WorldWideScience

Sample records for child observational research

  1. Measuring Treatment Differentiation for Implementation Research: The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Revised Strategies Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Smith, Meghan M.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Weisz, John R.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Observational measures to assess implementation integrity (the extent to which components of an evidence-based treatment are delivered as intended) are needed. We evaluated the reliability of the scores and the validity of the score interpretations for the Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy – Revised Strategies scale (TPOCS-RS; McLeod, 2010) and assessed the potential of the TPOCS-RS to assess treatment differentiation, a component of implementation integrity. The TPOCS-RS includes five theory-based subscales (Cognitive, Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Client-Centered, Family). Using the TPOCS-RS, coders independently rated 954 sessions conducted with 89 children (M age = 10.56, SD = 2.00; aged 7–15 years; 65.20% Caucasian) diagnosed with a primary anxiety disorder who received different treatments (manual-based vs. non-manualized) across settings (research vs. practice). Coders produced reliable ratings at the item level (M ICC = .76, SD = .18). Analyses support the construct validity of the Cognitive and Behavioral subscale scores and, to a lesser extent, the Psychodynamic, Family, and Client-Centered subscale scores. Correlations among the TPOCS-RS subscale scores and between the TPOCS-RS subscale scores and observational ratings of the alliance and client involvement were moderate suggesting independence of the subscale scores. Moreover, the TPOCS-RS showed promise for assessing implementation integrity as the TPOCS-RS subscale scores, as hypothesized, discriminated between manual-guided treatment delivered across research and practice settings and non-manualized usual care. The findings support the potential of the TPOCS-RS Cognitive and Behavioral subscales to assess treatment differentiation in implementation research. Results for the remaining subscales are promising, although further research is needed. PMID:25346995

  2. The Child Diary as a Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsa, Tiina; Ronka, Anna; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Malinen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce the use of the child diary as a method in daily diary research. By describing the research process and detailing its structure, a child diary, a structured booklet in which children's parents and day-care personnel (N = 54 children) reported their observations, was evaluated. The participants reported the…

  3. Introduction: rethinking child care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharov, Douglas J; Morrow, Jeffrey S

    2006-10-01

    This introduction summarizes the articles in this collection. It describes how the articles address one or more of the key elements of the child care research model: (a) selecting and measuring the independent variablesto determine the characteristics ("qualities") of the child care environment (and, in some studies, the characteristics of parents and family), (b) selecting and measuring the dependent variablesto determine the child's physical and developmental status after a period of time in a particular child care arrangement (usually a school year) compared with that of children in other arrangements (or simply the same child before spending time in the arrangement), (c) establishing causal linksbetween the independent and dependent variables that are either assumed in randomized experiments or estimated through statistical controls in nonexperimental studies, and (d) assessing impacts across subgroups to see whether the program benefits one particular group more (or less) than others. The collection closes with a proposal to develop a systematic federal research program to pursue improvements in child care and early childhood education programs. PMID:16966675

  4. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  5. Responsiveness to child feeding cues: an observational scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mismatched caregiver responsiveness to child hunger and satiety cues, is thought to contribute to obesity in infancy and beyond. Assessment of this proposition, however, has been limited by a lack of reliable and valid measures. This research evaluated the interrater reliability of a new observation...

  6. Research in child and adolescent telemental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kathleen M; Palmer, Nancy B; Geyer, John R

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade telepsychiatry, and more broadly telemental health (TMH), services with children and adolescents have been implemented with diverse populations in many geographic areas across the United States. The feasibility and acceptability of child and adolescent TMH have been well demonstrated, but little research exists on the efficacy and effectiveness of TMH in improving the mental health care and outcomes for underserved youth. This article summarizes the state of research in child and adolescent telemental health TMH and examines studies in other areas of telemedicine that may inspire and guide child and adolescent telepsychiatrists to collect data on the process and outcomes of their own work.

  7. Diagnosing child sex abuse: A research challenge.

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Katrina; Keenan, Mickey; Dillenburger, Karola

    2006-01-01

    Child sex abuse increasingly is recognised as a societal problem that can no longer be ignored. In this paper definitions, prevalence, trends, assessment, and available diagnostic procedures are described and critically evaluated. It is argued that the lack of reliable diagnostic procedures remains one of the main difficulties in dealing effectively with the detrimental effects of CSA on the child or adult. The research challenge to find effective alternative procedures is outlined.

  8. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow

  9. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  10. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues. PMID:27328098

  11. How old is that child? Validating the accuracy of age assignments in observational surveys of vehicle restraint use

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, S; Berger, L.; J. Salvador; Helitzer, D

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Many large scale observational studies of child restraint usage require observers to estimate the ages of the vehicle occupants. The accuracy of age assignments were assessed and possible methods to improve observational accuracy in research and field studies of child restraint use were identified.

  12. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  13. Mother-Child Interactions and Childhood OCD: Effects of CBT on Mother and Child Observed Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…

  14. Research inventory of child health: A report on roadmaps for the future of child health research in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ottova, Veronika; Alexander, Denise; Rigby, Michael; Staines, Anthony; Hjern, Anders; Leonardi, Matilde; Blair, Mitch; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Bourek, Ales; Köhler, Lennart; Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Tomé, Gina; Ramiro, Lucia; Santos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    RICHE was the response to a call under HEALTH-2009-3.3-5, with the title of 'European child health research platform'. The call text asked us to “address the diversity and fragmentation in child health research in Europe in an inclusive multidisciplinary way, identifying existing research programmes in Member States, recent advances and identification of gaps to explore road maps for the future of child health research in Europe”. Project structure A consortium, with a final total of 23...

  15. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  16. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  17. The Big Five: Recent developments in Slovene child personality research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of recent personality trait research in children and early adolescents, with a special focus on studies in Slovenia. In the search for the precursors of the adult Big Five, a free-descriptive strategy to assess personality in non-adult samples is emphasized. Findings suggest that parents describe infants and toddlers in terms that are predominantly categorized in the Five-Factor Model taxonomy. Distributions of descriptors show developmental patterns from infancy to early adolescence and small cultural differences. Based on the parental natural language used to describe children across countries, ecologically valid assessment tools were created. The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (ICID; Halverson et al., 2003 was conceptualized as an age and culturally neutral instrument, and is widely used in Slovenia. Cross-sectional studies on ICID ratings of 3 to 14 year-olds provide information on age, sex, and cultural differences in child/adolescent personality trait expression across observers. Several aspects of trait consistency from early to middle childhood, using a longitudinal and multiple-informant approach, are reviewed, as well as the aspects of consistency across contexts and informants. Concurrent and longitudinal predictive values of the ICID trait assessments are shown in relation to several social and academic outcomes. In addition to the variable-centered method, results based on the child-centered approach suggest several internally replicable personality types. Developmental and cross-observer consistency in the structure of personality types, stability of type membership and its predictive validity versus personality traits is described. Prospects for future research on child personality development are suggested, including new methods of assessment and the investigation of links between early personality and important life outcomes.

  18. Dads' Parent Interactions With Children-Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (Piccolo-D): Developing An Observational Measure of Father-Child Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Intervention programs providing support for father parenting skills need a practical but psychometrically strong observational measure of fathers’ early positive parenting interactions with children. The primary purpose of this project was to develop a valid, reliable observational measure of father-child interaction, based on research and theory, that predicts child outcomes, identifies fathers’ strengths, and will be useful for home visiting practitioners. This study sought to fulfill this ...

  19. 1978 Annual Review of Child Abuse and Neglect Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mary Porter; Klaus, Susan L.

    The review of research on child abuse and neglect presents brief abstracts of studies collected by the Clearinghouse of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Material is organized into five subject areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): definition of abuse and neglect; incidence (national and selected geographic estimates);…

  20. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  1. Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…

  2. Research in child and adolescent psychiatry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Priyavadan Chandrakant; Shastri, Jay P.; Shastri, Dimple

    2010-01-01

    The primary source for this annotation on child and adolescent psychiatry is Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Articles covering various dimensions of child and adolescent mental health were searched from its electronic data base to discuss relevant articles. Literature was mainly in the form of original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, orations and presidential address.

  3. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

  4. StaR Child Health: improving global standards for child health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, Martin; Needham, Allison C; Chan, Winnie W Y

    2013-11-01

    Standards for Research (StaR) in Child Health, founded in 2009, addresses the current scarcity of and deficiencies in pediatric clinical trials. StaR Child Health brings together leading international experts devoted to developing practical, evidence-based standards to enrich the reliability and relevance of pediatric clinical research. Through a systematic "knowledge to action" plan, StaR Child Health creates opportunities to improve the evidence base for child health across the world. To date, six standards have been published and four more are under development. It is now time to use these standards. Improving the design, conduct and reporting of pediatric clinical trials will ultimately advance the quality of health care provided to children across the globe.

  5. Diagnosing Child Sex Abuse: A Research Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Catrina; Keenan, Mickey; Dillenburger, Karola

    2006-01-01

    Child sex abuse increasingly is recognised as a societal problem that can no longer be ignored. In this paper definitions, prevalence, trends, assessment, and available diagnostic procedures are described and critically evaluated. It is argued that the lack of reliable diagnostic procedures remains one of the main difficulties in dealing…

  6. A Commentary on Parent-Child Cognitive Learning Interaction Research: What Have We Learned from Two Decades of Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R; Almutairi, Seham

    2016-01-01

    The role of family influences on preschool and school age cognitive development has received considerable empirical attention from cognitive developmental psychology researchers in the last few decades. As a result of the interest, investigators have focused their attention on developing coding/observational systems to capture the interactions occurring between mothers and their young children. This paper reviews a select body of research on parent-child cognitive learning interactions with the goal of determining how the researchers have operationalized the behaviors that occur within learning interactions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the suggestions on next steps for conducting parent-child cognitive learning interaction research in the future.

  7. A Commentary on Parent-Child Cognitive Interaction Research: What Have we Learned From Two Decades of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Renee Harris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of family influences on preschool and school age cognitive development has received considerable empirical attention from cognitive developmental psychology researchers in the last few decades. As a result of the interest, investigators have focused their attention on developing coding/observational systems to capture the interactions occurring between mothers and their young children. This paper reviews a select body of research on parent child cognitive learning interactions with the goal of determining how the researchers have operationalized the behaviors that occur within learning interactions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the suggestions on next steps for conducting parent child cognitive learning interaction research in the future.

  8. A Commentary on Parent–Child Cognitive Learning Interaction Research: What Have We Learned from Two Decades of Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R.; Almutairi, Seham

    2016-01-01

    The role of family influences on preschool and school age cognitive development has received considerable empirical attention from cognitive developmental psychology researchers in the last few decades. As a result of the interest, investigators have focused their attention on developing coding/observational systems to capture the interactions occurring between mothers and their young children. This paper reviews a select body of research on parent–child cognitive learning interactions with the goal of determining how the researchers have operationalized the behaviors that occur within learning interactions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the suggestions on next steps for conducting parent–child cognitive learning interaction research in the future.

  9. A Commentary on Parent-Child Cognitive Learning Interaction Research: What Have We Learned from Two Decades of Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R; Almutairi, Seham

    2016-01-01

    The role of family influences on preschool and school age cognitive development has received considerable empirical attention from cognitive developmental psychology researchers in the last few decades. As a result of the interest, investigators have focused their attention on developing coding/observational systems to capture the interactions occurring between mothers and their young children. This paper reviews a select body of research on parent-child cognitive learning interactions with the goal of determining how the researchers have operationalized the behaviors that occur within learning interactions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the suggestions on next steps for conducting parent-child cognitive learning interaction research in the future. PMID:27630584

  10. Applied Research in Child and Adolescent Development: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maholmes, Valerie, Ed.; Lomonaco, Carmela Gina, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Developed for an NIH training institute, this volume is organized around the most frequently asked questions by researchers starting their careers in applied research in child and adolescent development. With contributions from the leading scholars in the field, actual research experiences highlight the challenges one faces in conducting such…

  11. Clinical Research Methodology 2: Observational Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessler, Daniel I; Imrey, Peter B

    2015-10-01

    Case-control and cohort studies are invaluable research tools and provide the strongest feasible research designs for addressing some questions. Case-control studies usually involve retrospective data collection. Cohort studies can involve retrospective, ambidirectional, or prospective data collection. Observational studies are subject to errors attributable to selection bias, confounding, measurement bias, and reverse causation-in addition to errors of chance. Confounding can be statistically controlled to the extent that potential factors are known and accurately measured, but, in practice, bias and unknown confounders usually remain additional potential sources of error, often of unknown magnitude and clinical impact. Causality-the most clinically useful relation between exposure and outcome-can rarely be definitively determined from observational studies because intentional, controlled manipulations of exposures are not involved. In this article, we review several types of observational clinical research: case series, comparative case-control and cohort studies, and hybrid designs in which case-control analyses are performed on selected members of cohorts. We also discuss the analytic issues that arise when groups to be compared in an observational study, such as patients receiving different therapies, are not comparable in other respects.

  12. Mutually Responsive Orientation: A novel observational assessment of mother-child mealtime interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Aksan, Nazan; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Baur, Louise; Milgrom, Jeannette; Campbell, Karen; Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Mother-child mealtime interactions during preschool years is an important but overlooked factor when evaluating the influence of parent-child relationships on child eating and weight. This paper describes the validation of the Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) coding system adapted for assessing parent-child interactions during food preparation and consumption situations. Home-based mealtimes of 94 mothers and their children (3.03 ± 0.75 years) were filmed at two time points, 12-months apart. Filmed dimensions of mutual mother-child responsiveness, shared positive affect, maternal control relating to food and child compliance were assessed. Objective BMI and maternal reports of parenting, feeding, child eating, diet and child temperament were also collected. Correlations, repeated measures ANOVAs and regressions were performed to examine the validity of MRO variables and their stability across both time points. Validation analysis showed the MRO coding system performed as expected: dyads with higher MRO scores expressed lower control/power assertion, lower child non-compliance, and greater committed compliance. The measure demonstrated sensitivity to specific contexts: maternal responsiveness, mother and child positive affect were higher during food consumption compared to food preparation. Coded dimensions were stable across time points, with the exception of decreases in maternal responsiveness in food consumption and child non-compliance in food preparation. MRO and maternal dimensions were correlated with maternally reported parenting and feeding measures. Maternal responsiveness (inversely) and child responsiveness (positively) were concurrently associated with child fussy eating, and child refusal was prospectively and inversely associated with child fussy eating. Findings suggest the adapted MRO coding system is a useful measure for examining observed parent-child mealtime interactions potentially implicated in preschoolers' eating and weight

  13. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  14. Evaluative Intervention Research in Child's Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Fox, Franklin Daniel

    1981-01-01

    Evaluative intervention research studies in pretend play are investigations that examine the potential of imaginative play in young children to demonstrate a relationship between play and cognitive, social, and emotional growth. A review of the research indicates that children who engage in imaginative play yield higher test scores than those in…

  15. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  16. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  17. Classroom Research and Child and Adolescent Development in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, David Daniel; Calcagni, Elisa; Grau, Valeska

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews recent classroom research developed in South America related to child and adolescent development. We review work about three themes: ethnicity, school climate and violence, and the learning process. The few studies found on ethnicity and classroom experiences told a story of invisibility, if not exclusion and discrimination.…

  18. Implementing No Child Left Behind in Three States. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Brian M.; Epstein, Scott; Hamilton, Laura S.; Marsh, Julie A.; Robyn, Abby; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Russell, Jennifer; Naftel, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This research brief describes work done for RAND Education and documented in "Pain and Gain: Implementing No Child Left Behind in Three States, 2004-2006", Brian M. Stecher, Scott Epstein, Laura S. Hamilton, Julie A. Marsh, Abby Robyn, Jennifer Sloan McCombs, Jennifer Russell, and Scott Naftel." The three states discussed are: California, Georgia,…

  19. Measures for Studying Poverty in Family and Child Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Deng, Shiying; Nair, Rajni L.; Lockhart Burrell, Ginger

    2005-01-01

    Most family scholars take the concept of poverty for granted. The variety of ways people have chosen to define and measure this concept, however, often makes it difficult to interpret or compare research results. We review and critique the ways that poverty has been measured in the family and child literatures as well as the measures that have…

  20. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  1. Child prostitution: global health burden, research needs, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S

    2002-04-20

    Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health. PMID:11978356

  2. Corporal Punishment and Child Abuse: Some Observations and Relationships. Monograph Series No. 1:3/83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, John H.

    Various personal observations and experiences of a former director of the Office of Child Development and chief of the Children's Bureau are recounted in an informal discussion of punishment and child abuse. Several brief arguments focusing on the negative effects of punishment are offered, and contributions of the Children's Bureau to action…

  3. Housing Services for Child Welfare-Involved Families: An Initial Evaluation Using Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Rufa, Anne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of housing services among child welfare-involved families using observational data. Propensity score matching with data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being compared intact families (n = 183) who received housing services 12 months after initial investigation to nontreated families balanced on…

  4. Ethics in pharmacologic research in the child with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumney, Peter; Anderson, James A; Ryan, Stephen E

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the unique ethical concerns that face clinicians, researchers, and family members in the realm of research involving children and youth with childhood-onset disabilities. Presented are the contemporary legal and regulatory environments in which we work and a synopsis of relevant articles on bioethics in this sector of the scientific literature. The most important ethical themes that emerged for children with disabilities include justice in research, consent and assent, child-centered communication, child- and family-centered decision making, participation in multiple studies, and therapeutic misconception. Two publicly recorded clinical studies are profiled to illustrate common considerations and concerns that arise during our ethical review of drug studies involving children with disabilities. It is concluded that the balance of access to current research and treatments must be weighed against risk for all involved. Collaborative planning amongst those involved in the development, review, approval, conduct, and oversight of drug study protocols can lead to effective scientific inquiry within the context of core ethical principles and child- and family-centered care. PMID:25420673

  5. Craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome: Radiological observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience with craniocerebral trauma in 712 physically abused children is reviewed. Ninety-three (13%) had evidence of head trauma (cranial and/or intracranial). Seventy-seven of these patients had computed tomography (CT) of the head, and 47 had CT evidence of intracranial injury. Extracerebral fluid collections, predominantly convexity subdural hemorrhage, were the most common acute intracranial lesions. Concurrent intracranial and skeletal trauma (cranial and/or ectracranial) was present in 33 of the 47 patients (70%) with intracranial injury. A high incidence of skull fractures (45%) in those children with intracranial lesions suggest a significant role for impact head injuries (''battering'') in the pathogenesis of craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome. Greater emphasis on CT examination in evaluation of the abuse infant and child is recommended. (orig.)

  6. On the incidence and prevalence of child maltreatment: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Andreas; Fegert, Jörg M; Finkelhor, David

    2016-01-01

    Research on child maltreatment epidemiology has primarily been focused on population surveys with adult respondents. Far less attention has been paid to analyzing reported incidents of alleged child maltreatment and corresponding agency responses. This type of research is however indispensable to know how well a child protection system works and if the most vulnerable are identified and served. Notable findings of child maltreatment epidemiological research are summarized and directions for future studies discussed. PMID:27303442

  7. Child development and genre preference: research for educational game design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, John L; Lucas, Kristen; Greenberg, Bradley S; Holmstrom, Amanda

    2013-05-01

    As the movement to capitalize on unique affordances of video games for learning continues to grow, relatively little research in that area has examined how formal features, such as genre and game mechanics, draw and hold children's attention. This study examines which genres children prefer and the reasons why children prefer those genres by reporting on a video game uses and gratifications survey of children of various ages (n=685). Results show distinct patterns of game use and preference tied to typical child developmental ecology at each age, indicating that genre preference varies by age and developmental context. Implications for game research and educational gaming are provided.

  8. Child development and genre preference: research for educational game design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, John L; Lucas, Kristen; Greenberg, Bradley S; Holmstrom, Amanda

    2013-05-01

    As the movement to capitalize on unique affordances of video games for learning continues to grow, relatively little research in that area has examined how formal features, such as genre and game mechanics, draw and hold children's attention. This study examines which genres children prefer and the reasons why children prefer those genres by reporting on a video game uses and gratifications survey of children of various ages (n=685). Results show distinct patterns of game use and preference tied to typical child developmental ecology at each age, indicating that genre preference varies by age and developmental context. Implications for game research and educational gaming are provided. PMID:23509989

  9. Direct observation as a measuring instrument in caregiver-and-child attachment : a social work investigation / by Lindie Nell

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Lindie

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation 9 social workers working in Pretoria, Gauteng Province were interviewed. The focus of these interviews was regarding the use of direct observation as a measuring instrument for the purpose of assessing attachment of the caregiver-and-child's relationship. This information jointly with a two-fold literature study served as the foundation for a proposed preliminary practise framework. The completed research is described in the article format in two articles. Article 1 c...

  10. Transactions Between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence From a Prospective Adoption Study

    OpenAIRE

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months predicted reduced levels of observed structured parenting (i.e., less directive parenting with fewer commands and requests) in adoptive mothers at age 27 ...

  11. Using observational methods in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jenny

    2015-07-01

    Observation is a research data-collection method used generally to capture the activities of participants as well as when and where things are happening in a given setting. It checks description of the phenomena against what the researcher perceives to be fact in a rich experiential context. The method's main strength is that it provides direct access to the social phenomena under consideration. It can be used quantitatively or qualitatively, depending on the research question. Challenges in using observation relate to adopting the role of participant or non-participant researcher as observer. This article discusses some of the complexities involved when nurse researchers seek to collect observational data on social processes in naturalistic settings using unstructured or structured observational methods in qualitative research methodology. A glossary of research terms is provided. PMID:26153969

  12. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  13. Implementing a Modular Research-Supported Treatment in Child Welfare: Effects and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Brittany R.; Lee, Bethany R.; Kolivoski, Karen M.; Attman, Nicole P.; Lindsey, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Increasing rates of mental health needs in child welfare clients highlight the importance of training child welfare workers in effective mental health interventions. This pilot study evaluates the effects of training public child welfare workers and interns in modularized research-supported treatments (RSTs). Methods: We compared…

  14. [QOL research in child health. Present state and issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Makiko; Umeno, Yuko; Kato, Noriko

    2006-11-01

    The evaluation of QOL (Quality of Life) in the medical field has revolved around the development of self-measurement scales comprising two or more questions based on psychometric theory. QOL research in the field of child health progressed in the latter half of the 80s in the United States, and aspects of ambiguity and adaptation to the environment of children were recognized. Objective health and subjective health differ significantly among children and are strongly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, QOL in early life anticipates the later health status in adolescence and youth. For these reasons, QOL research in the field of child health is very important. More than 20 scales, exemplified by CHQ, PedsQL, TACQOL/TAPQOL, and COOP charts, exist as standard generic QOL indices for children. Disease-specific scales cover epilepsy, asthma, and allergic disease, as discussed in a number of early studies. Diabetes, skin disease, and cancer are also major research subjects. Self-evaluation is one of the principles of QOL research; it is stated that children in the age group of 5-6 years are already capable of expressing pain and their physical condition and that the competency to describe abstract concepts such as pride and happiness matures around the age of 9-10 years. Sources of information such as the computer have developed and spread remarkably in recent years. The use of such technology facilitates the evaluation of young children with a high level of accuracy. The problems currently faced are the low reliability of responses of children, difficulties in cross-cultural comparison, and transformation of the sense of values according to growth. In conclusion, the development of QOL research in the field of child health should allow realization of an improved health situation in which children's points of view are included in the decision-making process for required treatments and health care policy. Further, health administration can be expected to

  15. Editorial: Bayesian benefits for child psychology and psychiatry researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-09-01

    For many scientists, performing statistical tests has become an almost automated routine. However, p-values are frequently used and interpreted incorrectly; and even when used appropriately, p-values tend to provide answers that do not match researchers' questions and hypotheses well. Bayesian statistics present an elegant and often more suitable alternative. The Bayesian approach has rarely been applied in child psychology and psychiatry research so far, but the development of user-friendly software packages and tutorials has placed it well within reach now. Because Bayesian analyses require a more refined definition of hypothesized probabilities of possible outcomes than the classical approach, going Bayesian may offer the additional benefit of sparkling the development and refinement of theoretical models in our field. PMID:27535649

  16. Editorial: Bayesian benefits for child psychology and psychiatry researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-09-01

    For many scientists, performing statistical tests has become an almost automated routine. However, p-values are frequently used and interpreted incorrectly; and even when used appropriately, p-values tend to provide answers that do not match researchers' questions and hypotheses well. Bayesian statistics present an elegant and often more suitable alternative. The Bayesian approach has rarely been applied in child psychology and psychiatry research so far, but the development of user-friendly software packages and tutorials has placed it well within reach now. Because Bayesian analyses require a more refined definition of hypothesized probabilities of possible outcomes than the classical approach, going Bayesian may offer the additional benefit of sparkling the development and refinement of theoretical models in our field.

  17. Parental Permission and Child Assent in Research on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Roth-Cline, Michelle; Nelson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Grounded on the ethical principle of respect for persons, parental permission and child assent function together to protect the child and to foster the development of the child’s self-determination. Although both parental permission and child assent involve the same components of information sharing, comprehension, and voluntariness, how these three components are understood and operationalized should differ depending on the developmental level of the child. For example, the amount of informa...

  18. Randomized Social Policy Experiments and Research on Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romich, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    Randomized social policy experiments (SPEs) are an important methodology for investigating topics in child development. This article provides a framework for understanding how evidence from SPEs can add to knowledge about child development. The use of SPEs for child development questions to date is summarized and lessons from the applied economics…

  19. Child and Family Development Research. OPRE Report 2014-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This catalog provides short descriptions of major Division of Child and Family Development (DCFD) projects from Fiscal Year 2014. Multiple projects are described in the areas of child care, Head Start/Early Head Start, child welfare promotion, and the recognition of cultural diversity. An additional section features projects that fall into more…

  20. The Multiple Dimensions of Child Abuse and Neglect: New Insights into an Old Problem. Child Trends Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Rosemary; Gibbons, Alison; Scarupa, Harriet J.

    Despite persistent media headlines about extreme cases of child abuse and neglect, the public remains largely uninformed about the developmental status of children affected by this tragic problem. The research brief draws on available data and recent research to summarize what is known about these outcomes in several critical areasphysical and…

  1. Serial observations of chronic rotavirus infection in an immunodeficient child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, I; Kimura, T; Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Yamazaki, K; Seto, Y; Minekawa, Y; Funamoto, H

    1991-01-01

    Chronic rotavirus infection of an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was studied by virological examinations in association with long-term observation of his symptoms and immune status. During eleven months of hospitalization, the patient was suffering from incurable severe diarrhea with persisting excretion of rotaviruses detected by electron microscopy and the reversed-passive hemagglutination (R-PHA) test and had transient hepatitis symptom despite multiple administrations of human gammaglobulin and high calorie fluids. The detected viruses were morphologically recognized as rotavirus with double capsid structure. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (PAGE) analysis of their genomic RNAs showed the long electropherotype of group A virus with abnormal migration profiles changing considerably from the early to the late phase of illness: (1) The 11th segment became undetectable; (2) the molecular weight of the 6th segment slightly increased; (3) seven to fourteen extra segments appeared; and (4) PAGE patterns of viral genomic RNAs changed every three or four months. These findings suggest that chronic infection with rotavirus accompanied the generation of extra viral genomic segments and their unusual assortments in an immunodeficient host. PMID:1663575

  2. Serial observations of chronic rotavirus infection in an immunodeficient child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, I; Kimura, T; Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Yamazaki, K; Seto, Y; Minekawa, Y; Funamoto, H

    1991-01-01

    Chronic rotavirus infection of an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was studied by virological examinations in association with long-term observation of his symptoms and immune status. During eleven months of hospitalization, the patient was suffering from incurable severe diarrhea with persisting excretion of rotaviruses detected by electron microscopy and the reversed-passive hemagglutination (R-PHA) test and had transient hepatitis symptom despite multiple administrations of human gammaglobulin and high calorie fluids. The detected viruses were morphologically recognized as rotavirus with double capsid structure. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (PAGE) analysis of their genomic RNAs showed the long electropherotype of group A virus with abnormal migration profiles changing considerably from the early to the late phase of illness: (1) The 11th segment became undetectable; (2) the molecular weight of the 6th segment slightly increased; (3) seven to fourteen extra segments appeared; and (4) PAGE patterns of viral genomic RNAs changed every three or four months. These findings suggest that chronic infection with rotavirus accompanied the generation of extra viral genomic segments and their unusual assortments in an immunodeficient host.

  3. Observing purchase-related parent-child communication in retail environments: a developmental and socialization perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Buijzen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N= 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent-child comm

  4. Observing purchase-related parent-child communication in retail environments: A developmental and socialization perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N= 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent–child comm

  5. Research priorities for child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillis, Lauren; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Timothy;

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner.......The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner....

  6. Transformative Role of Epigenetics in Child Development Research: Commentary on the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Lester, Conradt, and Marsit (2016) have assembled a set of articles that bring to readers of "Child Development" the scope and impact of the exponentially growing research on epigenetics and child development. This commentary aims to place this work in a broader context of theory and research by (a) providing a conceptual framework for…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  8. Observation of trichomonads infection in a child with periodontitis by direct microscopy at the dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Mathieu; Bonner, Mark; Vaysse, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    The pathogenicity of Trichomonas species is well documented. Although their exact involvement in gum disease is not fully understood, recent studies suggest a correlation between these protozoa and periodontitis. This case report details the first chair-side observation in Europe of an oral trichomonad infection in a child with periodontitis, by direct microscopy. The dramatic recovery of the patient, observed following administration of an anti-parasitic treatment, confirms the necessity of further investigation in this field.

  9. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed. PMID:23415454

  10. Adult-Child Incest: A Review of Research and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Mey, Brenda J.; Neff, Ronald L.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the literature which addressses adult-child incest as a form of child abuse. Highlights incest as a class phenomenon; characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and the other parent; dynamics of the incest family; effects of incest on the victim; treating and preventing incest; and legal requirements regarding incest reporting. (Author)

  11. [Qualitative research approaches in practical use in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, J; Gerwert, U

    1993-10-01

    Experimental study designs and quantitative analysis are dominating the methodology of child psychiatric research. Sometimes the "box of tools" consisting of standardized software packages for statistical analysis seems to lead to a regrettable uniformity in research strategies. Elaborated sociological research concepts in the tradition of Max Weber and the "Chicago school" could close the scientific gap between quantitative studies on large samples and simple case-reports. They are excellent instruments for generating hypothesis on relatively rare clinical problems or in new fields of child psychiatric research. Based on a review of the literature potential applications of qualitative methodology in child psychiatry will be discussed.

  12. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  13. Legal and Social Service Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: A Primer and Discussion of Relevant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Tisha R. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout,…

  14. Understanding Child Maltreatment: Juvenile Delinquency. From Research to Effective Program, Practice, and Systemic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    This monograph details the growing body of research showing the connection between child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency. In 2000, nearly 879,000 children were victims of child abuse and neglect. Although juvenile crime has declined recently, the level of crime committed by youth remains high. This monograph describes an array of program,…

  15. Research priorities on ending child marriage and supporting married girls

    OpenAIRE

    Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; RAJ, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to...

  16. Reflexivity in the research process: psychoanalytic observations

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper highlights what psychoanalysis can add to discussions of reflexivity, by specifically describing how reflexivity is conceptualized and fostered on psychoanalytic observation methods courses at the Tavistock Clinic, London. It is demonstrated that this psychological form of reflexivity is relevant to empirical and conceptual work and shown that it shares interesting parallels with debates about reflexivity in social research methods, while also being able to contribute to discussion...

  17. Origins of generalized control expectancies: reported child stress and observed maternal control and warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, J S; Nowicki, S

    1996-12-01

    The relations among reported stressful events, maternal control and warmth, and children's locus of control of reinforcement were investigated. Fifty-five 2nd-grade. U.S. children completed the Children's Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, and their mothers completed a modified form of Coddington's Life Events Scale for their child. Mother and child also were videotaped while they worked together on three puzzles. The results indicated that, compared with children with external control expectancies, children with internal control expectancies had experienced less stress in their lives. Furthermore, when observed interacting with their children, mothers of children with internal control expectancies were rated as displaying less control and more warmth than mothers of children with external control expectancies. The findings generally are consistent with predictions based on Rotter's social learning theory for the development of individual differences in generalized control expectancies. PMID:9043204

  18. A systematic review of existing national priorities for child health research in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macharia William M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We systematically reviewed existing national child health research priorities in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the processes used to determine them. Methods Collaborators from a purposive sample of 20 WHO-AFRO Region countries, assisted by key informants from a range of governmental, non-governmental, research and funding organisations and universities, identified and located potentially eligible prioritisation documents. Included documents were those published between 1990 and 2002 from national or nationally accredited institutions describing national health research priorities for child health, alone or as part of a broader report in which children were a clearly identifiable group. Laboratory, clinical, public health and policy research were included. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility for inclusion and extracted data. Results Eight of 33 potentially eligible reports were included. Five reports focused on limited areas of child health. The remaining three included child-specific categories in reports of general research priorities, with two such child-specific categories limited to reproductive health. In a secondary analysis of Essential National Health Research reports that included children, though not necessarily as an identifiable group, the reporting of priorities varied markedly in format and numbers of priorities listed, despite a standard recommended approach. Comparison and synthesis of reported priorities was not possible. Conclusion Few systematically developed national research priorities for child health exist in sub-Saharan Africa. Children's interests may be distorted in prioritisation processes that combine all age groups. Future development of priorities requires a common reporting framework and specific consideration of childhood priorities.

  19. Earth Observation Research for GMES Initial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijma, Sybrand; Balzter, Heiko; Nicolas-Perea, Virginia

    2013-04-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: * Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). * Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centres and market leaders in the private sector. * Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. * Developing a collaborative training network, through the placement of researchers for short periods in other GIONET organizations. Reliable, thorough and up-to-date environmental information is essential for understanding climate change the impacts it has on people's lives and ways to adapt to them. The GIONET researchers are being trained to understand the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers have been placed in industry and universities across Europe, as

  20. Development of a Child Abuse Level Management (CALM) Guide for Research with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Linda C; Schim, Stephanie Myers

    2016-05-01

    Reporting child abuse or neglect is an ethical expectation and a legislated mandate of behavioral and health care professionals in the United States. In particular, researchers who investigate parent-child dyads are responsible for submitting procedures and informed consent documents to institutional review boards that provide for the protection of children. The challenge for researchers is to recognize failing quality of parent-child interaction, prior to any event of maltreatment and to intercede in a deteriorating dynamic. The obligation to report any suspicions of child maltreatment supersedes the responsibility to provide for confidentiality of research data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for the development of a research protocol guide, Child Abuse Level Management (CALM), and address protection of children in research. The CALM is a brief, flexible guide designed for use by researchers to help identify and respond to negative trends in the parent-child interaction during data collection. Suggested intervention scripts are provided that can be modified for specific culture-focused samples. The CALM guide can be used for training of data collectors using simulations prior to initiating any study involving higher-risk dyads. PMID:26588859

  1. Is Exposure to Poultry Harmful to Child Nutrition? An Observational Analysis for Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Although strategic thinking on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has prioritized reducing exposure to human feces in order to limit diarrheal infections, recent research suggests that elevated exposure to livestock–particularly poultry and poultry feces–may be an important risk factor for diarrhea, environmental enteric disorder (EED) and respiratory infections, all of which may seriously retard linear growth in young children. Yet a very different literature on nutrition-sensitive agriculture suggests that livestock ownership is highly beneficial for child growth outcomes through its importance for increasing consumption of nutrient-rich animal sourced foods, such as eggs. Together, these two literatures suggest that the net nutritional benefit of poultry ownership is particularly ambiguous and potentially mediated by whether or not children are highly exposed to poultry. We test this novel hypothesis using a large agricultural survey of rural Ethiopian households that includes measures of child height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), ownership of poultry and other types of livestock, and an indicator of whether livestock are kept within the main household dwelling overnight. We used least squares regression analysis to estimate unadjusted and adjusted models that control for a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We find that while poultry ownership is positively associated with child HAZ [β = 0.291, s.e. = 0.094], the practice of corralling poultry in the household dwelling overnight is negatively associated with HAZ [β = -0.250, s.e. = 0.118]. Moreover, we find no negative associations between HAZ and corralling other livestock species indoors. These results suggest that while poultry ownership can be beneficial to child growth, overly close exposure to poultry poses a concurrent risk factor for undernutrition, most likely because of increased risk of infection. PMID:27529178

  2. Is Exposure to Poultry Harmful to Child Nutrition? An Observational Analysis for Rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Derek; Hirvonen, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    Although strategic thinking on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has prioritized reducing exposure to human feces in order to limit diarrheal infections, recent research suggests that elevated exposure to livestock-particularly poultry and poultry feces-may be an important risk factor for diarrhea, environmental enteric disorder (EED) and respiratory infections, all of which may seriously retard linear growth in young children. Yet a very different literature on nutrition-sensitive agriculture suggests that livestock ownership is highly beneficial for child growth outcomes through its importance for increasing consumption of nutrient-rich animal sourced foods, such as eggs. Together, these two literatures suggest that the net nutritional benefit of poultry ownership is particularly ambiguous and potentially mediated by whether or not children are highly exposed to poultry. We test this novel hypothesis using a large agricultural survey of rural Ethiopian households that includes measures of child height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), ownership of poultry and other types of livestock, and an indicator of whether livestock are kept within the main household dwelling overnight. We used least squares regression analysis to estimate unadjusted and adjusted models that control for a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We find that while poultry ownership is positively associated with child HAZ [β = 0.291, s.e. = 0.094], the practice of corralling poultry in the household dwelling overnight is negatively associated with HAZ [β = -0.250, s.e. = 0.118]. Moreover, we find no negative associations between HAZ and corralling other livestock species indoors. These results suggest that while poultry ownership can be beneficial to child growth, overly close exposure to poultry poses a concurrent risk factor for undernutrition, most likely because of increased risk of infection. PMID:27529178

  3. AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IN COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF CHILD ADOPTION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefora Marcela SANA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study’s purpose was the analysis of marketing communication tools used by nonprofit and public organizations in sustaining the social cause of child adoption, as part of child protection services. The conceptual framework of the study is based on marketing theory of promotional mix and communication techniques applicable to nonprofit and public institutions. Empirical analyses underlines the correspondence between the level of awareness regarding child adoption services, and communication channels different categories of publics are informed through. The statistical methodology that was used in the conducted research was the analysis of principal components, using the statistical program SPSS 21. Database sample is composed of direct beneficiaries: adoptive parents, friends of adopted parents, respondents who knew cases of adoptions, respondents who were informed through mass-media regarding child adoption and respondents who were not informed about child adoption.

  4. Taking Stock and Moving Forward: Research on Asian American Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Vivian; Kiang, Lisa; Mistry, Jayanthi; Mistry, Rashmita S; Wang, Yijie; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2016-07-01

    With this Special Section, the Asian Caucus of the Society for Research in Child Development seeks to promote a more inclusive, expanded, and holistic developmental science that can account for the diversity of developmental trajectories among Asian Americans. The articles elucidate, in turn, historical, conceptual, and methodological issues in studying Asian American child development. Although the articles foreground Asian Americans, the ideas should help advance theoretical and empirical work for other racial and ethnic groups, thereby contributing to a more valid understanding of child development. PMID:27392794

  5. Evaluation of cluster-randomized trials on maternal and child health research in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Sen, Pranab Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To summarize and evaluate all publications including cluster-randomized trials used for maternal and child health research in developing countries during the last 10 years.METHODS:All cluster-randomized trials published between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed, and those that met our criteria for inclusion were evaluated further. The criteria for inclusion were that the trial should have been conducted in maternal and child health care in a developing country and that the conclusions should have b...

  6. The relationship development assessment - research version: preliminary validation of a clinical tool and coding schemes to measure parent-child interaction in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Fionnuala; Guerin, Suzanne; Hobson, Jessica A; Gutstein, Steven E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this project was to replicate and extend findings from two recent studies on parent-child relatedness in autism (Beurkens, Hobson, & Hobson, 2013; Hobson, Tarver, Beurkens, & Hobson, 2013, under review) by adapting an observational assessment and coding schemes of parent-child relatedness for the clinical context and examining their validity and reliability. The coding schemes focussed on three aspects of relatedness: joint attentional focus (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), the capacity to co-regulate an interaction and the capacity to share emotional experiences. The participants were 40 children (20 with autism, 20 without autism) aged 6-14, and their parents. Parent-child dyads took part in the observational assessment and were coded on these schemes. Comparisons were made with standardised measures of autism severity (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2001; Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS: Constantino & Gruber, 2005), relationship quality (Parent Child Relationship Inventory, PCRI: Gerard, 1994) and quality of parent-child interaction (Dyadic Coding Scales, DCS: Humber & Moss, 2005). Inter-rater reliability was very good and, as predicted, codes both diverged from the measure of parent-child relationship and converged with a separate measure of parent-child interaction quality. A detailed profile review revealed nuanced areas of group and individual differences which may be specific to verbally-able school-age children. The results support the utility of the Relationship Development Assessment - Research Version for clinical practice. PMID:24366957

  7. Differential genetic susceptibility to child risk at birth in predicting observed maternal behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Fortuna

    Full Text Available This study examined parenting as a function of child medical risks at birth and parental genotype (dopamine D4 receptor; DRD4. Our hypothesis was that the relation between child risks and later maternal sensitivity would depend on the presence/absence of a genetic variant in the mothers, thus revealing a gene by environment interaction (GXE. Risk at birth was defined by combining risk indices of children's gestational age at birth, birth weight, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The DRD4-III 7-repeat allele was chosen as a relevant genotype as it was recently shown to moderate the effect of environmental stress on parental sensitivity. Mothers of 104 twin pairs provided DNA samples and were observed with their children in a laboratory play session when the children were 3.5 years old. Results indicate that higher levels of risk at birth were associated with less sensitive parenting only among mothers carrying the 7-repeat allele, but not among mothers carrying shorter alleles. Moreover, mothers who are carriers of the 7-repeat allele and whose children scored low on the risk index were observed to have the highest levels of sensitivity. These findings provide evidence for the interactive effects of genes and environment (in this study, children born at higher risk on parenting, and are consistent with a genetic differential susceptibility model of parenting by demonstrating that some parents are inherently more susceptible to environmental influences, both good and bad, than are others.

  8. Research Review: The Relation between Child and Parent Anxiety and Parental Control-- A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bruggen, Corine O.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Bogels, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is growing research interest in the association between parental control and child anxiety. Parental control may enhance child anxiety and parents may exert control in anticipation of their child's anxiety-related distress. Moreover, high levels of anxiety in parents could influence the development of parental control. Whereas…

  9. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried…

  10. Systematically Identifying Relevant Research: Case Study on Child Protection Social Workers' Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…

  11. Governing the Modern, Neoliberal Child through ICT Research in Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola; Knijnik, Gelsa

    2015-01-01

    Research on the pedagogical uses of ICT for the learning of mathematics formulates cultural thesis about the desired subject of education and society, and thereby contribute to fabricate the rational, Modern, self-regulated, entrepreneurial neoliberal child. Using the Foucauldian notion of govern......Research on the pedagogical uses of ICT for the learning of mathematics formulates cultural thesis about the desired subject of education and society, and thereby contribute to fabricate the rational, Modern, self-regulated, entrepreneurial neoliberal child. Using the Foucauldian notion...

  12. Detection of intrafamilial child abuse: children at intake at a children's observation home in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, U A; Ashtekar, A

    1994-11-01

    Cross-cultural studies have brought awareness that child abuse is a global problem. This study sought to assess whether the abuse of children by caregivers/parents is a phenomenon that is prevalent in Indian society, where social workers and other human service professionals traditionally have not been sensitive to its occurrence. Interviews with 515 children brought to a Children's Observation Home in Bombary resulted in self-reports of physical violence from approximately 50% of the sample, and of these, over two-thirds reported the use of abusive violence. In addition, over 60% of the children who had run away from home cited violence by parents as the primary reason for their leaving, suggesting that this may be one of the variables adding to the numbers of street children in India. Feelings about perpetrators and implications of findings are discussed. PMID:7850604

  13. Priorities for research in child maltreatment, intimate partner violence and resilience to violence exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Hammerton, Joanne;

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) are major global public health problems. The Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL) Research Network, an international group of over 60 researchers and national and international knowledge-user partners in CM and IPV, sought...... to identify evidence-based research priorities in IPV and CM, with a focus on resilience, using a modified Delphi consensus development process....

  14. Evaluation of cluster-randomized trials on maternal and child health research in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Sen, Pranab Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To summarize and evaluate all publications including cluster-randomized trials used for maternal and child health research in developing countries during the last 10 years. METHODS: All cluster-randomized trials published between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed, and those that met our criteria...... for inclusion were evaluated further. The criteria for inclusion were that the trial should have been conducted in maternal and child health care in a developing country and that the conclusions should have been made on an individual level. Methods of accounting for clustering in design and analysis were......, and the trials generally improved in quality. CONCLUSIONS: Shortcomings exist in the sample-size calculations and in the analysis of cluster-randomized trials conducted during maternal and child health research in developing countries. Even though there has been improvement over time, further progress in the way...

  15. Service users’ perspectives in child protection and adoption research

    OpenAIRE

    Cossar, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    This critical commentary is based on four research studies and associated publications. The studies are all concerned with researching service users’ perspectives and with service user involvement in the research process. Two of the studies examined adults’ perspectives on adoption, focusing on support for birth relatives and on post-adoption contact. Two of the studies focused on the perspectives of children and young people on seeking help with abuse and neglect, and on their experiences of...

  16. Governing the Modern, Neoliberal Child through ICT Research in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Paola; Knijnik, Gelsa

    2015-01-01

    Research on the pedagogical uses of ICT for the learning of mathematics formulates cultural thesis about the desired subject of education and society, and thereby contribute to fabricate the rational, Modern, self­-regulated, entrepreneurial neoliberal child. Using the Foucauldian notion of governmentality, the section Technology in the…

  17. Teachers' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Problems with Existing Research Leading to New Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…

  18. Engaging with Families in Child Protection: Lessons from Practitioner Research in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Michael; Smith, Mark; Wosu, Helen; Stewart, Jane; Hunter, Scott; Cree, Viviene E.; Wilkinson, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings from practitioner-led research on engagement with families in the child protection system in Scotland. Engagement is here defined in a participative sense, to mean the involvement of family members in shaping social work processes. Key findings include the importance of workers building trusting relationships; the value…

  19. Parent Child Relationships: A Decade Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, James; Stinnett, Nick

    1971-01-01

    This very extensive review covers such areas as parental attitudes and behavior, sex differences in regard to parental influence, parental identification, father absence and effects of divorce or separation, emotional problems, delinquency, health, generational differences and international research. (CJ)

  20. Observational Research in a Marketing Classroom: A Guidebook

    OpenAIRE

    Winterton, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research plays an integral part in marketing research (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998). In fact, a search of the website for the American Marketing Association for the term “qualitative research” reveals literally hundreds of documents (white papers, case studies, etc) discussing methods of conducting observational research, examples of observational research studies, and the importance of observational research in marketing. Interestingly, though qualitative methods are used frequently...

  1. Parent-Child Play across Cultures: Advancing Play Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Davidson, Kimberly L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a greater understanding of children's play across cultures through better integration of scientific thinking about the developed and developing societies, through consideration of socialization beliefs and goals, and, finally, through the use of more complex models in research investigations. They draw on…

  2. The Big Five: Recent developments in Slovene child personality research

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Zupančič

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent personality trait research in children and early adolescents, with a special focus on studies in Slovenia. In the search for the precursors of the adult Big Five, a free-descriptive strategy to assess personality in non-adult samples is emphasized. Findings suggest that parents describe infants and toddlers in terms that are predominantly categorized in the Five-Factor Model taxonomy. Distributions of descriptors show developmental patterns from infan...

  3. Building a common pediatric research terminology for accelerating child health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michael G; Bailey, L Charles; Forrest, Christopher B; Padula, Michael A; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal observational clinical data on pediatric patients in electronic format is becoming widely available. A new era of multi-institutional data networks that study pediatric diseases and outcomes across disparate health delivery models and care settings are also enabling an innovative collaborative rapid improvement paradigm called the Learning Health System. However, the potential alignment of routine clinical care, observational clinical research, pragmatic clinical trials, and health systems improvement requires a data infrastructure capable of combining information from systems and workflows that historically have been isolated from each other. Removing barriers to integrating and reusing data collected in different settings will permit new opportunities to develop a more complete picture of a patient's care and to leverage data from related research studies. One key barrier is the lack of a common terminology that provides uniform definitions and descriptions of clinical observations and data. A well-characterized terminology ensures a common meaning and supports data reuse and integration. A common terminology allows studies to build upon previous findings and to reuse data collection tools and data management processes. We present the current state of terminology harmonization and describe a governance structure and mechanism for coordinating the development of a common pediatric research terminology that links to clinical terminologies and can be used to align existing terminologies. By reducing the barriers between clinical care and clinical research, a Learning Health System can leverage and reuse not only its own data resources but also broader extant data resources. PMID:24534404

  4. Florence Goodenough and child study: The question of mothers as researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ann

    2015-05-01

    This article examines the views of early developmental psychologist Florence Goodenough, summarizing her contributions to the field, her complex viewpoints on science and gender issues, and her arguments for maternal record-keeping as a valuable scientific strategy, as drawn from her writings in textbooks, popular magazine articles, and private correspondence. During the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s, when Goodenough enjoyed a high professional profile as a research scientist, the field of child psychology shifted from focus on producing applied knowledge to benefit parents and educators to a preference for laboratory-controlled basic science approaches to understanding development. Goodenough championed observation and other descriptive methods, including use of mothers as data collectors in the home, even while these approaches were increasingly discredited by prominent peers in the United States. I argue that Goodenough's allegiance to maternal record-keeping highlights a forgotten strand of context-sensitive, descriptive work that survived despite its general disparagement among proponents of a narrower version of strictly experimental developmental science emerging in the 1920s.

  5. An Occupational Therapy Model for the Observation of the Behavior of an Autistic Child : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Hajime

    1990-01-01

    The author presented an observation method based on an occupational frame of reference, observing a 19 year-old autistic child. The occupational frame of reference showed the uniqueness of the occupational intervention process. This frame of reference consists of occupational performance (self-care activities, work/study activities, and play/leisure time activities) and performance components (motor, perceptual, cognitive, sensory, emotional, interpersonal). The author demonstrated how to use...

  6. The legacy of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert E

    2016-06-01

    Under the Global Forum for Health Research, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) began its operations in 1999 and became a Swiss foundation in 2006. The vision of CHNRI was to improve child health and nutrition of all children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) through research that informs health policy and practice. Specific objectives included expanding global knowledge on childhood disease burden and cost-effectiveness of interventions, promoting priority setting in research, ensuring inclusion of institutions and scientists in LMIC in setting priorities, promoting capacity development in LMIC and stimulating donors and countries to increase resources for research. CHNRI created a knowledge network, funded research through multiple rounds of a global competitive process and published research papers and policy briefs. A signature effort was to develop a systematic methodology for prioritizing health and nutrition research investments. The "CHNRI method" has been extensively applied to global health problems and is now the most commonly used method for prioritizing health research questions.

  7. The legacy of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E Black

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the Global Forum for Health Research, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI began its operations in 1999 and became a Swiss foundation in 2006. The vision of CHNRI was to improve child health and nutrition of all children in low– and middle–income countries (LMIC through research that informs health policy and practice. Specific objectives included expanding global knowledge on childhood disease burden and cost-effectiveness of interventions, promoting priority setting in research, ensuring inclusion of institutions and scientists in LMIC in setting priorities, promoting capacity development in LMIC and stimulating donors and countries to increase resources for research. CHNRI created a knowledge network, funded research through multiple rounds of a global competitive process and published research papers and policy briefs. A signature effort was to develop a systematic methodology for prioritizing health and nutrition research investments. The “CHNRI method” has been extensively applied to global health problems and is now the most commonly used method for prioritizing health research questions.

  8. Learning to Attend and Observe: Parent-Child Meaning Making in the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Ananda Maria

    Observation is a traditional form of learning and a scientific practice, and as such it plays a significant role in teaching and learning both inside and outside of schools. Recently, educational researchers and philosophers have called attention to the role of observation in scientific knowledge building (Brayboy & Castagno, 2008; Cajete, 2000; Datson & Lunbeck, 2011; Eberbach, 2009; Eberbach & Crowley, 2009; Kawagley, 2006; Norris, 1985; Smith & Reiser, 2005). These scholars have foregrounded the complexity of observation, particularly as it applies to inquiry practices in those domains which are heavily reliant on observation (Eberbach & Crowley, 2009; Maltese, Balliet, & Riggs, 2013; Smith & Reiser, 2005). My dissertation research examines how families with young children engage in the coordinated activity of observation during forest walks. I focus on the ways in which attentional practices support observational inquiry among parents and children between the ages of 5 to 7. Specifically, I examine how families coordinate attention and highlight features of the environment in order to make them observable. I use a mixed methods approach to investigate the range of interactional resources parents and children use as they engage in observation and learning about the natural world. Building on Indigenous scholarship (Cajete, 2000; Deloria & Wildcat, 2010; Kawagley, 2006), sociocultural theories and ecological approaches to development (Cole, 1996; Goodwin, 1994; Ingold, 2000; Rogoff, 2003) and conversation analysis (Heritage, 2008; Pomerantz & Fehr, 1997), I develop a taxonomy of forms of coordination and discuss how spatial arrangements and language work together to link attention, observations and explanations. This work further contributes to our understanding of the situated and cultural nature of learning and serves as a resource for the design of place-based learning environments that are based on the intellectual strengths and resources of diverse families.

  9. Indirect Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Preliminary findings from research on the needs of and support for families of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a complex and highly emotive subject. This research focuses on what victimologists sometimes called ‘indirect’, tertiary’ or even ‘secondary’, ‘victims’. These people are those non-abusers who are close to the ‘primary’ or ‘direct’ victim/s – the abused child/children. Indirect victims might be parents, carers, guardians, siblings, grandparents or friends. The experiences and needs of these people have rarely been the subject of research; yet the small number of (mostly ...

  10. Should child obesity be an issue for child protective services? A call for more research on this critical public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J; Gonzalez, Michelle; Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber; Emunah, Josie; Miller, Lindsey; Anton, Margaret

    2014-04-01

    Given the lasting effects on adolescent and adult health, childhood obesity is a major public health issue. The relatively slow progress toward the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity, however, has prompted leaders in both academic and practice sectors to advocate for what may be considered a radical intervention approach, to conceptualize extreme child obesity as an issue of child maltreatment. Advocates of this approach suggest that this conceptualization affords a new angle for intervention-the involvement of child protective services (CPS) in mandating family-focused lifestyle changes aimed at reducing child overweight and, in the most extreme cases, the removal of the obese child from the home. However, surprisingly little research has been conducted to inform policies or practices consistent with this recommendation, which is already being implemented in some states. This article aims to provide an overview of the challenges to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity that have motivated the call for CPS involvement in extreme cases and to review the existing research related to this approach. Given that relatively little data are currently available to support or refute the merits of CPS involvement, recommendations for future research that would better inform public policy and decision making regarding this and other intervention strategies are also highlighted. PMID:24231942

  11. Child and Adolescent Development Research and Teacher Education: Evidence-Based Pedagogy, Policy, and Practice. Summary of Roundtable Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) collaborated on a child and adolescent development project involving roundtables of knowledgeable researchers and teacher educators. This summary report discusses major issues faced by teachers and schools,…

  12. The Role of Oral Language Revisited: A Comment on the NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Stacey Storch

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the discussion of S. A. Storch and G. J. Whitehurst's literacy development model in the article by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Early Child Care Research Network (ECCRN). Specifically, this comment focuses on concerns raised by the NICHD ECCRN that Storch and Whitehurst's model does…

  13. Child Maltreatment and Its Relationship to Drug Use in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Overview and Multinational Research Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman-Mills, Samantha; Gonzalez, Yolanda W.; Melendez, Marlon O.; Garcia, Monica R.; Gomez, Juan D.; Juarez, Cristina G.; Martinez, Eduardo A.; Penalba, Sobeyda J.; Pizzanelli, Miguel E.; Solorzano, Lucia I.; Wright, Gloria; Cumsille, Francisco; Sapag, Jaime; Wekerle, Christine; Hamilton, Hayley; Erickson, Patricia; Mann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment and substance abuse are both international public health priorities. Research shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. Thus, recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to prevent and treat substance use and…

  14. Child Abuse and Neglect Program Evaluation: A Report from a Symposium on Evaluation Questions and Research Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Susan L.

    Presented in the report on the Symposium on Child Abuse and Neglect Program Evaluation are the critical issues regarding evaluation and research needs which were addressed during the 2-day meeting and a brief description of the meeting's format. A child protective services model involving five stages (identification/reporting,…

  15. The relation between child feeding problems as measured by parental report and mealtime behavior observation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Marijn; Bruinsma, Eke; Hauser, M Paulina

    2016-04-01

    Because feeding problems have clear negative consequences for both child and caretakers, early diagnosis and intervention are important. Parent-report questionnaires can contribute to early identification, because they are efficient and typically offer a 'holistic' perspective of the child's eating in different contexts. In this pilot study, we aim to explore the concurrent validity of a short screening instrument (the SEP, which is the Dutch MCH-FS) in one of its target populations (a group of premature children) by comparing the total score with the observed behavior of the child and caretaker during a regular home meal. 28 toddlers (aged 9-18 months) and their caretakers participated in the study. Video-observations of the meals were coded for categories of eating behavior and parent-child interaction. The results show that the total SEP-score correlates with food refusal, feeding efficiency, and self-feeding, but not with negative affect and parental instructions. This confirms that the SEP has a certain degree of concurrent validity in the sense that its total score is associated with specific 'benchmark' feeding behaviors: food refusal, feeding efficiency and autonomy. Future studies with larger samples are needed to generalize the findings from this pilot to a broader context.

  16. Transformative Role of Epigenetics in Child Development Research: Commentary on the Special Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Lester, Conradt, and Marsit (2016) have assembled a set of articles that bring to readers of Child Development the scope and impact of the exponentially growing research on epigenetics and child development. This commentary aims to place this work in a broader context of theory and research by (a) providing a conceptual framework for developmental scientists who may be only moderately familiar with this emergent field; (b) considering these contributions in relation to the current status of work, highlighting its transformative nature; (c) suggesting cautions to keep in mind, while simultaneously clarifying that these do not undermine important new insights; and (d) identifying the prospects for future work that builds on the progress reflected in this special section. PMID:26822449

  17. Response to Commentaries on Taking Stock and Moving Forward: Research on Asian American Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Vivian; Kiang, Lisa; Mistry, Jayanthi; Mistry, Rashmita S; Wang, Yijie; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2016-07-01

    We briefly respond here to the commentaries to the Special Section focused on Asian American child development by Cheah, Lee, Beaupre, and Zhou, and McLoyd. We consider three questions raised in their comments. What does it mean to focus on Asian Americans? How should we examine development across the life course? How can we generate more policy- and practice-relevant research?. PMID:27392801

  18. Observations of group care worker-child interaction in residential youth care: Pedagogical interventions and child behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanssen, I.L.W.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Geijsen, L.; Kroes, G.; Veerman, J.W.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The work of group care workers in residential youth care is often described as professional parenting. Pedagogical interventions of group care workers influence the quality of care for looked-after children. The aim of the current study was to observe the pedagogical interventions of group care work

  19. Effect observation of 1-year-old child health%1岁儿童保健效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汉广

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore effect of 1-year-old child health, and to improve participation rate of child health.Methods A total of 200 children at 1 year old in child health were divided into observation group (regular child health, 108 cases) and control group (irregular child health, 92 cases) by their participation frequency. Comparisons were made on nutritional status and physical development status between the two groups. Denver developmental screening test (DDST) was applied to evaluate their intelligent development situation. Results There was no statistically significant difference of stature and weight between the two groups (P>0.05). The observation group had higher hemoglobin level, lower bone alkaline phosphatase level and lower incidences of iron-deficiency anemia and rickets than the control group. The difference had statistical significance (P0.05);观察组血红蛋白水平高于对照组,骨碱性磷酸酶水平、缺铁性贫血及佝偻病发生率均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组儿童各项智能发育评分均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论积极参加儿童保健可促进儿童生长发育,应加强家长的儿童保健意识,以改善儿童保健状况。

  20. Development of the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Eric A.; Johnson, Susan L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Hopkinson, Judy M.; Butte, Nancy F; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2013-01-01

    Parent-child feeding interactions during the first two years of life are thought to shape child appetite and obesity risk, but remain poorly studied. This research was designed to develop and assess the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale (RCFCS), an observational measure of caregiver responsiveness to child feeding cues relevant to obesity. General responsiveness during feeding as well as maternal responsiveness to child hunger and fullness were rated during mid-morning feeding occasi...

  1. Caregiver Burden in Alzheimer's Disease: Differential Associations in Adult-Child and Spousal Caregivers in the GERAS Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Catherine; Belger, Mark; Dell'Agnello, Grazia; Wimo, Anders; Argimon, Josep Maria; Bruno, Giuseppe; Dodel, Richard; Haro, Josep Maria; Jones, Roy W.; Vellas, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To examine factors influencing the caregiver burden in adult-child and spousal caregivers of community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Baseline data from the 18-month, prospective, observational GERAS study of 1,497 patients with AD in France, Germany, and the UK were used. Analyses were performed on two groups of caregivers: spouses (n = 985) and adult children (n = 405). General linear models estimated patient and caregiver factors associated with su...

  2. Correspondence between mothers' self-reported and observed child-rearing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, G; Kuczynski, L; Radke-Yarrow, M

    1989-02-01

    The correspondence between self-reported child-rearing attitudes and practices and actual child management was examined among 68 mothers of young children. Data on mothers' verbal and physical control techniques along with children's responses (cooperation vs. resistance) were obtained during 90 min of spontaneous interaction in a naturalistic setting. Self-report data (the Block Q-Sort) were obtained 1-2 weeks later. The Block Q-Sort factors were combined to represent authoritarian and authoritative patterns of attitudes. The authoritarian pattern was positively associated with the use of direct commands, physical enforcements, reprimands, and prohibitive interventions, and negatively associated with the use of suggestions. The authoritative pattern was positively related to the use of suggestions and positive incentives, and negatively related to the use of physical enforcements, prohibitive interventions, and direct commands. Mothers' enjoyment of the parental role and their negative affect toward the child, as expressed in the Block Q-Sort, were more a result of the child's cooperation/resistance during the interaction than predictors of maternal control strategies.

  3. Socially Anxious Children: An Observational Study of Parent-Child Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Regina M.; Gross, Alan M.

    2001-01-01

    Differences in rate and quality of parent-child communication in parents of socially anxious and normal children 9-12 years old were examined. Socially anxious children, like the control group, tended to mirror verbalizations of parents. In contrast, socially anxious children did not show the same similarities in responsiveness. (BF)

  4. Emerging issues at the intersection of immigration and child welfare: results from a transnational research and policy forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff, Alan J; Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Velazquez, Sonia; Mindell, Robert; Bruce, Lara

    2009-01-01

    In July 2006, the American Humane Association and the Loyola University Chicago School of Social Work facilitated a roundtable to address the emerging issue of immigration and its intersection with child welfare systems. More than 70 participants from 10 states and Mexico joined the roundtable, representing the fields of higher education, child welfare, international immigration, legal practice, and others. This roundtable created a transnational opportunity to discuss the emerging impact of migration on child welfare services in the United States and formed the basis of a continued multidisciplinary collaboration designed to inform and impact policy and practice at the local, state, and national levels. This paper presents the results of the roundtable discussion and summarizes the emerging issues that participants identified as requiring attention by child welfare systems to facilitat positive outcomes of child safety, permanency, and well-being. Suggestions for further research and implications for policy and practice are also presented. PMID:19777792

  5. Observer-based Satellite Attitude Control and Simulation Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子才; 马克茂

    2002-01-01

    Observer design method is applied to the realization of satellite attitude control law baaed on simplified control model. Exact mathematical model of the satellite attitude control system is also constructed, together with the observer-based control law, to conduct simulation research. The simulation results justify the effectiveness andfeasibility of the observer-based control method.

  6. Effect of child health status on parents’ allowing children to participate in pediatric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhelst Jérémy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify motivational factors linked to child health status that affected the likelihood of parents’ allowing their child to participate in pediatric research. Methods Parents were invited to return their completed questionnaires anonymously to assess motivational factors and factors that might improve participation in pediatric research. Results Of 573 eligible parents, 261 returned the completed questionnaires. Of these, 126 were parents of healthy children (group 1, whereas 135 were parents of sick children who were divided into two groups according to the severity of their pathology, i.e., 99 ambulatory children (group 2 and 36 nonambulatory children (group 3. The main factor motivating participation in a pediatric clinical research study was “direct benefits for their child” (87.7%, 100%, and 100% for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The other factors differed significantly between the three groups, depending on the child’s health status (all p 2 test, all p ≤ 0.04, depending on the child’s health status. The main factor was “a better understanding of the study and its regulation” for the healthy children and ambulatory sick children groups (31.2% and 82.1%, respectively, whereas this was the third factor for the nonambulatory sick children group (50%. Conclusions Innovative strategies should be developed based on a child’s health status to improve information provision when seeking a child’s participation in pediatric research. Parents would like to spend more time in discussions with investigators.

  7. Lived Observations: Linking the Researcher's Personal Experiences to Knowledge Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Lisbeth; Öhlén, Joakim

    2015-11-01

    As researchers in palliative care, we recognize how involvement with seriously ill and dying persons has an impact on us. Using one's own senses, emotional and bodily responses in observations might open intersubjective dimensions of the research topic. The aim of the article is to highlight how phenomenological theories on intersubjectivity can be useful to develop rich and transparent data generation and analysis. We present three field note examples from observation in a hospice ward, which illuminate how researcher awareness of aspects of intersubjectivity can add valuable insights to data and analysis. Out of the examples, we elaborate on three arguments: (a) how the researcher's lived experience of time and space during fieldwork triggers new research questions, (b) how observations as an embodied activity can bring new insights and open new layers of meaning, and (c) the value of observations in gaining insight into relational aspects in a hospice.

  8. Setting global research priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM): Results from a CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Kerri Wazny; Salim Sadruddin; Alvin Zipursky; Davidson H Hamer; Troy Jacobs; Karin Kallander; Franco Pagnoni; Stefan Peterson; Shamim Qazi; Serge Raharison; Kerry Ross; Mark Young; Marsh, David R

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM). METHODS: An iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG) identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked us...

  9. Exploring the assessment of geological observation with design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, John Y.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the assessment of geological observation through the development and field testing of performance tasks. The study addressed a central challenge in geoscience education: for students to observe the world around them and make real-world connections. Yet, there existed no cohesive research approach for the study of observation in geoscience education. The research goal was to understand the assessment of geological observation. The design research of geological observation encountered the situation where few performance assessments existed and few domain-specific learning theories were available. Design research is suited to inquiries in which a domain of learning is unexplored and the phenomena needs to be supported in the classroom in order to study it. This dissertation addressed one general research question and four subquestions: (RQ) How should geological observation be assessed? (S1) What role did perception play in assessing students' geological observations? (S2) What role did explanation play in assessing students' geological observations? (S3) What role did gestures play in assessing students' geological observations? (S4) Were there performance differences between the first and second trial of the GO Inquire prototype with fourth graders? Students were supported in making geological observations with three performance tasks: GO Inquire stamp task, Cutting task, and Fieldguide task. The data set for this study consisted of student response data, videorecordings, and participant observations from seven field tests across one fourth and one fifth grade class. Three data-analytic methods, qualitative coding, item-difficulty analysis, and non-parametric comparisons, were utilized based on four mixed-method data analysis strategies: typology development, data transformation, extreme case analysis, and data consolidation. Analysis revealed that assessment should take into account the separation of visual from verbal

  10. Earth observation big data for climate change research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Hua-Dong; ZHANG; Li; ZHU; Lan-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Earth observation technology has provided highly useful information in global climate change research over the past few decades and greatly promoted its development,especially through providing biological,physical,and chemical parameters on a global scale.Earth observation data has the 4V features(volume,variety,veracity,and velocity) of big data that are suitable for climate change research.Moreover,the large amount of data available from scientific satellites plays an important role.This study reviews the advances of climate change studies based on Earth observation big data and provides examples of case studies that utilize Earth observation big data in climate change research,such as synchronous satelliteeaerialeground observation experiments,which provide extremely large and abundant datasets; Earth observational sensitive factors(e.g.,glaciers,lakes,vegetation,radiation,and urbanization); and global environmental change information and simulation systems.With the era of global environment change dawning,Earth observation big data will underpin the Future Earth program with a huge volume of various types of data and will play an important role in academia and decisionmaking.Inevitably,Earth observation big data will encounter opportunities and challenges brought about by global climate change.

  11. Earth observation big data for climate change research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Dong Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation technology has provided highly useful information in global climate change research over the past few decades and greatly promoted its development, especially through providing biological, physical, and chemical parameters on a global scale. Earth observation data has the 4V features (volume, variety, veracity, and velocity of big data that are suitable for climate change research. Moreover, the large amount of data available from scientific satellites plays an important role. This study reviews the advances of climate change studies based on Earth observation big data and provides examples of case studies that utilize Earth observation big data in climate change research, such as synchronous satellite–aerial–ground observation experiments, which provide extremely large and abundant datasets; Earth observational sensitive factors (e.g., glaciers, lakes, vegetation, radiation, and urbanization; and global environmental change information and simulation systems. With the era of global environment change dawning, Earth observation big data will underpin the Future Earth program with a huge volume of various types of data and will play an important role in academia and decisionmaking. Inevitably, Earth observation big data will encounter opportunities and challenges brought about by global climate change.

  12. Recent Progress in Atmospheric Observation Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Recent progress in atmospheric observation techniques,observational systems and their application in China are reviewed.According to different observational platforms,the review is presented in three sections,i.e.,satellite remote sensing(SRS),ground-based observation technologies and applications,and aircraft/balloon measurements.The section"satellite remote sensing"presents advances in SRS techniques,SRS of clouds and aerosols,and SRS of trace gases and temperature/moisture profiles.The section"groundbased observation technologies and applications"focuses on research such as lidar systems and applications,sun/sky radiometer and broadband radiation observations,weather radar and wind profilers,GPS measurements,and some new concept systems.The section"aircraft/balloon measurements"presents some newly developed aircraft-and balloon-based sounding techniques.

  13. Observation of peers in learning to write: Practice and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Elke Van Steendam, Anne Toorenaar,Journal of Writing Research 1(1, 53-83In this paper we discuss the role of observation in learning to write. We argue that the acquisition of skill in such a complex domain as writing relies on observation, the classical imitatio. An important phase in learning to write, at all ages, is learning to write by observing and evaluating relevant processes: writing processes, reading processes or communication processes between writers and readers.First, we present two practical cases: writing lessons in which observation and inquiry are amongst other key elements and where students participate in a community of learners. Then, we review research that may inspire and substantiate proposals for implementing observation as a learning activity in writing education. Two types of studies are discussed: studies in which learners acquire strategies by observing and evaluating writing and reading processes of peers, as a prewriting instructional activity, and studies in which learners are stimulated to 'pre-test' and then revise their first draft, as a post writing instructional activity. The paper closes with some recommendations for further research.

  14. Two methods for engaging with the community in setting priorities for child health research: who engages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wavne Rikkers

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess participatory methods for obtaining community views on child health research.Community participation in research is recognised as an important part of the research process; however, there has been inconsistency in its implementation and application in Australia. The Western Australian Telethon Kids Institute Participation Program employs a range of methods for fostering active involvement of community members in its research. These include public discussion forums, called Community Conversations. While participation levels are good, the attendees represent only a sub-section of the Western Australian population. Therefore, we conducted a telephone survey of randomly selected households to evaluate its effectiveness in eliciting views from a broader cross-section of the community about our research agenda and community participation in research, and whether the participants would be representative of the general population. We also conducted two Conversations, comparing the survey as a recruitment tool and normal methods using the Participation Program.While the telephone survey was a good method for eliciting community views about research, there were marked differences in the profile of study participants compared to the general population (e.g. 78% vs 50% females. With a 26% response rate, the telephone survey was also more expensive than a Community Conversation. The cold calling approach proved an unsuccessful recruitment method, with only two out of a possible 816 telephone respondents attending a Conversation.While the results showed that both of the methods produced useful input for our research program, we could not conclude that either method gained input that was representative of the entire community. The Conversations were relatively low-cost and provided more in-depth information about one subject, whereas the telephone survey provided information across a greater range of subjects, and allowed

  15. Participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy; Buch Løgstrup, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of practice. They do so by combining participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry engaging with practice based explorations to understand if methods and methodologies, understood as being central to anthropological inquiry, can be taught to interaction design......Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites...... their relation with the private end user? What kind of ways can engaging within collaborative processes of designing offer opportunities for both designing and anthropological research inquiry simultaneously?...

  16. Clinical Observation on 930 Child Epilepsy Cases Treated with Anti-epilepsy Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马融; 李少川; 李新民; 胡思源; 孙希焕; 刘玉珍; 张喜莲; 李向农; 马秀华

    2003-01-01

    1090 cases of child epilepsy were divided randomly into two groups: the treatment group (930 cases treated with anti-epilepsy capsules) and the control group (160 cases treated with luminal). The results showed that in the treatment group, 534 cases were markedly effective, 241 effective, 96 improved, 46 ineffective, and 13 aggravated, with a total effective rate of 83.33%; while in the control group, 64 cases were markedly effective, 19 effective, 38 improved, 29 ineffective, and 10 aggravated, with a total effective rate of 51.88%. The treatment group showed an obviously higher total effective rate than that in the control group (P<0.01). After treatment, cases in the two groups all had lower frequency of epilepsy attacks and shorter duration of each attack as compared with that before treatment (P<0.01), but the situation was obviously better in the treatment group. The anti-epilepsy capsules had very good effect on various types of epilepsy, especially on autonomic epilepsy and on epilepsies due to wind, phlegm, or terror as differentiated in TCM. After treatment, the recovery rate shown by EEG examination was 54.3% in the treatment group, while 38.4% in the control group, the former being obviously higher than the latter (P<0.01).

  17. “You child is just wonderful!” : On ethics and access in research with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Eldén

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discuss the consequences of the ambiguous view of children in the ethical guidelines – the ambitions to “give voice” while also “protect” – with a point of departure taken in the Swedish context, and in an actual research process of a project on children and care. It shows how the regulation of informed consent through the parent compromises the ideals of child-centred research; firstly, by limiting the child’s possibility to opt in to research; secondly, by affecting the relationship between researcher, child and parent in the research encounter; and thirdly, by jeopardizing the child’s right to confidentiality. The author argues that we should view not only the child’s but also the adult’s consent as a “continuous negotiation” and discusses strategies for strengthening the child’s right to opt in and participate in research on equal terms.

  18. Observation of peers in learning to write: practice and research

    OpenAIRE

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Braaksma, Martine; Couzijn, Michel; Janssen, Tanja; Raedts, Mariet; Van Steendam, Elke; Toorenaar, Anne; van den Bergh, Huub

    2008-01-01

    Elke Van Steendam, Anne Toorenaar,Journal of Writing Research 1(1), 53-83In this paper we discuss the role of observation in learning to write. We argue that the acquisition of skill in such a complex domain as writing relies on observation, the classical imitatio. An important phase in learning to write, at all ages, is learning to write by observing and evaluating relevant processes: writing processes, reading processes or communication processes between writers and readers.First, we presen...

  19. Child Abuse: An Integration of the Research Related to Education of Children Handicapped as a Result of Child Abuse. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Donald F.; Hopper, Mark A.

    Reviewed in terms of a concept analysis is the literature on child abuse, and presented is an annotated bibliography of approximately 550 journal articles, 18 books, 6 dissertations, and 40 pamphlets on child abuse. Briefly reviewed is the historical context of child abuse. A concept analysis of child abuse is offered which suggests that any…

  20. Vocal Production of Young Children with Disabilities during Child-Robot Interactions. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a socially interactive robot on the vocalization production of five children with disabilities (4 with autism, 1 with a sensory processing disorder) were the focus of the intervention study described in this research report. The interventions with each child were conducted over 4 or 5 days in the children's homes and involved…

  1. Hard Science, Thin Air and Unexpected Guests: A Pluralistic Model of Rationality, Knowledge and Conjecture in Child Psychotherapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Psychoanalysis and child psychotherapy have traditionally sought to describe their relationship to science in a variety of ways. As a consequence, different strands of the research programme are underpinned by divergent methodological and epistemic assumptions. The perceived incommensurability of these positions sometimes hinders the development…

  2. A call for research exploring social media influences on mothers' child feeding practices and childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann L

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing interest in leveraging social media to prevent childhood obesity, however, the evidence base for how social media currently influences related behaviors and how interventions could be developed for these platforms is lacking. This commentary calls for research on the extent to which mothers use social media to learn about child feeding practices and the mechanisms through which social media influences their child feeding practices. Such formative research could be applied to the development and dissemination of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention programs that utilize social media. Mothers are identified as a uniquely important target audience for social media-based interventions because of their proximal influence on children's eating behavior and their high engagement with social media platforms. Understanding mothers' current behaviors, interests, and needs as they relate to their social media use and child feeding practices is an integral first step in the development of interventions that aim to engage mothers for obesity prevention. This commentary highlights the importance of mothers for childhood obesity prevention; discusses theoretical and analytic frameworks that can inform research on social media and mothers' child feeding practices; provides evidence that social media is an emerging context for social influences on mothers' attitudes and behaviors in which food is a salient topic; and suggests directions for future research.

  3. Putting Youth Relationship Education on the Child Welfare Agenda: Findings from a Research and Evaluation Review. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mindy E.; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Hawkins, Alan J.; Malm, Karin; Beltz, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Child Trends reviewed existing evidence on a somewhat neglected topic: relationship education for youth in foster care. The goals of this research review were to identify the needs of disadvantaged young people around intimate partner relationships, to identify evaluated relationship education programs, to highlight and synthesize common themes…

  4. Critical Observation on Methodologies of Select Doctoral Research Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indrajit Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to critically observe and interpret the methodological deficiencies as found in randomly selected 14 doctoral theses submitted to two different universities in India. Despite their serious deviation from the expected methodological standards, all those theses were accepted and approved by the universities and scholars concerned conferred with PhD degrees. Undoubtedly, those theses kept in the reference sections at the respective university libraries would potentially misguide and mislead the future researchers. Some of the common technical deficiencies, as have been noticed, include (1 absence of careful thoughts in framing research titles, (ii biased method of data collection, (ii absence of logical explanation in favour of sample size and sample selection process, (iii designing and execution of instrument for data collection, (iv theory formulation in terms of framing of objectives, hypotheses and operational definitions etc. The article attempts to present the critical observations on case-to-case basis so that their conceptual, instrumental and procedural deficiencies and deviations are easily understood by the academicians, researchers and students. The content of this article is divided in to three broad sections. The first section deals with an introduction to quantitative and qualitative research methods and their advantages and limitations. The next section deals with the review of the selected theses followed by conclusion and suggested remedial measures. The objective of this article is purely academic and its scope is limited to enhancement of quality of future research studies in the domains and related fields.

  5. Physical growth and development of the malnourished child: contributions from 50 years of research at INCAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews the main findings and policy implications of 50 years (1949-1999) of research conducted by INCAP on growth and development. Topical areas reviewed include a) maternal size and birthweight and the causes of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), b) patterns and causes of postnatal growth retardation, c) the relative importance of genetics and the environment in explaining differences in growth among populations, d) the implications of being small, for both children and adults, e) bone growth and maturation and dental development, f) menarche, and g) methodological contributions such as anthropometric reference data, quality control of data collection, development of risk indicators and use of anthropometry in nutrition surveillance systems. Key contributions to knowledge by INCAP include a) characterization of growth failure and maturational delays as mainly occurring during the intrauterine period and the first 3 years of life b) clarification of the role of small maternal size and of inadequate dietary intakes during pregnancy as major causes of intrauterine growth failure, c) evidence that diarrheal diseases and poor dietary intakes are the principal causes of growth failure in early childhood, d) demonstration that environmental factors related to poverty, and not genetic or racial ancestry, account for most of the differences in growth between populations, e) evidence that growth failure predicts functional impairment in the child as well as in the adult andf) demonstration that nutrition interventions are effective in preventing growth failure and its consequences, if targeted to needy women and young children. INCAP's work has contributed knowledge that has informed and improved policies and programs aimed at overcoming maternal and child undernutrition and promoting optimal growth and development.

  6. Pre-eclampsia research in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Magnus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy disorder of unknown origin. In Norway, pre-eclampsia is reported in 3 to 4 per cent of registered births. At present, November 2014, a series of investigations into the etiology of preeclampsia have been published internationally from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and several studies are ongoing. The intention of this paper is to give a short summary of what has been accomplished, and to discuss future avenues of research concerning causes, mechanisms and consequences of pre-eclampsia. The papers that have been published up to now include seven that concern life-styles (physical activity, tobacco and diet, six that include prior pregnancies, infection, gestational weight gain, toxicants and tryptophan metabolism, and two studies concerning issues of selection and validity. Major findings are that tobacco smoking is only associated with reduced risk of pre-eclampsia when it occurs in the last trimester; that processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with increased risk while vegetables, vitamin D and probiotics are associated with reduced risk; and that prior induced abortions have the same risk-reducing effect as a prior pregnancy. For future studies, we suggest that better use should be made of the family structure built into MoBa. This includes better use of the discordant pregnancy design. A series of ongoing genetic studies, partly in international consortia, will hopefully open new etiological insights. The indications that pre-eclampsia is related to cardiovascular disease and other complex disorders should be further investigated through systematic follow-up of pre-eclamptic women and controls. Finally, MoBa is eminently suited to study the influences that pre-eclampsia can have on the growing child.

  7. Approaches to Use of Observational Methods of a Study of Parent-Child Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    The methodology discussed is used in ongoing research to contrast the effectiveness of several patterns of parental authority with the same children at different ages. The first characteristic of these methods is the use of trait and behavior ratings to assess dispositional tendencies. The construct of a dispositional trait is used to account for…

  8. GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Perea, V.; Balzter, H.

    2012-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: -Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). -Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centers and market leaders in the private sector. -Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. The training program through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics (each carried out by an Early Stage Researchers based in one of the partner organization) divided in 5 main areas: Forest monitoring: Global biomass information systems Forest Monitoring of the Congo Basin using Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR) Multi-concept Earth Observation Capabilities for Biomass Mapping and Change Detection: Synergy of Multi-temporal and Multi-frequency Interferometric Radar and Optical Satellite Data Land cover and change: Multi-scale Remote Sensing Synergy for Land Process Studies: from field Spectrometry to Airborne Hyperspectral and

  9. Editorial: Illuminating the dark matter of developmental neuropsychiatric genetics - strategic focus for future research in child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2014-03-01

    Research on genetic factors influencing cognitive and behavioural traits or which are central to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric diseases has been complicated by a furtive discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. This 'missing heritability' has been either euphemised as the 'dark matter' of gene-trait association or aggravated as the 'looming crisis in behavioural genetics'. Nevertheless, in recognising the importance of this topic for our understanding of child psychiatric conditions and highlighting its commitment to the field, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (JCPP) has for the first time appointed an editor with special responsibility for molecular (epi)genetics.

  10. Comparison of determinants of research knowledge utilization by practitioners and administrators in the field of child and family social services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervais Marie-Joëlle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important gap exists between research production and its utilization. Few studies have examined the factors affecting knowledge utilization in the field of child and family social services. Methods The objectives of the study are to describe knowledge utilization by child protection administrators and practitioners (N = 477 and to compare factors related to knowledge utilization by these two occupational groups. The study was conducted with an adapted version of the Questionnaire sur l'utilisation des connaissances (Knowledge Utilization Questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to collapse data collected on the questionnaire items. Factor score for each respondent served as independent variables in three separate multivariate regression analyses to explore variables likely to predict research-based knowledge utilization. Results A minority of respondents (18% report using on a frequent basis research-based knowledge in their practice. Relational capital between researchers and users and perceived usefulness of research based knowledge were the two factors most strongly related to utilization. There was a specificity in the factors associated with knowledge utilization according to occupational groups in child protection organizations. Use of active knowledge transfer strategies was associated with knowledge utilization by practitioners, while knowledge dissemination efforts played a more significant role for administrators. Conclusion These results encourage both the use of strategies differentiated according to users and the intensification of interactions between users and researchers to foster research knowledge utilization.

  11. Lonely Parents: Observations by Public Health Nurses of Alienation in Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Marjorie

    Public health nurses (n=191) were queried regarding their observations of alienation in families who abuse their children. Comparison was made of social isolation and powerlessness in abusive families and a control group of non-abusive families, through the Internal-External Locus of Control Scale and FIRO-B, with significant differences noted in…

  12. Advances in carbon flux observation and research in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guirui; ZHANG Leiming; SUN Xiaomin; FU Yuling; LI Zhengquan

    2005-01-01

    As an important component of FLUXNET, Asia is increasingly becoming the hotspot in global carbon research for its vast territory, complex climate type and vegetation diversity. The present three regional flux observation networks in Asia (i.e. AsiaFlux, KoFlux and ChinaFLUX)have 54 flux observation sites altogether, covering tropic rainforest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest, shrubland, grassland, alpine meadow and cropland ecosystems with a latitudinal distribution from 2°N to 63°N. Long-term and continuous fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere are mainly measured with eddy covariance technique to (1) quantify and compare the carbon, water and energy budgets across diverse ecosystems; (2) quantify the environmental and biotic controlling mechanism on ecosystem carbon, water and energy fluxes; (3) validate the soil-vegetation-atmosphere model; and (4) serve the integrated study of terrestrial ecosystem carbon and water cycle. Over the last decades, great advancements have been made in the theory and technology of flux measurement, ecosystem flux patterns, simulation and scale conversion by Asian flux community. The establishment of ChinaFLUX has greatly filled the gap of flux observation and research in Eurasia. To further promote the flux measurement and research,accelerate data sharing and improve the data quality, it is necessary to present a methodological system of flux estimation and evaluation over complex terrain and to develop the integrated research that combines the flux measurement, stable isotope measurement, remote sensing observation and GIS technique. It also requires the establishment of the Joint Committee of Asian Flux Network in the Asia-Pacific region in order to promote the cooperation and communication of ideas and data by supporting project scientists, workshops and visiting scientists.

  13. ICOS, Integrated Carbon Observing System, a Research Infrastructure to Integrate Greenhouse Gas observations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciais, P.; Paris, J.; Rivier, L.; Ceulemans, R.; Dolman, A. J.; Flaud, J.; Garrec, C.; Gerbig, C.; Grace, J.; Huertas, E.; Johannessen, T.; Jordan, A.; Levin, I.; Lindroth, A.; Loustau, D.; Papale, D.; Ramonet, M.; Valentini, R.; Vesala, T.; Kaukolehto, M.; Watson, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a European Research infrastructure. ICOS's mission is to collect data for monitoring greenhouse gas fluxes over Europe and adjacent regions, and to provide the long-term observations required to quantify and to predict the behavior of the carbon cycle. ICOS builds upon the measurement networks and expertise developed under many European and national projects by a research community of more that 2000 researchers and students. ICOS received initial funding for the period 2008-2013 for the preparation of a Research Infrastructure hat will be operational in 2014 and run during the next 20 years a data collection for essential GHG variables including The presentation of ICOS will focus 1) on the mechanisms that have enabled the agencies / networks / governments to produce work products (data products, modeling products, and sensor acquired or human acquired measurements), and 2) on strategies to enable all identified user families, to take those products into assessments and analyses of European time varying maps GHG fluxes, including information on the attribution of these fluxes to underlying human and natural drivers and policy relevant information to improve GHG inventories at regional to national scale. These mechanisms take the form of adherence to technical standards (data, measurements, calibration/validation, modelling protocols), data policies, and governance mechanisms, which may prove complex when many different research councils and ministries are involved, as in the case of the ICOS preparation.

  14. Observations on action research with HIV-positive women and state service providers in northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Oosterhoff

    2009-01-01

    This article examines some of the challenges and opportunities of combining the roles of a health professional and a medical anthropological researcher, based on the author’s experiences combining PhD action research with management of interventions on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of H

  15. Child Physical Abuse: The Relevance of Language and Social Interaction Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes that language and social interaction (LSI) scholars can contribute to interdisciplinary efforts aimed at understanding and responding to child physical abuse. Discusses reasons why LSI scholars might shy away from such study and considers links between face-to-face family interaction and child physical abuse, demonstrating the relevance…

  16. School Attendance and Child Labor in Ecuador. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gloria

    Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…

  17. Interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and child antisocial behavior: examining the role of maternal versus paternal influences using a novel genetically sensitive research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit K; Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2012-11-01

    Past research has linked interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and externalizing behavior problems in childhood. However, few studies have examined these relationships while simultaneously allowing the contribution of common genetic factors underlying associations between family- and parent-level variables on child psychopathology to be controlled. Using the attributes of a genetically sensitive in vitro fertilization research design, the present study examined associations among interparental conflict, parents' antisocial behavior problems, parents' anxiety symptoms, and hostile parenting on children's antisocial behavior problems among genetically related and genetically unrelated mother-child and father-child groupings. Path analyses revealed that for genetically related mothers, interparental conflict and maternal antisocial behavior indirectly influenced child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For genetically unrelated mothers, effects were apparent only for maternal antisocial behavior on child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For both genetically related and genetically unrelated fathers and children, interparental conflict and paternal antisocial behavior influenced child antisocial behavior through father-to-child hostility. Effects of parental anxiety symptoms on child antisocial behavior were apparent only for genetically related mothers and children. Results are discussed with respect to the relative role of passive genotype-environment correlation as a possible confounding factor underlying family process influences on childhood psychopathology.

  18. Research Review: Psychosocial Adjustment and Mental Health in Former Child Soldiers--A Systematic Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and scope: This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age less than 18 years) associated with armed forces and armed groups (CAAFAG)--commonly referred to as child soldiers. Methods: PRISMA standards for systematic reviews were used to search PubMed, PsycInfo, JSTOR,…

  19. Quantifying Peer Interactions for Research and Clinical Use: The Manchester Inventory for Playground Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jenny; Hussain, Jamilla; Holsgrove, Samina; Adams, Catherine; Green, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Direct observation of peer relating is potentially a sensitive and ecologically valid measure of child social functioning, but there has been a lack of standardised methods. The Manchester Inventory for Playground Observation (MIPO) was developed as a practical yet rigorous assessment of this kind for 5-11 year olds. We report on the initial…

  20. p-Curve and p-Hacking in Observational Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan B Bruns

    Full Text Available The p-curve, the distribution of statistically significant p-values of published studies, has been used to make inferences on the proportion of true effects and on the presence of p-hacking in the published literature. We analyze the p-curve for observational research in the presence of p-hacking. We show by means of simulations that even with minimal omitted-variable bias (e.g., unaccounted confounding p-curves based on true effects and p-curves based on null-effects with p-hacking cannot be reliably distinguished. We also demonstrate this problem using as practical example the evaluation of the effect of malaria prevalence on economic growth between 1960 and 1996. These findings call recent studies into question that use the p-curve to infer that most published research findings are based on true effects in the medical literature and in a wide range of disciplines. p-values in observational research may need to be empirically calibrated to be interpretable with respect to the commonly used significance threshold of 0.05. Violations of randomization in experimental studies may also result in situations where the use of p-curves is similarly unreliable.

  1. p-Curve and p-Hacking in Observational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Stephan B; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-01-01

    The p-curve, the distribution of statistically significant p-values of published studies, has been used to make inferences on the proportion of true effects and on the presence of p-hacking in the published literature. We analyze the p-curve for observational research in the presence of p-hacking. We show by means of simulations that even with minimal omitted-variable bias (e.g., unaccounted confounding) p-curves based on true effects and p-curves based on null-effects with p-hacking cannot be reliably distinguished. We also demonstrate this problem using as practical example the evaluation of the effect of malaria prevalence on economic growth between 1960 and 1996. These findings call recent studies into question that use the p-curve to infer that most published research findings are based on true effects in the medical literature and in a wide range of disciplines. p-values in observational research may need to be empirically calibrated to be interpretable with respect to the commonly used significance threshold of 0.05. Violations of randomization in experimental studies may also result in situations where the use of p-curves is similarly unreliable.

  2. p-Curve and p-Hacking in Observational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Stephan B; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-01-01

    The p-curve, the distribution of statistically significant p-values of published studies, has been used to make inferences on the proportion of true effects and on the presence of p-hacking in the published literature. We analyze the p-curve for observational research in the presence of p-hacking. We show by means of simulations that even with minimal omitted-variable bias (e.g., unaccounted confounding) p-curves based on true effects and p-curves based on null-effects with p-hacking cannot be reliably distinguished. We also demonstrate this problem using as practical example the evaluation of the effect of malaria prevalence on economic growth between 1960 and 1996. These findings call recent studies into question that use the p-curve to infer that most published research findings are based on true effects in the medical literature and in a wide range of disciplines. p-values in observational research may need to be empirically calibrated to be interpretable with respect to the commonly used significance threshold of 0.05. Violations of randomization in experimental studies may also result in situations where the use of p-curves is similarly unreliable. PMID:26886098

  3. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less.

  4. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less. PMID:24634566

  5. "To observe well ... and thence to make himself rules": John Locke's principles and practice of child healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A N

    2007-06-01

    It is often forgotten that the philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) was a highly regarded physician with a lifelong interest in medicine and was frequently consulted on medical matters, including the health of children. This child health aspect in Locke's history has been largely ignored, with even modern commentaries on Locke and medicine giving it only a cursory mention. However, it is clear that, in child health, Locke's influence is far more substantial than GF Still's and George Jackson's opinions, which limited Locke solely to Thoughts concerning education (1692/3). That a fundamental reappraisal of Locke's role in child healthcare is necessary and that his place as a pioneer of modern child healthcare needs to be proclaimed are emphasised here. As modern day child healthcare has evolved to embrace advocacy and learning disability, Locke's importance through his influence on paediatrics, child healthcare and human rights becomes more evident. Locke's influence in child healthcare comes not only through his other celebrated philosophical writings, but also through extensive personal correspondence and case records. As well as throwing light onto the 17th century aspects of child healthcare, Locke, through his enquiry and self-evident humility in his correspondence on medical matters, inspires and educates us with his pragmatic approach to the practice of medicine.

  6. The relation between child feeding problems as measured by parental report and mealtime behavior observation : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Marijn; Bruinsma, Eke; Hauser, M. Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Because feeding problems have clear negative consequences for both child and caretakers, early diagnosis and intervention are important. Parent-report questionnaires can contribute to early identification, because they are efficient and typically offer a 'holistic' perspective of the child's eating

  7. Research Program towards Observation of Neutrino-Nucleus Coherent Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, H T

    2006-01-01

    The article describes the research program pursued by the TEXONO Collaboration towards an experiment to observe coherent scattering between neutrinos and the nucleus at the power reactor. The motivations of studying this process are surveyed. In particular, a threshold of 100-200 eV has been achieved with an ultra-low-energy germanium detector prototype. This detection capability at low energy can also be adapted to conduct searches of Cold Dark Matter in the low-mass region as well as to enhance the sensitivities in the study of neutrino magnetic moments.

  8. p-Curve and p-Hacking in Observational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan B. Bruns; Ioannidis, John P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The p-curve, the distribution of statistically significant p-values of published studies, has been used to make inferences on the proportion of true effects and on the presence of p-hacking in the published literature. We analyze the p-curve for observational research in the presence of p-hacking. We show by means of simulations that even with minimal omitted-variable bias (e.g., unaccounted confounding) p-curves based on true effects and p-curves based on null-effects with p-hacking cannot b...

  9. Observing the user experience a practitioner's guide to user research

    CERN Document Server

    Kuniavsky, Mike; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The gap between who designers and developers imagine their users are, and who those users really are can be the biggest problem with product development. Observing the User Experience will help you bridge that gap to understand what your users want and need from your product, and whether they'll be able to use what you've created. Filled with real-world experience and a wealth of practical information, this book presents a complete toolbox of techniques to help designers and developers see through the eyes of their users. It provides in-depth coverage of 13 user experience research techniques

  10. Lunar-based Earth observation geometrical characteristics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanzhen; Liu, Guang; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    As is known to all, there are various platforms for carrying sensors to observe Earth, such as automobiles, aircrafts and satellites. Nowadays, we focus on a new platform, Moon, because of its longevity, stability and vast space. These advantages make it to be the next potential platform for observing Earth, enabling us to get the consistent and global measurements. In order to get a better understanding of lunar-based Earth observation, we discuss its geometrical characteristics. At present, there are no sensors on the Moon for observing Earth and we are not able to obtain a series of real experiment data. As a result, theoretical modeling and numerical calculation are used in this paper. At first, we construct an approximate geometrical model of lunar-based Earth observation, which assumes that Earth and Moon are spheres. Next, we calculate the position of Sun, Earth and Moon based on the JPL ephemeris. With the help of positions data and geometrical model, it is possible for us to decide the location of terminator and substellar points. However, in order to determine their precise position in the conventional terrestrial coordinate system, reference frames transformations are introduced as well. Besides, taking advantages of the relative positions of Sun, Earth and Moon, we get the total coverage of lunar-based Earth optical observation. Furthermore, we calculate a more precise coverage, considering placing sensors on different positions of Moon, which is influenced by its attitude parameters. In addition, different ephemeris data are compared in our research and little difference is found.

  11. Stability of Subsidy Participation and Continuity of Care in the Child Care Assistance Program in Minnesota. Minnesota Child Care Choices Research Brief Series. Publication #2014-55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth E.; Krafft, Caroline; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Child Care Assistance Program (CCAP) provides subsidies to help low-income families pay for child care while parents are working, looking for work, or attending school. The program can help make quality child care affordable and is intended both to support employment for low-income families and to support the development and…

  12. The dynamics of child abuse in the family as a subject of psychological research

    OpenAIRE

    Z.V. Lukovtseva

    2013-01-01

    The article raises important questions of studying the temporal dynamics of child abuse, considering up-to-date literature. The severity of the problems discussed is proved by statistical data showing the prevalence of child abuse in Russian families. We highlight the ambiguity of relevant terminology, lack of certain features, boundaries and algorithms of psychological work with victims. The dynamic aspects of the problem of abuse are considered in light of the practical needs of adequate ps...

  13. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  14. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Le, Guan; Swenson, Charles; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Bishop, Rebecca L.; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.; Heelis, Roderick; Loures, Luis; Krause, Linda; Fonseca, Eloi

    2016-07-01

    Structure in the charged particle number density in the equatorial ionosphere can have a profound impact on the fidelity of HF, VHF and UHF radio signals that are used for ground-to-ground and space-to-ground communication and navigation. The degree to which such systems can be compromised depends in large part on the spatial distribution of the structured regions in the ionosphere and the background plasma density in which they are embedded. In order to address these challenges it is necessary to accurately distinguish the background ionospheric conditions that favor the generation of irregularities from those that do not. Additionally we must relate the evolution of those conditions to the subsequent evolution of the irregular plasma regions themselves. The background ionospheric conditions are conveniently described by latitudinal profiles of the plasma density at nearly constant altitude, which describe the effects of ExB drifts and neutral winds, while the appearance and growth of plasma structure requires committed observations from the ground from at least one fixed longitude. This talk will present an international collaborative CubeSat mission called SPORT that stands for the Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task. This mission will advance our understanding of the nature and evolution of ionospheric structures around sunset to improve predictions of disturbances that affect radio propagation and telecommunication signals. The science goals will be accomplished by a unique combination of satellite observations from a nearly circular middle inclination orbit and the extensive operation of ground based observations from South America near the magnetic equator. This approach promises Explorer class science at a CubeSat price.

  15. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Swenson, Charles; Durão, Otavio; Loures, Luis; Heelis, Rod; Bishop, Rebecca; Le, Guan; Abdu, Mangalathayil; Krause, Linda; Nardin, Clezio; Fonseca, Eloi

    2016-04-01

    Structure in the charged particle number density in the equatorial ionosphere can have a profound impact on the fidelity of HF, VHF and UHF radio signals that are used for ground-to-ground and space-to-ground communication and navigation. The degree to which such systems can be compromised depends in large part on the spatial distribution of the structured regions in the ionosphere and the background plasma density in which they are embedded. In order to address these challenges it is necessary to accurately distinguish the background ionospheric conditions that favor the generation of irregularities from those that do not. Additionally we must relate the evolution of those conditions to the subsequent evolution of the irregular plasma regions themselves. The background ionospheric conditions are conveniently described by latitudinal profiles of the plasma density at nearly constant altitude, which describe the effects of ExB drifts and neutral winds, while the appearance and growth of plasma structure requires committed observations from the ground from at least one fixed longitude. This talk will present an international collaborative CubeSat mission called SPORT that stands for the Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task. This mission will advance our understanding of the nature and evolution of ionospheric structures around sunset to improve predictions of disturbances that affect radio propagation and telecommunication signals. The science goals will be accomplished by a unique combination of satellite observations from a nearly circular middle inclination orbit and the extensive operation of ground based observations from South America near the magnetic equator. This approach promises Explorer class science at a CubeSat price.

  16. Research and the promotion of child health: a position paper of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Kolacek, Sanja; Phillips, Alan; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Thapar, Nikhil; Baumann, Ulrich; van Goudoever, Johannes; Mihatsch, Walter; de Swarte, Casper; Benninga, Marc; Mearin, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    Children comprise one-fifth of Europe's population. Promoting child health and development is of key importance for society and its future. This position paper highlights opportunities of investing in gastrointestinal, liver, and nutritional research to promote child health and delineates priorities for research. Investing in child health plays a key role in the promotion of population health, well-being, and disease prevention lifelong, with large health economic benefits. Major opportunities for improving knowledge and translational application arise from recent scientific and technological developments, for example, the long-term impact of early environmental cues interacting with genes. Personalised approaches to therapy and prevention should be enhanced. Deciphering the microbiome and its effects on functions can help in promoting long-term health. Epigenetic research can help to understand how early environmental factors influence later gastrointestinal and hepatic health and disease. A linked nutrition and physical activity strategy can promote health and prevent nutritional deficiencies, inactivity, and chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as diabetes, to ensure optimal health and cognition. Special attention should be devoted to populations with low socioeconomic status, migrant background, and ethnic minorities, and to critical life periods, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, and childhood. Improved understanding of optimal nutrition and on maintaining gut and liver homeostasis throughout childhood will help prevent chronic diseases in later life. PMID:24796801

  17. Observational and research progress of the M51 galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Williams, Peter

    2006-12-01

    -wavelength observations and recent research results of M51, discuss the improvements and drawbacks of its simulation results and also summarize the available observations of NGC 5195.

  18. Research on the tether assisted observation of an asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Wang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    The exploration of asteroids attracts much attention due to its potential in both scientific research and engineering application. However, the observation of an asteroid is a difficult task as the gravitational attraction of the asteroid is limited and complex. This paper proposes a concept of keeping probes in hovering above the asteroid by space tethers. The dynamics of a tethered probe attached to the surface of an asteroid is analyzed and the equations of motion are derived using Lagrange's equation. Then the equilibrium points of the dynamic system are calculated. The equilibrium tether libration angles are determined by the tether length and tether attaching location, while subjected to the constraint of positive tether tension. Afterwards, the stability of the equilibrium points are studied based on Lyapunov's theory. The variation of the equilibrium points with respect to the tether attaching location is numerically analyzed in the scenarios of different tether lengths. A parametric study of the stability of the equilibrium points is also provided. Finally, the dynamic behavior of a tethered probe perturbed from the equilibrium states is simulated to verify the proposed tether assisted technology for the observation of the asteroid.

  19. The dynamics of child abuse in the family as a subject of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Lukovtseva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article raises important questions of studying the temporal dynamics of child abuse, considering up-to-date literature. The severity of the problems discussed is proved by statistical data showing the prevalence of child abuse in Russian families. We highlight the ambiguity of relevant terminology, lack of certain features, boundaries and algorithms of psychological work with victims. The dynamic aspects of the problem of abuse are considered in light of the practical needs of adequate psychological prevention, timely and accurate identification of this phenomenon by psychologists. The author puts forward the problem of “starting point” of quantitative and qualitative transformations of child abuse syndrome in the family history, identifying possible problems and prospects for solving these problems. Particular attention is given to the time and the premises of origin acts attributed to manifestations of ill-treatment, in context of a specific family

  20. Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J

    2000-03-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029

  1. Child Abuse in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  2. Enhancing Ecological Thought Through Phenological Observation, Research, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Losleben, M.; Benton, L. M.

    2008-12-01

    Background The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles and phenology on the Nation's resources. Phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological phases, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of same or different species. Phenological data and models developed as part of the network can be applied to scientific research, education and outreach, as well as to stakeholders interested in agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management. The goal of the USA-NPN (www.usanpn.org) is to establish a nationwide science and monitoring program to better understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climatic variation, and to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. Results The NPN has a number of programs through which learners of all ages can observe and interpret their environment using phenology as a platform to facilitate understanding through active learning, engagement, and inquiry-based approaches. For example, since February 2008, the NPN-affiliated network Project BudBurst has registered almost 3000 people who are observing nearly 4000 plants across the continental US and are reporting their observations on-line. In addition, we are developing educational programs, modules, and activities applicable to all stages in the educational process from 'K to gray,' and are partnering with local, state, and federal governmental and non- governmental organizations on education/outreach programming. Dissemination of educational materials and information will be facilitated by the creation of an on-line clearing-house for phenology education and outreach. In sum, the NPN is developing a number of programs and products that will capitalize

  3. [The value of a child abuse observation clinic. Report of an experience in the area of Grenoble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, M; Nalpas, D; Menon, M

    1990-01-01

    In France the epidemiology of child abuse is badly known, because of the lack of connexion between different institutions. We present a child abuse observatory set up in Grenoble in May 1987. The social, educational, judicial and medical department's services are working together. In the first 20 months, 87 cases were recorded: 57 physical abuse, 26 sexual abuse and 5 cases of abuses due to negligence. Precise information was collected concerning the victims, their siblings, the family's risk factor and the offenders, the method by which the information was obtained and the prosecution undertaken. A 10 July 1989 law enforced each Department's governor to set up a service for collecting information about child abuse. Our observatory will serve as a model for this law application. PMID:2175421

  4. Dairy and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review of Recent Observational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Beth H

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of dairy, including milk, cheese and yogurt, has been associated with better quality of diet and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death globally. The purpose of this review is to examine recent literature on the relationship between dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality. Eighteen observational studies were reviewed, the results of which indicate that total dairy intake does not contribute to cardiovascular disease incidence or death. Based on available data, it appears that milk, cheese, and yogurt are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Data pertaining to dairy fat were inconclusive, but point to a potential protective effect of full-fat milk, cheese, and yogurt on risk of cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is a need to study specific well-defined foods, as opposed to calculating nutrients, in order to better understand these relationships. Future research need not replicate the body of literature on total dairy consumption and associated risk of disease, but rather should focus on the effects of individual dairy foods on cardiovascular events in male and female populations.

  5. What Happened to My Child? Unknown Causes of Developmental Disability and Research in Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    At one time or the other, virtually every parent has gone to the doctor concerned about his or her child. Thanks to the advances of modern medicine, the doctor can diagnose the problem most of the time and treat it successfully. Many potential problems, some life-threatening like diphtheria and neural tube defects, can even be prevented altogether…

  6. Do Early Childhood Interventions Prevent Child Maltreatment? A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Topitzes, James W.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the empirical evidence on whether early-childhood primary prevention programs can reduce rates of child abuse and neglect. Fifteen studies of 14 programs for children ages birth to 5 years were completed from 1990 to 2007 and assessed impacts with methodological rigor. All but one of the programs intervened from birth to age 3 through home visits, parent education classes, or the provision of health services. The weighted average effect size of program participation was a 2.9 percentage-point reduction in maltreatment (6.6% vs. 9.5%), which is equivalent to a 31% reduction in the rate of maltreatment and a fifth of a standard deviation. Of the five programs showing significant reductions in substantiated rates of child maltreatment, three provide strong evidence of preventive effects. Only the Child-Parent Centers and the Nurse Family Partnership assessed longer-term preventive effects. Common elements of these effective programs included implementation by professional staff, relatively high dosage and intensity, and comprehensiveness of scope. The major conclusion is that the evidence base for programs in early childhood to prevent child maltreatment remains relatively weak. To advance the field, more longer term studies of a variety of intervention models are needed. PMID:19240245

  7. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  8. Research on the Child Development Project: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistich, Victor; Solomon, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Reports on the current status of the Child Development Project (San Ramon, California). States that major concerns focus upon validity of measures and criterion validity. Notes that there are indications that the program is being implemented and children's attitudes are being affected. Predicts additional teacher questionnaire measures and the…

  9. The Association between Parent Early Adult Drug Use Disorder and Later Observed Parenting Practices and Child Behavior Problems: Testing Alternate Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Oesterle, Sabrina; HAWKINS, J. DAVID; Catalano, Richard F.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the association between parent illicit drug use disorder (DUD) in early adulthood and observed parenting practices at ages 27 – 28 and examined the following three, theoretically-derived models explaining this link: a) a disrupted parent adult functioning model, b) a pre-existing parent personality factor model, c) a disrupted adolescent family process model. Associations between study variables and child externalizing problems also were examined. Longitudinal data linking t...

  10. Child protection and out of home care: Policy, practice, and research connectionsAustralia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an outline of the early development of care and protection in Australia and New Zealand as a backdrop to an overview of child protection systems and policies and the current childprotection profile in both countries. Key issues that have become the focus of policy reform are canvassed and legislative and policy initiatives to promote child safety as well as strengthen families are elaborated. An overview of trends in relation to out of home care, including routes into care, care arrangements and permanency policies is provided. The article profiles selected research studies from Australia focusing on outcomes of care: stability of care, mental health and educational outcomes of looked after children, abuse in care, and routes out of care through reunification and aging out. Other issues treated are the overrepresentation of indigenous children in care systems in both countries and the challenges of maintaining cultural connections. The article concludes with a brief comparative analysis identifying similarities and differences in child welfare systems in both countries.

  11. Sociocognitive determinants of observed and self-reported compliance to hand hygiene guidelines in child day care centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, T.P.; Erasmus, V.; Empelen, P. van; Looman, C.; Beeck, E.F. van; Tjon-A-Tsien, A.; Richardus, J.H.; Voeten, H.A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although hand hygiene (HH) has proven to be an effective measure to prevent infections, HH compliance is generally low. We assessed sociocognitive determinants of caregivers' HH behavior in child day care centers (DCCs) to develop an effective HH intervention. Methods: Caregivers' compli

  12. [Quality management and practice-oriented research in a clinic-network of mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, F; Arnhold-Kerri, S

    2010-04-01

    The Research Network Prevention and Rehabilitation for Mothers and Children is an association of currently 24 rehabilitation centres for mothers, fathers and their children, and a scientific team at the Hannover Medical School. The Research Network combines practice-oriented research on mother and child health with the further development of treatment programmes and the implementation of internal quality management in mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001. The present paper describes the concept of the Research Network and the work contents addressed over the last three years. The advantages and disadvantages of this association and the changes initiated in practice were evaluated from the point of view of 19 quality managers of the participating clinics. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, and a qualitative content analysis was performed in order to quantify the responses. The concept of the Research Network has proven successful. In the view of the quality managers of the clinics, implementation of DIN EN ISO 9001 has lead to structuring of the processes, improved internal communication, and increased motivation in the team. The major obstacles were the lack of time and human resources. In all clinics, the participation in practice-related research projects und scientifically monitored concept development has contributed to optimizing everyday practice. The exchange between the quality managers in external quality circle meetings was of central importance. The conjunction of internal quality management, practice-related research and concept development in a network can be recommended also for other associations of clinics, health centres or medical practices. PMID:20446193

  13. Research of the Influence of Pregnant Women’s Food Nutrition on Maternal and Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the influence of targeted dietary modification and nutrition for pregnant women on maternal and child health. Through taking 200 pregnant women who had health files and accepted dietary guidance at Mary Maternity Hospital from March 2013 to June 2014 as the experimental group, we take 200 pregnant women who don’t accept the conventional filing of targeted dietary modification and nutrition as the control group. For the experimental group, we formulated targeted diet programs according to pregnant women’s weight and fetal growth and development so as to keep calories in a reasonable range. Compare the incidence rate of complication and delivery outcome of the two groups’ mothers and infants. The experiments show that both the incidence rate of complications and the cesarean section rate of the experimental group are lower than those of the control group and targeted dietary modification and nutrition for pregnant women has obvious positive significance on maternal and child health.

  14. A Model of Mindful Parenting: Implications for Parent–Child Relationships and Prevention Research

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a model of “mindful parenting” as a framework whereby parents intentionally bring moment-to-moment awareness to the parent–child relationship. This is done by developing the qualities of listening with full attention when interacting with their children, cultivating emotional awareness and self-regulation in parenting, and bringing compassion and nonjudgmental acceptance to their parenting interactions. First, we briefly outline the theoretical and empirical literature o...

  15. The Familiar Observer: Seeing beyond the Expected in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Amy Feiker

    2015-01-01

    Reflection on subjectivity in the qualitative research process is fundamental to the methodology. Although much attention is paid to what to do (identify subjectivities), there is much less emphasis on how one should do this. Furthermore, a researcher engaged in an intimately familiar setting, such as a typical American classroom, faces the unique…

  16. What role can child-care settings play in obesity prevention? A review of the evidence and call for research efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne S; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-09-01

    Given the widespread use of out-of-home child care and an all-time high prevalence of obesity among US preschool-aged children, it is imperative to consider the opportunities that child-care facilities may provide to reduce childhood obesity. This review examines the scientific literature on state regulations, practices and policies, and interventions for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, and for preventing obesity in preschool-aged children attending child care. Research published between January 2000 and July 2010 was identified by searching PubMed and MEDLINE databases, and by examining the bibliographies of relevant studies. Although the review focused on US child-care settings, interventions implemented in international settings were also included. In total, 42 studies were identified for inclusion in this review: four reviews of state regulations, 18 studies of child-care practices and policies that may influence eating or physical activity behaviors, two studies of parental perceptions and practices relevant to obesity prevention, and 18 evaluated interventions. Findings from this review reveal that most states lack strong regulations for child-care settings related to healthy eating and physical activity. Recent assessments of child-care settings suggest opportunities for improving the nutritional quality of food provided to children, the time children are engaged in physical activity, and caregivers' promotion of children's health behaviors and use of health education resources. A limited number of interventions have been designed to address these concerns, and only two interventions have successfully demonstrated an effect on child weight status. Recommendations are provided for future research addressing opportunities to prevent obesity in child-care settings.

  17. Language Brokering in Latino Families: Direct Observations of Brokering Patterns, Parent-Child Interactions, and Relationship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Straits, Kee J. E.

    2010-01-01

    With the growing percentage of immigrant families in the USA, language transition is a common immigrant experience and can occur rapidly from generation to generation within a family. Child language brokering appears to occur within minority language families as one way of negotiating language and cultural differences; however, the phenomenon of children translating or mediating language interactions for parents has previously been hypothesized to contribute to negative outcomes for children,...

  18. Hellos and How Are Yous: Predictors and Correlates of Communication between Staff and Families during Morning Drop-Off in Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Michal; Fletcher, Brooke A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The amount and quality of communication between staff and guardians in child care centers was examined using extensive naturalistic observations. Interactions between staff and more than 1,000 guardians who dropped their child off at their child care center were captured through a series of 20-s time-sampled observations.…

  19. Towards understanding child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Inés Carreño; Alicia Rey

    2010-01-01

    This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatm...

  20. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  1. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on 'Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition' held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers

  2. Considering New Paths for Success: An Examination of the Research and Methods on Urban School-University Partnerships Post-No Child Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Joseph E.; Hunt, Rebecca D.; Johnson, Laura Ruth; Wickman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines urban school-university partnership research after No Child Left Behind. Central to the review is an analysis in the trend of research methods utilized across studies. It was found that many studies are single-case studies or anecdotal. There are few quantitative, sustained qualitative, or mixed-methods studies represented in…

  3. Participant Observation, Anthropology Methodology and Design Anthropology Research Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Wendy; Løgstrup, Louise B.

    2014-01-01

    Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites of practice. They do so by combining participant…

  4. Observations concerning Research Literature on Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einspruch, Eric L.; Forman, Bruce D.

    1985-01-01

    Identifies six categories of design and methodological errors contained in the 39 empirical studies of neurolinguistic programming (NLP) documented through April 1984. Representative reports reflecting each category are discussed. Suggestions are offered for improving the quality of research on NLP. (Author/MCF)

  5. Setting global research priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM: Results from a CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Wazny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: to systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM. Methods: an iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked using a “Research Priority Score” (RPS and the “Average Expert Agreement” (AEA was calculated for every question. Our groups of experts were comprised of both individuals working in Ministries of Health or Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs and individuals working in high–income countries (HICs in academia or NGO headquarters. A Spearman's Rho was calculated to determine the correlation between the two groups' research questions' ranks. Results: The overall RPS ranged from 64.58 to 89.31, with a median score of 81.43. AEA scores ranged from 0.54 to 0.86. Research questions involving increasing the uptake of iCCM services, research questions concerning the motivation, retention, training and supervision of Community Health Workers (CHWs and concerning adding additional responsibilities including counselling for infant and young child feeding (IYCF and treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM ranked highly. There was weak to moderate, statistically significant, correlation between scores by representatives of high–income countries and those working in–country or regionally (Spearman's ρ = 0.35034, P < 0.01. Conclusions: Operational research to determine optimal training, supervision and modes of motivation and retention for the CHW is vital for improving iCCM, globally, as is research to motivate caregivers to take advantage of iCCM services. Experts working in–country or regionally in

  6. Observing the observers - uncovering the role of values in research assessments of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hermansen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the overall effects of organic food systems is important, but also a challenge because organic food systems cannot be fully assessed from one single research perspective. The aim of our research was to determine the role of values in assessments of organic food systems as a basis...... for discussing the implications of combining multiple perspectives in overall sustainability assessments of the food system. We explored how values were embedded in five research perspectives: (1) food science, (2) discourse analysis, (3) phenomenology, (4) neoclassical welfare economics, and (5) actor......-network theory. Value has various meanings according to different scientific perspectives. A strategy for including and balancing different forms of knowledge in overall assessments of the effects of food systems is needed. Based on the analysis, we recommend four courses of action: (1) elucidate values...

  7. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families. PMID:25018575

  8. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.

  9. Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

  10. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  11. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  12. Learning and Language: Educarer-Child Interactions in Singapore Infant-Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cynthia; Lim, Sirene May-Yin

    2013-01-01

    While there has been extensive research exploring the quality of caregiver-child interactions in programmes for preschool children, comparatively less international research has explored the nature of caregiver-child interactions in centre-based infant-care programmes. Nine caregivers in six Singapore infant-care settings were observed and…

  13. Research of Earthquake Potential from Active Fault Observation in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien-Liang, C.; Hu, J. C.; Liu, C. C.; En, C. K.; Cheng, T. C. T.

    2015-12-01

    We utilize GAMIT/GLOBK software to estimate the precise coordinates for continuous GPS (CGPS) data of Central Geological Survey (CGS, MOEA) in Taiwan. To promote the software estimation efficiency, 250 stations are divided by 8 subnets which have been considered by station numbers, network geometry and fault distributions. Each of subnets include around 50 CGPS and 10 international GNSS service (IGS) stations. After long period of data collection and estimation, a time series variation can be build up to study the effect of earthquakes and estimate the velocity of stations. After comparing the coordinates from campaign-mode GPS sites and precise leveling benchmarks with the time series from continuous GPS stations, the velocity field is consistent with previous measurement which show the reliability of observation. We evaluate the slip rate and slip deficit rate of active faults in Taiwan by 3D block model DEFNODE. First, to get the surface fault traces and the subsurface fault geometry parameters, and then establish the block boundary model of study area. By employing the DEFNODE technique, we invert the GPS velocities for the best-fit block rotate rates, long term slip rates and slip deficit rates. Finally, the probability analysis of active faults is to establish the flow chart of 33 active faults in Taiwan. In the past two years, 16 active faults in central and northern Taiwan have been assessed to get the recurrence interval and the probabilities for the characteristic earthquake occurred in 30, 50 and 100 years.

  14. [Economic assessment, a field between clinical research and observational studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launois, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Health technology assessments propose to study the differential impact of health interventions in a complex care system which is characterised by the multitude of individual behaviours and the diverse nature of the institutions involved. Current systems for data collection lend themselves poorly to this rigorous analysis of efficacy of treatments in the actual situations where they are used. Randomised trials endeavour to neutralise any parasitic interference which could compromise testing for a causal relationship between the treatment administered and the result obtained. Their methodology which establishes the term ceteris paribus in the principle of good practice lends itself poorly to an analysis of individual behaviour. Observational studies are start from actual treatment situations to describe them as reliably as possible. By definition, however, these assume that the natural course of events is not deviated by any intervention. The absence of an experimental plan increases the likelihood of bias and makes it more difficult to test for causal relationships. They lend themselves poorly to testing for incremental efficacy. The two instruments to be preferred are decisional analysis and quasi-experimental studies. Decisional analysis help to avoid the problems of external validity associated with randomised clinical trials by associating parameters which are extracted from data obtained from everyday practice. Quasi-experimental studies or pragmatic trials are based on the reality of behaviour of the prescriber and his/her patients; their impact on efficacy, quality of life social costs of the disease and of treatments may be identified under normal conditions of use. PMID:12609811

  15. Priorities for research in child maltreatment, intimate partner violence and resilience to violence exposures: results of an international Delphi consensus development process

    OpenAIRE

    Wathen C; MacGregor Jennifer CD; Hammerton Joanne; Coben Jeffrey H; Herrman Helen; Stewart Donna E; MacMillan Harriet L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) are major global public health problems. The Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL) Research Network, an international group of over 60 researchers and national and international knowledge-user partners in CM and IPV, sought to identify evidence-based research priorities in IPV and CM, with a focus on resilience, using a modified Delphi consensus development process. Methods Review of existing empirical...

  16. The Embedded Researcher Method for Involving Undergraduates in Research: New Data and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Darrin L.; Kranz, Peter L.; Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate research provides multiple educational advantages, and Hispanic students may reap particular benefits. The "embedded researcher" method avoids difficulties inherent in traditional apprenticeship models, providing meaningful research experience to multiple students within a standard didactic course structure while yielding…

  17. 2006 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address: Observations about Music Education Research in MENC's First and Second Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Jere T.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an acceptance speech by Jere T. Humphreys, the recipient of the Music Educators National Conference (MENC) 2006 Senior Researcher Award. Humphreys discusses his observations about music education research in MENC's first and second centuries. Most of his observations focus on the present--the nexus of the two centuries: first…

  18. Maternal depression, stress and feeding styles: towards a framework for theory and research in child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Behadli, Ana F; Sharp, Carla; Hughes, Sheryl O; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of rising rates of obesity in children and adults in the USA, and modest effect sizes for obesity interventions, the aim of the present narrative review paper is to extend the UNICEF care model to focus on childhood obesity and its associated risks with an emphasis on the emotional climate of the parent-child relationship within the family. Specifically, we extended the UNICEF model by applying the systems approach to childhood obesity and by combining previously unintegrated sets of literature across multiple disciplines including developmental psychology, clinical psychology and nutrition. Specifically, we modified the extended care model by explicitly integrating new linkages (i.e. parental feeding styles, stress, depression and mother's own eating behaviour) that have been found to be associated with the development of children's eating behaviours and risk of childhood obesity. These new linkages are based on studies that were not incorporated into the original UNICEF model, but suggest important implications for childhood obesity. In all, this narrative review offers important advancements to the scientific understanding of familial influences on children's eating behaviours and childhood obesity.

  19. 绘画治疗在儿童情绪障碍中的疗效分析%Clinical observation of painting in treatment of child emotional disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪竹; 杜姝昱; 任冬梅; 杨勤; 李光明

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical ef ects of painting in treatment of child emotional disorder.Methods:40 children with emotional disorders received the painting therapy for 4 months.The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders(SCARED)were used to assess the ef ects before and after the treatment.Results:After 4 months treat-ment,thescore of SCARED decre asedsignificantly(P<0.05).Conclusion:Painting therapy is efective to improve and stabilize the emotion of child emotional disorder and worthy of clinical use.%目的:分析探讨绘画治疗在儿童情绪障碍中的效果。方法:将40例符合儿童情绪障碍诊断标准的儿童作为研究对象,进行为期4个月的绘画治疗。于治疗前及治疗后使用儿童焦虑性情绪障碍筛查量表(SCARED)对患儿进行评估。结果:治疗4个月后,SCARED评分明显低于治疗前,治疗前后比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:绘画治疗儿童情绪障碍临床有效,绘画治疗能够有效改善和稳定情绪障碍儿童的情绪,值得临床应用。

  20. Recherches Sur La Psychologie de L'enfant de Milieu Defavorise. Rapport- synthese. (Research Relating to the Psychology of the Child in Disadvantaged Environments. Summary Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Charles E.; Bourbeau, Gerald

    Thirteen doctoral dissertations and five masters theses are summarized in this report of research on the disadvantaged child. Contained in each individual summary are the detailed descriptions of the experimental task, the results obtained and the analysis of these results. The eighteen individual theses are concerned with topics such as:…

  1. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Research in the Context of Hurricane Katrina: An Ecological Needs-Based Perspective and Introduction to the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Overstreet, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the special section on child and adolescent mental health research in the context of Hurricane Katrina. We outline the purpose and intent of the special section and present an integrative perspective based on broad contextual theories of human development with which to think about the impact of disasters like Katrina. The…

  2. Bridging the Gap between Theory, Research and Practice: The Role of Child Development Laboratory Programs in Early Childhood Education. Advances in Early Education and Day Care, Volume 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brent A., Ed.; Barbour, Nancy E., Ed.

    The three-fold mission of facilitating and supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities has guided the actions of university-based child development laboratory programs since their inception. In recent years, campuses have reconsidered, reconceptualized, and restructured the ways in which these laboratory programs fit within the agendas…

  3. Creating a Three-Parent Child: An Educational Paradigm for the Responsible Conduct of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L. Fischbach

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The field of assisted reproduction is renowned for its remarkable advances and constant pushing forward of research boundaries in an effort to offer innovative and effective methods for enhancing fertility. Accompanying these advances, however, are physiological, psychological, and bioethical consequences that must be considered. These concomitant advances and consequences make assisted reproduction an excellent educational paradigm for inculcating responsible conduct in both research and clinical practice. Ultimately, responsible conduct rests on the ethical researcher and clinician. Here, we present the as-yet unapproved, contentious assisted reproductive technology of mitochondrial replacement transfer (MRT as an ideal educational platform to foster the responsible conduct of research by advancing dialogue among multidisciplinary scholars, researchers, and students. Using a likely future case, we present the basic science, legal, and ethical considerations, and the pedagogical principles and strategies for using MRT as an effective educational paradigm. Society will benefit when the ethical issues inherent in creating children with three genetic parents as well as germline interference are discussed across multiple academic levels that include researchers, legal experts, bioethicists, and government-appointed commissions. Furthermore, undergraduate and graduate students should be included because they will likely determine the ethical fates of these biotechnologies. While emerging assisted reproduction technologies such as MRT are highly complex and will take years to be readily available for patients in need, now is the time to consider their scientific, legal, ethical, and cultural/religious implications for ensuring the responsible conduct of research.

  4. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The cur...

  5. Maternal alcohol consumption in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa – Research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. DeRoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa is a valuable resource for the study of the effects of maternal alcohol consumption. MoBa’s strengths include a population-based sample of over 107,000 pregnancies, concurrent and retrospective assessment of maternal prenatal and postnatal alcohol consumption, and prospective follow-up for pregnancy and child outcomes. Direct questions were asked on the frequency, dose and timing of maternal alcohol consumption. Screening tools including the T-ACE and partial Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index were used to identify women at risk for drinking during pregnancy. Comprehensive information on potential confounders was collected including maternal medical history, reproductive history, smoking, and other substance use. The detailed alcohol data allow the differentiation between non-binge and binge-level drinking, important for studying different thresholds of exposure. The availability of maternal and infant DNA enables the study of genetic differences in alcohol metabolism. Besides conventional analyses, sibship studies of differentially exposed siblings can be conducted among the offspring of over 15,000 women who participated in the study for more than one pregnancy. Although there are low levels of social disadvantage in Norway (poverty increases the risk of harms from prenatal drinking, binge drinking is a common pattern of consumption and previous studies found that drinking alcohol during pregnancy is not uncommon. Here, I provide a brief review of prenatal alcohol literature and measurement issues, describe MoBa alcohol variables, and discuss how MoBa can contribute to maternal alcohol research within the context of Norway.

  6. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Wietse A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i purpose of instrument, (ii construct measured, (iii contents of construct, (iv local idioms employed, (v structure of response sets, and (vi comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64 aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old. The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14; CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20. The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7, "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10, and

  7. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Piotrowski; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by revi

  8. Research results from a registry supporting efforts to improve maternal and child health in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Robert L; McClure, Elizabeth M; Bose, Carl L; Jobe, Alan H; Belizán, José M

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development created and continues to support the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research, a partnership between research institutions in the US and low-middle income countries. This commentary describes a series of 15 papers emanating from the Global Network's Maternal and Newborn Health Registry. Using data from 2010 to 2013, the series of papers describe nearly 300,000 pregnancies in 7 sites in 6 countries - India (2 sites), Pakistan, Kenya, Zambia, Guatemala and Argentina. These papers cover a wide range of topics including several dealing with efforts made to ensure data quality, and others reporting on specific pregnancy outcomes including maternal mortality, stillbirth and neonatal mortality. Topics ranging from antenatal care, adolescent pregnancy, obstructed labor, factors associated with early initiation of breast feeding and maintenance of exclusive breast feeding and contraceptive usage are presented. In addition, case studies evaluating changes in mortality over time in 3 countries - India, Pakistan and Guatemala - are presented. In order to make progress in improving pregnancy outcomes in low-income countries, data of this quality are needed. PMID:26032486

  9. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy. PMID:23557321

  10. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become ...

  11. Research and the Young Child in India: Shifting from Alienation to Adaptability Using an Expanded Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nandita; Pillai, Punya

    2016-01-01

    Conventional psychological research has focused primarily on intrapersonal dimensions of human activity, often evading shared knowledge, interpersonal perspective-taking, and collective beliefs. The ideology of individualism and the 'embryonic fallacy' are largely responsible for the focus on the individual as an isolated entity. Most available…

  12. Literacy: A Route to Addressing Child Poverty? National Literacy Trust Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This short document reviews research into the role of low literacy in poverty and disadvantage. It sets out evidence for the impact of parental engagement in home learning and the significance of attitudes, aspirations and literacy development. The National Literacy Trust hopes that this is a useful resource for those with responsibility for, and…

  13. Teens, Jobs, and Welfare: Implications for Social Policy. Child Trends Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brett

    The upcoming reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant is prompting closer scrutiny of how families affected by the law are faring. This research brief examines teen employment in the context of welfare reform, drawing on data from the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF) to describe employment…

  14. Cause and Causality in Daycare Research: An Investigation of Group Differences in Swedish Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Holger; Lamb, Michael E.; Hwang, Carl-Philip

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates problems facing researchers trying to demonstrate causal relationships between types of nonparental care and differences between groups of Swedish children. Argues that efforts must be made to validate and interpret differences that are found. Indicates ways to avoid misinterpretation of differences that are attributable to…

  15. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom…

  16. An observational study of teachers' affiliation and control behaviours towards kindergarten children: Associations with teacher-child relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. Roorda; H.M.Y. Koomen; F.J. Oort

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether teachers’ observed interactions can be predicted by their perceptions of relationships with kindergarten children. The sample consisted of 48 teachers and 179 children (95 boys). Teachers’ relationship perceptions were described with dimensions originally derived from

  17. Peer Observation as teaching evaluation approach: An Attempt to review the research area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michek Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review sets out to map research relating to the concept of peer observation when teachers observe lesson of another teacher which is on same level. The review builds on journal papers included in the Web of Science and/or ERIC databases. The study uses documents analysis when the units of analysis are concepts of peer observation, research aims and research methods of studies. The review aims to answer the following questions: What are the objectives of studies focused on peer observation of teacher in the studies? Which methods and approaches do the studies use? What are the results of these studies? The authors conclude the review with a summary of its findings and a discussion. There are a number of research instruments and methods for investigating peer observation by qualitative approach, but the challenge now is to develop ways of quantitative research approach.

  18. Family Interactions and Child Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Nelson, Dana

    Previous research has not correlated parent-child interaction patterns with different forms of child psychopathology. This study examined whether parent-child interaction corresponded with childhood depression/anxiety and childhood aggression. Forty-two clinically-referred children and adolescents, 8 to 16 years old, were classified into four…

  19. Review on the Analysis and Research of Fog Physicochemical Characteristic Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to review the analysis and research on the physicochemical characteristic observation aspect of fog. [Method] To understand the roles of fog microphysical characteristic and chemical reaction on the formation, dissipation, development of fog, the interaction between the microphysical structure, chemical characteristic of fog and the aerosol in the environment, the analysis and research on the micro-physicochemical observation aspect of fog were mainly introduced here. We also ...

  20. CLASS-Infant: An Observational Measure for Assessing Teacher-Infant Interactions in Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Kristen Roorbach; Cabell, Sonia Q.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The growing body of literature demonstrating the importance of quality interactions with caregivers to infant development coupled with the increasing number of infants spending time in classroom settings highlights the need for a measure of interpersonal relationships between infants and caregivers. This article introduces a new…

  1. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and child size at 24 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; McGuinness, Bridget M; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may result in decreased child growth, though the critical window(s) are unclear. We investigated the association between PCBs and child size at age 24 months (n=44). PCBs were measured in 1st trimester serum, breast milk, and child serum at age 24 months, and dichotomized at the median. Age- and gender-specific z-scores were calculated for anthropometric measures. Using linear regression, we observed no significant changes in...

  2. Measuring the Quality of Caregiver-Child Interactions for Infants and Toddlers (Q-CCIIT)

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Atkins-Burnett; Shannon Monahan; Louisa Tarullo; Yange Xue; Elizabeth Cavadel; Lizabeth Malone; Lauren Akers

    2015-01-01

    The Quality of Caregiver-Child Interactions for Infants and Toddlers (Q-CCIIT) observation tool was developed to measure the quality of child care settings serving infants and toddlers, including center-based care and family child care homes, single-age classrooms, and mixed-age settings. Funded by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation in the Administration for Children and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the project report provides psychometric evidenc...

  3. Measuring the Quality of Caregiver-Child Interactions for Infants and Toddlers (Q-CCIIT) (Appendices)

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Atkins-Burnett; Shannon Monahan; Louisa Tarullo; Yange Xue; Elizabeth Cavadel; Lizabeth Malone; Lauren Akers

    2015-01-01

    The Quality of Caregiver-Child Interactions for Infants and Toddlers (Q-CCIIT) observation tool was developed to measure the quality of child care settings serving infants and toddlers, including center-based care and family child care homes, single-age classrooms, and mixed-age settings. Funded by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation in the Administration for Children and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the project report provides psychometric evidenc...

  4. Some questions on the relationship between theory and research in the application of method of observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the gradual abandonment of the efforts to verify hypotheses and complex theoretical assumptions in the social sciences by observation. The first section shows the classical understanding that emphasized the importance of the theoretically directed observation. The second section shows the efforts towards inclusion of the observed in the interpretation of observations. The third section contains an analysis of the impact of today’s strict division on the qualitative and quantitative methodology. This influence can be seen in a complete separation of the structured observation and participatory observation, the disintegration of observation as a research procedure, its replacement by ethnography and case study method, as well as abandoning more general theoretical ambition within qualitative methodology. The fourth section analyzes the epistemological consequences of efforts to understand the fieldwork primarily as a power relationship and to transform the observed into the subjects of research. Development of the attitudes on the relationship between theory and research in the application of methods of observation in social sciences is associated with theoretical eclecticism in the field of contemporary sociological theory and distancing from philosophy of science with its understanding of the role of research programs and research traditions in the field of growth of scientific knowledge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179035: Izazovi nove društvene integracije u Srbiji: koncepti i akteri

  5. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth De Smit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. Aims To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs and Research Governance Offices (RGOs across Australia. Methods In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA, for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Results Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a “National Ethics Application Form” and three a “Low Negligible Risk” form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22 and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days. Conclusion We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently

  6. Research-Based Recommendations to Improve Child Nutrition in Schools and Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandner, Laura D.; Hair, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This brief discusses aspects of healthy diets for children in elementary and middle school. It summarizes the current guidelines and recommendations for child nutrition and provides information for schools and out-of-school time programs about how to measure child nutrition. (Contains 27 endnotes.)

  7. Child and Adolescent Development Research and Teacher Education: Evidence-Based Pedagogy, Policy, and Practice. Summary of Roundtable Meetings (December 1-2, 2005 and March 20-21, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) collaborated to produce a summary of two roundtable discussions on the critical relevance of child and adolescent development research to teacher preparation practices. The participants in the roundtable…

  8. Research Outcomes of Prenatal Substance Exposure and the Need To Review Policies and Procedures Regarding Child Abuse Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P.

    2001-01-01

    Clarifies policy options for reporting and serving children testing positive at birth for controlled substances. Advocates the strengthening of existing state policies regarding child abuse reporting and response. (JPB)

  9. Shifting management of a community volunteer system for improved child health outcomes: results from an operations research study in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Jennifer; Makonnen, Raphael; Sula, Delphin

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-based strategies that foster frequent contact between caregivers of children under five and provide credible sources of health information are essential to improve child survival. Care Groups are a community-based implementation strategy for the delivery of social and behavior change interventions. This study assessed if supervision of Care Group activities by Ministry of Health (MOH) personnel could achieve the same child health outcomes as supervision provided by specia...

  10. AFSC/ABL: Little Port Walter Marine Research Station Supply Run Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In November, 2006, Oceanographic observations were initiated during the resupply cruises to the Little Port Walter Research Station on lower Baranof Island,...

  11. Therapeutic alliance and outcomes in usual care child psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Accurso, Erin Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic alliance may be an important predictor of mental health outcomes for children and their families, but the research literature in this area is limited. This study examined the extent to which child and caregiver alliance are associated with therapeutic outcomes in a sample of 209 children (ages 4-13) with disruptive behavior problems and their caregivers who received usual care services in community mental health clinics. Children, therapists, and observers rated child-therapist al...

  12. Using video-based observation research methods in primary care health encounters to evaluate complex interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Asan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of video-based observation research methods in primary care environment and highlight important methodological considerations and provide practical guidance for primary care and human factors researchers conducting video studies to understand patient–clinician interaction in primary care settings.Methods We reviewed studies in the literature which used video methods in health care research, and we also used our own experience based on the video studies we conducted in primary care settings.Results This paper highlighted the benefits of using video techniques, such as multi-channel recording and video coding, and compared “unmanned” video recording with the traditional observation method in primary care research. We proposed a list that can be followed step by step to conduct an effective video study in a primary care setting for a given problem. This paper also described obstacles, researchers should anticipate when using video recording methods in future studies.Conclusion With the new technological improvements, video-based observation research is becoming a promising method in primary care and HFE research. Video recording has been under-utilised as a data collection tool because of confidentiality and privacy issues. However, it has many benefits as opposed to traditional observations, and recent studies using video recording methods have introduced new research areas and approaches.

  13. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  14. Soreness during non-music activities is associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems: an observational study of 731 child and adolescent instrumentalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ranelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is exposure to non-music-related activities associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in young instrumentalists? Is non-music-activity-related soreness associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in this group of instrumentalists? Design: Observational study using a questionnaire and physical measures. Participants: 859 instrumentalists aged 7 to 17 years from the School of Instrumental Music program. Results: Of the 731 respondents who completed the questionnaire adequately, 412 (56% experienced instrument-playing problems; 219 (30% had symptoms severe enough to interfere with normal playing. Children commonly reported moderate exposure to non-music-related activities, such as watching television (61%, vigorous physical activity (57%, writing (51% and computer use (45%. Greater exposure to any non-music activity was not associated with playing problems, with odds ratios ranging from 1.01 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.5 for watching television to 2.08 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.3 for intensive hand activities. Four hundred and seventy eight (65% children reported soreness related to non-music activities, such as vigorous physical activity (52%, writing (40%, computer use (28%, intensive hand activities (22%, electronic game use (17% and watching television (15%. Non-music-activity-related soreness was significantly associated with instrument playing problems, adjusting for gender and age, with odds ratios ranging from 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.9 for soreness whilst watching television, to 4.3 (95% CI 2.6 to 7.1 for soreness during intensive hand activities. Conclusion: Non-music-activity-related soreness co-occurs significantly with playing problems in young instrumentalists. The finding of significant co-occurrence of music and non-music-related soreness in respondents in this study suggests that intervention targets for young instrumentalists could include risk factors previously identified in the general child and adolescent

  15. Preventative lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and young child feeding practices: findings from qualitative research in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesorogol, Carolyn; Jean-Louis, Sherlie; Green, Jamie; Iannotti, Lora

    2015-12-01

    To prevent undernutrition in an urban slum in Haiti, a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) was introduced through a randomised control trial. Food supplementation for young child nutrition has a long history in Haiti, but there is little empirical information regarding the effects of supplementation on young child feeding practices. One of the concerns raised by supplementation is that it may disrupt other positive feeding practices such as breastfeeding and use of other complementary foods, with negative consequences for child nutrition. We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with mother-baby pairs from the three comparison groups: control, 3-month LNS supplementation and 6-month LNS supplementation. Findings from those in the LNS groups indicated high acceptance and satisfaction with LNS and perceptions that it positively affects child health and development. LNS was integrated into and enhanced ongoing complementary feeding practices. The effects of LNS use on duration and perceived quantity of breastfeeding were variable, but generally, breastfeeding was maintained during and after the intervention. Interviews generated insights into beliefs regarding infant and young child feeding practices such as introduction and use of complementary foods, and breastfeeding duration, exclusivity and cessation. Implications for the use of LNS in public health nutrition programmes are discussed.

  16. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Ethics and Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chen, Aileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hoffman, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tina Shih, Ya-Chen [Department of Medicine, Section of Hospital Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, and Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yu, James B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  17. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  18. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  19. Music in child care

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2007-01-01

    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  20. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  1. Outlooks on Children and Media: Child Rights, Media Trends, Media Research, Media Literacy, Child Participation, Declarations. Children and Media Violence Yearbook, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Feilitzen, Cecilia; Bucht, Catharina

    Focusing on media literacy, this yearbook compiles information on recent and current trends in media effects, including research on children and media, declarations related to the area, and a selection of relevant organizations and Web sites. The report first delineates children's rights as stipulated in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the…

  2. Parental Estimation of Their Child's Increased Type 1 Diabetes Risk During the First 2 Years of Participation in an International Observational Study: Results From the TEDDY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartling, Ulrica; Lynch, Kristian; Smith, Laura; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed mothers' and fathers' perception of their child's risk of getting type 1 diabetes (T1D) during the first 2 years of their participation in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. TEDDY parents were informed of their child's increased genetic risk for T1D at study inception. Parent perception of the child's risk was assessed at 3, 6, 15, and 27 months of age. In families with no history of T1D, underestimation of the child's T1D risk was common in mothers (>38%) and more so in fathers (>50%). The analyses indicated that parental education, country of residence, family history of T1D, household crowding, ethnic minority status, and beliefs that the child's T1D risk can be reduced were factors associated with parental risk perception accuracy. Even when given extensive information about their child's T1D risk, parents often fail to accurately grasp the information provided. This is particularly true for fathers, families from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and those with no family history of T1D. It is important to develop improved tools for risk communication tailored to individual family needs. PMID:27241873

  3. Balancing Multiple Roles: Child Care Strategies of Women Working in the Unorganised Sector in Tamil Nadu. Research Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulraj, M. R.; Samuel, S. Raja

    Based on the fact that many women in the Tamil Nadu state of India were performing triple roles as mother, worker, and homemaker, this descriptive study attempted to provide information which would portray the real situation about the child care needs and strategies of women working in the state's unorganized sector. The objectives of the study…

  4. Toward a Social Care Program of Research: A Population-Level Study of Neighborhood Effects on Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Paul; Forer, Barry; Irwin, Lori G.; Hertzman, Clyde; Lapointe, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    The article reports results from a Human Early Learning Partnership initiative that aims to address limitations within the literature concerning neighborhood effects on child development. Problems include the tendency for studies to (a) rely on small samples of children, (b) focus on high-risk populations, (c) define neighborhood by Census…

  5. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  6. Reshaping Child Welfare's Response to Trauma: Assessment, Evidence-Based Intervention, and New Research Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Jackson Foster, Lovie J.; Pecora, Peter J.; Delaney, Nancy; Rodriguez, Wenceslao

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has linked early trauma with severe psychiatric consequences. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a potentially debilitating mental health condition found among some youth in foster care and foster care alumni. However, the current child welfare practice response has not met the demands in both assessment and intervention.…

  7. Bridging Research and Practice: Challenges and Successes in Implementing Evidence-Based Preventive Intervention Strategies for Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L.; Manly, Jody Todd

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of negative developmental outcomes for children and families as well as significant economic consequences. While efficacious intervention strategies have been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of trauma and to improve behavioral and emotional functioning, these models have not been widely…

  8. The effects of television advertising on materialism, parent-child conflict, and unhappiness: A review of research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a model on the unintended effects of advertising. This model describes the existing hypotheses about the impact of advertising on (a) materialism, (b) parent–child conflict, and (c) unhappiness. The validity of each of these hypotheses was investigated using a vote-coun

  9. Family Conflict, Emotional Security, and Child Development: Translating Research Findings into a Prevention Program for Community Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schatz, Julie N.

    2012-01-01

    The social problem posed by family conflict to the physical and psychological health and well-being of children, parents, and underlying family relationships is a cause for concern. Inter-parental and parent-child conflict are linked with children's behavioral, emotional, social, academic, and health problems, with children's risk particularly…

  10. Measuring Quality in Family, Friend, and Neighbor Child Care: Conceptual and Practical Issues. Research-to-Policy Connections No. 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Erin J.

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of family, friend, and neighbor caregivers to the overall supply of child care and the care and education of our nation's youngest children is substantial. This brief explores, for policy and other audiences, some of the issues around measuring quality in family, friend, and neighbor care. The purpose is not to provide a…

  11. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  12. Multiple Child Care Arrangements and Child Well Being: Early Care Experiences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Chen, Jen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one quarter of Australian children under the age of 5 experience multiple non-parental child care arrangements. Research focused on the relationship between multiple child care arrangements and child socioemotional development is limited, particularly in Australia. Evidence from the United States and Europe has linked multiple child care…

  13. Teaching HIV/AIDS through a Child-to-Child Approach: A Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebi, Bosire Monari

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws from a larger study conducted in Kenya, which was a narrative inquiry into a teacher's experiences of teaching the HIV/AIDS curriculum using a child-to-child approach. The two major research questions of this study were: 1) What are the experiences of a teacher teaching the HIV/AIDS curriculum using a child-to-child curriculum…

  14. Welfare, Child Support, and Strategic Behavior: Do High Orders and Low Disregards Discourage Child Support Awards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research has documented strategic behavior in response to child support policy. Parents of children on welfare have an incentive to avoid formal child support, since most states limit the amount of formal child support that women on welfare can receive (the "disregard") and have relatively high child support orders for low-income…

  15. An update on THORPEX-related research in data assimilation and observing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rabier, F.; Gauthier, P.; Cardinali, C.; R. Langland; Tsyrulnikov, M.; Lorenc, A.; Steinle, P.; R. Gelaro; Koizumi, K

    2008-01-01

    The international programme "THORPEX: a World Weather Research Programme" provides a framework in which to tackle the challenge of improving the forecast skill of high-impact weather through international collaboration between academic institutions, operational forecast centres, and users of forecast products. The objectives of the THORPEX Data Assimilation and Observation Strategy Working Group (DAOS-WG) are two-fold. The primary goal is to assess the impact of observations and var...

  16. 国内儿童性侵犯问题研究综述%Review of Domestic Researches on Child Sexual Abuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 桂莲

    2014-01-01

    当前,儿童性侵犯日益成为一个社会重视的严肃问题。目前国内研究集中在概念分析、发生率调查结果、对受害者的影响、发生原因以及相关对策方面,呈现出了儿童性侵犯研究的发展水平和总体趋势,但研究对象的细化、研究方法的完善、研究范围和视角的扩大以及受害儿童心理辅导的分类细化等问题有待进一步加强。%Currently, child sexual a buse is becoming a serious social problem. The present domestic studies focus on five aspects including the concept analysis, incidence rate investigation, the impact on vic-tims, reasons to the problem and measures to resolve the issue, which reflect the development level and trend of researches on child sexual abuse. However, it is crucial to make a forward step to ensure the object of the research, improve the research method, expand the scope of the research as well as refine the classifi-cation of psychological consultation for injured children.

  17. Review of Domestic Researches on Child Sexual Abuse%国内儿童性侵犯问题研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 桂莲

    2014-01-01

    Currently, child sexual a buse is becoming a serious social problem. The present domestic studies focus on five aspects including the concept analysis, incidence rate investigation, the impact on vic-tims, reasons to the problem and measures to resolve the issue, which reflect the development level and trend of researches on child sexual abuse. However, it is crucial to make a forward step to ensure the object of the research, improve the research method, expand the scope of the research as well as refine the classifi-cation of psychological consultation for injured children.%当前,儿童性侵犯日益成为一个社会重视的严肃问题。目前国内研究集中在概念分析、发生率调查结果、对受害者的影响、发生原因以及相关对策方面,呈现出了儿童性侵犯研究的发展水平和总体趋势,但研究对象的细化、研究方法的完善、研究范围和视角的扩大以及受害儿童心理辅导的分类细化等问题有待进一步加强。

  18. Agroecosystem research in Uppsala, Sweden and Naiman, China:Some observations 1987-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olof Andrn; XueYong Zhao; Thomas Ktterer; Martin Bolinder

    2016-01-01

    The recent economic progress in China has stimulated scientific research in sandy lands in Inner Mongolia, where the Institute of Desert Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (now CAREERI) has a leading position. Economic progress naturally creates financial resources for research, and also a dire need for solutions to emerging environmental problems following development, where wind-blown dust from Inner Mongolia adds to the severe particle air pollution in many Chinese cities. This paper presents selected results and observations made during Chinese–Swedish cooperation projects spanning 25 years. Results and experiences from sandy land research concerning climate, vegetation, root dynamics, soil carbon balances,etc. are briefly presented. The evolution of the Naiman Desertification Research Station, 520 km northeast of Beijing, from 1988 to 2013 is duly noted and commented. An overview of the ICBM soil carbon model concept follows and a few recommendations for future scientific advancement in Chinese arid lands are given.

  19. K-12 Students as Ground Observers of Contrails in Support of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lin H.; Moore, Susan W.; Fischer, Joyce D.; Sepulveda, Roberto; Clark, C.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists are very interested in the formation of contrails, both the type and the coverage. To be detected by a satellite-born instrument, the contrail must be of a certain size, which means that some contrails go undetected. The K-12 education community is assisting with the study of contrails by participating in a network of student observers. To provide a venue for student contrail observations, the GLOBE Contrails protocol was developed as part of the GLOBE Atmospheric Science protocols. The first year of observations has provided a rich resource for researcher.

  20. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nicolas; Reddel, Helen; Martin, Richard; Brusselle, Guy; Papi, Alberto; Thomas, Mike; Postma, Dirjke; Thomas, Vicky; Rand, Cynthia; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2014-02-01

    Real-world research can use observational or clinical trial designs, in both cases putting emphasis on high external validity, to complement the classical efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high internal validity. Real-world research is made necessary by the variety of factors that can play an important a role in modulating effectiveness in real life but are often tightly controlled in RCTs, such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments, adherence, inhalation technique, access to care, strength of doctor-caregiver communication, and socio-economic and other organizational factors. Real-world studies belong to two main categories: pragmatic trials and observational studies, which can be prospective or retrospective. Focusing on comparative database observational studies, the process aimed at ensuring high-quality research can be divided into three parts: preparation of research, analyses and reporting, and discussion of results. Key points include a priori planning of data collection and analyses, identification of appropriate database(s), proper outcomes definition, study registration with commitment to publish, bias minimization through matching and adjustment processes accounting for potential confounders, and sensitivity analyses testing the robustness of results. When these conditions are met, observational database studies can reach a sufficient level of evidence to help create guidelines (i.e., clinical and regulatory decision-making).

  1. The Continuum of Disclosure: Exploring Factors Predicting Tentative Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations During Forensic Interviews and the Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn D

    2016-01-01

    When a child sexual abuse investigation ensues, many children do not disclose readily to professionals. Defining disclosure beyond the disclosure versus nondisclosure dichotomy is essential, yet little research exists on factors associated with a continuum of disclosure, including active and tentative disclosure. Through the coding of 196 forensic interviews using content analysis and subsequent regression analysis, findings suggest that children of color, children abused by adults, unintentional initial disclosure, and those lacking family support were more likely to tentatively disclose in this study. Implications include a need to understand tentative disclosure as part of a normal continuum of disclosure within court proceedings and investigations of abuse allegations. PMID:27266535

  2. Research on prevention of bilirubin-induced brain injury and kernicterus: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development conference executive summary. 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Lillian R; Fanaroff, Avroy A; Raju, Tonse N K

    2004-07-01

    In July 2003, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development convened a conference, "Research on Prevention of Bilirubin-Induced Brain Injury and Kernicterus: Bench-to-Bedside." This article will provide a summary of presentations and discussions from this conference. The summary will focus on the identified knowledge gaps in 5 areas related to bilirubin-induced brain injury and kernicterus: 1) neurobiology and neuroimaging; 2) epidemiology and issues of clinical management; 3) methodologies for assessing clinical jaundice and direct and noninvasive measurement of serum bilirubin and hemolysis; 4) therapies for management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; and 5) public health surveillance and systems-based approaches to prevention. PMID:15231933

  3. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Wendy D.; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California’s voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked i...

  4. Integrating research infrastructures for solid Earth science in Europe: the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, M.; Giardini, D.; EPOS-PP Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) coordinates and integrates the research infrastructures in the European-Mediterranean region, to promote innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. The EPOS 30-year plan aims at integrating the currently scattered, but highly advanced European facilities into one distributed, coherent multidisciplinary Research Infrastructure allowing sustainable long-term Earth science research strategies and an effective coordinated European-scale monitoring facility for solid Earth dynamics taking full advantage of new e-science opportunities. EPOS has been approved by ESFRI (the European Scientific Forum for Research Infrastructures) as one of the critical European Research Infrastructures, and the EPOS Preparatory Phase is supported by the European Commission FP7 program. The cooperation between EPOS and similar US infrastructures (i.e. Earthscope) will be ensured by dedicated NSF-EC funding. EPOS is integrating data from permanent national and regional geophysical monitoring networks (seismological, GPS), with the observations from "in-situ" observatories (volcano observatories, in-situ fault zone test sites) and temporary-monitoring and laboratory experiments through a cyber-infrastructure for data mining and processing, and facilities for data integration, archiving and exchange. The vision is to integrate these existing research infrastructures in order to increase the accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data from monitoring networks, laboratory experiments and computational simulations enhancing worldwide interoperability in Earth Science by establishing a leading integrated European infrastructure and services. More recently the EPOS and the satellite Earth Observation communities are collaborating in order to promote the integration of data from in-situ monitoring

  5. Exploring Researchers in Dialogue: Linguistic and Educational Perspectives on Observational Data from a Sixth Grade Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helg Fottland

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on a collaborative process between two researchers from different backgrounds conducting a joint-venture classroom observation project focusing on language, communication and special education. Focusing on the connection between explorative learning situations and dialogue in relation to children's learning and identity development, the researchers cooperate on all levels in the research process. The article compares findings when approaching data from two different professional traditions, linguistics and education. The main focus is how each of the researchers approaches the data analysis. The combining of approaches in interpreting and writing is also discussed. Narratives and spoken dialogues are vital in this work; transcripts of video material from a primary school classroom are used as illustrations.

  6. Neurocognitive differences between pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchy, Yana; Whittaker, J Wilson; Strassberg, Donald S; Eastvold, Angela

    2009-03-01

    Although some evidence exists that child molesters may be characterized by structural and functional brain abnormalities, findings across studies are inconsistent. Past cognitive research in this area has been extensively criticized for relying on conceptually weak batteries, measures of questionable reliability, and poorly defined samples (i.e., failing to distinguish between pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters). The present study aimed to address the weaknesses of past research by comparing 40 child molesters (20 pedophilic and 20 nonpedophilic) and 20 demographically matched nonoffender controls on six well-defined neurocognitive composite scores of comparable reliability (i.e., semantic knowledge, executive functioning, processing speed, motor speed, auditory memory, and visual memory). Results indicated that pedophilic child molesters exhibit slower processing speed, nonpedophilic child molesters exhibit poorer semantic knowledge, and both molester groups exhibit executive weaknesses as compared to nonoffender controls. This study is the first to compare the two molester types on neurocognitive functions. The observed differences between the molester groups help explain inconsistencies in past research and demonstrate the need to distinguish between the two types of child molesters when studying neurobiologic underpinnings of sexual offending. PMID:19203438

  7. The Unmanned Research Airplane Facility at the Cyprus Institute: Advanced Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Manfred A.; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos

    2014-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) have been established as versatile tools for different applications, providing data and observations for atmospheric and Earth-Systems research. They provide an urgently needed link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations and are distinguished by significant versatility, flexibility and moderate operational costs. Building on an earlier project (Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations project; APAESO) of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute (APAESO is co-financed by the European Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation), we have built up an Unmanned Research Aircraft Facility at The Cyprus Institute (CyI-URAF). The basic components of this facility comprise four CRUISERS airplanes (ET-Air, Slovakia) as UAS platforms, a substantial range of scientific instruments to be flown on these platforms, a mobile Ground Control Station and a well-equipped workshop and calibration laboratory. The APAESO platforms are suitable to carrying out atmospheric and earth-surface observations in the (Eastern) Mediterranean (and elsewhere). They enable 3D measurements for determining physical, chemical and radiative atmospheric properties, aerosol and dust concentrations and atmospheric dynamics as well as 2D investigations into land management practices, vegetation and agricultural mapping, contaminant detection and the monitoring and assessment of hydrological parameters and processes of a given region at high spatial resolution. We will report on some of the essential modifications of the platforms and some of the instrumentation that were instrumental in preparing the research airplanes for a variety of collaborative research projects with. The first scientific mission involved the employment of a DOAS-system (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) in cooperation with

  8. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  9. Evaluation of the Earth Systems Research Laboratory's global Observing System Simulation Experiment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki C. Privé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE system has been implemented at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Earth Systems Research Laboratory in the US as part of an international Joint OSSE effort. The setup of the OSSE consists of a Nature Run from a 13-month free run of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts operational model, synthetic observations developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modelling and Assimilation Office, and an operational version of the NCEP Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation data assimilation and Global Forecast System numerical weather prediction model. Synthetic observations included both conventional observations and the following radiance observations: AIRS, AMSU-A, AMSU-B, HIRS2, HIRS3, MSU, GOES radiance and OSBUV. Calibration was performed by modifying the error added to the conventional synthetic observations to achieve a match between data denial impacts on the analysis state in the OSSE system and in the real data system. Following calibration, the performance of the OSSE system was evaluated in terms of forecast skill scores and impact of observations on forecast fields.

  10. An update on THORPEX-related research in data assimilation and observing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabier, F.; Gauthier, P.; Cardinali, C.; Langland, R.; Tsyrulnikov, M.; Lorenc, A.; Steinle, P.; Gelaro, R.; Koizumi, K.

    2008-02-01

    The international programme "THORPEX: a World Weather Research Programme" provides a framework in which to tackle the challenge of improving the forecast skill of high-impact weather through international collaboration between academic institutions, operational forecast centres, and users of forecast products. The objectives of the THORPEX Data Assimilation and Observation Strategy Working Group (DAOS-WG) are two-fold. The primary goal is to assess the impact of observations and various targeting methods to provide guidance for observation campaigns and for the configuration of the Global Observing System. The secondary goal is to setup an optimal framework for data assimilation, including aspects such as targeted observations, satellite data, background error covariances and quality control. The Atlantic THORPEX Regional campaign, ATReC, in 2003, has been very successful technically and has provided valuable datasets to test targeting issues. Various data impact experiments have been performed, showing a small but very slightly positive impact of targeted observations. Projects of the DAOS-WG include working on the AMMA field experiment, in the context of IPY and to prepare the future THORPEX-PARC field campaign in the Pacific by comparing sensitivity of the forecasts to observations between several groups.

  11. An update on THORPEX-related research in data assimilation and observing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rabier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The international programme "THORPEX: a World Weather Research Programme" provides a framework in which to tackle the challenge of improving the forecast skill of high-impact weather through international collaboration between academic institutions, operational forecast centres, and users of forecast products. The objectives of the THORPEX Data Assimilation and Observation Strategy Working Group (DAOS-WG are two-fold. The primary goal is to assess the impact of observations and various targeting methods to provide guidance for observation campaigns and for the configuration of the Global Observing System. The secondary goal is to setup an optimal framework for data assimilation, including aspects such as targeted observations, satellite data, background error covariances and quality control. The Atlantic THORPEX Regional campaign, ATReC, in 2003, has been very successful technically and has provided valuable datasets to test targeting issues. Various data impact experiments have been performed, showing a small but very slightly positive impact of targeted observations. Projects of the DAOS-WG include working on the AMMA field experiment, in the context of IPY and to prepare the future THORPEX-PARC field campaign in the Pacific by comparing sensitivity of the forecasts to observations between several groups.

  12. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  13. Research Progress in Child and Adolescent Depression%儿童青少年抑郁症研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易俊

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the child and adolescent depression and adult depression clinical characteristics difference,provide the basis for clinical diagnosis of child and adolescent depression.Method:Child and adolescent depression of 306 cases and 314 patients with adult depression controlled study.Result:Children and adolescent depression often occurred defy,not obedient,somatic symptoms,violation of discipline,temper tantrums,crying, irritability,self-injury behavior;adult depression often occurred self-accusation and self-guilty,inferiority,suicidal thoughts and behavior,and delusion, there were statistics differences(P<0.05).Conclusion:The atypical early symptoms of child and adolescent depression,when appear aggressive behavior is often simply understood as a teenage rebellion or growing pain,is not cause enough attention,so many tragic.%目的:探讨儿童青少年抑郁症与成人抑郁症临床特征差异,为儿童青少年抑郁症的临床诊断提供依据。方法:将儿童青少年抑郁症306例与成人抑郁症314例进行对照研究。结果:儿童青少年组以违拗、不听话、躯体症状、违反纪律、发脾气、哭闹、易激惹、自伤行为等为突出表现;成年组则以自责自罪、自卑、自杀观念及行为、妄想为主,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:儿童青少年抑郁症早期症状不典型,当出现过激行为表现时,常被简单地理解为是青春期叛逆或成长痛苦,而未被引起足够重视,以至酿成很多悲剧。

  14. The Change and Development of Statistical Methods Used in Research Articles in Child Development 1930-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køppe, Simo; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of developmental psychology has been characterized by the use of different quantitative and qualitative methods and procedures. But how does the use of methods and procedures change over time? This study explores the change and Development of statistical methods used in articles...... published in Child Development from 1930 to 2010. The methods used in every article in the first issue of every volume were categorized into four categories. Until 1980 relatively simple statistical methods were used. During the last 30 years there has been an explosive use of more advanced statistical...

  15. Research Progress in Child and Adolescent Depression%儿童青少年抑郁症研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易俊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童青少年抑郁症与成人抑郁症临床特征差异,为儿童青少年抑郁症的临床诊断提供依据。方法:将儿童青少年抑郁症306例与成人抑郁症314例进行对照研究。结果:儿童青少年组以违拗、不听话、躯体症状、违反纪律、发脾气、哭闹、易激惹、自伤行为等为突出表现;成年组则以自责自罪、自卑、自杀观念及行为、妄想为主,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:儿童青少年抑郁症早期症状不典型,当出现过激行为表现时,常被简单地理解为是青春期叛逆或成长痛苦,而未被引起足够重视,以至酿成很多悲剧。%Objective:To study the child and adolescent depression and adult depression clinical characteristics difference,provide the basis for clinical diagnosis of child and adolescent depression.Method:Child and adolescent depression of 306 cases and 314 patients with adult depression controlled study.Result:Children and adolescent depression often occurred defy,not obedient,somatic symptoms,violation of discipline,temper tantrums,crying, irritability,self-injury behavior;adult depression often occurred self-accusation and self-guilty,inferiority,suicidal thoughts and behavior,and delusion, there were statistics differences(P<0.05).Conclusion:The atypical early symptoms of child and adolescent depression,when appear aggressive behavior is often simply understood as a teenage rebellion or growing pain,is not cause enough attention,so many tragic.

  16. Bridging research and practice: challenges and successes in implementing evidence-based preventive intervention strategies for child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Manly, Jody Todd

    2011-08-01

    Child maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of negative developmental outcomes for children and families as well as significant economic consequences. While efficacious intervention strategies have been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of trauma and to improve behavioral and emotional functioning, these models have not been widely adopted by clinicians. The challenges associated with exporting evidence-based interventions into community settings are discussed, along with an example of a preventive intervention program for young mothers, successfully implemented through a partnership of community agencies and funders. PMID:21855142

  17. The Association of Parental Depressive Symptoms with Child Internalizing Problems: The Role of Parental Guilt Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Aaron; Forehand, Rex; Haker, Kelly; McKee, Laura G.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Potts, Jennifer; Hardcastle, Emily; Roberts, Lorinda; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    This study builds on prior research by Rakow et al. (2009) by examining the role of parental guilt induction in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child internalizing problems in a sample of parents with a history of major depressive disorder. One hundred and two families with 129 children (66 males; Mage = 11.42 years) were studied. The association of parental depressive symptoms with child internalizing problems was accounted for by parental guilt induction, which was assessed by behavioral observations and child report. Implications of the findings for parenting programs are discussed and future research directions are considered. PMID:21355654

  18. Participant observation as a research tool in a practice based profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C

    1999-10-01

    This paper by Catriona Kennedy offers a personal account of the use of participant observation as a tool for exploring and uncovering the knowledge base of experienced district nurses in relation to first assessment visits. Currently, many district nurses (DNs) are educated to degree level. However, despite a long history of educational provision for DNs, the research base available to support their practice is limited. PMID:26954027

  19. The Preschool Instructional Context and Child-Teacher Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Huang, Yiching D.; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this article is to examine how dimensions of the preschool instructional context predict child-teacher relationship quality. A total of 118 low-income, predominantly Latino/a children and their teachers participated in this study. Children were observed in their 1st preschool classroom. Measures of instructional…

  20. Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Child Dissociation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of the Child Dissociative Checklist found it to be a reliable and valid observer report measure of dissociation in children, including sexually abused girls and children with dissociative disorder and with multiple personality disorder. The checklist, which is appended, is intended as a clinical screening instrument and research measure…

  1. The use of participant-observation protocol in an industrial engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira e Silva, Renato da; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal; D'Afonseca e Silva, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Based on literature, this article aims to present the "participant-observation' research protocol, and its practical application in the industrial engineering field, more specifically within the area of design development, and in the case shown by this article, of interiors' design. The main target is to identify the concept of the method, i.e., from its characteristics to structure a general sense about the subject, so that the protocol can be used in different areas of knowledge, especially those ones which are committed with the scientific research involving the expertise from researchers, and subjective feelings and opinions of the users of an engineering product, and how this knowledge can be benefic for product design, contributing since the earliest stage of design.

  2. Disobedient Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of their parents' rules and of their own self-control. Sometimes, however, these conflicts are more than occasional ... a timeout until he calms down and regains self-control. When your child is obedient and respectful, compliment ...

  3. Priorities for research in child maltreatment, intimate partner violence and resilience to violence exposures: results of an international Delphi consensus development process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathen C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV and child maltreatment (CM are major global public health problems. The Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL Research Network, an international group of over 60 researchers and national and international knowledge-user partners in CM and IPV, sought to identify evidence-based research priorities in IPV and CM, with a focus on resilience, using a modified Delphi consensus development process. Methods Review of existing empirical evidence, PreVAiL documents and team discussion identified a starting list of 20 priorities in the following categories: resilience to violence exposure (RES, CM, and IPV, as well as priorities that cross-cut the content areas (CC, and others specific to research methodologies (RM in violence research. PreVAiL members (N = 47 completed two online survey rounds, and one round of discussions via three teleconference calls to rate, rank and refine research priorities. Results Research priorities were: to examine key elements of promising or successful programmes in RES/CM/IPV to build intervention pilot work; CC: to integrate violence questions into national and international surveys, and RM: to investigate methods for collecting and collating datasets to link data and to conduct pooled, meta and sub-group analyses to identify promising interventions for particular groups. Conclusions These evidence-based research priorities, developed by an international team of violence, gender and mental health researchers and knowledge-user partners, are of relevance for prevention and resilience-oriented research in the areas of IPV and CM.

  4. Academic and research capacity development in Earth observation for environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassells, Gemma; Woodhouse, Iain H; Patenaude, Genevieve [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland EH8 9XP (United Kingdom); Tembo, Mavuto, E-mail: g.f.cassells@sms.ed.ac.uk [Department of Land Management, Mzuzu University, Private Bag 201, Luwinga, Mzuzu 2 (Malawi)

    2011-10-15

    Sustainable environmental management is one of the key development goals of the 21st century. The importance of Earth observation (EO) for addressing current environmental problems is well recognized. Most developing countries are highly susceptible to environmental degradation; however, the capacity to monitor these changes is predominantly located in the developed world. Decades of aid and effort have been invested in capacity development (CD) with the goal of ensuring sustainable development. Academics, given their level of freedom and their wider interest in teaching and knowledge transfer, are ideally placed to act as catalyst for capacity building. In this letter, we make a novel investigation into the extent to which the EO academic research community is engaged in capacity development. Using the Web of Knowledge publication database (http://wok.mimas.ac.uk), we examined the geographical distribution of published EO related research (a) by country as object of research and (b) by authors' country of affiliation. Our results show that, while a significant proportion of EO research (44%) has developing countries as their object of research, less than 3% of publications have authors working in, or affiliated to, a developing country (excluding China, India and Brazil, which not only are countries in transition, but also have well established EO capacity). These patterns appear consistent over the past 20 years. Despite the wide awareness of the importance of CD, we show that significant progress on this front is required. We therefore propose a number of recommendations and best practices to ease collaboration and open access.

  5. Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in South African pregnant women under Option B+: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachega JB

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jean B Nachega,1,2 Donald Skinner,3 Larissa Jennings,4 Jessica F Magidson,5 Frederick L Altice,6 Jessica G Burke,7 Richard T Lester,8 Olalekan A Uthman,9,10 Amy R Knowlton,11 Mark F Cotton,12 Jean R Anderson,13 Gerhard B Theron14 1Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Centre for Infectious Diseases, and ACTG Clinical Trial Unit (CTU/Family Clinical Research Unit (FAMCRU, 3Research on Health and Society, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Studies, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Social and Behavioral Interventions Program, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 5Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 6Division of Infectious Diseases, AIDS Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 7Department of Behavioral and Community Health, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 8Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 9Warwick Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD, Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; 10Centre for Evidence-Based Health Care, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 11Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 12Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 13Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 14Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch

  6. Research on earth observing satellite segmenting and scheduling problem for area targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Renjie; Ruan, Qiming

    2005-10-01

    The mission of an Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) is to acquire images of specified areas on the Earth surface, in response to observation requests from customers for strategic, environmental, commercial, agricultural, and civil analysis and research. A target imaged can have one out of two shapes: a spot and a large polygonal area. A spot can be covered by a single scene of satellite sensor, while a polygonal area may require cutting-up into several contiguous strips to be completely imaged. Because of the orbit restriction, satellite can only view target during specific windows of opportunity when flying over the target. Furthermore, the satellite can only be tasked during such access time windows. Hence a scheduling method of satellite observing tasks has to be taken into account for utilizing satellite sensor efficiently. This paper intends to solve a specific segmenting and scheduling problem for area targets, which concerned with an optical observing satellite equipped with line array CCD sensor. In the paper, based on the analysis of characters of satellite sensor and observed area target, a new method of segmenting area target is given. And on the basis of segmenting results of area target, a scheduling model for multi area targets is proposed. In the paper end, experimental results and analysis are also presented.

  7. BingEO: Enable Distributed Earth Observation Data for Environmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Yang, C.; Xu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Our planet is facing great environmental challenges including global climate change, environmental vulnerability, extreme poverty, and a shortage of clean cheap energy. To address these problems, scientists are developing various models to analysis, forecast, simulate various geospatial phenomena to support critical decision making. These models not only challenge our computing technology, but also challenge us to feed huge demands of earth observation data. Through various policies and programs, open and free sharing of earth observation data are advocated in earth science. Currently, thousands of data sources are freely available online through open standards such as Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS). Seamless sharing and access to these resources call for a spatial Cyberinfrastructure (CI) to enable the use of spatial data for the advancement of related applied sciences including environmental research. Based on Microsoft Bing Search Engine and Bing Map, a seamlessly integrated and visual tool is under development to bridge the gap between researchers/educators and earth observation data providers. With this tool, earth science researchers/educators can easily and visually find the best data sets for their research and education. The tool includes a registry and its related supporting module at server-side and an integrated portal as its client. The proposed portal, Bing Earth Observation (BingEO), is based on Bing Search and Bing Map to: 1) Use Bing Search to discover Web Map Services (WMS) resources available over the internet; 2) Develop and maintain a registry to manage all the available WMS resources and constantly monitor their service quality; 3) Allow users to manually register data services; 4) Provide a Bing Maps-based Web application to visualize the data on a high-quality and easy-to-manipulate map platform and enable users to select the best data layers online. Given the amount of observation data

  8. Narrative Structure and Emotional References in Parent-Child Reminiscing: Associations with Child Gender, Temperament, and the Quality of Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Kelly K.; Choi, Eunsil; Wong, Maria S.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined child gender, temperament, and the quality of parent-child interactions as predictors of narrative style and references to emotion during mother-child and father-child reminiscing. Although models predicting parents' narrative styles were non-significant, results revealed significant interactions between parental…

  9. Child physical abuse : Reports and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Lindell, Charlotta

    2005-01-01

    This thesis was begun in 1998 at a time when increased numbers of police reports regarding child physical abuse was presented. The increase had been overshadowed by the research on the sexual abuse of children and showed that child physical abuse in Sweden had only been scarcely investigated since the institution of the Swedish anti spanking law in 1979. The aim of this thesis was to investigate child physical abuse from a judicial, social, child- and adolescent psychiatric and a user perspec...

  10. CHILD ABUSE, FENOMENA DAN KEBIJAKAN DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Suci Wulansari

    2012-01-01

    Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF) results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope...

  11. Family rationales behind child begging in Antananarivo

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Ballet; Augendra BHUKUTH; Felana Rakotonirinjanahary; Miantra Rakotonirinjanahary

    2010-01-01

    Child beggars form a specific category of child workers. They are generally associated with street-living children, as defined by UNICEF. Analysis of begging thus generally focuses on children?s survival strategies. Using data from an exploratory survey conducted in Antananarivo in autumn 2009, this research paper shows that in the Madagascan capital, the vast majority of child beggars are in fact exploited by their family and do not live on the streets. It proposes a typology of child beggar...

  12. The Discipline Orientation and Research Trends of Special Child Psychology%特殊儿童心理学的学科定位与研究趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周念丽; 方俊明

    2012-01-01

    Special Child Psychology is a cross-disciplinary school to explore the different types of special children's psychological development process and the internal laws used psychology principles and methods. The Discipline Orientation and Research Trends of Special Child Psychology fully reflect the psychology of the close combination of theory and application of psychology among the various branches of mutual penetration and mutual promotion, also shows that the theory as a basis for discipline in special children's rehabilitation, education and teaching in the process of guidance function.%特殊儿童心理学是一门运用心理学的原理和方法,探讨不同类型特殊儿童的心理发展过程和内在活动规律的新兴交叉学科。当代特殊儿童心理学的学科定位和发展趋势充分地反映了心理学理论与应用的密切结合,心理学各分支学科之间的相互渗透与相互促进,也显示了作为基础理论学科在特殊儿童康复、教育、教学过程中的指导功能。

  13. Child health insurance coverage and household activity toward child development in four South American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L

    2014-05-01

    We evaluate the association between child health insurance coverage and household activities that enhance child development. We use micro-level data on a unique sample of 2,370 children from four South American countries. Data were collected by physicians via in-person interviews with the mothers. The regression models compare insured and uninsured children seen within the same pediatric care practice for routine well-child care and adjust for several demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. We also stratify these analyses by selective household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and by country. We find that insurance coverage is associated with increasingly engaging the child in development-enhancing household activity in the total sample. This association significantly varies with ethnic ancestry and is more pronounced for children of Native or African ancestry. When stratifying by country, a significant positive association is observed for Argentina, with two other countries having positive but insignificant associations. The results suggest that insurance coverage is associated with enhanced household activity toward child development. However, other data and research are needed to estimate the causal relationship.

  14. Exporting analogue behavioral observation from research to clinical practice: useful or cost-defective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, E J; Foster, S L

    2001-03-01

    The special section on analogue behavioral observation (ABO) provided an in-depth review of various ABO assessment procedures. Despite their availability, however, these procedures are rarely used in clinical practice. This may result in part from the traditions on which most ABO assessments are based, from distinctions between clinical and research assessment environments, and from the need for more information about the cost-effectiveness of ABO strategies for meeting specific needs of clinicians in applied settings. Suggestions for bridging the research-clinical gap involve investigating more thoroughly when ABO does and does not provide useful information for various purposes in applied settings and increasing accessibility and cost-effectiveness of ABO procedures for practitioners. PMID:11281042

  15. Defining and Verifying Research Grade Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Slatton, C. C.

    2004-12-01

    The first and primary goal of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supported Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM), operated jointly by the University of Florida and the University of California, Berkeley, is to make "research grade" ALSM data widely available at affordable cost to the national scientific community. Cost aside, researchers need to know what NCALM considers research grade data and how the quality of the data is verified, to be able to determine the likelihood that the data they receive will meet their project specific requirements. Given the current state of the technology it is reasonable to expect a well planned and executed survey to produce surface elevations with uncertainties less than 10 centimeters and horizontal uncertainties of a few decimeters. Various components of the total error are generally associated with the aircraft trajectory, aircraft orientation, or laser vectors. Aircraft trajectory error is dependent largely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, aircraft orientation on Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) observations, and laser vectors on the scanning and ranging instrumentation. In addition to the issue of the precision or accuracy of the coordinates of the surface points, consideration must also be given to the point-to-point spacing and voids in the coverage. The major sources of error produce distinct artifacts in the data set. For example, aircraft trajectory errors tend to change slowly as the satellite constellation geometry varies, producing slopes within swaths and offsets between swaths. Roll, pitch and yaw biases in the IMU observations tend to persist through whole flights, and created distinctive artifacts in the swath overlap areas. Errors in the zero-point and scale of the laser scanner cause the edges of swaths to turn up or down. Range walk errors cause offsets between bright and dark surfaces, causing paint stripes to float above the dark surfaces of roads. The three keys to producing

  16. Bernfeld's "The facts of observation in psychoanalysis": a response from psychoanalytic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J

    1995-10-01

    In his 1941 article, "The Facts of Observation in Psychoanalysis," Siegfried Bernfeld wrote that observing the sequence of events leading up to and following the patient's confessing a secret is important for psychoanalytic theory. The patient's confessing a secret is important for psychoanalytic theory. The patient's confessing a secret may follow a comment by the analyst that clears away the obstacles to the patient's confessing by creating an encouraging atmosphere and reducing the patient's shame or distrust. Bernfeld believed that the study of this sequence would be fruitful for the development of psychoanalysis. His article now seems prescient. Members of the San Francisco Psychotherapy Research Group have used formal empirical methods to study Bernfeld's thesis, and we have found strong support for his assumptions. PMID:8584596

  17. Ground-Based Network and Supersite Observations to Complement and Enrich EOS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2011-01-01

    as network or supersite observations, which have been playing key roles in major international research projects over diverse aerosol regimes to complement and enrich the EOS scientific research.

  18. Study Of Social Problems And Correlates Of Child Labourers In Slums Of Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambadekar Nitin N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the social and work related problems of child labourers? Objectives:1.To study social problems of child labourers. 2. To study some work related problems of child labourers. 3. To study some factors associated with child labourers. Study design: cross sectional study with comparison group. Setting: shivankarnagar & Hasanbagh slums under field practice area of PSM deptt., Govt. Medical College, Nagapur. Participants: 223 child labourers and 223 randomly selected controls from same area aged upto 15 years, sex matched and group matched for age. Results: Prevalence of child labourers in study areas was 21.3%, 43(19.3 females and 180 (80.7% males. Lower socio-economic status, large family size(>6, parental illiteracy and single parenthood were significantly associated with child labour. They were working in varied occupations â€" majority (32.7% being in garage and workshops. Inadequate family income (74.4% and parental compulsion (20.6% were the common reasons cited by child labourers for their jobs â€" school drop â€" outs 173(78.3%, bad habits 56(25.1%, prolonged working hours (mean-8.5+4.5, no holidays and rest hours, inadequate daily wages, verbal (29% & physical abuse (2.7% were the common problems of child labourers, observed in the present study.

  19. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  20. Copernicus benefits the Norwegian Satellite Earth Observation Database for Marine and Polar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosov, Anton; Johannessen, Johnny

    2014-05-01

    The Norwegian Satellite Earth Observation Database for Marine and Polar Research (NORMAP) is developed for creating and maintaining a repository of Earth Observation data over the high latitude and Arctic regions to facilitate, stimulate and strengthen high quality and original multidisciplinary Earth System research, application, exploitation and education in marine, polar and climate sciences. As such it is complementing and supporting the Norwegian strategy for advancing these science disciplines in the high latitude and Arctic regions. In the international arena, NORMAP benefits and complements the EU GMES MyOcean project, and other previous GMES downstream services such as AQUAMAR, MONARCH-A, SIDARUS, etc. With the launch of the first Sentinel-1 mission NORMAP will be reinforced by the new data flow from the Copernicus Space Component. NORMAP is also acquiring data from a multitude of other satellites through the unified Copernicus system and will become one of the national thematic information services designed to benefit the environmental monitoring and support effective policy-making.

  1. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    We started a Japanese initiative - "Arctic Climate Change Research Project" - within the framework of the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT), in 2011. This Project targeted understanding and forecasting "Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences." Four strategic research targets are set by the Ministry: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic; 2. Understanding the Arctic climate system for global climate and future change; 3. Evaluation of the impacts of Arctic change on the weather and climate in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries; 4. Projection of sea ice distribution and Arctic sea routes. Through a network of universities and institutions in Japan, this 5-year Project involves more than 300 scientists from 39 institutions and universities. The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) works as the core institute and The Japan Agency for Marine- Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) joins as the supporting institute. There are 7 bottom up research themes approved: the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, cryosphere, greenhouse gases, marine ecology and fisheries, sea ice and Arctic sea routes and climate modeling, among 22 applications. The Project will realize multi-disciplinal study of the Arctic region and connect to the projection of future Arctic and global climatic change by modeling. The project has been running since the beginning of 2011 and in those 5 years pan-Arctic observations have been carried out in many locations, such as Svalbard, Russian Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. In particular, 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, and intensive atmospheric observations were carried out in 2014 and 2015. In addition, the Arctic Ocean cruises by R/V "Mirai" (belonging to JAMSTEC) and other icebreakers belonging to other

  2. Informing potential participants about research: observational study with an embedded randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Kirkby

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess: 1 the feasibility of electronic information provision; 2 gather evidence on the topics and level of detail of information potential research participant's accessed; 3 to assess satisfaction and understanding. DESIGN: Observational study with an embedded randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Low risk intervention study based in primary care. PARTICIPANTS: White British & Irish, South Asian and African-Caribbean subjects aged between 40-74 years eligible for a blood pressure monitoring study. INTERVENTIONS: PDF copy of the standard paper participant information sheet (PDF-PIS and an electronic Interactive Information Sheet (IIS where participants could choose both the type and level of detail accessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 1 Proportion of participants providing an email address and accessing electronic information 2 Willingness to participate in a recruitment clinic. 3 Type and depth of information accessed on the IIS. 4 Participant satisfaction and understanding. RESULTS: 1160 participants were eligible for the study. Of these, 276 (24% provided an active email address, of whom 84 did not respond to the email. 106 responded to the email but chose not to access any electronic information and were therefore ineligible for randomisation. 42 were randomised to receive the PDF-PIS and 44 to receive the IIS (with consent rates of 48% and 36%, respectively; odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.25 to 1.4. Electronic observation of information accessed by potential participants showed 41% chose to access no information and only 9% accessed the detail presented on the Research Ethics Committee approved participant information sheet before booking to attend a recruitment clinic for the intervention study. 63 of the 106 participants (59% who chose not to access any electronic information also booked an appointment. CONCLUSIONS: Current written information about research may not be read, emphasising the importance of the consent

  3. Child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  4. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  5. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  6. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  7. Research on three-dimension ocean observation data integration and service technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; DONG Wen; ZHENG Zhigang

    2011-01-01

    Currently, ocean data portals are being developed around the world based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a source of ocean data and information. However, given the relatively high temporal frequency and the intrinsic spatial nature of ocean data and information,no current GIS software is adequate to deal effectively and efficiently with spatiotemporal data.Furthermore, while existing ocean data portals are generally designed to meet the basic needs of a broad range of users, they are sometimes very complicated for general audiences, especially for those without training in GIS. In this paper, a new technical architecture for an ocean data integration and service system is put forward that consists of four layers: the operation layer, the extract, transform,and load (ETL) layer, the data warehouse layer, and the presentation layer. The integration technology based on the XML, ontology, and spatiotemporal data organization scheme for the data warehouse layer is then discussed. In addition, the ocean observing data service technology realized in the presentation layer is also discussed in detail, including the development of the web portal and ocean data sharing platform. The application on the Taiwan Strait shows that the technology studied in this paper can facilitate sharing, access, and use of ocean observation data. The paper is based on an ongoing research project for the development of an ocean observing information system for the Taiwan Strait that will facilitate the prevention of ocean disasters.

  8. The Quality of School-Age Child Care in After-School Settings. Research-to-Policy Connections No. 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Priscilla M.

    2007-01-01

    This brief identifies the features of high-quality after-school settings that have emerged from the research and are reflected in program quality tools. It also examines key research linking program quality to positive developmental outcomes; it reviews current practice in program quality assessment; and it offers considerations for policymakers…

  9. The effects of child- and youth-coaching for children in multi-problem families : Research proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assen, Arjen; Grietens, Hans; Post, Wendy; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2015-01-01

    This research proposal was presented at the ISED research days 2015 at Leiden University. Children and teenagers growing up in environments with multiple stressors are at an increased risk for developing behavioural and emotional problems. In this proposal a study is presented that aims to evaluate

  10. Observations and recommendations for further research regarding environmentally assisted fatigue evaluation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, G.L.; Tregoning, R.L. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), Rockville, MD (United States); Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have completed research activities on environmentally assisted fatigue (EAF) methods. This work has led to a revision of NUREG/CR-6909 in its entirety, a draft of which is forthcoming for public review and comment. These activities addressed the following areas: - Air and water fatigue curves were re-developed using a much larger fatigue (ε-N) database. The additional data include an expansion in the ε-N data previously used by the NRC and ANL by as much as 50%. - The environmental fatigue multiplier (F{sub en}) expressions for carbon, low-alloy, stainless, and nickel-alloy steels were revised. - The revised F{sub en} expressions address comments from interested stakeholders related to: (a) the constants in previous F{sub en} expressions that results in F{sub en} values of approximately 2.0 even when the strain rate is very high or the temperature is very low, (b) the temperature dependence of the F{sub en} expression for carbon and low-alloy steels, and (c) the dependence of F{sub en} on water chemistry for austenitic stainless steels. - In addition, the appropriateness of a strain threshold and the possible effects of hold periods were evaluated. - The potential effects of dynamic strain aging (DSA) on cyclic deformation and environmental effects were discussed. - The revised F{sub en} expressions proposed were validated to the extent possible by comparing the results of five different experimental data sets obtained from fatigue tests that simulate actual plant conditions to estimates of fatigue usage adjusted for environmental effects using the updated F{sub en} expressions. In the course of performing the foregoing EAF research activities, the NRC and ANL observed several areas where further research could yield reduced conservatism in EAF evaluation. These include more refined, material-specific fatigue (S-N) curves, S-N curves for ferritic materials based on material tensile

  11. Enhanced tropospheric BrO concentrations over the Antarctic sea ice belt in mid winter observed from MAX-DOAS observations on board the research vessel Polarstern

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, T.; Ibrahim, O.; R. Sinreich; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.

    2007-01-01

    We present Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations of tropospheric BrO carried out on board the German research vessel Polarstern during the Antarctic winter 2006. Polarstern entered the area of first year sea ice around Antarctica on 24 June 2006 and stayed within this area until 15 August 2006. For the period when the ship cruised inside the first year sea ice belt, enhanced BrO concentrations were almost continuously observed. One interesting excepti...

  12. CHILD TRAFFICKING

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Chincholkar

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is the third biggest beneficial industry on the planet. Child trafficking unlike many other issues is found in both developed and developing nations. NGOs evaluate that 12,000 - 50,000 ladies and kids are trafficked into the nation every year from neighboring states for the sex exchange.

  13. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  14. Researching of sea waves influence on a coastal line transformation (based on field observation results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A.; Kouznetsov, K.; Kurkin, A.; Shevchenko, G.

    2009-04-01

    The long duration registrations of bottom pressure, temperature and meteorological data took place in June - October 2007 on the shelf near 104th - 110th kilometer of interstate road Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk - Okha. Sediment transport and abrasion processes are observed in this place, it is a dangerous factor for road and railroad constructions, it can also be threat for some buildings of Vzmorie town. Distributed network of autonomous pressure gauges was installed for wave structure studying. Gauges were installed in tree lines with 100, 150 and 200 meters far from each other. Gathered data contains information about different wave's regimes under different weather conditions, it's allowed us to make analysis. Different data rows for different wave regimes were taken for analysis. Transformation of wave field along shoreline and opposite was observed. The results of observation are showed that disposition of waves was determined by swell waves with period 8-9 second. Wind waves were weaker than swell waves, conceivably because of big depths in the studied area. Much more interesting results were found in the infragravity waves range (0.5 - 5 min). For example, peaks with period above 150 and 75 seconds are presented in the spectral estimation of record from gauge 23. The same peaks were not observed in other gauges to the North and to the South from 23. However, low frequency peak was much stronger at the storm weather, but 75 seconds peak was stayed non-changed under the different weather conditions. For understanding mechanism of infra-gravitation waves generation group structure of waves were studied. Spectrum characteristics of different data rows for different wave regimes and also for their envelopes were provided. Results of this research allow us to consider that wave packets with common period 7 - 8 seconds make infra-gravitation waves with period above 5 minutes which forcing sediment transport processes. Satellite images of studied place were used in this

  15. A Bibliography of Canadian Day Care Research. Report of the Task Force on Child Care: Series 6 = Bibliographie des etudes sur la garde des enfants au Canada. Rapport du groupe d'etude sur la garde des enfants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan R.

    Part of an effort to provide detailed analyses of issues of special relevance to child care and parental leave policies and the effects of these issues on the changing Canadian family, this volume, the last in a series of six, provides a bibliography of Canadian day care research. (RH)

  16. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Application to Maltreating Parent-Child Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, S.G.; Urquiza, A.J.; Zebell, N.M.; McGrath, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Parent-Child Interaction Training (PCIT), which uses a social learning framework, is a dyadic intervention that is designed to alter specific patterns of interaction found in parent-child relationships. Previous research suggests that maladaptive and high-risk characteristics found in maltreating parent-child dyads may be responsive to…

  17. L'inserimento del bambino al nido (Welcoming the Child into Child Care): Perspectives from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    Describes various approaches taken by Italian child-care programs to facilitate the young child's transition into a child care setting. Discusses the role of teachers as researchers, the role of parents as partners, and the benefits to young children. (KB)

  18. Did parents and teachers struggle with child survivors 20 months after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan? A retrospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Usami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2011, Japan was struck by the earthquake and tsunami. Twenty months after the disaster, we collected information on the difficulties faced by parents and teachers in dealing with the post-traumatic symptoms of child survivors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between post-traumatic symptoms in children and parents' and teachers' difficulties in dealing with children who survived the huge disaster. METHODS: The subjects included 12,524 children from elementary, middle, and junior high schools in Ishinomaki City. The Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15, a self-rating questionnaire on post-traumatic symptoms, was distributed among the children, and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, a self-rating questionnaire on difficulties in dealing with children, was given to their parents and teachers. With PTSSC-15, a valid response was obtained from 10,909 (89.5% participants. With SDQ for teachers and parents, valid responses were obtained from 10,577 (86.7% and 7052 (83.9% participants, respectively. RESULTS: PTSSC-15 scores were significantly higher (P<0.001 in girls than in boys from the junior high school. These effect sizes were less than 0.30. Correlations of teachers' SDQ scores and PTSSC-15 scores were significantly low (r<0.21, P<0.001 for both genders and all children. Likewise, correlations between SDQ scores assigned by parents (excluding "prosocial behavior" and PTSSC-15 scores were significantly low (r<0.21, P<0.001 for both genders and at all school levels. CONCLUSION: This study elucidated that the difficulties faced by parents and teachers while dealing with child survivors significantly low correlate with the child's post-traumatic symptoms caused by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Thus, it is important that clinicians should not only evaluate post-traumatic symptoms with a self-rating questionnaire but also try to objectively evaluate whether there were

  19. Commentary: Leveraging discovery science to advance child and adolescent psychiatric research--a commentary on Zhao and Castellanos 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennes, Maarten

    2016-03-01

    'Big Data' and 'Population Imaging' are becoming integral parts of inspiring research aimed at delineating the biological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders. The scientific strategies currently associated with big data and population imaging are typically embedded in so-called discovery science, thereby pointing to the hypothesis-generating rather than hypothesis-testing nature of discovery science. In this issue, Yihong Zhao and F. Xavier Castellanos provide a compelling overview of strategies for discovery science aimed at progressing our understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, they focus on efforts in genetic and neuroimaging research, which, together with extended behavioural testing, form the main pillars of psychopathology research.

  20. The Many Faces of Mitochondrial Autophagy: Making Sense of Contrasting Observations in Recent Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. May

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria—mitophagy—has intensified in recent years, yielding significant insights into the function, mechanism, and regulation of this process in the eukaryotic cell. However, while some molecular players in budding yeast, such as Atg32p, Uth1p, and Aup1p, have been identified, studies further interrogating the mechanistic and regulatory features of mitophagy have yielded inconsistent and sometimes conflicting results. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of mitophagy mechanism, induction, and regulation in yeast, and suggest that differences in experimental conditions used in the various studies of mitophagy may contribute to the observed discrepancies. Consideration and understanding of these differences may help place the mechanism and regulation of mitophagy in context, and further indicate the intricate role that this essential process plays in the life and death of eukaryotic cells.

  1. How Does Observational Learning Affect the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders? A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Betty A.; Kauffman, James M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews research on observational learning, including model characteristics and observers' responses, vicarious reinforcement as implicit punishment, vicarious effects on students with problem behavior, observers' other characteristics and vicarious effects, and aggression and vicarious processes. Regular class placement of students…

  2. Commentary: a practical guide for translating basic research on affective science to implementing physiology in clinical child and adolescent assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health recently launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). RDoC is a framework that facilitates the dimensional assessment and classification of processes relevant to mental health (e.g., affect, regulation, cognition, social affiliation), as reflected in measurements across multiple units of analysis (e.g., physiology, circuitry, genes, self-reports). A key focus of RDoC involves opening new lines of research examining patients' responses on biological measures, with the key goal of developing new therapeutic techniques that effectively target mechanisms of mental disorders. Yet applied researchers and practitioners rarely use biological measures within mental health assessments, which may present challenges in translating RDoC-guided research into improvements in patient care. Thus, if RDoC is to result in research that yields clinical tools that reduce the burden of mental illness and improve public health, we ought to develop strategies for effectively implementing biological measures in the context of clinical assessments. In this special issue, we sought to provide an initial step in this direction by assembling a collection of articles from leading research teams carrying out pioneering work on implementing multimodal assessments (biological, subjective, behavioral) of affective processes in applied settings. In this commentary, we expand upon the work presented in this special issue by making a series of suggestions for how to most parsimoniously conduct multimodal assessments of affective processes in applied research and clinical settings. We hope that this approach will facilitate translations of the RDoC framework into applied research and clinic settings.

  3. Child neglect identification: The health visitor's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akehurst, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Child neglect is a significant public health issue, with impact often persisting into adulthood. However, neglect is not easily identifiable and may go undetected for many years. This library-based literature review critically analyses the research to uncover effective practices to aid neglect identification. The literature identifies that professionals may observe particular risk factors in a child's life that make neglect more probable. Additionally, children who suffer neglect, and parents who neglect their children, may display signs that practitioners can be alert to. However, a number of barriers exist that make identification difficult. The literature highlights that health visitors have a significant role to play in identifying neglect. Final conclusions relate to the need for professional supervision, use of assessment tools and frameworks, multi-agency training, and timely interventions to safeguard children.

  4. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, M. [Wigner RCP, Euratom Association-HAS, Budapest (Hungary); BME NTI, Budapest (Hungary); Anda, G.; Réfy, D.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner RCP, Euratom Association-HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Czopf, A.; Erdei, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, BME IOP, Budapest (Hungary); Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I. [BME NTI, Budapest (Hungary); Nam, Y. U. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera’s measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  5. The Research and Education Collaborative Occultation Network: A System for Coordinated TNO Occultation Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Marc W.; Keller, John M.

    2016-03-01

    We describe a new system and method for collecting coordinated occultation observations of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Occultations by objects in the outer solar system are more difficult to predict due to their large distance and limited span of the astrometric data used to determine their orbits and positions. This project brings together the research and educational community into a unique citizen-science partnership to overcome the difficulties of observing these distant objects. The goal of the project is to get sizes and shapes for TNOs with diameters larger than 100 km. As a result of the system design it will also serve as a probe for binary systems with spatial separations as small as contact systems. Traditional occultation efforts strive to get a prediction sufficiently good to place mobile ground stations in the shadow track. Our system takes a new approach of setting up a large number of fixed observing stations and letting the shadows come to the network. The nominal spacing of the stations is 50 km so that we ensure two chords at our limiting size. The spread of the network is roughly 2000 km along a roughly north-south line in the western United States. The network contains 56 stations that are committed to the project and we get additional ad hoc support from International Occultation Timing Association members. At our minimum size, two stations will record an event while the other stations will be probing the inner regions for secondary events. Larger objects will get more chords and will allow determination of shape profiles. The stations are almost exclusively sited and associated with schools, usually at the 9-12 grade level. We present a full description of the system we have developed for the continued exploration of the Kuiper Belt.

  6. Nitrogen oxides at the UTLS: Combining observations from research aircraft and in-service aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziereis, Helmut; Stratmann, Greta; Schlager, Hans; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Zahn, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; van, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides have a decisive influence on the chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. They are key constituents of several reaction chains influencing the production of ozone. They also play an essential role in the cycling of hydroxyl radicals and therefore influence the lifetime of methane. Due to their short lifetime and their variety of sources there is still a high uncertainty about the abundance of nitrogen oxides in the UTLS. Dedicated aircraft campaigns aim to study specific atmospheric questions like lightning, long range transport or aircraft emissions. Usually, within a short time period comprehensive measurements are performed within a more or less restricted region. Therefore, especially trace constituents like nitrogen oxides with short lifetime and a variety of different sources are not represented adequately. On the other hand, routine measurements from in-service aircraft allow observations over longer time periods and larger regions. However, it is nearly impossible to influence the scheduling of in-service aircraft and thereby time and space of the observations. Therefore, the combination of dedicated aircraft campaigns and routine observations might supplement each other. For this study we combine nitrogen oxides data sets obtained with the IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory and with the German research aircraft HALO (High altitude and long range research aircraft). Data have been acquired within the IAGOS-CARIBIC project on a monthly base using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 since December 2004. About four flights are performed each month covering predominantly northern mid-latitudes. Additional flights have been conducted to destinations in South America and South Africa. Since 2012 HALO has been operational. Nitrogen oxides measurements have been performed during six missions covering mid latitudes, tropical as well as Polar

  7. Foster Care and Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Lolita M

    2015-10-01

    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care.

  8. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Samuel; Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6-60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  9. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Samuel; Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6-60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches. PMID:27597984

  10. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Glass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N=92 entering care (age 6–60 months combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p=0.001 and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p=0.016 and disinhibited (p=0.004 attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1 overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2 maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  11. Developing an Implementation Research Program for Quality and Equity: Exploring the Context, Adaptation, and Measurement Challenges of Maternal and Child Health Implementation Research in Rural Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Harsha, Alex Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Implementation research is an emerging multidisciplinary field of study that aims to facilitate the adoption of evidence-based practices and programming to reduce the wide gap between what we know and what we deliver in real-world settings. This gap exists globally, but is particularly deadly in resource-limited areas due to ineffective healthcare and research systems. Here, I present a developing an implementation research program embedded within a growing public-private healthcare system in...

  12. Global mesospheric tidal winds observed by the high resolution Doppler imager on board the upper atmosphere research satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Y.T.; Lieberman, R.S.; Hays, P.B.; Ortland, D.A.; Marshall, A.R.; Wu, D.; Skinner, W.R.; Burrage, M.D.; Gell, D.A.; Yee, J.H.

    1993-06-18

    This paper presents results of mesospheric and lower thermospheric wind tides. The observations come from the high resolution doppler imager (HRDI) on board the upper atmosphere research satellite. From these observations, the authors report the observation of tidal effects on top of the meridonal winds observed in this region. Previous measurements have been mainly limited to radar measurements from fixed ground stations, which do not give consistent results, and do not provide a global picture of the wave structure.

  13. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...

  14. Play of a Preschool Child

    OpenAIRE

    VONDRÁČKOVÁ, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with the problems in the life of a pre -school child. The theoretical part is based on the general views and attitudes, supported by professional literature, which relate to the characteristics of the game, its importance and the diagnostic and educational opportunities. There is the part of the development characteristics of preschool age in terms of games and toys too. The research (practical) part finds out the perception of the game of pre- school child by a teache...

  15. Combating Child Obesity in America

    OpenAIRE

    Canavan, Erin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the child obesity epidemic that is gripping our nation, and explores various causes and treatments that may help to defeat child obesity. First there is a description of the obesity epidemic, its causal factors, and its consequences. Additionally there is a summary and critique of the FDA’s obesity report and recommendations. There is a description of drug treatments that are available for obese children and why more research is necessary to ensure the s...

  16. Qualifications of Public School Teachers for Science, Mathematics, and History. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication No. 2008-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentien, Siri; Herring, William; Kinukawa, Akemi

    2008-01-01

    This Research Brief focuses on the qualifications of teachers in science and mathematics as well as history, in grades 7-12 for the 2003-04 school year. The subjects of science and mathematics were selected because of continuing concerns in the United States over the high need for individuals with advanced knowledge and skills in these subjects.…

  17. Commentary--Of Quadrants and Fish Scales: Reflections on New Directions in Research in Child and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on how ways of reporting research as well as reviewing and commenting on submitted manuscripts could take new directions to promote progress in the discipline of developmental science. I argue for (a) attitudinal openness toward migratory impulses in relation to Stokes's quadrant model of science, (b) the…

  18. Ten Ways to Improve the Use of Statistical Mediation Analysis in the Practice of Child and Adolescent Treatment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Marija; Wiers, Reinout W.; Prins, Pier J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite guidelines and repeated calls from the literature, statistical mediation analysis in youth treatment outcome research is rare. Even more concerning is that many studies that "have" reported mediation analyses do not fulfill basic requirements for mediation analysis, providing inconclusive data and clinical implications. As a result, after…

  19. Trends and Recent Estimates: Contraceptive Use among U.S. Teens. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2006-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetta, Kerry; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Ikramullah, Erum

    2006-01-01

    This Research Brief draws on recently released nationally representative data to provide information on teenagers' patterns of contraceptive use during heterosexual, vaginal intercourse. In this brief, the authors examine these patterns for males and females, for members of racial and ethnic groups, and for younger and older teenagers. Among the…

  20. Hispanic Teen Pregnancy and Birth Rates: Looking Behind the Numbers. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2005-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This research brief focuses on the birth, pregnancy, contraceptive, and relationship behaviors of Hispanic teens because they represent an important risk group. Teen pregnancy and birth rates for U.S. teens have declined dramatically in recent years. Yet for Hispanic teens, reductions in teen pregnancy and childbearing have lagged behind that of…

  1. The History of Early Literacy Research and Its Effect on the Project "Enriching a Child's Literacy Environment (ECLE)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ethna R.

    2010-01-01

    By presenting a brief general history of educators' efforts and struggles to influence the intellectual and social growth of young children, it will help the reader understand why the Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction (ECRI), a research and consulting group concerned with instructional practices, sought for and obtained funds from the U.S.…

  2. Child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Zoran S.; Petković, Nikola; Matijašević Obradović, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of children for pornographic purposes is a serious sociological, criminological and victimological problem of today which, despite all preventive and restrictive activities on an international level, shows a tendency of global expansion. The fact that the Republic of Serbia has only recently actively joined the fight against child pornography on the Internet indicates the need for critical analysis of the existing national, penal, and legal solutions and their harmonization with the...

  3. Medical Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the research on medical sequelae of child sexual abuse; identifies unanswered questions; and suggests areas of research, including prospective studies of child sexual abuse, follow-up of victims, studies of nonclinic populations, studies of male victims, examination of additional variables (such as regional variation and age), diseases…

  4. Child Second Language Acquisition of Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Usha

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent research in universal grammar-based child second language acquisition (SLA) research, arguing that child SLA studies can better explore the role of biological factors in language acquisition and strengthen the links between SLA and linguistic theory. (129 references) (MDM)

  5. Atmospheric mercury over the marine boundary layer observed during the third China Arctic Research Expedition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Kang; Zhouqing Xie

    2011-01-01

    TGM measurements on board ships have proved to provide valuable complementary information to measurements by a ground based monitoring network.During the third China Arctic Research Expedition (from July 11 to September 24,2008),TGM concentrations over the marine boundary layer along the cruise path were in-situ measured using an automatic mercury vapor analyzer.Here we firstly reported the results in Japan Sea,North Western Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea,where there are rare reports.The value ranged between 0.30 and 6.02 ng/m3 with an average of (1.52 ± 0.68) ng/m3,being slightly lower than the background value of Northern Hemisphere (1.7 ng/m3).Notably TGM showed considerably spatial and temporal variation.Geographically,the average value of TGM in Bering Sea was higher than those observed in Japan Sea and North Western Pacific Ocean.In the north of Japan Sea TGM levels were found to be lower than 0.5 ng/m3 during forward cruise and displayed obviously diurnal cycle,indicating potential oxidation of gaseous mercury in the atmosphere.The pronounced episode was recorded as well.Enhanced levels of TGM were observed in the coastal regions of southern Japan Sea during backward cruise due primarily to air masses transported from the adjacent mainland reflecting the contribution from anthropogenic sources.When ship returned back and passed through Kamchatka Peninsula TGM increased by the potential contamination from volcano emissions.

  6. The Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model: a multi-level framework on maternal, paternal, and child health disparities derived by community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Schafer, Peter; DeClerque, Julia L; Lanzi, Robin G; Hobel, Calvin; Shalowitz, Madeleine; Chinchilli, Vern; Raju, Tonse N K

    2015-04-01

    Emerging evidence supports the theoretical and clinical importance of the preconception period in influencing pregnancy outcomes and child health. Collectively, this evidence affirms the need for a novel, integrative theoretical framework to design future investigations, integrate new findings, and identify promising, evidence-informed interventions to improve intergenerational health and reduce disparities. This article presents a transdisciplinary framework developed by the NIH Community Child Health Network (CCHN) through community-based participatory research processes. CCHN developed a Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways (PSRP) model by building local and multi-site community-academic participatory partnerships that established guidelines for research planning and decision-making; reviewed relevant findings diverse disciplinary and community perspectives; and identified the major themes of stress and resilience within the context of families and communities. The PSRP model focuses on inter-relating the multiple, complex, and dynamic biosocial influences theoretically linked to family health disparities. The PSRP model borrowed from and then added original constructs relating to developmental origins of lifelong health, epigenetics, and neighborhood and community influences on pregnancy outcome and family functioning (cf. MCHJ 2014). Novel elements include centrality of the preconception/inter-conception period, role of fathers and the parental relationship, maternal allostatic load (a composite biomarker index of cumulative wear-and-tear of stress), resilience resources of parents, and local neighborhood and community level influences (e.g., employment, housing, education, health care, and stability of basic necessities). CCHN's integrative framework embraces new ways of thinking about how to improve outcomes for future generations, by starting before conception, by including all family members, and by engaging the community vigorously at multiple

  7. Costa Rica Variable Star Observation Program: Continuation of the research started in the Second Astronomical Observation Regional Campaign TAD/IAU Tegucigalpa Honduras, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya Rodriguez, E.

    1998-11-01

    In the last months of January and February, it was the Second Astronomical Observation Regional Campaign TAD/IAU in the Suyapa Astronomical Observatory, Tegucigalpa, Honduras; sponsored by the International Astronomical Union, Honduras Government and the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras. In that opportunity, during the campaign, it began a variable star observation program, according to international regulation of the American Association of Variable Stars Observers (AAVSO). The activities were about the use of general experimental techniques that allow people to do studies naked eye, with telescopes or photometers depending on the observed star magnitude. The continuation in Costa Rica of that research added to some gotten results will be presented in this work.

  8. Towards a Creative Synthesis of Participant Observation and Participatory Research: Reflections on Doing Research "with" and "on" Young Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to Wright and Nelson's (1995) call for a "creative synthesis" of participant observation and participatory research, which may allow the limitations of both methods to be addressed. It does so by reflecting on the experience of doing long-term research both with and on young Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Although participant…

  9. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Crouch Simon; Waters Elizabeth; McNair Ruth; Power Jennifer; Davis Elise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experi...

  10. Influence of structural features on portuguese toddler child care quality

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Pessanha; Cecília Aguiar; Joaquim Bairrão

    2007-01-01

    Whereas child care quality has been extensively studied in the U.S., there is much less information about the quality of child care in other countries.With one of the highest maternal employment rates in Europe, it is important to examine child care in Portugal. Thirty toddler classrooms in child care centers were observed. The purpose of this studywas to determine whether structural features account for overall toddler child care quality. Results showed younger and better-paid teach...

  11. Parent-child interactions: contributions to the development of social competence in preschoolers.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips-Hing, Christine Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Sixty families with their eldest child, aged 3 or 4 years, participated in this study of parent-child interactions and the development of social competency. Mother-child and father-child dyads were observed for 10 minutes each, completing either a gross motor or fine motor semi-structured laboratory construction task. Parental directiveness and scaffolding were coded and measures of child temperament, child receptive language, and child social competency in preschool were obtained. As expecte...

  12. Book review of J. Green & W. Yule (2000). Festschrift for Professor Sir Michael Rutter. Volume I. Research and Innovation on the Road to Modern child Psychiatry. London: Gaskell and the Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan.

    2001-01-01

    All of the papers in this Festschrift are clearly written authoritative reviews of the topics they address. Each may be read independently by readers wanting a quick overview of a particular problem. Collectively these essays underline the extraordinary contribution which Professor Sir Michael Rutter has made to the field of child and adolescent psychiatry over the last half a century. peer-reviewed

  13. Observing efl classrooms in primary or secondary schools: a research task in applied linguistics Observing efl classrooms in primary or secondary schools: a research task in applied linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Heberle

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, com base em princípios da gramática funcional de Halliday e de análise crítica do discurso, bem como minha experiência em Lingüística Aplicada, discuto questões relacionadas à observação de aulas de inglês como língua estrangeira. A análise (de cunho etnográfico surge de discussões nas minhas aulas de Lingüística Aplicada e de relatos de alunos sobre as aulas observadas. O estudo visa contribuir para uma conscientização da relevância de uma prática educacional que vai além de, por exemplo, mera listagem de pronomes pessoais com as formas do verbo to be, para uma discussão de tópicos que possam, de alguma forma, integrar perspectivas socioculturais na educação de professores de inglês como língua estrangeira. In this paper, based on principles of systemic-functional grammar and critical discourse analysis, as well as on my experience as a teacher of Applied Linguistics, I discuss issues related to the observation of EFL classes. The analysis (qualitative, ethnographically-based arises from discussions in my Applied Linguistics course and students’ reports on the classes they observed. The study aims at contributing to an awareness of the relevance of an educational practice that goes beyond the mere listing of personal pronouns with the corresponding forms of the verb to be, for instance, and suggests a discussion of topics which could somehow integrate sociocultural perspectives into EFL teacher education.

  14. Observing ben wyckoff: from basic research to programmed instruction and social issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rogelio; Lattal, Kennon A

    2011-01-01

    L. Benjamin Wyckoff's seminal contributions to both psychological theory and application are the subject of this review. Wyckoff started his academic career as a graduate student at Indiana University, where he developed the observing-response procedure under the guidance of B. F. Skinner and C. J. Burke. At the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wyckoff refined his mathematical theory of secondary reinforcement. This theory was the impetus for his creation of an electronic simulation of a rat running a T maze, one of the first "computer models" of learning. Wyckoff next went to Emory University, leaving there to help create two of the most successful companies dedicated to the advancement of programmed instruction and teaching machines: Teaching Machines, Inc. and the Human Development Institute. Wyckoff's involvement in these companies epitomizes the application of basic behavior-analytic principles in the development of technology to improve education and human relationships. The emergent picture of Wyckoff is that of a man who, through his research, professional work in educational applications of behavioral principles, and active involvement in the civil rights movement of the 1960s, was strongly committed to applying behavioral science to positively influence human behavior change.

  15. Overprotective parenting and child anxiety: the role of co-occurring child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Martina K; Villabø, Marianne A; Torgersen, Svenn; Kendall, Philip C

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between overprotective parenting and child anxiety has been examined repeatedly because theories emphasize its role in the maintenance of child anxiety. No study has yet tested whether this relationship is unique to child anxiety, by controlling for commonly co-occurring behavior problems within the same children. The current study examined 190 children (age 7-13, 118 [corrected] boys) referred to mental health clinics and their parents. Results revealed that significant correlations between overprotective parenting and child anxiety symptoms disappear after controlling for co-occurring child behavior symptoms. It appears that overprotection is not uniquely related to child anxiety. Furthermore, overprotective parenting was significantly and uniquely related to child behavior symptoms. Researchers and practitioners need to consider co-occurring child behavior problems when working with the parents of anxious children. PMID:22659077

  16. Rights of the Child in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Anne-Laurence; Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Senegal. Part 1 of the report, "Preliminary Observations," discusses Senegal's ratification of the Convention…

  17. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  18. Parent-Child Interactions and Obesity Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Aksan, Nazan; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity research has generally not examined multiple layers of parent-child relationships during weight-related activities such as feeding, eating and play. A literature review was conducted to locate empirical studies that measured parent-child interactions and child eating and child weight variables; five papers met the inclusion criteria…

  19. Long-term observation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in a child with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and a possible reactivation mechanism for thymidine kinase-negative HSV-1 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Tomoyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections in a child with congenital immunodeficiency syndrome were observed over a 10-year period. The child suffered from recurrent and severe HSV-1 mucocutaneous infections. He frequently suffered from acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) HSV-1 infection in the later phase of his life, especially after the episode of ACV(r) HSV-1 infection. Virological analyses on the HSV-1 isolates recovered from this patient revealed that all the ACV(r) HSV-1 isolates were thymidine kinase (TK)-negative (TK(-)) due to a single cytosine (C) deletion within the 4-C residues (positions 1061 to 1064) in the TK gene, indicating that the recurrent TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 infections throughout the patient's life were due to the identical ACV(r) HSV-1 strain. Furthermore, it was found that the ACV-sensitive (ACV(s)) isolate recovered from the skin lesions that appeared between the episodes of ACV(r) infection at the ages of 8 and 9 contained ACV(r) HSV-1 with the same mutation in the TK gene. These results indicate that, although TK activity is required for reactivation of TK(+)/ACV(s) HSV-1 from latency and TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 is unable to reactivate from latency, the TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 strain isolated herein reactivated in this patient, possibly by using the TK activity induced by the latently co-infected TK(+)/ACV(s) HSV-1.

  20. California's Child Care Crisis: A Crime Prevention Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian

    This report compiles recent research showing that quality child care and early education can greatly reduce crime and argues that California is in the middle of a child care crisis, with a shortage of quality, affordable care. Chapter 1 of the report presents research showing that at-risk children who participate in quality child care programs are…

  1. Parent-child interactive exploration and research of bicycle%亲子互动型儿童自行车的探索与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文婷; 秦笃印

    2013-01-01

    基于对儿童心理与需求的研究,对市场现有儿童自行车进行研究与改造。从心理学角度分析儿童在学习使用自行车的过程当中会产生的问题以及应该如何解决。并且对亲子互动如何在儿童自行车上进行设计体现的进行研究和探讨。%Based on the study of children's psychology and demand, existing children bicycle to the market research and reform. From the psychology Angle analysis of children in the process of learning to use a bicycle can produce problems and should be how to solve. And to the parent-child interaction design reflects on how to in children bicycle are studied and discussed.

  2. 舍曲林治疗儿童情绪障碍的临床观察%Clinical observation of sertraline in treatment of child emotional disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凤美; 贾美香

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解舍曲林在儿童情绪障碍治疗中的有效性、安全性、起效时间及有效剂量.方法 对147例应用舍曲林治疗的儿童情绪障碍患儿进行回顾性分析,项目包括有效率、舍曲林用量、起效时间及不良反应.结果 137例患儿遵医嘱定期复诊.治疗后2个月,有效率为80.3%(110/137),不良反应发生率为5.8%(8/137).舍曲林有效剂量为(47.9±19.0)mg/d,起效时间为(20.4±13.2)d;儿童强迫症舍曲林有效剂量[(58.7±26.2)mg/d)]显著高于抑郁障碍[(43.6±14.0)mg/d]、广泛性焦虑障碍[(44.4±10.6)mg/d]及恐怖性焦虑障碍[(43.5±15.5)mg/d](P值均<0.01);抑郁障碍起效时间[(14.0±6.1)d]较儿童强迫症[(26.6±16.3)d]、广泛性焦虑障碍[(22.3±13.9)d]和恐怖性焦虑障碍[(21.4±12.8)d]短(P值均<0.01).结论 舍曲林是治疗儿童情绪障碍的有效药物,起效时间在2~3周,不良反应轻,多数患儿能耐受.对抑郁障碍起效较快,对儿童强迫症有效剂量较大.%Objective To explore the efficacy, safety,time of drug taking effect and therapeutic dosage of sertraline in treatment of child emotional disorder. Method One hundred and forty-seven patientswith child emotional disorder were treated by sertraline and the efficacy rate, therapeutic dosage, the time of drug taking effect and adverse reaction was analyzed retrospectively. Results One hundred and thirty-seven patients were regular visited under supervision of a physician. Two months after treatment, the efficacy rate was 80.3%(110/137) and the rate of adverse reaction was 5.8%(8/137). The therapeutic dosage of sertraline was (47.9 + 19.0) mg/d. The time of drug taking effect was (20.4±13.2) d. The therapeutic dosage of sertraline in obsessive-compulsive disorder [(58.7±26.2) mg/d] was significantly higher than that in depression[(43.6±14.0) mg/d],anxiety disorder[(44.4±10.6) mg/d] and phobia[(43.5±15.5) mg/d](P < 0.01 ). The time of drug taking effect in depression[( 14.0±6

  3. Enhanced tropospheric BrO concentrations over the Antarctic sea ice belt in mid winter observed from MAX-DOAS observations on board the research vessel Polarstern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We present Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric BrO carried out on board the German research vessel Polarstern during the Antarctic winter 2006. Polarstern entered the area of first year sea ice around Antarctica on 24 June 2006 and stayed within this area until 15 August 2006. For the period when the ship cruised inside the first year sea ice belt, enhanced BrO concentrations were almost continuously observed. One interesting exception appeared on 7 July 2006, when the sun elevation angle was < about –2.8° indicating that for low insulation the photolysis of Br2 and/or HOBr is too slow to provide sufficient amounts of Br radicals. Before and after the period inside the first year sea ice belt, typically low BrO concentrations were observed. Our observations indicate that enhanced BrO concentrations around Antarctica exist about one month earlier than observed by satellite instruments. The small BrO concentrations over the open oceans indicate a short atmospheric lifetime of activated bromine without contact to areas of first year sea ice. From detailed radiative transfer simulations we find that MAX-DOAS observations are about one order of magnitude more sensitive to near-surface BrO than satellite observations. In contrast to satellite observations the MAX-DOAS sensitivity hardly decreases for large solar zenith angles and is almost independent from the ground albedo. Thus this technique is very well suited for observations in polar regions close to the solar terminator. Furthermore, combination of both techniques could yield additional information on the vertical distribution of BrO in the lower troposphere.

  4. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities

  5. Observing a Client's Grieving Process: Bringing Logical Positivism into Qualitative Grief Counselling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John; Gabriel, Lynne; James, Hazel

    2014-01-01

    This positional paper originates from our need as researcher/practitioners to establish a meaningful epistemological framework for research into bereaved people's journey through loss and grief over time. We describe how the field of grief research has a long and established biological basis, in keeping with a positivist epistemology.…

  6. 失独家庭精神关爱问题研究%Research on the Mental Care for the Family that Lost their Only Child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓兰; 巩文彧

    2014-01-01

    The family that lost their only child refers to the family where parents no longer raise or adopt children after their only child incurs the accident,disability or death. This problem has gradually become a focus of social attention. These families not only have to bear the loss of their children,but also worry about a series of practical problems like the disease and pension difficulties. What we learn through previous studies is that supporting these families simply from the material aspect is not enough because they need more mental care. Therefore,spiritual care and improvement of the spiritual and cultural life of the elderly is the key part of supporting these families. So,this paper chooses the mental care of these families as the research object,based on the careful understanding of the diffi-cult situation faced by them,this paper analyzes and explores ways and means of extending mental care to these families.%失独家庭,指的是独生子女发生意外伤残、死亡,其父母不再生育和收养子女的家庭。近年来,失独问题逐渐成为社会关注的一个焦点。失独群体除了要承受丧失儿女的孤苦,更要担心疾病和养老困难等一系列现实难题。通过以往的研究了解到,失独家庭的困难简单地从物质层面帮助是远远不够的。失独家庭对精神关怀、精神关爱的需求表现更为强烈。因此说,做好失独家庭的精神关爱工作和提高失独老人精神文化生活质量,是目前做好失独家庭帮扶工作的重点。基于此,选择失独家庭的精神关爱作为研究对象,并在认真了解失独家庭面临的困难现状后,分析和探究给予失独家庭精神关爱的方法和途径。

  7. Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD? Study underscores importance of good prenatal nutrition To ... during pregnancy could influence a child's risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study warns. Researchers found that ...

  8. Use TV to Improve Your Child's Reading Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Suggestions are provided for parents of ways in which they can use the television to encourage and improve their child's reading. Activities include: discussing television characters; watching television specials geared for the child's age; and researching favorite television stars. (CB)

  9. Reconciling parenting and smoking in the context of child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Johnson, Joy L; Chan, Anna

    2013-08-01

    In this article we explore the micro-social context of parental tobacco use in the first years of a child's life and early childhood. We conducted individual interviews with 28 mothers and fathers during the 4 years following the birth of their child. Using grounded theory methods, we identified the predominant explanatory concept in parents' accounts as the need to reconcile being a parent and smoking. Desires to become smoke-free coexisted with five types of parent-child interactions: (a) protecting the defenseless child, (b) concealing smoking and cigarettes from the mimicking child, (c) reinforcing smoking as bad with the communicative child, (d) making guilt-driven promises to the fearful child, and (e) relinquishing personal responsibility to the autonomous child. We examine the agency of the child in influencing parents' smoking practices, the importance of children's observational learning in the early years, and the reciprocal nature of parent-child interactions related to parents' smoking behavior. PMID:23774626

  10. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) defines ... person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime to ...

  11. My Child Is Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might do so anyway because they lack enough self-control . Preteens and teens know they're not supposed ... About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood Stress Nine Steps to ...

  12. A manifesto for critical narrative research and pedagogy for/with young children: Teacher and child as critical annalist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Loughlin Michael

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I pose the question of whether it might be possible to articulate a collaborative, critical narrative mode of research in which teachers and students come together using a critical and analytic epistemology to engage in adventurous pedagogy. This approach has echoes of Freire’s “teachers-as-students and students- -as-teachers,” but elaborates the Freirean metaphor to include conceptions of emotion, creativity, and incorporation of the latent historical subjectivities of teachers and students in the process. Contrary to the deadening, circumscribed epistemology of putatively “evidence-based” pedagogies, in which teachers and children are expected to check their cultural meaning-making capacities and their emotional investments at the door, this is a plea for a regenerative, engaged, local curriculum making process. As I note in the essay, “This is a strategy that cannot work in the service of utilitarian modes of education that are focused only on value (cf. Appiah, 2015. It can only work for forms of schooling that seek to foster values of receptivity, cultural respect, open-mindedness, and critical imaginaries. In these coldly utilitarian times we need to provide leadership to progressively minded teachers to allow them to develop, document, and disseminate such practices.”

  13. Observations on European Education and Educational Research: The "European Educational Research Journal" at Work, 2002-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Sverker

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of the "European Educational Research Journal" ("EERJ") since the start in 2002 and up to 2014. Three questions were put forward: what are the ambitions with the journal, how has the journal developed over time, and what are its possible futures? The review is based on minutes and emails from the late 1990s up…

  14. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency departments), a complete physical examination and the child check are discussed. Furthermore, the wellbeing of a family is assessed when a parent visits the emergency department due to intimate partner vi...

  15. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2002-01-01

    Child abuse is a terrible misfortune for millions of childeren and famillies, for communities and for society.Many specialists as social problems, notice child abuse. Psychologists, pychiatrist, social workers, consoulers, family therapists, general practitioners, lawers and other specialists try to plan strategies for solving and preventing this problem . Many research have been done in this area , especially many of them are interested to explre the relationship between child abuse and pa...

  16. Assessing the Impact of Influential Observations on Multiple Regression Analysis on Human Resource Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Reid A.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Burnett, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A case study of learning transfer demonstrates the possible effect of influential observation on linear regression analysis. A diagnostic method that tests for violation of assumptions, multicollinearity, and individual and multiple influential observations helps determine which observation to delete to eliminate bias. (SK)

  17. Research on Aerospace Cooperative Continuation Observation Strategy for Maritime Moving Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiangXingxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maritime moving targets continuation observation has important implications to maintain the safety of the navigation barrier. Existing methods either rely on satellite observations, or only rely on UAV observations. Even though the two cooperative observations, it confined to a simple task allocation. They did not solve the problem of maritime moving targets continuation observation. On the basis of difference between satellites observation and UAV observation, we constructed the aerospace collaborative continuation observation model for maritime moving target, and put forward aerospace collaborative continuation observation strategy (ACCOS to reduce the complexity of solving the model. According to the spatial and temporal characteristics of the task, ACCOS extracted five sub problems to solve the model: Satellite planning, UAV flight plan, UAV observation sequence, target potential area and distribution probability density prediction, UAV path planning. In order to realize the optimization goal of the model, the five sub problems are modelled and solved in turn. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed method can greatly reduce the average observation period of the target, and effectively solve the problem of the continuous observation of maritime moving target.

  18. Challenges in the Management and Stewardship of Airborne Observational Data at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, J.; Daniels, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) funding for the operation, maintenance and upgrade of two research aircraft: the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Gulfstream V and the NSF/NCAR Hercules C-130. A suite of in-situ and remote sensing airborne instruments housed at the EOL Research Aviation Facility (RAF) provide a basic set of measurements that are typically deployed on most airborne field campaigns. In addition, instruments to address more specific research requirements are provided by collaborating participants from universities, industry, NASA, NOAA or other agencies (referred to as Principal Investigator, or PI, instruments). At the 2014 AGU Fall Meeting, a poster (IN13B-3639) was presented outlining the components of Airborne Data Management included field phase data collection, formats, data archival and documentation, version control, storage practices, stewardship and obsolete data formats, and public data access. This talk will cover lessons learned, challenges associated with the above components, and current developments to address these challenges, including: tracking data workflows for aircraft instrumentation to facilitate identification, and correction, of gaps in these workflows; implementation of dataset versioning guidelines; and assignment of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to data and instrumentation to facilitate tracking data and facility use in publications.

  19. Influences of Disclosure Among Child Sexual Abuse Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Child forensic interviews are essential in eliciting disclosures in child abuse cases. Due to the nature of abuse and the child victims, barriers are inevitable to obtaining a full disclosure. This research describes the barriers as well as the factors that increase the likelihood of eliciting a disclosure during child forensic interviews. Previous research has found that factors more likely to induce a disclosure are having a supportive primary caregiver, an investigation which was instigate...

  20. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.;

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  1. Community violence as it affects child development: issues of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Durán, Lorena; Horn, John L

    2003-12-01

    The state of the art of definition of community violence as it relates to child development was examined in terms of the definitions used in 23 empirical studies. In all cases community violence was defined in terms of what were assumed to be measurements obtained as linear combinations of a priori numerical weighting of responses to questions--asked either of a child or of the parent of a child--about experiencing and/or witnessing and/or hearing about instances of violence. Thus, the definitions can be seen to represent the perspectives of 2 kinds of observers--the child or the child's parent--and 3 levels of closeness to violence--experiencing, witnessing, or hearing about violence. Combining these perspectives and levels, the following 8 different definitions could be seen to be used in the practice of 1 or more of the 23 empirical studies: Child Self-Report (perception) of either (1) experiencing, or (2) witnessing, or (3) experiencing and witnessing, and hearing about violence; or Parent Report (perception) of the Child (4) experiencing, or (5) witnessing, or (6) experiencing and witnessing and hearing about violence, or (7) = (1) + (4), or (8) = (3) + (6). In almost all the examples of research definitions it was assumed implicitly and without test of the assumption that different violent events were interchangeable, and usually it was assumed (again without test) that the magnitudes of different violence events were equal. Usually, an unstated theory of stress appeared to guide the measurement definition, but in one study definitions were developed and tested in terms of a clearly-stated theory of learning. It was concluded that definition of community violence is a measurement problem; that very likely it is multidimensional; that it could be more nearly solved if better attention were given to specifying it in terms of theory that can be put to test and by attending to basic assumptions and principles of measurement.

  2. The effect of maternal psychopathology on parent-child agreement of child anxiety symptoms: A hierarchical linear modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-05-01

    The current study examined the effects of maternal anxiety, worry, depression, child age and gender on mother and child reports of child anxiety using hierarchical linear modeling. Participants were 73 mother-child dyads with children between the ages of 7 and 10 years. Reports of child anxiety symptoms, including symptoms of specific disorders (e.g., social phobia) were obtained using concordant versions of the Screen for Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Children reported significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms relative to their mothers. Maternal worry and depression predicted for significantly lower levels of maternal-reported child anxiety and increasing discrepant reports. Maternal anxiety predicted for higher levels of maternal-reported child anxiety and decreasing discrepant reports. Maternal depression was associated with increased child-reported child anxiety symptoms. No significant effect of child age or gender was observed. Findings may inform inconsistencies in previous studies on reporter discrepancies. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  3. Some Observations on Research on the Benefits to Nations of Adopting IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Brown

    2013-01-01

    This paper has three aims: to summarise, briefly, key findings of research on the benefits of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS); to highlight some of the more challenging aspects of this research; and to identify opportunities for future research. In order to fulfil these aims, I address five related questions: What is the role of accounting standards in an economy? What reasons have been given by governments,their advisors, and their respective business communities ...

  4. ‘Mum never loved me.’ How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health through parent–child connectedness: A qualitative study in rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research in high income countries shows parent–child connectedness to be protective against undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes among young people. Little has been done to understand the nature of parent–child connectedness, the structural factors that impact on connectedness and parents’ understanding of how connectedness affects their children's sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. Ethnographic research involved 30 days of observation in 1...

  5. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  6. Transfer Paths of Research Results to the Practice: Observations From the Receiving End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findikakis, A. N.

    2005-12-01

    A non-scientific poll of fellow practicing professionals suggests that there is a range of opinions regarding the effectiveness of different ways of becoming acquainted with and using the results of academic research in their practice. Journal articles remain the dominant path for transferring research results to the profession, even though accessing them is becoming more difficult with time. Driven primarily by cost considerations personal and corporate subscriptions seem to be on the decline. Libraries are one of the first victims of cost cutting measures in the industry. Even though the availability of journal articles in electronic form facilitates their availability, their prices are prohibitive. This is especially true during when a professional is searching for a solution to a problem and may have to review several papers on the subject. One colleague suggested that the professional organizations and other publishers of research articles could learn from the experience of the music industry, by lowering the cost of downloading individual papers to something like a dollar per article, recovering thus their production costs through the increase in the volume of purchased articles. The posting on the internet of special reports and dissertations by research institutions is viewed as very useful by those working in practice. The distribution through the internet of reports by federal organizations conducting or sponsoring research, such as the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is greatly appreciated by the practicing professionals. The use of leading researchers as consultants provides a direct path for bringing research results to the practice, but it is limited to a small number of cases where bringing in a consultant can be justified. Short courses are viewed as an effective way of familiarizing professionals with the latest research findings on specific subjects. The notes distributed in such courses are considered

  7. The origins of a research community in the Majengo observational cohort study, Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavery James V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the 1980s the Majengo Observational Cohort Study (MOCS has examined sexually transmitted infections, in particular HIV/AIDS, in a cohort of sex workers in Majengo, an impoverished urban village in Nairobi, Kenya. The MOCS investigators have faced criticism since the women have remained in the sex trade for the duration of their participation in the study, prompting concerns about exploitation. Yet despite these concerns, the cohort has survived for almost 30 years. Methods In this retrospective qualitative case study, we examine the community engagement practices of the MOCS and explore the factors that account for its durability. Results Women in sex work in Kenya were a highly stigmatized and disfranchised community. As a result, there was no natural 'community' of sex workers either in Nairobi or in the Majengo village. The Majengo clinic aimed to reduce the barriers to health care the women experienced at the STC clinic by bringing the services closer to them and by providing a non-discriminatory environment. The women acknowledged the fact they had hoped their participation in the MOCS would have helped them find a path out of the sex trade. But our findings also add another dimension to this debate, since every cohort member we interviewed expressed her gratitude for the deep impact the MOCS has had on her life, much of it beyond the improved health status made possible by access to quality healthcare services. Participation in the MOCS has improved and enriched their lives. The CE activities have played a central role in creating a community that did not exist independently of the MOCS. Conclusions Our case study identified 3 distinct phases of community engagement in the MOCS: (1 reaching out: mobilization, dialogue and education; (2 foundations of trust through relationships of care; and (3 leveraging existing social capital to form a cohort community. The findings demonstrate the importance of some of the less

  8. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  9. Child Abuse, Child Protection, and Defensive "Touch" in PE Teaching and Sports Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean; Taylor, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This text introduces recently completed research on "no touch" sports coaching, by placing it in a broader social context which problematises the way child abuse and child protection (or safeguarding) are conceived and discussed in terms of policy and practice. It also provides a brief indicative summary of the research findings and…

  10. Not Babysitting: Work Stress and Well-Being for Family Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenblatt, Paula; Faulkner, Monica; Lee, Ahyoung; Doan, Linh Thy; Travis, Dnika

    2014-01-01

    Family child care providers contend with a number of work stressors related to the dual roles of operating a small business and providing child care in their home. Research has documented many sources of work related stress for family child care providers; however, research examining family child care providers' experiences outside of the…

  11. The Social Definition of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberger, Sharon D.; Tennen, Howard A.

    The lack of uniform definition of child abuse has caused researchers and practitioners to center debate on whether abuse should be defined according to the characteristics of the parental act or its consequences to the child. To examine how the situational context and the characteristics of the individual applying the label of abuse affect…

  12. JING Qicheng wins award for child development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Together with two US psychologists, Prof. JING Qicheng from the CAS Institute of Psychology (IP) has been honored with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Child Development in 2007 by the US-based Society for Research in Child Development(SRCD).

  13. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  14. The Effect of Marriage on Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.; Fagan, Patrick F.

    This report examines what share of the current level of child poverty in the United States can be attributed to the growth of single parenthood since the 1960s, focusing on what the child poverty rate would be today if single parent families had remained at the levels that existed before the beginning of the war on poverty. Researchers simulated…

  15. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M. Hoytema van Konijnenburg

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency departm

  16. Change Trajectories for Parent-Child Interaction Sequences during Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakman, Melissa; Chaffin, Mark; Funderburk, Beverly; Silovsky, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) has been found to reduce future child abuse reports among physically abusive parents. Reductions in observed negative parenting behaviors mediated this benefit. The current study examined session-by-session interaction sequences in order to identify when during treatment these changes occur and…

  17. Observations of Polar Dynamics in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere from the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A suite of instruments capable of observing phenomena in the polar mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been established at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) situated in the Canadian high Arctic at Eureka, Nunavut, Canada (80N, 86W). Observations with some instruments started in 2007 but the full suite started operation in 2008.Instruments located at this site include a meteor radar, a Rayleigh lidar, a Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI), an all sky airglo...

  18. Biological and Environmental Research: Climate and Environmental Sciences Division: U.S./European Workshop on Climate Change Challenges and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; McCord, Raymond [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sisterson, Doug [Argonne National Laboratory; Voyles, Jimmy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2012-11-08

    The workshop aimed to identify outstanding climate change science questions and the observational strategies for addressing them. The scientific focus was clouds, aerosols, and precipitation, and the required ground- and aerial-based observations. The workshop findings will be useful input for setting priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the participating European centers. This joint workshop was envisioned as the first step in enhancing the collaboration among these climate research activities needed to better serve the science community.

  19. Development of Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Fakunmoju

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reliability and validity analyses of the Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale (PCMS. The scale comprised 34 items that measure abusive behaviors related to emotional/psychological abuse (10 items, sexual abuse (6 items, child neglect (6 items, child labor (7 items, and physical abuse (5 items. Analysis was based on a convenience sample of 317 participants in Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation was used to determine construct validity of its five-factor structure (subscales. The overall internal consistency of the PCMS was .95; subscales of Emotional/Psychological Abuse (.93 and Sexual Abuse (.91 were high, whereas those of Child Neglect (.89, Child Labor (.86, and Physical Abuse (.84 were good. Cutoff scores were computed categorizing scores into low/weak, medium/moderate, and high/strong perceptions of child maltreatment. Strengths and limitations as well as practical applications and implications of the scale for research were discussed.

  20. Decision making in child protection practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    This research explores the decision making processes of individuals and groups engaged in child protection practice within social services departments in the UK. The emphasis of the research was to consider how the application of psychological theories and concepts might allow a descriptive and interpretative evaluation of decision processes in child protection practice. The research sought to elaborate upon much of previous social work literature in that it focused upon the pr...

  1. Continuity of Care, Caregiver-Child Interactions, and Toddler Social Competence and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Karen; Elicker, James; Choi, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Continuity of care is a recommended practice in child care intended to promote secure and supportive relationships between infants and toddlers and their caregivers. Toddlers (N = 115) between 12 and 24 months were observed in 30 continuity and 29 noncontinuity classrooms. The average duration of care for toddlers with…

  2. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  3. Conceptual Research of Lunar-based Earth Observation for Polar Glacier Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zhixing; Liu, Guang; Ding, Yixing

    2016-07-01

    The ice flow velocity of glaciers is important for estimating the polar ice sheet mass balance, and it is of great significance for studies into rising sea level under the background of global warming. However so far the long-term and global measurements of these macro-scale motion processes of the polar glaciers have hardly been achieved by Earth Observation (EO) technique from the ground, aircraft or satellites in space. This paper, facing the demand for space technology for large-scale global environmental change observation,especially the changes of polar glaciers, and proposes a new concept involving setting up sensors on the lunar surface and using the Moon as a platform for Earth observation, transmitting the data back to Earth. Lunar-based Earth observation, which enables the Earth's large-scale, continuous, long-term dynamic motions to be measured, is expected to provide a new solution to the problems mentioned above. According to the pattern and characteristics of polar glaciers motion, we will propose a comprehensive investigation of Lunar-based Earth observation with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Via theoretical modeling and experimental simulation inversion, intensive studies of Lunar-based Earth observation for the glacier motions in the polar regions will be implemented, including the InSAR basics theory, observation modes of InSAR and optimization methods of their key parameters. It will be of a great help to creatively expand the EO technique system from space. In addition, they will contribute to establishing the theoretical foundation for the realization of the global, long-term and continuous observation for the glacier motion phenomena in the Antarctic and the Arctic.

  4. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci, S. Erhan; Açık, Yasemin

    2003-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors.

  5. Toilet Training Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  6. Observing, studying, and managing for change-Proceedings of the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Nicolas; Patterson, Glenn; Parker, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    These proceedings contain the abstracts, manuscripts, and posters of presentations given at the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds-Observing, Studying, and Managing for Change, held at the Westmark Hotel in Fairbanks, Alaska, September 26-30, 2011. The conference was jointly hosted by the Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service.

  7. Varying Student Behaviours Observed in the Library Prompt the Need for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Melssen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if the behaviours of students studying in the library are primarily study or non-study related, the extent to which these behaviours occur simultaneously, what types of study and non-study behaviours are most common, and if the time of day or use of social media have an effect on those behaviours. Design – Observational study. Setting – Two university libraries in New York. Subjects – A total of 730 university students. Methods – Two librarians at 2 separate university libraries observed and recorded the behaviours of 730 students. Observations were conducted over the course of several weeks during the Fall of 2011 in the designated study or quiet areas, reference room, and at computer terminals of the libraries. Observations were made by walking past the students or by observing them from a corner of the room for between 3 to 10 seconds per student. Student activities were recorded using a coding chart. The librarians also collected data on the perceived age, gender, and ethnicity of the students and whether the students were using a computer at the time of observation. If students displayed more than one behaviour during a single observation, such as talking on the phone while searching the library’s online catalogue, the first behaviour observed or the behaviour that was perceived by the observer to be the dominant behaviour was coded behaviour 1.The second behaviour was coded behaviour 2. Main Results – The behaviours of 730 students were observed and recorded. Two librarians at separate universities were responsible for data collection. Kappa statistical analysis was performed and inter-rater reliability was determined to be in agreement. Data was analyzed quantitatively using SPSS software. Over 90% of students observed were perceived to be under 25 years of age and 56% were women. The majority were perceived to be white (62%. Of the 730 observations, 59% (430 were study related and 37% (300 were non

  8. Research on the stability, controllability and observability for fractional order LTI systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen-bin; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2006-01-01

    The state space representations of fractional order linear time-invariant (LTI ) systems are introduced, and their solution formulas are deduced by means of Laplace transform. The stability condition of fractional order LTI systems is given, and its proof is deduced by means of using linear non-singularity transform and the derivative property of Mittag-Leffler function. The controllability condition of fractional order LTI systems is given, and its proof is deduced by means of using its characteristic polynomial and the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. The observability condition of fractional order LTI systems is given, and its proof is deduced by means of their solution formulas. Finally an example is given to prove the correctness of the stability, controllability, and observability conditions mentioned above. s are deduced by means of Laplace transform. Their stability, controllability and observability conditions are given as well as their proofs.

  9. Collaborative Research. Separating Forced and Unforced Decadal Predictability in Models and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DelSole, Timothy [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The purpose of the proposed research was to identify unforced predictable components on decadal time scales, distinguish these components from forced predictable components, and to assess the reliability of model predictions of these components. The question of whether anthropogenic forcing changes decadal predictability, or gives rise to new forms of decadal predictability, also will be

  10. Calibration and Quality Assurance of Flux Observations from a Small Research Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, O.S.; Dobosy, R.J.; Dumas, E.J.; Beniamino, G.; Elbers, J.A.; Hutjes, R.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Small environmental research aircraft (ERA) are becoming more common for detailed studies of air–surface interactions. The Sky Arrow 650 ERA, used by multiple groups, is designed to minimize the complexity of high-precision airborne turbulent wind measurement. Its relative wind probe, of a nine-port

  11. Researches of real observation geometry in monitoring fuel-containing materials' subcriticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of fuel-containing materials monitoring is discussed in the part related to the feasibilities of researches and realization of optimal geometry (detectors - source) of survey of neutron activity dynamics in nuclearly hazardous areas with clusters of fuel-containing materials concentrated in the premises 305/2

  12. Addressing Informatics Barriers to Conducting Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Comparative Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christopher P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The U.S. health care system has been under immense scrutiny for ever-increasing costs and poor health outcomes for its patients. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has emerged as a generally accepted practice by providers, policy makers, and scientists as an approach to identify the most clinical- and cost-effective interventions…

  13. Researching Real-World Web Use with Roxy: Collecting Observational Web Data with Informed Consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Menchen-Trevino (Ericka); C. Karr (Chris)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOutside of a laboratory environment, it has been difficult for researchers to collect both behavioral and self-reported Web use data from the same participants. To address this challenge, we created Roxy, which is software that collects real-world Web-use data with participants' informed

  14. Tell me! The right of the child to information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.Th.L. Koren

    1996-01-01

    Tell me! considers the child as a seeker, an information seeker, and researches the role information plays in the child's developmental process. Information on how to become a full-grown human being is essential. Which sources are important to the child? Tell me! examines the extent to which these i

  15. Attributing Responsibility for Child Maltreatment when Domestic Violence Is Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Miriam J.; Hartley, Carolyn Copps

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence how child welfare workers attribute responsibility for child maltreatment and child safety in cases involving domestic violence. Methods: The study used a factorial survey approach, combining elements of survey research with an experimental design. Case vignettes were…

  16. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  17. A research proposal on spectroscopy of gases and solids observed in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, F. P. J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Giver, L. P.; Goorvitch, D.

    1986-01-01

    It is well recognized and accepted that the interpretation and analysis of any type of remote planetary spectroscopic observation requires that basic molecular parameters be available. Furthermore, the newly developed capabilities of air, ground, and space borne spectrometers trained on bodies in the solar system are producing results which are extremely difficult to understand on the basis of available data. This is particularly true in the case of spectral features arising from gases and volatiles condensed as ices. With the objective to continue to extend the understanding of spectroscopic observations of solar system objects (including comets) , laboratory studies of both gas phase molecules and ices and dusts are proposed.

  18. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-01-01

    Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

  19. Spatio-temporal variability of the polar middle atmosphere. Insights from over 30 years of research satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahoz, W.A.; Orsolini, Y.J.; Manney, G.L.; Minschwaner, K.; Allen, D.R.; Errera, Q.; Jackson, D.R.; Lambert, A.; Lee, J.; Pumphrey, H.; Schwartz, M.; Wu, D.

    2012-07-01

    We discuss the insights that research satellite observations from the last 30 years have provided on the spatio-temporal variability of the polar middle atmosphere. Starting from the time of the NASA LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instruments, both launched in 1978, we show how these observations have augmented our knowledge of the polar middle atmosphere, in particular how information on ozone and tracers has augmented our knowledge of: (i) the spatial and temporal characteristics of the wintertime polar stratosphere and the summertime circulation; and (ii) the roles of chemistry and transport in determining the stratospheric ozone distribution. We address the increasing joint use of observations and models, in particular in data assimilation, in contributing to this understanding. Finally, we outline requirements to allow continuation of the wealth of information on the polar middle atmosphere provided by research satellites over the last 30 years.(Author)

  20. Approaches to Observation in Classroom Research: Macroscopic and Microscopic Views of L2 Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nina; Lyster, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development and organization of the Colt (Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching) observation scheme and Lyster and Ranta's (1997) error treatment model, instruments including predetermined categories to describe features of instructional input and interaction in second language classrooms. Concludes that the choice of…

  1. The Reporting of Observational Research Studies in Dermatology Journals A Literature-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langan, Sinead; Schmitt, Jochen; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Svensson, Ake; von Elm, Erik; Williams, Hywel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of reporting in observational studies in dermatology. Data Sources: Five dermatology journals-the Archives of Dermatology, the British Journal of Dermatology, the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, and Acta Derma

  2. Maternal and Child Health Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Programs & Initiatives Funding Opportunities Data, Research & Epidemiology About MCHB Maternal and Child Health Bureau  News & Announcements HHS Awards more than $742,000 to Health Centers in American Samoa and the Virgin Islands to Fight Zika (6/23/16) Approved on June 6, 2016 -- ...

  3. Understanding Child Rights in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Imandeep Kaur; Singh, Nandita Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This article traces the status of child rights in India, with special attention to traditional beliefs that have shaped and sustain gender discrimination. The article examines the possibilities and limitations of the newly implemented Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009 for operating as an equalizing…

  4. Instrumented Collective Learning Situations (ICLS): the Gap between Theoretical Research and Observed Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Christine; George, Sebastien

    2007-01-01

    According to socio-constructivism approach, collective situations are promoted to favor learning in classroom, at a distance or in a blended educational context. So, many Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are provided to teachers but there are no clear studies about the way they are used and perceived. Our research is based on the hypothesis that practices of educational actors (instructional designers and tutors) are far away from theoretical results of research in education technologies. In this paper, we consider a precise kind of situation: Instrumented Collective Learning Situations (ICLS). By a survey on 13 fields in higher education in France, Switzerland and Canada, we present how ICLS are designed and how teachers used them. Conclusions give an indication on the gap between the way information technologies are prescribed and the way they are actually used and perceived by teachers.

  5. Boy-lovers and their influence on boys: distorted research and anecdotal observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brongersma, E

    1990-01-01

    A wide experience with boy-lovers has convinced the author that one can often learn more about them from reading some excellent novels than from so-called scientific studies. All too often research is unreliable because (1) it assumes pedosexual activity is a positive indicator of pedophilia; (2) no distinction is drawn between pseudo-pedophiles and real pedophiles; (3) no difference is recognized between boys and girls as partners; and (4) it is highly distorted by bias. Representative samples for research cannot be drawn from members of boy-love organizations. The incidence of violence is very low in pedophile contacts with boys. The influence can be strong in lasting relationships; it can be either wholesome or unwholesome. Within a relationship, sex is usually only a secondary element, although it can be important in sexual instruction and education. The impact of the law, the hostility of parents and the problem of the partners' inequality are discussed. PMID:2086629

  6. Boy-lovers and their influence on boys: distorted research and anecdotal observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brongersma, E

    1990-01-01

    A wide experience with boy-lovers has convinced the author that one can often learn more about them from reading some excellent novels than from so-called scientific studies. All too often research is unreliable because (1) it assumes pedosexual activity is a positive indicator of pedophilia; (2) no distinction is drawn between pseudo-pedophiles and real pedophiles; (3) no difference is recognized between boys and girls as partners; and (4) it is highly distorted by bias. Representative samples for research cannot be drawn from members of boy-love organizations. The incidence of violence is very low in pedophile contacts with boys. The influence can be strong in lasting relationships; it can be either wholesome or unwholesome. Within a relationship, sex is usually only a secondary element, although it can be important in sexual instruction and education. The impact of the law, the hostility of parents and the problem of the partners' inequality are discussed.

  7. One hundred years of migraine research: major clinical and scientific observations from 1910 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Koehler, Peter J

    2011-05-01

    Pain research, and headache research in particular, during the 20th century, has generated an enormous volume of literature promulgating theories, questions, and temporary answers. This narrative review describes the most important events in the history of migraine research between 1910 and 2010. Based on the standard textbooks of headache: Wolff's Headache (1948 and 1963) and The Headaches (1993, 2000, and 2006) topics were selected for a historical review. Most notably these included: isolation and clinical introduction of ergotamine (1918); further establishment of vasodilation in migraine and the constrictive action of ergotamine (1938); identification of pain-sensitive structures in the head (1941); Lashley's description of spreading scotoma (1941); cortical spreading depression (CSD) of Leão (1944); serotonin and the introduction of methysergide (1959); spreading oligemia in migraine with aura (1981); oligemia in the wake of CSD in rats (1982); neurogenic inflammation theory of migraine (1987); a new headache classification (1988); the discovery of sumatriptan (1988); migraine and calcitonin gene-related peptide (1990); the brainstem "migraine generator" and PET studies (1995); migraine as a channelopathy, including research from the genetic perspective (1996); and finally, meningeal sensitization, central sensitization, and allodynia (1996). Pathophysiological ideas have evolved within a limited number of paradigms, notably the vascular, neurogenic, neurotransmitter, and genetic/molecular biological paradigm. The application of various new technologies played an important role within these paradigms, in particular neurosurgical techniques, EEG, methods to measure cerebral blood flow, PET imaging, clinical epidemiological, genetic, and molecular biological methods, the latter putting migraine (at least hemiplegic migraine) within a completely new classification of diseases.

  8. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B Pablo

    2015-11-10

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804-12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious-reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results. PMID:26504202

  9. Frequency and Perception of Mathematics Activities in Family Child Care and Parent-Child Routines

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy, Annette Kari

    1997-01-01

    The study examined the frequency of preschool mathematics activities at home and in the family child care setting. Provider perception and parent perception of the activities were also surveyed. Twenty-one family child care providers, 38 parents, and 42 preschool children participated in the study. Providers and parents participated in a telephone interview in which they completed either the Day Care Activities Checklist (DAC) or the Parent/Child Activities Checklist (PCAC). Research assistan...

  10. Predictors of Father-Child and Mother-Child Attachment in Two-Parent Families

    OpenAIRE

    Benware, Jared

    2013-01-01

    The attachment of a child and his or her caregiver is a bond that helps tie them together emotionally. The most important principle of attachment theory is the need of a child to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for healthy emotional and social development to occur. The majority of attachment research has focused primarily on mother-child attachment, minimizing fathers' contributions to attachment. The current study examined attachment of both mothers and fathers in ...

  11. Progress in developing an infant and child feeding index

    OpenAIRE

    Arimond, Mary; Ruel, Marie T.

    2002-01-01

    "Feeding practices are an important determinant of the nutritional status of infants and children. It is therefore useful to measure and describe infant and child feeding practices in a number of contexts. Such measurements could enable (1) international comparisons of the adequacy of infant and child feeding, (2) research linking infant and child feeding to determinants or outcomes, (3) advocacy regarding the importance of adequate infant and child feeding, and (4) monitoring and evaluation ...

  12. Awareness of child sex tourism among young Finnish travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon Nurmi, Sara Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis is written about one of the dark sides of tourism: child sex tourism. It is commisioned by a Finnish NGO, Reilun Matkailun Yhdistys and the aim was to conduct a research in order to find out about the awareness and attitudes of young Finnish travelers about child sex tourism. The theoretical framework consists of theory about child sex tourism and abot the much wider problem from which child sex tourism is origined: commercial sexual exploitation of children. Furth...

  13. Prevalence of Girl child sexual abuse in Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Assistant Professor Rama Pande; Prof. Shubhangi Gavhane

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse in one form or another, has existed in almost all societies throught the historyhowever, the recognition of child abuse as a social problem is at recent origin. The research on child sexual abuse in india has not received much attention this due to low reporting of cases of abused children. Sexual abuse is use of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult. It includes inappropriate touching, exposure to in indecency and pornography, being required to participate sexually...

  14. Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Child and Parent Distress during Venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated behavioral intervention to control child distress during invasive cancer treatment. Children (n=23) requiring physical restraint to complete venipuncture were alternately assigned to behavioral intervention or attention control condition. Observed child distress, parent-rated child distress, and parent ratings of own distress were…

  15. Boys, Girls, and "Two Cultures" of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Abby C.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in the quality of child care experienced by toddler boys and girls. Boys were more likely to be in lower-quality child care than girls, assessed with both setting-level measures and observations of caregiver-child interaction. A possible explanatory mechanism for the gender differences is suggested by evidence that…

  16. Varying Student Behaviours Observed in the Library Prompt the Need for Further Research

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Melssen

    2014-01-01

    Objective – To determine if the behaviours of students studying in the library are primarily study or non-study related, the extent to which these behaviours occur simultaneously, what types of study and non-study behaviours are most common, and if the time of day or use of social media have an effect on those behaviours. Design – Observational study. Setting – Two university libraries in New York. Subjects – A total of 730 university students. Methods – Two librarians at...

  17. Observing Ben Wyckoff: From Basic Research to Programmed Instruction and Social Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Rogelio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2011-01-01

    L. Benjamin Wyckoff's seminal contributions to both psychological theory and application are the subject of this review. Wyckoff started his academic career as a graduate student at Indiana University, where he developed the observing-response procedure under the guidance of B. F. Skinner and C. J. Burke. At the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Wyckoff refined his mathematical theory of secondary reinforcement. This theory was the impetus for his creation of an electronic simulation of a rat ...

  18. Annual Research Review: Categories versus Dimensions in the Classification and Conceptualisation of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders--Implications of Recent Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, David; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether child and adolescent mental disorders are best classified using dimensional or categorical approaches is a contentious one that has equally profound implications for clinical practice and scientific enquiry. Here, we explore this issue in the context of the forth coming publication of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 approaches to…

  19. Stillbirth Classification-Developing an International Consensus for Research Executive Summary of a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, Uma M.; Goldenberg, Robert; Silver, Robert; Smith, Gordon C. S.; Pauli, Richard M.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Gardosi, Jason; Pinar, Halit; Grafe, Marjorie; Kupferminc, Michael; Varli, Ingela Hulthen; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Fretts, Ruth C.; Willinger, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Stillbirth is a major obstetric complication, with 3.2 million stillbirths worldwide and 26,000 stillbirths in the United States every year. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development held a workshop from October 22-24, 2007, to review the pathophysiology of

  20. No Child Left with Crayons: The Imperative of Arts-Based Education and Research with Language "Minority" and Other Minoritized Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Sharon Verner; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa

    2013-01-01

    Since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, public discourse on "failing schools" as measured by high-stakes standardized tests has disproportionately affected students from minoritized communities (such as language, race, class, dis/ability), emphasizing climates of assessment at the expense of broader, more democratic, and…

  1. Self-Medication and the Only Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Ronald L.; Lerner, Steven E.

    1972-01-01

    Study results reveal certain personal conflicts predisposing the use of tranquilizers, related to the family structure unique to the only child. Further research is required to substantiate these findings and related causes. (Author)

  2. My Child Redeems My Broken Dreams: On Parents Transferring Their Unfulfilled Ambitions onto Their Child

    OpenAIRE

    Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Slagt, M.; Overbeek, G.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Bushman, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    From the early days of psychology, theorists have observed that parents sometimes transfer their own unfulfilled ambitions onto their child. We propose that parents are especially inclined to do so when they see their child as part of themselves, more so than as a separate individual. When parents see their child as part of themselves, their child’s achievements may easily come to function as a surrogate for parents’ own unfulfilled ambitions. In the present experiment, 73 parents (89% women,...

  3. My child redeems my broken dreams: on parents transferring their unfulfilled ambitions onto their child

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Brummelman; Sander Thomaes; Meike Slagt; Geertjan Overbeek; Bram Orobio de Castro; Bushman, Brad J.

    2013-01-01

    From the early days of psychology, theorists have observed that parents sometimes transfer their own unfulfilled ambitions onto their child. We propose that parents are especially inclined to do so when they see their child as part of themselves, more so than as a separate individual. When parents see their child as part of themselves, their child’s achievements may easily come to function as a surrogate for parents’ own unfulfilled ambitions. In the present experiment, 73 parents (89% women,...

  4. Particulate matter pollution research in the Yangtze River Delta: Observations, processes, modeling and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian Zhen; Cao, Junji; Hu, Min; Kan, Haidong; Fu, Tzung-May

    2015-12-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) covers an area of 110,915 square km, including seven cities of northern Zhejiang Province, the Shanghai municipality and eight cities of southern Jiangsu Province. It is home to ∼110 million people and its GDP accounts for 17.4% of the whole China Economy (Hong Kong Trade Development Council Research, 2013). The YRD economy is greatly driven by heavy industries such as machinery, chemicals and automobile manufacturing. It is also a large producer of agricultural products, including wheat, rice, and corn. Its transport infrastructure is highly developed, with the number of vehicles per km2 higher than that in the developed countries. Two out of the ten top ports in China (Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan ports) are located in the YRD. As a fast-developing and an important economic powerhouse of the Chinese Mainland, worsening of air quality and increasing pollution episodes in this region has led to heightened public health concerns and intensified research.

  5. Understanding and Avoiding Immortal-Time Bias in Gastrointestinal Observational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targownik, Laura E; Suissa, Samy

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacoepidemiologic analyses, in which observational data is interrogated to evaluate relationships between patterns of drug use and both beneficial and adverse outcomes, are being increasingly used in the study of inflammatory bowel disease. However, the results of many of these analyses may be corrupted by the presence of immortal person-time bias, an analytic error which can result in an overestimation of the benefits of medical therapy. In this report, we will describe immortal person-time bias, explain the mechanism through which it confers a false benefit, and guide the reader in how to identify this source of bias in the medical literature.

  6. IASOA circumpolar observations in service for research of atmospheric transports into and out of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihma, Timo; Uttal, Taneil; Walden, Von; Cox, Christopher; Starkweather, Sandy; Makshtas, Alexander; Key, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    The International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) is an International Polar Year legacy consortium that focuses on coordinating measurements of the Arctic atmosphere collected at ten observatories in the U.S., Canada, Russia, Norway, Finland, and Greenland. The IASOA data portal and collaboratory process support thematic expert groups that work towards common goals for utilizing interoperable data products across the observatories. In addition to detailed surface observations and upper-air radiosonde program, some of the IASOA observatories collect information on the vertical profiles of moisture, cloud boundaries, cloud water/ice contents, and aerosols using radars, lidars ceilometers and radiometers. Collectively the IASOA network provides a unique source of information that can be utilized in order to provide the best possible empirical estimates of the horizontal atmospheric transports of momentum, heat, moisture, cloud water, cloud ice, and aerosols into and out of the Arctic Ocean region. These can be used in turn to support the evaluation of atmospheric reanalyses, weather and climate models, and satellite remote sensing products, and subsequently studies on the interaction between the Arctic and lower latitudes including the role of mid- and low-latitude forcing on the Arctic amplification of climate warming and the effects of Arctic changes on mid-latitude weather and climate. In addition, the IASOA data are valuable for the evaluation of gridded products (reanalyses, models, and satellite data) with respect to Earth surface variables, such as snow depth, soil moisture, surface temperature, radiative fluxes, albedo, as well as turbulent fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, CO2, and CH4. Evaluation of surface fluxes is a vital to complement the evaluation of horizontal transports. These together will yield a comprehensive assessment of the quality of available gridded products in representing atmospheric budgets of heat, moisture

  7. Morphological research on radio loud AGN 4C39.25 using KaVA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyemin; Sohn, Bong Won; Yi, Sukyoung; KaVA AGN WG members

    2016-01-01

    4C39.25 (0923+392) is a distant radio loud AGN placed at redshift 0.695. Its kilo-parsec scale jet observed by VLBA(Kollgaard et al. 1990) and parsec scale jet observed by VLBA(Kellermann et al. 1998) are misaligned. This might indicate episodic-jet activity which recently turned on. This object currently shows two stationary compact parsec-scale components:a bright jet component on the east and less luminous core on the west. Also, it is known that there have been superluminal jet components which are flowing from the core toward east, and then merging with the bright jet component (Marscher et al. 1991, Alberdi et al. 2000, Lister et al. 2013). Including the detection of broad emission lines(SDSS), its viewing angle was concluded to be small. However, the jet component being more luminous than the core is abnormal for a source with a small viewing angle. Furthermore, it has young radio galaxy-like properties such as non-variation in total flux(Alberdi et al. 1997, 2000, MOJAVE database) and a high frequency peak in the spectral energy distribution(Orienti et al 2007). In this case, it is more reliable to think that viewing angle of 4C39.25 is large. Korean VLBI Network (KVN) and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astronomy (VERA) Array (KaVA) is a cooperated VLBI system of Korea and Japan which provides high-frequency (23GHz and 43GHz) and high spatial resolution(1.2mas and 0.6mas). Their advantages of multi-wavelength and relatively high S/N ratio relative to its number of baseline allow us to discover the central region and dim structures of 4C39.25. We present results of several epochs observed during 2013 to 2014, focusing on morphological changes of 4C39.25 using KaVA images. According to these results, we were able to find a recently emitted counter-jet component for images of first 6 epochs. Also the counter-jet component propagates along a curved trajectory, and it shows an extreme superluminal motion. This might indicate a necessity of relatively large viewing

  8. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  9. Observation on Nursing Effect of Health Care Education in Child Health Clinics%健康教育在儿童保健门诊中的护理效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of health education and nursing in children health care in the outpatient service. Methods From December 2012 to December 2013,240 children admitted to our hospital were chosen for research object,and randomly divided into experimental group and control group,the control group was given conventional nursing,the experimental group was given child care health education,comparative analysed two groups of children with anxiety,uncertainty and nursing satisfaction. Results In the experimental group,parents in the degree of anxiety,uncertainty were lower than that of the control group,and better than the control group on nursing satisfaction,P<0.05,with significant difference. Conclusion Health education has a good effect in the child health clinic nursing.%目的:探讨健康教育在儿童保健门诊中的护理效果及方法。方法以2012年12月~2013年12月本院儿童保健门诊收治的240例患儿为研究对象,将其随机分为实验组和对照组,对照组给予常规护理,实验组在此基础上加强儿童保健健康教育,对比分析两组患儿家长的焦虑程度、不确定感及护理满意度。结果实验组患儿家长在焦虑程度、不确定感上均低于对照组,且在护理满意度上优于对照组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论健康教育在儿童保健门诊护理中有着良好效果。

  10. Research of Compound Control for DC Motor System Based on Global Sliding Mode Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of modeling errors, parameter variations, and load moment disturbances in DC motor control system, one global sliding mode disturbance observer (GSMDO is proposed based on the global sliding mode (GSM control theory. The output of GSMDO is used as the disturbance compensation in control system, which can improve the robust performance of DC motor control system. Based on the designed GSMDO in inner loop, one compound controller, composed of a feedback controller and a feedforward controller, is proposed in order to realize the position tracking of DC motor system. The gains of feedback controller are obtained by means of linear quadratic regulator (LQR optimal control theory. Simulation results present that the proposed control scheme possesses better tracking properties and stronger robustness against modeling errors, parameter variations, and friction moment disturbances. Moreover, its structure is simple; therefore it is easy to be implemented in engineering.

  11. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction. PMID:24345325

  12. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction.

  13. Does the gender of parent or child matter in child maltreatment in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Naixue; Xue, Jia; Connolly, Cynthia A; Liu, Jianghong

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem worldwide, and China is no exception. However, the pattern of child maltreatment remains unknown, including whether the gender of children and their parents has an impact on the occurrence of maltreatment. This study aims at examining the rates and frequency of child maltreatment, including physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect perpetrated by mothers and fathers. We also test whether the interaction between parents' gender and their child's gender affects the occurrence of child maltreatment in China. 997 children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study participated in the present study and reported their maltreatment experience perpetrated by their mothers and fathers using the questionnaire, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC_CA). Generalized linear model analyses show that boys were more likely than girls to report physical abuse, and, in particular, boys were more likely than girls to be physically abused by their fathers. On the other hand, mothers were more likely than fathers to exhibit psychological aggression and use corporal punishment for both boys and girls. There was no difference based on the child's or parent's gender in the occurrence of neglect. The findings present empirical evidence that enhances the understanding of the pattern of child maltreatment in China, provide implications for social workers and health professionals to identify children at risk of child maltreatment, and shed light on future research studies. PMID:26826981

  14. The Slogan of the Century: "Music for Every Child; Every Child for Music"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidingsfelder, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This article is a review of literature detailing the 1923 origin of the phrase "Music for Every Child; Every Child for Music" and tracing its use in music education periodicals through the next nine decades. By delving into the now century-old archives for "Music Educators Journal" to research the historic declaration of Karl…

  15. Parental Cognitive Impairment, Mental Health, and Child Outcomes in a Child Protection Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice; McConnell, David; Aunos, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Parents with cognitive impairments (CI) are overrepresented in child custody cases and their children are at risk for adverse outcomes. Ecological-transactional researchers propose that child outcomes are a function of the interaction of multiple distal, intermediate, and proximal risk and resilience factors. This study tested the fit of, and…

  16. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

  17. Observations on the radiochemical control of radiopharmaceuticals at tajoura nuclear research center (TNRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of radioisotopes for the radiopharmaceutical purposes is the main task of Tajoura nuclear center. During the analysis of the 131I- radioactive solution which was produced using the so-called dry method, the following has been observed : in order to reduce the cost and the time of analytical cycle or time used for the radiochemical purity (RCP), a spot test has been used to indicate the position of the radioactivity in the chromatogram rather than using autoradiographing or the x-ray films. This method was based on the reaction between I2 and starch to give a blue color at different Rf values I2 is liberated by I- oxidation (H2O2) or by IO-3 reaction with SCN- in the presence of HCl. A simple and fast test for the estimation of the content in the radioactive sample has been elaborated.This method was based on the reduction of Te (IV) or (VI) to Te metal using SnCI2 in a alkaline media. The detection limit of the elaborated method was found to be 131 I- buffer solution, and 16.0 m S for Na CI saline solution were obtained

  18. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Shearman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

  19. It should not hurt to be a child: prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe

    OpenAIRE

    Stoltenborgh, Marije

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we describe, combine and compare results of a series of meta-analyses on the prevalence of child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and of physical and emotional neglect, including 244 publications and 577 prevalence rates for the various types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment research seems to be dominated by research on sexual abuse, by studies in developed parts of the world, and by research using self-report measures. The overall estimated prevalence rates for self-re...

  20. Statistical research on the motion properties of the magnetotail current sheet:Cluster observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.REME; E.LUCEK

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the flapping motion of the earth’s magnetotail current sheet is one of the most important problems in the magnetotail dynamics.Using Cluster data,we make a statistical research on the motion properties of the magnetotail current sheet of 2001 and 2003.We calculate the velocities of the magnetotail current sheet using new methods and obtain the distribution of the magnetotail current sheet velocities in the X-Y plane in GSE coordinate system.Our results show that although most of the current sheets were propagating toward the tail flanks and those of the exceptions lay in dusk side,which is consistent with previous studies,the proportions of the current sheet which were propagating toward midnight (where |YGSE|=0) were higher than those in previous studies.Motions of the current sheet in the middle area (|YGSE|<8 Re) of the magnetotail are investigated.Relatively high value of the Z component of the velocity further confirms that the middle area of the magnetotail might be a source region for the motion of the current sheets which were propagating towards the tail flanks.According to our case studies,the way the current sheets propagated toward midnight area differs significantly from that toward dusk and dawn side,from which we infer that there might be two different kinds of current sheet motions originated from different sources.The statistical results of this paper may give some clues for further studies on the origin of the flapping motion of the magnetotail current sheet.

  1. Maternal Overcontrol and Child Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Perceived Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affrunti, Nicholas W.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that maternal overcontrol is related to higher levels of child anxiety. It has been theorized, though not empirically tested, that maternal overcontrol decreases child perceived competence and mastery, which increases child anxiety. The present study investigated this theory using a sample of 89 mother-child dyads…

  2. Studies in Child Language and Multilingualism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 345.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Virginia, Ed.; White, Sheila J., Ed.

    This compilation contains the following research reports on child language: (1) "Nouns: Love 'Em or Leave 'Em" by Dianne Horgan; (2) "Logic in Early Child Language" by Roy D. Pea; and (3) "Theories of the Child's Acquisition of Syntax: A Look at Rare Events and at Necessary, Catalytic, and Irrelevant Components of Mother-Child Conversation" by…

  3. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Education October 4, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  4. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  5. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  6. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or working on a craft. Reward and praise self-control . For example, allow your little girl to use ... Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can I Stop My Child ...

  7. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  8. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  9. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  10. What makes a child a 'competent' child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, Amanda; Water, Tineke; Rasmussen, Shayne; Diesfeld, Kate

    2015-12-01

    Competence is a vital component of the informed consent process. The perceived level of a child's competence may influence their degree of participation in health decisions that affect them. It is the responsibility of the health professional to gauge a child's level of competence. Child competence, however, is not a static attribute that is linked to age. Rather, it is dynamic, changing in nature and dependent on a child's previous experiences, personal attributes, network of relationships around them and cultural and environmental context. Consequently, there is no single verified assessment tool to assist in the recognition of competence for New Zealand children. Adding to this complexity are the unclear interpretations of New Zealand health legislation and policy regarding whether or not a child can legally consent or refuse healthcare advice and treatment without the consent of a legal guardian. Under the Care of Children Act 2004 and the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights 1996, the Health and Disability Commissioner states "a child may consent themselves [to health treatment] if and when the child achieves sufficient understanding and maturity to understand fully what is proposed". This paper poses the question: What is 'competency' and how is this decided? For the purpose of this article, 'child' pertains to those under the age of 16 years. PMID:26913912

  11. The effect of enhanced public–private partnerships on Maternal, Newborn and child Health Services and outcomes in Nairobi–Kenya: the PAMANECH quasi-experimental research protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Ettarh, Remare; Ziraba, Abdhalah K.; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Kamande, Eva; Ngomi, Nicholas; Osindo, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rapid urbanisation in Kenya has resulted in growth of slums in urban centres, characterised by poverty, inadequate social services and poor health outcomes. The government's initiatives to improve access to quality healthcare for mothers and children are largely limited to public health facilities, which are few and/or inaccessible in underserved areas such as the slums. The ‘Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health’ (PAMANECH) project is being implemented in two Nairob...

  12. The purpose of this research is to find out whether there is an influence of leadership, internal communication, and work motivation to the Department of Women's Empowerment, Child Protection and Family Planning in Central Java either simultaneously or pa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Dwi Ardilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find out whether there is an influence of leadership, internal communication, and work motivation to the Department of Women's Empowerment, Child Protection and Family Planning in Central Java either simultaneously or partially. The population in this research are 87 employees in the Department of Women's Empowerment, Child Protection and Family Planning in Central Java. The research methods used in this study were interview, questionnaire and documentation. The analysis data used in this study were descriptive analysis percentage and multiple linear regression analysis with SPSS for Windows release 16. The results of the regression equation: Y = -0448 + 0.320X1 + 0.518X2 + 0.242X3 with Y (employee performance, X1 (leadership, X2 (internal communication, and X3 (work motivation. The results of this study that there is influence between leadership, internal communication and work motivation to employee performance was 51,4%. Partially, the influence of leadership (X1 on Y by 0.320 with a value by 10.63% partial relations at the significance level of 0.002, while the influence of internal communication (X2 to Y of 0.518 with 10.17% for partial relations at the significance level of 0.003, and the influence of work motivation (X3 to Y with values of 0.242 relations partially by 10.17% at the significance level of 0.003.

  13. Clinical research design technical points on child anorexia treated by new TCM drugs%中药新药治疗小儿厌食临床研究设计技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卉; 胡思源

    2012-01-01

    Through literature and practice search, the author puts forward ideas on new TCM drugs in the treatment of child anorexia clinical research, including test purpose and design, diagnosis and the standard of TCM syndromes, the choice of subjects, exit criteria, choice of control drugs, test process, effectiveness evaluation, safety indicators, combination therapy and quality control of test. New ideas of design and evaluation method on child anorexia clinical research , as well as new TCM drugs clinical research are provided for reference.%本文立足国内研究进展和实践经验,对中药新药治疗小儿厌食临床研究方案设计过程中的关键问题,从试验目的与总体设计、诊断标准、中医辨证标准、受试者的选择、对照药的选择、导入期、疗程及随访、有效性评价、安全性评价、合并用药、质量控制等各个方面,阐述了作者的认识,为中药新药治疗小儿厌食的临床研究设计提出了具体的思路,也为中药新药的临床研究设计与评价方法提供了借鉴.

  14. A naturalistic observation study of the links between parental depressive symptoms and preschoolers' behaviors in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has shown that parental depressive symptoms are linked to a number of negative child outcomes. However, the associations between parental depressive symptoms and actual child behaviors in everyday life remain largely unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the links between parental depressive symptoms and everyday child behaviors and emotional language use using a novel observational methodology, and to explore the potential moderating role of parent-child conflict. We tracked the behaviors and language use of 35 preschool-aged children for two 1-day periods separated by one year using a child version of the Electronically Activated Recorder, a digital voice recorder that records ambient sounds while participants go about their daily lives. Parental depressive symptoms were positively associated with multiple problem behaviors among children (i.e., crying, acting mad, watching TV) when measured both concurrently and prospectively, and with negative emotion word use prospectively. Further, the links between parental depressive symptoms and child crying were moderated by parents' perceptions of parent-child conflict. This study offers the first empirical evidence of direct links between parental depressive symptoms and child behaviors in daily life and presents a promising research tool for the study of everyday child behaviors.

  15. Economics of child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima, Ambreen

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation aims to explore the supply and demand side determinant of child labour at macro, meso and micro level. At macro level it explores the effect of globalization (defined as openness to trade and inflow of foreign direct investment) and credit market imperfections on child labour. At meso level it explores the effect of labour market conditions on child labour. As the above two levels of analysis are mainly concerned with the demand for child labour, the micro level analysis expl...

  16. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    S. Erhan Deveci; Yasemin Acik

    2003-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000): 396-405

  17. Causes of Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Erhan Deveci

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 396-405

  18. Accumulating Evidence for Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in the Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rae; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) and correlates of maltreatment outcomes were examined. Mothers (N = 150) had a history or were at high risk of maltreating their children. After 12 weeks and compared to waitlist, PCIT mothers were observed to have improved parent-child interactions and…

  19. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…

  20. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Hansen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT) derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (un)healthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1) child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2) child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents' major driving forces behind reducing children's consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents' provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.