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Sample records for child obsessive compulsive

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,…

  2. Parent-Child Agreement in the Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Canavera, Kristin E.; Wilkins, Kendall C.; Pincus, Donna B.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to extend research regarding parent-child agreement in the assessment of anxiety disorders to include youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ninety-three children and adolescents with OCD (50 female, 43 male), ages 6 to 17 years, and their parents were administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview…

  3. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    ... OCD What Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? Everyone feels anxiety, fear, uncertainty, or worry at some time. These normal ... OCD. What Should I Do? Anxiety: Rachel's Story Anxiety Disorders ADHD Fears and Phobias Going to a Therapist Finding Low- ...

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

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    ... Treatments and Therapies Join a Study Learn More Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Definition Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, ... page for more information. Share Science News About Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) CBT Boosts SSRI for OCD NIMH Hosts ...

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV in Chilean Children and Adolescents.

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    Agustín E Martínez-González

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-CV in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10-18 years. Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest, evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively are found. The OCI-CV is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents.

  6. Dysregulation in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder.

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    McGuire, Joseph F; Small, Brent J; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Phares, Vicky; Geffken, Gary; Storch, Eric A

    2013-10-30

    Although obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and common co-occurring conditions share deficits in self-regulatory abilities, there has been minimal examination of impaired self-regulation (dysregulation) in youth with OCD. This study examined the association of dysregulation with symptom severity, impairment, and treatment outcome in pediatric OCD. Clinicians assessed obsessive-compulsive severity, family accommodation and global severity in 144 youth with OCD. Youth completed self-report severity ratings of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and both children and parents completed parallel ratings of obsessive-compulsive impairment. Ninety-seven youth received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and were re-assessed after treatment. Dysregulation was assessed using the CBCL-Dysregulation Profile. Before treatment, dysregulated youth exhibited greater obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, depressive mood, family accommodation, and impairment than non-dysregulated youth. The magnitude of dysregulation directly predicted child-rated impairment, parent-rated impairment, and family accommodation, beyond obsessive-compulsive severity. The magnitude of pretreatment dysregulation predicted treatment discontinuation but not treatment response. Obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and dysregulation level significantly decreased after CBT. Dysregulated youth with OCD presented as more clinically severe than their non-dysregulated counterparts, and may require more individualized interventions to reduce dysregulated behavior to prevent CBT attrition. For treatment completers, CBT was associated with a decrease in dysregulation level.

  7. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. [Revised.

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    Strock, Margaret

    This booklet provides an overview of the causes, symptoms, and incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and addresses the key features of OCD, including obsessions, compulsions, realizations of senselessness, resistance, and shame and secrecy. Research findings into the causes of OCD are reviewed which indicate that the brains of…

  8. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

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    Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom…

  9. Comparison of Child Behavior Checklist subscales in screening for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Aaron Skovby; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents associated with significant functional impairment. Early and correct diagnosis is essential for an optimal treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine which of four subscales...

  10. [Obsessive compulsive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD) are a nosographic entity. Their biological rating in serotonergic pathways and the efficacy of serotonergic antidepressants allows for developing a clinical and biological models of OCD. J. Guyotat, one of the first in 1959 to observe the favorable effects of antidepressants on OCD, presents their history. Epidemiological surveys conducted since 1980 have shown that the prevalence of OCD was underestimated until then. The prevalence is 2 to 3% in the adult population, with more women affected. The disorder develops early in childhood and adolescence. Loss of time is an important criteria for OCD but, according to M. Bourgeois, who reviewed the symptoms precisely, this does not warrant identifying a separate "primary obsessive slowness" syndrome. According to M. Bouvard, the prognosis of the disorder, in contrast to that for rituals observed in children between 3 and 5 years of age, is poor, with a risk of chronicity and social disturbances. The prevalence of OCD in children and adolescents is 0.8% and remains stable. The comorbidity, in particular with tics, is discussed. The favorable effects of fluoxetine are reported. J.M. Chignon reviews the concept of comorbidity, developed in internal medicine, and explains that it could be rigorously applied to psychiatry only starting with the DSM III-R. The comorbidity of OCD with other psychiatric diseases is highly variable: it is reviewed for personality disorders (0 to 55%), schizophrenia (4%), substance abuse (10%) and especially depression: one third of patients with OCD will develop a major depressive episode. Based on a clinical case report, M. Faruch leads us from symptoms to behavior therapy. The symptom must be considered for itself, whether it is part or not of the obsessive neurosis. It is legitimate to use antidepressants in combination with behavior therapy.

  11. Atypical presentation of childhood obsessive compulsive disorder

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    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The phenomenology of OCD in children and adolescent is strikingly similar to that of adults. But at times, the presentation of OCD may be so atypical or unusual in children and adolescents that may lead to misdiagnosis or delay in diagnosis. We report a case of 10-year-old child who was initially misdiagnosed with schizophrenia, and treated with antipsychotic for 2 months. But once the core symptoms were recognized as obsessions and compulsions and appropriately treated in the line of OCD, the symptoms resolved significantly.

  12. CATATONIA IN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

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    Jagadheesan, K.; Nizamie, Haque S.; Thakur, Anupam

    2002-01-01

    Catatonia occurs in a wide range of neuropsychiatric conditions. Among the psychiatric disorders, occurrence of catatonia has rarely been documented in obsessive-complsive disorder. Given the paucity of reports, we report two cases of obsessive compulsive disorder that presented as catatonia.

  13. Methamphetamine and fluoxetine treatment of a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Bussing, R; Levin, G M

    1993-01-01

    ABSTRACT An 11-year-old child with obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depression, and attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder was successfully treated with a combination of fluoxetine (mean 30 mg daily) and methamphetamine (sustained release 10 mg daily). Methamphetamine was selected because of the desirability of avoiding stimulants whose commercial formulations contain food dyes (this child appeared sensitive to tartrazine in dextroamphetamine and other agents), whose effects on hepatic metabolism were minimal (unlike methylphenidate) and whose mechanism of action is reliably rapid (unlike pemoline). Although methamphetamine carries the stigma of an abusable drug and has been implicated in neurotoxicity in animals when used at extremely high doses, methamphetamine may have certain advantages over other psychostimulants in some clinical situations. The combined use of fluoxetine and methamphetamine did not appear to be associated with significant adverse effects.

  14. Assessment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, PMG; Kraaijkamp, HJM; Van den Hout, MA

    1999-01-01

    self-report assessment devices of obsessive-compulsive symptoms are widely used by behavior therapists. In the present investigation, psychometric characteristics and concurrent, discriminant, and factorial validity of the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) were studied in clinical sam

  15. Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

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    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  16. Obsessive compulsive phenomenology in a sample of Egyptian adolescent population

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    Ahmed Rady

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Obsessive symptoms among children and adolescent age groups are increasing, an observation made by mental health professionals working with this age group. Our epidemiological study targeted secondary school students to estimate the prevalence of obsessive symptoms, obsessive compulsive disorder and their different obsessive compulsive contents. Methods: The study is cross sectional carried on 1299 secondary school students, the sample size was chosen based on an estimated Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD prevalence of 2% in literature. Equal samples were recruited from the 3 educative zones in Alexandria Governorate. Obsessive compulsive symptoms were assessed by the Arabic version of Lyeton obsessive inventory child version LOI-CV. Students scoring above 35 were subjected to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children MINI-KID Arabic. OCD patient students detected by MINI-KID were assessed by psychiatric interview to confirm fulfilling criteria of OCD according to DSM IV-TR criteria. Different obsessive compulsive symptoms were assessed by a standardized questionnaire. Results: Among the studied sample (n = 1299, 201 students scored > 35 on LOI-CV i.e. 15.5% of the total sample have OCS. The prevalence of OCD among studied sample was 2.2% as 29 students from the OCS students were fulfilling diagnostic criteria for OCD according to DSM-IV TR. Common obsessive symptoms were of excessive conscience 65.5%, blasphemous 55.2%, repeated words 51.7% and sexual obsessions 48.2%. Conclusions: The prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms is high among adolescent age group. Cultural impact should be considered to better understand obsessive phenomenology, raising the importance of OCD study from a transcultural perspective.

  17. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life

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    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

    2012-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

  18. Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in a Child with Asperger Syndrome: A Case Report.

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    Reaven, Judy; Hepburn, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This case report outlines the cognitive-behavioral treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in a 7-year-old female with Asperger syndrome. Interventions were based upon the work of March and Mulle and were adapted in light of the patient's cognitive, social, and linguistic characteristics. Symptoms improved markedly after 6 months of treatment.…

  20. Psilocybin and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

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    Wilcox, James Allen

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. This condition disables many individuals and is often refractory to treatment. Research suggests that serotonin plays a role in OCD symptom reduction. We present a case of an individual who successfully used psilocybin, a serotonergic agent, to reduce the core symptoms of OCD for several years. Although not endorsing this form of treatment, we feel that the successful use of this agent highlights the role of serotonergic factors in OCD and the need for further, legitimate research into the value of psilocybin in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  1. #164230 OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER; OCD [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available by recurring obsessions and/or compulsions and has been estimated to affect nearl...t- and second-degree relatives of the probands were also assessed. Ordering compulsion...by the presence of ordering compulsions, aberrant grooming behaviors, and anxiety disorders other than OCD.

  2. OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER: A REVIEW

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    Pathan Dilnawaz N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a type of anxiety disorder which can vary from being very mild to being very severe. From feeling compelled to wash your hands, to keep fixating your thoughts on one particular thing, OCD can take a variety of forms. While OCD patients may know that logically there is no need for their behavior, they still feel a compulsion keep repeating their obsessive actions. As the OCD condition worsens, a person’s anxiety and distress levels keep rising. If treatment is not sought by victims, soon the problem begins to take up more and more time of their regular day until it seems as if the problem has completely taken over their life and there is no time to do anything other than washing, thinking, or continuing with any other obsessive behavior. OCD’s effects are far and wide as the person’s ability to work, their relationships with friends and family, and their overall living standards all take a nosedive. Among the treatment options available, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT has been found to be most effective.CBT focuses in on the problem itself and is the most goal-oriented of all therapy options. Further, it is an interactive approach in the sense that after giving a full understanding of what the problem is, the patient is taught the necessary skills to comprehend and overcome his problem. If, nonetheless, medications are prescribed, they usually comprise of antidepressants, however, these medications have been found to be temporary solutions in the sense that when they are stopped OCD tends to resurface quite quickly.

  3. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

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    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  4. Are obsessive-compulsive symptoms impulsive, compulsive or both?

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    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Leppink, Eric W.; Redden, Sarah A.; Grant, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Background The relationships between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and distinct forms of impulsivity and compulsivity are unclear. Such examination would be relevant in terms of how best to classify psychiatric disorders and in understanding candidate ‘latent traits’ that extend across a continuum between normalcy and clinical disorders. Method 515 young adults (aged 18-29 years) completed the Padua Inventory and undertook detailed clinical and neurocognitive assessments. Relationships between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and distinct types of impulsivity and compulsivity were evaluated using linear regression modelling. Results Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were significantly predicted by female gender, lower quality of life, psychiatric disorders in general (but not impulse control disorders), and worse extra-dimensional set-shifting. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were not significantly predicted by alcohol/nicotine consumption, stop-signal reaction times, or decision-making abilities. Conclusion These data indicate that obsessive-compulsive symptoms are more related to certain forms of compulsivity than to impulsivity. These findings have important implications for diagnostic conceptualizations and neurobiological models. PMID:27234191

  5. Metacognitive Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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    Pinar Yoruk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the metacognitive model which is one of the approaches in explaining the obsessive compulsive disorder is reviewed. A key feature of the metacognitive model is that irrespective of the content of both intrusions and beliefs about the self or the world, obsessive compulsive symptoms are caused by a small set of specific metacognitions concerning the power and significance of thoughts and how to react to them. Studies support the role of metacognitive beliefs and processes in predicting obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms and emphasize the importance of metacognitive beliefs and processes in formulating obsessive compulsive problems. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 190-207

  6. Suicide in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders

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    Gonca Karakus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a complex term. Suicide attempts are common in women, but completed suicide rates are higher in men. Several demographic factors, stressful life events, previous suicide attempts, childhood abuse, physical or psychiatric disorders are risk factors for suicide. Suicide rates in a variety of mental disorders is more than the normal population. Data on rates and risk factors of suicide in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders are limited. Present data are often associated with patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. Lifetime suicidal ideation rates in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder is within a range of 36-63%. Any comorbid psychiatric diagnosis is an important risk factor for suicide in this disorder. This article aims to review the relationship between suicide and obsessive compulsive and related disorders [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 402-413

  7. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in DSM-5

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    Esra Porgali Zayman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been some changes of the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in DSM-V in terms of its classification and description. First of all, it has been suggested that the disorder should be out of a lower cap of the anxiety disorders and with DSM-5 a new heading has become an issue like obsessive compulsive disorder and related disorders. The ones that suggest the obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders fundamentally assume that the obsessive compulsive disorder and the disorders defined as related with the OCD come from the same etiologic origin unlike the other anxiety disorders. The purpose of this compilation is to mention on how OCD has been defined all along the history and what kind of conceptual changes it went through until DSM-5. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 360-362

  8. Determinants of obsessive compulsive disorder

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    Sateesh Rangarao Koujalgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family has a significant role both in the genesis and prognosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Early identification, treatment and prevention of relapse in patients with OCD have important therapeutic and psychosocial implications. Hence, to study and determine family factors like high expressed emotion (EE and family dysfunction are essential. These two factors play a significant role in the relapse and course of OCD. Aim: The aim was to study the relationship between family function, EE and OCD. Materials and Methods: The sample included 30 patients who were diagnosed with OCD using International Classification of Diseases-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research criteria. Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale was used to assess the severity of OCD. EE was assessed in cases using Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale and family function was assessed in cases using the family interaction pattern scale (FIPS. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Packages for Social Science. Patient and caregivers of the patients were assessed on self-developed socio-demographic proforma. Pearson co-relation co-efficient test was used to study the correlation between OCD, high EE and family dysfunction. Results: The result showed that there are significant correlations between high EE, family dysfunction and OCD. The Pearson correlation co-efficient between OCD and EE shows a significant correlation between the high EE of the caregiver and OCD with P < 0.01. The Pearson correlation co-efficient between OCD and Family Interaction Pattern Scale shows a significant correlation between the family dysfunction of the caregiver and OCD. Conclusion: Impaired family function and high EE in caregivers associated with OCD. Thus clinical interventions may improve the functional abilities of the caregivers.

  9. A Case of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Twohig, Michael P.; Whittal, Maureen L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the case of a 51-year old woman with obsessive-compulsive disorder. "Caroline" reported obsessions of harming people secondary to spreading her "bad energy," which is experienced as dust on her hands and in her mouth. To prevent harm coming to others she mentally "vacuums" the dust, creates…

  10. Metacognition, specific obsessive-compulsive beliefs and obsessive-compulsive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, PMG; Aardema, A

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive distortions and beliefs have been found to be associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Most of these cognitive distortions are supposed to be non-specifically related to obsessive-compulsive behaviour in general, rather than specific domains of beliefs being related to specific forms

  11. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder].

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    Haraldsson, Magnús

    2015-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland.

  12. Obsessive compulsive disorder comorbidity in DBA

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    Innocenti Alice

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA is a congenital erythroid aplasia characterized as a normochromic macrocytic anemia with a selective deficiency in red blood cell precursors in otherwise normocelullar bone marrow. DBA is known to be associated with mental retardation and learning disabilities. Although comorbidities with other psychiatric conditions have not been reported in the existing literature, we report in this paper a case of a DBA patient with previously undiagnosed comorbidity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, successfully treated with sertaline 200 mg/day and valproic acid 600 mg/day. This case of comorbid presentation has clinical, therapeutic and pathophysiological implications. Given the difficulty of distinguishing among mental retardation, learning disabilities and OCD and the importance of precocious diagnosis in treating OCD especially since there are treatment methods interfering with anemia symptoms, physicians should adapt an adequate screening tool treating a child with DBA and comorbid mental disorder.

  13. [Obsessive-compulsive disorders in adolescents].

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    Klein, R G; Rapoport, J L

    1990-01-01

    The research recently conducted and ongoing in adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder indicates that the clinical signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those seen in adults. Comorbidity appears to follow the same trends in adolescents and adults, with anxiety and affective symptomatology predominating. Contrary to expectation, Gilles de la Tourette disorder does not appear either as a concurrent syndrome, or as an eventual outcome in obsessive-compulsive adolescents. Males are greatly over-represented among adolescents with an early childhood onset. The neurological and neuropsychological findings are the only ones that appear to distinguish the adolescent and adult obsessive-compulsive patients. The findings point to frequent neurological abnormalities in adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The natural history over the short-term seems to be negatively affected by severity. The clinical efficacy of clomipramine and the failure of another tricyclic antidepressant parallels the therapeutic experience reported in adult patients. The presence of depression is unrelated to the efficacy of clomipramine. The neuropsychological and neurological abnormalities, together with the data from the longitudinal and treatment studies, strongly suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder in adolescents is not a variant of the overall group of anxiety disorders.

  14. Trichotillomania and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Stein, D J; Simeon, D; Cohen, L J; Hollander, E

    1995-01-01

    Trichotillomania, a disorder characterized by repetitive hair pulling, has been only recently systemically investigated. Such research was encouraged by data that showed obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is also characterized by ritual behaviors, responds selectively to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In this review, we consider similarities and contrasts in the diagnosis, demographics, phenomenology, neurochemistry, neuropsychiatry, and treatment of trichotillomania and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We argue that a view of trichotillomania as an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder that may involve disturbances in grooming behaviors comprises a useful clinical and research heuristic. Nevertheless, there may also be important differences between the two disorders; in particular, trichotillomania has a number of characteristics in common with impulsive disorders. Further empirical investigation is necessary to determine the nature of these complex disorders and their relationship to one another.

  15. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

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    Park, Jennifer M; Storch, Eric A; Pinto, Anthony; Lewin, Adam B

    2016-04-01

    While interest in the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive personality disorder has increased, there are currently no studies that have examined the presence of obsessive compulsive personality traits (OCPTs) in youth. The current study sought to determine the latent factors and psychometric properties of a modified version of the Childhood Retrospective Perfectionism Questionnaire (CHIRP) and examine the correlates of specific OCPTs (e.g., rigidity, perfectionism) in youth with OCD. Participants included 96 treatment-seeking youth diagnosed with primary OCD (and a parent). Parents and youth completed measures of OCPTs, OCD severity, depression, and disability. A confirmatory factor analysis of the modified CHIRP resulted in a two-factor model: perfectionism and preoccupation with details. The CHIRP and its subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and preliminary evidence for convergent and divergent validity. Obsessive compulsive traits in youth were also found to be associated with the checking, symmetry and contamination symptom dimensions.

  16. Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive beliefs

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    Trinette Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a heterogeneous condition with a few major symptom dimensions. These symptom dimensions are thought to have unique clinical and neurobiological correlates. There seems to be a specific relation between OCD symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs, but the findings are not consistent across studies. There is also a paucity of literature from culturally diverse settings. One of the reasons for the varied findings could be due to the method employed in measuring OCD symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the relation between symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire respectively in 75 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition OCD. Results: Perfectionism predicted both aggressive and symmetry dimensions whereas responsibility beliefs predicted sexual and religious dimensions. Conclusions: The findings suggest that certain obsessive beliefs predicted certain OCD symptom dimensions, but results are not entirely consistent with the published literature suggesting the possibility of cross-cultural variations. That the symptom dimensions have unique belief domains support the argument that symptom dimensions could be targeted to reduce the heterogeneity in etiological and treatment studies of OCD. Therapeutic interventions may have to aim at modifying unique belief domains underlying certain symptom dimensions rather than having generic cognitive-behavioral strategies.

  17. Teaching Students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Leininger, Melissa; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological condition affecting 1 of every 200 school-age children. OCD greatly affects students' academic, behavioral, and social functioning, and it can lead to additional problem such as depression. To effectively collaborate with other individuals providing appropriate support to students with OCD,…

  18. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and the School Counselor

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    Wertlieb, Ellen C.

    2008-01-01

    The current article is designed to provide school counselors an understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The causes, characteristics, and treatment approaches are presented with examples focusing on school-related issues. The article concludes with a discussion about the role that the school counselor can take in helping the child…

  19. Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

  20. Obsessive compulsive disorder presenting for redundant clothing

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    N A Uvais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a 15-year-old girl who presented with redundant clothing. On evaluation, it was found that she had obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and redundant clothing was a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported.

  1. Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Dimensions: Development and Evaluation of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Deacon, Brett J.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Berman, Noah C.; Losardo, Diane; Timpano, Kiara R.; McGrath, Patrick B.; Riemann, Bradley C.; Adams, Thomas; Bjorgvinsson, Throstur; Storch, Eric A.; Hale, Lisa R.

    2010-01-01

    Although several measures of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms exist, most are limited in that they are not consistent with the most recent empirical findings on the nature and dimensional structure of obsessions and compulsions. In the present research, the authors developed and evaluated a measure called the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive…

  2. Prevalence of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Adults with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder versus Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Greene, Ashley L.; Storch, Eric A.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2014-01-01

    Identifying risk factors of psychopathology has been an important research challenge. Prior studies examining the impact of childhood temperament on adult disorder have largely focused on undercontrolled and inhibited presentations, with little study of overcontrolled traits such as obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). We compared rates of childhood OCPTs in adults with OCD (without OCPD) (n = 28) to adults with OCPD (without OCD) (n = 27), adults with both OCD and OCPD (n = 28), ...

  3. Prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia

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    Smita Hemrom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia are well recognized but are a less-researched entity. These symptoms have important implications for management and prognosis. Aim: To find out the prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DCR of ICD-10 criteria were selected for the study. Padua inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were applied to find out the prevalence and nature of obsessive compulsive symptoms . Results: It was found that 10% of schizophrenic patients had obsessive compulsive symptoms. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The presence of comorbidity should be explored for adequate management.

  4. Procrastination tendencies among obsessive-compulsives and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, J R; McCown, W

    1994-03-01

    Participants diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; 39 women, 26 men; M age = 40) and their family relatives (11 women, 7 men; M age = 45) completed standardized measures of obsessions, compulsions, decisional procrastination (indecision), and avoidant procrastination. Among the OCDs, obsessions were related significantly to decisional procrastination, and compulsions were related significantly to decisional and avoidant procrastination. In comparison to family members of obsessive compulsives, the OCDs reported significantly greater obsessions, compulsions, and indecisions, but not procrastination motivated by avoidance. Results suggest that individuals with clinical obsessive-compulsive tendencies do, in fact, report states of indecision, as claimed by DSM-III-R. However, these clinical individuals may not differ significantly from nonclinical samples (e.g., family members) in avoidant procrastination.

  5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder presenting with compulsions to urinate frequently

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    Stephen Amarjeet Jiwanmall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a common psychiatric disorder which is easily recognized. However, sometimes patients of OCD present in such an atypical presentation of symptoms and a pathway to care involving multiple specialities. We report a case of a girl who had consulted several physicians and a urologist for frequent micturition, who was treated as a case of OCD after clarifying the compulsive nature of her symptom. There was significant improvement in her condition following 8 weeks of treatment with 200 mg of Sertraline and behaviour therapy.

  6. Where emotion meets cognition : studies on executive function in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, Maria Margaretha Anna

    2003-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsion diorder (ocd) is characterized by recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions are intrusive and unwanted thoughts, images or feelings which elicit considerable anxiety and discomfort. Commonly recurring themes in obsessions are aggression, blasphemy, death and (unaccepta

  7. Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior Disappearing after Left Capsular Genu Infarction

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    Ji-Hyang Oh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a 74-year-old woman with obsessive-compulsive behaviors that disappeared following a left capsular genu infarction. The patient’s capsular genu infarction likely resulted in thalamocortical disconnection in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, which may have caused the disappearance of her obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The fact that anterior capsulotomy has been demonstrated to be effective for treating refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder further supports this hypothesis.

  8. On the nature of obsessions and compulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Sanneke; Rietveld, Erik; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we give an overview of current and historical conceptions of the nature of obsessions and compulsions. We discuss some open questions pertaining to the primacy of the affective, volitional or affective nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Furthermore, we add some phenomenological suggestions of our own. In particular, we point to the patients' need for absolute certainty and the lack of trust underlying this need. Building on insights from Wittgenstein, we argue that the kind of certainty the patients strive for is unattainable in principle via the acquisition of factual knowledge. Moreover, we suggest that the patients' attempts to attain certainty are counter-productive as their excessive conscious control in fact undermines the trust they need.

  9. The influence of obsessive-compulsive neurosis patients' premorbid personality on obsessive-compulsive symptoms and efficacy of medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, R; Hosoba, T; Ide, M; Seiwa, H

    1998-06-01

    We conducted a survey with the Lynfield obsessive-compulsive symptom questionnaire (revised version) on 48 obsessive-compulsive neurotic patients as the survey subjects. In the factor analysis five factors of obsessions, were identified: (i) the desire for perfection; (ii) compulsive checking; (iii) washing; (iv) feelings of uncleanliness; and (v) anthropophobia. High correlations were noted between these factors. We also investigated the premorbid personalities of obsessive-compulsive neurotic patients with a multidimensional personality scale and obtained an extroversion dimension and neuroticism dimension. The influence of these premorbid personality dimensions on obsessive-compulsive symptoms became clear; (i) neuroticism is related to the levels of obsession after onset, but not related to compulsive behaviors; and (ii) No differences in premorbid personality dimensions were noted between compulsive checking and compulsive washing behaviors. We also studied whether it was possible to predict the efficacy of pharmacotherapy upon obsessive-compulsive symptoms. It was elucidated that the obsessions of those whose premorbid personalities are emotionally stable and extroversive are susceptible to antidepressants. Based on these results, we discussed the usefulness of premorbid personalities in predicting diversity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, as well as in prediction the efficacy of medication.

  10. Memory Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    M. Abbruzzese

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have reported neuropsychological deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. These have mainly implicated frontal or temporal dysfunction. In this study, we compared the performances of OCD patients and normal subjects using a factorial interpretation of the Wechsler Memory Scale. Our results do not demonstrate significant memory impairment in OCD patients but point to the possibility of frontal lobe dysfunction as a factor in the pathophysiology of OCD.

  11. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the Elderly

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    Michael P. Philpot

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder arising in late life in association with a presumed organic aetiology are described. Three of the four had brief episodes of OCD earlier in their lives. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated impairments in verbal fluency and visuo-spatial tasks. No case exhibited global intellectual impairment. The two patients who complied with appropriate treatment became asymptomatic after 4–6 months.

  12. Suicide in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a complex term. Suicide attempts are common in women, but completed suicide rates are higher in men. Several demographic factors, stressful life events, previous suicide attempts, childhood abuse, physical or psychiatric disorders are risk factors for suicide. Suicide rates in a variety of mental disorders is more than the normal population. Data on rates and risk factors of suicide in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders are limited. Present data are o...

  13. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and Parkinson's disease.

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    Alessandra Nicoletti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency of personality disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD patients and in a group of healthy controls. METHODS: Patients affected by PD diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and a group of healthy controls were enrolled in the study. PD patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II has been performed to evaluate the presence of personality disorders. Presence of personality disorders, diagnosed according to the DSM-IV, was confirmed by a psychiatric interview. Clinical and pharmacological data were also recorded using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: 100 PD patients (57 men; mean age 59.0 ± 10.2 years and 100 healthy subjects (52 men; mean age 58.1 ± 11.4 years were enrolled in the study. The most common personality disorder was the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder diagnosed in 40 PD patients and in 10 controls subjects (p-value<0.0001 followed by the depressive personality disorder recorded in 14 PD patients and 4 control subjects (p-value 0.02. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was also found in 8 out of 16 de novo PD patients with a short disease duration. CONCLUSION: PD patients presented a high frequency of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder that does not seem to be related with both disease duration and dopaminergic therapy.

  14. Metacognitive Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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    Mehmet Zihni Sungur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have suggested that not only appraisal of significance of external events and signals from the body, but also appraisal of the personal significance of thoughts are important, and emphasized the conceptual limitations of the schema approach in cognitive model and developed the integrative information processing model of emotional disorders. According to this approach, the assessment of the meaning of thought, rather than thought itself is more important in the development and maintenance of the psychopathology. In the metacognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder, three types of metacognitive beliefs are emphasized. These are; thought-action fusion (thought-action, thought-event, thought-object, metacognitive beliefs on performing the rituals and metacognitive beliefs on the warning to stop to terminate the rituals. According to the model, targeting directly to change in metacognitive beliefs will increase success in therapy. In this article, the concept of metacognition in emotional disorders, the metacognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder and the advances that the model introduced in conceptualization and treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder have been discussed.

  15. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Predictor of Exposure and Ritual Prevention Outcome for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Edna B. Foa; Simpson, H. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ≥ 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 ses...

  16. Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Yamamoto H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Haruka Yamamoto,1 Hideto Tsuchida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Seiji Nishida,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Akihito Fujimori,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yoshihisa Wada,1 Takafumi Yoshida,2 Chiaki Taga,3 Kenji Fukui11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Kyoto Cognitive Behavior Therapy Counseling Room, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD.Patients and methods: Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A. The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion.Results: By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control

  17. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  18. Understudied Clinical Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Caporino, Nicole; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenomenology and treatment sensitivity of insight, avoidance, indecisiveness, overvalued responsibility, pervasive slowness, and pathological doubting among youth with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using the ancillary items on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). These factors…

  19. Comorbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) : a report from the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochner, Christine; Fineberg, Naomi A; Zohar, Joseph; van Ameringen, Michael; Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Cuzen, Natalie L; Hollander, Eric; Denys, D.; Nicolini, Humberto; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Pallanti, Stefano; Stein, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Comorbid disorders include mood and anxiety disorders as well as obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs). This paper aims to investigate comorbidity of DSM Axis I-disorders, includin

  20. Sleep in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Katharine C; Gradisar, Michael; Alfano, Candice A

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are not a core feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but emerging empirical data indicate some form of sleep disruption to be highly common. Available research in both adult and child patients is limited in several important ways, including the use of subjective reports (particularly in children), high rates of comorbid depression, and concurrent use of psychotropic medication. The presence of sleep disruption in OCD patients may compound severity and impairment of the disorder. More research is needed to fully understand the nature and consequences of sleep-wake disruption in children with OCD.

  1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Case Following Cerebral Ischemia

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    Semra Bilge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder is characterised by recurrent, unwanted, distressing thoughts, images, impulses and associated behaviours which generally emerge in the 2nd or 3rd decades of life. Elderly onset cases are rare. A 71 year old patient was admitted to our hospital because of left-sided weakness. Neurological examination revealed left hemiparesis, mild dysphasia and anosognosia. Using cranial magnetic resonance, infarcts were found in the MCA territories, in the posterior portion of the middle temporal gyrus supplied by the cortical (inferior branch and in the internal capsule, globus pallidus and putamen portions supplied by the lenticolostriate branch. An occlusion was also present in the right internal carotid artery (ICA. Fifteen days after presentation he developed an abnormal fear of urine contamination. He showered and handwashed excessively and exhibited insomnia and anxiety. The patient knew that his behaviour was ridiculous but could not prevent it. Formal neuropsychological testing found his simple attention to be mildly impared. His visuospatial function and construction abilities were also impaired. Obsessive compulsive disorder is usually an early onset disease. However this report seeks to draw attention to late-onset cases such as this, which are due to a cerebrovascular disorder.

  2. Common Dermatoses in Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

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    Mircea Tampa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic, debilitating syndrome, consisting of intrusive thoughts- which are experienced as inappropriate by the patient and are producing anxiety- and compulsions, defined as repetitive behaviours produced to reduce anxiety. While patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder typically have xerosis, eczema or lichen simplex chronicus, as a result of frequent washing or rubbing their skin, several other disorders which are included in the group of factitious disorders have also been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. A close collaboration between the dermatologist and the psychiatrist is therefore mandatory in order to achieve favourable outcomes for these patients. The aim of the article is to present the most frequent dermatological disorders associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder and to look over some of the rare ones.

  3. The correlates of obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melca, Isabela A; Yücel, Murat; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2015-06-01

    We assessed correlates of obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), schizotypal (SPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders in 110 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. We found OCD patients with OCPD (20.9%) to exhibit higher rates of hoarding and bipolar disorders, increased severity of hoarding and symmetry, lower prevalence of unacceptable thoughts involving sex and religion and less non-planning impulsivity. Conversely, OCD patients with SPD (13.6%) displayed more frequently bipolar disorder, increased severity of depression and OCD neutralization, greater prevalence of "low-order" behaviors (i.e., touching), lower low-planning impulsivity and greater "behavioral" compulsivity. Finally, in exploratory analyses, OCD patients with BPD (21.8%) exhibited lower education, higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, greater frequency of compulsions involving interpersonal domains (e.g. reassurance seeking), increased severity of depression, anxiety and OCD dimensions other than symmetry and hoarding, more motor and non-planning impulsivity, and greater "cognitive" compulsivity. These findings highlight the importance of assessing personality disorders in OCD samples.

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive-Bipolar Disorder Comorbidity: A Case Report

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    João Pedro Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders have been described as features of Bipolar Disorder (BD, and Obsessive-compulsive-bipolar disorder (OCBD may occur in as many as 56% of obsessive-compulsive patients. Mania in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD can occur either as an independent comorbidity or as a result of an antidepressant-induced switch. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with a 3 year diagnosis of OCD treated with antidepressants, admitted due to a manic episode, and describe diagnostic and treatment challenges of this comorbidity.

  5. Standards of care for obsessive-compulsive disorder centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchón, José M; van Ameringen, Michael; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Denys, Damiaan; Figee, Martijn; Grant, Jon E; Hollander, Eric; Marazziti, Donatella; Nicolini, Humberto; Pallanti, Stefano; Ruck, Christian; Shavitt, Roseli; Stein, Dan J; Andersson, Erik; Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Cath, Danielle C; Drummond, Lynne; Feusner, Jamie; Geller, Daniel A; Hranov, Georgi; Lochner, Christine; Matsunaga, Hisato; McCabe, Randy E; Mpavaenda, Davis; Nakamae, Takashi; O'Kearney, Richard; Pasquini, Massimo; Pérez Rivera, Ricardo; Poyurovsky, Michael; Real, Eva; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Soreni, Noam; Swinson, Richard P; Vulink, Nienke; Zohar, Joseph; Fineberg, Naomi

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, many assessment and care units for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been set up in order to detect, diagnose and to properly manage this complex disorder, but there is no consensus regarding the key functions that these units should perform. The International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) together with the Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders Network (OCRN) of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) and the Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders Section of the World Psychiaric Association (WPA) has developed a standards of care programme for OCD centres. The goals of this collaborative initiative are promoting basic standards, improving the quality of clinical care and enhance the validity and reliability of research results provided by different facilities and countries.

  6. Predictors of Treatment Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Drake, Kelly L.; Grados, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines predictors of treatment response in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is a severe mental illness causing distress and impaired functioning. Summarized findings of psychosocial factors and medication interventions are presented.

  7. Brain Imaging in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P.; O'Neill, Joseph; Rosenberg, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings support the frontal-striatal-thalamic model of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Glutamate is also implicated in the pathological finding of the disease. Implications for pediatric OCD treatments are discussed.

  8. Obsessive compulsive disorder in dental setting

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    Preetika Chandna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a disabling psychologic illness. Among these, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is listed by the World Health Organization (WHO as one of the 10 most disabling conditions, with prevalence rates of OCD in children ranging between 1 to 3%. Pediatric dentists are in a unique position to diagnose psychological problems in children and adolescents due to their ongoing relationship with children and their parents that starts at a very early age. Timely diagnosis of psychological illness can result in early intervention as well as better patient management for the dentist too. The purpose of this case report is to highlight a case of OCD in an adolescent girl diagnosed in a dental setting.

  9. Scurvy induced by obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Amanda A O; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Gaiolla, Rafael D; Okoshi, Marina P; Duarte, Daniella R; Matsubara, Luiz S; Inoue, Roberto M T; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Paiva, Sergio A R

    2009-01-01

    Historically, scurvy has been associated with sailors of great navigational epochs. This disease has been known since ancient Egypt, but nowadays it is almost forgotten. Although its prevalence has decreased over the centuries, scurvy is still present in developed countries. A 61-year-old man was referred to hospital with a 30-day history of anorexia, fatigue, gingival bleeding and ecchymosis of the arms and legs. On physical examination he presented gingival hypertrophic lesions, signs of chronic periodontitis and petechial rash, and several bruises on his arms and legs. A food frequency questionnaire revealed a long history of poor diet, with no vegetables or fruit. The patient had ingested only chocolate milk and cookies for the last 10 years due to fear of pesticides being present in foods of vegetable origin. A diagnosis of scurvy induced by obsessive-compulsive disorder was suspected, and after vitamin C supplementation there was a marked improvement of symptoms.

  10. Subtyping Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Neuropsychological Correlates

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    Catherine L. Harris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We administered neuropsychological measures considered sensitive to prefrontal dysfunction (both orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients and control subjects. OCD subjects exhibited performance deficits, in comparison to community controls, on three measures sensitive to orbitofrontal neocortex dysfunction. Contrary to expectation, OCD patients also exhibited performance deficits on measures sensitive to dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex dysfunction. However, distinct neurocognitive profiles emerged when we examined the impact of comorbid schizotypal personality features on neuropsychological test performance. Primary OCD patients displayed impaired performance on measures sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction; however, they did not differ from control subjects on tests of dorsolateral function. OCD subjects presenting with schizotypal personality features performed poorly not only on tests sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction, but also on tests sensitive to dorsolateral dysfunction. Findings suggest that OCD can be subdivided into clinical subtypes, and distinct prefrontal subsystems may be differentially involved in these subtypes.

  11. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a for obsessive-compulsive disorder- Y-BOCS score > 16 if obsessions and compulsion...s- Y-BOCS score > 10 if only obsessions- Y-BOCS score > 10 if only compulsions- Male and female, aged betw

  12. Clinical features of psychiatric inpatients with obsessive compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of the inpatients admitted in a university psychiatry clinic with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder in ten years period. Material and Methods: Patients who had been diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder according to DSM IV TR and hospitalized in Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine Balcali Hospital Department of Psychiatry between 2006 and 2015 were included. Data were ob...

  13. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey

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    Solano Paola

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders, since it is a pivotal issue in current clinical psychiatry.

  14. Perfectionism in obsessive-compulsive and eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,Berta Rodrigues; Soares,Maria João; Gomes, Ana; Marques,Mariana; Pereira,Ana Telma; Cabral, Ana; Valente,José; Bos,Sandra Carvalho; Pato, Michele; Pocinho, Fernando; Azevedo, Maria Helena; Macedo,António

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main aims of this article are twofold. First, to assess perfectionism dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders in comparison with psychiatric control (depression/anxiety) and non-clinical control groups. Second, to examine if perfectionism is specifically related to these different clinical conditions. METHOD: Thirty-nine outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 24 outpatients with eating disorders, 65 outpatients with a diagnosis of depression an...

  15. Conscientiousness and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-07-01

    A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has obtained only inconsistent support. The current study administered multiple measures of 1) conscientiousness-related personality traits, 2) DSM-IV OCPD, and 3) specific components of OCPD (e.g., compulsivity and perfectionism) to a sample of 536 undergraduates who were oversampled for elevated OCPD scores. Six existing measures of conscientiousness-related personality traits converged strongly with each other supporting their assessment of a common trait. These measures of conscientiousness correlated highly with scales assessing specific components of OCPD, but obtained variable relationships with measures of DSM-IV OCPD. More specifically, there were differences within the conscientiousness instruments such that those designed to assess general personality functioning had small to medium relationships with OCPD, but those assessing more maladaptive variants obtained large effect sizes. These findings support the view that OCPD does represent a maladaptive variant of normal-range conscientiousness.

  16. Dream content and intrusive thoughts in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallotti, Simone; Casetta, Cecilia; Fanti, Valentina; Gambini, Orsola; Ostinelli, Edoardo G; Ranieri, Rebecca; Vanelli, Irene; D'Agostino, Armando

    2016-10-30

    Although central to any exhaustive theory of human subjectivity, the relationship between dream and waking consciousness remains uncertain. Some findings suggest that dream consciousness can be influenced by severe disorders of thought content. The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been shown to influence dream content in healthy individuals. In order to better define this phenomenon, we evaluated the persistence of obsessive/compulsive themes across the dream and waking cognition of OCD patients and in a control group of healthy subjects. Participants were administered a shortened version of the Thematic Apperception Test to produce a waking fantasy narration, and were trained to keep a dream diary. Dream and waking narrative contents were analyzed in order to recognize obsessive/compulsive themes, and to calculate Mean Dream Obsession/Compulsion (MDO, MDC) and Mean TAT Obsession/Compulsion (MTO, MTC) parameters. No differences were found between the two populations in terms of MDO, MDC, MTO, nor MTC. Density of obsessive and compulsive themes were significantly higher in dream reports than in waking narratives for both groups. No correlation was observed between MDO/MDC scores and Y-BOCS obsession/compulsion scores in the OCD group. These findings strengthen the discontinuity hypothesis, suggesting that ruminative aspects of cognition are somehow interrupted during dream activity.

  17. Latent class analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.L. Delucchi; H. Katerberg; S.E. Stewart; D.A.J.P. Denys; C. Lochner; D.E. Stack; J.A. den Boer; A.J.L.M. van Balkom; M.A. Jenike; D.J. Stein; D.C. Cath; C.A. Mathews

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of sym

  18. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  19. Four-Factor Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S. Evelyn; Rosario, Maria C.; Baer, Lee; Carter, Alice S.; Brown, Timothy A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Illmann, Cornelia; Leckman, James F.; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Katsovich, Lilya; Rasmussen, Steven; Goodman, Wayne; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Chabane, Nadia; Jenike, Michael A.; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the efficacy of four-factor obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom structure for use in child, adolescent and adult groups. Results indicated that the four-factor OCD structure is inadequate for use in children, adolescent and adult age groups.

  20. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

  1. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine and with obsessive compulsive disorder: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Mairead

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive symptoms are commonly reported in those with schizophrenia. Clozapine has previously been reported to induce, aggravate and alleviate these symptoms. It is unclear if these are similar to the symptoms experienced by those with obsessive compulsive disorder. This study describes the obsessive compulsive symptom profile of a population of patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine (n = 62) and compares this with patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (n = 35). All participants were attending an outpatient community mental health service. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (which measures the frequency and associated distress of a range of "behavioural" and "cognitive" symptoms), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a demographic questionnaire were completed. In addition the schizophrenia group treated with clozapine completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The OCD group reported significantly more symptoms for all OCI subscales compared to the clozapine group. Overall fourteen (22%) of the schizophrenia treated with clozapine group had clinically significant total OCI scores. Two (3%) had documented OCS pre clozapine. De novo OCS was reported in twelve (19%) cases. Nine (11%) had documented OC symptoms pre-clozapine while only two (3%) had symptoms after clozapine was initiated. In terms of OC symptom profile, the clozapine group scored highest on the Doubting scale, a cognitive symptom whereas the OCD group scored highest on Washing, a behavioural symptom. Both groups reported greater distress with cognitive rather than behavioural symptoms. Medication including clozapine dose was not correlated with symptom severity. Anxiety correlated highly with obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group but not the OCD group. Within the Clozapine group, Obsessing correlated highly with Unusual Thought Content. Findings suggest that obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group may reflect a subtype of \\'schizo-obsessive

  2. Obsessive-compulsiveness in a population of tinnitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Robert L; Griest, Susan E; Martin, William Hal

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) to assess obsessive-compulsiveness in a population of 196 tinnitus patients and to correlate MOCI scores with measures of anxiety, depression, and tinnitus severity. Tinnitus severity was positively correlated with measures of anxiety and depression. Depression was positively correlated with MOCI and anxiety scores. MOCI scores exhibited weaker positive correlations with tinnitus severity and anxiety. Effective management of tinnitus requires identification of psychological disorders or symptoms when they are present so that patients can receive appropriate treatment as soon as possible. The MOCI can be used to assess obsessive-compulsiveness in tinnitus patients.

  3. Prevalence of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Adults with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder versus Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anthony; Greene, Ashley L; Storch, Eric A; Simpson, H Blair

    2015-01-01

    Identifying risk factors of psychopathology has been an important research challenge. Prior studies examining the impact of childhood temperament on adult disorder have largely focused on undercontrolled and inhibited presentations, with little study of overcontrolled traits such as obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). We compared rates of childhood OCPTs in adults with OCD (without OCPD) (n = 28) to adults with OCPD (without OCD) (n = 27), adults with both OCD and OCPD (n = 28), and healthy controls (HC) (n= 28), using the Childhood Retrospective Perfectionism Questionnaire, a validated measure of perfectionism, inflexibility, and drive for order. Adults with OCPD (both with and without comorbid OCD) reported higher rates of all three childhood OCPTs relative to HC. Individuals with OCD (without OCPD) reported higher rates of inflexibility and drive for order relative to HC, suggesting that these traits may presage the development of OCD, independent of OCPD. Childhood OCPTs were associated with particular OCD symptom dimensions in adulthood (contamination/cleaning, doubt/checking, and symmetry/ordering), independent of OCD onset age and OCPD diagnosis. Longitudinal prospective studies evaluating OCPTs in children are needed to better understand the progression of these traits from childhood to adulthood and their ability to predict future psychopathology.

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: When Unwanted Thoughts or Irresistable Actions Take Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treated? Finding Help Reprints For More Information Share Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: When Unwanted Thoughts or Irresistible Actions Take Over ... things you enjoy? If so, you may have obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The good news is that, with treatment, ...

  5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder - Glossary Entry - Genetics Home Reference [Genetics Home Reference (Glossary)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available er Synonym(s) OCD Definition(s) An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsion...guage System at the National Library of Medicine Disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsion

  6. Sleep and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jessica L; Reynolds, Amy C; Ferguson, Sally A; Dawson, Drew

    2013-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental illness that can have a debilitating effect on daily functioning. A body of research reveals altered sleep behaviour in OCD sufferers; however, findings are inconsistent and there is no consensus on the nature of this relationship. Understanding sleep disturbance in OCD is of critical importance given the known negative consequences of disturbed sleep for mood and emotional wellbeing. A systematic literature search was conducted of five databases for studies assessing sleep in adults diagnosed with OCD. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria and qualitative data analysis methods were used to identify common themes. There was some evidence of reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency in OCD patients. Many of the sleep disturbances noted were characteristic of depression. However, some OCD sufferers displayed delayed sleep onset and offset and an increased prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Severe OCD symptoms were consistently associated with greater sleep disturbance. While the sleep of OCD patients has not been a major focus to date, the existing literature suggests that addressing sleep disturbance in OCD patients may ensure a holistic approach to treatment, enhance treatment efficacy, mitigate relapse and protect against the onset of co-morbid psychiatric illnesses.

  7. Further psychometric analysis of the Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Mirela A; Geffken, Gary R; Jacob, Marni L; Goodman, Wayne K; Storch, Eric A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FOCI [Storch, E. A., Stigge-Kaufman, D., Bagner, D., Merlo, L. J., Shapira, N. A., Geffken, G. R., et al. (2007). Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: development, reliability, and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 851-859]). Participants were 89 adults with OCD presenting for treatment at a specialty clinic. A trained clinician administered the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and patients completed the FOCI, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, and State Trait Anxiety Inventory at baseline and following 14 weekly or daily cognitive behavioral therapy sessions. The internal consistency of FOCI Symptom Checklist and Severity Scale were good, and the concurrent and divergent validity of the FOCI Symptom Checklist and Severity Scale was supported through its associations with clinician-rated OCD symptom severity, and self-reported OCD, depressive, and anxiety measures. In addition, sensitivity to cognitive-behavioral treatment effects was shown as the Severity Scale scores were significantly lower following treatment compared to baseline. These findings not only replicate Storch et al. [Storch, E. A., Stigge-Kaufman, D., Bagner, D., Merlo, L. J., Shapira, N. A., Geffken, G. R., et al. (2007). Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: development, reliability, and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 851-859] but also add unique construct validity data in support of the psychometrics of the FOCI.

  8. Brain Regions and Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Erdem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological factors had been shown to play an important role in the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder by the information obtained from the methods developed over the years. According to the neuropsychological perspective, the defects had been detected mainly in executive functions, in attention, memory, visual-spatial functions; and abnormalities had been described in the frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus regions of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main and the most repeated abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are dysfunctions in executive function and visual memory. Dysfunctions of the inhibitory processes associated with the dominant frontal area lead to an insufficiency on the inhibition of verbal functions. Excessive activation of the orbitofrontal cortex that mediate the behavioral response suppression function in obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrated by functional imaging techniques. Repeated-resistant behaviors (eg: compulsions are composed by the deteriorations of the inhibitions of motor or cognitive programs in basal ganglions provided through cycles of frontal lobe. The findings of clinical observations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder could be considered as a reflection of excessive work in 'error detection system' which is the cause of the thoughts that something goes wrong and efforts to achieve perfection. As neurobiological, this finding is observed as excessive activity in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex representing the ability of humans to provide and detect errors. It is is expected to develop the vehicles that are more sensitive to the characteristics of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to the neuropsychological tests, using electrophysiological and advanced functional imaging techniques will put forward a better underlying the physiopathology of this disorder in order to

  9. [Treatment-refractory OCD from the viewpoint of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: impact of comorbid child and adolescent psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    More than a half of patients with OCD are classified as early-onset. Early-onset OCD has been indicated to be associated with a greater OCD global severity and more frequently comorbid with tic disorders and other obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum disorders, compared with late-onset OCD. Early-onset OCD patients with severe impairment caused by both OC symptoms and comorbid OC spectrum disorders may be identified as being refractory. Tic disorders and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are child and adolescent psychiatric disorders included in OC spectrum disorders. OCD comorbid with chronic tic disorders including Tourette syndrome (TS) is specified as tic-related OCD. Tic-related OCD is characterized by the high prevalence of early-onset and sensory phenomena including "just right" feeling. Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) such as head banging and body punching often occur in patients with TS. The patients' concern about SIB is likely to trigger them, suggesting that an impulse-control problem is a feature of TS. More than a half of patients with TS have OC symptoms. When OC symptoms in patients with TS were assessed with a dimensional approach, symmetry dimension symptoms were found most frequently over the lifetime. On the other hand, the severity of aggression dimension symptoms was the most stable during the course among all dimensions. Aggression dimension symptoms also exhibited a close relationship with impairment of global functioning and sensory phenomena. This tendency may be characteristic of tic-related OCD. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between OC symptoms and restricted, repetitive behaviors which are core symptoms of ASD. Recently, ego-dystonia and insight are considered non-essential to diagnose OCD, whereas high-functioning and/or atypical ASD is recognized as being more prevalent than previously estimated. In this situation, attention to comorbidity of OCD and ASD is increasing, and the prevalence of OCD in children and adolescents with

  10. Psychobiology of anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2008-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is currently classified as an anxiety disorder. However, there is growing interest in the concept of an obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders (OCSDs). The relationship between anxiety disorders and OCSDs has been questioned. The psychobiology of anxiety disorders and OCSDs is briefly reviewed in this article. While there appear to be several distinct contrasts in the underlying psychobiology of these conditions, there is also evidence of overlapping mechanisms. In addition, there are crucial gaps in our current database, confounding nosological decision-making. Conceptualizing various anxiety disorders and putative OCSDs as lying within a broader spectrum of emotional disorders may be useful. However, clinicians must also recognize that individual anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions, including disorders characterized by body-focused repetitive behaviors, have distinct psychobiological underpinnings and require different treatment approaches.

  11. Presentation and treatment of complicated obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Charles F

    2014-03-01

    Some of the most common complicating factors for clinicians treating a person with obsessive-compulsive disorder include suicidal obsessions, dangerous compulsions, overvalued ideation, and low motivation. When a patient reports suicidal thoughts, clinicians must assess whether these thoughts are ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic because patients with ego-dystonic suicidal obsessions have less risk of imminent harm. For individuals whose compulsions are dangerous, clinicians must determine the best type of treatment facility to reduce the risk of harm. Patients with overvalued ideation may require unique interviewing approaches and the support of family members. Finally, clinicians should assess for health problems that can cause low energy and fatigue and consider motivational interviewing and additional therapies for patients who have low motivation to continue treatment.

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and ventromedial frontal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irle, E; Exner, C; Thielen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the long-term outcome of subjects with severe and refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy during the 1970s. Special emphasis was given to the analysis of specific lesion sites. METHOD: Sixteen OCD...... resonance imaging scans. RESULTS: The leukotomized OCD subjects showed significant improvement of obsessive-compulsive symptoms; subjects with frontostriatal lesions tended to have improved most. The subjects with combined diagnoses of OCD and obsessive personality disorder (N = 3) had improved...... but not obsessive personality disorder. Lesions of the ventral striatum were significantly related to the occurrence of substance dependence, suggesting a role of this area in human addictive behavior....

  13. [Obsessive-compulsive disorders and religion in contemporary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, K

    2007-10-01

    After a retrospect on former viewpoints about the relationship between psychiatry and religion, especially concerning obsessive-compulsive disorders (S. Freud; "Ekklesiogenic Neurosis") a contemporary perspective shows: religion is hardly mentioned in German-speaking psychiatry textbooks. Pathogenic interaction between religion and psychological disorders is discussed in plurifactorial perspective. Religious views can be distorted by psychic disorders and adapted to the disorders. Starting from an anthropological definition of religion (C. Geertz), the paper presents three functions of religion and explains the relationship of Christian faith and obsessions/compulsions. Teaching programs for students and psychiatrists seem indicated for a better understanding of religion (and its absence) in the context of psychological disorders.

  14. Preventive Programs for Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in University Students : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    李, 暁茹

    2008-01-01

    The Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has two symptoms, namely the obsession and the compulsion. This study represented that it is very important to develop the prevenient intervention for Obsessive-Compulsive symptoms. In this study, the risk factors for OCD were indicated. The risk factors include individual factors, cognitive factors, social-culture factors, family factors, and life-events. In risk factors, the two key-words, the parental nurture-style and the obsessive schema were taken...

  15. Psychometric Properties of Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-child Version in Chinese Adolescents%强迫量表儿童版在中国青少年中应用的信效度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹倖; 王建平; 王馨蕊; 高扬

    2013-01-01

    目的:引进强迫量表儿童版(Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version,OCI-CV),检验其在中国青少年中的信效度.方法:经双盲翻译的严格程序获得中文版OCI-CV;通过方便取样对2876名青少年进行测查;选用莱顿强迫问卷(儿童版)、儿童青少年多维度焦虑量表以及儿童抑郁量表作为效度量表;3-4周后对其中的329名青少年进行重测.结果:验证性因素分析表明中文版OCI-CV符合原六因素模型;其总量表内部一致性系数为0.856,各分量表内部一致性系数为0.462到0.747;重测信度为0.532到0.758;OCI-CV总分与强迫症状(存在与否/干扰程度)、焦虑和抑郁的相关系数分别为0.696/0.684、0.634和0.505(均P<0.01).结论:中文版OCI-CV具有良好的信效度,可以在中国青少年中应用.%Objective:To evaluate psychometric properties of Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version(OCI-CV)in Chinese adolescents.Methods:A sample of 2876 adolescents was tested with a measuring battery including the Chinese version of OCI-CV,Leyton Obsessive Inventory-Child Version (LOI-CV),Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children(MASC) and Children's Depression Inventory(CDI).Results:Confirmatory factor analysis of the Chinese version of OCI-CV confirmed the six-factor model.The internal consistencies of the OCI-CV and its subscales were 0.462 to 0.856.The retest reliabilities were 0.532 to 0.785.For the total score of OCI-CV,the correlation coefficients were 0.696/0.684 to obsessive-compulsive symptoms (presence/interference),0.634 to anxiety and 0.505 to depression respectively (Ps<0.01).Conclusion:Chinese version of OCI-CV is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms in Chinese adolescents.

  16. Pentagastrin has panic inducing properties in obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deLeeuw, AS; DenBoer, JA; Slaap, BR; Westenberg, HGM

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the CCKB-receptor agonist pentagastrin, a synthetic analogue of the cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4), were studied in seven patients suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and seven healthy controls. All subjects were challenged with an IV dose of 0.6 mu g/kg pentagast

  17. Obsessive compulsive disorder as early manifestation of b12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Valizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available B12 acts as a cofactor in synthesis of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, thus B12 deficiency affects mood, emotions and sleeping and can lead to psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric manifestations of B12 deficiency are varied. They seldom precede anemia. We want to present a case of B12 deficiency which was presented with obsessive compulsive disorder.

  18. Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among…

  19. Late-Onset Startle Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gonzalez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of late onset sporadic startle syndrome in a patient with a right posterior fossa brain tumour is reported. The exaggerated startle response did not respond to treatment with clonazepam. In addition to anxiety and depression, the patient developed obsessive- compulsive symptoms which responded to behavioural therapy. The possible mechanisms for this unique pattern of symptoms are discussed.

  20. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: What an Educator Needs to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amrita; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) impairs social, emotional and academic functioning. Individuals with OCD may have co-morbid disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, or Tourette syndrome. Challenges occur when students with OCD become a part of the general education…

  1. Intensive cognitive behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, H.; Kristensen, M.; Arendt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite promising results from intensive formats of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) the format is rarely used. The aim of the study was to systematically review the literature within this area of research and provide a meta-analysis of the effectiveness...

  2. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as a Disturbance of Security Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szechtman, Henry; Woody, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The authors hypothesize that the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), despite their apparent nonrationality, have what might be termed an epistemic origin-that is, they stem from an inability to generate the normal "feeling of knowing" that would otherwise signal task completion and terminate the expression of a security motivational…

  3. Twin studies on obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootheest, van D.S.; Cath, D.C.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have historically been thought of as important in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). For the estimation of the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors, twin studies are an obvious approach. Twin studies of OCD have a long history, starting in 192

  4. The Pregnancy Obsession-Compulsion-Personality Disorder Symptom Checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, K.; Hartman, E.; Spek, V.; Bergink, V.; van Son, M.J.M.; Karreman, A.; Pop, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Up until now, very little research has been undertaken on the possible role of personality traits, such as perfectionism and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), on pregnancy distress. This is possibly due to the fact that no appropriate instruments are available for use dur

  5. Standards of care for obsessive-compulsive disorder centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menchón, José M; van Ameringen, Michael; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Denys, D.; Figee, Martijn; Grant, Jon E; Hollander, Eric; Marazziti, Donatella; Nicolini, Humberto; Pallanti, Stefano; Ruck, Christian; Shavitt, Roseli; Stein, Dan J; Andersson, Erik; Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Cath, Danielle C; Drummond, Lynne; Feusner, Jamie; Geller, Daniel A; Hranov, Georgi; Lochner, Christine; Matsunaga, Hisato; McCabe, Randy E; Mpavaenda, Davis; Nakamae, Takashi; O'Kearney, Richard; Pasquini, Massimo; Pérez Rivera, Ricardo; Poyurovsky, Michael; Real, Eva; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Soreni, Noam; Swinson, Richard P; Vulink, Nienke; Zohar, Joseph; Fineberg, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many assessment and care units for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been set up in order to detect, diagnose and to properly manage this complex disorder, but there is no consensus regarding the key functions that these units should perform. The International College of Obse

  6. Tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder : Is autoimmunity involved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Minderaa, RB

    2006-01-01

    The precise cause of tic disorders and paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown. In addition to genetic factors, autoimmunity may play a role, possibly as a sequela of preceding streptococcal throat infections in susceptible children. Here we review the most recent findings, from Ju

  7. Social, Family and Psychological Predictors of Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviour among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B. D.; Furnham, A. F.; Siefen, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of "pure" obsessive-compulsive disorders in the clinical population was found to be around 1.2 percent for a clinical sample record--stretching over a 2.5-year period--of around 2500 adolescents in a German child and adolescent psychiatry clinic. Over a 3-month period (time-frame) a sample of 350 new entries to the clinic…

  8. Compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder and addictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, D.

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a

  9. Treatment of Sexual-Orientation Obsessions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Exposure and Ritual Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Monnica T.; Crozier, Marjorie; Powers, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Presented is a case report of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) therapy administered to a 51-year-old, White, heterosexual male with sexual-orientation obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The patient had been previously treated with pharmacotherapy, resulting in inadequate symptom reduction and unwanted side effects. OCD symptoms included anxiety about the possibility of becoming gay, mental reassurance, and avoidance of other men, which resulted in depressive symptoms and...

  10. Children' Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Feasibility of a Self-Report Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J.; Loew, Benjamin A.; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed…

  11. Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Signal Detection Analysis of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the optimal Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) percent reduction cutoffs for predicting treatment response and clinical remission among children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Youth with OCD (N = 109; range 7 to 19 years) received 14 sessions of weekly or intensive…

  12. Neuroimaging communality between schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder: a putative basis for schizo-obsessive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Isseroff, Ruth; Hermesh, Haggai; Zohar, Joseph; Weizman, Abraham

    2003-07-01

    Four major brain regions have been repeatedly implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in in vivo neuroimaging studies: the caudate nucleus, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate gyrus and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. The present review describes the neuroimaging studies on schizophrenia, pertaining to these brain regions. Our working hypothesis is that such common brain regions, if dysfunctional in schizophrenic patients, would be candidates for a neural network subserving the newly emerging syndrome of schizo-obsessive disorder. Findings, though, are controversial. We conclude that further studies, aimed at specific monitoring of these brain regions, in patients suffering from the schizo-obsessive syndrome are warranted.

  13. Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkaya, S; Karadag, F; Oguzhanoglu, N K

    2012-04-01

    Obsessive compulsive symptoms are more frequent in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal population. Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder may also exhibit psychosis-like symptoms. Based on these findings, it has been suggested that there is a spectrum of disorders between OCD and schizophrenia. We compared two OCD groups (with good and poor insight) and two schizophrenia groups (with and without OCD) in this recommended spectrum especially in terms of neurological soft signs (NSSs) associated with sensory integration. The schizophrenia with OCD (schizo-obsessive) group exhibited worse performance than the schizophrenia group (p=0.002) in only graphesthesia tasks. Moreover, schizo-obsessive patients exhibited worse performance compared to OCD patients in terms of graphesthesia (p=0.001) and audiovisual integration (p=0.001). Interestingly, OCD patients with poor insight tended to exhibit graphesthesia deficit in a similar manner to schizo-obsessive patients rather than OCD patients. According to our results, graphesthesia disorder is strongly associated both with OCD and schizophrenia. This suggests that neurodevelopmental disorders that lead to graphesthesia disorder overlap in comorbid OCD and schizophrenia patients.

  14. The Role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex in Normally Developing Compulsive-Like Behaviors and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Lewis, Marc D.; Iobst, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Mounting evidence concerning obsessive-compulsive disorders points to abnormal functioning of the orbitofrontal cortices. First, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) perform poorly on tasks that rely on response suppression/motor inhibition functions mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex relative to both normal and clinical controls.…

  15. Dance-like movements in obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Bavle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presentation of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is sometimes unusual and can mimic other disorders. There are a number of rare and varied manifestations of this disorder, reported in literature. The case reported here, presented with a hitherto unreported symptom; a dance-like compulsion in a case of OCD. This symptom is notable for the influence of cultural environment, on the content of symptom manifestation, in a psychiatric disorder. When one symptom in a disorder presents itself very prominently, the other symptoms, which are less prominent become masked; and need to be elicited by detailed assessment.

  16. Clinical features of psychiatric inpatients with obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2017-03-01

    Results: Forty one of the patients were female (57.7% and 30 of them were male (42.3%. Mean age of patients was 25+/-10,04 years; first treatment age was 27.75+/-9.19 and mean duration of untreated illness was 32.82+/-48.06 months. There was a significant difference in patients, when first treatment age and mean duration of untreated illness were examined by gender. In patients with family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder, the mean duration of untreated illness was higher. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive disorder is a chronic disorder with significant risk factors for prognosis. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 140-146

  17. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: an integrative genetic and neurobiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, David L; Abramovitch, Amitai; Rauch, Scott L; Geller, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviours that are experienced as unwanted. Family and twin studies have demonstrated that OCD is a multifactorial familial condition that involves both polygenic and environmental risk factors. Neuroimaging studies have implicated the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit in the pathophysiology of the disorder, which is supported by the observation of specific neuropsychological impairments in patients with OCD, mainly in executive functions. Genetic studies indicate that genes affecting the serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems, and the interaction between them, play a crucial part in the functioning of this circuit. Environmental factors such as adverse perinatal events, psychological trauma and neurological trauma may modify the expression of risk genes and, hence, trigger the manifestation of obsessive-compulsive behaviours.

  18. Perfectionism in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Lauro, Leonor J Romero; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria; Mauri, Massimo C; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Frost, Randy

    2008-06-01

    High levels of perfectionism have been observed in major depression, anxiety disorders and eating disorders. Though few studies have compared levels of perfectionism across these disorders, there is reason to believe that different dimensions of perfectionism may be involved in eating disorders than in depression or anxiety [Bardone-Cone, A. M. et al. (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: Current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 84-405]. The present study compared patients with major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders on dimensions of perfectionism. Concern over Mistakes was elevated in each of the patient groups while Pure Personal Standards was only elevated in the eating disorder sample. Doubts about Actions was elevated in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, but not in depressed patients. Analyses of covariance indicated that Concern over Mistakes accounted for most of the variance in the relationship of perfectionism to these forms of psychopathology.

  19. Cognitive behavioral therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Edna B. Foa

    2010-01-01

    Until the mid-1960s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered to be treatment-resistant, as both psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication had been unsuccessful in significantly reducing OCD symptoms. The first real breakthrough came in 1966 with the introduction of exposure and ritual prevention. This paper will discuss the cognitive behavioral conceptualizations that influenced the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for OCD. There will be a brief discussion of the use...

  20. OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE NEUROSIS: TREATMENT OF 28 CASES BY BEHAVIOUR THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, P.V.; Ayyar, K.S.; Munjal, P.D.; Gopalani, J.H.; Mundra, A.V.; Doshi, Jyoti; Bagadia, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Twenty-eight cases of obsessive compulsive neurosis were treated with a behaviour therapy package and good results were obtained in 15 (53.6%). Relaxation, thought-stopping, implosion, modelling, response prevention, electrical aversion and positive reinforcement wei; the techniques employed. Chronicity, previous treatments, follow-up data, drop-outs and the use of behaviour therapy in our setting are discussed in this paper.

  1. Obsessive-compulsive adults with and without childhood ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Oguz; Metin, Baris; Metin, Sinem

    2016-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently coexist. To understand whether childhood ADHD can increase the risk of OCD in adulthood and whether it influences the phenomenology of OCD, we investigated the symptoms of ADHD during childhood in obsessive-compulsive adults who had never been diagnosed as ADHD. Adults with OCD (n = 83) were given the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS-17) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The prevalence of childhood ADHD symptoms was 40.9 % (n = 34) and that of adult ADHD was 16.9 % (n = 14). Patients with childhood ADHD symptoms had an earlier onset of OCD, higher scores of the BAI and BIS-11. The scores of the Y-BOCS and HDRS-17 did not differ between those having and not having childhood ADHD symptoms. Childhood history of ADHD symptoms is common in adult OCD patients who have never been diagnosed as ADHD. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with an earlier age of OCD, more severe anxiety and higher impulsiveness. Even remitted ADHD may be a risk factor for OCD in later life.

  2. HOW TO TEST MEDICINES OF OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a psychiatric affliction with a lifetime prevalence of 1-3%. OCD is an anxiety disorder characterized by obsessive thinking (persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses or images that are experienced as intrusive and inappropriate and compulsive behaviour (repetitive behaviours or mental acts [e.g. hand-washing, checking, praying, and counting] that causes marked distress or significant impairment. During the last 30 years there have been many attempts to develop animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, in the hope that they may provide a path for furthering our understanding and treatment of this disorder. The present review article provides the reader with an overview of the currently active animal models of OCD with their strengths and limitations. We have reviewed the genetic, pharmacological, neurodevelopmental and behavioural animal models of OCD, and discussed their face validity (derived from phenomenological similarity between the behavior of the animal and the specific symptoms of the human condition, predictive validity (derived from similarity in response to treatment and construct validity (derived from similarity in the underlying mechanisms.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale in youth with autism spectrum disorders and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Arnold, Elysse B; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) were investigated in 46 treatment-seeking youth, 7-15 years of age, who were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and exhibited obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The CY-BOCS Total score exhibited good internal consistency, with differing internal consistencies observed on the Obsession Severity scale (α = 0.86) and Compulsion Severity scale (α = 0.59). Good to excellent inter-rater reliability was observed for the CY-BOCS Total score and both Severity scales. Convergent and divergent validity of the CY-BOCS Total score and both Severity scales were satisfactory. Insight into obsessive-compulsive symptoms was moderately associated with the CY-BOCS Total score. The CY-BOCS demonstrated treatment sensitivity, demonstrating significant changes in obsessive-compulsive symptoms within a subsample of youth receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment. Overall, the CY-BOCS demonstrated adequate psychometric properties and utility in assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms in youth with ASD and clinically significant obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

  4. Goal-directed learning and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-11-05

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of 'wanting' drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour.

  5. Why do eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder co-occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Lauren O; Forbush, Kelsie T

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders.

  6. Why Do Eating Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Co-Occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Lauren O.; Forbush, Kelsie T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:23557823

  7. Trauma-related obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykshoorn, Kristy L

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly researched and conceptualized disorder, and yet it remains one of the most debilitating, widespread, and expensive disorders one can be afflicted with [Real, E., Labad, J., Alonso, P., Segalas, C., Jimenez-Murcia, S., Bueno, B., … Menchon, J. M. (2011). Stressful life events at onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder are associated with a distinct clinical pattern. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 367-376. doi:10.1002/da.20792]. Exposure treatments and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) have been largely accepted as best practice for those with OCD, and yet there are still many who are left with "treatment-resistant OCD" [Rowa, K., Antony, M., & Swinson, R. (2007). Exposure and response prevention. In C. Purdon, M. Antony, & L. J. Summerfeldt (Eds.), Psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Fundamentals and beyond (pp. 79-109). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; Foa, E. B. (2010). Cognitive behavioural therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Dialogues of Clinical Neuroscience, 12, 199-207]. Similarly, exposure treatments and CBT have been accepted as best practice for trauma-related distress (i.e. post-traumatic stress disorder; Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., Friedman, M. J., & Cohen, J. A. (2009). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the international society for traumatic studies (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press). From a literature review, evidence has been provided that demonstrates a high prevalence rate (30-82%) of OCD among individuals with a traumatic history in comparison to the prevalence rate of the general population (1.1-1.8%; [Cromer, K. R., Schmidt, N. B., & Murphy, D. L. (2006). An investigation of traumatic life events and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1683-1691. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.08.018; Fontenelle, L. F., Cocchi, L., Harrison, B. J., Shavitt, R. G., do Rosario, M. C., Ferrao, Y. A

  8. Altered Inhibition-Related Frontolimbic Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, Laura S.; de Wit, Stella J.; Curcic-Blake, Branisalava; Cath, Danielle C.; de Vries, Froukje E.; Veltman, Dick J.; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown that response inhibition is impaired in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected siblings, suggesting that these deficits may be considered a cognitive endophenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Structural and functional neural corre

  9. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Research in etiology, neurobiology, genetics, clinical correlates, and evidence-based treatments in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder indicate a need for the revision of the Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder first published a decade ago. The…

  10. Sumatriptan (5-HT1D receptor agonist) does not exacerbate symptoms in obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pian, KLH; Westerberg, HGM; van Megen, HJGM; den Boer, JA

    1998-01-01

    The non-selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) has been reported to elicit symptoms in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). MK-212, another nonselective 5-HT receptor agonist, does not seem to induce obsessive compulsive symptoms in OCD patients.

  11. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Price, Lawrence H.; Larson, Michael J.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2010-01-01

    The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom…

  12. Thought-Action Fusion and Inflated Responsibility Beliefs in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Emily Marie; Rucklidge, Julia Jane; Blampied, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated responsibility (IR) beliefs and thought-action fusion (TAF) are two cognitive schema argued to contribute to obsessions and compulsions. We investigated whether IR and TAF are OCD-specific or whether they occur in other anxiety disorders. Adults diagnosed with OCD (n = 20) or other anxiety disorders…

  13. Distinguishing Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior From Stereotypy: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chok, James T; Koesler, Bryan

    2014-05-01

    The current project was an initial attempt to develop assessment procedures for distinguishing between obsessive-compulsive (OC) and stereotypic behavior and evaluate the impact of different treatments for these behaviors. Two individuals with autism, one with repetitive behavior characteristic of OC behavior and one with repetitive behavior not characteristic of OC behavior, participated in the study. In Experiment 1, given that individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) report experiencing unpleasant urges that are relieved when they perform compulsive actions, an attempt was made to identify these experiences by measuring heart rate and affect when access to repetitive behavior was restricted and allowed. In Experiment 2, a multiple schedules treatment was conducted with each participant, and in Experiment 3, the participant with autism and OC behavior completed exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment. The overall results across studies suggest that one potential way to discriminate between OC behavior and stereotypy in nonvocal children with autism is to consider the topography of repetitive behavior along with changes in physiology and affect. In addition, it may be worth considering the use of ERP, a traditional treatment for OCD, to treat repetitive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement if treatments that provide access to repetitive behavior are not effective.

  14. Response of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder to treatment with citalopram or placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Overo, Kerstin Fredricson

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder lie on discrete dimensions. Relatively little work has, however, explored the relationship between such factors and response to pharmacotherapy. METHOD: Data from a multi-site randomized placebo......-controlled study of citalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder were analyzed. Factor analysis of individual items and symptom categories of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist were undertaken, and the impact of symptom dimensions on treatment outcomes was analysed. RESULTS: Factor analysis of Yale......-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist individual items yielded 5 factors (contamination/cleaning, harm/checking, aggressive/sexual/religious, hoarding/symmetry, and somatic/hypochondriacal). Hoarding/symmetry was associated with male gender, longer duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder and early onset...

  15. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

  16. Cognitive Control of a Simple Mental Image in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Orhan Murat; Ozpolat, Aysegul Yilmaz; Atbasoglu, Cem; Cicek, Metehan

    2011-01-01

    The nature of obsessions has led researchers to try to determine if the main problem in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is impaired inhibitory control. Previous studies report that the effort to suppress is one of the factors that increase the frequency of obsessive thoughts. Based on these results and those of the present study that suggest…

  17. Predicting obsessions and compulsions according to superego and ego characteristics: A comparison between scrupulosity and non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Kamali, Zeynab Sadat

    2016-02-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive images or impulses and/or ritualistic and rigid behaviors. Symptoms of OCD have different contents including contamination, harming and symmetry. Religion is one of the themes that has been observed in the context of OCD frequently. The aim of the present study was to examine the power of superego and ego characteristics in predicting scrupulosity and non-religious obsessions and compulsions, as well as comparing the two sets of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Sixty six Iranian (19 men, 47 women) participated in the study. All participants were asked to complete Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity, Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Multidimensional Anger Inventory, and Ego Strength Scale. Results showed that perfectionism and anger were positively correlated with scrupulosity and non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Ego control was negatively correlated with scrupulosity, while ego resiliency was not correlated with any of these two sets of symptoms. Regression analysis indicated that among these variables, anger was the best predictor of non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms, while perfectionism and ego control were the best predictors of scrupulosity.

  18. Microgenetic styles in histrionic and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, I A; Greco, E; Zanna, V; Pezzarossa, B

    1994-02-01

    Microgenetic styles of regulation of subjects with (n = 46) and without (n = 44) psychometric evidence of personality disorders were assessed by means of the Serial Color-Word Test. The disordered group were characterized by the primary Dissociative pattern and by very low values of the initial strategy called ITa. Subjects with psychometric evidence of Histrionic (n = 21) and Obsessive-Compulsive (n = 21) Personality Disorders were then compared. Histrionic personality corresponded most often to a primary Stabilized style, with a progressive slight increase of dissociation over time (Cv type). The compulsive trait was instead associated with high primary cumulation (and moderately elevated dissociation), concomitantly with secondary dissociative patterns (CDr and Dv/CDv). These results seem to encourage further clinical research with the Serial Color-Word Test.

  19. Early childhood experiences shaping vulnerability to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barcaccia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, inflated responsibility/sensitivity to guilt play a pivotal role in both the genesis and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. They may be learned in childhood and adolescence, through particular experiences and parental rearing styles, involving criticism, excessively high standards, and social moralization. Preliminary data on the role of dysfunctional beliefs in the development/maintenance of OCD also show that non-affected family members of OC individuals score higher than controls in domains concerning responsibility, suggesting it might represent a candidate endophenotype for the disorder. Compulsive conducts, that far from being mechanical reactions are instead clearly goal-oriented, may be triggered by the need of preventing responsibility/guilt. Therefore, useful psychological interventions aimed at not only reappraising meanings associated with the specific early experiences connected to hyper-sensitivity to guilt, but also at developing a more general compassionate and forgiving stance towards oneself, may prove particularly effective.

  20. Longitudinal course of pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Mancebo, Maria C; Weinhandl, Eric

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although data fully support the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), investigations on pharmacotherapy discontinuation during the course of OCD are lacking. This 5-year prospective study sought to better understand the long......-term course of SRI utilization among individuals with OCD. METHODS: A total of 252 adult outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. OCD, treated with medication in the community, were examined for discontinuation and resumption of SRIs. Data on weekly OCD symptoms...

  1. Stepped Care for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Open Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gilliam, Christina M.; Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Whiting, Sara E.; Tolin, David F.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and treatment costs associated with a stepped care protocol of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In the current open trial, patients (N = 14) began with self-directed EX/RP and minimal therapist guidance over the course of six weeks (Step 1). During this phase of treatment, no therapist-directed exposures were conducted. Those who did not respond optimally to Step 1 went on to Step 2, which consisted of 15 ...

  2. Signal attenuation as a rat model of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltseker, Koral; Yankelevitch-Yahav, Roni; Albelda, Noa S; Joel, Daphna

    2015-01-09

    In the signal attenuation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), lever-pressing for food is followed by the presentation of a compound stimulus which serves as a feedback cue. This feedback is later attenuated by repeated presentations of the stimulus without food (without the rat emitting the lever-press response). In the next stage, lever-pressing is assessed under extinction conditions (i.e., no food is delivered). At this stage rats display two types of lever-presses, those that are followed by an attempt to collect a reward, and those that are not. The latter are the measure of compulsive-like behavior in the model. A control procedure in which rats do not experience the attenuation of the feedback cue serves to distinguish between the effects of signal attenuation and of extinction. The signal attenuation model is a highly validated model of OCD and differentiates between compulsive-like behaviors and behaviors that are repetitive but not compulsive. In addition the measures collected during the procedure eliminate alternative explanations for differences between the groups being tested, and are quantitative, unbiased and unaffected by inter-experimenter variability. The major disadvantages of this model are the costly equipment, the fact that it requires some technical know-how and the fact that it is time-consuming compared to other models of OCD (11 days). The model may be used for detecting the anti- or pro-compulsive effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological manipulations and for studying the neural substrate of compulsive behavior.

  3. Hoarding in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jack; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Goes, Fernando S; Cullen, Bernadette; Wang, Ying; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Geller, Dan; Murphy, Dennis L; Knowles, James A; Rasmussen, Steven A; McLaughlin, Nicole C; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-10-01

    Compared to studies in adults, there have been few studies of hoarding in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the current study, we evaluated OCD clinical features, Axis I disorders, and social reciprocity scores in 641 children and adolescents with OCD, of whom 163 (25%) had hoarding compulsions and 478 did not. We found that, as a group, youth with hoarding had an earlier age at onset and more severe lifetime OCD symptoms, poorer insight, more difficulty making decisions and completing tasks, and more overall impairment. The hoarding group also had a greater lifetime prevalence of panic disorder, specific phobia, Tourette disorder, and tics. As measured with the Social Reciprocity Scale, the hoarding group had more severe deficits in parent-rated domains of social communication, social motivation, and restricted interests and repetitive behavior. In a multivariable model, the overall social reciprocity score, age at onset of OCD symptoms, symmetry obsessions, and indecision were independently related to hoarding in these children and adolescents with OCD. These features should be considered as candidate risk factors for the development of hoarding behavior in pediatric OCD.

  4. The relevance of analogue studies for understanding obsessions and compulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Fabricant, Laura E; Taylor, Steven; Deacon, Brett J; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-01

    Analogue samples are often used to study obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and related phenomena. This approach is based on the hypothesis that results derived from such samples are relevant to understanding OC symptoms in individuals with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Two decades ago, Gibbs (1996) reviewed the available literature and found initial support for this hypothesis. Since then there have been many important advances addressing this issue. The purpose of the present review was to synthesize various lines of research examining the assumptions of using analogue samples to draw inferences about people with OCD. We reviewed research on the prevalence of OC symptoms in non-clinical populations, the dimensional (vs. categorical) nature of these symptoms, phenomenology, etiology, and studies on developmental and maintenance factors in clinical and analogue samples. We also considered the relevance of analogue samples in OCD treatment research. The available evidence suggests research with analogue samples is highly relevant for understanding OC symptoms. Guidelines for the appropriate use of analogue designs and samples are suggested.

  5. Putamen volume correlates with obsessive compulsive characteristics in healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yasutaka; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sawada, Reiko; Sakihama, Morimitsu; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-03-30

    Obsessions and compulsions (OCs) are frequent in healthy subjects; however neural backgrounds of the subclinical OCs were largely unknown. Results from recent studies suggested involvement of the putamen in the OC traits. To investigate this issue, 49 healthy subjects were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Anatomical delineation on MRI yielded the global volume and local shape of the putamen. Other striatal structures (the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) were also examined for exploratory purpose. The relationship between volume/shape of each structures and MOCI measure was analyzed, with sex, age, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and full-scale Intelligence Quotient regressed out. The volume analysis revealed a positive relationship between the MOCI total score and the bilateral putamen volumes. The shape analysis demonstrated associations between the higher MOCI total score and hypertrophy of the anterior putamen in both hemispheres. The present study firstly revealed that the volume changes of the putamen correlated with the manifestation of subclinical OC traits. The dysfunctional cortico-anterior striatum networks seemed to be one of the neuronal subsystems underlying the subclinical OC traits.

  6. Psychosis or Obsessions? Clozapine Associated with Worsening Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

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    Jonathan G. Leung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One underrecognized adverse event of clozapine is the emergence or worsening of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS. OCS, particularly violent thoughts, can be inaccurately described as psychosis and result in a misdiagnosis. We report a case of a 42-year-old man, initially diagnosed with schizoaffective, who was placed on clozapine for the management of “violent delusions.” However, clozapine led to a worsening of these violent thoughts resulting in suicidal ideation and hospitalization. After exploration of the intrusive thoughts and noting these to be egodystonic, clearly disturbing, and time consuming, an alternative diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD was made. Clozapine was inevitably discontinued resulting in a significant reduction of the intrusive thoughts without emergence of psychosis or adverse events. While an overlapping phenomenology between OCD and psychotic disorders has been described, clozapine and other antiserotonergic antipsychotics have been implicated with the emergence or worsening of OCS. Unique to our case is that the patient’s obsessions had been treated as psychosis leading to the inadequate treatment of his primary illness, OCD. This case highlights the potential for OCD to masquerade as a psychotic disorder and reminds clinicians that clozapine may worsen OCS.

  7. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS EVALUATION PERFORMED BY EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS INCHILDREN WITH OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER

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    Tatjana ZORCEC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD] is characterized by repetitive, disturbing obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions are thoughts, images or feelings which are unwanted, persistent and recurrent. Compulsions are repetitive and ritual motor acts which are performed to decrease the anxiety level caused by repetitive obsessions. The onset of the OCD is typically during adolescence or early adulthood. Its prevalence among children is from 1% to 3% and it appears to be more present among boys than girls. Nowadays, the most effective way to treat OCD is to combine psychopharmacological with cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies. In the past decades researchers were more involved in investigating the role of the executive functions [EF] in psychiatric disorders.Aim of the study: to investigate EF among children with OCD by using Event Related Potentials (ERPs on the Go/NoGo tasks. Subjects and methods: The sample is comprised of 20 children from both genders, between seven and 14 years of age [М=10,33±1,83], all diagnosed with OCD. Psychological evaluation was performed with Child Behavior Check List, Kohs cubes for assessment of the intellectual capacities, Beck Depression Inventory, The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Stroop Color Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychological evaluation was performed with the Visual Continuous Performance Test [VCPT] from which the Event Related Potentials [ERP] components were extracted.Results: There is a clear presence of obsessions and/or compulsions, absence of symptoms of depression, presence of perseverative errors and mild difficulties in mental flexibility. The ERP results cannot be understood as a disturbance of the EF in a direct sense, rather than as a disturbed normal functioning caused by the high anxiety level.Conclusion: There is no significant clinical manifestation of cognitive dysfunction among children with OCD in

  8. Sexual Functions in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Patients: A Case Report

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    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, even if the patient’s obsession content is not related to sexuality, may be a problem in the sexual lives of individuals. In this article, sexual function in obsessive compulsive disorder patients is discussed based on an OCD case. Case: Male 36 years old and female 32 years old couple. Man had complaints of lack of control of ejaculation and woman had complaints of lack of orgasm. Man was diagnosed with premature ejaculation and woman was diagnosed with aversion and anorgasmia according to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders criteria. During therapy, the female patient was diagnosed with OCD as well. Loss of control was not acceptable to the patient. Thus she was avoiding from exhilarating stimuli. After cognitive restructuring of her evaluations about control, sex therapy was continued. At the end of the therapy the avoidance of the patient disappeared and anorgasmia was treated and ejeculation time of the male patient was 15 minutes. Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction is a common problem in patients with OCD. Patient may have avoidance that may adversely affect her sexuality. If a patient has avoidance about sexuality, the reason of this avoidance may or may not be the usual and expected thought content like avoidance of contamination. The evaluations of OCD patients about control may also adversely affect their sexuallity. The thought leading to avoidance behavior, may vary from patient to patient. However, to identify these thoughts with cognitive interventions and work with them will improve.the patient.

  9. Of human bondage: food craving, obsession, compulsion, and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelchat, Marcia L

    2002-07-01

    Is it more than a linguistic accident that the same term, craving, is used to describe intense desires for both foods and for a variety of drugs of abuse? There is strong evidence for common pathways that are affected by most addictive drugs. As the other contributors to this volume will indicate, a strong case can also be made for some shared substrates for food and drug rewards in animals. There has been less explicit work on this topic in humans but many lines of evidence support the common mechanism view: Opioid peptides seem to influence food palatability for humans. There is mounting evidence for comorbidity between drug/alcohol abuse and excessive craving or liking for sweets. Anecdotally, elderly individuals tend to 'age-out' of drug abuse, and the elderly also experience markedly fewer food cravings with age. If we focus on the compulsive aspects of food and drug cravings, there is also evidence for overlap: for example, activity in the orbitofrontal cortex is associated with cocaine and alcohol craving. This area is also implicated in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although there is no direct evidence of orbitofrontal involvement in food cravings, there is indirect evidence such as higher than expected co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive behavior and eating disorders. As a result of bringing together evidence for common substrates for food and for drug rewards, we hope to be able to advance fundamental knowledge of motivational processes and to promote the development of better treatments for drug addiction and for eating disorders.

  10. Childhood trauma, sexual functions, psychiatric comorbidity and sociodemographic data in obsessive-compulsive disorders with sexual obsessions

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    Burcu Göksan Yavuz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We compared the childhood trauma, the severityof sexual functions, comorbidity of axis I psychiatricdisorder, the types and severity of obsessive-compulsivedisorder (OCD and sociodemographic data of patientswith or without sexual obsession in OCD.Methods: Eighty patients of OCD were recruited fromincluding consecutive admissions to an outpatient clinic.Primary OCD patients assessed each subject using theStructured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders(SCID-I. OCD symptoms and symptoms severity was assessedby the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale(YBOCS. Traumas were assessed by the ChildhoodTrauma Experiences Questionnaire. Sexual functions severitywas assessed by the Arizona Sexual ExperienceScale (ASEX. Current depressive and anxiety symptomsscore were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton RatingScale for Depression (HAM-D and the Hamilton AnxietyScale (HAM-A.Results: The frequency of sexual obsession was 15%in our clinical populations diagnosed with OCD. Historyof emotional abuse and incest were associated with asignificantly higher rate of OCD with sexual obsessions.Religious, aggressive, hoarding obsessions and hoardingcompulsions were associated with a significantly higherrate of OCD with sexual obsessions. Comorbidity of Somatoformdisorder was associated with a significantlyhigher rate of OCD with sexual obsessions. Subjects whohave OCD with sexual obsessions did not significantly differfrom those without sexual obsessions on any ASEX scores, Y-BOCS scores, HAM-D, HAM-A and demographicfeatures.Conclusion: Sexual obsessions were related to religious,aggressive, hoarding obsessions and hoarding compulsions,the emotional abuse, incest and a comorbidy ofsomatoform disorder.Key words: sexual obsessions, childhood trauma, comorbidity

  11. Potential role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2014-10-01

    We reviewed the extant literature to evaluate the current evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Relevant literature was accessed using the Cochrane database, embase and PubMed on 29 October 2013. Prospective studies examining the efficacy of anticonvulsants in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders were included. Case reports, case series, and retrospective studies were excluded. A total of 10 studies were included in this review. The studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder, except for two negative studies, showed favorable efficacy results of anticonvulsants. In one study on body dysmorphic disorder, levetiracetam showed favorable efficacy. In two lamotrigine studies for pathologic skin-picking, the efficacy findings were inconsistent. In one trichotillomania study, topiramate had reduced hair-pulling symptoms. Despite limited evidence, our review suggests that anticonvulsants have a potential role in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

  12. The Obsessive Compulsive Cocaine Scale: assessment of factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca F; Larowe, Steven D; Hall, Brian J; Malcolm, Robert J

    2011-12-01

    The present study assessed the factor structure, reliability, test retest, convergent validity, and predictive validity of the Obsessive Compulsive Cocaine Scale (OCCS), a newly developed questionnaire adapted from the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). The questionnaire was administered to 189 cocaine-dependent individuals participating in two medication treatment trials for cocaine dependence. Confirmatory factor analysis of this measure revealed that it primarily assesses two factors, obsessions and compulsions. In addition, the data provided strong support for the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, predictive validity, and convergent validity of this two-factor measure. Overall, the data provide support for the psychometric strength of a modified version of the OCDS specifically designed to assess obsessive and compulsive cocaine use among those with cocaine dependence.

  13. Cognitive aspects of nonclinical obsessive-compulsive hoarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchian, Sara A; McNally, Richard J; Hooley, Jill M

    2007-07-01

    Research on the cognitive variables associated with obsessive-compulsive hoarding is scarce. In this study, we investigated cognitive variables that may contribute to the maintenance and possibly etiology of hoarding. College students who characterized themselves as either "packrats" (nonclinical hoarders; n=21) or not (control participants; n=20) completed questionnaires assessing hoarding behavior and beliefs about hoarding, and completed a task requiring them to categorize diverse objects and trinkets of minimal value into groups. The results revealed that nonclinical hoarders, relative to control participants, rated the categorization task as significantly more stressful and difficult. Relative to control participants, hoarders took longer to complete the task and sorted objects into more categories. These findings suggest that underinclusiveness and indecisiveness, characteristic of clinical hoarders, are evident in nonclinical hoarders as well.

  14. Obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidity: clinical assessment and therapeutic implications

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    Stefano ePallanti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1-3% of the population. OCD is probably an etiologically heterogeneous condition. Individuals with OCD frequently have additional psychiatric disorders concomitantly or at some time during their lifetime. Recently, some authors proposed an OCD sub-classification based on co-morbidity. An important issue in assessing comorbidity is the fact that the non-response to treatment often involves the presence of comorbid conditions. Non-responsive patients are more likely to meet criteria for comorbid axis I or axis II disorders and the presence of a specific comorbid condition could be a distinguishing feature in OCD, with influence on the treatment adequacy and outcome.

  15. Mortality Among Persons With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole

    2016-01-01

    .7 years. The risk of death by natural or unnatural causes was significantly higher among persons with OCD (MRR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.31-2.12] for natural causes; MRR, 2.61 [95% CI, 1.91-3.47] for unnatural causes) than among the general population. After the exclusion of persons with comorbid anxiety disorders......, depression, or substance use disorders, OCD was still associated with increased mortality risk (MRR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.27-2.67]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The presence of OCD was associated with a significantly increased mortality risk. Comorbid anxiety disorders, depression, or substance use disorders......IMPORTANCE: Several mental disorders have consistently been found to be associated with decreased life expectancy, but little is known about whether this is also the case for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persons who receive a diagnosis of OCD are at increased...

  16. Obsessive-compulsive inventory and obsessive-compulsive inventory-revised scales: translation into brazilian portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation Tradução e adaptação transcultural para o português (do Brasil das escalas: obsessive-compulsive inventoryeobsessive-compulsive inventory-revised

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    Fernanda Pasquoto de Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study describes the process of translation into Brazilian Portuguese and the cross-cultural adaptation of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised scales. The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory was developed with the purpose of measuring the intensity of the various symptoms that characterize the obsessive-compulsive disorder, assessing their frequency and the distress they caused during the previous month, as well as estimating the overall severity of the disorder. Thus, different levels of severity among different obsessions and compulsions can be assessed and compared. METHOD: The scales were initially translated into Brazilian Portuguese by two bilingual psychiatrists and then independently back-translated by other two bilingual psychiatrists. The scales were then applied to 15 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, deliberately chosen from different educational levels, to make language adjustments. The author accepted the final version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised scales after their back translation. RESULTS: The scales were easily understood and filled in by individuals and may be used with obsessive-compulsive disorder patients of different socioeconomic levels. CONCLUSION: The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised scales, in their Brazilian Portuguese version, can help health professionals to screen potential obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, assess the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and reduce these symptoms using different treatments.OBJETIVO: Este artigo apresenta o processo de tradução e adaptação das escalas Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory e do Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revisado versão em português do Brasil. O Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de mensurar os diversos sintomas que caracterizam o transtorno obsessivo

  17. Subclinical autism spectrum symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arildskov, Trine Wigh; Højgaard, David R M A; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Thomsen, Per Hove; Ivarsson, Tord; Weidle, Bernhard; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Hybel, Katja A

    2016-07-01

    The literature on subclinical autism spectrum (ASD) symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is scarce, and it remains unclear whether ASD symptoms are related to OCD severity. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of ASD symptoms and age and sex differences in children and adolescents with OCD, and to explore the relation between ASD symptoms and OCD severity. This is the largest study of ASD symptoms in an OCD population to date, and the first directly aimed at elucidating sex and age differences in this matter. The study used baseline data from the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment Study in which parents of 257 children and adolescents with OCD aged 7-17 completed the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire. OCD severity was assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Pediatric OCD patients were found to exhibit elevated rates of ASD symptoms compared to a norm group of school-age children. ASD symptoms were concentrated in a subgroup with a prevalence of 10-17 %. This subgroup was characterized by a male preponderance with a sex ratio of approximately 2.6:1, while children versus adolescents with OCD exhibited similar rates. Autism-specific social and communication difficulties were not related to OCD severity, while restricted repetitive behavior was positively related to OCD severity. The results indicate that clinicians need to be aware of ASD symptoms in children and adolescents with OCD since one out of ten exhibits such symptoms at a clinical sub-threshold.

  18. Brain activation during cognitive planning in twins discordant or concordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Braber, Anouk; van 't Ent, Dennis; Cath, Danielle C; Wagner, Judith; Boomsma, Dorret I; de Geus, Eco J C

    2010-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies have indicated abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with controls. However, there are inconsistencies between studies regarding the exact set of brain structures involved and the direction of anatomical and functional changes. These inconsistencies may reflect the differential impact of environmental and genetic risk factors for obsessive-compulsive disorder on different parts of the brain. To distinguish between functional brain changes underlying environmentally and genetically mediated obsessive-compulsive disorder, we compared task performance and brain activation during a Tower of London planning paradigm in monozygotic twins discordant (n=38) or concordant (n=100) for obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Twins who score high on obsessive-compulsive symptoms can be considered at high risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder. We found that subjects at high risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder did not differ from the low-risk subjects behaviourally, but we obtained evidence that the high-risk subjects differed from the low-risk subjects in the patterns of brain activation accompanying task execution. These regions can be separated into those that were affected by mainly environmental risk (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lingual cortex), genetic risk (frontopolar cortex, inferior frontal cortex, globus pallidus and caudate nucleus) and regions affected by both environmental and genetic risk factors (cingulate cortex, premotor cortex and parts of the parietal cortex). Our results suggest that neurobiological changes related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms induced by environmental factors involve primarily the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas neurobiological changes induced by genetic factors involve orbitofrontal-basal ganglia structures. Regions showing similar changes in high-risk twins from discordant and concordant pairs may be part of compensatory

  19. Comorbid Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Insight into Pathomechanisms Facilitates Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias Zink

    2014-01-01

    Insight into the biological pathomechanism of a clinical syndrome facilitates the development of effective interventions. This paper applies this perspective to the important clinical problem of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) occurring during the lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia. Up to 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from OCS and about 12% fulfil the diagnostic criteria of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This is accompanied by marked subjective burden of disease, high levels...

  20. Obsessive-compulsive (anankastic) personality disorder: toward the ICD-11 classification

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi A. Fineberg; Samar Reghunandanan; Sangeetha Kolli; Murad Atmaca

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research plannin...

  1. Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms/disorder in patients with schizophrenia: Prevalence, relationship with other symptom dimensions and impact on functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Dua, Devakshi; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms/disorder and its impact on outcome among patients with schizophrenia. 181 patients with schizophrenia were evaluated on Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Checklist, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, Social Occupational Functioning Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale. Slightly more than one-fourth of patients fulfilled the diagnosis of current (28.2%) and lifetime (29.8%) diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder. On Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Symptom Checklist, the most common lifetime obsessions were those of contamination (25.4%), followed by obsessions of need for symmetry or exactness (11.6%). The most common compulsions were those of cleaning/washing (27.1%), followed by those of checking (24.3%). Presence of obsessive compulsive symptoms was associated with younger age of onset, higher prevalence of comorbid depression, and current suicidal ideations. Thus, it can be concluded that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia have obsessive compulsive symptoms/disorder. Clinicians managing patients of schizophrenia should evaluate the patients thoroughly for presence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms/disorder and must take the same into account while managing the patients.

  2. Subjective Uncertainty and Limbic Hyperactivation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Emily R.; Welsh, Robert C.; Gonzalez, Richard; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Abelson, James L.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2017-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often associated with pathological uncertainty regarding whether an action has been performed correctly or whether a bad outcome will occur, leading to compulsive “evidence gathering” behaviors aimed at reducing uncertainty. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural functioning in OCD patients and controls as subjective certainty was rated in response to sequential pieces of evidence for a decision. Uncertainty was experimentally manipulated so that some decisions were associated with no “objective” uncertainty (all observed evidence pointed to one correct choice), whereas other decisions contained calculable but varying levels of objective uncertainty based on displayed probabilities. Results indicated that OCD patients differed from controls on decisions that contained no objective uncertainty, such that patients rated themselves as more uncertain. Patients also showed greater activation in a network of brain regions previously associated with internally-focused thought and valuation including ventromedial prefrontal cortex, parahippocampus, middle temporal cortex, as well as amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex/ventral anterior insula. In the patient group, a significantly greater number of positive intersubject correlations were found among several of these brain regions, suggesting that this network is more interconnected in patients. OCD patients did not differ from controls on decisions where task parameters led to uncertainty. These results indicate that OCD is associated with hyperactivation in a network of limbic/paralimbic brain regions when making decisions, which may contribute to the greater subjective experience of doubt that characterizes the disorder. PMID:22461182

  3. Obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in schizophrenia: a Janus Bifrons effect on functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonna, Matteo; Ottoni, Rebecca; Paglia, Francesca; Ossola, Paolo; De Panfilis, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    The impact of obsessive-compulsive symptoms on functioning in schizophrenia is still debated. This study investigated the relationship between OC symptoms and functioning along a severity gradient of obsessive-compulsive dimension. Sixty patients affected by schizophrenia completed the SCID-IV, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale. The relationship between functioning and obsessive-compulsive dimension was described by a reverse U-shaped curve; functioning was positively related to the presence of mild obsessive-compulsive symptoms and inversely related to moderate and severe symptoms, after controlling for the severity of positive, negative, disorganization and general psychopathological symptoms. The role of obsessive-compulsive symptoms on social functioning in schizophrenia occurs along a severity continuum with a gradual transition from a positive correlation (from absent to mild symptoms) to an inverse correlation (for symptoms ranging from moderate to severe) and independently from schizophrenia symptom dimensions.

  4. A Clinical Case Study of the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Matt eTilley

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a twelve-hour period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

  5. A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, P J Matt; Rees, Clare S

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a 12-h period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not previously identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

  6. Brain structural alterations in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with autogenous and reactive obsessions.

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    Marta Subirà

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a clinically heterogeneous condition. Although structural brain alterations have been consistently reported in OCD, their interaction with particular clinical subtypes deserves further examination. Among other approaches, a two-group classification in patients with autogenous and reactive obsessions has been proposed. The purpose of the present study was to assess, by means of a voxel-based morphometry analysis, the putative brain structural correlates of this classification scheme in OCD patients. Ninety-five OCD patients and 95 healthy controls were recruited. Patients were divided into autogenous (n = 30 and reactive (n = 65 sub-groups. A structural magnetic resonance image was acquired for each participant and pre-processed with SPM8 software to obtain a volume-modulated gray matter map. Whole-brain and voxel-wise comparisons between the study groups were then performed. In comparison to the autogenous group, reactive patients showed larger gray matter volumes in the right Rolandic operculum. When compared to healthy controls, reactive patients showed larger volumes in the putamen (bilaterally, while autogenous patients showed a smaller left anterior temporal lobe. Also in comparison to healthy controls, the right middle temporal gyrus was smaller in both patient subgroups. Our results suggest that autogenous and reactive obsessions depend on partially dissimilar neural substrates. Our findings provide some neurobiological support for this classification scheme and contribute to unraveling the neurobiological basis of clinical heterogeneity in OCD.

  7. Cross-cultural validity of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, WA; de Vlaming, IH; Eisenhardt, BM; van Berkum, DE; Kwee, MGT

    2002-01-01

    Some psychometric properties of an adaptation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for use in the Netherlands (Y-BOCS-NL) were examined in 65 psychiatric inpatients. The factorial invariance of two-dimensional systems were determined, namely Severity and Disturbance versus Obsessions and Com

  8. Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Young Children: An Intervention Model and Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy; Becker, Kimberly D.; Drake, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an intervention model for young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The intervention, designed to reduce compulsive behavior and improve parenting practices, was tested using a multiple baseline design with 7 children (M = 6 years old; 57% female) in which participants were randomly assigned to 1, 2, or 3 weeks…

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Scrupulosity in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlin, John P.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for scrupulosity-based obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Five adults were treated with eight sessions of ACT, without in-session exposure, in a multiple baseline across participants design. Daily monitoring of compulsions and avoided valued activities were tracked throughout the…

  10. Comorbidity between Schizophrenia and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Passos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The  prevalence  of  obsessive-compulsive  symptoms and obses-sive-compulsive  disorder  in  patients  primarily  diagnosed  with schizophrenia  has increased significantly in the last years with increasing the  number  of publications  focused on this theme.Aims: The present review aims to analyze the concepts  of schizophrenia,  obsessive-compulsive  disorder  and  the  comorbility between both disorders as well as some of the clinical features which distinguishes them.Methods: A literature review was carried out using the Pubmed between 2009 and 2014 with  the  keywords:  “Comorbidity between Obsessive-Compulsive  Disorder  and  Schizophrenia” and “Schizo-Obsessive Disorder”.Results  and  Conclusions: The  available literature focuses mainly on the proposal of explanatory theories for the high comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive  disorder and schizophrenia – one disorder as a risk factor of the other one; common risk factors of the two  disorders; pharmacologically  induced obsessive-compulsive disorder – and on the distinction between obsessions and delusions and between compulsions and repetitive delusional behaviour, essential for the differential diagnosis of the two disorders. The  controversy  associated  with  the recently  proposed  new  sub-group  of  schizophrenia  –  Schizo-obsessive  disorder – and with the causal relation between the two pathologies allows the conclusion that future studies should focus on the temporal relation between the emergence of the two disorders and also the appearance of symptoms of one disorder in the course of the other.

  11. Obsessive compulsive disorder 18 cases%强迫性神经症 18例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金可国; 缪咏梅; 牛晓棠; 智庆华

    2001-01-01

    @@Background: Obsessive compulsive disorder(OCD) is a kind of neurosis.It is mostly that psychology flaws and inadaptability of environment bring on disturbance of psychology. Objective:To evaluate effect of psychotherapy,medication and behavior therapy on OCD in 18 cases. Subject: 18 patients with OCD were included in our study from 1999,5 male, 13 female .8 cases aged 15~ 20 years, 6 cases aged 21~ 30 years, 4 cases aged over 30 years. 2 recall compulsion, 1 association compulsion, 1 obsessive qualm, 1 getting to the bottom of the matter, 2 obsessive count, 6 obsessive examining ,5 obsessive washing one's hands and changing clothes.

  12. Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Inês; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Intrusive thoughts and compulsive urges to perform stereotyped behaviours are typical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emerging evidence suggests a cognitive bias towards habit formation at the expense of goal-directed performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this study, we test this hypothesis using a novel individualized ecologically valid symptom provocation design: a live provocation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with synchronous video-recording of behavioural avoidance responses. By pairing symptom provocation with online avoidance responses on a trial-by-trial basis, we sought to investigate the neural mechanisms leading to the compulsive avoidance response. In keeping with the model of habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we hypothesized that this disorder would be associated with lower activity in regions implicated in goal-directed behaviours and higher activity in regions implicated in habitual behaviours. Fifteen patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy control volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Online stimuli were individually tailored to achieve effective symptom provocation at neutral, intermediate and strong intensity levels. During the symptom provocation block, the participant could choose to reject or terminate the provoking stimuli resulting in cessation of the symptom provocation. We thus separately analysed the neural correlates of symptom provocation, the urge to avoid, rejection and relief. Strongly symptom-provoking conditions evoked a dichotomous pattern of deactivation/activation in patients, which was not observed either in control conditions or in healthy subjects: a deactivation of caudate-prefrontal circuits accompanied by hyperactivation of subthalamic nucleus/putaminal regions. This finding suggests a dissociation between regions engaged in goal-directed and habitual behaviours. The putaminal hyperactivity during patients

  13. Comorbidity between Schizophrenia and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Passos; Maria do Céu Ferreira; Pedro Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Background: The  prevalence  of  obsessive-compulsive  symptoms and obses-sive-compulsive  disorder  in  patients  primarily  diagnosed  with schizophrenia  has increased significantly in the last years with increasing the  number  of publications  focused on this theme.Aims: The present review aims to analyze the concepts  of schizophrenia,  obsessive-compulsive  disorder  and  the  comorbility between both disorders as well as some of the clinical features which distinguishes them.Methods: ...

  14. Onset of obsessive compulsive disorder in pregnancy with pica as the sole manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Kumar Upadhyaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pica refers to eating of non-nutritious substances, which is usually seen in childhood or pregnancy. Here we report a case of an illiterate tribal woman who developed pica as the sole manifestation of obsessive compulsive disorder, with onset during pregnancy. The patient had compulsions of eating uncooked rice or wheat, which resulted in toothache and abdominal discomfort. She had this habit in three pregnancies, consecutively. In the first two pregnancies it resolved spontaneously after puerperium, but persisted in the last one. Probably physical stress of limb edema during the third pregnancy was reason for the persistence. She responded to fluoxetine 40 mg / day after three months of treatment, without behavioral therapy. We conclude that pica may either be only a manifestation of obsessive compulsive disorder during pregnancy or it is an obsessive compulsive spectrum disorder.

  15. Neural correlates of obsessive-compulsive related dysfunctional beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Pino; Orbegozo, Arantxa; Pujol, Jesús; López-Solà, Clara; Fullana, Miquel Àngel; Segalàs, Cinto; Real, Eva; Subirà, Marta; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Menchón, José M; Harrison, Ben J; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2013-12-02

    There have been few attempts to integrate neurobiological and cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), although this might constitute a key approach to clarify the complex etiology of the disorder. Our study aimed to explore the neural correlates underlying dysfunctional beliefs hypothesized by cognitive models to be involved in the development and maintenance of OCD. We obtained a high-resolution magnetic resonance image from fifty OCD patients and 30 healthy controls, and correlated them, voxel-wise, with the severity of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs assessed by the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire-44. In healthy controls, significant negative correlations were observed between anterior temporal lobe (ATL) volume and scores on perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty and overimportance/need to control thoughts. No significant correlations between OBQ-44 domains and regional gray matter volumes were observed in OCD patients. A post-hoc region-of-interest analysis detected that the ATLs was bilaterally smaller in OCD patients. On splitting subjects into high- and low-belief subgroups, we observed that such brain structural differences between OCD patients and healthy controls were explained by significantly larger ATL volumes among healthy subjects from the low-belief subgroup. Our results suggest a significant correlation between OC-related dysfunctional beliefs and morphometric variability in the anterior temporal lobe, a brain structure related to socio-emotional processing. Future studies should address the interaction of these correlations with environmental factors to fully characterize the bases of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs and to advance in the integration of biological and cognitive models of OCD.

  16. Clinical Profile and Comorbidity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder among Children and Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Observation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hafizur Rahman Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a common disorder characterised by persistent and unwanted intrusive thoughts, images, and urges and repetitive behaviours or mental acts and can cause pervasive impairments. In Bangladesh, the prevalence of OCD among children is 2% which is higher than in previous reporting. This study was aimed at looking into the type, frequency, and severity of symptoms of OCD and comorbidity among children and adolescents. A consecutive 60 OCD cases from a child mental health service with age range of 5–18 years were recruited and divided into below and above 12 years of age group. The assessment was carried out using standardized Bangla version of Development and Wellbeing Assessment and Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was administered. Of the obsession, contamination was the highest followed by doubt, and of the compulsion, washing/cleaning was the highest followed by checking, repeating, and ordering rituals. More than half of the subjects had severe OCD and comorbidity was present in 58% subjects. Specific phobia, social phobia, major depressive disorder, and tic disorder were more prevalent. These symptoms and comorbidity profile can serve the baseline data for a country like Bangladesh and further large scale study would better generalize the study results.

  17. Predictors of Parental Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Findings from the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study (POTS) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Garcia, Abbe; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John S.; Foa, Edna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have examined predictors of parental accommodation (assessed with the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report) among families of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No studies have examined this phenomenon using empirically derived subscales of the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report (i.e., Caregiver…

  18. The Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Stimuli Set: validation of a standardized paradigm for symptom-specific provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mataix-Cols, D.; Lawrence, N.S.; Wooderson, S.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Phillips, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and further validates a standardized symptom-provocation procedure that combines symptom-specific audio instructions and pictures to reliably provoke different kinds of symptom-specific anxiety in obsessive-compulsive disorder, corresponding to its four major symptom dimension

  19. Insight, Cognitive Insight and Sociodemographic Features in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Presenting with Reactive and Autogeneus Features

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    Katre ÇAMLI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to test hypothesis that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD patients who have autogenous obsessions and reactive obsessions show different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with different insight and cognitive insight levels. Method: Sixty-one patients diagnosed as OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-I are recruited. 31 patients had reactive obsessions and 30 had autogenous obsessions. The sociodemographic characteristics of patients and the symptomatology were evaluated using psychiatric scales including SCID-I, Yale Brown Obsessive- Compulsive Scale (YBOCS, Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC and Beck Insight Scale. Results: The percentage of women in reactive obsessive group was higher and also this group had significantly less antipsychotic medication prescribed than the autogenous obsessive group. No significant difference was found for the other demographic variables. No significant difference was identified for the Beck Insight Self-Reflectiveness subscale but for the Self-Certainty subscale, reactive obsessives had higher scores. Although there was no significant difference for the composit index points, which is the subtraction of the two subscales, the p value was close to the limit. On the other hand YBOCS item- 11 scores which evaluates insight were higher in autogenous obsessives meaning low levels of insight. Conclusion: For the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; there was no significant difference between the groups except gender distribution and antipsychotic medication. Our data about insight seems inconsistent but insight and cognitive insight can be different entities which show different levels of insight. Further investigation with different obsession types is needed.

  20. Diagnostic Stability of Internet Addiction in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: Data from a Naturalistic One-year Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Yerramilli, Srinivasa Srr; Karredla, Ashok Reddy; Gopinath, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Whether internet addiction should be categorized as a primary psychiatric disorder or the result of an underlying psychiatric disorder still remains unclear. In addition, the relationship between internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder remains to be explored. We hypothesized that internet addiction is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, the treatment of which will improve internet addiction. We enrolled 34 control subjects (with or without internet addiction) and compared them to 38 patients with "pure" obsessive-compulsive disorder (with or without internet addiction). Internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder were diagnosed based on Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), respectively. Age and Internet Addiction Test scores were comparable in both the control (years: 26.87±6.57; scores: 43.65±11.56) and obsessive-compulsive disorder groups (years: 27.00±6.13 years, p=0.69; scores: 43.47±15.21, p=0.76). Eleven patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (28.95%) were diagnosed with internet addiction as compared to three control subjects (p=0.039). In the obsessive-compulsive disorder group, no difference in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (24.07±3.73 non-internet addiction, 23.64±4.65 internet addiction; p=0.76) score was seen between the internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder and non-internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder groups. As expected, the Internet Addiction Test scores were higher in the internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder group (64.09±9.63) than in the non-internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder group (35.07±6.37; p=0.00). All enrolled patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were subsequently treated for a period of one year. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder improved Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Internet Addiction Test scores over time. At 12 months, only

  1. Arbitration between Action Strategies in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Patricia; Anticevic, Alan; Lee, Daeyeol; Pittenger, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Decision making in a complex world, characterized both by predictable regularities and by frequent departures from the norm, requires dynamic switching between rapid habit-like, automatic processes and slower, more flexible evaluative processes. These strategies, formalized as "model-free" and "model-based" reinforcement learning algorithms, respectively, can lead to divergent behavioral outcomes, requiring a mechanism to arbitrate between them in a context-appropriate manner. Recent data suggest that individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rely excessively on inflexible habit-like decision making during reinforcement-driven learning. We propose that inflexible reliance on habit in OCD may reflect a functional weakness in the mechanism for context-appropriate dynamic arbitration between model-free and model-based decision making. Support for this hypothesis derives from emerging functional imaging findings. A deficit in arbitration in OCD may help reconcile evidence for excessive reliance on habit in rewarded learning tasks with an older literature suggesting inappropriate recruitment of circuitry associated with model-based decision making in unreinforced procedural learning. The hypothesized deficit and corresponding circuitry may be a particularly fruitful target for interventions, including cognitive remediation.

  2. Inverse reasoning processes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shiu F; Grisham, Jessica R

    2017-04-01

    The inference-based approach (IBA) is one cognitive model that aims to explain the aetiology and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The model proposes that certain reasoning processes lead an individual with OCD to confuse an imagined possibility with an actual probability, a state termed inferential confusion. One such reasoning process is inverse reasoning, in which hypothetical causes form the basis of conclusions about reality. Although previous research has found associations between a self-report measure of inferential confusion and OCD symptoms, evidence of a specific association between inverse reasoning and OCD symptoms is lacking. In the present study, we developed a task-based measure of inverse reasoning in order to investigate whether performance on this task is associated with OCD symptoms in an online sample. The results provide some evidence for the IBA assertion: greater endorsement of inverse reasoning was significantly associated with OCD symptoms, even when controlling for general distress and OCD-related beliefs. Future research is needed to replicate this result in a clinical sample and to investigate a potential causal role for inverse reasoning in OCD.

  3. Patterns of Default Mode Network Deactivation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Óscar F.; Soares, José Miguel; Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Ganho-Ávila, Ana; Fernandes-Gonçalves, Ana; Pocinho, Fernando; Carracedo, Angel; Sampaio, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to research the patterns of Default Mode Network (DMN) deactivation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in the transition between a resting and a non-rest emotional condition. Twenty-seven participants, 15 diagnosed with OCD and 12 healthy controls (HC), underwent a functional neuroimaging paradigm in which DMN brain activation in a resting condition was contrasted with activity during a non-rest condition consisting in the presentation of emotionally pleasant and unpleasant images. Results showed that HC, when compared with OCD, had a significant deactivation in two anterior nodes of the DMN (medial frontal and superior frontal) in the non-rest pleasant stimuli condition. Additional analysis for the whole brain, contrasting the resting condition with all the non-rest conditions grouped together, showed that, compared with OCD, HC had a significantly deactivation of a widespread brain network (superior frontal, insula, middle and superior temporal, putamen, lingual, cuneus, and cerebellum). Concluding, the present study found that OCD patients had difficulties with the deactivation of DMN even when the non-rest condition includes the presentation of emotional provoking stimuli, particularly evident for images with pleasant content. PMID:28287615

  4. Psychotherapy and medication management strategies for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougle CJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Kelda H Walsh, Christopher J McDougleDepartment of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a chronic anxiety disorder. While medication and psychotherapy advances have been very helpful to patients, many patients do not respond adequately to initial trials of serotonergic medication or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT and require multiple treatment trials or combination therapies. Comorbidity may also influence treatment response. The role of streptococcal infections in pediatric OCD has become an area of intense scrutiny and controversy. In this article, current treatment methods for OCD will be reviewed, with special attention to strategies for treating OCD in children and in patients with comorbid tic disorders. Alternative psychotherapy strategies for patients who are highly anxious about starting CBT, such as cognitive therapy or augmentation with D-cycloserine, will be reviewed. Newer issues regarding use of antibiotics, neuroleptics, and glutamate modulators in OCD treatment will also be explored.Keywords: OCD, exposure/response prevention therapy, PANDAS, tic disorder

  5. Neurological soft signs in obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Guz H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurological soft signs (NSSs are defined as abnormal motor or sensory findings, including involuntary movements, a variety of dispraxia, difficulties in performing rapid alternating movements, difficulties in two-point discrimination, and graphesthesia in a person without a neurological disorder which can be determined as its focus. Aims: to investigate the relationship of NSSs with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Settings and Design: This study was designed in the Psychiatry Polyclinic of Ondokuz Mayis University Hospital. After signing an informed consent form, all the subjects were divided into 2 groups: (1 the patient group and (2 the control group. Material and Methods: Thirty consecutive patients presenting with DSM-IV OCD were included in this study. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects without a psychiatric/neurological disorder. All subjects underwent a physical and neurological examination for soft signs (PANESS. Statistical analysis used: The Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis of data. Results: It was seen that graphesthesia, two-point discrimination, and total PANESS scores were significantly higher in the group with OCD than the control group. In other NSSs, there was no significant difference between the patient and control groups. Conclusions: Unlike some studies, in the present study, the difference between the groups in graphesthesia compared to other NSSs was significant. The results of this preliminary study suggest that there is a relationship between NSSs and OCD. We think that NSSs may point to a structural brain abnormality in patients with OCD.

  6. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison

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    Sandler Robin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and trichotillomania (TTM have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. Methods Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female and 54 TTM patients (n = 54; 5 male; 49 female of all ages were interviewed. Female patients were compared on select demographic and clinical variables, including comorbid axis I and II disorders, and temperament/character profiles. Results OCD patients reported significantly more lifetime disability, but fewer TTM patients reported response to treatment. OCD patients reported higher comorbidity, more harm avoidance and less novelty seeking, more maladaptive beliefs, and more sexual abuse. OCD and TTM symptoms were equally likely to worsen during menstruation, but OCD onset or worsening was more likely associated with pregnancy/puerperium. Conclusions These findings support previous work demonstrating significant differences between OCD and TTM. The classification of TTM as an impulse control disorder is also problematic, and TTM may have more in common with conditions characterized by stereotypical self-injurious symptoms, such as skin-picking. Differences between OCD and TTM may reflect differences in underlying psychobiology, and may necessitate contrasting treatment approaches.

  7. The effect of brain-behavioural systems and affects on dimensional obsessive-compulsive signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Khanjani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study examined the effects of fear and anxiety on obsessive-compulsive signs with the mediation of affects among students. Methods: This research was a correlational study with structural equation modeling approach. 423 (192 males and 231 females participants were selected using multistage sampling from among all students studying at Razi University in Kermanshah. They completed self-report measures of Behavioural Approach System/Behavioural Inhibition System Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expended Form and Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. The raw data collected were analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with maximum likelihood estimation using LISREL software (Version 8.80. Results: The results showed that the theoretical models are a good fit. The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS affected the obsessive-compulsive signs both directly and indirectly through negative affect. Besides, fear and guilt mediated the effect of fight-flight-freeze system and behavioral inhibition system on obsessive-compulsive signs, respectively,. Conclusions: Affects play an important role in determining the effects of the brain behavioral system of fear (fight-fight-freeze on Obsessive-Compulsive (OC signs.

  8. The Role of Parenting Styles in Predicting Anxiety Thoughts and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescents

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    Z Khanjani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales anxiety thoughts questionnaire and Maudsley obsessive- compulsive questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that obsessive- compulsive symptoms and anxiety ideas were positively related to the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and negatively related to authoritative parenting style. Parenting style is able to predict the level of obsessive - compulsive symptoms and adolescent anxiety ideas. Conclusion: The results showed that parents' parenting style is one of the influencing factors on adolescent health. Parents with authoritative parenting style, have the children with lower obsessive - compulsive symptoms and anxious thoughts.

  9. A Case Study of Cognitive and Biophysical Models of Education as Linked to Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Kelly M.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive and biophysical factors have been considered contributors linked to identifiable markers of obsessive compulsive and anxiety disorders. Research demonstrates multiple causes and mixed results for the short-term success of educational programs designed to ameliorate problems that children with obsessive compulsive and anxiety disorders…

  10. Processes of Change in Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Current Status and Some Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Annemiek; Bouman, Theo K.; van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; de Jong, Peter J.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses theoretical and methodological issues involved in the processes of change in cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment outcome studies showed that CBT is effective in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms. However, why and ho

  11. Adapting Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sapana R.; Carmody, James; Simpson, H. Blair

    2007-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an illness characterized by intrusive and distressing thoughts, images, or impulses (i.e., obsessions) and by repetitive mental or behavioral acts (i.e., compulsions) performed to prevent or reduce distress. Efficacious treatments for OCD include psychotropic medications and exposure and response prevention…

  12. Obsessions and compulsions in the lab: A meta-analysis of procedures to induce symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Putter, Laura M S; Van Yper, Lotte; Koster, Ernst H W

    2017-03-01

    Efficacious induction procedures of symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are necessary in order to test central tenets of theories on OCD. However, the efficacy of the current range of induction procedures remains unclear. Therefore, this meta-analysis set out to examine the efficacy of induction procedures in participants with and without OCD symptoms. Moreover, we explored whether the efficacy varied across different moderators (i.e., induction categories, symptom dimensions of OCD, modalities of presentation, and level of individual tailoring). In total we included 4900 participants across 90 studies. The analyses showed that there was no difference in studies using subclinical and clinical participants, confirming the utility of analogue samples. Induction procedures evoked more symptoms in (sub)clinical OCD than in healthy participants, which was most evident in the contamination symptom dimension of OCD. Analysis within (sub)clinical OCD showed a large effect size of induction procedures, especially for the threat and responsibility category and when stimuli were tailored to individuals. Analysis within healthy participants showed a medium effect size of induction procedures. The magnitude of the effect in healthy individuals was stronger for mental contamination, thought-action fusion and threat inductions.

  13. Escitalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder: response of symptom dimensions to pharmacotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Carey, Paul D; Lochner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a substantial body of evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms can be grouped into a series of discrete dimensions, and some evidence that not all OCD symptom dimensions respond equally well to pharmacologic or psychotherapeutic intervention. The response...... of OCD symptom dimensions to 12 weeks of treatment with escitalopram or placebo was investigated. METHODS: Data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of escitalopram in 466 adults with OCD were analyzed. Exploratory factor analysis of individual items of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive...... of individual Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale items yielded 5 factors (contamination/cleaning, harm/checking, hoarding/symmetry, religious/sexual, and somatic/hypochondriacal). Analyses of covariance including all the subscales demonstrated that escitalopram was more effective than placebo...

  14. Quality of Life in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana; Ramalho E Silva, Filipa

    2016-09-01

    Introdução: A perturbação obsessiva-compulsiva foi apontada como uma das doenças mais debilitantes do mundo desenvolvido. Contudo, muito pouco é conhecido sobre esta doença relativamente ao modo como ela afeta a qualidade de vida das crianças. Material e Métodos: Conduzimos uma pesquisa na PubMed e Thomson Reuters Web Of Science usando os seguintes termos de pesquisa: ‘Quality of life’, ‘Obsessive-compulsive disorder’, ‘Child’, ‘Pediatrics’ e ‘Adolescent’. Dos 138 artigos obtidos, cinco correspondiam aos objetivos desta revisão. Analisámos a qualidade de vida de crianças com perturbação obsessiva-compulsiva comparando com a população geral e procurando a relação com outras variáveis clinicas como o sexo, idade, comorbilidades, categoria de sintomas, severidade dos sintomas e acomodação familiar. Resultados: Apesar dos estudos não serem concordantes relativamente às diferentes dimensões analisadas, os nossos resultados apontam para um decréscimo global da qualidade de vida em crianças com perturbação obsessiva-compulsiva. A presença de comorbilidades, a severidade dos sintomas e as obsessões de agressão/dano são as variáveis que têm maior influência na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Discussão: O reduzido número de artigos encontrados e o facto de estes apresentarem uma metodologia extremamente heterogénea torna difícil alcançar conclusões robustas. Apesar disto, os nossos resultados são concordantes com estudos realizados em adultos. Conclusão: A qualidade de vida em crianças e adolescentes deve ser melhor explorada em futuros estudos. Sugerimos a introdução da qualidade de vida como instrumento usado rotineiramente para avaliar a resposta ao tratamento e evolução do paciente.

  15. [Distinguishing normal identity formation process for sexual minorities from obsessive compulsive disorder with sexual orientation obsessions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igartua, Karine J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In synthesizing a homosexual or bisexual identity, an individual may go through different stages before coming to a positive healthy identity. It is likely that there will be a period in which homosexual yearnings will be unwanted. Sometimes this distress leads the person to consult a health professional. Conversion therapy has been proven both ineffective and harmful and therefore has been ethically prohibited by all major psychiatric and psychological associations. The responsible clinician will attempt to assist the individual in his acceptance of his sexual minority. Occasionally individuals without homoeroticism consult because of distress related to sexual identity questioning which poses a different problem for clinicians especially if the situation goes unrecognized. The objective of this paper is to describe homosexual obsessive compulsive disorder (HOCD) and distinguish it clinically from the normal process of sexual minority identity formation in western culture.Methods A literature review yielded very few descriptions of homosexual OCD. A retrospective chart review of all patients seen in the last 3 years at the McGill University Sexual Identity Centre was conducted to identify all the cases of OCD. Six cases were found, 4 of which were of HOCD and are presented. Similarities between cases are highlighted.Results All cases were young men with relatively little relationship and sexual experience. Most were rather shy and had some other obsessional history in the past though often at a sub-clinical threshold. Obsessional doubt about their orientation was very distressing and did not abate over time as would normally occur with a homoerotic individual. The four patients who had an obsession of being gay despite little or no homoerotism are presented in detail. They all presented mental compulsions, avoidance and physiological monitoring. Continuous internal debate trying to prove or disprove sexual orientation was a ubiquitous mental

  16. Cortical and brainstem plasticity in Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Antonio; Marsili, Luca; Di Stasio, Flavio; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Pasquini, Massimo; Cardona, Francesco; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2014-10-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is characterized by motor/vocal tics commonly associated with psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder. We investigated primary motor cortex and brainstem plasticity in Tourette patients, exposed and unexposed to chronic drug treatment, with and without psychiatric disturbances. We also investigated primary motor cortex and brainstem plasticity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. We studied 20 Tourette patients with and without psychiatric disturbances, 15 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 20 healthy subjects. All groups included drug-naïve patients. We conditioned the left primary motor cortex with intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation and recorded motor evoked potentials. We conditioned the supraorbital nerve with facilitatory/inhibitory high-frequency stimulation and recorded the blink reflex late response area. In healthy subjects, intermittent theta-burst increased and continuous theta-burst stimulation decreased motor evoked potentials. Differently, intermittent theta-burst failed to increase and continuous theta-burst stimulation failed to decrease motor evoked potentials in Tourette patients, with and without psychiatric disturbances. In obsessive-compulsive disorder, intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation elicited normal responses. In healthy subjects and in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder, the blink reflex late response area increased after facilitatory high-frequency and decreased after inhibitory high-frequency stimulation. Conversely, in Tourette patients, with and without psychiatric disturbances, facilitatory/inhibitory high-frequency stimulation left the blink reflex late response area unchanged. Theta-burst and high-frequency stimulation elicited similar responses in drug-naïve and chronically treated patients. Tourette patients have reduced plasticity regardless of psychiatric disturbances. These findings suggest that abnormal plasticity contributes to the

  17. Genome-wide Association Study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S Evelyn; Yu, Dongmei; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Fagerness, Jesen A; Mathews, Carol A; Arnold, Paul D; Evans, Patrick D; Gamazon, Eric R; Osiecki, Lisa; McGrath, Lauren; Haddad, Stephen; Crane, Jacquelyn; Hezel, Dianne; Illman, Cornelia; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Liu, Chunyu; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Tikhomirov, Anna; Edlund, Christopher K; Rauch, Scott L; Moessner, Rainald; Falkai, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Lennertz, Leonard; Wagner, Michael; Bellodi, Laura; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; Richter, Margaret A; Cook, Edwin H; Kennedy, James L; Rosenberg, David; Stein, Dan J; Hemmings, Sian MJ; Lochner, Christine; Azzam, Amin; Chavira, Denise A; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Sheppard, Brooke; Umaña, Paul; Murphy, Dennis L; Wendland, Jens R; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Denys, Damiaan; Blom, Rianne; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Westenberg, Herman GM; Walitza, Susanne; Egberts, Karin; Renner, Tobias; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Cappi, Carolina; Hounie, Ana G; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Sampaio, Aline S; Vallada, Homero; Nicolini, Humberto; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Camarena, Beatriz; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Voyiaziakis, Emanuel; Heutink, Peter; Cath, Danielle C; Posthuma, Danielle; Smit, Jan H; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Cullen, Bernadette; Fyer, Abby J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; McCracken, James T; Riddle, Mark A; Wang, Ying; Coric, Vladimir; Leckman, James F; Bloch, Michael; Pittenger, Christopher; Eapen, Valsamma; Black, Donald W; Ophoff, Roel A; Strengman, Eric; Cusi, Daniele; Turiel, Maurizio; Frau, Francesca; Macciardi, Fabio; Gibbs, J Raphael; Cookson, Mark R; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Crenshaw, Andrew T; Parkin, Melissa A; Mirel, Daniel B; Conti, David V; Purcell, Shaun; Nestadt, Gerald; Hanna, Gregory L; Jenike, Michael A; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy; Pauls, David L

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, debilitating neuropsychiatric illness with complex genetic etiology. The International OCD Foundation Genetics Collaborative (IOCDF-GC) is a multi-national collaboration established to discover the genetic variation predisposing to OCD. A set of individuals affected with DSM-IV OCD, a subset of their parents, and unselected controls, were genotyped with several different Illumina SNP microarrays. After extensive data cleaning, 1,465 cases, 5,557 ancestry-matched controls and 400 complete trios remained, with a common set of 469,410 autosomal and 9,657 X-chromosome SNPs. Ancestry-stratified case-control association analyses were conducted for three genetically-defined subpopulations and combined in two meta-analyses, with and without the trio-based analysis. In the case-control analysis, the lowest two p-values were located within DLGAP1 (p=2.49×10-6 and p=3.44×10-6), a member of the neuronal postsynaptic density complex. In the trio analysis, rs6131295, near BTBD3, exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold with a p-value=3.84 × 10-8. However, when trios were meta-analyzed with the combined case-control samples, the p-value for this variant was 3.62×10-5, losing genome-wide significance. Although no SNPs were identified to be associated with OCD at a genome-wide significant level in the combined trio-case-control sample, a significant enrichment of methylation-QTLs (p<0.001) and frontal lobe eQTLs (p=0.001) was observed within the top-ranked SNPs (p<0.01) from the trio-case-control analysis, suggesting these top signals may have a broad role in gene expression in the brain, and possibly in the etiology of OCD. PMID:22889921

  18. Quality of Web-based information on obsessive compulsive disorder

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    Klila H

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hedi Klila,1 Anne Chatton,2 Ariane Zermatten,2 Riaz Khan,2 Martin Preisig,1,3 Yasser Khazaal2,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; 3Lausanne University, Lausanne, Switzerland; 4Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland Background: The Internet is increasingly used as a source of information for mental health issues. The burden of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD may lead persons with diagnosed or undiagnosed OCD, and their relatives, to search for good quality information on the Web. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of Web-based information on English-language sites dealing with OCD and to compare the quality of websites found through a general and a medically specialized search engine. Methods: Keywords related to OCD were entered into Google and OmniMedicalSearch. Websites were assessed on the basis of accountability, interactivity, readability, and content quality. The "Health on the Net" (HON quality label and the Brief DISCERN scale score were used as possible content quality indicators. Of the 235 links identified, 53 websites were analyzed. Results: The content quality of the OCD websites examined was relatively good. The use of a specialized search engine did not offer an advantage in finding websites with better content quality. A score ≥16 on the Brief DISCERN scale is associated with better content quality. Conclusion: This study shows the acceptability of the content quality of OCD websites. There is no advantage in searching for information with a specialized search engine rather than a general one. Practical implications: The Internet offers a number of high quality OCD websites. It remains critical, however, to have a provider–patient talk about the information found on the Web. Keywords: Internet, quality indicators, anxiety disorders, OCD, search engine

  19. Is obsessive-compulsive disorder an autoimmune disease?

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    Arnold, P D; Richter, M A

    2001-11-13

    OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) IS A COMMON and debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder. Although it is widely believed to have a genetic basis, no specific genetic factors have been conclusively identified as yet, leading researchers to look for environmental risk factors that may interact with an underlying genetic susceptibility in affected individuals. Recently, there has been increasing interest in a possible link between streptococcal infections and the development of OCD and tic disorders in children. It has been suggested that OCD in some susceptible individuals may be caused by an autoimmune response to streptococcal infections, that is, a similar biological mechanism to that associated with Sydenham's chorea. The term "pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections" (PANDAS) has been used to describe a subset of children with abrupt onset or exacerbations of OCD or tics, or both, following streptococcal infections. Affected children have relatively early symptom onset, characteristic comorbid symptoms and subtle neurological dysfunction. Neuroimaging studies reveal increased basal ganglia volumes, and the proposed cause involves the cross-reaction of streptococcal antibodies with basal ganglia tissue. Vulnerability to developing PANDAS probably involves genetic factors, and elevated levels of D8/17 antibodies may represent a marker of susceptibility to PANDAS. Prophylactic antibiotic treatments have thus far not been shown to be helpful in preventing symptom exacerbations. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy may be an effective treatment in selected individuals. Further understanding of the role of streptococcal infections in childhood-onset OCD will be important in determining alternative and effective strategies for treatment, early identification and prevention of this common and debilitating psychiatric disorder.

  20. Early orbitofrontal hyperactivation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Lagemann, Tobias; Rentzsch, Johannes; Montag, Christiane; Gallinat, Jürgen; Jockers-Scherübl, Maria; Winter, Christine; Reischies, Friedel Martin

    2012-06-30

    Dysfunctional activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is one of the core features in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Neuroimaging studies indicate orbitofrontal hyperactivation during the resting state as well as during symptom provocation, whereas orbitofrontal hypoactivation has been reported during tasks designed to dissociate specific cognitive processes. Combined magnetoencephalic and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies show early involvement of the OFC in stimulus processing in healthy subjects. However, it is unclear whether OFC activation is dysfunctional at an early stage in patients with OCD. We investigated early electrical OFC activation evoked by reward and punishment feedback in a visual probabilistic object reversal task (pORT). Patients with OCD (n=23) and healthy controls (n=27), matched for gender, age and educational level, performed the pORT during a 29-channel electroencephalographic recording. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was applied to localize orbitofrontal sources of neuronal activity at 80 to 200 ms post-stimulus. Group comparison showed significantly higher orbitofrontal activation in OCD patients at 100-120 ms after the reward stimulus. No group differences were found with respect to OFC activation in response to punishment stimuli and in task performance. Results substantiate dysfunctional OFC activity at a very early stage in the processing of reward stimuli in patients with OCD. Our results provide support for the assumption that the OFC plays a more active role in the processing of visual stimuli as previously supposed. As orbitofrontal hyperactivation following rewarding feedback occurred as early as 100 ms after receipt of the visual stimulus in patients with OCD, and as we did not find any OFC dysfunction following negative feedback, our findings may point towards a specific early disturbance of reward processing in OCD. This finding might have implications for cognitive

  1. Wilson′s disease presenting as isolated obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Kumawat B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Wilson′s disease (WD is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder; it exhibits wide heterogeneity in symptoms and usually presents with liver disease and/ or neuropsychiatric manifestations. The common neurological manifestations observed are dysarthria, gait disturbance, dystonia, rigidity, tremor, dysphagia and chorea. The frequent psychiatric manifestations reported are personality and mood changes, depression, phobias, cognitive impairment, psychosis, anxiety, compulsive and impulsive behavior. Isolated obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a rare presentation of WD. Reported herein is a case of a 17-year-old boy with isolated OCD. He presented to the psychiatrist with symptoms of contamination obsessions and washing compulsions, along with compulsion of repeated feet tapping, and was treated with adequate doses of fluoxetine for 6 months but did not improve. Later on, he was diagnosed as a case of WD and showed improvement with chelating and behavior therapy. This implies the importance of the occurrence of isolated psychological symptoms in WD.

  2. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a clinical trial

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    Cordioli Aristides V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a cognitive-behavioral group therapy protocol and to verify its efficacy to reduce obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Methods: An open clinical trial with 32 obsessive-compulsive patients was performed, in which a cognitive-behavioral group therapy protocol of 12 weekly sessions of two hours, in 5 consecutive groups, was applied. The severity of symptoms was rated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive (Y-BOCS, Hamilton Anxiety (HAM A and Hamilton Depression (HAM D scales. The patients were followed up for 3 months after the end of the treatment. Results: There was a significant reduction in the scores of Y-BOCS, HAM A and HAM D scales with the treatment regardless the use of anti-obsessive medications. The rate of improved patients (decrease of > or = 35% in Y-BOCS was 78.1%. Two patients (6.25% dropped out from the study. The effect size calculated for the Y-BOCS scale was 1.75. Conclusions: This study suggests that cognitive-behavioral group therapy reduces obsessive-compulsive symptoms. In addition, patients presented good compliance.

  3. DISTINCT ETIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE SYMPTOM DIMENSIONS: A MULTIVARIATE TWIN STUDY

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    López-Solà, Clara; Fontenelle, Leonardo F.; Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C.; Menchón, José M.; Alonso, Pino; Harrison, Ben J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by five major dimensions, including contamination/washing, harm/checking, symmetry/ordering, hoarding, and forbidden thoughts. How these dimensions may relate etiologically to the symptoms of other obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and anxiety disorders (ADs) is not well known. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic and environmental overlap between each major obsessive-compulsive dimension with the symptoms of other OCRDs and ADs. Methods Two thousand four hundred ninety-five twins of both sexes, aged between 18 and 45 years, were recruited from the Australian Twin Registry. Measures used scores on four dimensions (obsessing (forbidden thoughts), washing, checking, and ordering) of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, Dysmorphic Concerns Questionnaire, Hoarding Rating Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Social Phobia Inventory, and Stress subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale. Multivariate twin modeling methods using continuous and categorized variables were performed, also controlling for age and gender. Results Our findings suggested that forbidden thoughts and washing demonstrated the strongest genetic overlap with other AD symptoms, while ordering was genetically related to OCRD symptoms. Common genetic influences on checking symptoms were best estimated when modeling OCRDs together with AD symptoms. Common environmental factors of ordering and checking were shared with AD symptoms. Conclusions Important shared genetic and environmental risk factors exist between OCD, OCRDs, and ADs, but which vary alongside the expression of its major dimensions. PMID:26630089

  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a new risk factor for Alzheimer disease?

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    Mrabet Khiari, Hela; Achouri, Afef; Ben Ali, Nadia; Cherif, Aroua; Batti, Hend; Messaoud, Taieb; Mrabet, Amel

    2011-10-01

    We describe a case of a 75-year-old woman referred to the Memory Clinic of the neurological Department of Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, for cognitive decline and behavioral disturbances. Her past medical history was marked by severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with contamination obsessions and washing compulsions. She has a family history for OCD and/or of dementia in 15 members. Clinical features, along with neuropsychological findings and Brain imaging were in favor of Alzheimer disease (AD). The present report is the first family study reporting the possible association of OCD and AD. The glutamatergic dysfunction may be a common pathophysiology of OCD and AD explaining this association.

  5. Obsessive compulsive disorder with bipolar mood disorder: A rare comorbidity in India

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    Bindu Annigeri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive features occurring in mania have been well documented. Though there have been some studies on obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD comorbid with mania in the western countries, there are very few case reports and studies in India. Our aim is to report one such case here, who presented with OC features which are not typical of the symptom cluster of the OCD commonly seen with mania in earlier reports. Also, the comorbidities in OCD should be recognized as this can have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  6. Is obsessive-compulsive symptomatology a risk factor for Alzheimer-type dementia?

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    Dondu, Ayse; Sevincoka, Levent; Akyol, Ali; Tataroglu, Cengiz

    2015-02-28

    In the present study, we hypothesized that lifetime Obsessive-Compulsive (OC) symptomatology would be risk factors for the development of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD). For this aim, first we compared 39 patients with AD and 30 age and gender matched control subjects. We have found that lifetime and current OC symptoms (OCs) and comorbid diagnosis of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder in AD patients were significantly more prevalent than in control group. AD patients had more likely to have lifetime and current hoarding, and checking obsessions compared to controls. The rate of lifetime and current hoarding, and checking compulsions also appeared to be higher in AD patients in comparison to control subjects. Hoarding and checking obsessions, and compulsions seemed to proceed through the dementia in contrast to other OCs. The mean number of lifetime compulsions seemed to predict the diagnosis of AD. When we compared AD patients with and without OCs, we have found that OC symptomatology prior to AD did not cause an earlier onset of dementia and more severe cognitive impairment. Further longitudinal clinical, genetic and neuroimaging investigations are required to determine if lifetime presence of OCs would predispose to the development of later AD.

  7. Obsessive-Compulsive Aspects and Pathological Gambling in an Italian Sample

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    Filippo Petruccelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gambling behaviour appears as repetitive and difficult to resist and seems to be aimed at neutralizing or reducing negative feelings such as anxiety and tension, confirming its similarities with the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Aims. Estimating the prevalence of gambling behaviour in an Italian sample and assessing the effects of sociodemographic variables and the correlations between gambling behaviour and obsessive-compulsive features. Methods. A sample of 300 Italian subjects was evaluated based on gambling behaviours and obsessive-compulsive attitudes. The assessment was carried out in small centers in Italy, mainly in coffee and tobacco shops, where slot machines are located, using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS and the MOCQ-R, a reduced form of Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Questionnaire. Results. A negative correlation between SOGS and MOPQ-R, with reference to the control and cleaning subscales, was evidenced in the majority of the examined subjects. Both evaluating instruments showed reliability and a good discriminative capacity. Conclusions. Our study evidenced that the sample of gamblers we analysed did not belong to the obsessive-compulsive disorders area, supporting the validity of the model proposed by DSM-5 for the classification of PG. These data confirm the importance of investing in treatments similar to those used for substance use disorders.

  8. Clinical picture of obsessive-compulsive disorder with poor insight: a regression model.

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    Bellino, Silvio; Patria, Luca; Ziero, Simona; Bogetto, Filippo

    2005-09-15

    DSM-IV included a type of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with poor insight in the official classification. The present study was performed using a continuous measure of the level of insight to analyze the association between this variable and characteristics of the disorder. Seventy-four consecutive OCD outpatients (DSM-IV criteria) were assessed using: a semistructured interview for sociodemographic and clinical features, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the National Institute of Mental Health Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (NIMH-OCS), the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales (HDRS, HARS), and the Overvalued Ideas Scale (OVIS) as a continuous measure of the level of insight. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that demographic and clinical factors were related to the OVIS score. The following four factors were found to be significantly related to the OVIS score: the Y-BOCS score for compulsions, OCD chronic course, and family history of OCD were positively related, while obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was negatively related. These results suggest that poor insight identifies a group of OCD patients with distinct clinical characteristics.

  9. Decreased Family Accommodation Associated with Improved Therapy Outcome in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Merlo, Lisa J.; Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition that affects both patients and their families. Despite the identification of efficacious treatments (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications), not all patients respond fully. The purpose of the present study was to…

  10. The Downsides of Extreme Conscientiousness for Psychological Well-being: The Role of Obsessive Compulsive Tendencies.

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    Carter, Nathan T; Guan, Li; Maples, Jessica L; Williamson, Rachel L; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-08-01

    Although conscientiousness exhibits positive relations with psychological well-being, theoretical and empirical work suggests individuals can be too conscientious, resulting in obsessive-compulsiveness, and therein less positive individual outcomes. However, the potential for curvilinearity between conscientiousness and well-being has been underexplored. We measured 912 subjects on facets of conscientiousness, obsessive-compulsive personality, and well-being variables (life satisfaction, job satisfaction, self-esteem, positive affect, negative affect, work stress). Methods of scoring included traditional sum-scoring, traditional item response theory (IRT), and a relatively new IRT approach. Structural models were estimated to evaluate curvilinearity. Results confirmed the curvilinear relationship between conscientiousness and well-being, and demonstrated that differential facet-level relationships underlie weaker curvilinearity at the general trait level. Consistency was found in the strength of relation between conscientiousness facets with their obsessive-compulsive variants and their contribution to decreased well-being. The most common association was that higher standing on conscientiousness facets was positively related to negative affect. Findings support the idea that extreme standing on facets of conscientiousness more strongly linked to their obsessive-compulsive variants contributed to lower well-being, highlighting the importance of considering alternative functional representations of the relationship between personality and other constructs. Future work should seek to further clarify the link between conscientiousness and negative affect.

  11. Obsessive-compulsive disorder for ICD-11: proposed changes to the diagnostic guidelines and specifiers

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    Helen Blair Simpson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the approval of the ICD-10 by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1990, global research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has expanded dramatically. This article evaluates what changes may be needed to enhance the scientific validity, clinical utility, and global applicability of OCD diagnostic guidelines in preparation for ICD-11. Existing diagnostic guidelines for OCD were compared. Key issues pertaining to clinical description, differential diagnosis, and specifiers were identified and critically reviewed on the basis of the current literature. Specific modifications to ICD guidelines are recommended, including: clarifying the definition of obsessions (i.e., that obsessions can be thoughts, images, or impulses/urges and compulsions (i.e., clarifying that these can be behaviors or mental acts and not calling these “stereotyped”; stating that compulsions are often associated with obsessions; and removing the ICD-10 duration requirement of at least 2 weeks. In addition, a diagnosis of OCD should no longer be excluded if comorbid with Tourette syndrome, schizophrenia, or depressive disorders. Moreover, the ICD-10 specifiers (i.e., predominantly obsessional thoughts, compulsive acts, or mixed should be replaced with a specifier for insight. Based on new research, modifications to the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines for OCD are recommended for ICD-11.

  12. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Twohig, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part of a case series illustrating the application of different therapies to a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It describes the hypothetical application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This paper covers the philosophy and basic research on language and cognition that inform ACT. It also provides an ACT-based…

  13. A Review of Metacognition in Psychological Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive…

  14. Neurocognitive functions in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find the common neurocognitive deficits in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and their unaffected first-degree relatives (UFDR) and to identify neurocognitive endophenotypes for OCD. Methods Forty patients with OCD,forty UFDR of OCD probands and forty healthy

  15. Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the…

  16. Impact of Comorbidity on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Storch, Eric A.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Larson, Michael J.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lehmkuh, Heather D.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2008-01-01

    A chronic psychiatric condition among children and adolescents of concern is obsessive-compulsive disorder, which involves comorbid conditions. The impact of a range of comorbid illnesses on cognitive-behavioral therapy response and remission rates was conducted, with results revealing a negative impact on treatment response.

  17. Clinical Considerations when Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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    Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses…

  18. Rage Attacks in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Jones, Anna M.; Lack, Caleb W.; Ale, Chelsea M.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rage attacks have been documented in youth with varied psychiatric disorders, but few data have been reported on the clinical characteristics and correlates of rage attacks among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Participants were 86 children (ages 6-16 years) with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Patients and their…

  19. Family Therapy in Iran: A Case Study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Khodayarifard, Mohammad; McClenon, James

    2011-01-01

    Iranian clinical psychologists have devised family therapy methods that use cognitive behavior models that ft with their collectivist Islamic culture. The authors review Islamic-based strategies and describe family therapy with a culturally specific case of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder. Family therapy, adapted to integrated,…

  20. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Students: Symptoms and School-Based Interventions

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    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Leininger, Melissa; Heath, Melissa Allen; Prater, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article provides current information relevant to school social workers who serve students with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including how OCD is defined in children and adolescents, the impact of OCD on schooling, issues in identifying students with OCD, and effective interventions. The authors offer suggestions for collaboration…

  1. Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relation of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes…

  2. Worry and Rumination in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Kaiser A; Iqbal, Naved

    2015-01-01

    Ample work has already been conducted on worry and rumination as negative thought processes involved in the etiology of most of the anxiety and mood related disorders. However, minimal effort has been exerted to investigate whether one type of negative thought process can make way for another type of negative thought process, and if so, how it subsequently results in experiencing a host of symptoms reflective of one or the other type of psychological distress. Therefore, the present study was taken up to investigate whether rumination mediates the relationship between worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and between worry and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in two clinical groups. Self-report questionnaires tapping worry, rumination, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) were administered to a clinical sample of 60 patients aged 30-40. Worry, rumination, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) correlated substantially with each other, however, rumination did not mediate the relationship between worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and between worry and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We also analyzed differences of outcome variables within two clinical groups. These results showed that worry and rumination were significantly different between GAD and OCD groups.

  3. Developmental Alterations of Frontal-Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Fitzgerald, Kate Dimond; Welsh, Robert C.; Stern, Emily R.; Angstadt, Mike; Hanna, Gregory L.; Abelson, James L.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by abnormalities of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry that appear near illness onset and persist over its course. Distinct frontal-striatal-thalamic loops through cortical centers for cognitive control (anterior cingulate cortex) and emotion processing (ventral medial frontal…

  4. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youths receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: We analyzed data from a sample of youths who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; M age = 12.43 years) as…

  5. Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range…

  6. Recent Developments in the Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Noah C.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Although tremendous strides have recently been made in the development of assessment and treatment methods for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), more accurate methods for diagnosis, more effective treatments, and more refined instruments for monitoring progress during therapy are still needed. The present commentary highlights the…

  7. Patient Adherence Predicts Outcome from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Maher, Michael J.; Wang, Yuanjia; Bao, Yuanyuan; Foa, Edna B.; Franklin, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of patient adherence on outcome from exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) therapy in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Thirty adults with OCD were randomized to EX/RP (n = 15) or EX/RP augmented by motivational interviewing strategies (n = 15). Both treatments included 3 introductory…

  8. Sensory gating and sensorimotor gating in medication-free obsessive-compulsive disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Leeuw, Aart S; Oranje, Bob; van Megen, Harold J G M

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with deficits in inhibition mechanisms. This is reflected in reports showing impaired sensorimotor and sensory gating in OCD patients, as measured with prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex and P50 suppression paradigms. However, most...

  9. Perfectionism and Peer Relations among Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huan J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Storch, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined perfectionism, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression, and peer relationships among a clinical sample of 31 youth (age range 7-18 years) diagnosed with OCD. Using a correlational design, perfectionistic beliefs accounted for significant variance in OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and difficulties in…

  10. Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Utilizing Parent-Facilitated Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Jennifer Y.; Field, Clint E.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern form of cognitive behavior therapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness-based procedures to address clinical issues. A brief protocol of ACT was used with 3 children ages 10 and 11 years who were diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed notable and clinically significant…

  11. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in Individual (n = 33) and Group (n = 37) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD...

  12. Children with Very Early Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Eriko; Krebs, Georgina; Micali, Nadia; Turner, Cynthia; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is emerging evidence that early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be a phenomenologically distinct subtype of the disorder. Previous research has shown that individuals who report an early onset display greater severity and persistence of symptoms, and they may be less responsive to treatment. To date, this question…

  13. Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are impaired in associative learning based on external feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M. M.; den Boer, J. A.; Smid, H. G. O. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have to repeat their actions before feeling satisfied that the action reached its intended goal. Learning theory predicts that this may be due to a failure in the processing of external feedback. Method. We examined the performance of 29

  14. Dysfunctional belief-based subgroups and inferential confusion in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Annemiek; O'Connor, Kieron P.; Huisman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models emphasize the mediating role of dysfunctional beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, recent studies indicated that beliefs related to responsibility and threat-estimation, Importance and Control of Thoughts, and perfectionism and intolerance of uncertai

  15. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome : a cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Lauren M; Yu, Dongmei; Marshall, Christian; Davis, Lea K; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Li, Bingbin; Cappi, Carolina; Gerber, Gloria; Wolf, Aaron; Schroeder, Frederick A; Osiecki, Lisa; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Kirby, Andrew; Illmann, Cornelia; Haddad, Stephen; Gallagher, Patience; Fagerness, Jesen A; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Cath, Danielle C; Cavallini, Maria C; Chouinard, Sylvain; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Delorme, Richard; Denys, D.; Derks, Eske M; Dion, Yves; Rosário, Maria C; Eapen, Valsama; Evans, Patrick; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hounie, Ana G; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lyon, Gholson J; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; McCracken, James T; McMahon, William; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Neale, Benjamin M; Nurmi, Erika; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark; Robertson, Mary M; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H; Stein, Dan J; Tischfield, Jay A; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Oostra, Ben A; Moessner, Rainald; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Heutink, Peter; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson; Petryshen, Tracey; Posthuma, Danielle; Jenike, Michael A; Cox, Nancy J; Hanna, Gregory L; Brentani, Helena; Scherer, Stephen W; Arnold, Paul D; Stewart, S Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A; Knowles, James A; Cook, Edwin H; Pauls, David L; Wang, Kai; Scharf, Jeremiah M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest g

  16. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: A cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. McGrath; D. Yu (D.); C.R. Marshall (Christian); L.K. Davis (Lea); B. Thiruvahindrapuram (Bhooma); B. Li (Bingbin); C. Cappi (Carolina); G. Gerber (Gloria); A. de Wolf (Anneke); F.A. Schroeder (Frederick); L. Osiecki (Lisa); C. O'Dushlaine (Colm); A. Kirby (Andrew); C. Illmann (Cornelia); S. Haddad (Stephen); P. Gallagher (Patience); J. Fagerness (Jesen); C.L. Barr; L. Bellodi (Laura); F. Benarroch (Fortu); O.J. Bienvenu (Oscar); D.W. Black (Donald W); J. Bloch (Jocelyne); R.D. Bruun (Ruth); C.L. Budman (Cathy); B. Camarena (Beatriz); D. Cath (Daniëlle); M.C. Cavallini (Maria); S. Chouinard; V. Coric (Vladimir); C. Cullen; R. Delorme (Richard); D.A.J.P. Denys (Damiaan); E.M. Derks (Eske); Y. Dion (Yves); M.C. Rosário (Maria); C.E. Eapen (Chundamannil Eapen); P. Evans; P. Falkai (Peter); T.V. Fernandez (Thomas); H. Garrido (Helena); D. Geller (Daniel); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); M. Grados (Marco); B.D. Greenberg (Benjamin); V. Gross-Tsur (Varda); E. Grünblatt (Edna); M.L. Heiman (Mark); S.M.J. Hemmings (Sian); L.D. Herrera (Luis); A.G. Hounie (Ana); J. Jankovic (Joseph); J.L. Kennedy; R.A. King; R. Kurlan; N. Lanzagorta (Nuria); M. Leboyer (Marion); J.F. Leckman; L. Lennertz (Leonhard); C. Lochner (Christine); T.L. Lowe (Thomas); H.N. Lyon (Helen); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); W. Maier (Wolfgang); J.T. McCracken (James); W.M. McMahon (William); D.L. Murphy (Dennis); A.L. Naarden (Allan); E. Nurmi (Erika); A.J. Pakstis; C. Pato (Carlos); C. Pato (Carlos); J. Piacentini (John); C. Pittenger (Christopher); M.N. Pollak (Michael); V.I. Reus (Victor); M.A. Richter (Margaret); M. Riddle (Mark); M.M. Robertson; D. Rosenberg (David); G.A. Rouleau; S. Ruhrmann (Stephan); A.S. Sampaio (Aline); J. Samuels (Jonathan); P. Sandor (Paul); B. Sheppard (Brooke); H.S. Singer (Harvey); J.H. Smit (Jan); D.J. Stein (Dan); J.A. Tischfield (Jay); H. Vallada (Homero); J. Veenstra-Vanderweele (Jeremy); S. Walitza (Susanne); Y. Wang (Ying); A. Wendland (Annika); Y.Y. Shugart; E.C. Miguel (Euripedes); H. Nicolini (Humberto); B.A. Oostra (Ben); R. Moessner (Rainald); M. Wagner (Michael); A. Ruiz-Linares (Andres); P. Heutink (Peter); G. Nestadt (Gerald); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); T.L. Petryshen (Tracey); D. Posthuma (Danielle); M.A. Jenike (Michael); N.J. Cox (Nancy); G.L. Hanna (Gregory); H. Brentani (Helena); S.W. Scherer (Stephen); P.D. Arnold (Paul); S.E. Stewart; C. Mathews; J.A. Knowles (James A); E.H. Cook (Edwin); D.L. Pauls (David); K. Wang (Kai); J.M. Scharf; B.M. Neale (Benjamin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and th

  17. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  18. [Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior.

  19. Effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine on cerebral blood flow in obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pian, KLH; Westenberg, HGM; den Boer, JA; de Bruin, WI; van Rijk, PP

    1998-01-01

    Background: A number of studies have shown that the serotonin receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) can exacerbate symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), The aim of the present study was to study the effect of this compound on regional cerebral bloodflow (rCBF)

  20. Should an obsessive-compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Stein, Dan J; Rauch, Scott L; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

    2010-06-01

    The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e. grouping, or "chapter") in DSM. This article addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The article builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of "Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders." These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V.

  1. The Nature and Treatment of Compulsions, Obsessions, and Rituals in People with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Dempsey, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Developmental disabilities such as intellectual disability and autism are often accompanied by special sets of behaviors which are major challenges for the person and those in their community. Among the most worrisome of these are compulsions, rituals and obsessions. Often these behaviors are left untreated; however, when intervention does occur…

  2. Effects of paroxetine and venlafaxine on immune parameters in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denys, D; Fluitman, S; Kavelaars, A; Heijnen, C; Westenberg, HGM

    2006-01-01

    Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with an altered activity of the immune system. This study was carried out to investigate whether treatment with paroxetine and venlafaxine modifies the immune function in OCD and whether this modification is related to treatment out

  3. Prevalence of Psychotic Disorders in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Lieuwe; Dudek-Hodge, Christine; Verhoeven, Yolanda; Denys, Damiaan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders has been increasingly recognized. However, the rate of psychosis comorbidity in OCD patients has yet to be systematically evaluated. Methods: The prevalence of the Diagnostic a

  4. Emotion regulation before and after transcranial magnetic stimulation in obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S J; van der Werf, Y D; Mataix-Cols, D; Trujillo, J P; van Oppen, P; Veltman, D J; van den Heuvel, O A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired emotion regulation may underlie exaggerated emotional reactivity in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet instructed emotion regulation has never been studied in the disorder. METHOD: This study aimed to assess the neural correlates of emotion processing and reg

  5. Paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from neuroimaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyser, C.; Veltman, D.J.; de Haan, E.; Boer, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present an overview of neuroimaging data on paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and discuss implications for further research. Method: Medline PsycINFO databases and reference lists were searched for relevant articles. All neuroimaging studies up to October 1, 2008 involving

  6. Applying the Codependency Model to a Group for Families of Obsessive-Compulsive People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marlene

    1995-01-01

    Applies codependency group model to families of obsessive-compulsive people based on view that these families are normal, feeling people who are trying to cope with unremitting stress. Clinical vignettes illustrate how these families are similar to families of alcoholics in their management of emotions and in their dysfunctional behaviors. (JBJ)

  7. Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorders : long-term analysis of quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, Pieter; Mantione, Mariska; Figee, Martijn; Schuurman, P Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Denys, D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on quality of life (QOL) in therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. DESIGN: 16 patients who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed) (DSM-IV) criteria for OCD and were cons

  8. Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms, Cognitive Processes, School Achievement, and Intelligence-Achievement Relationship in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Partha; Basu, Jayanti

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the general intelligence, cognitive processes, school achievement, and intelligence-achievement relationship of adolescents with subclinical levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms differed from those of their normal counterparts. From an initial large pool of 14-year-old Bengali students in eighth…

  9. Perception of facial expressions in obsessive-compulsive disorder : a dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, B.; Geus, F. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Denys, D.; Haan, E.H.F. de; Westenberg, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the perception of facial expressions of different emotional intensities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) subtypes. Results showed that the High Risk Assessment and Checking subtype was more sensitive in perceiving the emotions fear and happiness. This suggests that altered a

  10. Two-Year Stability and Change of Schizotypal, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Gunderson, John G.; Pagano, Maria E.; Yen, Shirley; Zanarini, Mary C.; Shea, Tracie M.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Stout, Robert L.; Morey, Leslie C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the stability of schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD) and obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) personality disorders (PDs) over 2 years of prospective multiwave follow-up. Six hundred thirty-three participants recruited at 4 collaborating sites who met criteria for 1 or more of the 4 PDs or for major depressive…

  11. The specific pattern of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder

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    Arash Alizadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some preliminary findings have suggested that patients with bipolar disorder show a disparate pattern of obsessive-compulsive (OC symptoms. This study aimed to reevaluate this subject on a different sample within a different cultural background.METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was carried out in a clinical non-experimental setting on 78 obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD patients; 39 with and 39 without bipolar disorder (BD. Subjects underwent a Structured Clinical Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I as well as the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Rating Scale (YBOCS.RESULTS: The diagnoses in the non-bipolar group were mostly major depressive disorder (38% and dysthymic disorder (38%. The mean age of the bipolar group was significantly lower than that of the non-bipolars (P CONCLUSIONS: The content of OC symptoms which is not traditionally considered a helpful factor for diagnosing a psychiatric disorder might be able to lead the clinician to the diagnosis of bipolarity in a depressed patient with OCD.KEY WORDS: Bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

  12. Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Iran

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    Akhondzadeh Shahin

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of the annual prevalence for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD were consistent across the international sites range, 1.9% – 2.5%. The nine population surveys, which used Diagnostic Interview Schedule, estimated a six-month prevalence of OCD ranging from 0.7% to 2.1%. This study performed in order to determine the prevalence of OCD in a population-based study among Iranian adults aged 18 and older and to study the association of them with factors such as sex, marital status, education, type of occupation and residential area. Methods A cross-sectional nationwide epidemiological study of the Iranian population aged 18 and older was designed to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their association with the above mentioned factors. 25180 individuals were selected and interviewed through a randomized systematic and cluster sampling method from all Iranian households. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV criteria were used in diagnosis of OCD. 250 clinical psychologists interviewed the selected subjects face to face at their homes. Results The prevalence of OCD in Iran is 1.8% (0.7% and 2.8% in males and females; respectively. 50.3% of the survey sample were men, 49.9% women, 29.1% single, 67.45% married, 0.4% separated or divorced, 2.5% widow/widower and 4% undetermined. All of the above-mentioned factors were examined in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Although the data did not fit the models well, but in univariate models, sex, the category "single" of marital status, age, the categories "business" and "housewife" and residential areas showed significant effect adjusting for the factors, but the models didn't fit the data properly. Conclusion The study suggests that the prevalence of OCD is not rare in the community of Iran and is within the range of other countries. Similar to prior

  13. Obsessive-compulsive traits in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Liliana; Mugno, Diego; D'Arrigo, Valentina Genitori; Vitiello, Benedetto; Mazzone, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the occurrence and characteristic features of obsessive-compulsive behaviours in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS), with respect to a matched obsessive compulsive disorder group (OCD) and a typically developing control group (CG). For this purpose, 60 subjects (20 OCD; 18 AS; 22 CG), aged 8-15 years, matched for age, gender and IQ were compared. AS and OCD patients were diagnosed according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule were used to assist in the AS diagnosis; the WISC-R was administered to assess IQ. Obsessive and compulsive symptoms were evaluated by using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). None of the AS children received a formal diagnosis of OCD. The AS group presented significantly higher frequencies of Hoarding obsessions and Repeating, Ordering and Hoarding compulsions compared to CG. The OCD group, in turn, reported significantly higher frequencies of Contamination and Aggressive obsessions and Checking compulsions compared to both the AS group and CG. As expected, the OCD group displayed a higher severity of symptoms (Moderate level of severity) than did the AS group (Mild level of severity). Finally, in our sample, neither the OCD group nor the AS group demonstrated a completely full awareness of the intrusive, unreasonable and distressing nature of symptoms, and the level of insight did not differ between the OCD group and CG, although an absence of insight was observed in the AS group. Children with AS showed higher frequencies of obsessive and compulsive symptoms than did typically developing children, and these features seem to cluster around Hoarding behaviours. Additionally, different patterns of symptoms emerged between the OCD and AS groups. Finally, in our sample, the level of insight was poor in both the OCD and the AS children. Further research should be conducted to better

  14. The Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on the Frequency and Severity of Symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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    Razieh Izadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in obsessive- compulsive disorder. A single case design used in five patients with obsessive- compulsive disorder. Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck anxiety Inventory and a processing measure was used for assessment of patients. Results suggested the significant decreases in all measures in post test in five patients and these results maintained at 1-month follow up. Process of treatment and results from this study suggest that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can be effective intervention for difficult thoughts, feelings, and behaviors seen in OCD.

  15. Acute and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy for treatment of severely disabling obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a patient with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Björn M; Ekselius, Lisa

    2009-09-01

    We report successful treatment with electroconvulsive therapy of a comorbid condition including severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms and hypochondriacal delusions in a 38-year-old man with Asperger syndrome. His condition deteriorated into a severely disabled chronic state that was refractory to different pharmacological and psychological treatments but was completely reversed after electroconvulsive therapy. Although typical obsessive-compulsive symptoms were predominant, the case also exhibits differences compared with regular obsessive-compulsive disorder regarding onset and course that are discussed in the report.

  16. Obsessive compulsive and related disorders: comparing DSM-5 and ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Anna; Fineberg, Naomi; Pallanti, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been recognized as mainly characterized by compulsivity rather than anxiety and, therefore, was removed from the anxiety disorders chapter and given its own in both the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the Beta Draft Version of the 11th revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This revised clustering is based on increasing evidence of common affected neurocircuits between disorders, differently from previous classification systems based on interrater agreement. In this article, we focus on the classification of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs), examining the differences in approach adopted by these 2 nosological systems, with particular attention to the proposed changes in the forthcoming ICD-11. At this stage, notable differences in the ICD classification are emerging from the previous revision, apparently converging toward a reformulation of OCRDs that is closer to the DSM-5.

  17. Comparing two basic subtypes in OCD across three large community samples: a pure compulsive versus a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Stephanie; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Kawohl, Wolfram; Müller, Mario; Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Castelao, Enrique; Vandeleur, Caroline; Angst, Jules; Preisig, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Due to its heterogeneous phenomenology, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been subtyped. However, these subtypes are not mutually exclusive. This study presents an alternative subtyping approach by deriving non-overlapping OCD subtypes. A pure compulsive and a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype (including subjects manifesting obsessions with/without compulsions) were analyzed with respect to a broad pattern of psychosocial risk factors and comorbid syndromes/diagnoses in three representative Swiss community samples: the Zurich Study (n = 591), the ZInEP sample (n = 1500), and the PsyCoLaus sample (n = 3720). A selection of comorbidities was examined in a pooled database. Odds ratios were derived from logistic regressions and, in the analysis of pooled data, multilevel models. The pure compulsive subtype showed a lower age of onset and was characterized by few associations with psychosocial risk factors. The higher social popularity of the pure compulsive subjects and their families was remarkable. Comorbidities within the pure compulsive subtype were mainly restricted to phobias. In contrast, the mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype had a higher prevalence and was associated with various childhood adversities, more familial burden, and numerous comorbid disorders, including disorders characterized by high impulsivity. The current comparison study across three representative community surveys presented two basic, distinct OCD subtypes associated with differing psychosocial impairment. Such highly specific subtypes offer the opportunity to learn about pathophysiological mechanisms specifically involved in OCD.

  18. A Review and Critique of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Etiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Charles Hertler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present review and critique of extant etiological theories centers on a single finding: Obsessive-compulsive personality is highly heritable (0.78 and not significantly influenced by “common, shared-in-families environmental factors” (Torgersen et al., 2000, p. 424. This finding, though twelve years old, has remained dissociated from existing etiological accounts. Psychoanalytic theories anachronistically maintain that obsessive personality is familially forged. Biological theories, few, unelaborated and weakened by postulating proximate instead of ultimate explanations, fail to seriously reckon with Torgersen’s findings. Truly integrating heritability estimates into a functional etiological account of obsessive character, it is argued in the discussion section, will come from an evolutionary model that understands obsessive personality to be an evolved strategy rather than a dysfunctional disorder.

  19. Neural Correlates of Symptom Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew R.; Akkal, Dalila; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Mataix-Cols, David; Kalas, Catherine; Devlin, Bernie; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging on a group of pediatric subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder reveals that this group has reduced activity in neural regions underlying emotional processing, cognitive processing, and motor performance as compared to control subjects.

  20. Major depressive disorder schizophrenia Bipolar disorder obsessive-compulsive disorder | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e disorder is a scale used to assess the severity of obsessions and compulsions o...ivo-compulsivo es una escala empleada para valorar la severidad de las obsesiones y compulsiones de los paci

  1. Clomipramine demethylation rate is important on the outcome of obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcourakis, Tania; Bernik, Márcio A; Lotufo Neto, Francisco; Gedanke Shavitt, Roseli; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demethylation rate on the outcome of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients treated with clomipramine. Eighteen patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder received 150-300 mg of clomipramine daily in a single-blind design for 12 weeks. The patients were evaluated with the Clinical Global Impression scale and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). Clinical assessment and serum measurements of clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine were carried out at baseline and after 3, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks. A greater improvement in Clinical Global Impression scale rating was associated with a lower desmethylclomipramine/daily dose and the total clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine/daily dose. Moreover, an improved response on the YBOCS-obsession score was associated with higher serum levels of clomipramine and the total clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine/daily dose. Patients with a greater reduction in baseline YBOCS rating had a lower desmethylclomipramine/clomipramine ratio. These data suggest that a lower demethylation rate correlates with better clinical outcome.

  2. Responsibility Attitudes in Obsessive-Compulsive Patients: The Contributions of Meta-Cognitive Beliefs and Worry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changiz Rahimi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive patients are distressed by intrusivethoughts, which are related to unreal threats. These patientsfeel that they are responsible for harming themselves and others.While controlling worry and meta-cognitive beliefs, thepresent study aimed at comparing the responsibility attitudesin obsessive compulsive patients with those in normal subjectsto determine whether the difference in responsibility attitudesbetween two groups was significant.Methods: A group of 15 patients were compared with normalsubjects (n=15 who matched the patient group in terms ofgender, age and education. All subjects filled the ResponsibilityAttitude Scale, the Penn, State Worry Questionnaire andthe Meta-cognition Questionnaire -30. The findings were analyzedusing descriptive statistics as well as student t and ANCOVAtests.Results: Responsibility attitudes in obsessive patients weresignificantly higher than those in normal subjects (P<0.001,when patient worries and meta-cognitive beliefs were notcontrolled. However, after controlling patient's worry andmeta-cognitive beliefs there was no significant differencebetween responsibility attitudes in normal and obsessive–compulsive group.Conclusion: The findings might suggest that responsibilityattitude is not strongly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.It seems that it is a characteristic caused by basic metacognitivebeliefs, because the relationship between the responsibilityand the symptoms was dependent on meta-cognition.Therefore, in studying the etiology and treatment of obsessivecompulsive disorders focus on the responsibility attitudesalone cannot be very helpful.

  3. Symptom dimensions, clinical course and comorbidity in men and women with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresan, Ricardo C; Ramos-Cerqueira, Ana Teresa A; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R

    2013-09-30

    The study aimed to compare male and female patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across symptom dimensions, clinical course and comorbidity. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 858 adult OCD patients (DSM-IV) from the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders. Patients were evaluated using structured interviews, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). The sample was composed of 504 women (58.7%) and 354 men (41.3%) with a mean age of 35.4 years-old (range: 18-77). Men were younger, more frequently single and presented more tics, social phobia and alcohol use disorders. Among men, symptom interference occurred earlier and symptoms of the sexual/religious dimension were more common and more severe. Conversely, women were more likely to present symptoms of the aggressive, contamination/cleaning and hoarding dimension and comorbidity with specific phobias, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, trichotillomania, skin picking and "compulsive" buying. In the logistic regression, female gender remained independently associated with the aggressive and contamination/cleaning dimensions. In both genders the aggressive dimension remained associated with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder, the sexual/religious dimension with major depression and the hoarding dimension with tic disorders. Gender seems to be relevant in the determination of OCD clinical presentation and course and should be considered an important aspect when defining more homogeneous OCD subgroups.

  4. Obsessive-compulsive (anankastic) personality disorder: toward the ICD-11 classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Naomi A; Reghunandanan, Samar; Kolli, Sangeetha; Atmaca, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research planning. Considering the recent establishment of an obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) category in DSM-5, we focus on the relationship between OCPD and the disorders that are currently thought to bear a close relationship with OCD, including DSM-5 OCRD, and other compulsive disorders such as eating disorder and autistic spectrum disorder (that were not included in the DSM-5 OCRD category), as well as with the personality disorders, focusing on nosological determinants such as phenomenology, course of illness, heritability, environmental risk factors, comorbidity, neurocognitive endophenotypes, and treatment response. Based on this analysis, we attempt to draw conclusions as to its optimal placement in diagnostic systems and draw attention to key research questions that could be explored in field trials.

  5. Obsessive-compulsive (anankastic personality disorder: toward the ICD-11 classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi A. Fineberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research planning. Considering the recent establishment of an obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD category in DSM-5, we focus on the relationship between OCPD and the disorders that are currently thought to bear a close relationship with OCD, including DSM-5 OCRD, and other compulsive disorders such as eating disorder and autistic spectrum disorder (that were not included in the DSM-5 OCRD category, as well as with the personality disorders, focusing on nosological determinants such as phenomenology, course of illness, heritability, environmental risk factors, comorbidity, neurocognitive endophenotypes, and treatment response. Based on this analysis, we attempt to draw conclusions as to its optimal placement in diagnostic systems and draw attention to key research questions that could be explored in field trials.

  6. Escitalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, paroxetine-referenced, fixed-dose, 24-week study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Tonnoir, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized, placebo controlled fixed-dose trial was undertaken to determine the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), using paroxetine as the active reference. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 466 adults with OCD from specialized...... endpoint was the mean change in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) total score from baseline to week 12. Secondary efficacy endpoints included remission (defined as Y-BOCS total score

  7. Abnormal Spontaneous Neural Activity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder have found abnormalities in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and thalamus, but few studies have explored abnormal intrinsic or spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. We investigated both intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in twenty patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 20 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regional homogeneity (ReHo and functional connectivity methods were used to analyze the intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed significantly increased ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex, cerebellum, and insula, and decreased ReHo in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and inferior occipital cortex. Based on ReHo results, we determined functional connectivity differences between the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls. We found abnormal functional connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with healthy controls. Moreover, ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with the duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest that increased intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may have a key role in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, brain regions such as the insula and cerebellum may also be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  8. Symptom clusters in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): influence of age and age of onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2010-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an ailment of heterogeneous nature. It is believed that the age of onset determines the subtype of juvenile OCD. The objective of our study was to evaluate the rates of symptoms' contents and the age of manifestation of the various OCD symptoms in adolescents and adults with early and late onset of disorder. Both authors independently reviewed the medical charts of patients treated for OCD between 1999 and 2007 in a psychiatric university hospital. Patients were evaluated using the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale check list (Y-BOCS). The patients were grouped as adolescents (group 1), adults with late onset (group 2) and adults with early onset (group 3). Chi2 was used for nominal variables and the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA for continuous comparisons due to deviations from normality of distribution. A total of 132 patients were enrolled in the study (44 group 1, 43 group 2 and 45 group 3). There were no differences in gender distribution. Religious, sexual and miscellaneous obsessions were more frequent and somatic less frequent in group 1 than in group 2. Contamination compulsions were most seldom found in group 1. Cleaning obsessions were more frequent in group 3 than in group 1. Checking were the rarest and miscellaneous, the most often compulsion among adolescents in comparison to other groups. The symptoms' content in adolescents differed from those observed in adult, both with early and later onset of the disease. The age at onset influences the rates of adult patients' compulsions.

  9. An examination of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dimensions using profile analysis via multidimensional scaling (PAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Dean; Kim, Se-Kang; Taylor, Steven; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Tolin, David; Coles, Meredith; Timpano, Kiara R; Olatunji, Bunmi

    2014-05-01

    Contemporary cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) emphasize the importance of various types of dysfunctional beliefs in contributing to OC symptoms, such as beliefs about excessive personal responsibility, perfectionism, and intolerance for uncertainty. The present study seeks to further our understanding of the role of these beliefs by identifying the common profiles of such beliefs, using profile analysis via multidimensional scaling (PAMS). In Study 1, a large student sample (N=4079) completed the 44-item obsessive beliefs questionnaire. One major profile, control of thoughts and perfectionism, was extracted. Study 2 examined profiles of the 87-item obsessive beliefs questionnaire in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=398), other anxiety disorders (n=104), and a sample of undergraduate students (n=285). Inflated responsibility was a prominent subscale in the profiles of all three groups. Only control over thoughts was a unique subscale in the profile obtained for the OCD group, with this group having lower scores compared to the other groups. The results suggest that while inflated responsibility is a significant subscale in the profile of individuals with OCD, it is not a unique contributor; instead, control over thoughts is unique to OCD. The data, as well as recent research investigating obsessive beliefs, suggest the need to revise the contemporary cognitive model of OCD.

  10. Temperament features in adolescents with ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Carlo; Ampollini, Paolo; DePanfilis, Chiara; Maggini, Carlo

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluated whether different patterns of temperament may predict a different threshold of acceptability of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in adolescents. OC symptomatology was detected with the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version (LOI-CV) and temperament was assessed using the tridimensional personality questionnaire in 2,775 high-school students. According to the LOI-CV scores, the adolescents were classified as high interference (interfering, ego-dystonic symptoms) (HI), supernormal (noninterfering, ego-syntonic symptoms) (Sn) and controls (C) HI were 119 (4.3%), Sn 85 (3.1%) and C 2,571 (92.6%). The best predictor of belonging to HI or Sn groups was the temperament configuration of high Harm Avoidance (HA) and high Persistence (P). The feature that mainly distinguishes the two symptomatic groups were Novelty Seeking (NS) levels. Our data suggest that people characterized by pessimistic worry in anticipation of future problems, passive avoidant behaviour, rapid fatigability (high HA) and irresoluteness, ambitiousness, perseverance, perfectionism, enduring feelings of frustration (high P) might develop OC symptoms. Whether OC symptoms become ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic seems to mainly depend on NS levels: low NS might protect people (with the prevention of "exploratory and active behaviours" that may elicit loss of control on symptoms) from the development of interfering OC symptoms.

  11. Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Mas

    Full Text Available We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI, diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI, neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD severity. From a cohort of 87 patients, 56 with complete information were used in the present analysis. First, we performed a multivariate genetic association analysis of OCD severity with 266 genetic polymorphisms. This association analysis was used to select and prioritize the SNPs that would be included in the model. Second, we split the sample into a training set (N = 38 and a validation set (N = 18. Third, entropy-based measures of information gain were used for feature selection with the training subset. Fourth, the selected features were fed into two supervised methods of class prediction based on machine learning, using the leave-one-out procedure with the training set. Finally, the resulting model was validated with the validation set. Nine variables were used for the creation of the OCD severity predictor, including six genetic polymorphisms and three variables from the neuropsychological data. The developed model classified child and adolescent patients with OCD by disease severity with an accuracy of 0.90 in the testing set and 0.70 in the validation sample. Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder.

  12. Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Sergi; Gassó, Patricia; Morer, Astrid; Calvo, Anna; Bargalló, Nuria; Lafuente, Amalia; Lázaro, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI), neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. From a cohort of 87 patients, 56 with complete information were used in the present analysis. First, we performed a multivariate genetic association analysis of OCD severity with 266 genetic polymorphisms. This association analysis was used to select and prioritize the SNPs that would be included in the model. Second, we split the sample into a training set (N = 38) and a validation set (N = 18). Third, entropy-based measures of information gain were used for feature selection with the training subset. Fourth, the selected features were fed into two supervised methods of class prediction based on machine learning, using the leave-one-out procedure with the training set. Finally, the resulting model was validated with the validation set. Nine variables were used for the creation of the OCD severity predictor, including six genetic polymorphisms and three variables from the neuropsychological data. The developed model classified child and adolescent patients with OCD by disease severity with an accuracy of 0.90 in the testing set and 0.70 in the validation sample. Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder.

  13. Does cyberchondria overlap with health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms? An examination of latent structure and scale interrelations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Russell, Laurie H

    2016-03-01

    Searching for medical information online is a widespread activity that increases distress for many individuals. Researchers have speculated that this phenomenon, referred to as cyberchondria, overlaps substantially with both health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. This study sought to examine: (1) the distinguishability of cyberchondria from health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and (2) the components of health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms that cluster most strongly with cyberchondria. The sample consisted of community adults in the United States with no current reported medical problems (N=375). Results from confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) support the idea that cyberchondria is distinct from, yet related to, health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Results from zero-order correlations and regression analyses suggest that cyberchondria clusters with the affective (health worry) component of health anxiety. Regression results diverged from prior findings, as obsessive-compulsive symptoms did not share associations with cyberchondria after accounting for negative affect and health anxiety. The present results indicate that cyberchondria is possibly discernible from both health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, while also providing insight into areas of potential overlap.

  14. Predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms involving the skin on quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bez, Yasin; Yesilova, Yavuz; Arı, Mustafa; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Alpak, Gokay; Bulut, Mahmut

    2013-11-01

    Acne is one of the most common dermatological diseases, and obsessive compulsive disorder is among the most frequent psychiatric conditions seen in dermatology clinics. Comorbidity of these conditions may therefore be expected. The aim of this study was to measure obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris, compare them with those of healthy control subjects, and determine whether there is any predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms for quality of life in patients with acne. Obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life measurements of 146 patients with acne vulgaris and 94 healthy control subjects were made using the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire and Short Form-36 in a cross-sectional design. Patients with acne vulgaris had lower scores for physical functioning, physical role dysfunction, general health perception, vitality, and emotional role dysfunction. They also had higher scores for checking, slowness, and rumination. The only predictor of physical functioning and vitality dimensions of health-related quality of life in these patients was rumination score. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with acne vulgaris are higher than in controls, and this may correlate with both disease severity and quality of life for patients.

  15. To discard or not to discard: the neural basis of hoarding symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, S.K.; Mataix-Cols, D.; Lawrence, N.S.; Wooderson, S.; Giampietro, V.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Brammer, M.J.; Phillips, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with the 'compulsive hoarding syndrome' may be a neurobiologically distinct variant of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but further research is needed. A total of 29 OCD patients (13 with and 16 without prominent hoarding symptoms) and 21 hea

  16. Atypical Hallervorden-Spatz disease with preserved cognition and obtrusive obsessions and compulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Anthony P; Earnst, Kelly S; Marson, Daniel C

    2005-07-01

    We describe the case of an adult female with Hallervorden-Spatz disease (HSD), "eye-of-the-tiger" sign on cranial magnetic resonance imaging scan, and two mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) gene. Symptomatic presentation included stuttering dysarthria, dystonic posturing, increased limb and axial muscle tone, choreoathetosis, stereotyped motor behaviors, and obsessive-compulsive symptomatology since adolescence. Extensive neuropsychological testing at 40 and 44 years of age revealed a relatively normal IQ and stable cognitive pattern overall. This case demonstrates that HSD patients who survive into middle age should not be assumed to have a progressive dementia. In such cases, atypical behavioral problems such as persistent obsessions and compulsions may be present instead.

  17. Performance monitoring during associative learning and its relation to obsessive-compulsive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doñamayor, Nuria; Dinani, Jakob; Römisch, Manuel; Ye, Zheng; Münte, Thomas F

    2014-10-01

    Neural responses to performance errors and external feedback have been suggested to be altered in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In the current study, an associative learning task was used in healthy participants assessed for obsessive-compulsive symptoms by the OCI-R questionnaire. The task included a condition with equivocal feedback that did not inform about the participants' performance. Following incorrect responses, an error-related negativity and an error positivity were observed. In the feedback phase, the largest feedback-related negativity was observed following equivocal feedback. Theta and beta oscillatory components were found following incorrect and correct responses, respectively, and an increase in theta power was associated with negative and equivocal feedback. Changes over time were also explored as an indicator for possible learning effects. Finally, event-related potentials and oscillatory components were found to be uncorrelated with OCI-R scores in the current non-clinical sample.

  18. Treatment of internet addiction in patient with panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia Spear

    2015-01-01

    Problematic Internet use is a worldwide social issue and it can be found in any age, social, educational, or economic range. In some countries like China and South Korea internet addiction (IA) is considered a public health condition and this governments support research, education and treatment. Internet addiction has been associated with others psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are anxiety disorders that involve a lot of damages in patient's life. We report a treatment of a patient with Panic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and internet addition involving pharmacotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was conducted 1 time per week during 10 weeks and results suggest that the treatment was an effective treatment for the anxiety and for the internet addiction.

  19. Tourette's and comorbid syndromes: obsessive compulsive and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A common etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D M; Bradshaw, J L; Purcell, R; Pantelis, C

    1999-08-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS), a neuropsychiatric movement disorder that manifests itself in childhood, is often associated with comorbid symptomatology, such as obsessions, compulsions, hyperactivity, distractibility, and impulsivity. Epidemiological studies suggest that a substantial number of TS patients develop clinical levels of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review aims to provide an integrated account of the three disorders in terms of their comorbidity. Neuroimaging studies suggest that all three disorders involve neuropathology of the basal-ganglia thalamocortical (BGTC) pathways: TS in the sensorimotor and limbic BGTC circuits; OCD in the prefrontal and limbic BGTC pathways; and ADHD in the sensorimotor, orbitofrontal, and limbic BGTC circuits. The pattern of comorbidity and other evidence indicates that the TS gene(s) may be responsible for a spectrum of disorders, including OCD and ADHD, but also that the disorders OCD and ADHD can exist in their own right with their own etiologies.

  20. The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in treating a case of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoob Vakili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT in treating obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD.In a single-subject experiment trial, the treatment process was carried out on a 39-year old male subject. The patient satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD and was assessed for pre-duration and post treatment. The scales used in this study included: The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale(Y-BOCS, Beck Depression Inventory-II-second edition (BDI-II, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. In addition, all scales were again completed by the subject at 1-month, 3-months, and 6-months follow-ups.The treatment led to reductions in symptoms of OCD, depression and anxiety. Gains were maintained at follow-ups.The treatment approach appears to be effective in the treatment of OCD.

  1. Paper eating: An unusual obsessive-compulsive disorder dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of diversity in the medical realm; where unspecified sign and symptoms might confuse and force even experienced clinicians to commit mistakes. Paper eating is presently included in pica, but certain rare compulsions may mimic this and cause confusion for unsuspecting observers. We report a case of paper eating as a manifestation of compulsion in a 15-year-old girl, and reiterate that missing on rare presentations might cause the patient sufferings from inadvertent pharmacological treatment efforts.

  2. Relationship between symptom dimensions and brain morphology in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Motohisa; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Sutoh, Chihiro; Asano, Kenichi; Miyata, Haruko; Matsumoto, Junko; Nakazato, Michiko; Matsumoto, Koji; Masuda, Yoshitada; Iyo, Masaomi; Shimizu, Eiji; Nakagawa, Akiko

    2016-10-11

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by symptom dimensions. Although substantial numbers of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the presence of brain abnormalities in OCD, their results are controversial. The clinical heterogeneity of OCD could be one of the reasons for this. It has been hypothesized that certain brain regions contributed to the respective obsessive-compulsive dimensions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions of OCD and brain morphology using voxel-based morphometry to discover the specific regions showing alterations in the respective dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The severities of symptom dimensions in thirty-three patients with OCD were assessed using Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R). Along with numerous MRI studies pointing out brain abnormalities in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) patients, a previous study reported a positive correlation between ASD traits and regional gray matter volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and amygdala in OCD patients. We investigated the correlation between gray and white matter volumes at the whole brain level and each symptom dimension score, treating all remaining dimension scores, age, gender, and ASD traits as confounding covariates. Our results revealed a significant negative correlation between washing symptom dimension score and gray matter volume in the right thalamus and a significant negative correlation between hoarding symptom dimension score and white matter volume in the left angular gyrus. Although our result was preliminary, our findings indicated that there were specific brain regions in gray and white matter that contributed to symptom dimensions in OCD patients.

  3. Understanding obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in adolescence: a dimensional personality perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Decuyper, Mieke; Fruyt, Filip De

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the Axis II Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) category and its position within the Cluster C personality disorder (PDs) section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, APA, 2000) continues to be a source of much debate. The present study examines the associations between general and maladaptive personality traits and OCPD symptoms, prior to and after controlling for co-occurring PD variance, in a general population sample of 274 Fle...

  4. Hypomania with hypersexuality following bilateral anterior limb stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Chen, Shin-Yuan; Hsiao, Yi-Ling; Tsai, Sheng-Tzung; Tsai, Hsin-Chi

    2010-06-01

    This 28-year-old Chinese man was referred for deep brain stimulation (DBS) evaluation for an 8-year history of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. After the patient had signed an informed consent, the authors implanted DBS leads. Hypomania with hypersexuality was noted on stimulation at Contact 2 and became aggravated with a higher voltage (> or = 3 V) during chronic bilateral DBS. After the voltage was decreased to 1 V, the patient's hypomanic symptoms subsided and his libido returned to baseline.

  5. Attachment Style and Resiliency in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zakiei, Ali; Alikhani, Mostafa; Farnia, Vahid; Khkian, Zinab; Shakeri, Jalal; Golshani, Sanobar

    2017-01-01

    Background The goal of the present study was to determine the relationships between attachment styles and resiliency in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Methods A random sample of 260 subjects was obtained from the population of undergraduate students of the Nour Branch of Islamic Azad University, which is located in Mazandaran, and these subjects were enrolled in this descriptive and correlational study. The collected data included the subjects' responses to an adult attachment sty...

  6. Challenges Using Motivational Interviewing as an Adjunct to Exposure Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan; Maher, Michael J.; Page, Jessica; Franklin, Martin; Edna B. Foa; Schmidt, Andrew B.; Wang, Yuanjia

    2010-01-01

    Exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) is an efficacious treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, patients often do not adhere fully to EX/RP procedures. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to improve treatment adherence in other disorders. This pilot study used a randomized controlled design to examine whether MI can be successfully added to EX/RP and whether this intervention (EX/RP+MI) could improve patient adherence to between-session EX/RP procedures relati...

  7. Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Treatment Outcomes with Exposure and Ritual Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Monnica T.; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is currently exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings...

  8. The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II: rationale, design and methods

    OpenAIRE

    March John S; Khanna Muniya S; Sapyta Jeffrey J; Moore Phoebe S; Garcia Abbe M; Choate-Summers Molly L; Freeman Jennifer B; Foa Edna B; Franklin Martin E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II (POTS II), which investigates two different cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) augmentation approaches in children and adolescents who have experienced a partial response to pharmacotherapy with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for OCD. The two CBT approaches test a "single doctor" versus "dual doctor" model of service delivery. A specific goal was to develop and test...

  9. Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the treatment procedures. In this article, we present the rationale for using motivational interviewing (MI) to increase EX/RP adherence. We then review two pub...

  10. Threat Processing in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Evidence from a Modified Negative Priming Task

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Nader; Cobb, Michelle; Morrison, Amanda S.

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often experience intrusive thoughts. These intrusions may be due to biases in information processing mechanisms, including attention, memory, and learning. To examine this hypothesis, we presented a modified negative priming (NP) paradigm with idiographically-selected words to 19 individuals with OCD (OCs) and 19 matched non-anxious control participants (NACs). The words included OCD-relevant threat, OCD-relevant positive, and neutral words...

  11. Eating disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: neurochemical and phenomenological commonalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarry, J L; Vaccarino, F J

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores a possible connection between neurochemistry and cognitions in eating disorders (ED). Cognitions play an important role in ED. However, a possible neurochemical origin of these cognitions has not been explored. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a disorder of thinking. Extensive neurochemical research conducted on this disorder indicates a connection between serotonin (5-HT) dysregulation and cognitions in OCD. This study used research done on OCD as a templat...

  12. Neurophysiological correlates of altered response inhibition in internet gaming disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Perspectives from impulsivity and compulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minah; Lee, Tak Hyung; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kwak, Yoo Bin; Hwang, Wu Jeong; Kim, Taekwan; Lee, Ji Yoon; Lim, Jae-A; Park, Minkyung; Kim, Yeon Jin; Kim, Sung Nyun; Kim, Dai Jin; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2017-01-01

    Although internet gaming disorder (IGD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represent opposite ends of the impulsivity and compulsivity dimensions, the two disorders share common neurocognitive deficits in response inhibition. However, the similarities and differences in neurophysiological features of altered response inhibition between IGD and OCD have not been investigated sufficiently. In total, 27 patients with IGD, 24 patients with OCD, and 26 healthy control (HC) subjects participated in a Go/NoGo task with electroencephalographic recordings. N2-P3 complexes elicited during Go and NoGo condition were analyzed separately and compared among conditions and groups. NoGo-N2 latency at the central electrode site was delayed in IGD group versus the HC group and correlated positively with the severity of internet game addiction and impulsivity. NoGo-N2 amplitude at the frontal electrode site was smaller in OCD patients than in IGD patients. These findings suggest that prolonged NoGo-N2 latency may serve as a marker of trait impulsivity in IGD and reduced NoGo-N2 amplitude may be a differential neurophysiological feature between OCD from IGD with regard to compulsivity. We report the first differential neurophysiological correlate of the altered response inhibition in IGD and OCD, which may be a candidate biomarker for impulsivity and compulsivity. PMID:28134318

  13. Role of nitric oxide in obsessive-compulsive behavior and its involvement in the anti-compulsive effect of paroxetine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umathe, S N; Bhutada, P S; Jain, N S; Mundhada, Y R; Borkar, S S; Dhumal, B

    2009-09-01

    In view of the reports that nitric oxide modulates the neurotransmitters implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder exhibit higher plasma nitrate levels, and drugs useful in obsessive-compulsive disorder influence nitric oxide, we hypothesized that nitric oxide may have some role in obsessive-compulsive behavior. We used marble-burying behavior of mice as the animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and nitric oxide levels in brain homogenate were measured using amperometric nitric oxide-selective sensor method. Intraperitoneal administration of nitric oxide enhancers viz. nitric oxide precursor-l-arginine (800 mg/kg), nitric oxide donor-sodium nitroprusside (3 mg/kg) or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor-sildenafil (3 mg/kg) significantly increased marble-burying behavior as well as brain nitrites levels, whereas treatment with 7-nitroindazole-neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (20-40 mg/kg, i.p.) or paroxetine-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (5-10 mg/kg, i.p.) dose dependently attenuated marble-burying behavior and nitrites levels in brain. Further, co-administration of sub-effective doses of 7-nitroindazole (10 mg/kg) and paroxetine (2.5 mg/kg) significantly attenuated marble-burying behavior. Moreover, pretreatment with l-arginine (400 mg/kg, i.p.), sodium nitroprusside (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or sildenafil (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly attenuated the inhibitory influence of 7-nitroindazole (40 mg/kg) or paroxetine (10 mg/kg) on marble-burying behavior as well as on brain nitrites levels. None of the above treatment had any significant influence on locomotor activity. In conclusion, obsessive compulsive behavior in mice appears related to nitric oxide in brain, and anti-compulsive effect of paroxetine appears to be related to decrease central levels of nitric oxide.

  14. The 5-HT7 receptor influences stereotypic behavior in a model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Peter B; Sutcliffe, J Gregor

    2007-03-13

    The 5-HT7 receptor has been suggested as a new putative target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially depression. This hypothesis is based on the finding that antidepressant drugs have relatively high affinity for the 5-HT7 receptor, and that inactivation or blockade of the receptor leads to an antidepressant-like profile in behavioral models and sleep parameters. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is also believed to involve the serotonergic system and is treated using antidepressants, thus it is of interest to study the possible role of the 5-HT7 receptor in this disorder. We have evaluated the effect of inactivation or pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor in three mouse behavioral models that are believed to mimic some of the stereotypic aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In the most well-established behavioral model, marble burying, both inactivation and blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor reduced stereotypic behavior in that the number of marbles buried decreased. In two newer, less well-characterized models, head dipping and plastic-mesh screen chewing, there was no difference between wild-type mice and mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor. Taken together the data confirms and expands on previous findings that the 5-HT7 receptor is of importance for behaviors affected by antidepressants, and suggests that the 5-HT7 receptor might be of relevance as a target for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  15. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bethge, Mareike; Luksnat, Stefanie; Nalato, Fabio; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is, among other features, characterized by marked impairment in social functioning. Although theoretically plausible with regard to neurobiological underpinnings of OCD, there is little research about possible impairments in social cognitive and meta-cognitive abilities and their connections with social functioning in patients with OCD. Accordingly, we sought to examine social cognitive skills and metacognition in OCD. Twenty OCD patients and age-, sex-, and education-matched 20 healthy controls were assessed using neurocognitive and diverse social cognitive skills including the Ekman 60 Faces test, the Hinting Task, the faux pas test, and a proverb test. In addition, the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 was administered to both the OCD and the control groups. Social functioning was measured using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. Symptom severity in patients was determined by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. No group differences emerged in basic social cognitive abilities. In contrast, compared to controls, OCD patients scored higher on all MCQ dimensions, particularly negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability, and danger; beliefs about need to control thoughts; and cognitive self-consciousness. There were no significant correlations between social or metacognitive parameters and OCD symptom severity. However, in the patient group, depression and metacognition predicted social functioning. OCD patients show normal basal social cognitive abilities, but dysfunctional metacognitive profiles, which may contribute to their psychosocial impairment.

  16. Ovarian Sex Hormones Modulate Compulsive, Affective and Cognitive Functions in A Non-Induced Mouse Model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Swarup; Bastos, Cristiane P.; Bates, Katherine; Pereira, Grace S.; Bult-Ito, Abel

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a lack of understanding of how surgical menopause can influence obsessions, compulsions and associated affective and cognitive functions in female obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Early menopause in women due to surgical removal of ovaries not only causes dramatic hormonal changes, but also may induce affective and cognitive disorders. Here, we tested if surgical removal of ovaries (ovariectomy, OVX), which mimics surgical menopause in humans, would result in exacerbation of compulsive, affective and cognitive behaviors in mice strains that exhibit a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype. Female mice from compulsive-like BIG, non-compulsive SMALL and randomly-bred Control strains were subjected to OVX or sham-surgery. After 7 days animals were tested for nest building and marble burying to measure compulsive-like behavior. The elevated plus maze and open field tests measured anxiety-like behaviors, while memory was assessed by the novel object recognition. Acute OVX resulted in exacerbation of compulsive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG mice. No significant effects of OVX were observed for the non-compulsive SMALL and Control strains. Object recognition memory was impaired in compulsive-like BIG female mice compared to the Control mice, without an effect of OVX on the BIG mice. We also tested whether 17 β-estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4) could reverse the effects of OVX. E2, but not P4, attenuated the compulsive-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG OVX female mice. The actions of the sex steroids on anxiety-like behaviors in OVX females were strain and behavioral test dependent. Altogether, our results indicate that already existing compulsions can be worsened during acute ovarian deprivation concomitant with exacerbation of affective behaviors and responses to hormonal intervention in OVX female mice can be influenced by genetic background. PMID:27881956

  17. Emotional perception and theory of mind in first episode psychosis: the role of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntouros, Evangelos; Bozikas, Vasilios P; Andreou, Christina; Kourbetis, Dimitris; Lavrentiadis, Grigoris; Garyfallos, George

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms on emotional perception and theory of mind (ToM) in patients with first-episode psychosis. Participants were 65 patients with non-affective first episode psychosis (FEP) and 47 healthy controls. The patient group was divided into two subgroups, those with (FEP+; n=38) and those without obsessive-compulsive symptomatology (FEP-; n=27). Emotion perception and ToM were assessed with the Perception of Social Inference Test. Severity of psychotic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), respectively. Deficits in emotion recognition and theory of mind were confirmed in patients with non-affective first-episode psychosis compared to healthy controls. In patients, comorbidity with obsessive-compulsive symptoms was associated with worse performance on certain aspects of social cognition (ToM 2nd order) compared to FEP- patients. Our findings of impaired emotion perception and ToM in patients with first-episode psychosis support the hypothesis that deficits are already present at illness onset. Presence of OCS appears to have further deleterious effects on social cognition, suggesting that these patients may belong to a schizo-obsessive subtype of schizophrenia characterized by more extensive neurobiological impairment.

  18. A comparative study of obsessive beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder patients and a normal group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Shams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD posit that specific kinds of dysfunctional beliefs underlie the development of this disorder. The aim of present study was to determine whether these beliefs are endorsed more strongly by OCD patients than by those with other anxiety disorders and by community samples. A battery of questionnaires, including the OBQ-44, MOCI, BDI-II, BAI, STAI, used to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression and anxiety in 39 OCD patients (OC, 46 anxious patients (AC and 41 community controls (CC. Compared to CCs and ACs, OC patients more strongly endorsed beliefs related to importance and control of thoughts. Both OC and AC patients scored higher than CC participants did on belief domains about responsibility/threat estimation and perfectionism/certainty. Therefore, the domain that seems to be specific to OCD is a set of beliefs that revolves around the contention that it is possible and necessary to control one's thoughts. Results regarding group differences on particular items of the OBQ-44 indicated that 21 items discriminated between the OC and CC groups and 7 items discriminated between the OC and AC groups, suggesting that these items are more specific to the OC group. Additional research warranted because it is plausible that these cognitive factors relate differently to OCD phenomena across different cultures.

  19. Obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions and neuroticism: An examination of shared genetic and environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Jocilyn; Verhulst, Brad; Aggen, Steven H; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Bienvenu, Oscar J; Hettema, John M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder can display diverse and heterogeneous patterns of symptoms. Little is known about the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom (OCS) dimensions and normal personality traits, particularly those that increase risk for other internalizing disorders. In this study of 1,382 individuals from female-female twin pairs, we examined the relationship between self-report OCS dimensions derived from the Padua Inventory and Eysenck's personality traits neuroticism and extraversion. We conducted factor analysis to determine their phenotypic structure followed by twin analyses to determine their genetic and environmental sources of covariation. A three-factor solution, with dimensions corresponding to checking, aggressive obsessions, and contamination, was the best fit for the Padua OCS items. These dimensions were significantly and somewhat variably associated with neuroticism but negligibly associated with extraversion. The genetic correlations between neuroticism and these three OCS dimensions were moderate to high (0.66 with checking, 0.89 with aggressive obsessions, and 0.40 with contamination). However, the estimated genetic correlation between neuroticism and a unified latent OCS construct was smaller (0.32). Overall this study suggests that genetic, and to a smaller extent environmental, factors underlying neuroticism may act differentially as risk factors for OCS dimensions.

  20. Cognitive Mediation of Symptom Change in Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Jen; Carpenter, Joseph K; Zandberg, Laurie J; Simpson, Helen Blair; Foa, Edna B

    2016-07-01

    This study examined cognitive mediators of symptom change during exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on cognitive models of OCD, obsessive beliefs were hypothesized as a mediator of symptom change. Participants were 70 patients with primary OCD receiving EX/RP either as part of a randomized controlled trial (n=38) or in open treatment following nonresponse to risperidone or placebo in the same trial (n=32). Blinded evaluations of OCD severity and self-report assessments of three domains of obsessive beliefs (i.e., responsibility/threat of harm, importance/control of thoughts, and perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty) were administered during acute (Weeks 0, 4 and 8) and maintenance treatment (Weeks 12 and 24). Study hypotheses were examined using cross-lagged multilevel modeling. Contrary to predictions, the obsessive beliefs domains investigated did not mediate subsequent OCD symptom reduction. In addition, OCD symptoms did not significantly mediate subsequent change in obsessive beliefs. The present study did not find evidence of cognitive mediation during EX/RP for OCD, highlighting the need to investigate other plausible mediators of symptom improvement.

  1. Relationship between Latent Aggression, Inflated Responsibility, Guilt Feeling and Reaction Formation with Severity of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mohammadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research aims to study previous findings about interpersonal ambivalence in people with obsessive compulsive disorders that shows itself as hidden aggression, excessive responsibility, feelings of guilt, and reverse reaction formations. Materials and Methods: In this correlational study, 60 individuals (33 women and 27 men with obsessive-compulsive disorders who were referred to psychologists' offices and clinics of the city of Shiraz were selected through available sampling. Participants completed the Padua Inventory, Spielberger’s State-Trait Anger Inventory, the Responsibility Attitude Scale, the Guilt Inventory, and the Defense Mechanisms Inventory. SPSS-16 software was used to analyze the data.Results: The results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient was significant between excessive responsibility, hidden aggression, feelings of guilt, and reverse reaction formations with the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Based on the results of the regression analysis, feelings of guilt were the strongest predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (β=0.388. Also, the results of path analysis suggest that hidden aggression had predicted feelings of guilt (β=0.47, which was also a predictor of excessive responsibility (β=0.30.Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that a high interpersonal ambivalence exists among people with obsessive-compulsive disorders. Therefore, this structure has the eligibility to be considered in research, especially in the treatment.

  2. Comparing attentional control and intrusive thoughts in obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and non clinical population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Moradi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention is an important factor in information processing; obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD are two main emotional disorders with a chronic course. This research examined the relationship among attentional control and intrusive thoughts (worry, rumination and obsession in these disorders. It was hypothesized that attentional control is a common factor in OCD and GAD. In addition, we compared worry, rumination and obsession among OCD, GAD and non- clinical participants.The research sample included three groups: OCD (n = 25, GAD (n = 30 and non- clinical samples (n = 56. Data were collected using the Attentional Control Scale (ACS, Rumination Response Scale (RRS, Pennsylvania State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Data were analyzed using MANOVA and MANCOVA by SPSS-17.Multivariate Analysis of Variance revealed that the OCD and GAD groups reported greater deficits in attentional control, higher obsessive-compulsive symptoms, rumination, worry, anxiety and depression compared to the control group.This research indicated a great attentional deficit in obsessive- compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. However, no significant difference was found between these two disorders.

  3. The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II: rationale, design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    March John S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II (POTS II, which investigates two different cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT augmentation approaches in children and adolescents who have experienced a partial response to pharmacotherapy with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for OCD. The two CBT approaches test a "single doctor" versus "dual doctor" model of service delivery. A specific goal was to develop and test an easily disseminated protocol whereby child psychiatrists would provide instructions in core CBT procedures recommended for pediatric OCD (e.g., hierarchy development, in vivo exposure homework during routine medical management of OCD (I-CBT. The conventional "dual doctor" CBT protocol consists of 14 visits over 12 weeks involving: (1 psychoeducation, (2, cognitive training, (3 mapping OCD, and (4 exposure with response prevention (EX/RP. I-CBT is a 7-session version of CBT that does not include imaginal exposure or therapist-assisted EX/RP. In this study, we compared 12 weeks of medication management (MM provided by a study psychiatrist (MM only with two types of CBT augmentation: (1 the dual doctor model (MM+CBT; and (2 the single doctor model (MM+I-CBT. The design balanced elements of an efficacy study (e.g., random assignment, independent ratings with effectiveness research aims (e.g., differences in specific SRI medications, dosages, treatment providers. The study is wrapping up recruitment of 140 youth ages 7–17 with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Independent evaluators (IEs rated participants at weeks 0,4,8, and 12 during acute treatment and at 3,6, and 12 month follow-up visits. Trial registration NCT00074815

  4. Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Study versus Other Anxiety Disorders

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    Josep Pena-Garijo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed.

  5. Towards a post-traumatic subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Cocchi, Luca; Harrison, Ben J; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Ferrão, Ygor A; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Cordioli, Aristides V; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated whether traumatic events are associated with a distinctive pattern of socio-demographic and clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We compared socio-demographic and clinical features of 106 patients developing OCD after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; termed post-traumatic OCD), 41 patients developing OCD before PTSD (pre-traumatic OCD), and 810 OCD patients without any history of PTSD (non-traumatic OCD) using multinomial logistic regression analysis. A later age at onset of OCD, self-mutilation disorder, history of suicide plans, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and compulsive buying disorder were independently related to post-traumatic OCD. In contrast, earlier age at OCD onset, alcohol-related disorders, contamination-washing symptoms, and self-mutilation disorder were all independently associated with pre-traumatic OCD. In addition, patients with post-traumatic OCD without a previous history of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) showed lower educational levels, greater rates of contamination-washing symptoms, and more severe miscellaneous symptoms as compared to post-traumatic OCD patients with a history of OCS.

  6. Faulty Appraisals and Belief Domains in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder From Childhood to Adulthood

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    Irem Pisgin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Among cognitive models attempting to explain the etiology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, models such as Inflated Responsibility Model, Misinterpretation of Significance Theory and Cognitive Control Model are currently considered to be valid in many aspects in understanding adulthood OCD. Embracing these models that underline various cognitions in adult OCD, the presence of six faulty appraisals and belief domains can be noticed: inflated responsibility; overimportance of thoughts; excessive concern about the importance of controlling one's thoughts, overestimation of threat, intolerance of uncertainty and perfectionism. Previous studies indicated a difference between early onset OCD and late onset OCD with regards to the presence of pure compulsions, insidious onset of symptoms. Examining faulty assessment and belief domains related with OCD reveals that overimportance of thoughts, intolerance of uncertainty and perfectionism is not only limited to adulthood, but also observed during childhood and/or adolescence periods. Nevertheless, inflated responsibility, excessive concern about the importance of controlling one's thoughts and overestimation of threat found in childhood and adolescence period is not as pronounced and striking as observed with adults. Considering the facts that OCD symptoms and related areas of faulty appraisals and belief domains differ amongst various age groups, early diagnosis and intervention will be critical in terms of the course of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder. The purpose of this review is to briefly examine three current cognitive models proposed for OCD and evaluate six faulty appraisals and belief domains considered to play a role in the understanding of OCD with respect to developmental periods.

  7. 对比强迫症与伴强迫症状的精神分裂症临床特点%Comparison of Clinical Characteristics of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia with Obsessive-compulsive Symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦华; 刘婷婷; 李辉

    2014-01-01

    目的对比强迫症和伴强迫症状的精神分裂症状不同的临床特点。方法选取我院在2012年1月~12月收治的80例强迫症患者作为强迫症组,选取80例伴强迫症患者作为分裂症组。结果分裂症组的强迫行为比率(63.8%)明显高于强迫症组(53.8%)(P<0.05)。结论强迫症患者承受的痛苦及功能障碍比伴强迫症者明显,但强迫行为没有伴强迫症者明显,临床在进行治疗时,要注意区分,做好鉴别,以便于采取对症的治疗方案。%Objective To compare the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder and with forced schizophrenic symptoms of dif erent clinical characteristics.Methods Our hospital in January 2012 to December 2012,admit ed during the period of 80 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder ocd group,80 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder as schizophrenia group.Results The ratio of compulsive behavior schizophrenia group (63.8%)was obviously higher than ocd group (53.8%)( <0.05).Conclusion OCD patients suf er pain and dysfunction than with obsessive-compulsive disorder, but not compulsive behavior associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder,obvious clinical treatment,at ention should be paid to distinguish,completes the identification,in order to adopt the symptomatic treatment.

  8. [Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia: prevalence, explanatory theories, and nosological status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-Ibáñez, Alvaro; Palma-Sevillano, Cárol; Farriols-Hernando, Núria

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical study reviews the main findings and research on comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia. On the one hand, it is argued that high prevalence of comorbidity implies common risk factors (neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates) and a causal relationship between these mental illnesses, OCD usually preceding schizophrenia. On the other hand, independent nosological status of this “comorbidity” is supported on the basis of several external criteria (negative symptomatology, depressed mood, psychosocial impairment, neurobiological and neuropsychological correlates), which distinguish this mixed clinical entity from OCD and schizophrenia separately. These conclusions are discussed, considering the lack of recognition of “schizo-obsessive disorder” within the current diagnosis reference manuals.

  9. Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy for comorbid pharmacotherapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive and schizoaffective disorder

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    Hanisch F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective There is a high comorbidity of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsory disorder (OCD associated with more severe symptoms. Standard pharmacotherapy achieve symptom improvement in approximately 60% only. Results We report about a 48-old women treated for depression which developed successively psychotic symptoms (ideas of reference, psychotic worries, negative symptoms (blunted affect, impoverished thinking, difficulties in planning, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (mainly repeating rituals, avoidance behaviour, collecting and hoarding. She did not respond to combined treatment with neuroleptics and high dose selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. She acutely improved during a course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT and was maintained on outpatient ECTs fortnightly together with 12 mg sertindol and 45 mg mirtazapine for 42 weeks. Conclusion Maintenance ECT is not an approved therapy in OCD but might be an option in pharmacotherapy refractory cases of comorbid OCD and schizophrenic/schizoaffective disorder.

  10. The structure of obsessive compulsive symptoms and beliefs: A correspondence and biplot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang; McKay, Dean; Taylor, Steven; Tolin, David; Olatunji, Bunmi; Timpano, Kiara; Abramowitz, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Research has suggested that obsessive-compulsive (OC) beliefs are differentially predictive of OC symptom dimensions. One additional way in which beliefs and symptoms may be related is by severity; that is, the role of beliefs may vary as a function of symptom severity. In order to evaluate this possibility, correspondence analysis with biplot was applied to evaluate the association between OC beliefs and OC symptom severity across three subsamples, individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; N=398), individuals with anxiety disorders (N=104), and undergraduate students (N=285). To do so, we generated five row categories of symptom severity and six columns based on the Obsessive Compulsive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ) for three subsamples. Unlike factor analyses of inter-variable correlations (or covariances), the CA-biplot paradigm calibrates simultaneously row and column information and estimates dimensional coordinates (analogous to factor loadings) separately for rows and columns. We used the first two dimensions from each subsample because they accounted for most variance (on average 89%) so as to construct a hypothetical plane with them. Then, we visually inspected associations among five severity categories (rows) and six OBQ subscales (columns) in the plane and also calculated their correlations. The visual configurations and numerical correlations were consistent across three subsamples, indicating that inflated responsibility was significantly associated with OC symptoms, but only for those with the least severe symptoms. Importance and control of thoughts were associated with OC symptoms across all levels of symptom severity. The implications of these findings for the cognitive model of OCD are considered.

  11. Provoked arrangement symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder using a virtual environment: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanguk; Roh, Daeyoung; Kim, Sun I; Kim, Chan-Hyung

    2012-04-01

    The current study aims to explore the effectiveness of virtual environment (VE) in producing anxiety variations to arrangement in order to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. Twenty-four participants completed and performed the virtual arrangement tasks three times with three-day intervals. The results showed that the levels of participants' anxiety decreased significantly from the first to the last day, but the levels of decrement were different depending on the type of tasks: the time limit task was most effective among the three tasks in evoking arrangement anxiety. Also, only the Symmetry, Ordering, and Arrangement Questionnaire (SOAQ) revealed significant positive correlations with anxieties. These VE profiles can serve as an adjunct for better diagnosis and treatment for people with arranging compulsion symptoms.

  12. NO ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA AND OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER IN CHINESE HAN POPULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate association between tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in Chinese Han population.Methods Plasma concentrations of TNF-α were measured in 61 drug-free patients who fulfilled DSM-Ⅳ criteria for OCD and 93 healthy controls.TNF-α concentrations in blood were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Two polymorphisms of TNF-α gene were investigated in the same patients and healthy controls:-308 G/A and-238 G/A.The allelic and genoty...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of electroconvulsive therapy delivery in 1001 obsessive-compulsive disorder outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos-Ribeiro, Samara; Lins-Martins, Natália M; Frydman, Ilana; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Ferrão, Ygor A; Shavitt, Roseli G; Yücel, Murat; Miguel, Euripedes C; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2016-05-30

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who sought treatment in seven different specialized centers (n=1001) were evaluated with a structured assessment battery. Thirteen OCD patients (1.3% of the sample) reported having been treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the past. They were older and exhibited higher global severity of OCD symptoms, but were less likely to display symmetry/ordering and contamination/washing symptoms. They also had greater suicidality and increased rates of psychosis. Finally, OCD patients exposed to ECT were more frequently treated with antipsychotics, although they did not differ in terms of responses to adequate trials with serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

  14. Cool and Hot Aspects of Executive Function in Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Katja Anna; Erik lykke, Mortensen; Lambek, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    Aspects of executive functioning (EF) have been put forward as endophenotypes in obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) and meta-analyses support EF underperformance in adult samples. Childhood-onset OCD has been suggested to constitute a separate neurodevelopmental subtype of the disorder......-17 years of which 70% were female, 50 pairwise age and gender matched non-psychiatric controls (NP) and 38 children and adolescents with mixed anxiety disorders (MA). Participants underwent structured diagnostic interviews and assessment with a battery encompassing cool EF tasks of working memory, set...

  15. D-cycloserine augmentation in behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jing Xia,1 Yanqiu Du,2 Jiyang Han,1 Guo Liu,1 Xumei Wang11Department of Psychiatry, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Heping District Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Medicine, Shenyang Ninth People’s Hospital, Tiexi District, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: To evaluate the overall effect of D-cycloserine (DCS augmentation on exposure and response prevention (ERP therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD.Methods: Clinical studies on the effect of DCS augmentation on ERP therapy for OCD compared to placebo were included for meta analysis. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS. Meta-analyses were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan, version 5.2 to calculate the odds ratio and the mean difference, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals.Results: A total of six studies was included in the current meta-analyses, and their data were extracted. Among them, four were for analyses of DCS and Y-BOCS at midtreatment, six for analysis at posttreatment, and four at 3-month follow-up. Besides, three of the six eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis of the DCS and Clinical Global Impression – Severity Scale at posttreatment, and three in the meta-analysis of DCS and proportions of treatment responders and of subjects attaining clinical remission status criteria at posttreatment. Our meta-analyses do not reveal a significant effect of DCS augmentation in ERP therapy for OCD patients, except when measured at midtreatment. Compared to the placebo group, DCS augmentation did show a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS; when measured at posttreatment and in the subpopulation of DCS taken before some of the ERP sessions, DCS augmentation showed a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS.Conclusion: Our result suggested that with the careful

  16. Cross MFF—analysis in studying the obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, S. A.; Panischev, O. Yu; Demina, N. Yu

    2016-08-01

    There were demonstrated capabilities of the Memory Function Formalism (MFF) in analyzing cross correlations in human brain bioelectric activity at obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To extract the information about collective phenomena in (electroencephalogram) EEG brain activity we use the power spectra of memory functions and the memory quantifiers. We discover the pairs of the electrodes with the greatest differences in dynamic and stochastic parameters for patients with the different condition. The high OCD condition is characterized by the influence of the memory effects. The MFF cross correlation analysis allow to describe the collective phenomena in EEG dynamics at OCD including the dynamic, spectral and stochastic behavior.

  17. Vitamin D insufficiency in a boy with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gonca; Tas, Didem Arslan; Varmıs, Dilek Altun; Tahiroglu, Aysegul; Avci, Ayse

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency not only causes low bone mass but also may lead to neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present case, vitamin D supplementation reduced obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms associated with streptococcal infection in a 7-year-old boy. Sudden onset of symptoms, including excessive hand washing and fear of touching anything, had occurred 1 month before presentation. Although there are few studies on a possible causal relationship between vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disorders, the present report; together with previous data, suggest an etiological role of vitamin D-related immune processes.

  18. [The treatment of hypersexuality in a male with obsessive compulsive disorder as psychiatric co-morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairam, J; van Marle, H J C

    2008-01-01

    Patients with paraphilias often also have psychiatric co-morbidity. In this study of a case from an outpatient clinic we discuss the treatment of paraphilia not otherwise specified, characterised by hypersexuality, in a patient with paraphilia and psychiatric co-morbidity. After explaning the diagnosis and treatment plan we describe how the treatment proceeded. We begin by focusing on interventions to tackle the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder and then concentrate more on the patient's hypersexuality and treatment by means of pharmacology. Thereafter we make a more detailed study of the role played by libido-reducing drug in the treatment of the patient's hypersexuality.

  19. The examining the obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety of students who do not make regular physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz Yiğiter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety of students who do not make regular physical activity. For that purpose, 140 high school students participated in the study voluntarily. As data collection tools, inquiry form, State-Trait Anxiety and SCL-90 R ınventories were developed by the researcher, Spielberg (1970, and Derogatis (1977 respectively. In analysis of data, descriptive statistical techniques, independent simple t test and pearson correlation were used. The data was analysed in SPSS 16.0 package program. The significance level was found 0.05. According to results, there was not a significant statistically difference between males and females in obsessive-compulsive disorder (,279, p>0.05 and trait anxiety (,538, p>0.05. Besides, there was a significant statistically relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and trait anxiety in the positive direction (r=,389, p<0.05. As a result, those with obsessive-compulsive disorder had high levels of trait anxiety as well. Keywords: Obsesyon, Compulsive Disorder, Anxiety, Student, Sport.

  20. Ovarian sex hormones modulate compulsive, affective and cognitive functions in a non-induced mouse model of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Mitra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a lack of understanding how surgical menopause can influence obsessions, compulsions and associated affective and cognitive functions in female OCD patients. Early menopause in women due to surgical removal of ovaries not only causes dramatic hormonal changes, but also may induce affective and cognitive disorders. Here, we tested if surgical removal of ovaries (ovariectomy, OVX, which mimics surgical menopause in humans, would result in exacerbation of compulsive, affective and cognitive behaviors in mice strains that exhibit a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype. Female mice from compulsive-like BIG, non-compulsive SMALL and randomly-bred Control strains were subjected to OVX or sham-surgery. After seven days animals were tested for nest building and marble burying to measure compulsive-like behavior. The elevated plus maze and open field tests measured anxiety-like behaviors, while memory was assessed by the novel object recognition. Acute OVX resulted in exacerbation of compulsive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG mice. No significant effects of OVX were observed for the non-compulsive SMALL and Control strains. Object recognition memory was impaired in compulsive-like BIG female mice compared to the Control mice, without an effect of OVX on the BIG mice. We also tested whether 17 β-estradiol (E2 or progesterone (P4 could reverse the effects of OVX. E2, but not P4, attenuated the compulsive-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG OVX female mice. The actions of the sex steroids on anxiety-like behaviors in OVX females were strain and behavioral test dependent. Altogether, our results indicate that already existing compulsions can be worsened during acute ovarian deprivation concomitant with exacerbation of affective behaviors and responses to hormonal intervention in OVX female mice can be influenced by genetic background.

  1. Perceived Stress in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder is Related with Obsessive but Not Compulsive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro eMorgado; Daniela eFreitas; João M Bessa; Nuno eSousa; João J Cerqueira

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is achronic psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts and/or repetitive compulsory behaviors. This psychiatric disorder is known to be stress responsive, as symptoms increase during periods of stress but also because stressful events may precede the onset of OCD. However, only a few and inconsistent reports have been published about the stress perception and the stress-response in these patients. Herein, we have characterized the co...

  2. The psychobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: how important is the role of disgust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, D J; Liu, Y; Shapira, N A; Goodman, W K

    2001-08-01

    Psychobiologic models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have focused on cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CTSC) circuits, noting normal function in cognitive and motoric procedural strategies. Such models have relied on the classification of OCD as an anxiety disorder, seldom exploring other relevant emotions. Based on the hypothesis that a central emotion in OCD is disgust, the authors review the literature on its psychobiology and its relevance to current models of OCD. There are important parallels between the psychobiology of OCD and that of disgust. Obsessive- compulsive disorder may be conceptualized in terms of a false contamination alarm in which disgust plays a crucial organizing or embodying role, not only at a basic brain level, but also in terms of the psychosocial aspects of the disorder. Just as psychobiologic models of panic disorder and post- traumatic stress disorder have been strengthened by the inclusion of preclinical work on amygdala-mediated fear conditioning, so findings on disgust and its mediating CSTC circuits may generate useful hypotheses for OCD research.

  3. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Gerhard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT is widely regarded as an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, but access to CBT therapists is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT with therapist support is a way to increase access to CBT but has not been developed or tested for OCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate ICBT for OCD. Method An open trial where patients (N = 23 received a 15-week ICBT program with therapist support consisting of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, which was assessed by a psychiatrist before and immediately after treatment. Secondary outcomes were self-rated measures of OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, general functioning, anxiety and quality of life. All assessments were made at baseline and post-treatment. Results All participants completed the primary outcome measure at all assessment points. There were reductions in OCD symptoms with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d = 1.56. At post-treatment, 61% of participants had a clinically significant improvement and 43% no longer fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD. The treatment also resulted in statistically significant improvements in self-rated OCD symptoms, general functioning and depression. Conclusions ICBT with therapist support reduces OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms and improves general functioning. Randomized trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this new treatment format. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348529

  4. Using mice to model Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: From genes to circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari, Susanne E

    2016-05-03

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a severe, chronic, and highly prevalent psychiatric disorder that affects between 1.5% and 3% of people worldwide. Despite its severity, high prevalence, and clear societal cost, current OCD therapies are only partially effective. In order to ultimately develop improved treatments for this severe mental illness, we need further research to gain an improved understanding of the pathophysiology that underlies obsessions and compulsions. Though studies in OCD patients can provide some insight into the disease process, studies in humans are inherently limited in their ability to dissect pathologic processes because of their non-invasive nature. The recent development of strategies for genetic and circuit-specific manipulation in rodent models finally allows us to identify the molecular, cellular, and circuit events that lead to abnormal repetitive behaviors and affect dysregulation relevant to OCD. This review will highlight recent studies in mouse model systems that have used transgenic and optogenetic tools in combination with classic pharmacology and behavioral techniques to advance our understanding of these pathologic processes.

  5. Influence ofWithania somnifera on obsessive compulsive disorder in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhanu PS Kaurav; Manish M Wanjari; Amol Chandekar; Nagendra Singh Chauhan; Neeraj Upmanyu

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To study the influence of methanolic and aqueous extract ofWithania somnifera (W. somnifera) root on the marble-burying behavior of mice a well-accepted model of obsessive compulsive behavior.Methods:Mice were divided in different groups(n=6).Fluoxetine(5,10,15 mg/kg), (10,25,50,100 mg/kg) and methanolic extractW. somnifera(MEWS)(10,25,50,100 mg/kg) were administered i.p.30 min. prior to the assessment of marble burying behavior and locomotor activity.The control group received vehicle of the extract.Results:Administration of aqueous extractsW. somnifera(AEWS) andMEWS(50 mg/kg) successively decreaesed the marble burying behavior activity without affecting motor activity.This effect ofAEWS andMEWS was comparable to standard fluoxetine, ritanserin and parachlorophenylalanine.Conclusions:W. somnifera extract is effective in treating obsessive compulsive disorder.

  6. Comorbid Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Insight into Pathomechanisms Facilitates Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Zink

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insight into the biological pathomechanism of a clinical syndrome facilitates the development of effective interventions. This paper applies this perspective to the important clinical problem of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS occurring during the lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia. Up to 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from OCS and about 12% fulfil the diagnostic criteria of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. This is accompanied by marked subjective burden of disease, high levels of anxiety, depression and suicidality, increased neurocognitive impairment, less favourable levels of social and vocational functioning, and greater service utilization. Comorbid patients can be assigned to heterogeneous subgroups. It is assumed that second generation antipsychotics (SGAs, most importantly clozapine, might aggravate or even induce second-onset OCS. Several epidemiological and pharmacological arguments support this assumption. Specific genetic risk factors seem to dispose patients with schizophrenia to develop OCS and risk-conferring polymorphisms has been defined in SLC1A1, BDNF, DLGAP3, and GRIN2B and in interactions between these individual genes. Further research is needed with detailed characterization of large samples. In particular interactions between genetic risk constellations, pharmacological and psychosocial factors should be analysed. Results will further define homogeneous subgroups, which are in need for differential causative interventions. In clinical practise, schizophrenia patients should be carefully monitored for OCS, starting with at-risk mental states of psychosis and longitudinal follow-ups, hopefully leading to the development of multimodal therapeutic interventions.

  7. Comorbid Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Insight into Pathomechanisms Facilitates Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Insight into the biological pathomechanism of a clinical syndrome facilitates the development of effective interventions. This paper applies this perspective to the important clinical problem of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) occurring during the lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia. Up to 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from OCS and about 12% fulfil the diagnostic criteria of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This is accompanied by marked subjective burden of disease, high levels of anxiety, depression and suicidality, increased neurocognitive impairment, less favourable levels of social and vocational functioning, and greater service utilization. Comorbid patients can be assigned to heterogeneous subgroups. It is assumed that second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), most importantly clozapine, might aggravate or even induce second-onset OCS. Several epidemiological and pharmacological arguments support this assumption. Specific genetic risk factors seem to dispose patients with schizophrenia to develop OCS and risk-conferring polymorphisms has been defined in SLC1A1, BDNF, DLGAP3, and GRIN2B and in interactions between these individual genes. Further research is needed with detailed characterization of large samples. In particular interactions between genetic risk constellations, pharmacological and psychosocial factors should be analysed. Results will further define homogeneous subgroups, which are in need for differential causative interventions. In clinical practise, schizophrenia patients should be carefully monitored for OCS, starting with at-risk mental states of psychosis and longitudinal follow-ups, hopefully leading to the development of multimodal therapeutic interventions.

  8. Tourette's disorder with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults: are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, B J; Miguel, E C; Biederman, J; Baer, L; Rauch, S L; O'Sullivan, R L; Savage, C R; Phillips, K; Borgman, A; Green-Leibovitz, M I; Moore, E; Park, K S; Jenike, M A

    1998-04-01

    Clinical research has documented a bidirectional overlap between Tourette's disorder (TD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from familial-genetic, phenomenological, comorbidity, and natural history perspectives. Patients with Tourette's disorder plus obsessive-compulsive disorder (TD + OCD), a putative subtype, share features of both. The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate correlates of patients with TD, OCD, and TD + OCD to determine whether TD + OCD is a subtype of TD, OCD, or an additive form of both. Sixty-one subjects with TD, OCD, or TD + OCD were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R supplemented with additional modules. The three groups differed in the rates of bipolar disorder (p < .04), social phobia (p < .02), body dysmorphic disorder (p < .002), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (p < .03), and substance use disorders (p < .04). These findings were accounted for by the elevated rates of the disorders in the TD + OCD group compared with the TD and OCD groups. These finding are most consistent with the hypothesis that TD + OCD is a more severe disorder than TD and OCD and may be more etiologically linked to TD than to OCD. These findings highlight the importance of assessment of the full spectrum of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with TD and OCD.

  9. Using direct-to-consumer marketing strategies with obsessive-compulsive disorder in the nonprofit sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Jeff

    2012-06-01

    Three to four million individuals struggle with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the United States at any given time. OCD can be a debilitating disorder associated with significant quality-of-life and occupational impairment. First-line treatments for OCD (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and exposure and response prevention therapy) have been shown to be effective; yet, many individuals suffering from OCD experience multiple barriers to accessing these treatments. In fact, it can take as many as 17 years from onset of symptoms to effective treatment. Given the need to increase access to and utilization of effective treatments, direct-to-consumer marketing in the context of OCD appears crucial. The International OCD Foundation (formerly the Obsessive Compulsive Foundation) was established as a nonprofit organization with a mission to educate the public and mental health professionals about appropriate practice guidelines, raise awareness of the disorder, and ensure that individuals looking for treatment find the necessary resources. This paper reviews the obstacles those struggling with OCD face in their attempts to alleviate suffering, as well as the direct-to-consumer strategies and tactics used by the International OCD Foundation to improve access to empirically supported, effective treatment.

  10. The impact of obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnancy on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezginç, Kazim; Uguz, Faruk; Karatayli, Savaş; Zeytinci, Esra; Aşkin, Rüstem; Güler, Ozkan; Sahin, Figen; Murat Emül, H; Ozbulut, Omer; Geçici, Omer

    2008-01-01

    Aim. To examine the effects of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on quality of life in pregnant women. Material and method. Twenty-five pregnant women diagnosed as OCD in two university outpatient clinics were included for the study. Twenty-five pregnant women with no mental disorders and the same sociodemographic properties were taken as the control group. The diagnosis of OCD was confirmed with the DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders Structured Clinic Interview Diagnosis/Clinic Version (SCID-I/CV). In order to measure the severity of OCD Yale-Brown Obsession and Compulsion Scale was performed. Quality of life was evaluated by WHO (World Health Organisation) Life Quality Scale - Short Form (WHOQOL-Brief). Results. The whole subgroup of points of WHOQOL-Brief was significantly lower in OCD patients compared to control group (in all subgroups Penviromental areas. Besides, there was a negative correlation between the duration of OCD and WHOQOL-Brief psychological health subarea (P <0.05). Conclusion. OCD negatively effects the quality of life in pregnant women and is correlated with the severity of the disorder.

  11. Comorbid Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Its Symptom Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulli, Francesco; Melli, Gabriele; Cavalletti, Veronica; Stopani, Eleonora; Carraresi, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    The current paper was aimed at: (1) investigating the comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and personality disorders (PDs) using an OCD sample and clinician-administered structured interviews; (2) exploring the associations of different cluster comorbid PDs with the specific symptom dimensions of OCD; (3) analyzing the variables which could play a significant role in the probability of having at least one comorbid PD, controlling for confounding variables. The SCID-II and Y-BOCS, together with a series of self-report measures of OCD, depression and anxiety symptoms were administered to a clinical sample of 159 patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD. 20.8 % of the participants suffered from at least one comorbid PD; the most common was obsessive-compulsive PD (9.4 %), followed by narcissistic PD (6.3 %). In OCD patients with comorbid cluster C PDs, the percentage of responsibility for harm, injury, or bad luck symptoms was significantly greater than other OCD symptom dimensions (p < .005). Logistic regression found some evidence supporting the association between severity of OCD symptoms and comorbid PDs. PDs are prevalent among Italian people with OCD and should be routinely assessed, as comorbidity may affect help-seeking behaviour and response to treatment.

  12. Adenylate-cyclase activity in platelets of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Marazziti, S Baroni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available D Marazziti, S Baroni, L Palego, I Masala, G Consoli, M Catena Dell’Osso, G Giannaccini, A LucacchiniDipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Although the main biological hypothesis on the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is centered on the serotonin system, indications are available that other neurotransmitters, and even second messengers, particularly the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP signaling, may be involved, though effective data are few. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the basal and isoprenaline (ISO-stimulated velocity of adenylate-cyclase (AC in human platelet membranes of patients with OCD and healthy control subjects. The results showed that the basal and ISO-stimulated AC activity, as well as the dose-response curves of ISO by using agonist concentrations ranging between 0.1 nM and 10 µM, were not different in the two groups. However, OCD patients showed lower EC50 and higher Emax values than healthy subjects. These findings suggest the presence of supersensitive β-adrenergic receptors in platelets of OCD patients.Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, norepinephrine, second messengers, adenylate-cyclase, platelets, isoprenaline, β-adrenergic receptors

  13. Family Accommodation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Study on Associated Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cosentino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine family accommodation in relatives of obsessive-compulsive disease (OCD patients. Accommodation was assessed in a sample of 31 relatives of OCD patients by means of the Family Accommodation Scale. Other variables measured as predictors of accommodation were the tendency of a family member to feel guilty, sensitivity to guilt, anxiety sensitivity and the prevalence of a passive communication style. Accommodation was found to be rather widespread in the family members who took part in our study, and they tended to show more accommodation the greater their sensitivity to guilt and the stable tendency to experience this emotion as well as anxiety sensitivity and a passive communication style. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that, among the variables considered, the family member’s sensitivity to guilt is the only factor which can predict accommodation with regard to the patient’s demands for involvement. On the other hand, the small number of family members in the sample and the lack of clinical data on patients (such as the severity, typology and duration of their obsessive-compulsive disorder pose limits to the generalizability of the results and point to the need for further research.

  14. Empathy and symptoms dimensions of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Soares, Isabela D; Miele, Flavia; Borges, Manuela C; Prazeres, Angélica M; Rangé, Bernard P; Moll, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often display cognitions and/or behaviors that may well reflect the existence of "hyper-attachment" to different environmental elements, including their offspring, family members, divine entities, or even inanimate objects. Based on the fact that both OCD symptoms and physiologic interpersonal attachment mechanisms involve overlapping ventral fronto-limbic circuits, we hypothesized that there is a relationship between empathy, evaluated with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and OCD symptom dimensions. We evaluated 53 patients with OCD and 53 age- and sex-matched individuals from the community with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnosis of DSM-IV axis I disorders, the Saving Inventory-Revised, the IRI (composed of four sub-scales), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Patients with OCD displayed greater levels of affective empathy (i.e., empathic concern (p=0.006) and personal discomfort (panxiety, only the association between hoarding and fantasy remained robust (r=0.41; panxiety symptoms predicted 33% of the variance on the fantasy scale. Our findings suggest that hoarding is linked to specific aspects of interpersonal reactivity. Comorbid depression and anxiety, however, explain a large proportion of the empathic profile exhibited by patients with OCD.

  15. Relations Between Executive Functions and Different Symptomatic Dimensions in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Pedron

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus in the literature as to neuropsychological functioning, the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS and the definitions of the OCS dimensions. We conducted a cross-sectional study investigating the relationship between executive function and OCS severity in the various dimensions, according to the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale criteria. We evaluated 28 patients with OCS, using eight neuropsychological instruments to evaluate executive function. We found that OCS severity in the contamination/cleaning dimension correlates negatively with executive function, inhibitory control and attentional control. Severity in the hoarding dimension correlated positively with cognitive flexibility, visual processing and logical reasoning, whereas it correlated negatively with the capacity to develop efficient complex problem-solving strategies. There was also a positive correlation between severity in the symmetry/ordering dimension and attentional control. Our findings suggest that the profile of executive function in OCD is defined by the severity of the various OCS dimensions.

  16. High sensitivity to punishment and low impulsivity in obsessive-compulsive patients with hoarding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullana, Miquel Angel; Mataix-Cols, David; Caseras, Xavier; Alonso, Pino; Manuel Menchón, Josep; Vallejo, Julio; Torrubia, Rafael

    2004-11-30

    Recent factor-analytic studies involving over 2000 patients have reduced the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) into a few dimensions or potentially overlapping syndromes. Hoarding consistently emerged as a separate factor in all these studies. This study investigated the relationship between OCD symptom dimensions and normal personality traits in a sample of 56 OCD patients. They were administered the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, derived from Gray's and Eysenck's personality models, respectively. The personality scores were correlated with previously identified symptom dimensions from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist (Y-BOCS-SC), controlling for overall illness severity. High scores on the hoarding dimension of the Y-BOCS-SC were positively correlated with scores on the Sensitivity to Punishment scale and negatively with Eysenck's Psychoticism scale. While high sensitivity to punishment is a personality feature common to many OCD patients, it is more strongly pronounced in patients with hoarding symptoms. These patients also appear to be less impulsive or novelty seeking as reflected by low scores on Eysenck's Psychoticism scale. High sensitivity to punishment and low novelty seeking in OCD hoarders might explain their poor compliance and response to conventional treatments, but this question needs to be explored further in a prospective treatment study.

  17. Emotional and Cognitive Variables Associated with Contamination-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Soriano, Gemma; Rosell-Clari, Vicent; Serrano, Miguel Ángel

    2016-05-23

    Different variables have been associated with the development/ maintenance of contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), although the relevance of these factors has not been clearly established. The present study aimed to analyze the relevance and specificity of these variables. Forty-five women with high scores on obsessive-compulsive contamination symptoms (n = 16) or checking symptoms (n = 15), or non-clinical scores (n = 14) participated in a behavioral approach/avoidance task (BAT) with a contamination-OCD stimulus. Vulnerability variables and participants' emotional, cognitive, physiological and behavioral responses to the BAT were appraised. Results show that fear of illness was a relevant vulnerability variable specific to contamination participants (p = .001; η2 p = .291). Contamination participants responded with significantly higher subjective disgust (p =.001; η2 p = .269), anxiety (p = .001; η2 p = .297), urge to wash (p contamination severity (p = .002; η2 p = .260) appraisals, and with lower behavioral approach (p = .008; η2 p = .208) than the other two groups. Moreover, contamination participants showed lower heart rate acceleration (p = .046; η2 p = .170) and higher contamination likelihood appraisals (p contamination symptoms.

  18. Sleep disturbance and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: Results from the national comorbidity survey replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Rebecca C; Olatunji, Bunmi O

    2016-04-01

    A small body of developing research has found evidence for sleep disturbance in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and links between sleep disturbance and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in unselected samples. However, the link between sleep disturbance and OCS is yet to be examined in a nationally representative sample. Furthermore, the extent to which the link between sleep disturbance and OCS is accounted for by symptoms of depression remains unclear. To address this gap in the literature, the present study examined the relationship between sleep disturbance and OCS in a nationally representative sample. Participants were assessed in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R; n = 2073). Consistent with predictions, results revealed that individuals with sleep disturbance reported increased OCS severity compared to individuals without sleep disturbance. Further, sleep disturbance severity was associated with OCS severity, even when controlling for depression (and other anxiety-related disorders). This study is the first to link sleep disturbance and OCS in a nationally representative sample, and these findings highlight the unique role of sleep disturbance in the experience of OCS. Future research is necessary to delineate specific mechanisms that may account for this relationship.

  19. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Empirical review and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Martin E; Kratz, Hilary E; Freeman, Jennifer B; Ivarsson, Tord; Heyman, Isobel; Sookman, Debbie; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A; March, John

    2015-05-30

    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been the subject of much study over the past fifteen years. Building on a foundation of case studies and open clinical trials, the literature now contains many methodologically sound studies that have compared full CBT protocols to waitlist controls, pill placebo, psychosocial comparison conditions, active medication, combined treatments, and brief CBT. This review is part of a series commissioned by The Canadian Institute for Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (CIOCD) in an effort to publish in one place what is known about the efficacy of treatments for OCD. A total of fourteen studies were identified; collectively their findings support the efficacy of CBT for youth with OCD. CBT protocols that emphasized either strictly behavioral or cognitive conceptualizations have each been found efficacious relative to waitlist controls. Efforts to enhance CBT׳s efficacy and reach have been undertaken. These trials provide guidance regarding next steps to be taken to maximize efficacy and treatment availability. Findings from studies in community clinics suggest that significant treatment benefits can be realized and are not reported only from within academic contexts. These findings bode well for broader dissemination efforts. Recommendations for future research directions are provided.

  20. Obsessive-compulsive personality traits: how are they related to OCD severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterneck, Chad T; Little, Tannah E; Chasson, Gregory S; Smith, Angela H; Hart, John M; Stanley, Melinda A; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with greater overall OCD severity, functional impairment, and poorer treatment outcomes (Coles et al., 2008; Lochner et al., 2010; Pinto, 2009). However, research has only examined the effects of OCPD categorically and has yet to thoroughly examine the impact of individual OCPD characteristics dimensionally. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the relationships between various OCPD-related dimensions (e.g., perfectionism, rigidity) and OCD symptomology and severity. The study recruited a sample of OCD patients (n=51) in the OCD units of two residential treatment facilities. Findings yielded significant relationships between OCD severity and the following OCPD dimensions: flexibility, doubts about actions (a dimension of perfectionism), and hoarding. Interpretations of these results and the implications for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcome are discussed. Furthermore, the current study provides insight into a unique perspective which leaves room for more symptom overlap and variability between OCD and OCPD.

  1. Early maladaptive schemas activated in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Hakan; Atalay, Figen; Karahan, Dilara; Caliskan, Mecit

    2008-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present article is to investigate the activation patterns of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method. During the time between 1 January 2006 and 1 April 2006, 45 consecutive patients from an outpatient facility of a general hospital and 45 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects from the hospital staff were included in the study. They were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis of DSM-IV Mental Disorders (SCID-1), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-2), the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF), the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI) and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). The results were assessed using GraphPad Prisma V.3 statistical program. Results. The YSQ total score of the OCD group was significantly higher than the control group (t=3.62, Pschemas were significantly higher than the average scores of the control group, although the others did not make any difference between the OCD and control groups. Conclusion. The study demonstrates that, in the patients with OCD, most of the early maladaptive schemas including social isolation, vulnerability and pessimism, are prominently activated.

  2. Mechanisms of deep brain stimulation for obsessive compulsive disorder: effects upon cells and circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kathleen Bourne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS has emerged as a safe, effective, and reversible treatment for a number of movement disorders. This has prompted investigation of its use for other applications including psychiatric disorders. In recent years, DBS has been introduced for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, which is characterized by recurrent unwanted thoughts or ideas (obsessions and repetitive behaviors or mental acts performed in order to relieve these obsessions (compulsions. Abnormal activity in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC circuits including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, ventral striatum, and mediodorsal thalamus has been implicated in OCD. To this end a number of DBS targets including the anterior limb of the internal capsule, ventral capsule/ventral striatum, ventral caudate nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and the inferior thalamic peduncle have been investigated for the treatment of OCD. Despite its efficacy and widespread use in movement disorders, the mechanism of DBS is not fully understood, especially as it relates to psychiatric disorders. While initially thought to create a functional lesion akin to ablative procedures, it is increasingly clear that DBS may induce clinical benefit through activation of axonal fibers spanning the CSTC circuits, alteration of oscillatory activity within this network, and/or release of critical neurotransmitters. In this article we review how the use of DBS for OCD informs our understanding of both the mechanisms of DBS and the circuitry of OCD. We review the literature on DBS for OCD and discuss potential mechanisms of action at the neuronal level as well as the broader circuit level.

  3. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Progressive Relaxation Training for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, but additional treatment options are needed. The effectiveness of 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for adult OCD was compared with progressive relaxation training (PRT). Method: Seventy-nine adults (61% female) diagnosed with OCD (mean age = 37…

  4. The Genetics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome: An Epidemiological and Pathway-Based Approach for Gene Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grados, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide a contemporary perspective on genetic discovery methods applied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: A review of research trends in genetics research in OCD and TS is conducted, with emphasis on novel approaches. Results: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now in progress in OCD…

  5. Temper Outbursts in Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Their Association with Depressed Mood and Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the…

  6. Family aggregation and risk factors of obsessive-compulsive disorders in a nationwide three-generation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bisgaard, Charlotte; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2013-01-01

    This nationwide register-based study investigates how often obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) with different age at diagnosis occur in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addresses the impact of certain risk factors, that is, sex, degree of urbanization, year...

  7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events : results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C C; Denys, D.; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerba

  8. A Case of Penile Obsession and Compulsive Hypersexuality: Conceptual Frameworks and Responsible Eclecticism in Individual and Family Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Godfrey J.; Sandvold, Kenneth D.

    1989-01-01

    A clinical case of penile obsession and compulsive hypersexuality is interpreted from four different theoretical frameworks--psychoanalysis, behaviorism, Bowen-type multigenerational therapy, and structural/strategic systems theory--to illustrate how conceptual frameworks implicitly or explicitly underlie all therapeutic approaches. Implications…

  9. Brief Report: Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in a 12-Year-Old with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Storch, Eric A.; Bodfish, James W.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves exaggerated or excessive worry about threatening and non-threatening stimuli coupled with impairing rituals believed to reduce anxiety. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social and communicative activities as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Approximately 2%…

  10. Multicenter voxel-based morphometry mega-analysis of structural brain scans in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Stella J; Alonso, Pino; Schweren, Lizanne; Mataix-Cols, David; Lochner, Christine; Menchón, José M; Stein, Dan J; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Sato, Joao R; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Denys, Damiaan; Nakamae, Takashi; Nishida, Seiji; Kwon, Jun Soo; Jang, Joon Hwan; Busatto, Geraldo F; Cardoner, Narcís; Cath, Danielle C; Fukui, Kenji; Jung, Wi Hoon; Kim, Sung Nyun; Miguel, Euripides C; Narumoto, Jin; Phillips, Mary L; Pujol, Jesus; Remijnse, Peter L; Sakai, Yuki; Shin, Na Young; Yamada, Kei; Veltman, Dick J; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Results from structural neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been only partially consistent. The authors sought to assess regional gray and white matter volume differences between large samples of OCD patients and healthy comparison subjects and their relation

  11. Political Ideology and Precautionary Reasoning: Testing the Palliative Function of Right-Wing Ideology on Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    rather than economic issues. Most importantly, we use the scale of obsessive-compulsive symptoms to examine a crucial feature of the precautionary model of political ideology that has been left underexplored: does the promotion of right-wing policies serve a palliative function to reduce feelings...

  12. Tic-Related Versus Tic-Free Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Clinical Picture and 2-Year Natural Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Froukje E; Cath, Danielle C; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; van Oppen, Patricia; Glas, Gerrit; Veltman, Dick J; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van Balkom, Anton J L M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The tic-related subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a distinct clinical profile. The course of tic-related OCD has previously been investigated in treatment studies, with inconclusive results. This study aimed to compare clinical profiles between tic-related and tic-free OC

  13. Streptococcal Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S., IV; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this blinded, prospective, longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders…

  14. The examining the obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety of students who do not make regular physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz Yiğiter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety of students who do not make regular physical activity. For that purpose, 140 high school students participated in the study voluntarily. As data collection tools, inquiry form, State-Trait Anxiety and SCL-90 R ınventories were developed by the researcher, Spielberg (1970, and Derogatis (1977 respectively. In analysis of data, descriptive statistical techniques, independent simple t test and pearson correlation were used. The data was analysed in SPSS 16.0 package program. The significance level was found 0.05. According to results, there was not a significant statistically difference between males and females in obsessive-compulsive disorder (,279, p>0.05 and trait anxiety (,538, p>0.05. Besides, there was a significant statistically relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and trait anxiety in the positive direction (r=,389, p<0.05. As a result, those with obsessive-compulsive disorder had high levels of trait anxiety as well.

  15. Recent Advances in the Study of Sleep in the Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Elaine M; Ross, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently associated with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article reviews recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of the sleep disturbances in these disorders and discusses the implications for developing improved treatments.

  16. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during Planning before and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyser, Chaim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with cognitive abnormalities, in particular executive impairments, and dysfunction of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry. The aim of this study was to investigate if planning as an executive function is compromised in pediatric OCD and is associated with…

  17. Decision making and set shifting impairments are associated with distinct symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrence, N.S.; Wooderson, S.; Mataix-Cols, D.; David, R.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Phillips, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is clinically heterogeneous. The authors examined how specific OCD symptom dimensions were related to neuropsychological functions using multiple regression analyses. A total of 39 OCD patients and 40 controls completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; A. Bechara, A.

  18. Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,…

  19. An Initial Investigation of the Orbitofrontal Cortex Hyperactivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Exaggerated Representations of Anticipated Aversive Events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Stefan; Carter, Cameron S.

    2009-01-01

    Orbitofrontal cortical (OFC) dysfunction has been repeatedly involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder, but the precise significance of this abnormality is still unclear. Current neurocognitive models propose that specific areas of the OFC contribute to behavioral regulation by representing the anticipated affective value of future events. This…

  20. Motivation, Time Course, and Heterogeneity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Response to Taylor, McKay, and Abramowitz (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Erik Z.; Szechtman, Henry

    2005-01-01

    In response to commentary by S. Taylor, D. McKay, and J. S. Abramowitz, the authors discuss the distinctive features of their theory of obsessive-compulsive disorder outlined in their original article, which explains the disorder as a dysfunction of a security-motivation system. The authors address issues of the interrelation of emotion,…

  1. Dissociative experiences in bipolar disorder II: Are they related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

    OpenAIRE

    Gul Eryilmaz; Sermin Kesebir; Işil Göğcegöz Gül; Eylem Özten; Kayihan Oğuz Karamustafalioğlu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of dissociative symptoms and whether they are related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in bipolar disorder type II (BD-II). Methods Thirty-three euthymic patients (HDRS

  2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review of the diagnostic criteria and possible subtypes and dimensional specifiers for DSM-V

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Leckman; D. Denys; H.B. Simpson; D. Mataix-Cols; E. Hollander; S. Saxena; E.C. Miguel; S.L. Rauch; W.K. Goodman; K.A. Phillips; D.J. Stein

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the publication of the DSM-IV in 1994, research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has continued to expand. It is timely to reconsider the nosology of this disorder, assessing whether changes to diagnostic criteria as well as subtypes and specifiers may improve diagnostic valid

  3. Reduced Prefrontal Hemodynamic Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Sawada, Masayuki; Suehiro, Yuko; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Naoko; Negoro, Hideki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that the frontal cortex and subcortical structures may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disorder.…

  4. Rodent models of obsessive compulsive disorder: Evaluating validity to interpret emerging neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zike, Isaac; Xu, Tim; Hong, Natalie; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-03-14

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with unknown molecular underpinnings. Identification of genetic and non-genetic risk factors has largely been elusive, primarily because of a lack of power. In contrast, neuroimaging has consistently implicated the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits in OCD. Pharmacological treatment studies also show specificity, with consistent response of OCD symptoms to chronic treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors; although most patients are left with residual impairment. In theory, animal models could provide a bridge from the neuroimaging and pharmacology data to an understanding of pathophysiology at the cellular and molecular level. Several mouse models have been proposed using genetic, immunological, pharmacological, and optogenetic tools. These experimental model systems allow testing of hypotheses about the origins of compulsive behavior. Several models have generated behavior that appears compulsive-like, particularly excessive grooming, and some have demonstrated response to chronic serotonin reuptake inhibitors, establishing both face validity and predictive validity. Construct validity is more difficult to establish in the context of a limited understanding of OCD risk factors. Our current models may help us to dissect the circuits and molecular pathways that can elicit OCD-relevant behavior in rodents. We can hope that this growing understanding, coupled with developing technology, will prepare us when robust OCD risk factors are better understood.

  5. Risk factors for early treatment discontinuation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Belo Diniz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In obsessive-compulsive disorder, early treatment discontinuation can hamper the effectiveness of first-line treatments. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical correlates of early treatment discontinuation among obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. METHODS: A group of patients who stopped taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs or stopped participating in cognitive behavioral therapy before completion of the first twelve weeks (total n = 41; n = 16 for cognitive behavioral therapy and n = 25 for SSRIs were compared with a paired sample of compliant patients (n = 41. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained at baseline using structured clinical interviews. Chisquare and Mann-Whitney tests were used when indicated. Variables presenting a p value <0.15 for the difference between groups were selected for inclusion in a logistic regression analysis that used an interaction model with treatment dropout as the response variable. RESULTS: Agoraphobia was only present in one (2.4% patient who completed the twelve-week therapy, whereas it was present in six (15.0% patients who dropped out (p = 0.044. Social phobia was present in eight (19.5% patients who completed the twelve-week therapy and eighteen (45% patients who dropped out (p = 0.014. Generalized anxiety disorder was present in eight (19.5% patients who completed the twelve-week therapy and twenty (50% dropouts (p = 0.004, and somatization disorder was not present in any of the patients who completed the twelveweek therapy; however, it was present in six (15% dropouts (p = 0.010. According to the logistic regression model, treatment modality (p = 0.05, agoraphobia, the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale scores (p = 0.03 and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (p = 0.02 scores were significantly associated with the probability of treatment discontinuation irrespective of interactions with other variables. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Early treatment

  6. Randomized controlled trial of yogic meditation techniques for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, D S; Ray, L E; Levine, S; Gallen, C C; Schwartz, B J; Sidorowich, J J

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare efficacy of two meditation protocols for treating patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients were randomized to two groups-matched for sex, age, and medication status-and blinded to the comparison protocol. They were told the trial would last for 12 months, unless one protocol proved to be more efficacious. If so, groups would merge, and the group that received the less efficacious treatment would also be afforded 12 months of the more effective one. The study was conducted at Children's Hospital, San Diego, Calif. Patients were selected according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised (DSM-III-R) criteria and recruited by advertisements and referral. At baseline, Group 1 included 11 adults and 1 adolescent, and Group 2 included 10 adults. Group 1 employed a kundalini yoga meditation protocol and Group 2 employed the Relaxation Response plus Mindfulness Meditation technique. Baseline and 3-month interval testing was conducted using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised Obsessive Compulsive (SCL-90-R OC) and Global Severity Index (SCL-90-R GSI) scales, Profile of Moods scale (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Purpose in Life (PIL) test. Seven adults in each group completed 3 months of therapy. At 3 months, Group 1 demonstrated greater improvements (Student's independent groups t-test) on the Y-BOCS, SCL-90-R OC and GSI scales, and POMS, and greater but nonsignificant improvements on the PSS and PIL test. An intent-to-treat analysis (Y-BOCS) for the baseline and 3-month tests showed that only Group 1 improved. Within-group statistics (Student's paired t-tests) showed that Group 1 significantly improved on all six scales, but Group 2 had no improvements. Groups were merged for an additional year using Group 1 techniques. At 15 months, the final group (N=11) improved 71%, 62%, 66%, 74%, 39%, and 23%, respectively, on

  7. A comparison of clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia with obsessive-compulsive symptoms%强迫症与伴强迫症状的精神分裂症的临床特征比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志宇; 孔维波; 王岩; 李根

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical characteristics of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.Methods The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Yale Brown obsessive compulsive quantity scale (Y-BOCS) of 60 cases of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 60 cases with spirit of OCD schizophrenic patients were assessed and to clear the clinical features.Results Amount of two groups of patients with Y-BOCS score had no significant difference(P>0.05);factors of BPRS to compare the results:two groups of patients with anxiety and depression, lack of energy, thought disorder,hostile suspiciousness, insight score compared with a significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion There is a significant difference in clinical features between patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia with obsessive compulsive symptoms.The specific clinical symptoms can be used as diagnostic basis in the diagnosis.%目的:比较强迫症患者与伴强迫症状的精神分裂症患者的临床特征。方法采用简明精神病量表(BPRS)和耶鲁布朗强迫症量表(Y-BOCS)对强迫症患者60例和伴强迫症的精神分裂症患者60例进行评估,以明确二者的临床特征。结果两组患者的Y-BOCS量表评分比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);PRS各因子分比较结果为:两组患者的焦虑抑郁、缺乏活力、思维障碍、敌对猜疑、自知力等几项评分比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论强迫症患者与伴强迫症状的精神分裂症患者之间有着明显的临床特征差异,在诊断时可以将特异性临床症状作为诊断依据。

  8. Augmentation of treatment as usual with online Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretation training in adolescents with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Salemink; L. Wolters; E. de Haan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for children and adolescents with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is effective. However, since almost half of patients remain symptomatic after treatment, there remains room for improvement. Cognitive Bias Modification training of Interpret

  9. Neuroimaging studies in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing FAN; Zeping XIAO

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental disorder of uncertain etiology.Neuroimaging studies of patients with OCD in China started to appear in the late 1990s,identifying structural abnormalities in the gray matter and white matter of the prefrontal lobe,the corpus striatum,and the thalamus.Studies using positron emission tomography (PET),functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have found increased metabolism and activation in these brain regions that are correlated with the duration,severity and cognitive symptoms of OCD.After surgery for OCD the activation in these target areas decreases.These results in China are similar to those presented in previous neuroimaging studies,including several meta-analyses from other countries.

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Huirong Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF and cognitive function in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Method: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was performed for 139 OCD patients and 139 controls, and the radioactivity rate (RAR was calculated. Cognitive function was assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Results: The RARs of the prefrontal, anterior temporal, and right occipital lobes were higher in patients than controls. For the WCST, correct and classification numbers were significantly lower, and errors and persistent errors were significantly higher in OCD patients. Right prefrontal lobe RAR was negatively correlated with correct numbers, right anterior temporal lobe RAR was positively correlated with errors, and the RARs of the right prefrontal lobe and left thalamus were positively correlated with persistent errors. Conclusion: OCD patients showed higher CBF in the prefrontal and anterior temporal lobes, suggesting that these areas may be related with cognitive impairment.

  11. Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, McKenzie L.; Guo, Wei; Samuels, Jack F.; Wang, Ying; Nestadt, Paul S.; Krasnow, Janice; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Fyer, Abby J.; McCracken, James T.; Geller, Daniel A.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Knowles, James A.; Grados, Marco A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; McLaughlin, Nicole C.; Nurmi, Erika L.; Askland, Kathleen D.; Cullen, Bernadette; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L.; Bienvenu, Joseph; Stewart, Evelyn; Goes, Fernando S.; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Qian, Ji; Nestadt, Gerald; Shugart, Yin Yao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify any potential genetic overlap between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that since these disorders share a sub-phenotype, they may share common risk alleles. In this manuscript, we report the overlap found between these two disorders. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted between ADHD and OCD, and polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated for both disorders. In addition, a protein-protein analysis was completed in order to examine the interactions between proteins; p-values for the protein-protein interaction analysis was calculated using permutation. Conclusion: None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome wide significance and there was little evidence of genetic overlap between ADHD and OCD. PMID:28386217

  12. Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiujias, Marina; Kelley, Elizabeth; Hall, Layla

    2017-03-09

    This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena. While RRBs tend to develop with some similarity in both disorders, the differing role of anxiety highlights important distinctions between ASD and OCD. We urge researchers and clinicians to think critically about the dimensions that affect RRB presentation. Future research should use this review as a starting point to further elucidate the differences between RRBs in these two populations.

  13. Decision-making impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task

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    Felipe Filardi da Rocha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the process of decision-making in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. In addition, we intend to expand the understanding of clinical and demographic characteristics that influence decision-making. METHOD: Our sample consisted of 214 subjects (107 diagnosed with OCD and 107 healthy controls who were evaluated on their clinical, demographic and neuropsychological features. Moreover, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, a task that detects and measures decision-making impairments, was used. RESULTS: We found that OCD patients performed significantly worse on the IGT. Furthermore, features such as symptoms of anxiety did not influence IGT performance. CONCLUSION: Impaired decision-making seems to be a key feature of OCD. Given that OCD is a complex heterogeneous disorder, homogeneous groups are necessary for an accurate characterization of our findings.

  14. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an update and implications for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Gwyneth; Brandl, Eva J; Müller, Daniel J; Richter, Margaret A; Kennedy, James L

    2014-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder with high genetic influence. Antidepressants such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, are widely accepted as the first-line medications for OCD; however, approximately 50% of OCD patients show poor response. Personalized medicine utilizing genetic testing has recently received much attention because the variability of antidepressant response and tolerability are partly due to an individual's genetic variations. This has led to researchers investigating the role of specific genetic factors on antidepressant response and utility of testing in the clinical realm. Genetic test panels are showing promise for guiding antidepressant treatment to improve outcomes in depression. This article will review the most recent findings in the pharmacogenetics of OCD and its related disorders. Promising results have been reported for several serotonergic and glutamatergic system genes and the cytochrome CYP450 liver enzyme genes, which appear to play an important role in OCD and antidepressant response.

  15. Association study between functional polymorphisms in the TNF-alpha gene and obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Carolina Cappi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a prevalent psychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. However, there is some evidence that the immune system may play an important role in its pathogenesis. In the present study, two polymorphisms (rs1800795 and rs361525 in the promoter region of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA gene were genotyped in 183 OCD patients and in 249 healthy controls. The statistical tests were performed using the PLINK® software. We found that the A allele of the TNFA rs361525 polymorphism was significantly associated with OCD subjects, according to the allelic χ² association test (p=0.007. The presence of genetic markers, such as inflammatory cytokines genes linked to OCD, may represent additional evidence supporting the role of the immune system in its pathogenesis.

  16. An open trial of group metacognitive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S; van Koesveld, Kate E

    2008-12-01

    Research supporting the metacognitive model of OCD (Wells, A. (2000). Emotional disorders and metacognitions: Innovative cognitive therapy. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons; Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: A practice manual and conceptual guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons) is beginning to accumulate Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) aims to teach clients to shift to a 'metacognitive mode' and incorporates cognitive strategies and behavioural experiments, with the aim of modifying maladaptive metacognitive beliefs rather than the content of anxious beliefs themselves. The current paper reports on a preliminary study, applying MCT in a clinical group setting with eight adults suffering from a variety of OCD presentations. Promising results indicate a larger randomised controlled trial, with recovery achieved for seven of the eight participants on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale at 3-month follow-up. All participants demonstrated improvement on measures of OCD symptom severity and metacognitions.

  17. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

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    Himanshu Tyagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.

  18. The neuropsychology of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Mittelman, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    A vast and heterogeneous body of literature on the neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has accumulated in recent decades, yielding inconsistent results. In an attempt to quantitatively summarize the literature, we conducted a meta-analysis of 115 studies (including 3452 patients), comparing adult OCD patients with healthy controls on tests of 10 neuropsychological domains. Across studies, medium mean effect sizes were found for all executive function subdomains, processing speed, and sustained attention. Small effect sizes were found for visuospatial abilities and working memory. A large effect size was found for non-verbal memory whereas a small effect size was found for verbal memory, where only the former was found to be associated with impairments in executive functions. Moderators of effect sizes were also investigated. Results are discussed in terms of their clinical significance as well as their implications for current neurobiological models of OCD and methodological caveats.

  19. Social performance and secret ritual: battling against obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Catherine Francis

    2011-02-01

    This autoethnography offers an account of my experience with mental illness and provides an analysis of the performative aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD is a genetic disorder triggered by environmental stressors involving a chemical imbalance in the brain. The resulting biologically altered state leaves individuals to steer themselves among and between "appropriate" performance and secret rituals. Analyzing my own communication practices through a performance lens highlights the importance of image management for people struggling with disability. In telling my own story, this article provides readers an in-depth look at OCD as a traumatic brain disorder whose sufferers rely on communicative performance to maintain their public and private identities, and as a disease that impedes social life for its sufferers. Implications of this account for those struggling with mental disability and for practitioners aiming to help them are discussed.

  20. Treating refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: what to do when conventional treatment fails?

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    Adelar Pedro Franz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a chronic and impairing condition. A very small percentage of patients become asymptomatic after treatment. The purpose of this paper was to review the alternative therapies available for OCD when conventional treatment fails. Data were extracted from controlled clinical studies (evidence-based medicine published on the MEDLINE and Science Citation Index/Web of Science databases between 1975 and 2012. Findings are discussed and suggest that clinicians dealing with refractory OCD patients should: 1 review intrinsic phenomenological aspects of OCD, which could lead to different interpretations and treatment choices; 2 review extrinsic phenomenological aspects of OCD, especially family accommodation, which may be a risk factor for non-response; 3 consider non-conventional pharmacological approaches; 4 consider non-conventional psychotherapeutic approaches; and 5 consider neurobiological approaches.

  1. Treating refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: what to do when conventional treatment fails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Adelar Pedro; Paim, Mariana; Araújo, Rafael Moreno de; Rosa, Virgínia de Oliveira; Barbosa, Ísis Mendes; Blaya, Carolina; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing condition. A very small percentage of patients become asymptomatic after treatment. The purpose of this paper was to review the alternative therapies available for OCD when conventional treatment fails. Data were extracted from controlled clinical studies (evidence-based medicine) published on the MEDLINE and Science Citation Index/Web of Science databases between 1975 and 2012. Findings are discussed and suggest that clinicians dealing with refractory OCD patients should: 1) review intrinsic phenomenological aspects of OCD, which could lead to different interpretations and treatment choices; 2) review extrinsic phenomenological aspects of OCD, especially family accommodation, which may be a risk factor for non-response; 3) consider non-conventional pharmacological approaches; 4) consider non-conventional psychotherapeutic approaches; and 5) consider neurobiological approaches.

  2. Effects of cognitive self-consciousness on visual memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikul, Julia; Vetter, Jan; Lincoln, Tania M; Exner, Cornelia

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has documented high trait cognitive self-consciousness (CSC) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It remains unclear whether elevated CSC levels can also explain cognitive performance deficits that have frequently been found in OCD. This study examined whether experimentally heightened CSC affects visual memory performance in OCD. OCD participants and healthy controls completed a complex figure test under three experimental conditions: simultaneously focusing on their thoughts (= CSC condition), simultaneously focusing on acoustic stimuli (= dual-task condition), and without a parallel task (= standard condition). In the OCD sample both the CSC condition and the dual-task condition reduced memory performance compared to the standard condition, whereas in controls only the dual-task condition led to reduced performance. Results indicate that raising CSC in OCD has a deteriorating effect on memory encoding that parallels the effect of a secondary task. High CSC and its effects on cognitive performance might be amenable to meta-cognitive treatment approaches.

  3. The Efficacy of Exposure and Response Prevention for Geriatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Clinical Case Illustration

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    Mairwen K. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is one of the most frequently occurring psychiatric conditions in older adults. While exposure and response prevention (ERP is considered the most effective psychological treatment for children and adults with OCD, research investigating its effectiveness for older adults is scarce. This clinical case study investigates the effectiveness of ERP in an 80-year-old man with a 65-year history of OCD. The client received 14 individual, 50-minute ERP treatment sessions. Clinician-based Y-BOCS scores reduced by 65% from 20 (moderate at pretreatment to 7 (subclinical at 7-month posttreatment followup. OCI-R total scores reduced by 45% from 38 at baseline to 21 at 7-month follow-up. Despite his long history of the disorder, ERP was effective and well tolerated. The application of ERP for older adults with OCD, including age-specific modifications that may be required for this treatment approach, is discussed.

  4. Induction of compulsive-like washing by blocking the feeling of knowing: an experimental test of the security-motivation hypothesis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Kamath Markad

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H. Szechtman and E. Woody (2004 hypothesized that obsessive-compulsive disorder results from a deficit in the feeling of knowing that normally terminates thoughts or actions elicited by security motivation. To test the plausibility of this proposed mechanism, an experiment was conducted to produce an analog of washing in obsessive-compulsive disorder by eliciting a scenario of potential harm and using hypnosis to block changes in internally generated feelings that would normally occur during washing. Results Participants reacted with increased disgust, anxiety, and heart rate to their mental images of contamination and potential danger. As predicted, high but not low hypnotizable participants showed a significant prolongation of washing when change in feelings during washing was blocked hypnotically. Conclusion Results show that blocking the affective signal that is normally generated during security-related behaviors, such as washing, leads to prolonged performance of these behaviors. This finding lends support to the plausibility of the proposed model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  5. A study of cognitive function in treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with capsulotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Feilong; Li, Peng; Li, Bin; Zhang, Shizhen; Zhang, Xinjie; Yang, Sen; Liu, Hongbin; Wang, Wei

    2017-03-24

    OBJECTIVE Anterior capsulotomy (AC) is sometimes used as a last resort for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous studies assessing neuropsychological outcomes in patients with OCD have identified several forms of cognitive dysfunction that are associated with the disease, but few have focused on changes in cognitive function in OCD patients who have undergone surgery. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of AC on the cognitive function of patients with treatment-refractory OCD. METHODS The authors selected 14 patients with treatment-refractory OCD who had undergone bilateral AC between 2007 and 2013, 14 nonsurgically treated OCD patients, and 14 healthy control subjects for this study. The 3 groups were matched for sex, age, and education. Several neuropsychological tests, including Similarities and Block Design, which are subsets of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; Immediate and Delayed Logical Memory and Immediate and Delayed Visual Reproduction, which are subsets of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised; and Corrects, Categories, Perseverative Errors, Nonperseverative Errors, and Errors, subtests of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, were conducted in all 42 subjects at baseline and after AC, after nonsurgical treatment, or at 6-month intervals, as appropriate. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to measure OCD symptoms in all 28 OCD patients. RESULTS The Y-BOCS scores decreased significantly in both OCD groups during the 12-month follow-up period. Surgical patients showed higher levels of improvement in verbal memory, visual memory, visuospatial skills, and executive function than the nonsurgically treated OCD patients. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study suggest that AC not only reduces OCD symptoms but also attenuates moderate cognitive deficits.

  6. Comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: contributions of pharmacological and genetic factors

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    Frederike eSchirmbeck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A large subgroup of around 25% of schizophrenia patients suffers from obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS and about 12% fulfil the diagnostic criteria of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. The additional occurrence of OCS is associated with high subjective burden of disease, additional neurocognitive impairment, poorer social and vocational functioning, greater service utilization and high levels of anxiety and depression. Comorbid patients can be assigned to heterogeneous subgroups. One hypothesis assumes that second generation antipsychotics (SGAs, most importantly clozapine, might aggravate or even induce second-onset OCS. Several arguments support this assumption, most importantly the observed chronological order of first psychotic manifestation, start of treatment with clozapine and onset of OCS. In addition, correlations between OCS-severity and dose and serum levels and duration of clozapine treatment hint towards a dose-dependent side effect. It has been hypothesized that genetic risk-factors dispose patients with schizophrenia to develop OCS. One study in a South Korean sample reported associations with polymorphisms in the gene SLC1A1 (solute carrier family 1A1 and SGA-induced OCS. However, this finding could not be replicated in European patients. Preliminary results also suggest an involvement of polymorphisms in the BDNF gene (brain-derived neurotrophic factor and an interaction between markers of SLC1A1 and the gene DLGAP3 (disc large associated protein 3 as well as GRIN2B (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B. Further research of well-defined samples, in particular studies investigating possible interactions of genetic risk-constellations and pharmacodynamic properties, are needed to clarify the assumed development of SGA-induced OCS. Results might improve pathogenic concepts and facilitate the definition of at risk populations, early detection and monitoring of OCS as well as multimodal therapeutic interventions.

  7. A Guide in the Process of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Formulation

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    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of effective treatment depends on thorough understanding of disorder and its presentation. Treatment strategies must depend on the individual formulation of the patient. In this paper an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder(OCD patient treated with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT methods is presented. It is discussed that in the therapy, formulation is an ongoing dynamic process and necessarily required for the effectiveness of therapy. Case: Y.B. was 32 years old, single male patient graduated from university. He applied because of his obsessions and compulsions. He was diagnosed OCD after the psychiatric evaluation according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(DSM-IV. In treatment following strategies were applied: 1 Cognitive restructuring of the thoughtaction- fusion, anxiety intolerance, overestimated threat appraisals, 2 exposure and response prevention techniques aimed to test if catastrophic expectations would occur. Discussion: When planning CBT for the treatment of OCD, the first and most important step is a good formulation created with the data obtained from a good evaluation process. Treatment planning in our case was planned on using cognitive restructing techniques for thought-action-fusion, anxiety intolerance and overestimated threat appraisals but the formulation was completed in the course of treatment when the patient could talk about his early experiences. As a result, the formulation is a roadmap that should be taken into consideration at every stage of therapy. Its presence is essential to reach the correct destination and it is a dynamic process needed to be updated according to the information from the patient

  8. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Coskun Murat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD (n=15; 60.0%, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (n=12; 48.0%, and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%. Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD.

  9. Prevalence and severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and their relationships with dermatological diseases.

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    Fatemeh Sheikhmoonesi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients meet psychiatrists 5 to 10 years after onset of OCD .Its relatively high prevalence ratio and the delay in seeking help suggest that patients with OCD may seek help at non-psychiatric clinics. The present study was undertaken to provide some epidemiological data on the prevalence and severity of OCD in dermatological patients. The participants included 265 consecutive patients with primary dermatologic chief complaint. They were visited by a dermatologist and diagnosis of dermatological lesion was done according to ICD-10. All patients were visited by a psychiatry resident and were screened for OCD using the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I. If the diagnosis of OCD has been made, the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale(Y-BOCS was used to evaluate the severity of OCD. To analyze the data student t-test for quantitative variables and X2 tests for categorical variables. From the total of 265 patients, 24 (9.1% met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD and 9 (37.5% with OCD had previously been diagnosed with OCD, however, only three were treated pharmacologically. The most symptoms were pathological doubt (29.1%, fear of contamination (29.1% and washing (54.16%.  Severity of OCD according to Y-BOCS was evaluated among patients with OCD. Six (25% were found with subclinical OCD, 11(45.8% had mild OCD, six (25% had moderate OCD, and one (4.2% was detected with severe OCD. prevalence of OCD in dermatology clinic was higher compared with general population.

  10. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open trial.

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    Fabian Lenhard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT as the first line treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. However, a substantial proportion of patients do not have access to such treatment. We developed and tested the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of a novel therapist-guided, Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT platform for adolescents with OCD. METHODS: An interactive, age-appropriate ICBT platform ("BiP OCD" was developed. Twenty-one adolescents (12-17 years with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD and their parents were enrolled in the study. All participants received 12 weeks of ICBT with therapist support. The primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS. Acceptability was assessed at post-treatment. RESULTS: Participants completed on average 8.29 (SD = 3.0 of the 12 treatment chapters. Treatment yielded significant improvements on all clinician-, parent- and most self-administered outcome measures, with a large effect size of d = 2.29 (95% CI 1.5-3.07 on the CY-BOCS. Patients continued to improve at follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, 71% were classified as responders (≥35% decrease on the CY-BOCS and 76% as being in remission (CY-BOCS score ≤12. Average clinician support time was less than 20 minutes per patient per week. The majority of participants felt that BiP OCD was age-appropriate and rated the treatment as good or very good. CONCLUSIONS: ICBT could be efficacious, acceptable, and cost-effective for adolescents with OCD. More rigorously controlled studies are needed to further evaluate the treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01809990.

  11. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, Fabian; Vigerland, Sarah; Andersson, Erik; Rück, Christian; Mataix-Cols, David; Thulin, Ulrika; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Serlachius, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Background International guidelines recommend Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) as the first line treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, a substantial proportion of patients do not have access to such treatment. We developed and tested the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of a novel therapist-guided, Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) platform for adolescents with OCD. Methods An interactive, age-appropriate ICBT platform (“BiP OCD”) was developed. Twenty-one adolescents (12–17 years) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD and their parents were enrolled in the study. All participants received 12 weeks of ICBT with therapist support. The primary outcome measure was the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Acceptability was assessed at post-treatment. Results Participants completed on average 8.29 (SD = 3.0) of the 12 treatment chapters. Treatment yielded significant improvements on all clinician-, parent- and most self-administered outcome measures, with a large effect size of d = 2.29 (95% CI 1.5–3.07) on the CY-BOCS. Patients continued to improve at follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, 71% were classified as responders (≥35% decrease on the CY-BOCS) and 76% as being in remission (CY-BOCS score ≤12). Average clinician support time was less than 20 minutes per patient per week. The majority of participants felt that BiP OCD was age-appropriate and rated the treatment as good or very good. Conclusions ICBT could be efficacious, acceptable, and cost-effective for adolescents with OCD. More rigorously controlled studies are needed to further evaluate the treatment. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01809990. PMID:24949622

  12. Dissociative experiences in bipolar disorder II: Are they related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

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    Gul Eryilmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of dissociative symptoms and whether they are related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in bipolar disorder type II (BD-II. Methods Thirty-three euthymic patients (HDRS<8, YMRS<5 and 50 healthy subjects were evaluated by SCID-I and SCID-NP. We excluded all first and second-axis comorbidities. All patients and healthy subjects were examined with the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-53, and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder scale (Y-BOCS. Results In pairwise comparisons between the BD-II and control groups, the total CTQ, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, DES, and total Y-BOCS scores in the BD-II group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05. There were five cases with DES scores over 30 (15.2% and one case (2% in the control group. DES was weakly correlated with total CTQ and Y-BOCS in patients diagnosed with BD-II (r = 0.278, p < 0.05 and r = 0.217, p < 0.05, respectively. While there was no correlation between total CTQ and Y-BOCS, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale was found to be related to Y-BOCS (r = 0.330, p < 0.05. Discussion These results suggest that there is a relation between childhood traumas and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or that dissociative symptoms are more associated with anxiety than obsessive symptoms, which prevents the increase of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in BD-II.

  13. Orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus volumes in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after cognitive behavioral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Atmaca, Murad; Yıldırım, Hanefi; Yılmaz, Seda; Çağlar, Neslihan; Mermi, Osman; KORKMAZ, Sevda; Akaslan, Ünsal; Gürok, M. Gürkan; Kekilli, Yasemin; TÜRKÇAPAR, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of a variety of treatment modalities including psychopharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy on the brain volumes and neurochemicals have not been investigated enough in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the volumes of the orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus regions which seem to be abnormal in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. We h...

  14. [Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in the ultra-orthodox community--cultural aspects of diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinker, Michal; Jaworowski, Sol; Mergui, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is reflected similarly in different communities, while symptoms are affected by the patient's cultural and spiritual world. An ultra-orthodox Jew with OCD will perform compulsive actions and will have obsessive thoughts related to the Jewish religious world. The religious symptoms do not necessarily correspond with the main commandments. Despite their significance, Shabbat or moral commandments such as respecting one's parents do not play a central role in the compulsive pattern. The religious compulsiveness of OCD patients focuses on commandments having to do with order and cleanliness and is characterized by repetition, checking and slowness. Obsessive thoughts and compulsive actions of ultra-orthodox OCD patients are usually based on the Jewish scriptures. One might assume that religion, as a framework with rules and dictated rituals, serves as a strong foundation for the development of OCD. However, it is estimated that the prevalence of OCD in the ultra-orthodox community is similar to the general population. Rabbis acknowledge OCD as a psychiatric illness and do not encourage the obsessive punctuality in following the commandments. An ultra-orthodox patient will first consult his rabbi, and after receiving his recommendation, will turn to psychiatric treatment. He might prefer to receive drug treatment rather than Cognitive Behavioral Therapy that may oppose his beliefs. Understanding the cultural background of the patient is essential, in particular when the patient is ultra-orthodox and the treatment is considered "secular". Therefore, cooperation with the patient's rabbi is important in order to obtain the patient's trust and develop a treatment plan.

  15. Obsessive-compulsive aspects as predictors of poor response to treatments in patients with chronic migraine and medication overuse.

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    Curone, M; D'Amico, D; Bussone, G

    2012-05-01

    Patients with chronic migraine (CM) and medication overuse (MO) have a high frequency of psychiatric comorbidity or psychopathological traits, the presence of which may have important implications for the course of the CM and the MO, both for response to treatment and possible relapses. Overuse of symptomatic drugs is regarded as one of the most important risk factor for the transformation of episodic migraine into CM and drug-seeking tendency due to fear of headache in chronic migraine patients shares with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) the compulsive quality of the behavior. Aim of this study was to review the clinical history of a sample of CM patients with MO in which an obsessive-compulsive trait was identified, performing a comparison with a sample of patients without obsessive-compulsive trait. We selected 14 patients with positivity to Spectrum Project OBS (obsessive-compulsive disorder) questionnaire and other 14 patients with negativity to the same tool from among a sample of patients who were enrolled in a previous study on the psychopathological profile of patients suffering from CM with MO. According to data obtained from the clinical records referring to the previous 5 years, patients with OBS questionnaire positivity showed a worse clinical course and a tendency to early relapse in MO after symptomatic medication withdrawal. Our results show that the comorbidity of OCD should be always evaluated in patients with CM and MO as it may play a relevant role--particularly if not treated--among the risk factors favoring the progression of episodic migraine to the chronic form, and/or the tendency to a pathological behavior that prompts the overuse of symptomatic medications.

  16. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in the perinatal period: epidemiology, phenomenology, pathogenesis, and treatment

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    Álvaro Frías

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to describe the main theoretical findings and research conclusions about obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in the perinatal period. On one hand, epidemiological studies show that the risk of OCD onset and/or exacerbation could increase in this period, particularly in the puerperium. Phenomenologically, in this stage aggressive and contamination obsessions are very common and are related to the fetus or newborn. On the other hand, regarding OCD pathogenesis in this period, there is indirect evidence to suggest the participation of neuroendocrine (e.g. female gonadal steroids and oxytocin and cognitive behavioural variables (e.g. hyper-responsibility, threat overestimation, and mental control. In terms of research, more empirical studies are needed to contrast these specific vulnerability factors. Moreover, no empirically validated psychotherapeutic treatments (controlled trials adapted to this OCD sub-group were found, although some studies highlight the role of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT as an effective intervention in the context of selective primary prevention.

  17. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as an augmentation treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Key, Brenda L; Rowa, Karen; Bieling, Peter; McCabe, Randi; Pawluk, Elizabeth J

    2017-02-13

    A significant number of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients continue to experience symptoms that interfere with their functioning following cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Providing an additional augmentation treatment following CBT could help reduce these residual symptoms. Mindfulness interventions that facilitate less reactivity to thoughts and feelings may be helpful for patients suffering from residual OCD symptoms. The purpose of the current randomized waitlist control trial was to evaluate the feasibility and impact of providing an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention following completion of a CBT intervention to OCD patients who continued to suffer from significant symptoms. Results indicated that compared to the waitlist control group, MBCT participants reported decreases in OCD symptoms (d = 1.38), depression symptoms (d = 1.25), anxiety symptoms (d = 1.02), and obsessive beliefs (d = 1.20) along with increases in self-compassion (d = 0.77) and mindfulness skills (d = 0.77). Additionally, participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the MBCT intervention. The results suggest that the use of MBCT for OCD as an augmentation therapy is acceptable to patients who continue to suffer from OCD symptoms after completing CBT and provides some additional relief from residual symptoms.

  18. Schema and Locus of Control as Predictors of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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    Hamidreza Akbarikia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the correlation of maladjusted schema and locus of control with OCD, with the emphasis on cognitive approach to OCD. Method: In this study, 273 Iranian participants were selected; of whom,30% were male and 70% were female. Participants’age ranged from 19 to 34 and the mean age for the sample was 23.42(SD=2.46. Participants completed questionnaire batteries including measure of Levenson Locus of Control, Young Schema Scale and Y –bocsOCD Scale. One sample consisted of patients with a primary OCD according to DSM-IV criteria. The other sample selected for this cross-sectional study was university students.Result: Regression statistics item and reliability analysis were calculated with SPSS and LISREL software. Obsessive compulsive disorder was significantly predicted with both schema and powerful others’ locus of control, as these relations were large but association schema with OCDwas larger than the correlation OCD with powerful others (OCD with schema p.v<0.001 β=.47 and OCD with powerful others p.v<0.001 β=.15.Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that schema and powerful others type of locus of control, were significantly related to both total OCD symptom severity and also to other sub scale of OCD. It is important to mention that schema can significantly predict all symptoms dimension of OCD. Furthermore, the analyses showed that schema was a strong predictor for obsessive thinking.

  19. Neuroimaging of psychotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review.

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    Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Hansen, Bjarne; Kvale, Gerd

    2015-09-30

    The symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include intrusive thoughts, compulsive behavior, anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility, which are associated with dysfunction in dorsal and ventral corticostriato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. Psychotherapy involving exposure and response prevention has been established as an effective treatment for the affective symptoms, but the impact on the underlying neural circuits is not clear. This systematic review used the Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO databases to investigate how successful therapy may affect neural substrates of OCD. Sixteen studies measuring neural changes after therapy were included in the review. The studies indicate that dysfunctions in neural function and structure are partly reversible and state-dependent for affective symptoms, which may also apply to cognitive symptoms. This is supported by post-treatment decreases of symptoms and activity in the ventral circuits during symptom provocation, as well as mainly increased activity in dorsal circuits during cognitive processing. These effects appear to be common to both psychotherapy and medication approaches. Although neural findings were not consistent across all studies, these findings indicate that people with OCD may experience functional, symptomatic, and neural recovery after successful treatment.

  20. Neural response in obsessive-compulsive washers depends on individual fit of triggers

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    Ali eBaioui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD have highly idiosyncratic triggers. To fully understand which role this idiosyncrasy plays in the neurobiological mechanisms behind OCD, it is necessary to elucidate the impact of individualization regarding the applied investigation methods.This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study explores the neural correlates of contamination/washing-related OCD with a highly individualized symptom provocation paradigm. Additionally, it is the first study to directly compare individualized and standardized symptom provocation. MethodsNineteen patients with washing compulsions created individual OCD hierarchies, which later served as instructions to photograph their own individualized stimulus sets. The patients and 19 case-by-case matched healthy controls participated in a symptom provocation fMRI experiment with individualized and standardized stimulus sets created for each patient. ResultsOCD patients compared to healthy controls displayed stronger activation in the basal ganglia (nucleus accumbens, nucleus caudatus, pallidum for individualized symptom provocation. Using standardized symptom provocation, this group comparison led to stronger activation in the nucleus caudatus. The direct comparison of between-group effects for both symptom provocation approaches revealed stronger activation of the orbitofronto-striatal network for individualized symptom provocation.ConclusionsThe present study provides insight into the differential impact of individualized and standardized symptom provocation on the orbitofronto-striatal network of OCD washers. Behavioral and neural responses imply a higher symptom-specificity of individualized symptom provocation.

  1. Factors associated with suicidal ideations and suicidal attempts in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.

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    Gupta, Gourav; Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Singh, Shubh Mohan

    2014-12-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of suicidal ideations (SI) and to study the risk factors for SI and suicide attempt in patients with OCD. One hundred and thirty patients with OCD were assessed on Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale and Symptom Checklist, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Buss–Durkee Hostility Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Family Interview for Genetic Studies, Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale and DSM-IV insight criteria for OCD. Of the 130 patients, 60 (46.1%) had current SI and 81 (62.3%) patients had life time SI. Of the 60 patients with current SI, 30 had current depression as assessed on SCID-CV. More than half (48 out of 81; 59.25%) of the patients with lifetime SI had lifetime comorbid depression. Ten patients had history of lifetime suicide attempts. Current SI in patients without current depression were associated with female gender, presence of comorbid psychiatric illness, contamination obsessions and cleaning/washing compulsions. To conclude this study suggests that SI are highly prevalent in patients with OCD and although depression may be a contributory factor for suicidal ideations in patients with OCD, but it is not the sole risk factor for suicidal ideations.

  2. Severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD: socio-demographic and clinical features

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    Sylvia Rigardetto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of the study is to evaluate the socio-demographic and clinical features with prognostic value in predicting evolution in severe OCD.Materials and methods: patients with a main diagnosis of OCD were recruited according to DSM-IV criteria. Socio-demographic and clinical features were assessed by mean of a semi-structured interview and clinical rating scales (Y-BOCS, HAM-A, HAM-D and SCID-II. Two subgroups were compared according to the severity of symptoms (severe vs mild-moderate.Results: the total sample was made up of 450 OCD subjects aged 34.5±12.1, with a mean age of onset 22.3±9.1; 215 subjects (47.8% were females. Patients with severe OCD (Y-BOCS ≥ 32 showed a more insidious onset and a more chronic course compared to patients with mild-moderate symptoms. Other predictors of increased OCD severity were washing and hoarding compulsions. Lastly, the severity of the obsessive-compulsive condition was higher when it was associated either with mood disorders or with Axis II disorders (particularly Cluster A.Discussion: our study shows a correlation between severe OCD and severity predictors such as functional impairment and mood disorders. Furthermore washing and hoarding symptoms, lifetime comorbity with mood disorders and Cluster A personality disorders seem to predict OCD severity.

  3. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorders and drug addiction: common features and potential treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Oostermeijer, Sanne; Harrison, Ben J; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2011-05-07

    The basic concepts underlying compulsive, impulsive and addictive behaviours overlap, which may help explain why laymen use these expressions interchangeably. Although there has been a large research effort to better characterize and disentangle these behaviours, clinicians and scientists are still unable to clearly differentiate them. Accordingly, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICD) and substance-related disorders (SUD) overlap on different levels, including phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurocircuitry, neurocognition, neurochemistry and family history. In this review we summarize these issues with particular emphasis on the role of the opioid system in the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD, ICD and SUD. We postulate that with progression and chronicity of OCD, the proportion of the OCD-related behaviours (e.g. checking, washing, ordering and hoarding, among others) that are driven by impulsive 'rash' processes increase as involvement of more ventral striatal circuits becomes prominent. In contrast, as SUD and ICD progress, the proportion of the SUD- and ICD-related behaviours that are driven by compulsive 'habitual' processes increase as involvement of more dorsal striatal circuits become prominent. We are not arguing that, with time, ICD becomes OCD or vice versa. Instead, we are proposing that these disorders may acquire qualities of the other with time. In other words, while patients with ICD/SUD may develop 'compulsive impulsions', patients with OCD may exhibit 'impulsive compulsions'. There are many potential implications of our model. Theoretically, OCD patients exhibiting impulsive or addictive features could be managed with drugs that address the quality of the underlying drives and the involvement of neural systems. For example, agents for the reduction or prevention of relapse of addiction (e.g. heavy drinking), which modulate the cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system through the opioid (e.g. buprenorphine and naltrexone

  4. Relations Between Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder and Obsessive-compulsive Disorder as Spectrum Disorders%强迫型人格障碍与强迫障碍的谱性关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆茜; 肖泽萍; 张天宏

    2012-01-01

    强迫型人格障碍(OCPD)的诊断经常与其他精神障碍特别是强迫症(OCD)的诊断存在着界限上的争议.本文通过对OCPD和OCD在产生的历史背景、临床表现、流行病学特征、共病、神经生物学及对药物治疗的预后上的特殊关系进行文献复习,进而讨论OCPD和OPD是否存在一种谱性关系.%The definition of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and its relationship with other mental disorders especially obsessive-compulsive disorder has always been controversial. Focusing on backgrounds, phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidity, neurobiology, and treatment response, this article examines related papers and discusses the relationship between the two disorders.

  5. 耶鲁-布朗强迫症状清单调查强迫症状的初步应用%Application of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Symptoms Checklist on Obsessive-compulsive Symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建明; 兰光华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the obsessive-compulsive symptoms by Yale -Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Symptoms Checklist.Methods Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Symptoms Checklist was administered to 78 outpatients with Obsessive Compulsive disorder(OCD).Results In 78 OCD patients,obsessions average was(9.6 ±6.8),compulsions was(4.7 ±4.2);Top three obsessions were contamination(42.8%),aggressive(35.9%)and symmetry(17.9%).Top three compulsions were cleaning(39.8%), checking(38.4%)and repeating(28.2%).Sexual obsessions in male patients was higher than that in female (u=2.38,P<0.05). Cleaning compulsions in employed patients was higher than that in unemployed (u=2.22,P<0.05).Conclusion Yale-Brown Ob-sessive Compulsive Scale Symptoms Checklist can effectively describe the symptoms of OCD patients .OCD symptoms are associated with demography data .%目的:初步使用耶鲁-布朗强迫症状清单调查我国强迫症的症状类型。方法采用耶鲁-布朗强迫症状清单调查78例强迫症患者的症状及出现的频率,分析症状类型与人口学资料的相关性。结果78例强迫症患者,强迫思维的症状数量(9.6±6.8)个,强迫行为的症状数量(4.7±4.2)个;排在前3位的强迫思维依次为怕污染的强迫思维(42.3%)、怕冲动的强迫思维(35.9%)、要求对称或精确的强迫思维(17.9%)。强迫行为前3位依次为强迫洗涤行为(39.8%)、强迫检查行为(38.4%)、强迫重复行为(28.2%)。男性患者20.9%存在有关性的强迫思维高于女性2.9%,差异有统计学意义( U=2.38,P=0.0172)。无职业者50.0%存在强迫洗涤行为高于有职业者25.0%,差异有统计学意义(U=2.22,P=0.0265)。结论耶鲁-布朗强迫症状清单能够有效涵盖所有强迫症状,初步应用成功。强迫症状类型与人口学资料存在相关性。

  6. Altered brain activity during reward anticipation in pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Jung-Seok Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathological gambling (PG and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD are conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, with a dependency on repetitive gambling behavior and rewarding effects following compulsive behavior, respectively. However, no neuroimaging studies to date have examined reward circuitry during the anticipation phase of reward in PG compared with in OCD while considering repetitive gambling and compulsion as addictive behaviors. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the neural activities specific to the anticipation phase of reward, we performed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in young adults with PG and compared them with those in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Fifteen male patients with PG, 13 patients with OCD, and 15 healthy controls, group-matched for age, gender, and IQ, participated in a monetary incentive delay task during fMRI scanning. Neural activation in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation of both gain and loss decreased in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Additionally, reduced activation in the anterior insula during anticipation of loss was observed in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD which was intermediate between that in OCD and healthy controls (healthy controls < PG < OCD, and a significant positive correlation between activity in the anterior insula and South Oaks Gambling Screen score was found in patients with PG. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased neural activity in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation may be a specific neurobiological feature for the pathophysiology of PG, distinguishing it from OCD and healthy controls. Correlation of anterior insular activity during loss anticipation with PG symptoms suggests that patients with PG fit the features of OCD associated with harm avoidance as PG symptoms deteriorate. Our findings have identified functional disparities and

  7. Brain functional connectivity in stimulant drug dependence and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Meunier, David; Ersche, Karen D; Craig, Kevin J; Fornito, Alex; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Fineberg, Naomi A; Shabbir, Shaila S; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T

    2012-01-16

    There are reasons for thinking that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and drug dependence, although conventionally distinct diagnostic categories, might share important cognitive and neurobiological substrates. We tested this hypothesis directly by comparing brain functional connectivity measures between patients with OCD, stimulant dependent individuals (SDIs; many of whom were non-dependent users of other recreational drugs) and healthy volunteers. We measured functional connectivity between each possible pair of 506 brain regional functional MRI time series representing low frequency (0.03-0.06 Hz) spontaneous brain hemodynamics in healthy volunteers (N=18), patients with OCD (N=18) and SDIs (N=18). We used permutation tests to identify i) brain regions where strength of connectivity was significantly different in both patient groups compared to healthy volunteers; and ii) brain regions and connections which had significantly different functional connectivity between patient groups. We found that functional connectivity of right inferior and superior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was abnormally reduced in both disorders. Whether diagnosed as OCD or SDI, patients with higher scores on measures of compulsive symptom severity showed greater reductions of right orbitofrontal connectivity. Functional connections specifically between OFC and dorsal medial pre-motor and cingulate cortex were attenuated in both patient groups. However, patients with OCD demonstrated more severe and extensive reductions of functional connectivity compared to SDIs. OCD and stimulant dependence are not identical at the level of brain functional systems but they have some important abnormalities in common compared with healthy volunteers. Orbitofrontal connectivity may serve as a human brain systems biomarker for compulsivity across diagnostic categories.

  8. OCDB: a database collecting genes, miRNAs and drugs for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Privitera, Anna P; Distefano, Rosario; Wefer, Hugo A; Ferro, Alfredo; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive and unwilling thoughts (obsessions) giving rise to anxiety. The patients feel obliged to perform a behavior (compulsions) induced by the obsessions. The World Health Organization ranks OCD as one of the 10 most disabling medical conditions. In the class of Anxiety Disorders, OCD is a pathology that shows an hereditary component. Consequently, an online resource collecting and integrating scientific discoveries and genetic evidence about OCD would be helpful to improve the current knowledge on this disorder. We have developed a manually curated database, OCD Database (OCDB), collecting the relations between candidate genes in OCD, microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the pathophysiology of OCD and drugs used in its treatments. We have screened articles from PubMed and MEDLINE. For each gene, the bibliographic references with a brief description of the gene and the experimental conditions are shown. The database also lists the polymorphisms within genes and its chromosomal regions. OCDB data is enriched with both validated and predicted miRNA-target and drug-target information. The transcription factors regulations, which are also included, are taken from David and TransmiR. Moreover, a scoring function ranks the relevance of data in the OCDB context. The database is also integrated with the main online resources (PubMed, Entrez-gene, HGNC, dbSNP, DrugBank, miRBase, PubChem, Kegg, Disease-ontology and ChEBI). The web interface has been developed using phpMyAdmin and Bootstrap software. This allows (i) to browse data by category and (ii) to navigate in the database by searching genes, miRNAs, drugs, SNPs, regions, drug targets and articles. The data can be exported in textual format as well as the whole database in.sql or tabular format. OCDB is an essential resource to support genome-wide analysis, genetic and pharmacological studies. It also facilitates the evaluation of genetic data

  9. Glutamatergic medication in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, A; Banaschewski, T.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Dijkhuizen, R.M.; Franke, B.; Lythgoe, D.J.; Mechler, K.; Williams, S.C.; Dittmann, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compulsivity is a cross-disorder trait underlying phenotypically distinct psychiatric disorders that emerge in childhood or adolescence. Despite the effectiveness of serotonergic compounds in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment-resistant symptoms remaining in 40 to

  10. The Effect of Group Cognitive Therapy on Reducing Depression in the Female Patients with Severe Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

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    Vida Mohammadi Heris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence of mental health problems among psychiatric patients with severe obsessivecompulsive disorder is depression that is one of the methods of non-pharmacological treatment of group cognitive therapy. In this study, the effect of cognitive therapy in reducing depression of female patients suffering from severe obsessive-compulsive disorder examined. Methods: In this study, patients were randomly divided into control and experimental groups and both groups were tested by Beck Depression Inventory before the intervention (second revision. The experimental group participated in ten sessions of cognitive therapy while the control group received no intervention. At the end of the intervention, both groups were evaluated by the test. Results: The data obtained using dependent and independent T test were evaluated. A positive impact in the cognitive therapy group showed decreased depression. Conclusion: The method of group cognitive therapy is effective in reducing depression in patients with severe obsessive-compulsive.

  11. The role of anxiety in sexual disorders: The connection between agoraphobic and obsessive compulsive simptoms and sexual disorders

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    Ana Krevh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Anxienty is closely related to sexual disorders, being their source, preserver, and consequence. Therefore, it represents an important obstacle in the course of a therapy. The role of anxiety in sexual disorders has already been widely investigated, but the question whether the above mentioned connection exists at a micro level remains unanswered. The present study focused on two specific anxiety disorders: agoraphobia and obsessive compulsive disorder. Two translated questionnaries were used: Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia MIA (Chambless, Caputo, Jasin, & Gracely, 1985 and Padua Inventory PI (Sanavio, 1988. Participants were patients with sexual disorders who sought psychiatric help, and a group of students represented a control group. Results demonstrated a strong connection between agoraphobic and obsessive compulsive symptoms on one side and sexual disorders on the other. Among the possible explanations for this connection the circular model seems to be the most appropriate.

  12. Anxiety and Shame as Risk Factors for Depression, Suicidality, and Functional Impairment in Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Hilary; Renshaw, Keith D; Wilhelm, Sabine; Tangney, June P; DiMauro, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are associated with elevated depression, suicidality, functional impairment, and days housebound, yet little research has identified risk factors for these outcomes. Using path analysis, the present study examined anxiety and shame as risk factors for these outcomes across Internet-recruited self-report groups (BDD [n = 114], OCD [n = 114], and healthy control [HC; n = 133]). Paths from anxiety and shame to outcomes were similar and mostly significant across BDD and OCD, compared to non-significant paths for HCs, with one exception: the path from shame to depression was significant in the BDD group (b = 0.32) but non-significant in the OCD group (b = 0.07). Findings underscore similarities in BDD and OCD, supporting their reclassification into the same Obsessive Compulsive Related Disorders category. Results emphasize the importance of targeting shame, in addition to anxiety, in treatments for BDD and OCD.

  13. Dream recall and dream content in obsessive-compulsive patients: is there a change during exposure treatment?

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    Kuelz, Anne K; Stotz, Ulrike; Riemann, Dieter; Schredl, Michael; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Very little is known about dreams in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, especially regarding changes over the course of treatment with stimulus exposure and response prevention. By use of dream content analysis, 40 dreams of 9 obsessive compulsive (OC) inpatients were compared with 84 dreams of 10 matched OC outpatients and 63 dreams of 11 healthy control participants. Dream protocols of inpatients were collected at the beginning of treatment and after the first exposure exercises. Controls filled in dream protocols in respective intervals. Before treatment, dreams of patients showed significantly less positive contents than dreams of healthy controls. Under treatment with exposure, a significant reduction of OC themes was observed. The findings support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming by showing a link between day-time symptoms and OC symptoms in dreams. Contrary to expectations, however, exposure treatment does not intensify dreams.

  14. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Effects on Binge Eating Behaviour and Obsessive-Compulsive and Impulsive Features in Adults with Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Mitchell, James E; Wilfley, Denise; Gasior, Maria; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; McKay, Michael; Wang, Jiannong; Whitaker, Timothy; Hudson, James I

    2016-05-01

    In a published 11-week, placebo-controlled trial, 50 and 70 mg/d lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), but not 30 mg/d LDX, significantly reduced binge eating days (primary endpoint) in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). This report provides descriptions of LDX effects on secondary endpoints (Binge Eating Scale [BES]; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire [TFEQ]; Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating [Y-BOCS-BE]; and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 [BIS-11]) from that study. Week 11 least squares mean treatment differences favoured all LDX doses over placebo on the BES (p ≤ 0.03), TFEQ Disinhibition and Hunger subscales (all p binge eating severity and obsessive-compulsive and impulsive features of BED in addition to binge eating days.

  15. A terapia cognitivo-comportamental no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo Cognitive-behavioral therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Aristides Volpato Cordioli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a terapia cognitivo-comportamental no tratamento dos sintomas do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo. MÉTODO: Por meio da revisão de artigos e livros-texto, descrever as origens e os fundamentos da terapia cognitivo-comportamental no tratamento dos sintomas do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo. Por meio da revisão no Medline de ensaios clínicos randomizados e metanálises, apontar as evidências de eficácia dessa modalidade de tratamento. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: A terapia cognitivo-comportamental é efetiva na redução dos sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos em aproximadamente 70% dos pacientes que aderem ao tratamento. São desafios futuros esclarecer as razões pelas quais muitos portadores não respondem ao tratamento e desenvolver novas estratégias para aumentar sua efetividade.OBJECTIVE: To describe the cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. METHOD: Through the revision of text books and articles the origins and fundamentals of cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. Through the review of randomized clinical trials and meta-analysis in Medline the evidences of effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder are highlighted. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in reducing symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder by approximately 70% of patients who adhere to treatment. The challenges ahead are to clarify the reasons why many patients do not respond to this kind of treatment and develop new strategies to increase its effectiveness.

  16. Specificity of neuropsychological impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comparison with social phobic and normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L J; Hollander, E; DeCaria, C M; Stein, D J; Simeon, D; Liebowitz, M R; Aronowitz, B R

    1996-01-01

    Specificity of neuropsychological dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was assessed by comparing neuropsychological performance in 65 OCD patients, 17 social phobic patients, and 32 normal control subjects. Although both patient groups showed visual constructional impairment relative to normal subjects, only patients with social phobia showed executive dysfunction. Nonconcurrent state anxiety did not correlate with neuropsychological performance. Among anxiety disorders, neuropsychological dysfunction may not be specific to OCD, but the functions implicated may differ across patient groups.

  17. Meta-analysis and association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Gwyneth; Zai, Clement C; Arnold, Paul D; Freeman, Natalie; Burroughs, Eliza; Kennedy, James L; Richter, Margaret A

    2015-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition with a clear genetic component (Nicolini et al., 2009) in which neurodevelopmental mechanisms may be etiologically important. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an interesting candidate for molecular analysis in OCD on the basis of potential functional relevance, positive association studies, and reported interaction between this gene and other neurotransmitters implicated in this disorder.

  18. Escitalopram in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open-label, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjer, Rafael; Dambinsky, Yael; Timinsky, Igor; Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch

    2013-03-01

    The current data suggest that up to 50% of patients with schizophrenia have obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms coexisting with psychosis and between 7.8 and 46% of schizophrenia patients also have full-blown obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of the most selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in the management of OCD in schizophrenia patients. The study was an open-label prospective trial of 12 weeks' duration in which escitalopram at a dose of up to 20 mg/day was added to the existing antipsychotic drug regimen in schizophrenia patients with OCD. Fifteen patients (10 men/five women) with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and OCD were recruited for the study (mean age: 39±14, range 21-61 years) and received escitalopram according to the study design. A significant improvement was observed in the total Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores and in the scores of both the Y-BOCS-Obsession and the Y-BOCS-Compulsion subscale at the end point. In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the total scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and particularly in scores of anxiety, tension, depression, and preoccupation items. No adverse effects of escitalopram were reported by patients during the trial. In our prospective 12-week open-label study, escitalopram 20 mg/day was well tolerated and improved OC symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Our preliminary results are encouraging and a double-blind randomized study is required to confirm our results.

  19. Differential contributions of worry, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive symptoms to ERN amplitudes in response monitoring and reinforcement learning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Allen, John J B

    2014-08-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts (i.e. obsessions) and future-oriented worrisome cognitions that are associated with behavioral ritualistic compensations (i.e. compulsions) and anxious arousal. Research has found an enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) among those with OCD in choice response tasks such as the flankers task, but not in probabilistic learning tasks. To date, research has not directly investigated whether the ERN effect observed in individuals with OCD is specific to the central features of OCD (obsessions and compulsions), or is related more closely to the worry or anxiety observed in this disorder. This study compared groups with relatively pure symptom profiles on OC, worry, and anxiety symptoms (e.g. high on OC, low on worry and anxiety) relative to a "typical" OC presentation group (e.g. high OC, mild to high worry and anxiety) and a non-anxious non-worry Control group, in both flankers and probabilistic learning tasks. For the flankers task, only the Worry group had a significantly enhanced ERN relative to controls. For the probabilistic learning task, the OC typical group had significantly enhanced ERN amplitude on suboptimal choices relative to controls. Across tasks, the experimental groups had significantly enhanced activity on error/suboptimal choices relative to the OC specific group. The results highlight the role of worry across both tasks, and to a lesser extent anxiety and OC symptoms, in performance-monitoring processes.

  20. Lack of Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR Gene Polymorphisms and Alexithymia: Evidence from Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Koh

    Full Text Available Oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with structural and functional alterations in brain regions, which involve social-emotional processing. Therefore, oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual differences in alexithymia, which is considered to be a dysfunction of emotional processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. We recruited 355 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (234 men, 121 women. Alexithymia was measured by using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We performed single-marker and haplotype association analyses with eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs237885, rs237887, rs2268490, rs4686301, rs2254298, rs13316193, rs53576, and rs2268498 in the oxytocin receptor gene. There were no significant associations between any of the eight single nucleotide polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene and alexithymia. In addition, a six-locus haplotype block (rs237885-rs237887-rs2268490-rs4686301-rs2254298-rs13316193 was not significantly associated with alexithymia. These findings suggest that genetic variations in the oxytocin receptor gene may not explain a significant part of alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  1. Lack of Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Alexithymia: Evidence from Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Min Jung; Kim, Wonji; Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Se Joo

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with structural and functional alterations in brain regions, which involve social-emotional processing. Therefore, oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual differences in alexithymia, which is considered to be a dysfunction of emotional processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. We recruited 355 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (234 men, 121 women). Alexithymia was measured by using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We performed single-marker and haplotype association analyses with eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs237885, rs237887, rs2268490, rs4686301, rs2254298, rs13316193, rs53576, and rs2268498) in the oxytocin receptor gene. There were no significant associations between any of the eight single nucleotide polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene and alexithymia. In addition, a six-locus haplotype block (rs237885-rs237887-rs2268490-rs4686301-rs2254298-rs13316193) was not significantly associated with alexithymia. These findings suggest that genetic variations in the oxytocin receptor gene may not explain a significant part of alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  2. Event-related potentials in drug-naïve pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Ota, Toyosaku; Nakanishi, Yoko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Okazaki, Kosuke; Kishimoto, Naoko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Iwasaka, Hidemi; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2015-12-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most common mental health disorders, characterized by obsessive thoughts and/or compulsive behaviors, which may involve specific disorders in cognition and/or information processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are commonly used as physiological measures of cognitive function as they are easily measured and noninvasive. In the present study, 20 drug-naïve pediatric patients with OCD were compared with 20 healthy control participants who were age- and sex-matched to perform the ERP. Based on the guidelines for evoked potential measurement, the P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) were obtained by auditory odd-ball tasks. We found that the amplitudes of the P300 components in the Fz, Cz, Pz, C3, and C4 regions were significantly smaller in the OCD group compared with the control group. There were no between-group differences in P300 latency, MMN amplitude, or MMN latency. Moreover, we found significant correlations between scores on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) and P300 amplitudes at Cz, Pz, and C3. The present study is the first to report smaller P300s and the associations between P300 abnormalities and CY-BOCS scores.

  3. The role of early maladaptive schemas in predicting exposure and response prevention outcome for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Aashild Tellefsen; Vogel, Patrick A; Launes, Gunvor; Haaland, Vegard Øksendal; Hansen, Bjarne; Solem, Stian; Himle, Joseph A

    2011-11-01

    This is the first study that explores whether early maladaptive schemas are related to treatment outcome for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The sample consisted of 88 outpatients with a diagnosis of OCD who completed exposure and response prevention treatment. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory and Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form were administered before and after treatment. Regression analyses using post-treatment Y-BOCS as the dependent variable indicated that higher scores on the abandonment schema at pre-treatment were related to poor outcome and explained 7% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment. Higher scores on the self-sacrifice schema at pre-treatment were related to good outcome and explained 6% of the variance in obsessive-compulsive symptoms at post-treatment. During treatment, only changes in the failure schema were significantly related to good outcome and explained 18% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment.

  4. The effect of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology on executive functions in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill, Ruth; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Castells, Xavier

    2013-11-30

    The presence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is frequent in patients with schizophrenia and has been associated with greater functional impairment. The impact of these features on cognitive function is unclear. In this article, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of OCS/OCD on executive functions in schizophrenia patients. Results indicate that schizophrenia patients with OCS/OCD were more impaired in abstract thinking than schizophrenia patients without OCS/OCD. This finding provides support to the double jeopardy hypothesis and may partially explain the greater functional impairment shown in schizo-obsessive patients compared to those with schizophrenia. Inconsistent results were found for set-shifting, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition and verbal fluency, as indicated by the high statistical heterogeneity found. Potential sources of heterogeneity such as definition of OCS/OCD, age of onset, severity of negative symptoms and premorbid intelligence were planned to be explored but there was an insufficient number of studies to perform these analyses. Our findings highlight the complexity of the relationship between OCS/OCD and schizophrenia and warrant further investigation of the cognitive function of schizo-obsessive patients.

  5. Case Analysis Report of One Case of College Students' Obsessive-compulsive Disorder%一例大学生强迫症案例分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李愧敏

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a group of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (including obsessions and compul-sions) as the main clinical manifestations of neurosis. In this case, the main use of Morita therapy and behavior modification method (shaping law, punitive law), so that visitors gradually overcome compulsive behavior, successful escape forced bath-ing problems.%强迫症是一组以强迫症状(主要包括强迫观念和强迫行为)为主要临床表现的神经症。在本案例中,主要采用森田疗法和行为矫正法(塑造法、惩罚法),使来访者逐步克服强迫行为,成功的摆脱强迫洗澡的困扰。

  6. The presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder worsen psychosocial and educational problems in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    been teased, and 61.8% withheld themselves from taking part in social activities because of Tourette syndrome-related problems. There were significantly more psychosocial and educational problems in children with Tourette syndrome compared with healthy controls. A higher rate of these problems was also...... seen if the comorbidities attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or obsessive compulsive disorder were present. It is very important for the physicians, teachers, and other professionals to be aware of the high prevalence of these social and educational problems to be able to deal......We assessed the psychosocial and educational consequences of Tourette syndrome using a structured interview and child behavior checklist in 314 children with Tourette syndrome and 81 healthy controls. Of the children with Tourette syndrome, 59.0% needed some kind of educational support, 44.7% had...

  7. Obsessive-compulsive-like behaviors in house mice are attenuated by a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Pranish A; Bobrow, Dylan N; Nyby, John G

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments examined probiotic pretreatment (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like behavior induction by RU 24969 in BALB/cJ house mice. In the first experiment, two groups were defined by their daily pretreatment by oral gavage of either (a) L. rhamnosus (1×10⁹ CFU/day) or (b) the saline vehicle. Both a 2- and 4-week probiotic pretreatment attenuated OCD-like behavior induction (increased perseverative open-field locomotion, stereotypic turning, and marble burying) relative to saline pretreatment. Experiment 2 re-examined the 2-week probiotic pretreatment while also comparing it to a 4-week fluoxetine pretreatment. Again, groups were defined by daily pretreatment of either (a) L. rhamnosus for 2 weeks, (b) the saline vehicle for 2 weeks, or (c) fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Pretreatment by either L. rhamnosus or fluoxetine blocked the induction of OCD-like behavior compared with saline pretreatment. Thus the 2-week probiotic pretreatment was again effective. Although side effects of fluoxetine or L. rhamnosus on androgen-dependent behaviors could not be demonstrated, L. rhamnosus treatment appeared comparable to fluoxetine treatment in attenuating mouse OCD-like behaviors.

  8. A comparison of lay-beliefs about autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Buck, Claire

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of the two studies was to compare lay beliefs regarding the aetiology and treatment of autism (study 1) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (study 2). It was hypothesised that beliefs about autism would be based primarily on a biomedical theory while beliefs regarding OCD primarily on psychological notions of cause and cure. Parents' interviews were conducted in study 1 and revealed that, as hypothesised, parents hold predominantly biomedical views about autism. Participants (n = 92) completed both questionnaires that involved rating a range of theories of aetiology and treatment approaches for each disorder. Statistical analysis confirmed that lay beliefs about autism were primarily biomedical and beliefs about OCD were primarily psychological. Multiple regression analyses indicated that a range of individual difference factors (religiousness, interest in mental illness, age and knowledge of autism) predicted beliefs about the importance of some of the five factors derived from factor analysis of belief statements. The relevance of investigating lay beliefs of aetiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders for clinical practice is also highlighted.

  9. Response inhibition and interference control in obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S van Velzen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, motor response inhibition and interference control have received considerable scientific effort and attention, due to their important role in behavior and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Results of neuroimaging studies indicate that motor response inhibition and interference control are dependent on cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC circuits. Structural and functional abnormalities within the CSTC circuits have been reported for many neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and related disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, Tourette’s syndrome (TS and trichotillomania. These disorders also share impairments in motor response inhibition and interference control, which may underlie some of their behavioral and cognitive symptoms. Results of task-related neuroimaging studies on inhibitory functions in these disorders show that impaired task performance is related to altered recruitment of the CSTC circuits. Previous research has shown that inhibitory performance is dependent upon dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin signaling, neurotransmitters that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders. In this review we discuss the common and disorder-specific pathophysiological mechanisms of inhibition-related dysfunction in OCD and related disorders.

  10. Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-6 in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Konuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Recent research implicated place of an immune mechanism in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Despite increasing evidence involvement of cytokine release in OCD, results of the studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma levels of the cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in OCD patients. Methods. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in 31 drug-free outpatients with OCD, and 31-year age and sex-matched healthy controls. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in blood were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Both TNF-α and IL-6 levels showed statistically significant increases in OCD patients compared to controls (P<.000, P<.001, resp.. In addition, the age of onset was negatively correlated with TNF-α level (r=−.402, P=.025 and duration of illness was weakly correlated with IL-6 levels (r:.357; P:.048 in patients group. Conclusion. OCD patients showed increases in TNF-α and IL-6 levels compared to the healthy controls. This study provides evidence for alterations in the proinflamatory cytokines which suggest the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of OCD.

  11. THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS IN PATIENTS WITH OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER, DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zeping; CHEN Xingshi; ZHANG Mingdao; LOU Feiying; CHEN Jue

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variations of contingent negative variations (CNV), P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), depression and anxiety. Methods: Event- related potentials CNV, P300 and MMN were recorded in 31 patients with OCD by Nicolet Spirit Instrument, and were compared with that of 20 depression controls (DC) and 17 anxiety controls (AC) and 28 normal controls (NC). Results: A significant difference of CNV among 4 subject groups was found in both post- imperative negative variation (PINV) and amplitudes (M1) (P < 0.01 ) (emergence of PINV were 45%,60%, 35%, and 4% in OCD, DC, AC and NC groups respectively). Compared with NC group, DC and AC groups showed decreased M1 amplitude ( P < 0.01). A significant difference of P300 among 4 groups was found in both latencies (Cz/N2) and P3 and nontarget - P2 amplitudes (P < 0.05 ~ 0.01). The delayed MMN latencies of OCD and DC were similar to that of P300 changes. Conclusions: CNV, P300 and MMN are useful tools for assessing the brain malfunction of OCD, DC and AC, and its clinical application are suggested. The characteristics ERPs of those patients might be useful indexes in distinguishing OCD from DC and AC patients.

  12. EVOKED POTENTIALS OF OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER:STATE OR TRAIT MARKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖泽萍; 陈兴时; 张明岛; 楼翡璎; 陈珏

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of evoked potentials in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods Evoked potentials P300 , auditory brainstem response ( ABR ) and visual evoked potential (VEP) were recorded from 35 OCD patients and 28 normal controls (NC) with a Nicolet Spirit Instrument. 23 of the OCD patients were followed up after 5 months with the same markers. Results Compared with NC, OCD patients showed decreased P3 of P300 amplitude ( OCD group 3.5 + 1.6μv vs. NC group 5.9 +2.1 μv, P <0.01 ),delayed V latency (6.4 +0. 4ms vs. 5.5 +0.3ms, P <0.01 ) and increased V amplitude( 0.35 ±0.1μv vs. 0.16 ±0.09μv, P <0.05)of ABR and delayed P2 of VEP latency (199 ±39ms vs. 183 +28ms, P <0. 05). The followup measures of evoked potentials suggested that decreased P3 of P300 amplitude and delayed P2 of VEP latency might be state markers of OCD , while decreased V amplitude and delayed V of ABR latency might be trait markers of OCD. Conclusion The changes of P300 and VEP are related to clinical status of OCD patients, while the association between ABR and OCD symptoms need to be further investigated.

  13. Obsessive compulsive disorder networks: positron emission tomography and neuropsychology provide new insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation has shed new light on the central role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. We explored this structure from a functional perspective, synchronizing neuroimaging and cognitive measures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This case-control cross-sectional study compared 15 OCD patients without comorbidities and not currently on serotonin reuptake inhibitors or cognitive behavioural therapy with 15 healthy controls (matched for age, sex and education level on resting-state (18FDG-PET scans and a neuropsychological battery assessing executive functions. We looked for correlations between metabolic modifications and impaired neuropsychological scores. Modifications in glucose metabolism were found in frontal regions (orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral cortices, the cingulate gyrus, insula and parietal gyrus. Neuropsychological differences between patients and controls, which were subtle, were correlated with the metabolism of the prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. CONCLUSION: As expected, we confirmed previous reports of a PFC dysfunction in OCD patients, and established a correlation with cognitive deficits. Other regions outside the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsoparietal cortex and the insula, also appeared to be implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, providing fresh insights on the complexity of OCD syndromes.

  14. Differentiating among singular and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Brittany M; May, Anna C; Whiting, Sara E; Davis, Thompson E; Jenkins, Whitney S; Reuther, Erin T

    2014-01-01

    Social phobia is a frequent co-occurring diagnosis with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, co-occurring OCD in those with social phobia is less common. Genetic, environmental, and cognitive traits are common risk factors for anxiety disorders broadly. It is plausible that shared variables related to OCD and/or social phobia could provide insight into the co-occurrence of these two disorders. The current study explored differences in fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and perfectionism among four groups: those with (1) elevated social phobia symptoms, (2) elevated OCD symptoms, (3) elevated symptoms of OCD and social phobia, and those who were (4) asymptomatic as a control group. A non-clinical sample of 196 participants completed several online questionnaires about social phobia and OCD symptomology. Results identified three cognitive variables (i.e., FNE, total perfectionism, and concern over mistakes) as differential variables in comorbid symptom presentation of OCD and social phobia. A fourth variable (i.e., doubts about actions) was identified as a potential dual risk factor, and four subsequent variables (i.e., parental criticism, personal standards, parental expectations, and organization) were not implicated in differential symptom presentation. Given the different rates of OCD and social phobia co-occurrence, identification of differentiating variables could aid in better understanding of potential risk factors, which may enhance preventative and therapeutic techniques. Study implications, limitations, and future recommendations are discussed.

  15. BDNF Val66Met modifies the risk of childhood trauma on obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Sian Megan Joanna; Lochner, Christine; van der Merwe, Lize; Cath, Danielle C; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J

    2013-12-01

    Childhood trauma has been linked to the development of later psychopathology, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although evidence exists to suggest that genetic and environmental factors are involved in the aetiology of OCD, little attention has been paid to the interactions that exist between genes and environment. The aim of this study was to investigate gene-by-environment interactions between childhood trauma and the BDNF Val66Met variant in patients with OCD. Childhood trauma was assessed in 134 OCD patients and 188 controls using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Linear regression models were used for statistical analyses. Gene-environment interactions were estimated by including a combined genotype and CTQ score in the models as interaction terms. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, CTQ minimisation-denial score and home language by including them in the logistic regression models as covariates. Childhood trauma, specifically emotional abuse and neglect, increased the odds of having OCD significantly (p risk of OCD significantly in a dose-dependent manner (p = 0.024). To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to investigate gene-environment interactions in OCD, and the findings indicate the importance of collating genetic and environmental variables in future studies.

  16. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in African American Children and Adolescents: Risks, Resiliency, and Barriers to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Jahn, Matthew E

    2016-05-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious condition that remains understudied in ethnoracial minority populations. The presence of OCD and the individual, familial, and cultural factors that influence this condition can interfere with healthy development and cause lifelong disability. To date, there has not been a single published research article focused on OCD in African American youth. Ethnic and racial minorities with OCD are underrepresented or altogether absent from treatment centers and research studies, although evidence suggests that OCD may be particularly persistent in these populations. This article reviews risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to treatment in African American children and adolescents with OCD. This review conceptualizes cultural differences in symptomology, low income, reduced access to care, racism, and mental health stigma, as risk factors. Also discussed are the roles of family factors in the development and maintenance of the disorder, including family accommodations, conflictual family communication, and parenting styles. Potential protective factors are also examined, including a positive ethnic identity, social support, present-centered time orientation, and religious communities. Implications of findings are discussed. There is an urgent need for research to understand the needs of African American children and adolescents with OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Facial discrimination in body dysmorphic, obsessive-compulsive and social anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Claudia; Wiesendahl, Wiebke; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Stangier, Ulrich; Kathmann, Norbert; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2016-02-28

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by preoccupation with perceived flaws in one's own appearance. Several risk factors such as aesthetic perceptual sensitivity have been proposed to explain BDD's unique symptomatology. Although research on facial discrimination is limited so far, the few existing studies have produced mixed results. Thus, the purpose of this study was to further examine facial discrimination in BDD. We administered a facial discrimination paradigm, which allows to assess the ability to identify slight to strong facial changes (e.g., hair loss, acne) when presented with an original (unmodified) facial image, relative to a changed (modified) facial image. The experiment was administered in individuals with BDD, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and mentally healthy controls (32 per group, respectively). Overall, groups did not differ with respect to their ability to correctly identify facial aberrations when presented with other people's faces. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of enhanced general aesthetic perceptual sensitivity in individuals with (vs. without) BDD.

  18. Stereotypic behaviour in the deer mouse: pharmacological validation and relevance for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korff, Schaun; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2008-02-15

    Stereotypy is an important manifestation of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD involves disturbed serotonin and dopamine pathways, and demonstrates a selective response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI), with limited to no response to noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRI). Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) engage in various spontaneous stereotypic behaviours, including somersaulting, jumping and pattern running, and has to date not been explored for possible relevance for OCD. We studied the population diversity of spontaneous stereotypy in these animals, followed by assessing behavioural response to chronic high and low dose SRI (viz. fluoxetine) and NRI (viz. desipramine) treatment (both 10 mg/kg; 20 mg/kg x 21 days). We also studied behavioural responses to the 5-HT(2A/C) agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and the D2 agonist, quinpirole (2 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg respectively x 4 days). Deer mice showed a distinct separation into high and low stereotypic behaviour populations, with high and low dose fluoxetine, but not desipramine, significantly reducing stereotypic behaviour in both populations. A significant attenuation of stereotypy was also observed in both groups following quinpirole or mCPP challenge. In its response to drug treatment, spontaneous stereotypic behaviour in deer mice demonstrates predictive validity for OCD. States of spontaneous stereotypy are attenuated by 5-HT(2A/C) and dopamine D2 receptor agonists.

  19. Does cognitive self-consciousness link older adults' cognitive functioning to obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouvost, Caroline; Calamari, John E; Woodard, John L

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate how obsessional symptoms might develop or intensify in late-life, we tested a risk model. We posited that cognitive self-consciousness (CSC), a tendency to be aware of and monitor thinking, would increase reactivity to aging-related cognitive changes and mediate the relationship between cognitive functioning and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Older adults (Mage = 76.7 years) completed the Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2), a CSC measure, and an OCD symptom measure up to four times over 18 months. A model that included DRS-2 age and education adjusted total score as the indicator of cognitive functioning fit the data well, and CSC score change mediated the relationship between initial cognitive functioning and changes in OCD symptoms. In tests of a model that included DRS-2 Initiation/Perseveration (I/P) and Conceptualization subscale scores, the model again fit the data well. Conceptualization scores, but not I/P scores, were related to later OCD symptoms, and change in CSC scores again mediated the relationship. Lower scores on initial cognitive functioning measures predicted increases in CSC scores over time, which in turn predicted increases in OCD symptoms over the 18 months of the study. Implications for understanding late-life obsessional problems are discussed.

  20. S1-3: Perception of Biological Motion in Schizophrenia and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejoong Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Major mental disorders including schizophrenia, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD are characterized by impaired social functioning regardless of wide range of clinical symptoms. Past studies also revealed that people with these mental illness exhibit perceptual problems with altered neural activation. For example, schizophrenia patients are deficient in processing rapid and dynamic visual stimuli. As well documented, people are very sensitive to motion signals generated by others (i.e., biological motion even when those motions are portrayed by point-light display. Therefore, ability to perceive biological motion is important for both visual perception and social functioning. Nevertheless, there have been no systematic attempts to investigate biological motion perception in people with mental illness associated with impaired social functioning until a decade ago. Recently, a series of studies newly revealed abnormal patterns of biological motion perception and associated neural activations in schizophrenia and OCD. These new achievements will be reviewed focusing on perceptual and neural difference between patients with schizophrenia/OCD and healthy individuals. Then implications and possible future research will be discussed in this talk.

  1. Clinical Philosophy for the treatment of paranoid schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Markus Gole

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Philosophy (CP can be understood as an approach to the treatment of mental disorders. The goal of the present study is to put this CP approach to a first empirical testing. I present Arnold, a comorbid case with an insufficient treatment response to conventional, standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Using a single case pre-test/post-test design a CP approach was developed drawing heavily on existentialist and philosophy-oriented writers. The client responded well to this novel treatment approach. Above all, levels of intolerance of uncertainty improved greatly from pre- to post-treatment. Also, a decrease in overall illness severity as well as specific psychopathological variables such as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety could be observed. Results are discussed in terms of the underlying mechanism of the CP approach. An account of the underlying mechanism of efficacy, understood as a tripartite function, is introduced. CP as a philosophy-oriented method within the broader framework of third wave CBT and existential analysis is considered.

  2. Controlled-release fluvoxamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia.

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    Owen, Richard T

    2008-12-01

    Specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors are currently recommended as first-line treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia or social anxiety disorder (SAD). Fluvoxamine has demonstrated efficacy in both these conditions and has recently been marketed in a controlled-release (CR) formulation in the United States for treatement of OCD and SAD. Three 12-week double-blind, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled studies were conducted with this formulation - two in SAD and one in OCD. All three studies showed a robust effect on the key symptoms of OCD and SAD and had broadly comparable efficacy to studies conducted with immediate-release (IR) fluvoxamine. The beneficial effects of fluvoxamine CR were maintained in a 12-week double-blind, randomized extension to one SAD trial. The CR formulation, when compared to its IR counterpart, offers less daily fluctuation in fluvoxamine levels and a more rapid titration schedule; in addition, a more rapid onset of effect may result from these features. Overall, the benefits of the CR formulation, among them the convenience of oncedaily dosing, were achieved without an increased adverse event burden versus the IR form.

  3. Threat processing in obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence from a modified negative priming task.

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    Amir, Nader; Cobb, Michelle; Morrison, Amanda S

    2008-06-01

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often experience intrusive thoughts. These intrusions may be due to biases in information processing mechanisms, including attention, memory, and learning. To examine this hypothesis, we presented a modified negative priming (NP) paradigm with idiographically selected words to 19 individuals with OCD (OCs) and 19 matched non-anxious control participants (NACs). The words included OCD-relevant threat, OCD-relevant positive, and neutral words. This paradigm typically elicits positive priming because participants may learn the contingency between the prime and probe that facilitates responding [Frings and Wentura (2006). Strategy effects counteract distractor inhibition: NP with constantly absent probe distractors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32, 854-864]. As predicted, NACs showed facilitation (i.e., positive priming) rather than NP for all word types, whereas OCs exhibited facilitation for only neutral words. For positive words, OCs exhibited no priming and for threat words they exhibited NP. These results suggest that for idiographic, OCD-relevant threat information, individuals with OCD show difficulty learning the contingency between the information in the prime and probe displays relative to the NACs.

  4. A comparative study of early maladaptive schemas in obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

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    Kwak, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Seung Jae

    2015-12-30

    Schema theory and therapy may be an additional therapeutic approach to identify and treat chronic psychological problems, namely early maladaptive schemas (EMSs), in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and panic disorder (PAD). In the current study, we investigated the characteristics in EMSs between patients with OCD and PAD. Fifty-one patients with OCD, 46 patients with PAD, and 70 normal controls participated in this study. EMSs and depressive symptoms were measured using the Young Schema Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively. Analysis of covariance was conducted with age, sex, BDI score, and education level as covariates to assess group differences. Direct comparisons among the three groups revealed that the defectiveness/shame and social isolation/alienation schemas were prominently activated in patients with OCD, whereas the vulnerability to harm or illness and self-sacrifice were activated in patients with PAD. In subgroup analysis, these differences were observed between subgroups with lower BDI scores, but not between the patient subgroups with higher BDI scores. However, the differences between the patient groups in the defectiveness/shame and vulnerability to harm or illness schemas almost reached significance. Patients with OCD and PAD differed in particular EMS characteristics, which could have potential therapeutic implications.

  5. Sleep, arousal, and circadian rhythms in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.

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    Nota, Jacob A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Coles, Meredith E

    2015-04-01

    Findings of this meta-analysis show that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is related to disruptions in both the duration and timing of sleep. PsycINFO and Google Scholar database searches identified 12 relevant studies that compared measures of sleep in individuals with OCD to those of either a healthy control group or published norms. Sleep measures included sleep onset latency, sleep duration, awakening after sleep onset, percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, percentage of slow wave sleep, and prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Individual effect sizes were pooled using a random effects model. Sleep duration was found to be shorter, and the prevalence of DSPD higher, in individuals with OCD compared to controls. Further, excluding samples with comorbid depression did not meaningfully reduce the magnitude of these effects (although the results were no longer statistically significant) and medication use by participants is unlikely to have systematically altered sleep timing. Overall, available data suggest that sleep disruption is associated with OCD but further research on both sleep duration and sleep timing in individuals with OCD is needed.

  6. Anxiety provocation and measurement using virtual reality in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Kim, Kwanguk; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Cha, Kyung Ryeol; Park, Junyoung; Han, Kiwan; Kim, Yun Ki; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I

    2008-12-01

    The current study is a preliminary test of a virtual reality (VR) anxiety-provoking tool using a sample of participants with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The tasks were administrated to 33 participants with OCD and 30 healthy control participants. In the VR task, participants navigated through a virtual environment using a joystick and head-mounted display. The virtual environment consisted of three phases: training, distraction, and the main task. After the training and distraction phases, participants were allowed to check (a common OCD behavior) freely, as they would in the real world, and a visual analogy scale of anxiety was recorded during VR. Participants' anxiety in the virtual environment was measured with a validated measure of psychiatric symptoms and functions and analyzed with a VR questionnaire. Results revealed that those with OCD had significantly higher anxiety in the virtual environment than did healthy controls, and the decreased ratio of anxiety in participants with OCD was also higher than that of healthy controls. Moreover, the degree of anxiety of an individual with OCD was positively correlated with a his or her symptom score and immersive tendency score. These results suggest the possibility that VR technology has a value as an anxiety-provoking or treatment tool for OCD.

  7. Neuropsychological functioning in youth with obsessive compulsive disorder: an examination of executive function and memory impairment.

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    Lewin, Adam B; Larson, Michael J; Park, Jennifer M; McGuire, Joseph F; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-30

    Preliminary research suggests neuropsychological deficits in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) similar to those in adults; however, small samples and methodological confounds limit interpretation. We aimed to examine the rates and clinical correlates of cognitive sequelae in youth with OCD, focusing on executive functioning and memory abilities. Youth ages 7-17 years with OCD (N=96) completed a hypothesis-driven neuropsychological battery (including the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, California Verbal Learning Test, and subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning) that primarily assessed executive functioning, memory and processing speed. Cognitive sequelae were identified in 65% of youth (37% using a more stringent definition of impairment). Magnitude of cognitive sequelae was not associated with OCD severity or age; however, greater neuropsychological impairments were found amongst youth prescribed atypical neuroleptics and those diagnosed with comorbid tic disorders. Comorbidity burden was associated with presence of neuropsychological impairment, but was not specific to any single test. Findings suggest that the presence of cognitive sequelae is prevalent amongst treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Deficits were found in executive functioning and non-verbal memory performance but these impairments were not associated with OCD severity.

  8. Investigation of attentional bias in obsessive compulsive disorder with and without depression in visual search.

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    Sharon Morein-Zamir

    Full Text Available Whether Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is associated with an increased attentional bias to emotive stimuli remains controversial. Additionally, it is unclear whether comorbid depression modulates abnormal emotional processing in OCD. This study examined attentional bias to OC-relevant scenes using a visual search task. Controls, non-depressed and depressed OCD patients searched for their personally selected positive images amongst their negative distractors, and vice versa. Whilst the OCD groups were slower than healthy individuals in rating the images, there were no group differences in the magnitude of negative bias to concern-related scenes. A second experiment employing a common set of images replicated the results on an additional sample of OCD patients. Although there was a larger bias to negative OC-related images without pre-exposure overall, no group differences in attentional bias were observed. However, OCD patients subsequently rated the images more slowly and more negatively, again suggesting post-attentional processing abnormalities. The results argue against a robust attentional bias in OCD patients, regardless of their depression status and speak to generalized difficulties disengaging from negative valence stimuli. Rather, post-attentional processing abnormalities may account for differences in emotional processing in OCD.

  9. Obsessive-compulsive disorders and anxiety disorders: A comparison of personality and emotionality patterns.

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    Pelissolo, Antoine; Moukheiber, Albert; Mallet, Luc

    2015-10-30

    Even though obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) and anxiety disorders (AD) have been separated in the taxonomy adopted by the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, many issues remain concerning the physiopathological similarities and differences between those categories. Our objective was therefore to explore and compare their personality and emotional features, with the assumption that the distinction of two independent spectrums should imply the existence of two partially distinct temperamental profiles. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the Positive and Negative Emotionality (PNE) scale to compare two groups of patients with OCD (n=227) or AD (n=827). The latter group included patients with social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. Most temperament, character and emotionality measures showed no significant differences between both groups. In the personality measures results, only the self-directedness score (TCI-R) was significantly lower in OCD patients but this difference was not significant when the comparison was adjusted for the depressive scale score and age. Only lower PNE positive affects scores were obtained in OCD patients in the adjusted comparisons. These findings suggest that OCD and AD are not really distinguishable from the point of view of associated personality traits.

  10. Relationship of quality of life with disability grade in obsessive compulsive disorder and dysthymic disorder

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    N V Roopesh Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on the relationship of quality of life (QOL in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and dysthymic disorder (DD with disability grade in India. Aim: To assess the relation of QOL with disability level in OCD and DD. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was conducted in a medical institution in Davanagere, Karnataka, India. Data was collected by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV Text Revision (DSM IV TR criteria, WHO QOL BREF and IDEAS. Relationship between disability grade and QOL was assessed by independent sample t test. Results: Mild disabled OCD patients had a significantly better QOL in the Q1 domain i.e. perception on quality of life as compared to moderately disabled patients ( P 0.05. But, QOL score in physical domain showed significant difference across disability grades (56.00, SD = 6.89; 48.50, SD = 12.28 in DD, but not in other domains. Conclusion: Perception of QOL is better in those with mild disability in OCD, but in DD, physical domain of QOL score is more in mild disability compared to moderate disability.

  11. Cognitive inflexibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression is associated with distinct neural correlates.

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    Peter L Remijnse

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and major depressive disorder (MDD are frequently co-morbid, and dysfunctional frontal-striatal circuits have been implicated in both disorders. Neurobiological distinctions between OCD and MDD are insufficiently clear, and comparative neuroimaging studies are extremely scarce. OCD and MDD may be characterized by cognitive rigidity at the phenotype level, and frontal-striatal brain circuits constitute the neural substrate of intact cognitive flexibility. In the present study, 18 non-medicated MDD-free patients with OCD, 19 non-medicated OCD-free patients with MDD, and 29 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of a self-paced letter/digit task switching paradigm. Results showed that both patient groups responded slower relative to controls during repeat events, but only in OCD patients slowing was associated with decreased error rates. During switching, patients with OCD showed increased activation of the putamen, anterior cingulate and insula, whereas MDD patients recruited inferior parietal cortex and precuneus to a lesser extent. Patients with OCD and MDD commonly failed to reveal anterior prefrontal cortex activation during switching. This study shows subtle behavioral abnormalities on a measure of cognitive flexibility in MDD and OCD, associated with differential frontal-striatal brain dysfunction in both disorders. These findings may add to the development of biological markers that more precisely characterize frequently co-morbid neuropsychiatric disorders such as OCD and MDD.

  12. Cognitive deficits of executive functions and decision-making in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Dittrich, Winand H; Johansen, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The nature of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by contradictory findings in terms of specific neuropsychological deficits. Selective impairments have been suggested to involve visuospatial memory, set shifting, decision-making and response inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive deficits in decision-making and executive functioning in OCD. It was hypothesized that the OCD patients would be less accurate in their responses compared to the healthy controls in rational decision-making on a version of the Cambridge gambling task (CGT) and on the color-word interference test and on a version of the Tower of Hanoi test (tower test) of executive functioning. Thirteen participants with OCD were compared to a group of healthy controls (n = 13) matched for age, gender, education and verbal IQ. Results revealed significant differences between the OCD group and the healthy control group on quality of decision-making on the CGT and for achievement score on the tower test. On these two tasks the OCD group performed worse than the healthy control group. The symptom-dimension analysis revealed performance differences where safety checking patients were impaired on the tower test compared to contamination patients. Results are discussed in the framework of cognition and emotion processing and findings implicate that OCD models should address, specifically, the interaction between cognition and emotion. Here the emotional disruption hypothesis is forwarded to account for the dysfunctional behaviors in OCD. Further implications regarding methodological and inhibitory factors affecting cognitive information processing are highlighted.

  13. Animal behavior as a conceptual framework for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

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    Eilam, David; Zor, Rama; Fineberg, Naomi; Hermesh, Haggai

    2012-06-01

    Research on affective disorders may benefit from the methodology of studying animal behavior, in which tools are available for qualitatively and quantitatively measuring and assessing behavior with as much sophistication and attention to detail as in the analysis of the brain. To illustrate this, we first briefly review the characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and then demonstrate how the quinpirole rat model is used as a conceptual model in studying human OCD patients. Like the rat model, the study of OCD in humans is based on video-telemetry, whereby observable, measurable, and relatively objective characteristics of OCD behavior may be extracted. In this process, OCD rituals are defined in terms of the space in which they are executed and the movements (acts) that are performed at each location or object in this space. Accordingly, OCD behavior is conceived of as comprising three hierarchical components: (i) rituals (as defined by the patients); (ii) visits to objects/locations in the environment at which the patient stops during the ritual; and (iii) acts performed at each object/location during visits. Scoring these structural components (behavioral units) is conveniently possible with readily available tools for behavioral description and analysis, providing quantitative and qualitative measures of the OCD hallmarks of repetition and addition, as well as the reduced functionality in OCD behavior. Altogether, the concept that was developed in the context of an animal model provides a useful tool that may facilitate OCD diagnosis, assessment and treatment, and may be similarly applied for other psychiatric disorders.

  14. Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: Clinical Correlates and CBT Treatment Outcomes.

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    Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G

    2015-07-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N = 295; Mean = 15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n = 261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n = 127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N = 100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.19 and 0.26, ps CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms.

  15. Compulsive checking behavior of quinpirole-sensitized rats as an animal model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder(OCD: form and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonura Carlo A

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous report showed that the open field behavior of rats sensitized to the dopamine agonist quinpirole satisfies 5 performance criteria for compulsive checking behavior. In an effort to extend the parallel between the drug-induced phenomenon and human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the present study investigated whether the checking behavior of quinpirole rats is subject to interruption, which is an attribute characteristic of OCD compulsions. For this purpose, the rat's home-cage was placed into the open field at the beginning or the middle of a 2-hr test. Results Introduction of the home-cage reduced checking behavior, as rats stayed inside the cage. After 40 min, checking resurfaced, as quinpirole rats exited the home-cage often. An unfamiliar cage had no such effects on quinpirole rats or saline controls. Conclusions Checking behavior induced by quinpirole is not irrepressible but can be suspended. Results strengthen the quinpirole preparation as an animal model of OCD compulsive checking.

  16. 伴强迫症状的儿童精神分裂症社会功能调查%The investigation obsessive-compulsive accompanied childhood schizophrenia on the recovery level of social function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雁冰; 郭雅明

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the differences of social function recovery level before and after the treatment of obsessive -compulsive accompanied or obsessive -compulsive unaccompanied childhood schizophrenia .Methods:The social function recovery of obsessive -com-pulsive accompanied or obsessive -compulsive unaccompanied childhood schizophrenia after treatment was comparatively investigated u -sing PSP scale .Results:The treatment of obsessive -compulsive accompanied childhood schizophrenia is more difficult , and the social function recovery after treatment is relatively slow .However , the social function recovery of obsessive -compulsive unaccompanied child-hood schizophrenia is better than that of obsessive -compulsive accompanied childhood schizophrenia in the early treatment and the clini -cal cure, but the social function of the two groups show no obvious difference after six months clinical improved obviously or clinical recov -ery according to measurement results of PSP scale .Conclusion:The recovery of social function was extremely important for children with schizophrenia to make them return to their normal study and living environment and prevent recurrence .However, the society function of obsessive-compulsive accompanied childhood schizophrenia recovers slower after curing , which means more attention should be given to this kind of patients and the drug consolidation treatment and the training of social function should be insisted on .%目的:调查伴强迫症状的儿童精神分裂症与不伴强迫症状的儿童精神分裂症患者治疗后的社会功能恢复情况。方法:对伴强迫症状的精神分裂症儿童和不伴强迫症状的精神分裂症患者治疗后的社会功能采用个人和社会功能量表( PSP量表)进行比较调查。结果:伴强迫症状的儿童精神分裂症治疗后社会功能恢复较慢,在治疗初期和达到临床显进或痊愈后的不伴强迫症状的儿童精神分裂症社会功能较

  17. Evidence for a genetic overlap between body dysmorphic concerns and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in an adult female community twin sample.

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    Monzani, Benedetta; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Iervolino, Alessandra C; Anson, Martin; Cherkas, Lynn; Mataix-Cols, David

    2012-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is thought to be etiologically related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence is incomplete. The current study examined the genetic and environmental sources of covariance between body dysmorphic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a community sample of adult twins. A total of 2,148 female twins (1,074 pairs) completed valid and reliable measures of body dysmorphic concerns and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The data were analyzed using bivariate twin modeling methods and the statistical programme Mx. In the best-fitting model, the covariation between body dysmorphic and obsessive-compulsive traits was largely accounted for by genetic influences common to both phenotypes (64%; 95% CI: 0.50-0.80). This genetic overlap was even higher when specific obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions were considered, with up to 82% of the phenotypic correlation between the obsessing and symmetry/ordering symptom dimensions and dysmorphic concerns being attributable to common genetic factors. Unique environmental factors, although influencing these traits individually, did not substantially contribute to their covariation. The results remained unchanged when excluding individuals reporting an objective medical condition/injury accounting for their concern in physical appearance. The association between body dysmorphic concerns and obsessive-compulsive symptoms is largely explained by shared genetic factors. Environmental risk factors were largely unique to each phenotype. These results support current recommendations to group BDD together with OCD in the same DSM-5 chapter, although comparison with other phenotypes such as somatoform disorders and social phobia is needed.

  18. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Cardona Silgado, Julio C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M.J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Walkup, John; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G.M.; Yao, Yin; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette Syndrome (TS) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. Here, we report a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TS and OCD in 2723 cases (1310 with OCD, 834 with TS, 579 with OCD plus TS/chronic tics (CT)), 5667 ancestry-matched controls, and 290 OCD parent-child trios. Although no individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) achieved genome-wide significance, the GWAS signals were enriched for SNPs strongly associated with variations in brain gene expression levels, i.e. expression quantitative loci (eQTLs), suggesting the presence of true functional variants that contribute to risk of these disorders. Polygenic score analyses identified a significant polygenic component for OCD (p=2×10−4), predicting 3.2% of the phenotypic variance in an independent data set. In contrast, TS had a smaller, non-significant polygenic component, predicting only 0.6% of the phenotypic variance (p=0.06). No significant polygenic signal was detected across the two disorders, although the sample is likely underpowered to detect a modest shared signal. Furthermore, the OCD polygenic signal was significantly attenuated when cases with both OCD and TS/CT were included in the analysis (p=0.01). Previous work has shown that TS and OCD have some degree of shared genetic variation. However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct components to the genetic architectures of TS and OCD. Furthermore, OCD with co-occurring TS/CT may have different underlying genetic susceptibility compared to OCD alone. PMID:25158072

  19. Effects of the active constituents of Crocus Sativus L., crocins, in an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Georgiadou, G; Tarantilis, P A; Pitsikas, N

    2012-10-18

    Crocins are among the active components of the plant Crocus Sativus L. C. Sativus L. and its constituents were effective in different models of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder defined by the presence of obsessive thoughts and repetitive compulsive actions. The non selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist mCPP is known to induce OCD-like behavior (excessive self-grooming) in rodents and exacerbate symptoms in patients with OCD. The present study investigated whether or not crocins were able to counteract excessive self-grooming induced by mCPP (0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Crocins (30 and 50mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated mCPP-induced excessive self-grooming. The present results also indicate that these effects of crocins on an animal model of OCD cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that the active constituents of C. Sativus L. crocins might play a role in compulsive behavior and support a functional interaction between crocins and the serotonergic system.

  20. The Evolutionary Logic of the Obsessive Trait Complex: Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Complementary Behavioral Syndrome

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    Steven Charles Hertler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Freud noted that the obsessive traits of orderliness, parsimony, and obstinacy incontestably belonged together. This observation has been unfailingly justified, but unsatisfactorily explained. Being a highly heritable pattern essentially unaffected by parental influence, it is counterfactual to continue to explain the obsessive trait constellation as a pathological signature of harsh, authoritarian parenting. Alternatively, the present paper, building upon a previously promulgated evolutionary etiological model, describes how obsessive traits work in unison to enable survival within harsh northerly climates. What appears to be a loosely federated inventory of pathology, after the application of evolutionary reasoning, becomes a coherent behavioral package, adaptive suite, or behavioral syndrome. All three of these terms, taken from behavioral biology, suggest that traits strategically covary, such that the adaptive value of each trait is enhanced by the presence of the others. In this vein, the union of anxious tension and conscientiousness drives the obsessive personality to labor incessantly. The fruits of obsessive labor are then conserved through parsimoniousness, hoarding, vigilance, and niggardliness. And so, obsessive personality is a coherent behavioral package in that the drive to work towards the acquisition of necessities is paired with the drive to conserve and defend them.

  1. The Comparison of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Yaghoob Vakili

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and the combination of ACT and SSRIs in the treatment of adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Materials and Methods: In This experimental study 32 outpatients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: ACT, SSRIs, and combined treatment. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, Beck Depression Inventory-II-Second edition (BDI-II, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI were administered at pre- and post-treatment. Twenty-seven patients completed the study. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVAs and one - way analysis of covariance (ANCOVAs, clinically significant change, and complete remission status. Results: Analyses with ANCOVA revealed that the patients treated with ACT and combined treatment experienced a significantly greater improvement in obsessive- compulsive symptoms at post-treatment as compared to those treated with SSRIs alone. However, there were no significant differences between ACT and combined treatment on OC symptoms. In addition, no significant differences were found between all the 3 treatment groups regarding reduction in the BDI-II and BAI scores at post-treatment. Clinically significant change and complete remission status results also showed that, unlike the SSRI, the ACT and combined treatment lead to more improvement in OC symptoms. Conclusion: ACT and combined treatment are more effective than SSRIs alone in treating OC symptoms. However, it seems that adding SSRIs to ACT does not increase the effectiveness of ACT in the treatment of adults with OCD in the short-term.

  2. D-cycloserine augmentation of behavior therapy for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders: A meta-analysis

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    Bittner, Nadine; Holling, Heinz; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present meta-analysis investigates whether the antibiotic D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, can augment the effect of behavior therapy in humans with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Method A keyword-based computer search was conducted using common electronic databases. Only studies investigating the effect of DCS in humans with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders were included, resulting in 23 studies with a combined sample size of 1314 patients. Effect sizes were coded as Hedges’ g and SMCC, the latter also incorporating differences in pre-treatment values. Bayesian multilevel meta-analysis was applied to take dependencies of effect sizes obtained from the same study into account. Results While previous meta-analyses found small to moderate improvements, the current results including the most recent research indicate that the overall effect of DCS is very small and almost indistinguishable from zero (g = -0.12, CI = [-0.27, 0.02]; SMCC = -0.10, CI = [-0.29, 0.07]). Slightly larger effects were found for social anxious patients. Further, study quality and year of publication were relevant moderators, with higher quality / more recent studies reported smaller effects of DCS. Conclusions These findings raise the question of the usefulness of DCS as an augmentation of exposure therapy for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. At least, it seems to be less promising than initially thought. The fact that study quality was inversely related to the reported effect sizes underlines the importance of high quality primary research in order to avoid over-estimation of treatment effects in clinical psychology. PMID:28282427

  3. A longitudinal, event-related potential pilot study of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder with 1-year follow-up

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    Yamamuro K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiko Yamamuro,1 Koji Okada,2 Naoko Kishimoto,1 Toyosaku Ota,1 Junzo Iida,3 Toshifumi Kishimoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Jingumaecocorono-Clinic, 3Faculty of Nursing, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan Aim: Earlier brain imaging research studies have suggested that brain abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD normalize as clinical symptoms improve. However, although many studies have investigated event-related potentials (ERPs in patients with OCD compared with healthy control subjects, it is currently unknown whether ERP changes reflect pharmacological and psychotherapeutic effects. As such, the current study examined the neurocognitive components of OCD to elucidate the pathophysiological abnormalities involved in the disorder, including the frontal-subcortical circuits.Methods: The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to evaluate 14 adult patients with OCD. The present study also included ten age-, sex-, and IQ-matched controls. The P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN components during an auditory oddball task at baseline for both groups and after 1 year of treatment for patients with OCD were measured.Results: Compared with controls, P300 amplitude was attenuated in the OCD group at Cz and C4 at baseline. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatment for 1 year reduced OCD symptomology. P300 amplitude after 1 year of treatment was significantly increased, indicating normalization compared with baseline at Fz, Cz, C3, and C4. We found no differences in P300 latency, MMN amplitude, or MMN latency between baseline and after one year of treatment.Conclusion: ERPs may be a useful tool for evaluating pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy in adult patients with OCD. Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, event-related potentials, P300, mismatch negativity, improvement

  4. Telephone Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Non-inferiority Trial

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    Turner, Cynthia M.; Mataix-Cols, David; Lovell, Karina; Krebs, Georgina; Lang, Katie; Byford, Sarah; Heyman, Isobel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not have access to evidence-based treatment. A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in a specialist OCD clinic to evaluate the effectiveness of telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy (TCBT) for adolescents with OCD compared to standard clinic-based, face-to-face CBT. Method Seventy-two adolescents, aged 11 through 18 years with primary OCD, and their parents were randomized to receive specialist TCBT or CBT. The intervention provided differed only in the method of treatment delivery. All participants received up to 14 sessions of CBT, incorporating exposure with response prevention (E/RP), provided by experienced therapists. The primary outcome measure was the Children’s Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Blind assessor ratings were obtained at midtreatment, posttreatment, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that TCBT was not inferior to face-to-face CBT at posttreatment, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, there were no significant between-group differences on the CY-BOCS, but the confidence intervals exceeded the non-inferiority threshold. All secondary measures confirmed non-inferiority at all assessment points. Improvements made during treatment were maintained through to 12-month follow-up. Participants in each condition reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention received. Conclusion TCBT is an effective treatment and is not inferior to standard clinic-based CBT, at least in the midterm. This approach provides a means of making a specialized treatment more accessible to many adolescents with OCD. Clinical trial registration information–Evaluation of telephone-administered cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); http://www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN27070832. PMID:25457928

  5. A case study in treating chronic comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression with behavioral activation and pharmacotherapy.

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    Arco, Lucius

    2015-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is difficult to treat, and more so when comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present case study was to examine effects of behavioral activation (BA) and pharmacotherapy with an adult with chronic comorbid OCD and MDD. BA aimed at increasing approach behaviors in life activities and decreasing avoidant and inactive behaviors. After 21 months of treatment at a community mental health clinic, OCD and MDD symptoms, including compulsive checking behaviors, were no longer at clinical levels. Symptom alleviation and psychological health improved in line with increases in activities of living such as self-care, domestic, social, and studying, and decreases in medications from a regimen of mood stabilizers and anxiolytics to a sole antidepressant. The participant was satisfied with treatment procedures and outcome. The results add to growing evidence of effective BA treatments for comorbid disorders that include depression.

  6. Decisional impulsivity and the associative-limbic subthalamic nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder: stimulation and connectivity.

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    Voon, Valerie; Droux, Fabien; Morris, Laurel; Chabardes, Stephan; Bougerol, Thierry; David, Olivier; Krack, Paul; Polosan, Mircea

    2017-02-01

    Why do we make hasty decisions for short-term gain? Rapid decision-making with limited accumulation of evidence and delay discounting are forms of decisional impulsivity. The subthalamic nucleus is implicated in inhibitory function but its role in decisional impulsivity is less well-understood. Here we assess decisional impulsivity in subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder who have undergone deep brain stimulation of the limbic and associative subthalamic nucleus. We show that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is causally implicated in increasing decisional impulsivity with less accumulation of evidence during probabilistic uncertainty and in enhancing delay discounting. Subthalamic stimulation shifts evidence accumulation in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder towards a functional less cautious style closer to that of healthy controls emphasizing its adaptive nature. Thus, subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder on subthalamic stimulation may be less likely to check for evidence (e.g. checking that the stove is on) with no difference in subjective confidence (or doubt). In a separate study, we replicate in humans (154 healthy controls) using resting state functional connectivity, tracing studies conducted in non-human primates dissociating limbic, associative and motor frontal hyper-direct connectivity with anterior and posterior subregions of the subthalamic nucleus. We show lateralization of functional connectivity of bilateral ventral striatum to right anterior ventromedial subthalamic nucleus consistent with previous observations of lateralization of emotionally evoked activity to right ventral subthalamic nucleus. We use a multi-echo sequence with independent components analysis, which has been shown to have enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, thus optimizing visualization of small subcortical structures. These findings in healthy controls converge with the effective contacts in obsessive compulsive disorder patients localized within the

  7. Decisional impulsivity and the associative-limbic subthalamic nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder: stimulation and connectivity

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    Droux, Fabien; Morris, Laurel; Chabardes, Stephan; Bougerol, Thierry; David, Olivier; Krack, Paul; Polosan, Mircea

    2017-01-01

    Why do we make hasty decisions for short-term gain? Rapid decision-making with limited accumulation of evidence and delay discounting are forms of decisional impulsivity. The subthalamic nucleus is implicated in inhibitory function but its role in decisional impulsivity is less well-understood. Here we assess decisional impulsivity in subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder who have undergone deep brain stimulation of the limbic and associative subthalamic nucleus. We show that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is causally implicated in increasing decisional impulsivity with less accumulation of evidence during probabilistic uncertainty and in enhancing delay discounting. Subthalamic stimulation shifts evidence accumulation in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder towards a functional less cautious style closer to that of healthy controls emphasizing its adaptive nature. Thus, subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder on subthalamic stimulation may be less likely to check for evidence (e.g. checking that the stove is on) with no difference in subjective confidence (or doubt). In a separate study, we replicate in humans (154 healthy controls) using resting state functional connectivity, tracing studies conducted in non-human primates dissociating limbic, associative and motor frontal hyper-direct connectivity with anterior and posterior subregions of the subthalamic nucleus. We show lateralization of functional connectivity of bilateral ventral striatum to right anterior ventromedial subthalamic nucleus consistent with previous observations of lateralization of emotionally evoked activity to right ventral subthalamic nucleus. We use a multi-echo sequence with independent components analysis, which has been shown to have enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, thus optimizing visualization of small subcortical structures. These findings in healthy controls converge with the effective contacts in obsessive compulsive disorder patients localized within the

  8. Investigation of obsessive-compulsive disorder and assessment of obsessionality as a personality trait in patients with complex partial seizure

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    Banihashemian K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Behavioral changes in patients with epilepsy could cause comorbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders. This study is concerned with investigation of obsessive-compulsive disorders and assessment of obsessionality as a personality trait in patients with complex partial seizure. "n"nMethods: Seventy six patients with complex partial seizure, 74 patients with generalized epilepsy that referred to Shiraz psychiatric professional center during three month (from July to September 2009, and 76 matched healthy controls were randomly selected and evaluated using the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS, short form of Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI and clinical interview. "n"nResults: Complex partial seizure and obsessive-compulsive disorder (%13.15 are significantly more prevalent than generalized seizure (%2.70 and than control groups (%1.31 (p<0.001, and mean of psychasthenia scale (Pt scale scores in patients with complex partial seizure is more than mean of Pt scores in generalized epilepsy and control groups (p<0.001. There is significant relationship between total score of Yale-Brown scale and Pt scale in MMPI (r=0.79, p<0.01."n"nConclusions: Patients with complex

  9. Abnormal resting-state brain activities in patients with first-episode obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Niu, Qihui; Yang, Lei; Song, Xueqin; Chu, Congying; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Lifang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiang; Cheng, Jingliang; Li, Youhui

    2017-01-01

    Objective This paper attempts to explore the brain activity of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and its correlation with the disease at resting duration in patients with first-episode OCD, providing a forceful imaging basis for clinic diagnosis and pathogenesis of OCD. Methods Twenty-six patients with first-episode OCD and 25 healthy controls (HC group; matched for age, sex, and education level) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning at resting state. Statistical parametric mapping 8, data processing assistant for resting-state fMRI analysis toolkit, and resting state fMRI data analysis toolkit packages were used to process the fMRI data on Matlab 2012a platform, and the difference of regional homogeneity (ReHo) values between the OCD group and HC group was detected with independent two-sample t-test. With age as a concomitant variable, the Pearson correlation analysis was adopted to study the correlation between the disease duration and ReHo value of whole brain. Results Compared with HC group, the ReHo values in OCD group were decreased in brain regions, including left thalamus, right thalamus, right paracentral lobule, right postcentral gyrus, and the ReHo value was increased in the left angular gyrus region. There was a negative correlation between disease duration and ReHo value in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Conclusion OCD is a multifactorial disease generally caused by abnormal activities of many brain regions at resting state. Worse brain activity of the OFC is related to the OCD duration, which provides a new insight to the pathogenesis of OCD. PMID:28243104

  10. Behavioral, cognitive, and family therapy for obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

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    Neziroglu, F; Hsia, C; Yaryura-Tobias, J A

    2000-09-01

    Behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy, individually and combined, are a solid base in any therapy, the goal of which is to decrease the maladaptive behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Future research into this area involves two branches: (1) better resolution in what components of current treatments are effective and (2) a better understanding of the cause of OCD. The therapies of choice are behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy, but often what is described as behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy varies. Further refinement of the specific components of behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy that directly apply to OCD is needed. The specific components likely include the use of ERP and rational emotive behavioral therapy but often even these therapies can be parceled into smaller discrete parts. Many facets still have not been explored thoroughly (e.g., the extent of exposure to adverse situations needed, ideal length of therapy, time needed for exposure, and the use of virtual reality versus traditional exposures). A better understanding of the biological basis for OCD also would further the field. A better understanding of the basis of this disorder also would help clinicians to treat it with medication and behavioral therapy. Research into how behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy makes neurophysiologic changes would show the effectiveness of the treatment and a biological basis. Such studies could include the use of MR imaging during different stages in behavioral therapy and the use of functional during therapy to observe changes in the brain. Although OCD still is not fully understood, researchers are now beginning to understand how to treat it, and a solid base of empiric data now exists. The authors hope that investigators will continue research toward a better understanding of this disorder so that clinicians can better help their patients.

  11. Pharmacoepidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A Swedish nationwide cohort study.

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    Isomura, Kayoko; Nordsletten, Ashley E; Rück, Christian; Ljung, Rickard; Ivarsson, Tord; Larsson, Henrik; Mataix-Cols, David

    2016-04-01

    The extent to which clinicians adhere to international guidelines for the pharmacological management of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown. We aimed to comprehensively map the patterns of prescription of psychotropic drugs for OCD patients (adults and children) at the Swedish national level and to compare these prescription patterns to best-practice recommendations in international guidelines. We linked the Swedish National Patient Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, which includes a record for all medications prescribed and dispensed in Sweden since July 2005. Of all active OCD cases in the Swedish National Patient Register between July 1st, 2005, and December 31st 2008 (N=10,523), 85% received at least one psychotropic drug. Most of the medicated adults and children with OCD (88%) received serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Of all adults and children prescribed SRIs, 16% received sub-optimal doses. An additional 12% of all medicated patients were prescribed drugs that never included an SRI. Approximately 75% of the patients on SRIs received additional drugs (67% anxiolytics/hypnotics, 27% antipsychotics, 17% serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, 24% other antidepressants). Twelve percent of all medicated patients were at least 'regular' users, and 3% 'heavy' users of benzodiazepines. We also observed important variations in prescription practices according to patient's gender, age, and comorbidity status. We conclude that a substantial number of OCD patients might benefit from changes in their prescriptions. Dissemination of best-practice prescription guidelines for OCD is a major educational goal for the future. Monitoring of these prescription patterns over time is warranted.

  12. Abnormalities of white matter microstructure in unmedicated obsessive-compulsive disorder and changes after medication.

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    Qing Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of myelin integrity have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD using multi-parameter maps of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. However, it was still unknown to what degree these abnormalities might be affected by pharmacological treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the abnormalities of white matter microstructure including myelin integrity exist in OCD and whether they are affected by medication. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parameter maps of DTI, including fractional anisotropy (FA, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD and mean diffusivity (MD, were acquired from 27 unmedicated OCD patients (including 13 drug-naïve individuals and 23 healthy controls. Voxel-based analysis was then performed to detect regions with significant group difference. We compared the DTI-derived parameters of 15 patients before and after 12-week Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI therapies. Significant differences of DTI-derived parameters were observed between OCD and healthy groups in multiple structures, mainly within the fronto-striato-thalamo-cortical loop. An increased RD in combination with no change in AD among OCD patients was found in the left medial superior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal lobe, occipital lobe, striatum, insula and right midbrain. There was no statistical difference in DTI-derived parameters between drug-naive and previously medicated OCD patients. After being medicated, OCD patients showed a reduction in RD of the left striatum and right midbrain, and in MD of the right midbrain. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings suggest that abnormalities of white matter microstructure, particularly in terms of myelin integrity, are primarily located within the fronto-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of individuals with OCD. Some abnormalities may be partly reversed by SSRI treatment.

  13. Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Turkish university students and assessment of associated factors

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    Topal Kenan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many students who begin university at risky periods for OCD development cannot meet the new challenges successfully. They often seek help and apply to the university health center for psychiatric distress. We aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD at students of the Cukurova University in this cross sectional study. Methods This study was performed in the Cukurova University Faculty of Education with a population of 5500 students; the representative sample size for detecting the OCD prevalence was calculated to be 800. After collecting sociodemographic data, we questioned the students for associated factors of OCD. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12 and Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, Section K were used for psychiatric evaluation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the linkage between OCD and associated factors. Results A total of 804 university students were included in this study. The GHQ-12-positive students (241 students, 29.9% were interviewed using Section K of the CIDI (222 students, 27.6%. OCD was diagnosed in 33 (4.2% students. The Logistic regression analysis of the data showed significant associations between OCD and male gender (p:0.036, living on government dormitory (p: 0.003, living on students' house/parental house (p:0.006, having private room in the parental house (p:0.055 and verbal abuse in the family (p:0.006. Conclusion This study demonstrates a higher prevalence of OCD among a group of university students compared to other prevalence studies of OCD in Turkish society. Furthermore, our findings also suggest relationships between OCD and sociodemographic factors, as well as other environmental stress factors.

  14. Neurobiological model of obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence from recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings.

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    Nakao, Tomohiro; Okada, Kayo; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2014-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was previously considered refractory to most types of therapeutic intervention. There is now, however, ample evidence that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and behavior therapy are highly effective methods for treatment of OCD. Furthermore, recent neurobiological studies of OCD have found a close correlation between clinical symptoms, cognitive function, and brain function. A large number of previous neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have identified abnormally high activities throughout the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in patients with OCD. Most studies reported excessive activation of these areas during symptom provocation. Furthermore, these hyperactivities were decreased after successful treatment using either selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or behavioral therapy. Based on these findings, an orbitofronto-striatal model has been postulated as an abnormal neural circuit that mediates symptomatic expression of OCD. On the other hand, previous neuropsychological studies of OCD have reported cognitive dysfunction in executive function, attention, nonverbal memory, and visuospatial skills. Moreover, recent fMRI studies have revealed a correlation between neuropsychological dysfunction and clinical symptoms in OCD by using neuropsychological tasks during fMRI. The evidence from fMRI studies suggests that broader regions, including dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior regions, might be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. Further, we should consider that OCD is heterogeneous and might have several different neural systems related to clinical factors, such as symptom dimensions. This review outlines recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of OCD. We will also describe several neurobiological models that have been developed recently. Advanced findings in these fields will update the

  15. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.

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    Yue, Weihua; Cheng, Weiqiu; Liu, Zhaorui; Tang, Yi; Lu, Tianlan; Zhang, Dai; Tang, Muni; Huang, Yueqin

    2016-08-16

    Literatures have suggested that not only genetic but also environmental factors, interactively accounted for susceptibility of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). DNA methylation may regulate expression of genes as the heritable epigenetic modification. The examination for genome-wide DNA methylation was performed on blood samples from 65 patients with OCD, as well as 96 healthy control subjects. The DNA methylation was examined at over 485,000 CpG sites using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip. As a result, 8,417 probes corresponding to 2,190 unique genes were found to be differentially methylated between OCD and healthy control subjects. Of those genes, 4,013 loci were located in CpG islands and 2,478 were in promoter regions. These included BCYRN1, BCOR, FGF13, HLA-DRB1, ARX, etc., which have previously been reported to be associated with OCD. Pathway analyses indicated that regulation of actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), actin binding, transcription regulator activity, and other pathways might be further associated with risk of OCD. Unsupervised clustering analysis of the top 3,000 most variable probes revealed two distinct groups with significantly more people with OCD in cluster one compared with controls (67.74% of cases v.s. 27.13% of controls, Chi-square = 26.011, df = 1, P = 3.41E-07). These results strongly suggested that differential DNA methylation might play an important role in etiology of OCD.

  16. Rare Synaptogenesis-Impairing Mutations in SLITRK5 Are Associated with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

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    Song, Minseok; Mathews, Carol A; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shmelkov, Sergey V; Mezey, Jason G; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Rasmussen, Steven A; Britton, Jennifer C; Oh, Yong-Seok; Walkup, John T; Lee, Francis S; Glatt, Charles E

    2017-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is substantially heritable, but few molecular genetic risk factors have been identified. Knockout mice lacking SLIT and NTRK-Like Family, Member 5 (SLITRK5) display OCD-like phenotypes including serotonin reuptake inhibitor-sensitive pathologic grooming, and corticostriatal dysfunction. Thus, mutations that impair SLITRK5 function may contribute to the genetic risk for OCD. We re-sequenced the protein-coding sequence of the human SLITRK5 gene (SLITRK5) in three hundred and seventy seven OCD subjects and compared rare non-synonymous mutations (RNMs) in that sample with similar mutations in the 1000 Genomes database. We also performed in silico assessments and in vitro functional synaptogenesis assays on the Slitrk5 mutations identified. We identified four RNM's among these OCD subjects. There were no significant differences in the prevalence or in silico effects of rare non-synonymous mutations in the OCD sample versus controls. Direct functional testing of recombinant SLITRK5 proteins found that all mutations identified in OCD subjects impaired synaptogenic activity whereas none of the pseudo-matched mutations identified in 1000 Genomes controls had significant effects on SLITRK5 function (Fisher's exact test P = 0.028). These results demonstrate that rare functional mutations in SLITRK5 contribute to the genetic risk for OCD in human populations. They also highlight the importance of biological characterization of allelic effects in understanding genotype-phenotype relationships as there were no statistical differences in overall prevalence or bioinformatically predicted effects of OCD case versus control mutations. Finally, these results converge with others to highlight the role of aberrant synaptic function in corticostriatal neurons in the pathophysiology of OCD.

  17. Partitioning the Heritability of Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Reveals Differences in Genetic Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lea K.; Yu, Dongmei; Keenan, Clare L.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Derks, Eske M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Yang, Jian; Lee, S. Hong; Evans, Patrick; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrio, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, Oscar J.; Bloch, Michael H.; Blom, Rianne M.; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond; Cappi, Carolina; Cardona Silgado, Julio C.; Cath, Danielle C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Conti, David V.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette A.; Deforce, Dieter; Delorme, Richard; Dion, Yves; Edlund, Christopher K.; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Gallagher, Patience J.; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Haddad, Stephen; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Hounie, Ana G.; Illmann, Cornelia; Jankovic, Joseph; Jenike, Michael A.; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Macciardi, Fabio; McCracken, James T.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias J.; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosàrio, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, E.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C.; McMahon, William; Wagner, Michael; Nicolini, Humberto; Posthuma, Danielle; Hanna, Gregory L.; Heutink, Peter; Denys, Damiaan; Arnold, Paul D.; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson B.; Pauls, David L.; Wray, Naomi R.

    2013-01-01

    The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related neurobehavioral disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette Syndrome (TS), using GCTA. Our analysis yielded a heritability point estimate of 0.58 (se = 0.09, p = 5.64e-12) for TS, and 0.37 (se = 0.07, p = 1.5e-07) for OCD. In addition, we conducted multiple genomic partitioning analyses to identify genomic elements that concentrate this heritability. We examined genomic architectures of TS and OCD by chromosome, MAF bin, and functional annotations. In addition, we assessed heritability for early onset and adult onset OCD. Among other notable results, we found that SNPs with a minor allele frequency of less than 5% accounted for 21% of the TS heritability and 0% of the OCD heritability. Additionally, we identified a significant contribution to TS and OCD heritability by variants significantly associated with gene expression in two regions of the brain (parietal cortex and cerebellum) for which we had available expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). Finally we analyzed the genetic correlation between TS and OCD, revealing a genetic correlation of 0.41 (se = 0.15, p = 0.002). These results are very close to previous heritability estimates for TS and OCD based on twin and family studies, suggesting that very little, if any, heritability is truly missing (i.e., unassayed) from TS and OCD GWAS studies of common variation. The results also indicate that there is some genetic overlap between these two phenotypically-related neuropsychiatric disorders, but suggest that the two disorders have distinct genetic architectures. PMID:24204291

  18. Partitioning the heritability of Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder reveals differences in genetic architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea K Davis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related neurobehavioral disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and Tourette Syndrome (TS, using GCTA. Our analysis yielded a heritability point estimate of 0.58 (se = 0.09, p = 5.64e-12 for TS, and 0.37 (se = 0.07, p = 1.5e-07 for OCD. In addition, we conducted multiple genomic partitioning analyses to identify genomic elements that concentrate this heritability. We examined genomic architectures of TS and OCD by chromosome, MAF bin, and functional annotations. In addition, we assessed heritability for early onset and adult onset OCD. Among other notable results, we found that SNPs with a minor allele frequency of less than 5% accounted for 21% of the TS heritability and 0% of the OCD heritability. Additionally, we identified a significant contribution to TS and OCD heritability by variants significantly associated with gene expression in two regions of the brain (parietal cortex and cerebellum for which we had available expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs. Finally we analyzed the genetic correlation between TS and OCD, revealing a genetic correlation of 0.41 (se = 0.15, p = 0.002. These results are very close to previous heritability estimates for TS and OCD based on twin and family studies, suggesting that very little, if any, heritability is truly missing (i.e., unassayed from TS and OCD GWAS studies of common variation. The results also indicate that there is some genetic overlap between these two phenotypically-related neuropsychiatric disorders, but suggest that the two disorders have distinct genetic architectures.

  19. Cross-Disorder Genetic Analysis of Tic Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Hoarding Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilhão, Nuno R; Smit, Dirk J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cath, Danielle C

    2016-01-01

    Hoarding, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's disorder (TD) are psychiatric disorders that share symptom overlap, which might partly be the result of shared genetic variation. Population-based twin studies have found significant genetic correlations between hoarding and OCD symptoms, with genetic correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.45. For tic disorders, studies examining these correlations are lacking. Other lines of research, including clinical samples and GWAS or CNV data to explore genetic relationships between tic disorders and OCD, have only found very modest if any shared genetic variation. Our aim was to extend current knowledge on the genetic structure underlying hoarding, OC symptoms (OCS), and lifetime tic symptoms and, in a trivariate analysis, assess the degree of common and unique genetic factors contributing to the etiology of these disorders. Data have been gathered from participants in the Netherlands Twin Register comprising a total of 5293 individuals from a sample of adult monozygotic (n = 2460) and dizygotic (n = 2833) twin pairs (mean age 33.61 years). The data on Hoarding, OCS, and tic symptoms were simultaneously analyzed in Mplus. A liability threshold model was fitted to the twin data, analyzing heritability of phenotypes and of their comorbidity. Following the criteria for a probable clinical diagnosis in all phenotypes, 6.8% of participants had a diagnosis of probable hoarding disorder (HD), 6.3% of OCS, and 12.8% of any probable lifetime tic disorder. Genetic factors explained 50.4, 70.1, and 61.1% of the phenotypic covariance between hoarding-OCS, hoarding-tics, and OCS-tics, respectively. Substantial genetic correlations were observed between hoarding and OCS (0.41), hoarding and tics (0.35), and between OCS and tics (0.37). These results support the contribution of genetic factors in the development of these disorders and their comorbidity. Furthermore, tics were mostly influenced by specific

  20. Correlation Between Migraine Headaches and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Two Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarabian MK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is the most common cause of headache which affects 15% of female and 6% of male populations. Patients with migraine may have psychological problems, thus, association of migraine with depression, anxiety and other psychological disorders should be considered for choosing the best management approach. Methods: In this case-control analytical study, one hundred and twenty patients with migraine were recruited among patients who attended the Psychiatry Clinic of Farshchian Hospital in Hamedan, Iran during 2008- 2009. The patients met the IHS criteria for migraine and none had disorders, such as Huntington disease, that are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. The people who accompanied patients attending the Internal Medicine Clinic of the Hospital and had no history of migraine headaches were recruited as the controls. Maudsleys inventory was used for the diagnosis of OCD. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: In the control group, 3 (2.5% and in the case group 11 (9.17% people had OCD (P=0.024. All of those with OCD in the control group and 9 out of 11 in the case group were female. There were no cases of OCD among patients with mild migraine. Among 36 patients with moderate headache 5 (13.89% people had OCD and among 62 people with severe migraine 6 (9.68% had OCD (P=0.510. Conclusion: The prevalence of OCD in patients with migraine was significantly higher than the normal population. Special attention to comorbid conditions such as OCD is necessary in the management of migraine headaches.

  1. Family burden, quality of life and disability in obsessive compulsive disorder: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a psychiatric disorder that often tends to run a chronic course. The lifetime prevalence of OCD is around 1-3%, which is twice as prevalent as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Aim: To asses the family burden, quality of life (QoL and disability in patients suffering from at least moderately ill OCD and then to compare them with schizophrenia patients of comparable severity. Settings and Design: We recruited 70 consecutive subjects (OCD=35, schizophrenia=35 who met study criteria between March 2005 and March 2006 from the psychiatric services of the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: The severity of illness was rated using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S. Instruments used in the current study were the Family Burden Schedule, the World Health Organization (WHO QoL (Bref and the WHO - Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS. Statistical Analysis: The Fisher′s exact test/chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables and the independent sample t test was used to analyze continuous variables. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare the groups after controlling for potential confounding variables. Pearson′s correlation was used for correlation analysis. Results: Overall family burden, financial burden and disruption of family routines were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared to OCD although the groups did not differ with respect to other domains of family burden. On the WHO QoL, OCD patients were comparable to schizophrenia patients with respect to the psychological and social domains. On the WHO - DAS, both the groups were similar in all the domains except getting around. Conclusion: Severe OCD is associated with significant disability, poor QoL and high family burden, often comparable to schizophrenia. Therefore, there is an urgent need to increase the sensitivity among healthcare

  2. Multivariate pattern analysis of obsessive-compulsive disorder using structural neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinyu; Liu, Qi; Li, Bin; Tang, Wanjie; Sun, Huaiqiang; Li, Fei; Yang, Yanchun; Gong, Qiyong; Huang, Xiaoqi

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have revealed brain structural abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, involving both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM). However, the results of previous publications were based on average differences between groups, which limited their usages in clinical practice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether the application of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to high-dimensional structural images would allow accurate discrimination between OCD patients and healthy control subjects (HCS). High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 33 OCD patients and 33 demographically matched HCS in a 3.0 T scanner. Differences in GM and WM volume between OCD and HCS were examined using two types of well-established MVPA techniques: support vector machine (SVM) and Gaussian process classifier (GPC). We also drew a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate the performance of each classifier. The classification accuracies for both classifiers using GM and WM anatomy were all above 75%. The highest classification accuracy (81.82%, P<0.001) was achieved with the SVM classifier using WM information. Regional brain anomalies with high discriminative power were based on three distributed networks including the fronto-striatal circuit, the temporo-parieto-occipital junction and the cerebellum. Our study illustrated that both GM and WM anatomical features may be useful in differentiating OCD patients from HCS. WM volume using the SVM approach showed the highest accuracy in our population for revealing group differences, which suggested its potential diagnostic role in detecting highly enriched OCD patients at the level of the individual.

  3. Cool and Hot Aspects of Executive Function in Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybel, Katja Anna; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lambek, Rikke; Thastum, Mikael; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2016-11-12

    Aspects of executive functioning (EF) have been put forward as endophenotypes in obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) and meta-analyses support EF underperformance in adult samples. Childhood-onset OCD has been suggested to constitute a separate neurodevelopmental subtype of the disorder but studies on neuropsychological functioning in childhood OCD are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate performance-based EF in pediatric OCD using observed and latent variable analyses. A case-control design was applied including 50 unmedicated children and adolescents with OCD aged 7-17 years of which 70% were female, 50 pairwise age and gender matched non-psychiatric controls (NP) and 38 children and adolescents with mixed anxiety disorders (MA). Participants underwent structured diagnostic interviews and assessment with a battery encompassing cool EF tasks of working memory, set shifting, inhibition, and planning, and hot EF tasks of decision making and dot probe paradigm affective interference. First, groups were compared on observed variables with multilevel mixed-effects linear regression and analysis of variance. Then the latent structure of cool EF was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and groups were compared on the CFA scores. No significant differences between groups appeared on individual cool EF tasks. On the hot EF tasks the OCD group displayed significant interference effects on the dot probe paradigm OCD-specific stimuli relative to NP, but not compared to MA and no group differences emerged for decision making. In the CFA a one-factor solution showed best fit, but the groups did not differ significantly on the resulting latent variable. The present study does not support cool or hot EF impairments in childhood OCD.

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Psychosis, and Bipolarity: A Longitudinal Cohort and Multigenerational Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlöf, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Boman, Marcus; Rück, Christian; Landén, Mikael; Mataix-Cols, David

    2015-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often co-occurs with psychotic and bipolar disorders; this comorbidity complicates the clinical management of these conditions. In this population-based longitudinal and multigenerational family study, we examined the patterns of comorbidity, longitudinal risks, and shared familial risks between these disorders. Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of OCD (n = 19,814), schizophrenia (n = 58,336), bipolar disorder (n = 48,180), and schizoaffective disorder (n = 14,904) included in the Swedish Patient Register between January 1969 and December 2009; their first-, second-, and third-degree relatives; and population-matched (1:10 ratio) unaffected comparison individuals and their relatives. The Swedish Prescribed Drug Register was used to control for the potential effect of medication in the longitudinal analyses. Individuals with OCD had a 12-fold increased risk of having a comorbid diagnosis of schizophrenia and a 13-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder. Longitudinal analyses showed that individuals first diagnosed with OCD had an increased risk for later diagnosis of all other disorders, and vice versa. The risk of bipolar disorder was reduced, but not eliminated, when the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was adjusted for. OCD-unaffected first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of probands with OCD had a significantly increased risk for all 3 disorders; the magnitude of this risk decreased as the genetic distance increased. We conclude that OCD is etiologically related to both schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders. The results have implications for current gene-searching efforts and for clinical practice.

  5. Progress in Pharmacotherapy of Childhood Obsessive Compulsive Disorder%儿童强迫症药物治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 薛丽

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder is a nervous disordor characterized by uncontrolled compulsive thoughts and behaviors, affecting individual lives and impacting families and the community. Due to the etiology , clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis, childhood obsessive compulsive disorder to be a subtype of childhood emotional disorder has been more concerned. The main treatment to children obsessive compulsive disorder is the pharmacotherapy. Here is to review the progress in pharmacotherapy of children obsessive compulsive disorder at home and abroad in recent years to guide clinical medication.%强迫症是以无法控制的强迫观念和强迫行为为特征的神经质性障碍,常常影响个人生活,并对社会家庭有负面影响.儿童强迫症是一种常见的儿童情绪障碍,也是强迫症的一个亚型,由于其特殊的病因、临床表现、治疗和预后受到越来越多的关注.现对近年来国内外关于儿童强迫障碍药物治疗的研究方法及进展予以综述,以期指导临床用药.

  6. Imbalanced functional link between reward circuits and the cognitive control system in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunming; Ma, Lisha; Jiang, Nan; Huang, Ruyan; Li, Li; Gong, Liang; He, Cancan; Xiao, Chaoyong; Liu, Wen; Xu, Shu; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-08-23

    Altered reward processing and cognitive deficits are often observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, whether the imbalance in activity between reward circuits and the cognitive control (CC) system is associated with compulsive behavior remains unknown. Sixty-eight OCD patients and 33 cognitively normal (CN) healthy subjects participated in this resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Alterations in the functional connectivity between reward circuits and the CC system were quantitatively assessed and compared between the groups. A Granger causality analysis was used to determine the causal informational influence between and within reward circuits and the CC system across all subjects. OCD patients showed a dichotomous pattern of enhanced functional coupling in their reward circuits and a weakened functional coupling in their CC system when compared to CN subjects. Neural correlates of compulsive behavior were primarily located in the reward circuits and CC system in OCD patients. Importantly, the CC system exerted a reduced interregional causal influence over the reward system in OCD patients relative to its effect in CN subjects. The limitations of this study are that it was a cross-sectional study and the potential effects of environmental and genetic factors were not explored. OCD patients showed an imbalance in the functional link between reward circuits and the CC system at rest. This bias toward a loss of control may define a pathological state in which subjects are more vulnerable to engaging in compulsive behaviors.

  7. 双相障碍与强迫症的共病%Comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭代辉; 江开达

    2015-01-01

    Summary:Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are common in patients with bipolar disorders. This comorbid condition complicates the clinical treatment of the two disorders, so identifying these individuals is important. We discuss the comorbid occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder, introduce possible etiological mechanisms that could result in this common comorbid condition, discuss recent research advances in the area, and propose some clinical principles for managing such patients.%概述:在双相障碍患者中强迫症状是常见的。因为双相障碍和强迫症的共病状态会令这两种障碍的临床治疗复杂化,所以确定这些共病的患者是很重要的。我们讨论了强迫症和双相障碍的共病,介绍了可能导致这种常见共病状态的发病机制,也讨论了该领域最新的研究进展,并提出一些管理这些患者的临床原则。

  8. Role of lamotrigine augmentation in treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder: A retrospective case review from South Asia

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    Arshad Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance to pharmacotherapy is one of the major challenges in the management of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. OCD being a quite prevalent disorder, this resistance adds to the disability. Different strategies are being employed to counter this resistance, one of them being augmentation with glutamatergic modulators. Lamotrigine is being used for same since the recent past with mixed results. Objective: The aim was to study the role of lamotrigine augmentation in serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI resistant OCD patients. Methodology and Results: This study was carried by studying the case sheets of SRI resistant cases having already completed the treatment. A total of 22 cases sheets over 2 years met the study criteria with a mean age of mean age of 34.14 years. Over a period of 16 weeks, with a mean lamotrigine dose of 150 mg/day, 20 out of 22 patients had shown a significant response. The mean decrease in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score was 67.23% with a baseline score of 28.87. There was a similar change on different domains of World Health Organization quality of life (P = 0.00564. Conclusion: Lamotrigine augmentation to on-going treatment with SRIs may be an effective move in case of SRI resistant OCD patients.

  9. Differential efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Rosa-Alcázar, Ana I; Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Marina; Rosa-Alcázar, Angel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a meta-analysis about the differential efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacological and combined treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The literature research and the application of the inclusion criteria enabled us to locate 18 studies, yielding a total of 24 independent comparisons between a treated (10 pharmacological, 11 CBT, and 3 combined interventions) and a control group. All types of interventions were efficacious in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, with effect sizes adjusted by the type of control group of d=1.203 for CBT, d=0.745 for pharmacological treatments, and d=1.704 for mixed treatments. Depression, anxiety and other secondary responses were also improved, especially with CBT interventions. The analysis of moderator variables showed that the CBT protocol and the total of intervention hours exhibited a significant influence on the effect size. Within pharmacological treatment, clomipramine (d=1.305) was more efficacious than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (d=0.644), but its adverse effects were more severe. Finally, the clinical implications of the results are discussed.

  10. "Not Just Right Experiences" as a psychological endophenotype for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Evidence from an Italian family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Claudio; Bottesi, Gioia; Caudek, Corrado; Orsucci, Antonella; Ghisi, Marta

    2016-11-30

    The heart of the obsessional process may be considered the subject's underlying impression that "something is wrong" or "that something is not just as it should be". This phenomenon, labeled "not just right experiences" (NJREs), has increasingly been receiving attention as a possible marker of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study sought to add to the evidence that NJREs may be a putative endophenotype of obsessional symptoms. To this aim, measures of NJREs, obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and psychological distress were compared in offspring of parents with and without OC symptoms. The offspring of parents with OC symptoms (N=120) reported higher frequency and severity of NJREs compared to offspring of parents without OC symptoms (N=106). Such differences remained significant for NJREs frequency and close to significance for NJREs severity, when general distress (i.e., anxiety and depression) was controlled. The possible role of NJREs as an endophenotype for OCD is discussed in reference to Gottesman and Gould criteria and the National Institute of Mental Health RDoC initiative.

  11. Should OCD leave the anxiety disorders in DSM-V? The case for obsessive compulsive-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Eric; Braun, Ashley; Simeon, Daphne

    2008-01-01

    Recently in 2006, a group of experts in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive-related disorders (OCRDs) convened in Washington, DC, to review existing data on the relationships between these various disorders, and to suggest approaches to address the gaps in our knowledge, in preparation for the upcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (Fifth Edition) (DSM-V). As a result of this meeting, the Research Planning Agenda for DSM-V: OCRD Work Group suggested removing OCD from the anxiety disorders, where it is currently found. This proposal is in accordance with the current International Classification of Mental Disorders (ICD-10) classification of OCD as a separate category from the anxiety disorders. Although the ICD-10 places both OCD and the anxiety disorders under the umbrella category of "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders," they are two separate categories, distinct from one another. As OCD and other putative OCRDs share aspects of phenomenology, comorbidity, neurotransmitter/peptide systems, neurocircuitry, familial and genetic factors, and treatment response, it was proposed to create a new category in DSM-V entitled OCRDs. Alternatively, the OCRDs might be conceptualized as a new category within the broader category of anxiety disorders. Future studies are needed to better define the relationships among these disorders, and to study boundary issues for this proposed category. There are both advantages and disadvantages in creating a new diagnostic category in DSM-V, and these are discussed in this article.

  12. Secondary Psychometric Examination of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Classical Testing, Item Response Theory, and Differential Item Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Leonard, Rachel C; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Riemann, Bradley C

    2015-12-01

    The Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) is a promising measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms but has received minimal psychometric attention. We evaluated the utility and reliability of DOCS scores. The study included 832 students and 300 patients with OCD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the originally proposed four-factor structure. DOCS total and subscale scores exhibited good to excellent internal consistency in both samples (α = .82 to α = .96). Patient DOCS total scores reduced substantially during treatment (t = 16.01, d = 1.02). DOCS total scores discriminated between students and patients (sensitivity = 0.76, 1 - specificity = 0.23). The measure did not exhibit gender-based differential item functioning as tested by Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests. Expected response options for each item were plotted as a function of item response theory and demonstrated that DOCS scores incrementally discriminate OCD symptoms ranging from low to extremely high severity. Incremental differences in DOCS scores appear to represent unbiased and reliable differences in true OCD symptom severity.

  13. Animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder: rationale to understanding psychobiology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korff, Schaun; Harvey, Brian H

    2006-06-01

    Animal models have shown progressive development and have undoubtedly proven their supportive value in OCD research. Thus, various animal models have confirmed the importance of the 5-HT [72-74] and dopamine systems [104,111] in the neurobiology and treatment of OCD. Given the neurochemical, emotional, and cognitive complexity of the disorder, how-ever, animal models are being used to investigate more and more complicated neurochemical and behavioral theories purported to underlie OCD. The lever-press model, for example, has implicated deficient response feed-back in a neural system that regulates operant behavior [74]. Studies on stereotypic movement disorder [89] have opened a new avenue of investigation into the neurobiology of stereotypy that may be applicable to more complex syndromes such as OCD. Models that have focused on specific neuropsychologic aspects of OCD such as reward [74], displacement behavior[63,101], perseveration and indecisiveness [73,102], and spontaneous stereotypy [90,94] are important in their attempt to unify the diverse behavioral manifestations of this disorder. It is clear that for a deeper, more holistic understanding of OCD, multiple animal models will be needed to allow investigation of the various aspects of the disorder and to provide convergent validation of the research findings. The heterogeneous nature of OCD, the various subtypes that exist within the disorder, and the range of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders suggest that particular questions regarding OCD may be addressed best by us-ing a particular ethologic model, whereas other questions might require a pharmacologic model or a combination of both for meaningful results[62,115]. Genetic models will be extremely useful for studying the genetics of pathologic behavior and for relating these findings to neuroanatomic and neurochemical changes in the model (eg, DICT-7 mice as a model for Tourette's syndrome and OCD). Neither ethologic nor pharmacologic models, however

  14. When too much is not enough: obsessive-compulsive disorder as a pathology of stopping, rather than starting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Hinds

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, individuals feel compelled to repeatedly perform security-related behaviors, even though these behaviours seem excessive and unwarranted to them. The present research investigated two alternative ways of explaining such behavior: (1 a dysfunction of activation--a starting problem--in which the level of excitation in response to stimuli suggesting potential danger is abnormally strong; versus (2 a dysfunction of termination--a stopping problem--in which the satiety-like process for shutting down security-related thoughts and actions is abnormally weak. METHOD: In two experiments, 70 patients with OCD (57 with washing compulsions, 13 with checking compulsions and 72 controls were exposed to contamination cues--immersing a hand in wet diapers--and later allowed to wash their hands, first limited to 30 s and then for as long as desired. The intensity of activation of security motivation was measured objectively by change in respiratory sinus arrythmia. Subjective ratings (e.g., contamination and behavioral measures (e.g., duration of hand washing were also collected. RESULTS: Compared to controls, OCD patients with washing compulsions did not differ significantly in their levels of initial activation to the threat of contamination; however, they were significantly less able to reduce this activation by engaging in the corrective behavior of hand-washing. Further, the deactivating effect of hand-washing in OCD patients with checking compulsions was similar to that for controls, indicating that the dysfunction of termination in OCD is specific to the patient's symptom profile. CONCLUSIONS: These results are the first to show that OCD is characterized by a reduced ability of security-related behavior to terminate motivation evoked by potential danger, rather than a heightened initial sensitivity to potential threat. They lend support to the security-motivation theory of OCD (Szechtman & Woody, 2004 and

  15. Resistência e refratariedade no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo Resistance and refractoriness in obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Ygor Arzeno Ferrão

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO E MÉTODO: Apesar de existirem terapêuticas eficazes para o tratamento do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo, uma parcela significativa dos pacientes acometidos por tal condição não alcança ou não mantém a remissão dos sintomas mesmo com tratamento adequado. O alívio do sofrimento destes pacientes com os tratamentos existentes representa um desafio para o clínico, que, nestas situações, se vê, freqüentemente, sem respostas satisfatórias. O objetivo desta revisão da literatura é avaliar os conceitos e critérios de resistência e refratariedade ao tratamento, abordar os aspectos intrínsecos e extrínsecos à fenomenologia descritiva do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo que possam influenciar a resposta aos tratamentos convencionais preconizados, e propor um fluxo de alternativas terapêuticas para casos resistentes e refratários às diversas abordagens. CONCLUSÃO: A literatura evidencia que tanto aspectos intrínsecos à fenomenologia do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo, quanto aspectos extrínsecos podem colaborar para que pelo menos 30% dos pacientes não obtenham o resultado desejado. Várias alternativas de tratamento e/ou de potencialização, sejam psicofarmacológicas, biológicas ou psicoterápicas, estão disponíveis, mas vários estudos ainda são necessários para que as evidências apontem na direção mais adequada para a remissão dos sintomas.OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: Despite the existence of effective therapeutic alternatives for obsessive-compulsive disorder, a significant number of patients does not achieve or does not maintain remission after adequate treatment. The relief of these patients’ suffering with the available treatments is a clinical challenge related to many unanswered questions. The objective of this literature review is to evaluate the current concepts of treatment resistance and refractoriness, to describe the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of obsessive-compulsive disorder’s phenomenology

  16. Vasopressin-dependent flank marking in golden hamsters is suppressed by drugs used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messenger Tara

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in arginine vasopressin regulation and secretion have been proposed as one possible biochemical abnormality in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. In golden hamsters, arginine vasopressin microinjections into the anterior hypothalamus trigger robust grooming and flank marking, a stereotyped scent marking behaviors. The intensity and repetition of the behaviors induced by arginine vasopressin is somewhat reminiscent of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in humans. The present experiments were carried out to test whether pharmacological agents used to alleviate obsessive compulsive disorder could inhibit arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Results Male golden hamsters were treated daily for two weeks with either vehicle, fluoxetine, clomipramine, or desipramine (an ineffective drug, before being tested for arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Flank marking was significantly inhibited in animals treated with fluoxetine or clomipramine but unaffected by treatment with desipramine. Grooming behavior was not affected by any treatment. Conclusion These data suggest that arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking may serve as an animal model for screening drugs used in the control of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial of Full and Brief Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy and Wait-List for Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Derek; Williams, Tim; Perrin, Sean; Atkinson, Linda; Gallop, Catherine; Waite, Polly; Salkovskis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Reviews and practice guidelines for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) recommend cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) as the psychological treatment of choice, but note that it has not been sufficiently evaluated for children and adolescents and that more randomized controlled trials are needed. The aim of this trial was to…

  18. The presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder worsen psychosocial and educational problems in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    seen if the comorbidities attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or obsessive compulsive disorder were present. It is very important for the physicians, teachers, and other professionals to be aware of the high prevalence of these social and educational problems to be able to deal...

  19. Familiality of Tourette Syndrome, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Heritability Analysis in a Large Sib-Pair Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Carol A.; Grados, Marco A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a genetic component that is highly comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the genetic relations between these disorders have not been clearly elucidated. This study examined the familial relations among TS,…

  20. Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder : Factor analysis on a clinician-rated scale and a self-report measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denys, D; de Geus, F; van Megen, HJGM; Westenberg, HGM

    2004-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is regarded as a unitary nosological entity, it encompasses a rich variety of heterogeneous mental and behavioural phenomena. The identification of clinical subtypes within this broad concept has been a focus of attention in recent years. In the present s