers' correcting utterances and analytic talk about books, and early support in the home for literacy predicted fourth-grade vocabulary, as mediated by kindergarten receptive vocabulary.

  15. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;


    The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...... preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA....... RESULTS: The gender specific models consistently identified motor coordination and the parents´ perceptions of their child´s activity preferences during free play were positively associated with MVPA. Days with rain or no preschool attendance were negatively associated with MVPA. For boys, rural area...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana MATOVSKA


    Full Text Available Introduction· The purpose for the integration in the preschool institution· The need for the integration in the preschool institution· The results of the integration in the preschool institutionPersonal experience from the integration in the preschool institution· The relationship of the educational and upbringing staff towards the child· The relationship of the child towards the preschool institution· (the relationship towards the other children and the relationship towards the staff Proposal and suggestions for solving the present situation· The completion of legislative and its carrying out in practice· The creation of space and staff possibilities for active integration of the children with developmental disorders in the preschool institutions· The preparation of didactic material and the devices for carrying out the working program.

  17. Preschool Participation and BMI at Kindergarten Entry: The Case for Early Behavioral Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. McGrady


    Full Text Available Preschool years (ages 3–5 are a critical period in growth and development. Emerging studies suggest that preschool attendance may be linked to future weight, and perhaps obesity. This study examined relationships between public preschool attendance, demographic variables, and weight at kindergarten entry. Participants included 2,400 children entering kindergarten in 2006. Height and weight were used to calculate a child's BMI category based on CDC norms. At kindergarten entry, 17% of participants were overweight, and 18% were obese. Children attending a public preschool were at an increased risk for overweight (OR=1.06 and obesity (OR=1.34 at kindergarten entry, χ2(2=6.81, P=.03 relative to children who did not attend preschool. No significant trends relationships between demographics and weight status were found, but demographic variables are summarized descriptively. Policy and clinical implications are provided.

  18. Preschool children with externalizing behaviors: experience of fathers and mothers. (United States)

    Baker, B L; Heller, T L


    Childhood behavior disorders are related to family stress and maladjustment. Little is known, however, about the adjustment of families with preschool-aged children at risk for subsequent behavior disorders. Moreover, fathers' perceptions of child problem behavior and their reactions to it generally have been neglected. Subjects were mothers and fathers of 52 preschool-aged children assigned to one of three groups: control, moderate externalizing, and high externalizing. Higher child externalizing behavior was associated with greater negative family impact, lowered parenting sense of efficacy, and child-rearing practices that were more authoritarian and less authoritative. Mothers and fathers did not differ in actual perceived level of child behavior problems, although both believed that mothers saw more problems. Child Group x Parent interactions indicated that mothers experienced increased stress and a need for help with moderate as well as high child externalizing behaviors, whereas fathers were not elevated on these measures unless the child's externalizing behaviors were high. Implications of these findings for early family intervention are considered.

  19. Impact of nutrition education through Child-to-Child approach on diet behaviors among preschool children%“儿童与儿童”模式对学龄前儿童营养教育饮食行为改变效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董媛; 王佳蕾; 吴玲玲; 蔡美琴


    Objective To investigate the impact of nutrition education through Child-to-Child (CTC)approach on the diet behaviors among preschool children.Methods Two kindergartens in Shanghai were selected as intervention kindergarten and control kindergarten respectively.One hundred and twelve children in higher grade in the intervention kindergarten were served as experiment group,who received nutrition education from kindergarten teachers,and disseminated nutrition knowledge to the other 195 children in lower grade in intervention kindergarten (affected group) through CTC approach.Children in control kindergarten in the same grade were served as experiment group controls (n =74) and affected group controls (n =207) respectively,and no nutrition education intervention was conducted.Self-designed Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP) questionnaire was adopted to evaluate the changes in nutrition and healthy diet knowledge,attitude towards food and nutrition and diet behaviors before and after intervention.Results After intervention,the KAP scores in experiment group and affected group increased to some extent,the pass rates of score of nutrition and healthy diet knowledge significantly increased (P < 0.01),and the attitude towards food and nutrition and diet behaviors improved.After intervention,the incidences of picky eating in experiment group and affected group were significantly lower than those in the corresponding controls (P < 0.05 for both),the incidences of milk consumption every day in both groups were significantly higher than those in the corresponding controls (P < 0.05,P < 0.01),and the incidence of having balanced breakfast in affected group was significantly higher than that in affected group controls (P < 0.05).Conclusion Application of CTC approach in nutrition education may yield favorable effect and advantage in promoting diet behaviors among preschool children.%目的 评价“儿童与儿童”(CTC)营养教育模式对学龄前儿童饮



    Haris MEMISEVIC; Selmir HADZIC


    Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegbo...

  1. Pre-school Teachers’ Perceived Control and Behaviour Problems in Children


    Hammarberg, Annie


    In this thesis, pre-school teachers’ perceived control, is examined in relation to problem behaviours of children and the actions of teachers in the classroom. In addition, other factors that are thought to relate to teachers’ perceived control were studied. The results of Study I indicate that pre-school teachers’ high perceived control was related to high intentions to act in the event of child behaviour problems. Teachers’ high satisfaction with their work was also related to high perceive...

  2. Individual Variation among Preschoolers in a Cognitive Intervention Program in Low Income Families. (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The range of cognitive gains made by low-income preschool children in the home-based Mother-Child Home Program is discussed as to the causes of the wide variability found. At the end of one year (October 1967 to May 1968) in the program, 33 low-income preschoolers made an average Stanford-Binet IQ gain of 17 points. The varibility within this…

  3. Enhancing Early Childhood Outcomes: Connecting Child Welfare and Head Start (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.; Brown, Samantha M.; Yang, Jessica; Groneman, Sheila


    Head Start is a preschool program for families with low incomes and nearly 85% of child welfare-involved families are low-income, yet little is known about Head Start and child welfare collaboration. This study uses data from 28 Head Start directors to describe collaboration facilitators and barriers, and collaborative mechanisms in place. The…

  4. Child Art: The Beginnings of Self-Affirmation. (United States)

    Lewis, Hilda Present, Ed.

    This book collects the thoughts of some of the world's most astute observers of child art. Essays in the book include: (1) "Art as a Unifying Principle in Education" (Sir Herbert Read); (2) "Stages of Development in Preschool Art" (Rhoda Kellogg); (3) "Child Art and Visual Thinking" (Rudolf Arnheim); (4) "The Mental Foundation of Art Education in…

  5. Prediction of preschool aggression from DRD4 risk, parental ADHD symptoms, and home chaos. (United States)

    Farbiash, Tali; Berger, Andrea; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G


    This study investigated the influence of a child's DRD4 risk, parental levels of ADHD symptoms, and the interactive influence of these factors on the development of preschool aggression. Additionally, the study investigated the role of home chaos as a mediator between parental ADHD symptoms and child aggression. The sample consisted of 84 4.5-year-old children and their parents. Children were genotyped for the DRD4 polymorphism. ADHD symptoms were self-reported by parents when the child was 2 to 6 months old. Parental reports of home chaos and the child's aggression were collected 4 years later. Child's DRD4 risk and parental ADHD symptoms significantly contributed to the prediction of preschool aggression. However, contrary to our hypotheses, no interactions were found between the child's DRD4 risk and the levels of parental ADHD symptoms. Home chaos played a mediating role in the relation between paternal ADHD symptoms and the child's aggression. The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and the child's aggression was not significantly mediated through the level of home chaos. The current study emphasizes the importance of longitudinally investigating the contribution of parental ADHD symptoms to child aggression, while also exploring the differential contribution of maternal/paternal inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. Moreover, home chaos was found to be a significant environmental mechanism through which paternal ADHD symptoms affect children's aggression in the preschool years.

  6. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;


    preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA......The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...

  7. Low-Income Mothers' Nighttime and Weekend Work: Daily Associations with Child Behavior, Mother-Child Interactions, and Mood (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna


    This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…

  8. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents. (United States)

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J


    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed.

  9. Estado nutricional e níveis hematológicos e séricos de ferro em pré-escolares de municípios com diferentes índices de desenvolvimento infantil Nutritional status, hematological and serum levels of iron in preschool children from cities with different child development indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Luis de Oliveira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional e os níveis hematológicos e séricos de ferro em pré-escolares de municípios com diferentes índices de desenvolvimento infantil (IDI. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 34 pré-escolares com idade de três a seis anos do município de Laranjal, Paraná, com IDI baixo e com o mesmo número de crianças pareadas por idade e gênero, provenientes de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, município com IDI médio. Avaliou-se o estado nutricional por meio do escore Z das relações peso/estatura e estatura/idade. A avaliação bioquímica constou de dosagens de hemoglobina, hematócrito, ferro sérico e ferritina. Para a análise estatística foram usados os testes t de Student, Mann-Whitney, qui-quadrado e o exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Peso, estatura e escore Z das relações antropométricas foram significantemente menores no grupo de crianças de Laranjal comparados aos de Presidente Prudente. A prevalência de anemia em ambos os grupos foi 8,8%, não havendo diferença significante para a prevalência de ferropenia e para os valores de ferritina sérica. CONCLUSÕES: Pré-escolares do município com IDI baixo apresentam mais desnutrição, enquanto sobrepeso e obesidade são predominantes nos pré-escolares do município com IDI médio. Quanto às alterações dos níveis hematológicos e séricos de ferro, não há diferença entre os pré-escolares dos municípios estudados.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nutritional status and iron hematological and serum levels of preschool children from cities with different child development indexes (CDI. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 34 preschool children aged between three to six years from two municipalities of Brazil: Laranjal, Paraná, with a low CDI, and Presidente Prudente, Sao Paulo, with a medium CDI. Children of both cities were matched by age and gender. The nutritional status was evaluated by Z score for weight/height and height/age. The biochemical

  10. Timing of High-Quality Child Care and Cognitive, Language, and Preacademic Development (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe


    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child…

  11. The Role of Intraverbal Exchanges in Assessing Parent-Child Relationships (United States)

    Gokhan, Nurper; Dennis, Tracy A.; Crossman, Angela M.


    The present investigation evaluated the role of verbal exchanges between parent and child (intraverbal exchanges) in relation to two contemporary measurements of the parent-child relationship, mutual responsive orientation (MRO) and synchrony. Data were collected from 30 mother-preschool child dyads (19 girls, 11 boys) during a laboratory…

  12. Demographic Factors, Temperament and the Quality of the Preschool Environment as Predictors of Daily Cortisol Changes among Finnish Six-Year-Old Children (United States)

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Hotulainen, Risto; Tormanen, Minna; Alijoki, Alisa; Nislin, Mari; Kontu, Elina


    A young child's stress-sensitive neurobiological system is immature and open to being shaped by experience. When children enter preschool, external demands on them to adjust are different from the demands they experience at day care. In Finland, the last year before children transfer to the comprehensive school is called preschool. The preschool…

  13. 45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition. (United States)


    ... nutritional needs. Staff and families must work together to identify each child's nutritional needs, taking... and preschool children and assigned classroom staff, including volunteers, eat together family style... milk and formula. (The information collection requirements are approved by the Office of Management...

  14. The Development of Writing in the Young Child: Some Vintage Russian Wine in Contemporary Bottles. (United States)

    Klein, Marvin L.

    Writing development in preschool children has only recently begun to receive attention; however, Russian researchers dealt with the subject in the 1920s and 30s. Arguing that writing was a fundamental assist to cognitive growth as well as a tool for communication, Lev Vygotsky believed that the preschool child was ready to be taught writing.…

  15. Longitudinal antecedents of executive function in preschoolers. (United States)

    Conway, Anne; Stifter, Cynthia A


    Despite an extensive history underscoring the role of social processes and child contributions to the development of executive functions (C. Lewis & J. Carpendale, 2009; L. S. Vygotsky, 1987), research on these relations is sparse. To address this gap, 68 mother-child dyads were examined to determine whether maternal attention-directing behaviors (attention maintaining, attention redirection) and toddlers' temperament predicted executive processes during preschool (mean age = 4.5 years, SD = 0.46)-delay and conflict inhibition. Maternal attention maintaining was associated with high levels of conflict inhibition for inhibited and exuberant children, whereas attention redirection was associated with low levels of delay and conflict inhibition for inhibited children. Therefore, maternal attention-directing behaviors may enhance the development of executive functions but only for children with inhibited and exuberant temperaments.

  16. Development and preliminary validation of Chinese preschoolers' eating behavior questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire for caregivers to assess the eating behavior of Chinese preschoolers. METHODS: To assess children's eating behaviors, 152 items were derived from a broad review of the literature related to epidemiology surveys and the assessment of children's eating behaviors. All of these items were reviewed by 50 caregivers of preschoolers and 10 experienced pediatricians. Seventy-seven items were selected for use in a primary questionnaire. After conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a variability analysis on the data from 313 preschoolers used to evaluate this primary questionnaire, we deleted 39 of these 77 items. A Chinese Preschoolers' Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CPEBQ was finally established from the remaining 38 items. The structure of this questionnaire was explored by factor analysis, and its reliability, validity and discriminative ability were evaluated with data collected from caregivers of 603 preschoolers. RESULTS: The CPEBQ consisted of 7 dimensions and 38 items. The 7 dimensions were food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habit, satiety responsiveness, exogenous eating, emotional eating and initiative eating. The Cronbach's α coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.92, and the test-retest reliability was 0.72. There were significant differences between the scores of normal-weight, overweight and obese preschoolers when it was referred to food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habits, satiety responsiveness and emotional eating (p<0.05. Differences in caregiver's education levels also had significant effects on scores for food fussiness, eating habits and exogenous eating (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The CPEBQ satisfies the conditions of reliability and validity, in accordance with psychometric demands. The questionnaire can be employed to evaluate the characteristics of Chinese preschoolers' eating behaviors; therefore, it can be used in child health care

  17. Developmental Profiles of Mucosal Immunity in Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ewing


    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of attending pre-school on mucosal immunity. Children 3.5 to 5 years of age who attended pre-school were observed for a 10 month period. Demographic information was collected on previous childcare experiences, the home environment and clinical information relating to the child and the family. A daily illness log was kept for each child. A multivariate longitudinal analysis of the relation between immunoglobulins in saliva and age, gender, childcare experience, pre-school exposure, number of siblings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, atopy and hospitalisation was conducted. There was a positive association of higher IgA levels with the winter season and with children being older than 4 years (<.001, having attended childcare prior to commencing pre-school (<.05, and having been exposed to ETS at home (<.05. Lower IgA levels were associated with being atopic (<.05. Higher IgG levels were associated with exposure to ETS (<.001, while lower levels were associated to having atopy. Higher IgM levels were associated with previous childcare experience (<.01 whilst having been hospitalised was associated with having low salivary IgM levels (<.01. Lagged analyses demonstrated that immunological parameters were affected by the number of respiratory infections in the preceding 2 months.

  18. Identifying Unbiased Items for Screening Preschoolers for Disruptive Behavior Problems. (United States)

    Studts, Christina R; Polaha, Jodi; van Zyl, Michiel A


    OBJECTIVE : Efficient identification and referral to behavioral services are crucial in addressing early-onset disruptive behavior problems. Existing screening instruments for preschoolers are not ideal for pediatric primary care settings serving diverse populations. Eighteen candidate items for a new brief screening instrument were examined to identify those exhibiting measurement bias (i.e., differential item functioning, DIF) by child characteristics. METHOD : Parents/guardians of preschool-aged children (N = 900) from four primary care settings completed two full-length behavioral rating scales. Items measuring disruptive behavior problems were tested for DIF by child race, sex, and socioeconomic status using two approaches: item response theory-based likelihood ratio tests and ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS : Of 18 items, eight were identified with statistically significant DIF by at least one method. CONCLUSIONS : The bias observed in 8 of 18 items made them undesirable for screening diverse populations of children. These items were excluded from the new brief screening tool.

  19. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.


    Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…

  20. Disruptive Behavior Disorder and Intergenerational Attachment Patterns: A Comparison of Clinic-Referred and Normally Functioning Preschoolers and Their Mothers. (United States)

    DeKlyen, Michelle


    Examined linkages between child disruptive behavior disorder, quality of mother-child interactions, and mothers' recollections/attitudes toward their parents. Preschool boys (N=25) referred to a psychiatric clinic were matched with normally functioning boys. Mothers and sons were videotaped during a separation-reunion sequence, the Adult…

  1. Maternal Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms, Self-Esteem, Body Dissatisfaction and Preschooler Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study (United States)

    Benton, Pree; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa


    The primary aim of the present study was to cross-sectionally examine the associations between maternal psychosocial variables, child feeding practices, and preschooler body mass index z-score (BMI-z) in children (aged 2-4 years). A secondary aim was to examine differences in child weight outcomes between mothers scoring above and below specified…

  2. Interactions between Maternal Parenting and Children's Early Disruptive Behavior: Bidirectional Associations across the Transition from Preschool to School Entry (United States)

    Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.


    This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…

  3. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children... (United States)


    ... arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child or child may be in need of special... special educator, school psychologist, speech therapist, or a reading specialist, in conformity with the... a multidisciplinary team and shall include a teacher or other specialist with knowledge in the...

  4. TV Viewing Compared to Book Reading and Toy Playing Reduces Responsive Maternal Communication with Toddlers and Preschoolers (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Rasmussen, Eric E.


    This study compared the amount and style of maternal communication with toddlers and preschoolers while mother-child pairs watched TV, read books, and played with toys. We found that mother-child communication was less frequent and less verbally responsive when dyads viewed TV compared with when they read books, and in many cases, when they played…

  5. The “I” image like the mechanism of moral behavior regulation of preschool age children

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    Marina Korepanova


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of 5–7-year old child experience in the regulation of ethical con-duct. The authors stress that the child's view of himself, his own “I” image justify the choice of strategy. The authors use the notion of "moral" image, which includes submission of a preschooler on his own moral qualities, features, displays, personal attitudes and prejudice the desire of children to choose and commit the moral act. The situations of pedagogical support of contact between the older preschooler with a cartoon with the purpose of forming of moral conduct are described.

  6. Language, motor skills and behavior problems in preschool years


    Wang, Mari Vaage


    Child language development is a complex process. This process cannot be understood without considering its relationship to other developmental domains. Language development in preschool years is associated with development of motor skills and behavior problems, and these associations are the focus of the current thesis. Despite a large number of studies examining the co-occurrence of such developmental delays and problems, few studies have examined the developmental relationship between these...

  7. O pré-escolar de dois a seis anos de idade e o seu atendimento The preschool child of 2 to 6 years of age and the assistance given him

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaro Ribeiro Gandra


    Full Text Available É evidenciada a importância da fase pré-escolar de 2 a 6 anos, tanto no que diz respeito ao processo de maturação biológica como ao desenvolvimento sócio-psicomotor por que passa a criança em seu relacionamento com o meio ambiente. Este importante grupo etário é um dos mais carentes de atendimento no país, estimando-se que mais de 90% deles não consegue obter nenhuma orientação ou assistência formal. Sugere-se a adoção de alternativas menos sofisticadas conforme o Progama de Educação e Alimentação do Pré-Escolar, este, mais compatível com as infra-estruturas e recursos existentes no país. Este programa se propõe proporcionar, em caráter conjuntural e supletivo, o atendimento integral, abrangente e de baixo custo aos pré-escolares.The importance of the preschool phase (from 2 to 6 years of age in children is emphasised, with regard to the biological maturation process as well as to socio-psycho-motor development which occurs in this phase as a consequence of environmental stimuli. However this important age group is barely reached by the various existing programs and receives the least nutritional assistance and socio-cultural guidance. In Brazil more than 90% of this group receive no kind of organized assistance. An alternative, less sophisticated, program is suggested, on Preschool Education and Feeding Centre (CEAPE lines, more consistent with local resources. This type of program recommended provides all-round assistance to this very import age group, at low cost.

  8. Preschool Children's School Readiness (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra


    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  9. Forging Partnerships with Preschools. (United States)

    Bailie, Patti Ensel


    Describes a Head Start program for preschool children directed by the Nature Center at Shaker Lakes in Cleveland, Ohio. Presents information on the content of this program, which is also aligned with the regular Head Start curriculum. Lists contact phone numbers for more information. (YDS)

  10. Preschool Connected Speech Inventory. (United States)

    DiJohnson, Albert; And Others

    This speech inventory developed for a study of aurally handicapped preschool children (see TM 001 129) provides information on intonation patterns in connected speech. The inventory consists of a list of phrases and simple sentences accompanied by pictorial clues. The test is individually administered by a teacher-examiner who presents the spoken…

  11. A prospective study of behavioral and emotional symptoms in preschoolers. (United States)

    Klein, Annette M; Otto, Yvonne; Fuchs, Sandra; Reibiger, Ina; von Klitzing, Kai


    A substantial number of preschool children exhibit psychological symptoms that have an impact on their own and their families' lives. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence, stability and increase/decrease in emotional and behavioral symptoms and the resultant impairment at two assessment points at preschool age. The sample consisted of 1,034 children drawn from the general population with a mean age of 51 months at t1 and 72 months at t2. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire extended version (Goodman, J Child Psychol Psychiatry 38(5):581-586, 1997; Goodman, J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40(5):791-799, 1999). At t1, 6.9 % of the preschoolers had a total difficulties and 6.8 % a total impact score within the abnormal range. At t2, these scores were 5.7 and 6.2 %, respectively. We found moderate stability of symptoms. From t1 to t2, emotional symptoms and prosocial behavior significantly increased, while hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and total difficulties decreased. The mean total impact score did not change. Boys showed higher levels of symptoms (except emotional symptoms) and impact, and lower prosocial behavior, than girls. Moreover, there was a significant time × gender interaction, with girls showing a larger decrease in hyperactivity/inattention and in total difficulties than boys. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the total impact score at baseline, male gender, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems significantly contributed to the explained variance of the total impact score at follow-up. This is one of very few studies to examine the stability and change of psychological symptoms in a large community sample of preschoolers, assessed twice during preschool age.


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    Natalia Semenova


    Full Text Available The article discloses the aspects of work of pre-school educational establishments in terms of formation of children’s responsible attitude to their own health. The author characterizes the principles underlying the educational process. Guidelines that specify the content of teachers’ activity in mountainous terrain are given in the paper. As the result of the growth of children’s chronic diseases the author emphasizes the need to use national education experience for teaching and upbringing healthy personality of a preschooler in a mountain environment. Since clean air and aesthetic landscapes encourage active relaxation and recreation. The researcher presents the system of knowledge and skills for a healthy lifestyle which are essential for a child of preschool age. The article emphasizes the readiness of pre-school teachers and parents to use folk pedagogical means of healing, developing children's valeological knowledge and skills.

  13. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years. (United States)

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O


    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  14. How Do Early Childhood Education Teachers Perceive Their Expertise? A Qualitative Study of Child Care Providers in Lapland, Finland (United States)

    Happo, Iiris; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu


    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to child care. Well-educated staff consists of all-round experts who work in versatile contexts with various children in a multi-professional collaboration. This staff is one of the strengths of the Finnish child care system. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early…

  15. Predicting the Quality of Mother-Child Reminiscing Surrounding Negative Emotional Events at 42 and 48 Months Old (United States)

    Laible, Deborah; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin


    Researchers have speculated that a number of factors likely predict the quality of reminiscing between preschool children and their mothers. This study was designed to investigate three such factors, including child temperament, maternal personality, and maternal caregiving representations. Seventy mothers and their preschool children were…

  16. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes. (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan


    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  17. Classification of mental health disorders in preschool and primary school children

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    O.V. Khukhlaeva


    Full Text Available There are different types of mental health disorders in preschool and primary school children. In the case where a child has several violations, their differentiation is difficult. During the life of children, one should pay attention to the style of their behavior, especially in conflict situations. Based on the style of behavior in the conflict and on its content, one can make a classification of mental health disorders in preschool and primary school children. In particular, one should pay attention on children with pronounced line of activity, i.e., with a predominance of assimilation, who use aggressive behavior as a defense mechanism against feelings of surrounding world insecurity; on violations of psychological health, the origins of which lie in the preschool years, including accounting for family relations; on violations of psychological health, the origins of which lie at an early age (for example, if the child has no autonomy, no ability to self-selection, judgments, estimates.

  18. A violência familiar no mundo da criança de creche e pré-escola La violencia familiar bajo la visión del niño que va a los jardines infantiles y pre-escuela Family violence in the perspective of the child who goes to day care center and pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ermelina da Silva dos Santos


    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa utiliza o estudo descritivo e transversal e também a análise de conteúdo para conhecer a violência familiar em crianças de creches e pré-escolas. A população e os sujeitos são constituídos de educadores infantis, professores e monitores. Verificam-se nos resultados a presença da violência doméstica, praticada principalmente pela mãe, a criança agressiva está presente no ambiente das escolas como uma forma de reprodução de comportamento e também da negligência com relação aos cuidados e a atenção à criança no cotidiano. Esses comportamentos podem gerar outras formas de violência, mantendo a criança sempre em ambientes de risco durante várias fases da vida.La presente investigación utiliza el estudio descriptivo y también la análisis del contenido para conocer la violencia familiar en niños de jardines infantiles y Pre-escuela. La población y los sujetos son constituidos de educadores infantiles, profesores y monitores. Verificase en los resultados la presencia de la violencia doméstica, practicada principalmente por la madre, el niño agresivo está presente en el ambiente de las escuelas como una forma de reproducción de comportamiento y también, la negligencia con relación a los cuidados y la atención al niño en el cotidiano. Estos comportamientos pueden generar otras formas de violencia, manteniendo el niño siempre en ambientes de riesgo durante varias fases de la vida.The present research uses the descriptive and traversal study and also the content analysis to know the family violence in children of day care center and pre-schools. The population and the subjects are constituted of infantile educators, teachers and monitors. It is verified in the results the presence of the domestic violence, practiced mainly by the mother, the aggressive child is present in the atmosphere of the schools as a form of reproduction of behavior and also, the negligence regarding the cares and the

  19. Language development in early childhood in relation to child's gender and parental education

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    Urška Fekonja


    Full Text Available Many studies show that parental education and child's gender are the factors that influence child's language development. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to examine the effect of parental education and child's gender on language competence of children aged 3 to 4 years. The sample included 80 randomly chosen children, 39 girls and 41 boys, who were included in one of 13 preschool institutions from different regions of Slovenia. The average age of the children was 3;1 years at the first assessment and 4;1 years at the second assessment, one year later. The characteristics of child'slanguage development were assessed by 3 assessors in 3 different social contexts, in test situation by a trained examiner, in child's home environment by his mother and in the preschool institution by his preschool teacher. Results show a positive effect of mother's educational level on some of the measures of child's language development, e.g. achievements on Language development scale; developmental level of storytelling, mother's estimation of child's language competence, while the father's educational level had no significant effect on any of the obtained measures. Child's gender had only a small effect on his achievements on language expression subscale at the age of 3 and 4 as well as on the preschool teacher's estimations of child's language competence at 4 years of age.

  20. Play Complexity and Toy Engagement in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Do Girls and Boys Differ? (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Green, Jonathan; Hudry, Kristelle


    While sex differences in play have been extensively observed in typical development, only a handful of studies have explored this phenomenon in depth with children with autism spectrum disorders. This study explored sex differences in play complexity and toy engagement within caregiver-child interaction samples for preschool-aged children (2-5…

  1. Impact of Performance Feedback Delivered via Electronic Mail on Preschool Teachers' Use of Descriptive Praise (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Snyder, Patricia; Kinder, Kiersten; Artman, Kathleen


    We examined the effects of a professional development intervention that included data-based performance feedback delivered via electronic mail (e-mail) on preschool teachers' use of descriptive praise and whether increased use of descriptive praise was associated with changes in classroom-wide measures of child engagement and challenging behavior.…

  2. Quality and Knowledge Content in Music Activities in Preschool: The Impact of Human Materiality Combinations (United States)

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene; Holmberg, Kristina


    Traditionally, pedagogical research has been child centered, where materialities often have been considered as objects and tools. However, in recent posthuman research, attempts have been made to consider human materiality combinations to have impact on pedagogical activities in preschool, but to a large extent music as an issue has been…

  3. The Relation between Chinese Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Competence and Preacademic Skills (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Knoche, Lisa L.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope


    Research Findings: The current study examines the relations between Chinese preschoolers' social-emotional competence and their preacademic skills, as well as the role of child gender and parental education in such relations. A total of 154 children from the northeastern region of China were involved in the study. Both parents and head teachers of…

  4. Similarity of Mothers' and Preschool Teachers' Evaluations of Socialization Goals in a Cross-Cultural Perspective (United States)

    Döge, Paula; Keller, Heidi


    This study examines the similarity of socialization goals of a group of mothers with different cultural backgrounds and their children's respective preschool teachers in Germany. Additionally, the researchers were interested in the relationship between the degree of mother-teacher similarity and maternal satisfaction with child care. Questionnaire…

  5. Direct Labeling, Tester Expectancy and Delay Maintenance Behavior in Scottish Preschool Children. (United States)

    Ritchie, Fiona K.; Toner, Ignatius J.


    Investigates the influence on Scottish preschool children's self-control of labels regarding patience given directly to the children themselves, and of the expectations regarding the children's patience provided to adult testers. Childrens self-control was assessed in a task in which each child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made…

  6. Parental Numeric Language Input to Mandarin Chinese and English Speaking Preschool Children (United States)

    Chang, Alicia; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Adelchanow, Lauren; Rottman, Benjamin


    The present study examined the number-specific parental language input to Mandarin- and English-speaking preschool-aged children. Mandarin and English transcripts from the CHILDES database were examined for amount of numeric speech, specific types of numeric speech and syntactic frames in which numeric speech appeared. The results showed that…

  7. "Read It! Do It! Tell It! Play It!": Preschoolers and Their Families Having Fun with Stories (United States)

    Bradley, Linda; Donovan, Carol


    Young children, their caregivers, and families should take advantage of opportunities to relish stories together. In this article, the authors describe one child's earliest experiences with story that have informed their work with preschool children and their families. Carol's (the second author's) daughter Sloane is privileged in all the ways…

  8. Parent Perceptions of the Impact of Stuttering on Their Preschoolers and Themselves (United States)

    Langevin, Marilyn; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark


    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are advised to consider the distress of preschoolers and parents along with the social consequences of the child's stuttering when deciding whether to begin or delay treatment. Seventy-seven parents completed a survey that yielded quantitative and qualitative data that reflected their perceptions of the impact…

  9. Exposure to Media Violence and Other Correlates of Aggressive Behavior in Preschool Children (United States)

    Daly, Laura A.; Perez, Linda M.


    This article examines the play behavior of 70 preschool children and its relationship to television violence and regulatory status. Linear regression analysis showed that violent program content and poor self-regulation were independently and significantly associated with overall and physical aggression. Advanced maternal age and child age and…

  10. A Population-Based Study of Preschoolers' Food Neophobia and Its Associations with Food Preferences (United States)

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Worsley, Anthony


    Objective: This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationships between food preferences, food neophobia, and children's characteristics among a population-based sample of preschoolers. Design: A parent-report questionnaire. Setting: Child-care centers, kindergartens, playgroups, day nurseries, and swimming centers. Subjects:…

  11. Early Parenting and Children's Relational and Physical Aggression in the Preschool and Home Contexts (United States)

    Casas, Juan F.; Weigel, Stephanie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Yeh, Elizabeth A. Jansen; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.


    This study investigated early parent-child relationships and how children's use of relational and physical aggression varies with aspects of those relationships during the preschool years. Specifically, parenting styles, parents' use of psychological control, and parents' report of their children's reunion behaviors were assessed. Analyses…

  12. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Preschoolers: Evaluation of "Color Me Healthy" (United States)

    Witt, Kendra E.; Dunn, Carolyn


    Objective: Determine whether "Color Me Healthy" (CMH), an interactive nutrition and physical activity program for preschool children, increases fruit and vegetable consumption. Design: Intervention study. Data were collected at baseline, 1 week post-intervention, and 3 months post-intervention. Setting: Child care centers. Participants: Preschool…

  13. Job-Related Stress and Depression in Orphanage and Preschool Caregivers in Ukraine (United States)

    Raskin, Maryna; Kotake, Chie; Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ebert, Marina; Miller, Laurie C.


    Emotional well-being of child care providers is important to the welfare of their young charges. Elevated depression and job-related stress may affect caregivers' ability to establish empathic connections with children. This study examined work conditions, job-related stress, and depression in 51 orphanage workers and 69 preschool teachers in…

  14. Level of Structural Quality and Process Quality in Rural Preschool Classrooms (United States)

    Hartman, Suzanne C.; Warash, Barbara G.; Curtis, Reagan; Day Hirst, Jessica


    Preschool classrooms with varying levels of structural quality requirements across the state of West Virginia were investigated for differences in measured structural and process quality. Quality was measured using group size, child-to-teacher/staff ratio, teacher education, and the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R;…

  15. Disproportionate Representation in Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities in Five Southern States (United States)

    Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.


    Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern states. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All states examined offered state-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate…

  16. Preschool Adequacy and Efficiency in California. Issues, Policy Options, and Recommendations (United States)


    criteria associated with higher risk of school failure . Thus, the weight of the evidence for favorable effects of high-quality preschool programs...Emotional Support in the First-Grade Classroom Make a Difference for Children at Risk of School Failure ?” Child Development, Vol. 76, No. 5, 2005, pp

  17. Using Songs to Enhance L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Preschool Children (United States)

    Coyle, Yvette; Gómez Gracia, Remei


    This article looks at the effects of a teaching sequence of song-based activities on the L2 vocabulary acquisition of a group of five-year-old Spanish child EFL learners. Twenty-five preschool children received three 30-minute lessons organized around the presentation and practice of a well-known children's song. Vocabulary picture tests were…

  18. International comparisons of behavioral and emotional problems in preschool children: parents' reports from 24 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y;


    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...

  19. Reliability and Validity of a Measure of Preschool Teachers' Attributions for Disruptive Behavior (United States)

    Carter, Lauren M.; Williford, Amanda P.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer


    Research Findings: This study examined the quality of teacher attributions for child disruptive behavior using a new measure, the Preschool Teaching Attributions measure. A sample of 153 early childhood teachers and 432 children participated. All teachers completed the behavior attributions measure, as well as measures regarding demographics,…

  20. A Robot-Partner for Preschool Children Learning English Using Socio-Cognitive Conflict (United States)

    Mazzoni, Elvis; Benvenuti, Martina


    This paper presents an exploratory study in which a humanoid robot (MecWilly) acted as a partner to preschool children, helping them to learn English words. In order to use the Socio-Cognitive Conflict paradigm to induce the knowledge acquisition process, we designed a playful activity in which children worked in pairs with another child or with…

  1. Preschoolers' Recall of Science Content from Educational Videos Presented with and without Songs (United States)

    Schechter, Rachel L.


    This experimental investigation evaluated the impact of educational songs on a child's ability to recall scientific content from an educational television program. Preschoolers' comprehension of the educational content was examined by measuring children's ability to recall the featured science content (the function of a pulley and…

  2. Monet, Malaguzzi, and the Constructive Conversations of Preschoolers in a Reggio-Inspired Classroom (United States)

    Kim, Bo Sun; Darling, Linda Farr


    This study was conducted in a Reggio inspired child care classroom of 4-year olds where the fundamental principles of Reggio Emilia preschools are interpreted for a Canadian context. Qualitative case study methodology was employed to investigate how social interaction plays a role in young children's learning processes. Drawing on social…

  3. Maternal Provision of Structure in a Deliberate Memory Task in Relation to Their Preschool Children's Recall (United States)

    Larkina, Marina; Guler, O. Evren; Kleinknecht, Erica; Bauer, Patricia J.


    Strategic remembering emerges gradually during the preschool years. Socialization practices, specifically mother-child social interactions, might provide the foundation for the development of skills necessary for effective organization of information in memory. In the current study, 48 mothers and their 40-month-olds were engaged in the process of…

  4. Maternal Math Talk in the Home and Math Skills in Preschool Children (United States)

    Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.


    Research Findings: The current study analyzed the relation between the amount of mathematical input that preschool children hear (i.e., math talk) from their mothers in their homes and their early math ability a year later. Forty mother-child dyads recorded their naturalistic exchanges in their homes using an enhanced audio-recording device (the…

  5. Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Early Literacy, Language, and Fine Motor Skills. (United States)

    Bindman, Samantha W; Skibbe, Lori E; Hindman, Annemarie H; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J


    The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, word decoding, vocabulary, and fine motor skills were also assessed. Results revealed that parents provided variable, but generally low-level, support for children's approximation of sound-symbol correspondence in their writing (i.e., graphophonemic support), as well as for their production of letter forms (i.e., print support). Parents frequently accepted errors rather than asking for corrections (i.e., demand for precision). Further analysis of the parent-child dyads (n = 103) who wrote the child's name on the invitation showed that parents provided higher graphophonemic, but not print, support when writing the child's name than other words. Overall parental graphophonemic support was positively linked to children's decoding and fine motor skills, whereas print support and demand for precision were not related to any of the child outcomes. In sum, this study indicates that while parental support for preschoolers' writing may be minimal, it is uniquely linked to key literacy-related outcomes in preschool.

  6. Job-Related Stress and Depression in Orphanage and Preschool Caregivers in Ukraine (United States)

    Raskin, Maryna; Kotake, Chie; Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ebert, Marina; Miller, Laurie C.


    Emotional well-being of child care providers is important to the welfare of their young charges. Elevated depression and job-related stress may affect caregivers' ability to establish empathic connections with children. This study examined work conditions, job-related stress, and depression in 51 orphanage workers and 69 preschool teachers in…

  7. The Relationship between Preschoolers' Attitudes and Play Behaviors toward Classmates with Disabilities (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.


    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between 32 typically developing preschoolers' attitudes and play behaviors toward their classmates with disabilities or developmental delays. Children's attitudes toward peers with disabilities were assessed using three methods: child interviews, sociometric peer ratings, and a social acceptance…

  8. Attachment Relationships as Predictors of Language Skills for At-Risk Bilingual Preschool Children (United States)

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Li, Yibling


    Parental attachment and close teacher-child relationships offer a protective mechanism to promote language development among bilingual preschool children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Research has shown that language skills are an integral part of resilience for young children. This is the first study to examine parental…

  9. Finding Kirk's Words: An Infant Mental Health Approach to Preschool Intervention (United States)

    Marsili, Amy; Hughes, Mary-alayne


    Prior to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990), services for a child with special needs were limited in the typical preschool setting. Traditional early intervention approaches often relied on a normative assessment perspective that focused on the attainment of typical developmental milestones and tended to emphasize the concept…

  10. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of Fourth Graders: Evidence from TIMSS (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua


    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in 7 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries--Australia, Japan, the…

  11. Screening Preschoolers with Special Problems: Use of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC). (United States)

    Keenan, P. A.; Lachar, David

    The Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) is an objectively scored, multidimensional measure of child and adolescent behavior, affect, and cognitive ability and can be completed by parents. The overall goal of this project was to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the PIC as a screening device for use with preschool populations. The…

  12. LEARN 2 MOVE 2-3: a randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of child-focused intervention and context-focused intervention in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschuren Olaf


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the efficacy and the working mechanisms of physical and occupational therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy (CP. In recent years a shift from a child-focused intervention approach to a more context-focused intervention approach can be recognized. Until now the evidence on the efficacy and the working mechanisms of these interventions for children with CP is inconclusive. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and working mechanisms of two intervention approaches compared to regular care intervention in improving mobility and self-care skills of children (2-3 years with CP and their families: a child-focused intervention approach and a context-focused intervention approach. Methods/Design A multi-centre, randomized controlled trial research design will be used. Ninety-four children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS level I-IV; age 2 to 3 years, their parents, and service providers (physical and occupational therapists will be included. During a period of six months children will receive child-focused, context-focused or regular care intervention. Therapists will be randomly assigned to deliver either a child-focused intervention approach, a context-focused intervention approach or regular care intervention. Children follow their therapist into the allocated intervention arm. After the six months study-intervention period, all participants return to regular care intervention. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline, after six months and at a three months follow-up period. Primary outcome is the capability of functional skills in self-care and mobility, using the Functional Skills Scale of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI. Other outcomes will be quality of life and the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - for Children and Youth (ICF-CY, including body function and structure, activities (gross motor

  13. Preschool Teachers' Perspectives on Planning and Documentation in Preschool (United States)

    Alvestad, Torgeir; Sheridan, Sonja


    This article is based on a research project focusing on Norwegian teachers' planning and documentation of children's learning in preschool. Norwegian preschools follow a national curriculum and teachers are obliged to document both professional practice and learning outcomes. The aim of the article is to investigate teachers' experiences of…

  14. Conceptualizing the Play Policies in Preschool Curriculums (United States)

    Sener, Tulin


    This research attempted to describe the play policies in preschool institutions in Ankara, Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine the approaches of the preschools to the children's play. "Play Policy Questionnaire" administered to all directors and teachers of 20 public preschools and 20 private preschools. Play policy of…

  15. Quality in preschool in a cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh-Müller, Grethe; Ringsmose, Charlotte

    What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?......What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?...

  16. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    universal pre-school programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in pre-school at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, increasing hours in family day care from 30-40 hours per week to 40-50 hours per week and hours in pre-school from 20-30 hours per week to 30-40 hours per week leads to significantly......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  17. Social competence of preschool children with epilepsy. (United States)

    Rantanen, K; Timonen, S; Hagström, K; Hämäläinen, P; Eriksson, K; Nieminen, P


    The aims of this study were to describe the social competence of 3- to 6-year-old children with epilepsy (n=26) compared with that of age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n=26). Social competence was assessed with the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised, and the Child Behavior Checklist. The results indicate that the children with epilepsy, especially with complicated epilepsy, had fewer age-appropriate social skills and more attention and behavior problems than the healthy children, as reported by parents. It is possible that the lack of age-appropriate social skills and the presence of attention problems predispose to behavioral problems. Also, epilepsy-related factors impaired the achievement of social competence. This study shows that the preschool children with complicated, early-onset epilepsy are at increased risk of difficulties in social competence.

  18. Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Balčiūnienė


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the main linguistic indications of Lithuanian preschoolers’ narratives. The analysis is based on experimental data of 24 typically developing monolingual Lithuanian children (6–7 years of age from middle-class families, attending a state kindergarten in Kaunas (Lithuania. During the experiment, the children were asked to tell a story according to the Cat Story (Hickmann 1993 picture sequence. The stories were recorded, transcribed and annotated for an automatic analysis using CHILDES software. During the analysis, the syntactic complexity, lexical diversity, and general productivity (MLUw and type/token ratio of the narratives were investigated. The results indicated the main microstructural tendencies of Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age.DOI:

  19. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia


    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna


    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was ...

  20. Mother-child reminiscing at risk: Maternal attachment, elaboration, and child autobiographical memory specificity. (United States)

    McDonnell, Christina G; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; Nuttall, Amy K


    Mother-child reminiscing, the process by which mothers and their children discuss past events and emotional experiences, has been robustly linked with child outcomes, including autobiographical memory. To advance previous work linking elaborative maternal reminiscing with child autobiographical memory specificity, the ability to generate and retrieve specific memories from one's past, it is essential to make distinctions among aspects of elaboration and to consider how maternal risk factors may influence the reminiscing context. The current study evaluated (a) an interaction between emotional and structural elaboration predicting child autobiographical memory specificity and (b) the potential moderating role of maternal adult attachment. Participants consisted of 95 preschool-aged children and their mothers. The sample was predominantly low income and racially diverse. Dyads completed a reminiscing task that was coded for emotional and structural elaboration. Mothers completed the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR-R) to assess attachment-related avoidance and anxiety, and children completed the Autobiographical Memory Test-Preschool Version (AMT-PV) to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that the association between structural reminiscing and child memory specificity was moderated by emotional elements of reminiscing. At high levels of emotional elaboration, mothers with high levels of structural elaboration had children with more specific memory than mothers with low levels of structural elaboration. Moreover, emotional elaboration (a) predicted less specific child memory without high structural support and (b) negatively predicted child specificity at high levels of maternal attachment avoidance and anxiety, a profile associated with fearful avoidance. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  1. Bidirectional Longitudinal Relations between Father-Child Relationships and Chinese Children's Social Competence during Early Childhood (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao


    Using a two-year and three-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between father-child relationships and children's social competence. The results of structural equation modeling showed bidirectional effects between father-child conflict and social…

  2. Associating Parental to Child Psychological Symptoms: Investigating a Transactional Model of Development (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Panayiotou, Georgia; Fanti, Savvas


    The current study investigated the longitudinal transactional association among paternal and maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Data were collected on preschool- to adolescent-age youth via a total of six assessments. The sample (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]…

  3. Education about Child Sexual Abuse on Interactive Multimedia CD-Rom for Undergraduate Teachers (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine


    In many countries, one aspect of health education, namely child sexual abuse, has become an important issue for teachers in pre-schools, primary schools and high schools to address. In Australia, many states now have mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse by teachers to their Principals then to the police or the Department of Families.…

  4. Effects of Universal Child Care Participation on Pre-teen Skills and Risky Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper uses a Danish panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment that generates variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities to investigate pre-teenage effects of child care participation at age three (either parental care, preschoo...

  5. Quality of relationships between preschool children and their divorced mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrakouli Ε.


    Full Text Available It was the purpose of the present study to investigate the consequences of parental divorce on preschool children aged 2,5 to 6,5 years old. More specifically, conflict, dependence and positive aspects of relationship were investigated. A total of 29 divorced mothers and their preschool children and 29 matched control married mothers and their children were ascertained from a general population. Mothers completed the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS developed by Pianta (1992. Mother –reported PCRS scores showed no differences on dependence and positive aspects of relationship, but conflict scale was significantly lower in children of divorce than in controls. However, younger children of divorced mothers (2,5 -4 years had significantly higher dependence on their mothers than the older ones (4-6,5. Additionally, mothers’ higher education was related to children less dependence and less conflict.

  6. Healthy incentive scheme in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, C Johnston


    A pre-school offering a full-day-care service provides for children aged 0-5 years for more than 4 h\\/d. Researchers have called for studies that will provide an understanding of nutrition and physical activity practices in this setting. Obesity prevention in pre-schools, through the development of healthy associations with food and health-related practices, has been advocated. While guidelines for the promotion of best nutrition and health-related practice in the early years\\' setting exist in a number of jurisdictions, associated regulations have been noted to be poor, with the environment of the child-care facility mainly evaluated for safety. Much cross-sectional research outlines poor nutrition and physical activity practice in this setting. However, there are few published environmental and policy-level interventions targeting the child-care provider with, to our knowledge, no evidence of such interventions in Ireland. The aim of the present paper is to review international guidelines and recommendations relating to health promotion best practice in the pre-school setting: service and resource provision; food service and food availability; and the role and involvement of parents in pre-schools. Intervention programmes and assessment tools available to measure such practice are outlined; and insight is provided into an intervention scheme, formulated from available best practice, that was introduced into the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

  7. Divorce, single parenting, and child development. (United States)

    Crossman, S M; Adams, G R


    Application of "crisis" and "social facilitation" theory to program intervention with preschool-age children was undertaken to asses the effects of a preschool education experience on recovery of psychological functions following divorce. A pretest-posttest control group design was completed using single-parent (n = 7) and two-parent (n = 8) children in an educational setting as the treatment groups and two-parent (n = 8) children at home as the control. Maternal reports on self-assesed childrearing and child's behavior were obtained during an interview, while intellectual assessments and observational data on social behavior were collected by trained observers and teachers. Little evidence could be noted that suggested weakened mother-child interaction as a function of divorce. Crisis intervention was observed to be an effective technique in assisting single-parent children toward cognitive recovery. However, it remains unclear whether social behavioral problems of single-parent children were positively affected by the crisis intervention program.

  8. Intervention effect comparison of lecture, parent-child education and network on family unintentional injury among pre-school children' s parents%成都市三种形式健康教育对儿童家庭意外伤害干预效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓燕; 刘熹; 夏劲节; 田红梅; 邱孟


    Objective To compare intervention effect of lecture, parent-child education and network on family un-intentional injury among pre-school children' s parents, and provide suggestions for reducing family unintentional injury inci-dence. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 1747 pre-school children' s parents in 9 kindergar-tens to join the intervention. Effectiveness evaluation was carried out after 1 week. Results Lecture, parent-child educa-tion and network interventions showed different effect on knowledge and behavior changes. The awareness rates of furniture supplies safety and macrobiotic knowledge in network intervention group were 15. 37% and 34. 63% , higher than that of oth-er two groups. The rate of correct drug select in lecture group (12. 63% ) was highest. The prevalence of eating behavior in parent-child education group (33. 28% ) and network group (32. 43% ) were higher than that in lecture group (30. 62% ). The rates of correct behaviors of using scissors and eating habit in network were 34. 29% and 86. 66% , respectively. The rate of no playing in kitchen in lecture group (29. 07% ) was highest in three groups (P <0. 05). Conclusion Internet in-tervention in health education plays an important role in reducing family unintentional injury. Various methods should be car-ried out among pre-school children to help them establish safety habit,and then reduce the rate of unintentional injury in fu-ture.%目的 比较授课、亲子教育及网络干预方式对儿童家庭意外伤害的干预效果,为降低儿童家庭意外伤害发生率提供建议.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,选取成都市9所幼儿园的幼儿家长1747名参加干预活动,在干预后1周采用问卷进行效果评价.结果 在安全知识中,家居用品安全检查最重要的五方面和抗生素治疗的病原类型,网络干预组知晓率最高,分别为15.37%和34.63%;药物的正确选择上,教师讲解组知晓率最高(12.63

  9. Child’s creativity in transition from pre-school to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina


    Full Text Available This longitudinal research started from the conclusion reached by different authors. According to them the time when a child leaves a pre-school institution to start primary school is marked by stagnation of and decrease in child’s creativity, seen as a personality potential. The aim of the research was to establish creativity levels shown by children in both pre-school institution and primary school, and then to conclude if difference between pre-school and school teachers` attitudes influence the development of a child’s creativity. Data was collected from a judgment scale given to pre-school and school teachers and arts creativity task given to children. It was concluded that the level of children’s creativity started to drop after they started primary school. Different understanding of the idea of creativity between pre-school and primary school teachers could be a possible reason leading to the phenomenon of decreasing creative expression in children starting primary school. On the basis of previous theoretical assumptions and the research results it is possible to define measures to be taken in view of teacher training, both at pre-school and primary school level. It is also important to check the validity of suggested measures in future research.

  10. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review. (United States)

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa


    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers.

  11. Physical Activity Pattern of Malaysian Preschoolers: Environment, Barriers, and Motivators for Active Play. (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon


    Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs.

  12. 南宁市城区学龄前儿童忽视状况的调查分析%Survey on child neglect among urban preschool children in Nanning City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋武; 张志勇; 韦金露; 蒙晓; 熊传庆; 刘伟; 何林


    Objective To explore the status of child neglect among urban children aged 3 to 6 years in Nanning City .Methods A total of 3 395 parents of children aged 3 to 6 years were extracted by stratified cluster sampling method from 12 kindergartens(6 urban districts) in Nanning City ,and the Child Neglect Questionnaire for Chinese Urban Children Aged 3 to 6 Years was applied to a survey among them.The status of child neglect was analyzed from the aspects of physical ,emotional,educational,safety and medical levels. Results The incidence of child neglect and total neglect degree were 25.01%and 40.20,respectively,among urban children aged 3 to 6 years in Nanning City .There was no significant difference in physical , emotional , educational , safety and medical levels as well as total neglect rate and neglect degree between boys and girls (P>0.05).The physical,emotional,educational levels and total neglect rate were the highest among children aged 3 years(P<0.05),but were the lowest among children aged 6 years(P<0.05).The degree of physical neglect was the highest among children aged 3 years,but was the lowest among children aged 6 years(P<0.05).The degree of emotional neglect was the highest among children aged 5 years,but was the lowest among children aged 3 years(P<0.05).The degree of safety neglect was the highest among children aged 6 years,but was the lowest among children aged 5 years(P<0.05).The children who involved in two to four types of neglect accounted for 82.69%(702/849),and children who involved in five types of neglect accounted for 3.18%(27/849).Conclusion The status of child neglect among urban children in Nanning City is serious ,which is different among children of different ages .We should pay more attention to child neglect .%目的:了解南宁市城区3~6岁儿童忽视发生状况。方法采用随机整群抽样的方法,用《中国3~6岁城区儿童忽视状况评价问卷》对南宁市6个城区12所托幼机构的3395名3~6岁

  13. Maternal stress and internalizing symptoms in preschoolers: the moderating role of narrative coherence. (United States)

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Otto, Yvonne; Andreas, Anna; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette Maria


    In the present study, we examined whether maternal psychosocial stress and children's coherence in story-stem narratives are associated with preschool children's internalizing symptoms and disorders, and whether narrative coherence moderates the association between maternal stress and children's internalizing symptoms and disorders. The sample consists of 236 preschool children (129 girls, 107 boys; Mage = 5.15 years) and their mothers. Mothers completed questionnaires on their psychosocial stress burden and on child symptoms. A diagnostic interview (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment; Egger & Angold, 2004) was conducted with one of the parents to assess children's psychiatric diagnoses. Children completed 8 story stems of the MacArthur Story Stem Battery (Bretherton & Oppenheim, 2003). Story-stem narratives were coded for narrative coherence. Multivariate analyses were controlled for children's age, gender, verbal performance, and externalizing symptoms. Results showed that maternal psychosocial stress was significantly associated with child internalizing symptoms and disorders. Neither maternal stress nor children's internalizing symptoms or disorders were associated with narrative coherence. However, narrative coherence moderated the association between maternal stress and child internalizing symptoms. For children with more incoherent narratives, the association between maternal psychosocial stress and children's internalizing symptoms was significantly stronger than for children with more coherent narratives. The moderation effect of narrative coherence concerning children's internalizing disorders was found not to be significant. Our findings indicate that preschool children's cognitive-emotional organization in dealing with relational conflict themes seems to buffer their mental health when exposed to adverse circumstances in their everyday family life.

  14. Child Care Work Environments: The Relationship with Learning Environments (United States)

    Lower, Joanna K.; Cassidy, Deborah J.


    The study explores the relationship between child care program administration, organizational climate, and global quality. The recently developed Program Administration Scale (PAS; Talan & Bloom, 2004) was utilized in the study. Both program administration and organizational climate were found to be positively correlated with preschool classroom…

  15. Assessment of sleep problems in preschool aged children: an adaptation of the children's sleep habits questionnaire. (United States)

    Sneddon, Penny; Peacock, Gretchen Gimpel; Crowley, Susan L


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure of the children's sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQ) when used with preschool and toddler age children. Mothers of 105 children ages 2-5 completed the CSHQ, the child behavior checklist (CBCL), and a sleep diary. Internal consistency for the original subscales on the CSHQ ranged from .55 to .82 and factor analysis resulted in four factors that tap into critical aspects of sleep. The concurrent validity of the revised scales of the CSHQ was adequate. Overall the results from this study suggest a revised factor structure may be more appropriate for use with preschool and toddler age children.

  16. Definition, assessment and treatment of wheezing disorders in preschool children: an evidence-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, P.L.; Baraldi, E.; Bisgaard, H.;


    There is poor agreement on definitions of different phenotypes of preschool wheezing disorders. The present Task Force proposes to use the terms episodic (viral) wheeze to describe children who wheeze intermittently and are well between episodes, and multiple-trigger wheeze for children who wheeze...... preschool child with recurrent wheeze, but should be discontinued if there is no clear clinical benefit. Large well-designed randomised controlled trials with clear descriptions of patients are needed to improve the present recommendations on the treatment of these common syndromes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  17. Home teaching for pre-school handicapped children - a cognitive approach. (United States)

    Skidmore, R


    A case study was carried out to investigate and evaluate a home-teaching scheme, with a cognitive bias, for parents of pre-school handicapped children. The scheme linked teaching at the pre-school assessment unit with teaching by the parents in the home. A speech therapist, acting as home-teacher, demonstrated activities to the parents of a Down's syndrome child during weekly visits. The follow-up assessment areas of development. As a result of this study the scheme is to be extended and finance sought.

  18. Parenting, corpus callosum, and executive function in preschool children. (United States)

    Kok, Rianne; Lucassen, Nicole; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Roza, Sabine J; Govaert, Paul; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning


    In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 544), we investigated whether early parenting and corpus callosum length predict child executive function abilities at 4 years of age. The length of the corpus callosum in infancy was measured using postnatal cranial ultrasounds at 6 weeks of age. At 3 years, two aspects of parenting were observed: maternal sensitivity during a teaching task and maternal discipline style during a discipline task. Parents rated executive function problems at 4 years of age in five domains of inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory, and planning/organizing, using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version. Maternal sensitivity predicted less executive function problems at preschool age. A significant interaction was found between corpus callosum length in infancy and maternal use of positive discipline to determine child inhibition problems: The association between a relatively shorter corpus callosum in infancy and child inhibition problems was reduced in children who experienced more positive discipline. Our results point to the buffering potential of positive parenting for children with biological vulnerability.

  19. Can Attribution of a Neutral Emotional State in Child Discipline Play an Adaptive Role in Child Internalising Behaviour? (United States)

    Alvarenga, Patricia; de Oliveira, Ebenezer A.; Dazzani, Maria Virginia


    Maternal rates of child internalising behaviour were compared across children's emotion attributions (neutral, fear, anger, sadness and happiness) to others in a discipline situation, after controlling for socio-demographic covariates. Sixty-five Brazilian mothers provided socio-demographic information and rated their preschool children's…

  20. A Moving Child Is a Learning Child: How the Body Teaches the Brain to Think (Birth to Age 7) (United States)

    Connell, Gill; McCarthy, Cheryl


    Grounded in best practices and current research, this hands-on resource connects the dots that link brain activity, motor and sensory development, movement, and early learning. The expert authors unveil the Kinetic Scale: a visual map of the active learning needs of infants, toddlers, preschoolers, and primary graders that fits each child's…

  1. Predicting asthma in preschool children with asthma symptoms: study rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafkamp-de Groen Esther


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In well-child care it is difficult to determine whether preschool children with asthma symptoms actually have or will develop asthma at school age. The PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy Risk Score has been proposed as an instrument that predicts asthma at school age, using eight easy obtainable parameters, assessed at the time of first asthma symptoms at preschool age. The aim of this study is to present the rationale and design of a study 1 to externally validate and update the PIAMA Risk Score, 2 to develop an Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool to predict asthma at school age in (specific subgroups of preschool children with asthma symptoms and 3 to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Methods and design The study will be performed within the framework of Generation R, a prospective multi-ethnic cohort study. In total, consent for postnatal follow-up was obtained from 7893 children, born between 2002 and 2006. At preschool age the PIAMA Risk Score will be assessed and used to predict asthma at school age. Discrimination (C-index and calibration will be assessed for the external validation. We will study whether the predictive ability of the PIAMA Risk Score can be improved by removing or adding predictors (e.g. preterm birth. The (updated PIAMA Risk Score will be converted to the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool- to predict asthma at school age in preschool children with asthma symptoms. Additionally, we will conduct a pilot study to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Discussion Application of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care will help to distinguish preschool children at high- and low-risk of developing asthma at school age when asthma symptoms appear. This study will increase knowledge about the validity of the PIAMA risk score and might improve risk assessment of developing asthma at school age in (specific subgroups

  2. Preschool Teachers use of ICTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masoumi, Davoud


    ; and as a communication and documentation tool. In addition, by addressing the teachers’ values and attitudes to the role of ICT in early childhood, the paper also unpacks the stances of teachers who consider ICT to be unsuitable for early childhood education. The findings of this study may bring some clarity......This study aimed to identify the ways in which information and communication technologies (ICT) are integrated in three preschools in south-western Sweden. The case study involved observations of and interviews with preschool teachers. The findings support claims that ICT can enhance preschool...... practices by providing a variety of complementary opportunities to enrich and transform existing curricula. The study shows that in the studied preschools ICTs have been appropriated in distinctive ways: as an object to enrich existing practices; as a cultural mediator; as a way to entertain young children...

  3. Pets, pica, pathogens and pre-school children


    Newton, R W; Stack, Tom; Blair, R. E.; Keel, J. C.


    The incidence of pica in pre-school children was investigated by studying 192 children attending a general paediatric hospital clinic and 69 attending a general practice surgery. The incidence of pica was twice as common in those who kept pets in both study groups. Half of the pet-keeping children with pica had eaten their pet's food. Imitative behaviour is suggested as a probable cause. Pet-keeping compounds a child's risk of infestation not only by providing close contact with a reservoir o...

  4. Mental Health Problems Among Preschoolers in Germany: Results of the BELLA Preschool Study. (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Olga; Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka; Kriston, Levente; Wendt, Carolin; Klasen, Fionna; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike


    In a cross-sectional study, the prevalence rates of overall and specific mental health problems (MHP), as well as consequential impairments, were examined in a representative community sample of German preschoolers. MHP in 391 children were assessed by applying the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, as well as its impact supplement. Furthermore, the child behaviour checklist 1½-5 (CBCL 1½-5) and the IOWA-Conners behaviour rating scale were applied. Prevalence rates of MHP with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were determined. Odds ratios were calculated to analyse the relationships between MHP, age, gender, socioeconomic status, and geographical region using logistic regression. Overall, 7.4 % of the children showed symptoms of MHP. 12.9 % of the children were considered to be impaired by psychosocial problems. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were present in 4.2 % of the children; 11.8 % showed hyperactivity symptoms. The observed prevalence rates call for early mental health prevention in preschoolers.

  5. Gains from child-centred Early Childhood Education: Evidence from a Dutch pilot programme


    Bauchmüller, R.


    Early Childhood Education (ECE) programmes are presumed to have positive effects in particular for children who are at risk of failing during their school careers. However, there is disagreement on whether such programmes should be more teacher and curriculum based or rather centred on the individual child. In this paper I study child-centred ECE programmes that are used at preschools in the Dutch province of Limburg, which is in fact mainly a study of 'Speelplezier', a new child-centred prog...

  6. The relationship between teacher responsiveness and the engagement of children with aggressive behavior in preschool : A systematic literature review from 2000-2016


    Papadopoulou, Vasiliki


    The importance of aggressive behavior in preschool ages can be seen from the serious impact it has later in children's lives if a suitable change will not take place. the number of children with behavioral rpoblems in preschool are increasing with a great amount of teachers admitting that they are insufficiently prepared to manage it. The aim of this systematic literature review is to examine the evidence of teacher responsiveness affecting child engagement, with specific focus on children fr...

  7. Modern knowledge about prevention and correction of functional disorders of the supporting-motor apparatus of the senior preschool age children in the process of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashuba V.A.


    Full Text Available Technology of correction of violations of carriage is developed for the children of senior preschool age taking into account spatial organization of their body. Possibilities of application of technology are rotined in the system of physical education of child preschool age and in a medical physical culture. The flowsheet of organization of employments is offered correction-prophylactic macrocycle. Pulling in is selected in a chart, correcting and supporting sanitary the stages.

  8. Pedagogical documentation: Preschool teachers’ perspective

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    Pavlović-Breneselović Dragana


    Full Text Available Educational policy shapes the positions of all stakeholders and their mutual relations in the system of preschool education through its attitude towards documentation. The attitude towards the function of pedagogical documentation in preschool education programmes reflects certain views on children, learning and nature of the programmes. Although contemporary approaches to preschool education emphasise the issue of documentation, this problem is dealt with partially and technically in our country. The aim of our research was to explore preschool teachers’ perspective on documentation by investigating the current situation and teachers’ preferences related to documentation type, as well as to study the purpose, meaning and process of documentation. The research was conducted on the sample of 300 preschool teachers. The descriptive method, interviewing and scaling techniques were used. Research data suggest that the field of documentation is marked by contradictions in perceiving the meaning and function of documentation, as well as by discrepancy and lack of integration at the level of conceptions, practice and educational policy. Changing the current situation in the field of documentation is not a technical matter of elaboration of certain types and forms of documentation; it demands explication of the purpose and function of documentation in keeping with the conception of preschool education programmes and a systemic approach to changes originating from the given conception. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179060: Modeli procenjivanja i strategije unapređivanja kvaliteta obrazovanja u Srbiji

  9. Temperament and Common Disruptive Behavior Problems in Preschool. (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Gremillion, Monica L; Roberts, Bethan


    The study evaluated trait associations with common Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), during an understudied developmental period: Preschool. Participants were 109 children ages 3 to 6 and their families. DBD symptoms were available via parent and teacher/caregiver report on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale. Traits were measured using observational coding paradigms, and parent and examiner report on the Child Behavior Questionnaire and the California Q-Sort. The DBD groups exhibited significantly higher negative affect, higher surgency, and lower effortful control. Negative affect was associated with most DBD symptom domains; surgency and reactive control were associated with hyperactivity-impulsivity; and effortful control was associated with ADHD and inattention. Interactive effects between effortful control and negative affect and curvilinear associations of reactive control with DBD symptoms were evident. Temperament trait associations with DBD during preschool are similar to those seen during middle childhood. Extreme levels of temperament traits are associated with DBD as early as preschool.

  10. An Investigation of the Ethical Decision-Making of Preschool Teachers: A Cultural Study of a Sample in Turkey (United States)

    Ozturk, Safak


    In this study, the ethical decision-making of preschool teachers (N = 26) in Samsun, on the northern coast of Turkey, was examined. For this analysis, six real-life dilemmas were prepared, chosen from the problems that most often arise in kindergartens in Turkey. These dilemmas addressed the commitment of the teacher to the child, to self, to the…

  11. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris


    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  12. Formation of Communication Skills in Preschool Children with Visual Impairments as an Important Factor of Their Socialization (United States)

    Kamalova, Lera A.; Vasilyeva, Nadezda N.


    The urgency of the problem under investigation due to the provisions of the new federal state educational standards of preschool education in the Russian Federation, according to which at the present stage of priority education is to implement a high level of social and communicative potential of the child's personality as a prerequisite for its…

  13. Examining Preschool Teachers' Attitudes, Comfort, Action Orientation and Preparation to Work with Children Reared by Gay and Lesbian Parents (United States)

    Hegde, Archana V.; Averett, Paige; Parker White, Carmel; Deese, Shannon


    The present study assessed preschool teachers' attitudes towards homosexuality, their comfort levels in working with same sex parents and their children, their action orientation and preparedness to work on this topic. Twenty teachers from public schools and 20 from private child care settings in North Carolina, USA, participated in the study. Two…

  14. Developing Relationships between Language and Behaviour in Preschool Children from the Early Language in Victoria Study: Implications for Intervention (United States)

    Bretherton, Lesley; Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Cini, Eileen; Eadie, Patricia; Reilly, Sheena


    Following a biopsychosocial model, the study investigated the role of child factors (gender, IQ), maternal factors (psychological distress, maternal education and vocabulary, maternal distress) and environmental factors (SES) in the relationship between language impairment and behaviour problems in preschool children. Participants were drawn from…

  15. Parents' Support during Different Writing Tasks: A Comparison between Parents of Precocious Readers, Preschoolers, and School-Age Children (United States)

    Aram, Dorit; Besser-Biron, Shira


    The study aimed to deepen the understanding of parental sensitivity to their children's abilities and the nature of their scaffolding during writing tasks. We compared the parent-child writing interactions of three groups: precocious readers (PRs), same age preschoolers (SA), and older children with the same reading level (SRL) as the PRs. Each of…

  16. Nutrition Knowledge and Behaviours of Low-Income Latino Parents of Preschoolers: Associations with Nutrition-Related Parenting Practices (United States)

    Slusser, Wendelin; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Prelip, Michael; Fischer, Heidi; Cumberland, William G.; Frankel, Fred; Neumann, Charlotte


    Parents are in an ideal position to promote long-term healthy dietary behaviours for their children. This study aimed to determine parent and child characteristics and to test their associations in a cross-sectional sample of urban low-income, low-education Latino immigrants with preschool-age children. Also determined were family demographic…

  17. Similarity of Mothers' and Preschool Teachers' Evaluations of Socialization Goals in a Cross-Cultural Perspective (United States)

    Döge, Paula; Keller, Heidi


    This study examines the similarity of socialization goals of a group of mothers with different cultural backgrounds and their children's respective preschool teachers in Germany. Additionally, the researchers were interested in the relationship between the degree of mother-teacher similarity and maternal satisfaction with child care.…

  18. Play as the Leading Activity of the Preschool Period: Insights from Vygotsky, Leont'ev, and Bakhtin. (United States)

    Duncan, Robert M.; Tarulli, Donato


    Discusses ideas from Vygotsky, Leont'ev and Bakhtin to show how fantasy play acts as its own zone of proximal development that contributes to the development of symbolic mediation, the appropriation of social roles and symbols, and the preschool child's preparation for elementary school. (JPB)

  19. Training Executive, Attention, and Motor Skills: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Preschool Children with ADHD (United States)

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Marks, David J.; Bedard, Anne-Claude V.; Chacko, Anil; Curchack, Jocelyn T.; Yoon, Carol A.; Healey, Dione M.


    Objective: To examine whether cognitive enhancement can be delivered through play to preschoolers with ADHD and whether it would affect severity of ADHD symptoms. Method: Twenty-nine 4- and 5-year-old children and their parents participated in separate group sessions (3-5 children/group). Child groups were introduced games designed to enhance…

  20. Scoliosis surgery - child (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  1. Mothers’ estimates of their preschool children and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Loader


    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether the results of the study of Willinger and Eisenwort (2005 could also apply to a sample of preschool children not referred to a tertiary medical institution. Moreover, we were interested in the accuracy of maternal estimates of their children’s development regarding vocabulary for parenting stress, regarding behavioural problems, intellectual development, age and gender of the child. 108 children between the ages of three and six and their mothers were investigated by several diagnostic scales concerning child development with respect to language, motor and intellectual development as well as child behavioural problems and parenting stress concering child and parent characteristics. The mothers’ estimates regarding the children`s vocabulary were assessed by the same vocabulary test used for the children by presenting the test as questionnaire to the mothers. There was a significant trend towards an overestimation of a child’s developmental functioning regarding vocabulary. Group comparisons between groups of different levels of maternal overestimations (mild, moderate and severe overestimation of their child’s language development with respect to parenting stress levels considering age, sex, intellectual develoment and child behaviour problems showed the lowest parenting stress level regarding child characteristics in the group of severe overestimation and the highest level of parenting stress regarding parent characteristics in the group of mild overestimation. Significant influences of child behaviour and intellectual level on parenting stress were found. The results showed that mothers should not be used as only source of information about their children’s developmental status, especially with respect to their active vocabulary. However, maternal overestimation seems to have a positive impact on parenting stress regarding child characteristics, which could possibly be explained as a defense

  2. Preschool Facilities: Are States Providing Adequate Guidance? (United States)

    Lea, Dennis R.; Polster, Patty Poppe


    The preschool facility is a critical element of an effective preschool program. The recent economic downturn in the United States makes it difficult for states and individual school districts to consider developing new preschool programs or enhancing current programs or facilities. Yet many Americans still agree that public investment in preschool…

  3. Emergent Literacy: Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Practices (United States)

    Sandvik, Jenny Miglis; van Daal, Victor H. P.; Adèr, Herman J.


    The present study reports on the construction of a research instrument developed to examine preschool teachers' beliefs and practices in relation to emergent literacy. A 130-item survey (Preschool Literacy Survey, PLS) was completed by a total of 90 preschool teachers in Norway. Items were grouped into homogenous scales, and the relationship…

  4. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children (United States)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.


    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  5. The Arts in Turkish Preschool Education (United States)

    Acer, Dilek


    One of the most important factors determining a nation's level of development in the modern world is preschool education. When preschool education is perceived as an entity that affects every aspect of childhood development, this fact is undeniable. Several aspects of preschool education, including art education, play a significant role in a…

  6. Food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool – an exploratory study from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sepp


    Full Text Available Background: There is a need for research both in relation to food education at preschools and in relation to how the individual teacher can handle and relate to the many different scientific facts and paradigms that are prevalent in relation to food, health, and a sustainable lifestyle. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and meanings that preschool teachers associate with involving food as a tool for learning in planned educational activities. Design: An exploratory study was conducted in 14 preschools with 131 teachers. Twenty semi-structured individual or group interviews with 45 preschool staff were conducted, and 10 interviews were selected for analysis. Results: According to participants, both children and teachers developed a sensory language; children became more positive towards tasting and teachers discovered new possibilities for interdisciplinary work. However, the results also show that an allowing system, with both an interested and confident teacher who recognises the competent child and a supportive organisation, is needed in order to make food a meaningful tool for learning in preschool. Discussion: According to previous studies, food has the potential to play an important part in everyday activities at preschool, both in planned educational activities as well as at meal situations. Our results imply that a holistic understanding of food in preschool is required for long-term work with food as a natural part of the everyday activities. Conclusion: The results imply that it is fun and meaningful for both children and teachers, and quite possible, to work with food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool. In order to include food as a way to work with the preschool curriculum for a sustainable lifestyle, an allowing system is needed.

  7. Food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool – an exploratory study from Sweden (United States)

    Sepp, Hanna; Höijer, Karin


    Background There is a need for research both in relation to food education at preschools and in relation to how the individual teacher can handle and relate to the many different scientific facts and paradigms that are prevalent in relation to food, health, and a sustainable lifestyle. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and meanings that preschool teachers associate with involving food as a tool for learning in planned educational activities. Design An exploratory study was conducted in 14 preschools with 131 teachers. Twenty semi-structured individual or group interviews with 45 preschool staff were conducted, and 10 interviews were selected for analysis. Results According to participants, both children and teachers developed a sensory language; children became more positive towards tasting and teachers discovered new possibilities for interdisciplinary work. However, the results also show that an allowing system, with both an interested and confident teacher who recognises the competent child and a supportive organisation, is needed in order to make food a meaningful tool for learning in preschool. Discussion According to previous studies, food has the potential to play an important part in everyday activities at preschool, both in planned educational activities as well as at meal situations. Our results imply that a holistic understanding of food in preschool is required for long-term work with food as a natural part of the everyday activities. Conclusion The results imply that it is fun and meaningful for both children and teachers, and quite possible, to work with food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool. In order to include food as a way to work with the preschool curriculum for a sustainable lifestyle, an allowing system is needed. PMID:27717411

  8. Emotion Regulation in Context: The Jealousy Complex between Young Siblings and Its Relations with Child and Family Characteristics. (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Miller, Alison L.


    Examined relations between sibling jealousy and child and family characteristics in families with toddler and preschool-age siblings. Found that positive marital relationship was particularly strong predictor of older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy in sessions with mothers. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers related to child's…

  9. Healthy Eating for Preschoolers (United States)

    ... Be patient with your child. Sometimes new foods take time. Give children a taste at first and be patient with them. O er new foods many times. Let your children serve themselves. Teach your children to take small amounts at first. Let them know they ...

  10. The temperament of preterm infant in preschool age

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    Morales M Regina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study deals with the characteristics of temperament of preterm infants during their preschool age in order to not only investigate likely "difficult or problematic profiles", guided by impairments driven by their preterm birth, but also to provide guidelines for the activation of interventions of prevention, functional to improve the quality of preterm infant's life. Methods The study involved a group of 105 children where 50 preterm children at the average age of 5 years and 2 months, enrolled in preschools of Palermo. The research planned the child reference teachers to be administered a specific questionnaire, the QUIT, made up of 60 items investigating six specific typical dimensions of temperament (Motor control activity - related to the ability of practicing motor control activity; Attention - related to the ability of guiding and keeping the focus of attention on a certain stimulus; Inhibition to novelty - regarding with emotional reactivity in front of environmental stimuli; Social orientation - meant in terms of attention and interest towards social stimuli; Positive and negative emotionality - regarding the tendency to mainly express positive or negative emotions. Results The results show in general how preschool-aged preterm infants, identified by such a study, compared with full-term children, are characterized by "normal" temperament based on a strong inclination and orientation in mainly expressing positive feelings. Yet, an impairment of the areas most relating to attention and motor control activity seems to emerge. Conclusions The data suggest specific interventions for preterm infant development and their reference systems and, at the same time, can guide paediatrician and neonatologist dealing with preterm infants, in focalizing and monitoring, even since health status assessments, specific areas of development that, since preschool age, can highlight the presence of real forerunners of maladjustments


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Reho


    Full Text Available The rapid tempo of social changes is inherent in the modern Ukrainian society that has resulted in the actual and problematic personality socialization questions in preschool childhood. This period is exactly that sensitive period for the primary child world view formation, consciousness, social features etc. The stay in preschool educational institution plays an important role in preschool age child personality development. Transcarpathian region is the region situated on the southwest of Ukraine within the western part of Ukrainian Carpathians and Transcarpathian lowland. At about 80% of the region’s territory is covered by the Carpathian Mountains. In accordance with the Ukrainian Law “On the Status of Mountainous Settlements in Ukraine”, until recently 192 settlements (31% out of the total quantity belong to the mountainous. Volovets and Mizhgirya districts fully subject to the action of the above indicated law, while in other districts the portion of settlements with the mountainous settlements status is presented from 13,6 (in Mukachevo district up to 84,4 percent (in Rakhiv disctrict. In our publication we will pay attention to four mountainous districts of Transcarpathian region: Velykyi Bereznyi, Volovets, Mizhgirya and Rakhiv districts. This publication presents the comparative status analysis of preschool age children support carried out by the preschool educational institutions in Transcarpathian region in the period starting from the year of 2000 until 2013. In the mountainous districts of Transcarpathian region the preschool educational institutions establishment, quantity of children in them and preschool institutions loading tendency analysis is completed. The distribution of preschool educational institutions as per children educational languages is given in this article.The above mentioned confirms, that in recent years, active attention has been paid to the new preschool institutions creation, namely in mountainous and

  12. Proposing a contextual approach to pre-school teacher education in Ghana

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    Nana Yaa A. Nyarko


    Full Text Available Efforts of Ghanaian Universities and Colleges of Education in training pre-school teachers have been found inadequate and unable to meet their training needs. As a result, other private and non-governmental organisations have been contributing to the education of early childhood practitioners, although on pilot basis. Currently, most pre-school teachers remain untrained. Using the Cultural Historical Activity Theory as a Framework, this paper proposes a contextual approach to pre-school teacher education using radio as a training tool for teachers. The radio is easily accessible, handy, far reaching to remote rural settlements (than the Internet and low in cost. It is suggested that as in other community radio efforts it should be localised so the community “runs” their own stations. Specific programmes should be devoted to topics on child development, child survival, early childhood pedagogy and other practical issues relevant to pre-school classrooms. The paper concludes by suggesting periodic community (of stakeholders meetings to form a support group.

  13. Where they live, how they play: Neighborhood greenness and outdoor physical activity among preschoolers

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    Grigsby-Toussaint Diana S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging empirical evidence suggests exposure to "green" environments may encourage higher levels of physical activity among children. Few studies, however, have explored this association exclusively in pre-school aged children in the United States. We examined whether residing in neighborhoods with higher levels of greenness was associated with higher levels of outdoor physical activity among preschoolers. In addition, we also explored whether outdoor playing behaviors (e.g., active vs. quiet were influenced by levels of neighborhood greenness independent of demographic and parental support factors. Results Higher levels of neighborhood greenness as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was associated with higher levels of outdoor playing time among preschool-aged children in our sample. Specifically, a one unit increase in neighborhood greenness increased a child's outdoor playing time by approximately 3 minutes. A dose-response relationship was observed between increasing levels of parental support for physical activity (e.g., time spent playing with children and child outdoor physical activity (p Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, neighborhood greenness influences physical activity behavior. However, for preschoolers, parental involvement may be more critical for improving physical activity levels.

  14. O significado da hospitalização para a criança pré-escolar: um modelo teórico El significado de la hospitalización para el niño en edad pre-escolar: un modelo teórico The meaning of hospitalization for the pre-school child: a theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Circéa Amália Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender o significado de estar hospitalizada, para a criança pré-escolar. Os referenciais teóricos foram o Interacionismo Simbólico e a teoria de Vygotsky sobre a brincadeira simbólica da criança e o referencial metodológico foi a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Participaram do mesmo 11 crianças de três a seis anos de idade. As estratégias de coleta de dados foram: observação participante, entrevista com as crianças, mediada pelo Brinquedo Terapêutico e entrevista com as mães. A análise dos dados permitiu construir o modelo teórico Crescendo com a presença protetora da mãe, que evidencia a vulnerabilidade, a força da criança e a proteção recebida da mãe, para enfrentar o mistério e o terror da hospitalização.En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo comprender el significado que tiene para un niño pre-escolar, estar hospitalizado. Los referenciales teóricos fueron el Interaccionismo Simbólico y la teoría de Vygotsky sobre el juego simbólico del niño y el referencial metodológico fue la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos. Participaron del mismo 11 niños de tres a seis años de edad. Las estrategias de recolección de datos fueron: observación participante, entrevista con los niños, mediado por el Juguete Terapéutico y entrevista con las madres. El análisis de los datos permitió construir el modelo teórico Creciendo con la presencia protectora de la madre, que evidencia la vulnerabilidad, la fuerza del niño y la protección recibida de la madre, para enfrentar el misterio y el terror de la hospitalización.This study was aimed at comprehending the meaning of being hospitalized for pre-school children. The theoretical references were the Symbolic Interactionism and Vygotsky's theory on the child's symbolic play. The methodological referential was the Theory Based on Data. Eleven children between the ages of 3 and 6 took part in the survey. The strategies for data collection were

  15. Evaluation of an Urban Farm-to-Preschool and Families Program. (United States)

    Carbone, Elena T; DiFulvio, Gloria T; Susi, Toni; Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha; Lowbridge-Sisley, Joan; Collins, Jessica


    Over the past 30 years, the rate of childhood obesity has risen dramatically. Despite recent declines in prevalence among preschool-aged children, child obesity is still a significant public health concern. Healthy People 2020 objectives include increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among children over 2 years of age and increasing the number of schools that offer access to fresh fruits and vegetables. To reach these objectives, farm-to-school programs are being implemented across the United States. The purpose of this evaluation was to: (a) identify factors that facilitate adoption of the Farm-to-Preschool and Families program in Springfield, MA, specifically; and (b) provide recommendations and guidelines for successful implementation of Farm-to-Preschool and Families programs generally. Using a combination of classroom observations of preschoolers, teacher and food service interviews, and administrator surveys, the findings suggest that having a strong programmatic infrastructure, administrative support, and external support from families is important to sustain a Farm-to-Preschool and Families program.

  16. Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context. (United States)

    Cools, Wouter; De Martelaer, Kristine; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline


    Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the socialization process, the aim of this study was to examine correlates of family and neighbourhood characteristics as well as parental behaviour and beliefs on FMS performance in 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. Relationships between preschool children's FMS performance and family contextual variables were examined within a sample of 846 preschool children. Results identified positive associations of FMS performance with parental education, father's physical activity, transport to school by bicycle, and the high value placed by parents high on sport-specific aspects of children's physical activity. Variables negatively associated with preschool children's FMS performance included father-child interaction in TV-viewing and reading books, the high importance placed by parents on winning and performance in children's physical activity. Furthermore, the ambiguity of associations between FMS performance and parental beliefs underlined its complexity.

  17. Child Development (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  18. Aberrant behavior and cognitive ability in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Gustav


    Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.

  19. Authoritative parenting among immigrant Chinese mothers of preschoolers. (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S L; Leung, Christy Y Y; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David


    The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children's outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting style, psychological well-being, perceived parenting support and stress, and children's hyperactivity/attention. Teacher ratings of child adjustment were also obtained. Results revealed that Chinese immigrant mothers of preschoolers strongly endorsed the authoritative parenting style. Moreover, authoritative parenting predicted increased children's behavioral/attention regulation abilities (lower hyperactivity/inattention), which then predicted decreased teacher rated child difficulties. Finally, mothers with greater psychological well-being or parenting support engaged in more authoritative parenting, but only under conditions of low parenting stress. Neither well-being nor parenting support predicted authoritative parenting when parenting hassles were high. Findings were discussed in light of cultural- and immigration-related issues facing immigrant Chinese mothers of young children.

  20. Child-Staff Ratios in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings and Child Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Perlman, Michal; Fletcher, Brooke; Falenchuk, Olesya; Brunsek, Ashley; McMullen, Evelyn; Shah, Prakesh S.


    Child-staff ratios are a key quality indicator in early childhood education and care (ECEC) programs. Better ratios are believed to improve child outcomes by increasing opportunities for individual interactions and educational instruction from staff. The purpose of this systematic review, and where possible, meta-analysis, was to evaluate the association between child-staff ratios in preschool ECEC programs and children’s outcomes. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were conducted up to July 3, 2015. Cross-sectional or longitudinal studies that evaluated the relationship between child-staff ratios in ECEC classrooms serving preschool aged children and child outcomes were independently identified by two reviewers. Data were independently extracted from included studies by two raters and differences between raters were resolved by consensus. Searches revealed 29 eligible studies (31 samples). Child-staff ratios ranged from 5 to 14.5 preschool-aged children per adult with a mean of 8.65. All 29 studies were included in the systematic review. However, the only meta-analysis that could be conducted was based on three studies that explored associations between ratios and children’s receptive language. Results of this meta-analysis were not significant. Results of the qualitative systematic review revealed few significant relationships between child-staff ratios and child outcomes construed broadly. Thus, the available literature reveal few, if any, relationships between child-staff ratios in preschool ECEC programs and children’s developmental outcomes. Substantial heterogeneity in the assessment of ratios, outcomes measured, and statistics used to capture associations limited quantitative synthesis. Other methodological limitations of the research integrated in this synthesis are discussed. PMID:28103288

  1. The Development of Theory of Mind and Positive and Negative Reciprocity in Preschool Children. (United States)

    Schug, Joanna; Takagishi, Haruto; Benech, Catalina; Okada, Hiroyuki


    This study examined the relation between the acquisition of false-beliefs theory of mind (ToM) and reciprocity in preschoolers. Preschool-aged children completed a task assessing the understanding of false beliefs, and played an Ultimatum Game (UG) with another child in a face-to-face setting. Negative reciprocity was assessed by examining the rejection of unfair offers made by another child in the UG, while positive reciprocity was assessed by examining allocations made by participants in a Dictator Game (DG) following the UG. The results indicated that children who had passed a task assessing first-order false beliefs were more likely to make generous offers in a DG following a fair offer made by their partner in a proceeding UG, but that false beliefs ToM was unrelated to the rejection of unfair offers in the UG.

  2. Predicting ADHD in school age when using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in preschool age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimvall, Martin K; Elberling, Hanne; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka;


    Indicated prevention of ADHD may reduce impairment and need of treatment in youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief questionnaire assessing child mental health, reported to be a valid screening instrument for concurrent ADHD. This study aimed to examine the validity...... of using the SDQ in preschool age to predict ADHD in school age in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,315 children from the Copenhagen child cohort 2000 with no prior history of clinically diagnosed ADHD, who were assessed at age 5-7 years by the SDQ completed by parents and preschool...... teachers. Danish National Registers were used to measure the outcome of any first time ICD-10 diagnosis for hyperkinetic disorder or attention-deficit disorder and/or prescription of central stimulants during years 2005-2012. Screening potentials of the SDQ's predictive algorithms were described, and Cox...

  3. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler


    Golovey L.A.; Vasilenko V.E.; Savenysheva S.S.


    This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling) and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction). The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from sing...

  4. Differences in balance in preschool children aged 1 and 3 years


    Petrič, Melita


    The main part of motor development happens in the preschool period. This means that this period provides the foundation for specialised movement later in life. However, children at that age are the most susceptible to various influences from the environment, which affect motor as well as other areas of development, hence the expression comprehensive development of the child. From the teacher's perspective, comprehensive development means comprehensive planning and a challenge of determining i...

  5. Tuning in to Kids: an effectiveness trial of a parenting program targeting emotion socialization of preschoolers. (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine R; Havighurst, Sophie S; Harley, Ann E


    This article reports on an effectiveness trial of the Tuning in to Kids (TIK) parenting program. TIK aims to improve emotion socialization practices in parents of preschool children; it is a universal prevention program that teaches parents the skills of emotion coaching and also targets parents' own emotion awareness and regulation. The present study followed a 2 × 2 (Treatment Condition × Time) design. One hundred twenty-eight parents of children ages 4.0-5.11 years were recruited from preschools and randomized into intervention and waitlist conditions. Parents in the intervention condition (n = 62) attended a six-session group parenting program delivered by community practitioners who followed intervention fidelity protocols. Parents and preschool teachers completed questionnaires twice during the preschool year: at preintervention and at follow-up (approximately 7 months later). Parents reported on their emotion socialization beliefs and practices, other parenting practices, and on child behavior. Teachers reported on child behavior (Social Competence and Anger-Aggression). Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. At follow-up, compared to the control group, intervention parents were significantly less emotionally dismissive in their beliefs, less dismissive and more coaching in their practices in response to children's negative emotions, and more positively involved. Although there were improvements in both conditions over time for parent-reported child behavior and teacher-reported social competence, compared to the waitlist group, intervention parents reported a significantly greater reduction in number of behavior problems. This trial demonstrates the potential for community agencies and practitioners in real-world settings to deliver a new parenting program that targets emotional communication in parent-child relationships.

  6. Wishful thinking in preschoolers. (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice; Mercier, Hugo


    The current experiment sought to demonstrate the presence of wishful thinking--when wishes influence beliefs--in young children. A sample of 77 preschoolers needed to predict, eight times in a row, which of two plastic eggs, one containing one toy and the other containing three toys, would be drawn by a blinded experimenter. On the four trials in which the children could not keep the content of the egg drawn, they were equally likely to predict that either egg would be drawn. By contrast, on the four trials in which the children got to keep the content of the egg, they were more likely to predict that the egg with three toys would be drawn. Any effort the children exerted would be the same across conditions, so that this demonstration of wishful thinking cannot be accounted for by an effort heuristic. One group of children--a subgroup of the 5-year-olds--did not engage in wishful thinking. Children from this subgroup instead used the representativeness heuristic to guide their answers. This result suggests that having an explicit representation of the outcome inhibits children from engaging in wishful thinking in the same way as explicit representations constrain the operation of motivated reasoning in adults.

  7. Preschoolers' psychosocial problems: in the eyes of the beholder? Adding teacher characteristics as determinants of discrepant parent-teacher reports. (United States)

    Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Solheim, Elisabet; Belsky, Jay; Wichstrom, Lars


    In this study, we explored informant characteristics as determinants of parent-teacher disagreement on preschoolers' psychosocial problems. Teacher characteristics were included in the analyses, in addition to child and parent factors. Psychosocial problems of 732 4-year olds from a Norwegian community sample were assessed by parents and teachers (CBCL-TRF). Furthermore, teachers reported on their education, experience and relationship to the child. Parental stress and psychopathology were also measured. Teachers rated children considerably lower than their parents did, especially on internalizing problems. When teachers rated more child problems, this was strongly associated with conflict in the teacher-child relationship, which predicted disagreement more than other factors. The highest agreement was on boys' externalizing problems. Girls' behavior was rated much lower by teachers than boys' behavior compared to parents' ratings. Possible teacher perception biases are discussed, such as teacher-child conflict, non-identification of internalizing problems, and same-gender child preference.

  8. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  9. The placemat protocol: Measuring preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas with pretend meals. (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Peralta, Mericarmen; Jacobsohn, Gwen Costa; Grider, David T


    Nutrition instruction can lead to more healthful food choices among children, but little is known about preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas because there are few developmentally appropriate measures. This study validated the Placemat Protocol, a novel measure of preschooler healthy-meal schemas using realistic food models to assemble pretend meals. Preschoolers (N = 247, mean age 4 years 8 months) created 2 meals (preferred and healthy), completed measures of verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and were weighed and measured for BMI. Parents reported healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, and family demographics. Children used an average of 5.1 energy-dense (ED) and 3.4 nutrient-dense (ND) foods for their preferred meal, but reversed the ratio to 3.1 ED and 5.1 ND foods for their healthy meal. Healthy meals contained fewer estimated kcal, less fat, less sugar, and more fiber than preferred meals. Meal differences held for younger children, children with lower verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and child subgroups at higher risk for obesity. Placemat Protocol data correlated with parent healthy eating guidance and child obesogenic dietary intake as expected. The Placemat Protocol shows promise for assessing developing healthy-meal schemas before children can fully articulate their knowledge on verbal measures.

  10. Child Care and Child Nutrition (United States)

    Karolak, Eric


    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  11. Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bourbour


    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB in Swedish preschools in relation to preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematic education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s interest in learning activities”. This study also highlights the importance of teachers’ technological knowledge and skills in mediating the interaction and facilitating the use of IWB in preschool pedagogical practices. Normal 0 21 false false false SV JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu ÖZYÜREK


    Full Text Available Early childhood is known as a critical period for development and fundamental movement skills. Growing and development of children have an effect on gaining fundamental movement skills. Besides, the opportu nities and movement education provided for the students play an essential role on developing fundamental movement skills poisedly. In preschool education, physical training is the leading activity given the least importance. From the early years of child hood on, promoting basic skills of children such as walking, running, jumping besides bending over, twisting, flinging something away have great importance because it is closely connected to the other zones of development. Physical training strengthens co gnitive skills such as inquiring mind, problem solving skills and concept acquisition. Besides, fine and gross motor development is consistent with emotional and social life skills. In virtue of physical training, awareness level of children is heightened and a basis for lifelong sport habits is provided. Consequently, children acquire much more than movement skills thanks to physical training. In this study, the importance of physical training and sports activities, the points to be paid attention to while practicing, basic activities in physical training, and education models and methods used have been issued relevantly.

  13. Cultural socialization and school readiness of African American and Latino preschoolers. (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Owen, Margaret Tresch


    Cultural socialization practices are common among ethnic minority parents and important for ethnic minority child development. However, little research has examined these practices among parents of very young children. In this study, we report on cultural socialization practices among a sample of parents of low income, African American (n = 179) and Latino (n = 220) preschool-age children in relation to children's school readiness. Cultural socialization was assessed when children were 2.5 years old, and child outcomes assessed 1 year later included pre-academic skills, receptive language, and child behavior. Children who experienced more frequent cultural socialization displayed greater pre-academic skills, better receptive language, and fewer behavior problems. This association did not differ by child gender or ethnicity. The implications of these findings for the development of parent interventions to support school readiness are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Praxis in Preschoolers. (United States)

    Parham, L. Diane


    A rationale and procedures are presented for occupational therapy evaluation of the preschooler whose problems suggest dyspraxia. Two evaluative domains are examined: sensory processing (assessment of tactile, proprioceptive, vestibular, auditory and visual functions) and praxis (ideation, motor planning and execution). Procedures include…

  15. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.


    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  16. Preschool Integration: An Experimental Classroom. (United States)

    Marshall, Linda; And Others


    The study compared four methods of increasing quantity and quality of play interactions between nonhandicapped and 11 moderately/severely handicapped children in an integrated preschool. Results of contingent reinforcement, reinforcement plus modeling, reinforcement plus behavior management, and reinforcement plus modeling plus behavior management…

  17. Controlling Relationships in Preschool Children (United States)

    Munoz, Jose Manuel; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, Rosario


    In order to facilitate the comprehension of social structure in preschool children, our research has two foci: first, to define controlling behaviours (nonaggressive group organisation) and to determine their organisational principles, and second, to analyse the relation of the controlling behaviours with aggressive behaviours. Through direct…

  18. Physical Activity Lessons in Preschools (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia Sem


    A review of the current literature indicates that childhood obesity is on the rise. What is more disconcerting is that this epidemic has significantly affected the preschool-age population, with the percentage of overweight children increasing from 5.0% to 12.4%, as indicated by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) surveys…

  19. Developing preschool children social aptitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Brás


    Full Text Available The kindergarten teachers must be aware of the importance of the acquisition of social skills for children, with a view to appropriate adaptation and overcoming the various challenges that will have those throughout existence. This article is the presentation of a research work within the pre-school educational context, in the field of ʻSocial and Personal Educationʼ which may lead to improved social skills within the group of children. In order to accomplish this, after the teaching training with the pre-school class which focussed on the acquisition of social competence, an assessment of the modified social skills within the class was carried out. These activities were included in the preschool lesson planning during the ʻSupervised Teaching Practiceʼ. They were developed based on childrenʼs daily life situations, focussing mainly on using games in the learning contexts. The aim of these games was to motivate and involve the children in order to enhance their balanced social development. The results obtained suggest that the introduction of this type of learning activities may be an asset in Pre-school Education because they develop both childrenʼs social skills and social competence. Moreover, this type of learning activities may also lead to changes in childrenʼs social interaction with both adults and their peers which may favour pro social behaviour.

  20. Preschoolers' Quarantining of Fantasy Stories (United States)

    Richert, Rebekah A.; Smith, Erin I.


    Preschool-aged children are exposed to fantasy stories with the expectation that they will learn messages in those stories that are applied to real-world situations. We examined children's transfer from fantastical and real stories. Over the course of 2 studies, 3 1/2- to 5 1/2-year-old children were less likely to transfer problem solutions from…

  1. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children? (United States)

    Hui, Ken


    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  2. O ensino de psicologia e a educação infantil: a nova política pública para a educação infantil e o ensino fundamental e suas possíveis repercussões para o desenvolvimento psicológico infantil/The teaching of psychology and preschool: the new public policies for pre and elementary school and its possible repercussions for child psychological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Pinto de Moura Librandi da Rocha


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é abordar questões que permitam refletir sobre desafios enfrentados pelo ensino de Psicologia quando este focaliza a Educação Infantil. Optou-se por tematizar estas reflexões a partir da mudança recentemente implantada no sistema educacional brasileiro, tornando obrigatório que as crianças saiam mais cedo das pré-escolas e tenham antecipado o seu ingresso no Ensino Fundamental, para os 6 anos de idade. Os possíveis impactos desta mudança são analisados focalizando a atividade lúdica, com especial ênfase nas brincadeiras de faz-de-conta. Para estas análises, toma-se como pontos de sustentação conceitos da teoria histórico-cultural (especialmente os trabalhos de Vygotsky, L.S., Leontiev, A. N. e Elkonin, D. B., os documentos oficiais propostos como referências para o trabalho com crianças (publicados pelo MEC e o que tem sido possível identificar nas práticas educacionais em relação às brincadeiras infantis. O texto problematiza as relações entre estes discursos (permeadas por contradições e sugere que o enfrentamento destas pode se constituir em compromisso extremamente importante nas atividades de docência que abordam as inter-relações entre Psicologia e a educação de crianças pequenas. The objective of this text is to deal with issues which allow us to reflect upon the challenges faced in the teaching of psychology towards preschool. These reflections were highlighted after the recent changes made in the Brazilian educational system, which determines that kids leave preschool one year earlier, and start elementary school at the age of 6. The possible impacts of this change are analyzed having in focus the playful activity, with special stress on the make-believe activities.In order to make these analyses, concepts of the historical-cultural theory are taken as background , especially the works of Vygotsky, L.S., Leontiev, A.N. And Elkonin, D. B., the official documents proposed as

  3. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.


    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  4. An Examination of Parents' and Preschool Workers' Perspectives on Bullying in Preschool (United States)

    Cameron, David Lansing; Kovac, Velibor Bobo


    Parents (n = 141) and preschool workers (n = 81) completed a survey regarding their perspectives towards: (a) the existence of bullying in preschool, (b) interpretations of bullying, (c) the roles of bullies and victims, and (d) gender differences. Findings suggest that both groups largely believe that bullying occurs in preschool. Excluding…

  5. Emotional Competence and Emotion Socialization in Preschoolers: The Viewpoint of Preschool Teachers (United States)

    Kiliç, Sükran


    The aim of this research is to thoroughly investigate preschool teachers' opinions about emotional competence and emotion socialization. The study group was comprised of 20 preschool teachers working in preschools in the city-center of Aksaray. A semi-structured interview form prepared by the researcher was used as the data collection tool. Data…

  6. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.


    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  7. The Importance of Preschool and Child Care for Working Mothers (United States)

    Glynn, Sarah Jane; Farrell, Jane; Wu, Nancy


    In his 2013 State of the Union address, President Barack Obama made a historic pledge to provide universal, high-quality pre-K education to the nation's children. Early childhood education has myriad benefits, including better, more equitable long-term outcomes for children of divergent economic backgrounds Moreover, investments in these programs…

  8. A theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth


    This article introduces a theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching as a historically-grounded societal practice. The aim is to present a unified framework that can be used to analyse and compare both historical and contemporary examples of preschool teaching practice within and across...... national traditions. The framework has two main components, an analysis of preschool teaching as a practice, formed in relation to societal needs, and an analysis of the categorical relations which necessarily must be addressed in preschool teaching activity. The framework is introduced and illustrated...... through the analysis of one of the earliest recorded examples of preschool education (initiated by J. F. Oberlin in northeastern France in 1767). The general idea of societal need is elaborated as a way of analysing practices, and a general analytic schema is presented for characterising preschool...

  9. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marayza Alves Clementino

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child's general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%. The independents variables that had a p-value <0.20 in the bivariate analysis were selected for the multivariate model. The prevalence of dental caries and dental pain was 66.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Order of birth of the child, being the middle child (OR: 10.107, 95%CI: 2.008-50.869 and youngest child (OR: 3.276, 95%CI: 1.048-10.284 and dental pain (OR: 84.477, 95%CI: 33.076-215.759 were significant predictors of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987. Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families.

  10. Coordination in orientation games of preschool children


    Kastelic, Erika


    In the thesis we studied how orientation games have effect on preschool children whilst growing up. Even though the games in available litterature are meant for school children some authors stress that the games are appropriate for preschool children though you do have to have be careful when implementing them for preschoolers. Orientation games in their original form improve orientation, endurance and encourage competition. With participation we can improve all motor functions but for presch...

  11. "Are You Done?" Child Care Providers' Verbal Communication at Mealtimes that Reinforce or Hinder Children's Internal Cues of Hunger and Satiation (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A.; Branen, Laurel J.; Fletcher, Janice; Price, Elizabeth; Johnson, Susan L.; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine


    Objective: To explore the verbal communication of child care providers regarding preschool children's internal and non-internal hunger and satiation cues. Methods: Video observation transcripts of Head Start staff (n=29) at licensed child care centers in Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada were analyzed for common themes. Results: Adults' verbal…

  12. Shared activities of parents with their preschool children during family pastime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobkin V.S.


    Full Text Available This article studies the structure of the pastime of contemporary preschool children and the importance and prevalence of various kinds of activities that parents and their children share. The emphasis is on those features of parental behavior that are determined by gender role (mother/father, family status (two-parent/separated family, style of parentchild relationship, and also child’s gender. The work is based on data from 1,936 questionnaires received from parents of preschool children (from 1.5 to 7 years old who were attending Moscow kindergartens. The research was carried out in 41 kindergartens in 9 districts of Moscow. The survey uncovered several social-psychological features of the position parents take while organizing their shared pastime with preschool children: the influence of traditional gender-role models of parental behavior; the “complementary” principle of mother’s and father’s social-role positions in the upbringing of a daughter; the distortion of traditional maternal behavior in the upbringing of a son in a separated family; the reduced organization of shared play with a child in a separated family; the influence of the style of the parent-child relationship on the participation of parents in their children’s activities. The dynamics show how the parents’ position changes as their children grow older (from 1.5 years to 7 years: namely, the decrease of parents’ organization of and participation in a preschool child’s activities has a negative impact on their emotional state while interacting with the child.

  13. Does Engaging in a Group-Based Intervention Increase Parental Self-efficacy in Parents of Preschool Children? A Systematic Review of the Current Literature


    Wittkowski, Anja; Dowling, Hannah; Smith, Debbie M.


    As the preschool years are a formative period for long-term physical and mental health, this period is recognised as an important window for early effective intervention. Parenting behaviour is a key factor to target in order to optimise child development. Group-based interventions for parents are considered efficient and cost effective methods of early intervention and have been found to improve child behaviour and adjustment. Self-efficacy is key to behaviour change and as such parental sel...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora JACOVA


    developmental difficulties in integrational conditions, will follow the child for a longer period and will enable interdisciplinary approach in diagnostics, work and evaluation of the capabilities of the child, like a base in planning of the upbringing and educational work with children at preschool age.

  15. The Implementation of Character Education and Children's Literature to Teach Bullying Characteristics and Prevention Strategies to Preschool Children: An Action Research Project (United States)

    Freeman, Greta Griffin


    Bullying behaviors among young children are taking place in preschool classrooms and child-development centers. The author makes a case, based on bullying themes in children's literature and both qualitative and quantitative data collection with young children, for the use of children's picture books to teach character as bullying…

  16. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age (United States)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian


    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  17. The Effects of Two Schedules of Instruction with Constant Time Delay on the Receptive Word Learning Skills of Preschool Children with Developmental Delays (United States)

    Spino, Margie A.


    Young children with special needs in inclusive settings may be provided special education services by itinerant early childhood special education (ECSE) teachers. These teachers typically travel to the community-based preschool program and work with a child for about 1 hour, 1 day each week. Research suggests that once itinerant ECSE teachers…

  18. Growing up with Frisian and Dutch: The role of language input in the early development of Frisian and Dutch among preschool children in Friesland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Dijkstra


    Bilingual acquisition largely depends on the input that children receive in each language. The more input in a language, the more proficient a child becomes in that language. The current project studied the role of language input among bilingual Frisian-Dutch preschool children (age 2.5-4 years) in

  19. Parenting Behaviors and Preschool Children's Social and Emotional Skills: A Question of the Consequential Validity of Traditional Parenting Constructs for Low-Income African Americans (United States)

    McWayne, C. M.; Owsianik, M.; Green, L. E.; Fantuzzo, J. W.


    Few researchers have questioned the validity of traditional parenting dimensions (based largely on Baumrind's [Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88; Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4, 1-103] work)…

  20. "We Got Our Heads Together and Came up with a Plan": Young Children's Perceptions of Curriculum Development in One Canadian Preschool (United States)

    Rosen, Rachel


    This study investigated young children's perceptions of their role in curriculum development in one Canadian preschool. There is no consensus that children have a role to play in developing curriculum. However, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) confirms children's right to be listened to about all aspects of their…

  1. Exploring Nurses’, Preschool Teachers’ and Parents’ Perspectives on Information Sharing Using SDQ in a Swedish Setting – A Qualitative Study Using Grounded Theory (United States)

    Sarkadi, Anna; Fabian, Helena


    Evidence-based methods to identify behavioural problems among children are not regularly used within the Swedish Child healthcare. A new procedure was therefore introduced to assess children through parent- and preschool teacher reports using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). This study aims to explore nurses’, preschool teachers’ and parents’ perspectives of this new information sharing model. Using the grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews with nurses (n = 10) at child health clinics, preschool teachers (n = 13) and parents (n = 11) of 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children were collected and analysed between March 2014 and June 2014. The analysis was conducted using constant comparative method. The participants were sampled purposively within a larger trial in Sweden. Results indicate that all stakeholders shared a desire to have a complete picture of the child's health. The perceptions that explain why the stakeholders were in favour of the new procedure—the ‘causal conditions’ in a grounded theory model—included: (1) Nurses thought that visits after 18-months were unsatisfactory, (2) Preschool teachers wanted to identify children with difficulties and (3) Parents viewed preschool teachers as being qualified to assess children. However, all stakeholders had doubts as to whether there was a reliable way to assess children’s behaviour. Although nurses found the SDQ to be useful for their clinical evaluation, they noticed that not all parents chose to participate. Both teachers and parents acknowledged benefits of information sharing. However, the former had concerns about parental reactions to their assessments and the latter about how personal information was handled. The theoretical model developed describes that the causal conditions and current context of child healthcare in many respects endorse the introduction of information sharing. However, successful implementation requires considerable work to address

  2. Exploring Nurses', Preschool Teachers' and Parents' Perspectives on Information Sharing Using SDQ in a Swedish Setting - A Qualitative Study Using Grounded Theory. (United States)

    Fält, Elisabet; Sarkadi, Anna; Fabian, Helena


    Evidence-based methods to identify behavioural problems among children are not regularly used within the Swedish Child healthcare. A new procedure was therefore introduced to assess children through parent- and preschool teacher reports using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). This study aims to explore nurses', preschool teachers' and parents' perspectives of this new information sharing model. Using the grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews with nurses (n = 10) at child health clinics, preschool teachers (n = 13) and parents (n = 11) of 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children were collected and analysed between March 2014 and June 2014. The analysis was conducted using constant comparative method. The participants were sampled purposively within a larger trial in Sweden. Results indicate that all stakeholders shared a desire to have a complete picture of the child's health. The perceptions that explain why the stakeholders were in favour of the new procedure-the 'causal conditions' in a grounded theory model-included: (1) Nurses thought that visits after 18-months were unsatisfactory, (2) Preschool teachers wanted to identify children with difficulties and (3) Parents viewed preschool teachers as being qualified to assess children. However, all stakeholders had doubts as to whether there was a reliable way to assess children's behaviour. Although nurses found the SDQ to be useful for their clinical evaluation, they noticed that not all parents chose to participate. Both teachers and parents acknowledged benefits of information sharing. However, the former had concerns about parental reactions to their assessments and the latter about how personal information was handled. The theoretical model developed describes that the causal conditions and current context of child healthcare in many respects endorse the introduction of information sharing. However, successful implementation requires considerable work to address barriers: the tension

  3. Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases Among Preschool Children in Western Maharashtra, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh B Tondare , Vaishali V Raje, Satish V Kakade , Madhavi V Rayate


    Full Text Available "Background: Malnutrition and infectious diseases both occur in the same unfortunate children and together they play a major role in causing the high morbidity and mortality in them. Out of all the childhood illnesses, acute respiratory tract infections, diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition are the principle causes of illness and death in the developing countries. Acute Diarrhoeal diseases (ADD’s are reported to be the 2nd leading cause of child morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To study the attack rate of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease among pre-school children and to study the socio-demographic variables of pre-school children suffering from Acute Diarrhoeal Disease. Methods: A Longitudinal study was conducted among preschool children (3-5years who were selected from Private pre-primary school of urban area and followed for the period of one year. Mother/guardian/teacher was interviewed by using pre-tested proforma during this period. Results: About 56% of children found suffering from ADD with 0.6 episodes per children per year among private pre-primary school. Higher proportions of ADD affected children were residing in nuclear type of family, belonging to middle socio-economic class, mothers were literate & housewives, born with order >2 compared to non ADD affected children. Conclusion: Maximum number of children from private pre-primary schools suffered with nearly one attack of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease with maternal illiteracy and working mothers found favorable factors. Immunization coverage, EBF and proper weaning play a very important role in prevention of infections."

  4. Identification and management of psychosocial problems among toddlers in Dutch preventive child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.


    Objectives: To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among preschool children in the general population and to determine the association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic factors, and m

  5. Investigating the Relation between Kindergarten Preparation and Child Socio-Behavioral School Outcomes (United States)

    Wildenger, Leah K.; McIntyre, Laura Lee


    Research suggests that many typically developing children in the United States experience problems during the transition from preschool to kindergarten. Despite the fact that early school experiences impact educational trajectories, few empirical studies investigate the effect of kindergarten preparation variables on child outcomes. The primary…

  6. Pathways of Influence: Chinese Parents' Expectations, Parenting Styles, and Child Social Competence (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Edwards, Carolyn Pope


    This study examines relations among Chinese parents' expectations for children's development of social-emotional skills, parenting styles, and child social competence. A total of 154 parents with preschool-aged children from mainland China completed questionnaires measuring their timing of expectations for children's mastery of social-emotional…


    This SOP describes the method for videotaping a preschool child at a home. The CTEPP main study will collect multimedia samples and questionnaire data at the homes of participants (adults and children) during 48-hr sampling periods. Videotaping the activities of 10% of these chi...

  8. Course of traumatic stress reactions in couples after a burn event to their young child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Van Son, M.J.M.; Van Loey, N.E.E.


    OBJECTIVE: This study examines traumatic stress reactions in couples that were followed prospectively for 18 months after a burn event to their child. METHOD: The participants included 186 mothers and 159 fathers of 198 preschool children. Parents' self-reported traumatic stress reactions were measu

  9. Librarian Manual for the Parent/Child Toy-Lending Library. (United States)

    Nimnicht, Glen P.; And Others

    Intended for librarians, this manual provides a framework for operating a toy library and a training course which will teach parents how to use toys and games that help preschool children learn important skills and ideas, and which in turn will assist parents in understanding some basic things about how a child learns to think. Toys used in the…

  10. A Progress Report on the Parent/Child Course and Toy Library. (United States)

    Nimnicht, Glen P.

    This report gives an overall evaluation of the Parent/Child Program of preschool education for 3- to 4-year-olds. The program objectives are: (1) to aid parents to help their children develop a healthy self-concept, (2) to help parents to promote their children's intellectual development through educational toys, (3) to help parents stimulate…

  11. On the importance of families and public policies for child development outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosero Moncayo, J.A.


    This thesis investigates how public interventions in developing countries can promote human capital accumulation of children at different stages of life (pre-school, compulsory and post-compulsory school) and how a specific characteristic of a child, the order of birth, might affect the intrahouseho

  12. Using Food Aversion to Decrease Severe Pica by a Child with Autism (United States)

    Ferreri, Summer J.; Tamm, Lori; Wier, Kristin G.


    Food aversion was shown to be effective in the reduction of plastic pica by a 4-year-old boy with autism. The participant was suffering from digestive complications due to the ingestion of plastic from a variety of toys. The intervention was initially conducted in the child's preschool classroom during instructional periods and was systematically…

  13. Acute Stress Reactions in Couples after a Burn Event to Their Young Child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.; Van Loey, N.E.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Van Son, M.J.M.


    Objective This multicenter study examines acute stress reactions in couples following a burn event to their preschool child. Methods Participants were 182 mothers and 154 fathers, including 143 couples, of 193 children (0–4 years) with acute burns. Parents’ self-reported acute stress reactions and e

  14. Child-to-Teacher Ratio and Day Care Teacher Sickeness Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette; Andersson, Elvira


    The literature on occupational health points to work pressure as a trigger of sickness absence. However, reliable, objective measures of work pressure are in short supply. This paper uses Danish day care teachers as an ideal case for analysing whether work pressure measured by the child-to-teache...... for nursery care teachers, but not for preschool teacher...

  15. Do Time in Child Care and Peer Group Exposure Predict Poor Socioemotional Adjustment in Norway? (United States)

    Solheim, Elisabet; Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne


    Extensive exposure to nonparental child care during the first 4.5 years of life has been demonstrated in some American studies to negatively affect children's socioemotional functioning. Data from 935 preschool children who averaged 54.9 (SD = 3.0) months of age, from Trondheim, Norway were used to examine whether such negative effects, would…

  16. Relationship between Maternal Language Parameters and the Child's Language Competency and Developmental Condition. (United States)

    Hooshyar, Nahid T.

    Maternal language directed to 21 nonhandicapped, 21 Down syndrome, and 19 language impaired preschool children was examined. The three groups (all Caucasian and middle-class) were matched in mean length of utterance (MLU) and in developmental skills as measured on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Mother-child language interaction was…

  17. Pathways of Influence: Chinese Parents' Expectations, Parenting Styles, and Child Social Competence (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Edwards, Carolyn Pope


    This study examines relations among Chinese parents' expectations for children's development of social-emotional skills, parenting styles, and child social competence. A total of 154 parents with preschool-aged children from mainland China completed questionnaires measuring their timing of expectations for children's mastery of…

  18. The Contributions of Infant Temperament and Child Care to Infant Social Development (United States)

    Nathans, Laura L.; Meece, Darrell; Kossek, Ellen; Barratt, Marguerite


    Previous research has documented associations between young children's social development and both temperament and child care quality. The preponderance of research in this area has focused on preschool-age and older children, resulting in few studies focusing on these variables during infancy. In the current investigation, temperament and child…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegboard Test. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by planned com­parisons between the age groups. We also performed a regression analysis to assess the influence of age and motor coordination on visual-motor integration. The results showed that age has a great effect on the development of fine motor skills. Furthermore, the results indicated that there are possible sensitive periods at preschool age in which the development of fine motor skills is accelerated. Early intervention specialists should make a thorough evaluations of fine motor skills in preschool children and make motor (rehabilitation programs for children at risk of fine motor delays.

  20. Correction of distortions in distressed mothers' ratings of their preschool children's psychopathology. (United States)

    Müller, Jörg M; Furniss, Tilman


    The often-reported low informant agreement about child psychopathology between multiple informants has lead to various suggestions about how to address discrepant ratings. Among the factors that may lower agreement that have been discussed is informant credibility, reliability, or psychopathology, which is of interest in this paper. We tested three different models, namely, the accuracy, the distortion, and an integrated so-called combined model, that conceptualize parental ratings to assess child psychopathology. The data comprise ratings of child psychopathology from multiple informants (mother, therapist and kindergarten teacher) and ratings of maternal psychopathology. The children were patients in a preschool psychiatry unit (N=247). The results from structural equation modeling show that maternal ratings of child psychopathology were biased by maternal psychopathology (distortion model). Based on this statistical background, we suggest a method to adjust biased maternal ratings. We illustrate the maternal bias by comparing the ratings of mother to expert ratings (combined kindergarten teacher and therapist ratings) and show that the correction equation increases the agreement between maternal and expert ratings. We conclude that this approach may help to reduce misclassification of preschool children as 'clinical' on the basis of biased maternal ratings.

  1. Preschoolers' emotion knowledge and the differential effects of harsh punishment. (United States)

    Berzenski, Sara R; Yates, Tuppett M


    This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children's behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children's emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. We assessed 250 preschool-aged children (50% female; Mage = 49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% multiracial/other) using various instruments through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment, conduct problems, self-concept, and emotion knowledge. Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self-concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis-driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self-concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children's responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs.

  2. 45 CFR 605.38 - Preschool and adult education. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 605.38 Section 605... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.38 Preschool and adult education. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides preschool education or day care or adult education may not, on...

  3. Mother-child and father-child interaction with their 24-month-old children during feeding, considering paternal involvement and the child's temperament in a community sample. (United States)

    Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Ballarotto, Giulia


    The article aims to study mother-child and father-child interactions with 24-month-old children during feeding, considering the possible influence of time spent by the parent with the child, the infantile temperament, and the parental psychological profile. The families were recruited from 12 preschools in Italy (N = 77 families). Through an observation of the feeding [Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare (SVIA - Feeding Scale; I. Chatoor et al., ; L. Lucarelli et al., )], self-reporting [Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R; L.R. Derogatis, ), and report-form questionnaires [Italian Questionnaires on Temperament (QUIT; G. Axia, )], and information provided by the parents about the amount of time spent with their children, results showed that the overall quality of father-child interactions during feeding is lower than that of mother-child interactions. Fathers showed higher psychological symptoms than did mothers. No associations were found between the fathers' psychopathological risk and the quality of interactions with their children during feeding. Mothers' psychopathological risks predicted less contingent exchanges interactions with their children during feeding. Children's temperaments significantly influence mother-child interactions, but no association exists between maternal involvement and the quality of interactions with their children. Paternal involvement predicts a better quality of father-infant interactions when associated with a child's higher scores on Social Orientation. The quality of parents' interactions with their children during feeding are impacted by different issues originating from the parent's psychological profile, the degree of involvement, and from the child's temperament.

  4. Food additives and preschool children. (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J


    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  5. Behavioral changes in preschoolers treated with/without rotary instruments (United States)

    Maru, Viral Pravin; Kumar, Amit; Badiyani, Bhumika Kamal; Sharma, Anant Raghav; Sharma, Jitendra; Dobariya, Chintan Vinodbhai


    Background: Behavioral dentistry is an interdisciplinary science which needs to be learned, practiced, and reinforced in order to provide quality dental care in children. Aim: To assess the anxiety experienced during dental treatment in preschool children with/without rotary instruments using behavioral scale. Study and Design: Sixty pediatric patients of preschool age with bilateral occlusal carious lesions extending into dentin were selected for the study. Carious lesions were removed using conventional rotary instruments on one side and Papacarie – chemomechanical caries removal of approach on contra lateral side. Both cavities were restored with glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX). Anxiety scores were determined using ‘Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale’ (Wong et al, 1998) during the various clinical stages of the treatment course. Results: Children experienced relaxed behavior when subjected to Papacarie method of caries removal compared to conventional method using rotary instruments. Conclusion: This study helped us to provide behavioral measures and introduce children to dentistry in a nonthreatening setting. PMID:25254189

  6. Factors affecting the placement of preschool-aged deaf children. (United States)

    Musselman, C R; Wilson, A K; Lindsay, P H


    The placement in and movement among preschool programs of 131 children with severe and profound hearing losses was monitored over four years. Longitudinal data were obtained on the children's linguistic and social development. In the first year of the study, most of the children were enrolled in auditory/oral (A/O) programs. By the final year, most were enrolled instead in total communication (TC) programs; similar movement occurred from individual to classroom programs. Children in A/O individual programs had the most hearing, highest intelligence and most favorable family profile, followed by children in A/O classes, TC individual programs, and TC classes. Scores on measures of spoken language followed the same pattern. On measures of receptive language and mother-child communication, children in A/O individual programs and those in TC classes had similar scores. Children in TC individual programs came next, and last were children in A/O classes. These findings have implications for the choice of programs for preschool deaf children.


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  8. A descriptive analysis of potential reinforcement contingencies in the preschool classroom. (United States)

    McKerchar, Paige M; Thompson, Rachel H


    In recent years, functional analysis methods have been extended to classroom settings; however, research has not evaluated the extent to which consequences presented during functional analysis are associated with problem behavior under naturalistic classroom conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the social consequences commonly manipulated in functional analyses occur in typical preschool classrooms. A total of 14 children attending preschool programs participated in the study. Data were collected on the occurrence of antecedent events (e.g., presentation of tasks), child behaviors (e.g., aggression), and teacher responses (e.g., delivery of attention). The probability of various teacher responses given child behavior was then calculated and compared to the response-independent probabilities of teacher responses. Attention was found to be the most common classroom consequence (100% of children), followed by material presentation (79% of children), and escape from instructional tasks (33% of children). Comparisons of conditional and response-independent probabilities showed that the probability of teacher attention increased given the occurrence of problem behavior for all children, suggesting that a contingency existed between these two events. Results suggest that functional analyses that test the effects of attention, escape, and access to materials on problem behavior may be appropriate for preschool settings.

  9. Psychiatric treatment outcomes of preschool children in a family day hospital. (United States)

    Müller, Jörg Michael; Averbeck-Holocher, Marlies; Romer, Georg; Fürniss, Tilman; Achtergarde, Sandra; Postert, Christian


    This study describes the treatment outcomes of preschoolers with severe mental health problems who were treated at the child psychiatric family day hospital for preschool children in Münster, Germany. The eclectic multi-modal treatment combines behavioral and psychodynamic techniques for both parents and children in various settings within an intermittent attendance structure provided by a multi-disciplinary team. This study evaluated 185 children with the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF/1.5-5), which was completed by therapists, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5), which was completed by mothers, at admission and discharge. The mothers' ratings of their children were statistically adjusted for the distortion caused by their own psychopathology. After treatment, the patients showed significant improvement on the C-TRF/CBCL Total Problem score with an average Cohen's d = -0.50 based on therapists' ratings, d = -0.97 for the non-adjusted maternal ratings, and d = -0.68 for the adjusted maternal ratings. We conclude that specialized family day hospitals may successfully treat preschool psychiatric patients.

  10. Program and Teacher Characteristics Predicting the Implementation of Banking Time with Preschoolers Who Display Disruptive Behaviors. (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; Locasale-Crouch, Jennifer


    This study examined the relationship among baseline program and teacher characteristics and subsequent implementation of Banking Time. Banking Time is a dyadic intervention intended to improve a teacher's interaction quality with a specific child. Banking Time implementation was examined in the current study using a sample of 59 teachers and preschool children displaying disruptive behaviors in the classroom (~three children per classroom). Predictors included preschool program type, teacher demographic characteristics (personal and professional), and teacher beliefs (self-efficacy, authoritarian beliefs, and negative attributions about child disruptive behavior). Multiple measures and methods (i.e., teacher report, consultant report, independent observations) were used to assess implementation. We created three implementation composite measures (dosage, quality, and generalized practice) that had high internal consistencies within each composite but were only modestly associated with one another, suggesting unique constructs of implementation. We found that type of preschool program was associated with dosage and quality. Aspects of teacher demographics related to all three implementation composites. Teacher beliefs predicted dosage and generalized practice. Results suggest that the factors that predict the implementation of Banking Time vary as a function of the type of implementation being assessed.

  11. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families. (United States)

    Clementino, Marayza Alves; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child's general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%). The independents variables that had a p-value perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987). Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families.

  12. The role of parent psychopathology in the development of preschool children with behavior problems. (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I


    The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls, 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multiethnic children. Every dimension of mothers' and fathers' psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children's externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. These findings suggest that most types of mothers' and fathers' self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered.

  13. Prevent Child Abuse America (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  14. Creative Inspiration for Preschoolers from Museums (United States)

    Rönkkö, Marja-Leena; Aerila, Juli-Anna; Grönman, Satu


    This research explores the learning outcomes of preschool children produced through visits to an historic house museum environment. The new Finnish preschool curriculum identifies the importance of arts-based approaches for children and that these approaches should be closely aligned to experiential and holistic education. The aim of the research…

  15. Phonological Production in Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers. (United States)

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    Approximately 10 percent of Latino preschoolers are at risk for developing communication problems unrelated to second language acquisition. Many of these children are Spanish-speaking and have difficulties in producing speech sounds in their native language. One of the services afforded Latino preschoolers by speech-language pathologists is the…

  16. Grapheme-Phoneme Acquisition of Deaf Preschoolers (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.


    We examined acquisition of grapheme-phoneme correspondences by 4 deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers using instruction from a curriculum designed specifically for this population supplemented by Visual Phonics. Learning was documented through a multiple baseline across content design as well as descriptive analyses. Preschoolers who used sign…

  17. Preschool Teachers' Constructions of Early Reading (United States)

    Walker, Karen E.


    Research concerning preschool teachers' constructions of early reading has potential to influence teachers' curricular decisions and classroom practice. Six preschool teachers in North Texas were interviewed in regard to what they think about early reading and how they develop these understandings or constructions. The systematic, inductive…

  18. Documentation and Communication in Swedish Preschools (United States)

    Emilson, Anette; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid


    The aim of this study is to investigate communication between preschool teachers and children in documentation situations. The focus is also on what preschool teachers actually document. The research questions are: What characterizes the communication between teachers and children when these teachers are documenting at the same time? What is the…

  19. Assessing the Development of Preschoolers' Mathematical Patterning (United States)

    Mitchelmore, Michael C.; Papic, Marina M.; Mulligan, Joanne T.


    The development of patterning strategies during the year prior to formal schooling was studied in 53 children from 2 similar preschools. One preschool implemented a 6-month intervention focusing on repeating and spatial patterns. Children from the intervention group demonstrated greater understanding of unit of repeat and spatial structuring, and…

  20. Managing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool Settings (United States)

    Mitchell, Bridgitt Lenore


    Despite state mandated early childhood education (ECE) teacher competencies, many children are removed from preschool settings for behaviors related to socioemotional problems. This study's rationale was the propensity of expulsions among children exhibiting challenging behaviors in preschool programs. Guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological model…

  1. Having the Touch of Motivation in Pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole


    In this presentation, I will investigate the construction of embodied motivation in the interactions between educators and pre-school children during physical activity. The purpose of this study is to advancing the argument that motivation-building is more than pep-talks, magic formulaes...... or intellectual persuasion. Educators can motivate children to participate and immerse themselves in physical activities in and through touch and movement. This way they can facilitate felt here-and-now-experiences of embodied significance (Wrathall 2005) among children. On the basis of field work observations...... in a Danish Kindergarten and phenomenological interpretations I will argue that motivation to participate and engage is facilitated when educators speak to the 'bodies' of children, rather than to their intellectual reasoning. I will illustrate how an educator motivates a child during a game of tag by guiding...

  2. Blood lead levels in preschool children in Cape Town

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    Deveaux, P.; Kibel, M.A.; Dempster, W.S.; Pocock, F.; Formenti, K.


    Blood lead levels were assessed in 293 children aged between 4 and 6 years attending preschool centers in metropolitan Cape Town in order to establish the degree of lead absorption. Anthropometric data, blood count, zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level were obtained for each child. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-economic status, dietary habits and history of pica. Thirteen children, or 4,4% of those sampled, had blood levels of greater than or equal to 30 micrograms/dl. The majority of these children lived in close proximity to one another in a socially deprived inner urban environment. Environmental sampling for lead was carried out in the homes of children with the highest blood levels as well as in the homes of a matched control group with low levels living in the same area. The only difference was a significantly higher incidence of pica in the children with high levels.

  3. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity. (United States)

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna


    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed.

  4. Physical Education at Preschools: The Meaning of "Physical Education" to Practitioners at Three Preschool Settings in Scotland (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew


    Background: Preschool physical education has been largely unexplored by researchers. This article examines the meaning of the term "physical education", in relation to preschool contexts, to 14 practitioners working at three preschool settings in Scotland. Our focus on preschool physical education reflects a change in the language…

  5. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...

  6. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  7. Malocclusion and quality of life in Brazilian preschoolers. (United States)

    Sousa, Raulison V; Clementino, Marayza A; Gomes, Monalisa C; Martins, Carolina C; Granville-Garcia, Ana F; Paiva, Saul M


    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. This study involved 732 preschoolers. Parents/caregivers filled out the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS) and a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic data. Overbite, overjet, and crossbite were recorded during the clinical examination. Bivariate and multiple Poisson regression analyses were performed and prevalence ratio (PR) were calculated (α = 5%). The prevalence of negative impact from malocclusion on OHRQoL was 27.6% among the children and 22.3% among the families. Mother's schooling (PR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.10-1.70), parent's/caregiver's assessment of child's oral health (PR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.60-2.58), history of toothache (PR = 3.84; 95% CI: 2.34-6.30), and visits to the dentist (PR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.37-0.94) remained significantly associated with OHRQoL in the final model for the children, whereas parent's/caregiver's assessment of child's oral health (PR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.71-3.14) and history of toothache (PR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.69-3.09) remained significantly associated with OHRQoL for the families. Malocclusion was not associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL. In contrast, parents'/caregivers' perceptions regarding the oral health of their children and a history of toothache were predictors of a negative impact on the OHRQoL.

  8. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars


    to a comprehensive oral health outreach project for preschool children conducted in a low-socioeconomic multi-cultural urban area. The outcome was compared with historical controls from the same area with conventional dental care. The cost per minute for the various dental professions was added to the cost......The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively...... of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed...


    Grosheva, E S; Kartysheva, S I; Popova, O A


    The problem of education of culture of health in children ofpreschool age is actual and sufficiently complicated. It is important at this age stage to create in children the first knowledge and practical skills of a healthy lifestyle. The example of parents has considerable impact on adoption of health saving behavior of a child. For identification of motivations of parents in the sphere of protection and strengthening of health of their children there was performed questionnaire survey of parents of preschool children according to specially developed questionnaire. A half of parents are established to be unable to devote sufficient time to health of the child due to engrossment. A considerable portion of parents doesn't keep a healthy lifestyle, differs in low medical and sports activity. The main motivation of parents is the motivation on recovery of the child after the disease, but not on preservation, strengthening and development of health.

  10. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj


    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  11. Intrinsic reading motivation of Chinese preschoolers and its relationships with home literacy. (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Salili, Farideh


    The relationship between intrinsic motivation and home literacy of preschoolers was explored. One hundred and seventy-seven preschool children (3.8 to 6.6 years old) in Mainland China and one of the parents who primarily took care of each child participated in the study. Six indicators were considered as a measure of home literacy. Results showed that after controlling for parents' education level and children's age, three home literacy indicators-parental model of reading behaviour, number of books, and years of character teaching-could explain children's intrinsic reading motivation. Contrary to previous Western studies, Chinese children's freedom of book choice was not related to their intrinsic reading motivation. Results are discussed in the context of culture differences.

  12. Comparing visual acuity in preschool children using the Lea symbols and Sheridan Gardiner charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghafekokhian B. Osaiyuwu


    Full Text Available Visual acuity measurement is a vital part of an optometric examination. The purpose of the present study was to compare visual acuity in preschool children using two charts – the Lea symbols chart and the Sheridan Gardiner chart. One hundred and fifty-three preschool children (72 boys and 81 girls between the ages of 3 and 5 years (mean age and standard deviation 4.23 ± 0.78 years were recruited from five randomly selected nursery schools. Distance visual acuity was measured monocularly and binocularly after a pre-test was done. An interval of 5 minutes was allowed for testing with both charts. The ages and sexes of each child were documented. Results showed a statistical difference in visual acuities using both charts (p < 0.05. There was also a statistical difference in both charts regarding age. There was no significant gender difference between the results from each chart.

  13. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler. (United States)

    Glenn, Lauren


    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior.

  14. Obesity in Hong Kong Chinese preschool children: where are all the nurses? (United States)

    Chan, Christine M S; Deave, Toity; Greenhalgh, Trisha


    We report an ethnographic study of 10 preschool children aged 2-6 years recruited from kindergartens in Hong Kong, 6 of whom were overweight or obese. Each was followed for 12-18 months. We confirmed previously described risk factors and showed how these interacted to produce obesity in some but not all at-risk children. Despite much rhetoric in the literature about holistic care of the preschool child, we were struck by the lack of coordinated professional input to the needs of children at risk of obesity and by the absence of nursing input in particular. We argue that a "whole-systems" nursing role, based in the community and with remit that includes clinical care, education, and policy, is urgently needed, as well as review examples of such roles from other countries.

  15. Social determinants of state variation in special education participation among preschoolers with developmental delays and disabilities. (United States)

    McManus, Beth M; Carle, Adam C; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Ganz, Michael; Hauser-Cram, Penny; McCormick, Marie C


    Children with developmental disabilities are at risk for secondary complications and lower academic performance, which contributes to lower health and well-being and may be ameliorated by access to special education services. This paper examines state variability in preschool special education participation among a United States population-based cohort with parent-reported developmental delays and disabilities. Analyses explore the extent to which observed variability can be explained by state socio-economic attributes and special education policy and funding. Rates of special education varied significantly across states and were highest in states with least income inequality and lowest in states with most income inequality. Place variation in preschool special education participation stems, in part, from child characteristics, but to a larger extent, from state socio-economic attributes.

  16. Развитие детского творчества в онтогенезе и дизонтогенезе development of child creativity in ontogenesis and dysontogenesis




    The article deals with the problem of child creativity in typically developing preschoolers and their peers with different variants of dysontogenesis. The article shows that researchers consider the development of creativity and imagination of preschool children through game-based activity and productive creativity. However, they disagree on the issue of relationship between the child’s training and creativity.One variant puts forward the necessity to give the child full freedom of creative a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Galushko


    Full Text Available One of the new methods in the modern practical psychology  is  a  method  of  fairytale  therapy.  Fai rytale a method that uses a fabulous shape for the integration of the personality, development of creative abilities,  expansion of consciousness,  impro ving interactions with the outside world, as well as for the  development  of  preschool  children  the  correct and easy socialization. The moral q ualities that one must strive to instill  in  children:  honesty,  courage and ability to overcome difficulties inherent to the heroes of fairy tales. In the fairy tale, based on its morality,  it laid  a healthy start,  and  from  this pe rspective the behavior of its characters gets the correct determination. Truth consists in many folk tales, excites and  stirs the modern listener,  because  the tale presents the conviction of an art form vital truth. This is its great credibility.  Theoretical  analysis of the study showed that kindness, lack of aggression and fear, responsibility, teamwork and friendliness, diligence, empathy and compassion, generosity, patience, suppleness an integral part of the personality of the preschool  child,  as well  as comp onents that have a direct impact on the social development  of  children.  After  experimental  work,  we have shown that the use of the elements of fairytale therapy, games and other techniques of art therapy, the level of formation at preschool children a positive  attitude  to  the  world  rose  and  fairy tales  and games arouse children's interest and activity. In addition,  fairytale  therapy can  also  contribute  to  the normalization of relations in the family. The use of fairytale therapy methods allows to adjust the development   of   communicative   abilities   of   children, thereby creating favorable conditions that promote mental and personal growth of the child in a family environment.

  18. Reciprocity among maternal distress, child behavior, and parenting: transactional processes and early childhood risk. (United States)

    Ciciolla, Lucia; Gerstein, Emily D; Crnic, Keith A


    Transactional theories support that parent-child processes are best studied in conjunction with one another, addressing their reciprocal influence and change across time. This study tested a longitudinal, autoregressive model exploring bidirectional relations among maternal symptomatology, child internalizing/externalizing symptoms, and maternal sensitivity during the preschool period (child ages 3 to 5 years), comparing relations among families of typically developing children and children with developmental risk. This study included 250 families, 110 of which had a child with early developmental delay. Analyses utilized data from maternal report, father report, and observational methods. The results indicated significant stability in maternal symptomatology, child internalizing/externalizing symptoms, and maternal sensitivity over time. Support for bidirectional effects between maternal symptomatology and child internalizing symptoms was found specifically for mothers of children with developmental risk. Maternal symptomatology was found to mediate the influence of child internalizing and externalizing symptoms on maternal sensitivity. The findings underscore critical transactional processes within families of children with early developmental risk that connect increased maternal symptomatology to emerging child internalizing symptoms during the preschool period.

  19. Improving preschooler conduct adaptation by using a social learning program based on motion games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Szilárda


    Full Text Available Being aware of the changes which occur under the influence of environmental conditions, education, culture and social roles upon the child is indispensable with a view to build up a conduct adapted to the social environment. For any preschooler child, entering kindergarten is an important social event and getting adapted to the new situation is not easy. Broadening the relational framework with objects, other individuals, with one’s own self, results in disciplining preschooler conducts and increasing the number of socially desirable conducts. Relying upon the above statements, this study is aimed at working out a social learning programme made up of motion games involving socialization/cooperation elements intended for inducing amelioration in terms of the child’s conduct during the process of adaptation to the kindergarten environment. The experiment was conducted using a sample of “little group” preschoolers (children 3-4 years of age. As research methods, the following have been used: studying the reference literature, the method of pedagogical observation, the method of experiment and the method of playing. Further to the practical application of the programme worked out with a view to enhance the adaptation conduct in the said subjects, the experimental group proved to have undergone a significant positive evolution and each subject showed improvements considering the conduct of adaptation to kindergarten conditions, as highlighted by the change i.e. higher values in terms of the individual scores achieved at the final test. Preschool education is meant to provide all possible ways and means to enable any child’s integration into groups of children of a peer age, to develop sociability in children and to create favorable conditions for building out inter-children networks.

  20. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan. (United States)

    Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia


    The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage.

  1. Analysis of Educational App roaches of Gifted Children in Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Jedlovčnik


    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to approach the education of gifted children in preschool age to take advantage of all their natural potentials?Purpose:The aim of the research study was to categorize appropriate educational methods that can be used for gifted children in preschool age and to show that the classical form of punishment in such cases is not appropriate and effective. In addition, the purpose of this study is to inform all educators and parents of gifted children on the most appropriate approach that should be used with a gifted child and how to promote their talent and not suppressed it.Method:A qualitative method was used that used the interview approach with the application of the seven steps rule.Results:The study showed that gifted children in preschool age need a specialized approach to education and to punish such a child canlead to the inhibition of his/her abilities.Organization:The study will help educators that work with gifted children.Society:The research presents to parents and society the difficulties thatthey might encounter with gifted children in preschool age in cases where they do not establish an appropriate relationship.Originality:This research study examines the issue of gifted children’s reaction to punishment. Such studies are not common and are original in its method and sample.Limitations/Future Research:The study here is restricted to two cases of gifted children.A further direction of research would be to include more examples andexplore the various viewpoints of educators.

  2. Learning environments’ activity potential for preschoolers (LEAPP: study rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tucker


    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the study protocol for the Learning Environments’ Activity Potential for Preschoolers (LEAPP study, the goal of which is to describe the activity levels of preschoolers attending various early learning venues and explore which attributes of these facilities (e.g. curriculum, policies, equipment, etc. support activity participation.Design and Methods. This cross-sectional study aimed to recruit approximately 30 early learning environments requesting participation from preschoolers aged 2.5-5 years. Data collection included: Actical accelerometers (MiniMitter, Oregon, USA to measure the activity levels of children for five consecutive days (15-second epoch length while in care; the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation tool to explore the early learning environment’s impact on activity; anthropometric data; the Child Temperament Questionnaire to assess the influence of preschoolers’ temperament on physical activity; and demographic information from parents/guardians and early learning staff. ANOVA and linear regression analyses will be conducted to assess variances in activity levels among preschoolers attending different early learning types and to explore the impact of early learning environments on their activity levels. Independent sample t-tests will be used to examine differences in activity levels based on sex and weight status.Expected impact of the study for public health. This research will provide the first Canadian data to address environmental influences on preschoolers’ activity levels in differing early learning environments. Additionally, this work will highlight the extent to which activity levels vary among preschoolers enrolled in full-day kindergarten, centre-, and home-based childcare.

  3. A naturalistic observation study of the links between parental depressive symptoms and preschoolers' behaviors in everyday life. (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B; Trentacosta, Christopher J


    Previous research has shown that parental depressive symptoms are linked to a number of negative child outcomes. However, the associations between parental depressive symptoms and actual child behaviors in everyday life remain largely unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the links between parental depressive symptoms and everyday child behaviors and emotional language use using a novel observational methodology, and to explore the potential moderating role of parent-child conflict. We tracked the behaviors and language use of 35 preschool-aged children for two 1-day periods separated by one year using a child version of the Electronically Activated Recorder, a digital voice recorder that records ambient sounds while participants go about their daily lives. Parental depressive symptoms were positively associated with multiple problem behaviors among children (i.e., crying, acting mad, watching TV) when measured both concurrently and prospectively, and with negative emotion word use prospectively. Further, the links between parental depressive symptoms and child crying were moderated by parents' perceptions of parent-child conflict. This study offers the first empirical evidence of direct links between parental depressive symptoms and child behaviors in daily life and presents a promising research tool for the study of everyday child behaviors.

  4. Enhancing self-regulation as a strategy for obesity prevention in Head Start preschoolers: the growing healthy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Alison L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly one in five 4-year-old children in the United States are obese, with low-income children almost twice as likely to be obese as their middle/upper-income peers. Few obesity prevention programs for low-income preschoolers and their parents have been rigorously tested, and effects are modest. We are testing a novel obesity prevention program for low-income preschoolers built on the premise that children who are better able to self-regulate in the face of psychosocial stressors may be less likely to eat impulsively in response to stress. Enhancing behavioral self-regulation skills in low-income children may be a unique and important intervention approach to prevent childhood obesity. Methods/design The Growing Healthy study is a randomized controlled trial evaluating two obesity prevention interventions in 600 low-income preschoolers attending Head Start, a federally-funded preschool program for low-income children. Interventions are delivered by community-based, nutrition-education staff partnering with Head Start. The first intervention (n = 200, Preschool Obesity Prevention Series (POPS, addresses evidence-based obesity prevention behaviors for preschool-aged children and their parents. The second intervention (n = 200 comprises POPS in combination with the Incredible Years Series (IYS, an evidence-based approach to improving self-regulation among preschool-aged children. The comparison condition (n = 200 is Usual Head Start Exposure. We hypothesize that POPS will yield positive effects compared to Usual Head Start, and that the combined intervention (POPS + IYS addressing behaviors well-known to be associated with obesity risk, as well as self-regulatory capacity, will be most effective in preventing excessive increases in child adiposity indices (body mass index, skinfold thickness. We will evaluate additional child outcomes using parent and teacher reports and direct assessments of food-related self

  5. Predictors of needs for community and financial resources for families of pre-school children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertule D.


    Full Text Available An understanding of predictors of family needs for the families of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP is important for provision of efficient and cost-effective services. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of children, families and services that are risk factors to meeting family needs for community and financial resources. 234 parents of pre-school children with CP completed a modified version of the Family Needs Survey (FNS, the Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC-20, and a demographic questionnaire. The gross motor function level and communication function level of children were classified on the basis of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS respectively. Two hierarchical multiple regression models were generated to determine the predictors of unmet family needs. The socialisation and communication skills of children, as well as caregiver employment and family income levels were significant predictors of family needs for community resources (adjusted R2=0.44. Significant risk factors in terms of family needs for financial resources included the child's gross motor limitations, caregiver employment, low levels of family income and no ability to receive services on the basis of enabling and partnership principles (adjusted R2=0.51. A child's limitations in terms of communication, gross motor functions and socialisation, as well as the socioeconomic status of the child's family, must be taken into account when planning services for families with preschool children with CP.

  6. Quality of preschool education in preschool institution and children's social competence


    Vesna Lešnik; Ljubica Marjanovič Umek


    The present study addressed the relation between the quality of preschool education and children's social competence. The main purpose of the study was to examine how professional workers (preschool teachers and preschool teachers' assistants) evaluate their work with children in the context of stimulating children's social development, and to determine the relationship between the professional workers' self-evaluations and children's social competence. Professional worker...

  7. Pathways and processes of risk in associations among maternal antisocial personality symptoms, interparental aggression, and preschooler's psychopathology. (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G; Vonhold, Sara E


    Two studies examined the nature and processes underlying the joint role of interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as predictors of children's disruptive behavior problems. Participants for both studies included a high-risk sample of 201 mothers and their 2-year-old children in a longitudinal, multimethod design. Addressing the form of the interplay between interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as risk factors for concurrent and prospective levels of child disruptive problems, the Study 1 findings indicated that maternal antisocial personality was a predictor of the initial levels of preschooler's disruptive problems independent of the effects of interparental violence, comorbid forms of maternal psychopathology, and socioeconomic factors. In attesting to the salience of interparental aggression in the lives of young children, latent difference score analyses further revealed that interparental aggression mediated the link between maternal antisocial personality and subsequent changes in child disruptive problems over a 1-year period. To identify the family mechanisms that account for the two forms of intergenerational transmission of disruptive problems identified in Study 1, Study 2 explored the role of children's difficult temperament, emotional reactivity to interparental conflict, adrenocortical reactivity in a challenging parent-child task, and experiences with maternal parenting as mediating processes. Analyses identified child emotional reactivity to conflict and maternal unresponsiveness as mediators in pathways between interparental aggression and preschooler's disruptive problems. The findings further supported the role of blunted adrenocortical reactivity as an allostatic mediator of the associations between parental unresponsiveness and child disruptive problems.

  8. Child's Attachment to Mother as the Basis of Mental Development Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Burmenskaya


    Full Text Available The article shows the role of the attachment system (child-mother interactions in development of a wide spectrum of individual personality characteristics. Emotional attachment of the child to mother is considered as a complicated system of internal regulation and a basis of typology of mental development. Results of a series of empirical studies show the connection between the type of attachment, formed at the early stages of child development, and characteristics of his/her autonomy, consciousness (self-concept and self-esteem and empathy in preschool and middle childhood.

  9. Definition and Measurement of Child Malnutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective Child Malnutrition has been defined or described in many ways. To summarize the common points, child malnutrition may be defined as a pathological state resulting from inadequate nutrition, including undernutrition (protein- energy malnutrition) due to insufficient intake of energy and other nutrients; overnutrition (overweight and obesity) due to excessive consumption of energy and other nutrients; deficiency diseases due to insufficient intake of one or more specific nutrients such as vitamins or minerals.   In the assessment of child malnutrition, a large number of measures are available. Among these measuring methods, Z-score, growth charts, weight-for-length index (WLI), height standard weight, body mass index, skin fold thickness and clinical grading diagnosis standard for child malnutrition are selected for discussion. The same set of anthropometry data of a group of preschool children was analyzed by using different methods. The results showed that it was very difficult to determine the nutritional state of children using a single index. For a given group of children, Z-score method is recommended to observe their height, weight and weight for height at the same time in order to have a comprehensive understanding.

  10. Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers (United States)

    ... is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's Weight at the Doctor Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Obesity in Infants ...

  11. Extent of Anaemia among Preschool Children in EAG States, India: A Challenge to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Singh


    Full Text Available Background. India is the highest contributor to child anemia. About 89 million children in India are anemic. The study determines the factors that contributed to child anemia and examines the role of the existing programs in reducing the prevalence of child anemia particularly in the EAG states. Methods. The data from the latest round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 is used. Simple bivariate and multinomial logistics regression analyses are used. Results. About 70% children are anemic in all the EAG states. The prevalence of severe anemia is the highest (6.7% in Rajasthan followed by Uttar Pradesh (3.6% and Madhya Pradesh (3.4%. Children aged 12 to 17 months are significantly seven times (RR=7.99, P<0.001 more likely to be severely anemic compared to children of 36 to 59 months. Children of severely anemic mothers are also found to be more severely anemic (RR=15.97, P<0.001 than the children of not anemic mothers. Conclusions. The study reveals that the existing government program fails to control anemia among preschool children in the backward states of India. Therefore, there is an urgent need for monitoring of program in regular interval, particularly for EAG states to reduce the prevalence of anemia among preschool children.

  12. Extent of Anaemia among Preschool Children in EAG States, India: A Challenge to Policy Makers. (United States)

    Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Patra, Shraboni


    Background. India is the highest contributor to child anemia. About 89 million children in India are anemic. The study determines the factors that contributed to child anemia and examines the role of the existing programs in reducing the prevalence of child anemia particularly in the EAG states. Methods. The data from the latest round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) is used. Simple bivariate and multinomial logistics regression analyses are used. Results. About 70% children are anemic in all the EAG states. The prevalence of severe anemia is the highest (6.7%) in Rajasthan followed by Uttar Pradesh (3.6%) and Madhya Pradesh (3.4%). Children aged 12 to 17 months are significantly seven times (RR = 7.99, P children of 36 to 59 months. Children of severely anemic mothers are also found to be more severely anemic (RR = 15.97, P children of not anemic mothers. Conclusions. The study reveals that the existing government program fails to control anemia among preschool children in the backward states of India. Therefore, there is an urgent need for monitoring of program in regular interval, particularly for EAG states to reduce the prevalence of anemia among preschool children.

  13. Perceptual discrimination across contexts and contrasts in preschool-aged children (United States)



    This paper investigates a proposed phonetically-based account of developmental phonological patterns that lack counterparts in adult typology. Adult listeners perceive some phonemic contrasts more accurately than others, and these differences in perceptual recoverability are posited to represent one influence on phonological typology. One hypothesis suggests that children and adults could differ in their patterns of relative perceptual sensitivity, and these differences could form the basis for some child-specific phonological patterns in production. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support this claim. This study used a nonword discrimination task to investigate differences in perceptual recoverability across contrasts and contexts in typically-developing preschool children. Participants heard nonwords that were identical or differed by a single segment in initial or final position. Results revealed general agreement between child and adult listeners in the relative discriminability of different featural contrasts. For certain contrasts, discrimination accuracy was significantly greater in initial than final position, mirroring an asymmetry seen in adults. Overall, these results suggest that perceptual discrimination in preschool-aged children is broadly congruent with patterns of relative sensitivity observed in adult listeners. These findings suggest that factors other than perceptual recoverability should be explored to account for child-specific phonological patterns. PMID:26213418

  14. [The Play-PAB and its Validation in a Preschool Psychiatric Population]. (United States)

    Müller, Jörg M; Wagner, Katharina; Esins, Svenja; Romer, Georg; Achtergarde, Sandra


    With community samples, parent behavior can be assessed in standardized mother-child interaction situations with the observational instrument Lab-PAB by Wilson und Durbin (2012) with respect to five dimensions (Involvement, Positive Emotionality, Hostility, Intrusiveness and Discipline). We examined an adaptation of Lab-PAB for non-standardized free-play interaction situations (Play-PAB version) with a preschool psychiatric sample. We examined the internal consistency, interrater reliability and dimensional structure of the Play-PAB and its associations to the clinical relationship assessment scale PIR-GAS from DC:0-3R. Interaction sequences of 47 parent-child dyads who were treated in our Family Day Clinic were evaluated at admission with the Play-PAB, in addition to the PIR-GAS-rating. Each instrument was rated by two independent raters. We report means, standard deviations, internal consistencies and the interrater-reliability for each of the five Play-PAB scales. Furthermore we examine if the scale intercorrelations are reasonable in comparison to the original version. Finally, the associations to PIR-GAS are presented. The Play-PAB scales reflect sufficient variation of parenting, good internal consistencies and satisfactory interrater reliability. The adaptation shows psychometric properties that are comparable to the original version. The scale intercorrelations as well as the associations to PIR-GAS are reasonable. The Play-PAB is a promising instrument for assessing different aspects of parent behavior in a preschool psychiatric sample, with meaningful associations to parent-child-relationship quality.

  15. Application of NVC to English Teaching for Preschool Education Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Li-rong


    In view of the present situation of college English teaching for Preschool Education Major is rather unsatisfactory, this paper briefly introduced Nonverbal Communication (NVC) and laid the emphasis on guiding college English teachers to apply useful nonverbal stimuli to inspiring Preschool Education major’s English-learning interest, improving their learning results, and helping them master various preschool English teaching skills. It further proved the nonverbal means and relative training meth-ods are helpful and practical to improve Preschool Education majors’nonverbal communicative competence and develop their preschool English teaching ability. Therefore, it will contribute to the study of English teaching for Preschool Education Major.

  16. Executive functioning, emotion regulation, eating self-regulation, and weight status in low-income preschool children: how do they relate? (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer


    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between child eating self-regulation, child non-eating self-regulation, and child BMIz in a low-income sample of Hispanic families with preschoolers. The eating in the absence of hunger task as well as parent-report of child satiety responsiveness and food responsiveness were used to assess child eating self-regulation. Two laboratory tasks assessing executive functioning, a parent questionnaire assessing child effortful control (a temperament dimension related to executive functioning), and the delay of gratification and gift delay tasks assessing child emotion regulation were used to assess child non-eating self-regulation. Bivariate correlations were run among all variables in the study. Hierarchical linear regression analyses assessed: (1) child eating self-regulation associations with the demographic, executive functioning, effortful control, and emotion regulation measures; and (2) child BMI z-score associations with executive functioning, effortful control, emotion regulation measures, and eating self-regulation measures. Within child eating self-regulation, only the two parent-report measures were related. Low to moderate positive correlations were found between measures of executive functioning, effortful control, and emotion regulation. Only three relationships were found between child eating self-regulation and other forms of child self-regulation: eating in the absence of hunger was positively associated with delay of gratification, and poor regulation on the gift delay task was associated positively with maternal reports of food responsiveness and negatively with parent-reports of satiety responsiveness. Regression analyses showed that child eating self-regulation was associated with child BMIz but other forms of child self-regulation were not. Implications for understanding the role of self-regulation in the development of child obesity are discussed.

  17. Foundations of Child Psychiatry. (United States)

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  18. Reducing child conduct problems and promoting social skills in a middle-income country: cluster randomised controlled trial†


    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Scott, Stephen; Jones, Kelvyn; Walker, Susan


    Background There is an urgent need for effective, affordable interventions to prevent child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To determine the effects of a universal pre-school-based intervention on child conduct problems and social skills at school and at home. Method In a cluster randomised design, 24 community pre-schools in inner-city areas of Kingston, Jamaica, were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years Teacher Training intervention (n = 12) or ...

  19. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibbritt David W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for Vietnamese children aged four to five years. Methods The data comes from the baseline measurement of a one year follow-up study on obesity in 670 children attending kindergartens in HCMC. Dietary information for each child at the school and home settings was collected using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs, by interviewing teachers and parents or main caregivers. The average energy and nutrient intake in a day was calculated. The proportion of children with energy intake from macronutrients meeting or exceeding the recommendations was estimated based on the 2006 recommended daily allowance (RDA for Vietnamese children in this age group. Results The dietary intake of the participants contained more energy from protein and fat, particularly animal protein and fat, and less energy from carbohydrates, than the RDA. Most children (98.1% had mean energy intake from protein greater than the recommended level of 15%, and no child obtained energy from animal fat that was in accordance with the recommendation of less than 30% of the total fat intake. Nearly one half of children (46.5% consumed less than the advised range of mean energy intake from carbohydrate (60%–70%. Conclusion In this preschool child population in HCMC, in which obesity is emerging as major public health problem, there is an imbalance in dietary intake. Healthy eating programs need to be developed as a part of an obesity prevention program for young children in HCMC.

  20. A high-precision protocol for identification of preschool children at risk for persisting obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomas Timpka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that adolescent adiposity is established already in preadolescence. Earlier studies have confirmed a strong tracking of obesity from adolescence to adulthood. Our aim was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of a population-derived protocol for identification of preschool children at risk for obesity in preadolescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed data obtained for child health surveillance up to age 5 from 5778 children born in a Swedish county in 1991. The basic data set included age, sex, and weight and height measurements from the regular checkups between ages 1.5 and 5. Data not routinely collected in the child health centre setting were disregarded. The children were at age 10 randomly assigned to protocol derivation and validation cohorts and assessed for obesity according to IOTF criteria. The accuracy of predicting obesity in the validation cohort was measured using decision precision, specificity, and sensitivity. The decision protocol selected 1.4% of preschool children as being at obesity risk. The precision of the protocol at age 10 was 82% for girls and 80% for boys, and the specificity was 100% for both boys and girls. The sensitivity was higher for girls (41% than for boys (21%. The relative risk for obesity at age 10 estimated by the odds ratio for individuals selected by the protocol compared to non-selected peers was 212.6 (95% confidence interval 56.6 to 798.4 for girls and 120.3 (95% CI 24.5 to 589.9 for boys. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A simple and inexpensive decision protocol based on BMI values proved to have high precision and specificity for identification of preschool children at risk for obesity persisting into adolescence, while the sensitivity was low especially for boys. Implementation and further evaluations of the protocol in child health centre settings are warranted.