WorldWideScience

Sample records for child observational research

  1. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  2. Research in child and adolescent telemental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kathleen M; Palmer, Nancy B; Geyer, John R

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade telepsychiatry, and more broadly telemental health (TMH), services with children and adolescents have been implemented with diverse populations in many geographic areas across the United States. The feasibility and acceptability of child and adolescent TMH have been well demonstrated, but little research exists on the efficacy and effectiveness of TMH in improving the mental health care and outcomes for underserved youth. This article summarizes the state of research in child and adolescent telemental health TMH and examines studies in other areas of telemedicine that may inspire and guide child and adolescent telepsychiatrists to collect data on the process and outcomes of their own work.

  3. Speech Handicapped - Research: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography, which is one of a series of over 50 similar selected bibliographies dealing with handicapped and gifted children, contains 100 references selected from Exceptional Child Education Abstracts pertaining to research with speech handicapped children. Bibliographic data, availability information, indexing and retrieval terms, and…

  4. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues.

  5. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  6. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for assessing parent and child behaviours in clinical trials*

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, CYNTHIA R.; BUTTER, ERIC M.; HANDEN, BENJAMIN L.; SUKHODOLSKY, DENIS G.; MULICK, JAMES; LECAVALIER, LUC; AMAN, MICHAEL G.; ARNOLD, L. EUGENE; SCAHILL, LAWRENCE; SWIEZY, NAOMI; SACCO, KELLEY; STIGLER, KIMBERLY A.; MCDOUGLE, CHRISTOPHER J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent–child behaviour before and after a structured parent training program for children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). We report on the use of this procedure in a pilot study of 12 participants with PDD. Results Inter-rater reliability across behaviours coded ranged from 75 to 100% agreement. Blindly scored observations of behaviour showed medium effect sizes for changes in inappropriate child behaviour. Analyses of baseline scores revealed a moderate positive correlation between inappropriate child behaviours as measured in all four SOAP conditions and parent ratings of child noncompliance (rs = .66, p .05). Conclusions As our treatment targeted compliance, these preliminary results suggest that the SOAP provides a valid measure of noncompliant behaviour in children with PDD and is sensitive to treatment effects on inappropriate child behaviours. PMID:19681003

  7. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  8. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2001 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancements in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  9. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.; Ehart, Bridget, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2003 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancement in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  10. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.; Tucker, Thelma, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2002 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancement in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  11. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  12. A Review of Practical Reasoning in Child and Youth Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the review is to investigate various relations between the concepts of competence and participation found within child and youth research with the aim of identifying differences in practical reasoning of the various kinds of child research. The search identified 260 articles, and an in-depth analysis of 39 articles was conducted,…

  13. A review of practical reasoning in child and youth research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse

    2016-01-01

    , and an in-depth analysis of 39 articles was conducted, elaborating the conceptual differences inherent in the different child research fields. Based on a philosophy of practice, the analysis identified 3 different causal connections between the concepts of competence and participation, indicating 3......The purpose of the review is to investigate various relations between the concepts of competence and participation found within child and youth research with the aim of identifying differences in practical reasoning of the various kinds of child research. The search identified 260 articles...... different ways of understanding means and ends in child research. The review thereby offers an understanding of how and why interdisciplinary problems sometimes occur in education and child care....

  14. Measuring parent-child mutuality: a review of current observational coding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamoto, Allyson; Rinaldi, Christina M

    2015-01-01

    Mutuality is defined as a smooth, back-and-forth positive interaction consisting of mutual enjoyment, cooperation, and responsiveness. The bidirectional nature of mutuality is an essential component to the parent-child relationship since a high quality parent-child mutual relationship is crucial to encouraging children's positive socialization and development (S. Lollis & L. Kuczynski, 1997; E.E. Maccoby, 2007). Several coding systems have been developed in recent years to assess this distinct and crucial aspect of the parent-child relationship. The present article reviews the following four mutuality coding schemes: the Parent-Child Interaction System (K. Deater-Deckard, M.V. Pylas, & S. Petrill, 1997), the Mutually Responsive Orientation Scale (N. Aksan, G. Kochanska, & M.R. Ortmann, 2006), the Caregiver-Child Affect, Responsiveness, and Engagement Scale (C.S. Tamis-LeMonda, P. Ahuja, B. Hannibal, J.D. Shannon, & M. Spellmann, 2002), and the Synchrony and Control Coding Scheme (J. Mize & G.S. Pettit, 1997). The review will focus on observational coding schemes available to researchers interested a central element of quality parent-child relationships in the early years.

  15. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

  16. Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…

  17. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  18. Foundations of Child Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  19. StaR Child Health: improving global standards for child health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, Martin; Needham, Allison C; Chan, Winnie W Y

    2013-11-01

    Standards for Research (StaR) in Child Health, founded in 2009, addresses the current scarcity of and deficiencies in pediatric clinical trials. StaR Child Health brings together leading international experts devoted to developing practical, evidence-based standards to enrich the reliability and relevance of pediatric clinical research. Through a systematic "knowledge to action" plan, StaR Child Health creates opportunities to improve the evidence base for child health across the world. To date, six standards have been published and four more are under development. It is now time to use these standards. Improving the design, conduct and reporting of pediatric clinical trials will ultimately advance the quality of health care provided to children across the globe.

  20. A Commentary on Parent-Child Cognitive Interaction Research: What Have we Learned From Two Decades of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Renee Harris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of family influences on preschool and school age cognitive development has received considerable empirical attention from cognitive developmental psychology researchers in the last few decades. As a result of the interest, investigators have focused their attention on developing coding/observational systems to capture the interactions occurring between mothers and their young children. This paper reviews a select body of research on parent child cognitive learning interactions with the goal of determining how the researchers have operationalized the behaviors that occur within learning interactions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the suggestions on next steps for conducting parent child cognitive learning interaction research in the future.

  1. A Commentary on Parent-Child Cognitive Learning Interaction Research: What Have We Learned from Two Decades of Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R; Almutairi, Seham

    2016-01-01

    The role of family influences on preschool and school age cognitive development has received considerable empirical attention from cognitive developmental psychology researchers in the last few decades. As a result of the interest, investigators have focused their attention on developing coding/observational systems to capture the interactions occurring between mothers and their young children. This paper reviews a select body of research on parent-child cognitive learning interactions with the goal of determining how the researchers have operationalized the behaviors that occur within learning interactions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the suggestions on next steps for conducting parent-child cognitive learning interaction research in the future.

  2. Clinical Research Methodology 2: Observational Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessler, Daniel I; Imrey, Peter B

    2015-10-01

    Case-control and cohort studies are invaluable research tools and provide the strongest feasible research designs for addressing some questions. Case-control studies usually involve retrospective data collection. Cohort studies can involve retrospective, ambidirectional, or prospective data collection. Observational studies are subject to errors attributable to selection bias, confounding, measurement bias, and reverse causation-in addition to errors of chance. Confounding can be statistically controlled to the extent that potential factors are known and accurately measured, but, in practice, bias and unknown confounders usually remain additional potential sources of error, often of unknown magnitude and clinical impact. Causality-the most clinically useful relation between exposure and outcome-can rarely be definitively determined from observational studies because intentional, controlled manipulations of exposures are not involved. In this article, we review several types of observational clinical research: case series, comparative case-control and cohort studies, and hybrid designs in which case-control analyses are performed on selected members of cohorts. We also discuss the analytic issues that arise when groups to be compared in an observational study, such as patients receiving different therapies, are not comparable in other respects.

  3. Increasing Research Capacity in Ontario Child Welfare Organizations: A Unique University-Child Welfare Agency Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocmé, Nico; Van Wert, Melissa; Budau, Krista; Ballantyne, Mary; Lwin, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the successes and challenges of a unique knowledge mobilization initiative that was funded through the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. This initiative focused on promoting knowledge mobilization by increasing the capacity of child welfare organizations in Ontario to conduct…

  4. Aurally Handicapped - Research: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    Eighty-nine references, including research reports, texts, journal articles, and other research-related literature, are included in the bibliography on research concerning aurally handicapped children (both the deaf and the hard of hearing). The bibliography, containing bibliographic data, availability information, indexing and retrieval terms,…

  5. Consideration of Career Time in Child Care Work: Observations on Child Care Work Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Beverly

    1977-01-01

    Comments on worker-selection process, cycle of involvement, and personal and professional concerns in child care work. Discusses intervention in the emotional fatigue cycle, young workers' development, administrative support, and promotion of commitment to child care work as a profession. (BF)

  6. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  7. [Bias in observational research: 'confounding'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2012-01-01

    Confounding is an important and common issue in observational (non-randomized) research on the effects of pharmaceuticals or exposure to etiologic factors (determinants). Confounding is present when a third factor, related to both the determinant and the outcome, distorts the causal relation between these two. There are different methods to control for confounding. The most commonly used are restriction, stratification, multivariable regression models, and propensity score methods. With these methods it is only possible to control for variables for which data is known: measured confounders. Research in the area of confounding is currently directed at the incorporation of external knowledge on unmeasured confounders, the evaluation of instrumental variables, and the impact of time-dependent confounding.

  8. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…

  9. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  10. Measures for Studying Poverty in Family and Child Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Deng, Shiying; Nair, Rajni L.; Lockhart Burrell, Ginger

    2005-01-01

    Most family scholars take the concept of poverty for granted. The variety of ways people have chosen to define and measure this concept, however, often makes it difficult to interpret or compare research results. We review and critique the ways that poverty has been measured in the family and child literatures as well as the measures that have…

  11. Administrative Data Linkage as a Tool for Child Maltreatment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Marni D.; Jutte, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    Linking administrative data records for the same individuals across services and over time offers a powerful, population-wide resource for child maltreatment research that can be used to identify risk and protective factors and to examine outcomes. Multistage de-identification processes have been developed to protect privacy and maintain…

  12. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  13. Longitudinal research in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, F C; Koot, H M

    1991-05-01

    An indispensable approach to the study of variations in individual development and of causal mechanisms and processes underlying the course of psychopathology is the longitudinal method. In this introductory review, the strengths and weaknesses of longitudinal research are discussed, and factors hampering progress in this field are outlined. The many advantages of this approach warrant continuing efforts to develop strategies that minimize its drawbacks.

  14. An Observational Approach to Testing Bi-Directional Parent-Child Interactions as Influential to Child Eating and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen; Dell'Aquila, Daniela; Aksan, Nazan; McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children has been on the rise globally for the past few decades. Previous research has centred mainly on self/parent-reported measures examining only uni-directional parental feeding styles and practices. Recent discussions in the literature have raised the importance of bi-directional parent-child interactions in influencing…

  15. Forensic medical evaluations of child maltreatment: a proposed research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Christian, Cindy W; Hymel, Kent; Kellogg, Nancy D

    2014-11-01

    Physicians play an important role in the forensic evaluation of suspected child abuse and neglect. There has been considerable progress in the medical field, helping distinguish findings related to maltreatment from other conditions or circumstances. Nevertheless, important questions remain. This article covers several of these questions and proposes a research agenda concerning five main topics: sexual abuse, neglect, fractures, abusive head trauma, and physicians work in interdisciplinary settings. The suggestions are hardly inclusive, but offer suggestions the authors think are priorities, and ones that research could reasonably address. By providing some background to gaps in our knowledge, this paper should be of interest to a broader audience than just medical professionals.

  16. Child development and genre preference: research for educational game design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, John L; Lucas, Kristen; Greenberg, Bradley S; Holmstrom, Amanda

    2013-05-01

    As the movement to capitalize on unique affordances of video games for learning continues to grow, relatively little research in that area has examined how formal features, such as genre and game mechanics, draw and hold children's attention. This study examines which genres children prefer and the reasons why children prefer those genres by reporting on a video game uses and gratifications survey of children of various ages (n=685). Results show distinct patterns of game use and preference tied to typical child developmental ecology at each age, indicating that genre preference varies by age and developmental context. Implications for game research and educational gaming are provided.

  17. What can be done about child labor ? - An overview of recent research and its implications for designing programs to reduce child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, Bjorne

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the research on child labor, and places the phenomenon in a broader development agenda. It explains the demand for, and supply of child labor, linking these factors to others, such as the supply of education. Then it looks into the private, and social costs of, and benefits from child labor. Against this background, strategies fore reducing child labor are debated.

  18. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  19. Transactions Between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence From a Prospective Adoption Study

    OpenAIRE

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Daniel S Shaw; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months predicted reduced levels of observed structured parenting (i.e., less directive parenting with fewer commands and requests) in adoptive mothers at age 27 ...

  20. Implementing a Modular Research-Supported Treatment in Child Welfare: Effects and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Brittany R.; Lee, Bethany R.; Kolivoski, Karen M.; Attman, Nicole P.; Lindsey, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Increasing rates of mental health needs in child welfare clients highlight the importance of training child welfare workers in effective mental health interventions. This pilot study evaluates the effects of training public child welfare workers and interns in modularized research-supported treatments (RSTs). Methods: We compared…

  1. Editorial: Bayesian benefits for child psychology and psychiatry researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-09-01

    For many scientists, performing statistical tests has become an almost automated routine. However, p-values are frequently used and interpreted incorrectly; and even when used appropriately, p-values tend to provide answers that do not match researchers' questions and hypotheses well. Bayesian statistics present an elegant and often more suitable alternative. The Bayesian approach has rarely been applied in child psychology and psychiatry research so far, but the development of user-friendly software packages and tutorials has placed it well within reach now. Because Bayesian analyses require a more refined definition of hypothesized probabilities of possible outcomes than the classical approach, going Bayesian may offer the additional benefit of sparkling the development and refinement of theoretical models in our field.

  2. Using observational methods in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jenny

    2015-07-08

    Observation is a research data-collection method used generally to capture the activities of participants as well as when and where things are happening in a given setting. It checks description of the phenomena against what the researcher perceives to be fact in a rich experiential context. The method's main strength is that it provides direct access to the social phenomena under consideration. It can be used quantitatively or qualitatively, depending on the research question. Challenges in using observation relate to adopting the role of participant or non-participant researcher as observer. This article discusses some of the complexities involved when nurse researchers seek to collect observational data on social processes in naturalistic settings using unstructured or structured observational methods in qualitative research methodology. A glossary of research terms is provided.

  3. Integrating science and ethics in child and adolescent psychiatry research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, B; Jensen, P S; Hoagwood, K

    1999-10-15

    Research to elucidate the biological bases of psychopathology in children and adolescents is needed to understand pathogenesis and to develop effective and safe treatment and preventive interventions. Because of the effect of development, data collected in adults are not always applicable to youth, and direct participation of children in research is necessary. Many medications are currently used in the community to treat children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric disorders without adequate data about their safety and efficacy. Conducting research in children requires attention to specific ethical and regulatory factors. In deciding whether minors can participate in a study with potential direct benefit to the research subjects, the most important variable to consider is the balance between risks and potential benefit, in the context of the severity of the child's condition and the available alternatives. Research with no potential benefit to the participants is guided by the concepts of minimal risk (which may apply more to normal children) and minor increase over minimal risk (perhaps more relevant to children affected by psychopathology). Recently conducted studies relevant to this issue are reviewed. Of paramount importance is the ratio of risk/scientific value of the proposed experiment. In fact, no research is justifiable, no matter how low the risk may be, unless the potential yield of the study is important and may help advance our understanding of normal functioning and mental illness.

  4. Cross-linguistic comparisons in child language research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Ruth A

    2014-07-01

    Major large-scale research projects in the early years of developmental psycholinguistics were English-based, yet even then numerous studies were available or under way in a range of different languages (Ferguson & Slobin, 1973). Since then, the field of cross-linguistic child language research has burgeoned in several directions. First, rich information is now available on the acquisition of dozens of languages from around the world in numerous language families, spearheaded by the five-volume series edited by Slobin (1985-1997) and complemented by in-depth examination of specific constructions - e.g. causative alternation, motion verbs, passive voice, subject elision, noun compounding - in various languages, culminating in an in-depth examination of the acquisition of ergativity in over a dozen languages (Bavin & Stoll, 2013). A second fruitful direction is the application of carefully comparable designs targeting a range of issues among children acquiring different languages, including: production of early lexico-grammatical constructions (Slobin, 1982), sentence processing comprehension (MacWhinney & Bates, 1989), expression of spatial relations (Bowerman, 2011), discourse construction of oral narratives based on short picture series (Hickmann, 2003) and longer storybooks (Berman & Slobin, 1994), and extended texts in different genres (Berman, 2008). Taken together, research motivated by the question of what is particular and what universal in child language highlights the marked, and early, impact of ambient language typology on processes of language acquisition. The challenge remains to operationalize such insights by means of psychologically sound and linguistically well-motivated measures for evaluating the interplay between the variables of developmental level, linguistic domain, and ambient language typology.

  5. Child and Family Development Research. OPRE Report 2014-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This catalog provides short descriptions of major Division of Child and Family Development (DCFD) projects from Fiscal Year 2014. Multiple projects are described in the areas of child care, Head Start/Early Head Start, child welfare promotion, and the recognition of cultural diversity. An additional section features projects that fall into more…

  6. Randomized Social Policy Experiments and Research on Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romich, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    Randomized social policy experiments (SPEs) are an important methodology for investigating topics in child development. This article provides a framework for understanding how evidence from SPEs can add to knowledge about child development. The use of SPEs for child development questions to date is summarized and lessons from the applied economics…

  7. COR V2: teaching observational research with multimedia courseware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasko, Dawn G; Kazmerski, Victoria A; Torgerson, Carla N

    2004-05-01

    Courseware for Observational Research (COR Version 2) is an interactive multimedia program designed to teach the foundation of the scientific method: systematic observation. COR uses digital video with interactive coding to teach basic concepts, such as creating precise operational definitions; using frequency, interval, and duration coding; developing sampling strategies; and analyzing and interpreting data. Through lessons, a case study, and laboratory exercises, it gradually scaffolds students from teacher-directed learning into self-directed learning. The newest addition to COR is a case study in which students work collaboratively, using their own observations to make recommendations about a child's disruptive behavior in an after-school program. Evaluations of the lessons showed that classes using COR received better grades on their field observations than did those using methods that are more traditional. Students' confidence and knowledge increased as they moved through each section of the program.

  8. A child sexual abuse research project: a brief endnote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice.

  9. Do maternal perceptions of child eating and feeding help to explain the disconnect between reported and observed feeding practices?: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi J; Skouteris, Helen; Hetherington, Marion M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Campbell, Karen J; Cox, Rachael

    2017-02-08

    Research demonstrates a mismatch between reported and observed maternal feeding practices. This mismatch may be explained by maternal cognitions, attitudes, and motivations relating to dyadic parent-child feeding interactions. These complex constructs may not be apparent during observations nor evidenced in self-report questionnaire. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to gain a more nuanced and contextualized understanding of (a) maternal perceptions of children's food intake control; (b) how parent-child mealtime interactions influence maternal feeding practices; and (c) ways in which mothers may promote healthy child eating and weight outcomes. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 23 mothers (M = 38.4 ± 3.7 years of age) of preschool-aged children (M = 3.8 ± 0.6 years of age, 19 were normal weight, 14 were girls), who had previously completed child feeding questionnaire and participated in two home-based mealtime observations, 12 months apart. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and themes extracted to create the database. Four major themes emerged: (a) Maternal confidence in children's ability to regulate food intake is variable; (b) Implementing strategies for nurturing healthy relationships with food beyond the dining table; (c) Fostering positive mealtime interactions is valued above the content of what children eat; and (d) Situation-specific practices and inconsistencies. Findings indicate that maternal feeding practices are shaped by both parent and child influences, and child feeding is mostly guided by controlling the family food environment, rather than by directly pressuring or restricting their child's eating. Results also highlighted the need for research to consider both parent and child influences on child feeding.

  10. A Call for Field-Relevant Research about Child Forensic Interviewing for Child Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Erna

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews some sensitivity versus specificity imbalances in forensic investigations of child sexual abuse. It then proposes the development or further testing of additional approaches for those children who do not respond to the current, single-interview National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) protocol. Although…

  11. Serial observations of chronic rotavirus infection in an immunodeficient child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, I; Kimura, T; Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Yamazaki, K; Seto, Y; Minekawa, Y; Funamoto, H

    1991-01-01

    Chronic rotavirus infection of an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was studied by virological examinations in association with long-term observation of his symptoms and immune status. During eleven months of hospitalization, the patient was suffering from incurable severe diarrhea with persisting excretion of rotaviruses detected by electron microscopy and the reversed-passive hemagglutination (R-PHA) test and had transient hepatitis symptom despite multiple administrations of human gammaglobulin and high calorie fluids. The detected viruses were morphologically recognized as rotavirus with double capsid structure. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (PAGE) analysis of their genomic RNAs showed the long electropherotype of group A virus with abnormal migration profiles changing considerably from the early to the late phase of illness: (1) The 11th segment became undetectable; (2) the molecular weight of the 6th segment slightly increased; (3) seven to fourteen extra segments appeared; and (4) PAGE patterns of viral genomic RNAs changed every three or four months. These findings suggest that chronic infection with rotavirus accompanied the generation of extra viral genomic segments and their unusual assortments in an immunodeficient host.

  12. Model observers in medical imaging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Park, Subok

    2013-10-04

    Model observers play an important role in the optimization and assessment of imaging devices. In this review paper, we first discuss the basic concepts of model observers, which include the mathematical foundations and psychophysical considerations in designing both optimal observers for optimizing imaging systems and anthropomorphic observers for modeling human observers. Second, we survey a few state-of-the-art computational techniques for estimating model observers and the principles of implementing these techniques. Finally, we review a few applications of model observers in medical imaging research.

  13. Research priorities for child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillis, Lauren; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner.......The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner....

  14. Transformative Role of Epigenetics in Child Development Research: Commentary on the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Lester, Conradt, and Marsit (2016) have assembled a set of articles that bring to readers of "Child Development" the scope and impact of the exponentially growing research on epigenetics and child development. This commentary aims to place this work in a broader context of theory and research by (a) providing a conceptual framework for…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  16. Observing purchase-related parent-child communication in retail environments: A developmental and socialization perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N= 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent–child comm

  17. Observing purchase-related parent-child communication in retail environments: a developmental and socialization perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N= 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent-child comm

  18. Observing Purchase-Related Parent-Child Communication in Retail Environments: A Developmental and Socialization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N = 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent-child communication (i.e., children's purchase influence…

  19. [Nobody wants to lose a child--nurses' observations of family reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, L J; Barroso, M G

    1997-01-01

    The presence of veterinary products in the houses without any minimum security procedures has led to a poisoning case for a one-year old child who developed a serious systemic reaction. This child was interned at a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit at a public hospital in Fortaleza, Ceara. This study aims at identifying the family reaction facing a poisoning of a child and analyzing these reactions, interpreting its social cultural context. It has been developed as an ethnographic study case, consisting of the exploration, decision and discovery phases. It has been observed through the results that the family recognizes the existence of risk factors in home environment but does not adopt any coherent preventive methods with this experience. We do believe that these occurrences reduction demand transforming educative actions which may lead the family to be conscious towards the problematic that concerns poisoning for children, occurred under their responsibility.

  20. Adult-Child Incest: A Review of Research and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Mey, Brenda J.; Neff, Ronald L.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the literature which addressses adult-child incest as a form of child abuse. Highlights incest as a class phenomenon; characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and the other parent; dynamics of the incest family; effects of incest on the victim; treating and preventing incest; and legal requirements regarding incest reporting. (Author)

  1. Observation of trichomonads infection in a child with periodontitis by direct microscopy at the dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Mathieu; Bonner, Mark; Vaysse, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    The pathogenicity of Trichomonas species is well documented. Although their exact involvement in gum disease is not fully understood, recent studies suggest a correlation between these protozoa and periodontitis. This case report details the first chair-side observation in Europe of an oral trichomonad infection in a child with periodontitis, by direct microscopy. The dramatic recovery of the patient, observed following administration of an anti-parasitic treatment, confirms the necessity of further investigation in this field.

  2. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed.

  3. [Qualitative research approaches in practical use in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, J; Gerwert, U

    1993-10-01

    Experimental study designs and quantitative analysis are dominating the methodology of child psychiatric research. Sometimes the "box of tools" consisting of standardized software packages for statistical analysis seems to lead to a regrettable uniformity in research strategies. Elaborated sociological research concepts in the tradition of Max Weber and the "Chicago school" could close the scientific gap between quantitative studies on large samples and simple case-reports. They are excellent instruments for generating hypothesis on relatively rare clinical problems or in new fields of child psychiatric research. Based on a review of the literature potential applications of qualitative methodology in child psychiatry will be discussed.

  4. Evaluation Research in Child Welfare: Improving Outcomes through University-Public Agency Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Ed.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy, Ed.

    While research shows that trained social workers were better prepared to produce more effective outcomes in child welfare than those with other degrees, only an estimated 3 to 28 percent of the public child welfare workforce comprised trained social workers. A social work effort to promote workforce development and to promote professional social…

  5. Understanding Child Maltreatment: Juvenile Delinquency. From Research to Effective Program, Practice, and Systemic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    This monograph details the growing body of research showing the connection between child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency. In 2000, nearly 879,000 children were victims of child abuse and neglect. Although juvenile crime has declined recently, the level of crime committed by youth remains high. This monograph describes an array of program,…

  6. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  7. Training Highly Qualified Health Research Personnel: The Pain in Child Health Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl L von Baeyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain in Child Health (PICH is a transdisciplinary, international research training consortium. PICH has been funded since 2002 as a Strategic Training Initiative in Health Research of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, with contributions from other funding partners and the founding participation of five Canadian universities. The goal of PICH has been to create a community of scholars in pediatric pain to improve child health outcomes.

  8. Culture and context in understanding child maltreatment: Contributions of intersectionality and neighborhood-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadan, Yochay; Spilsbury, James C; Korbin, Jill E

    2015-03-01

    In the early 1990s, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect commissioned a series of reviews that appeared as the edited volume, Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect (Melton & Barry, 1994). Using the 1994 review "Sociocultural Factors in Child Maltreatment" (Korbin, 1994) as a background, this article reconsiders culture and context in child maltreatment work. Since 1994, conditions promoting research and practice attention in this area include immigration-driven global increases in diverse, multicultural societies where different beliefs and practices meet (and clash); expanding purview of the human rights discourse to children; and the disproportionate and disparate representation of cultural, ethnic, and racial groups in child-welfare systems. Although research on child maltreatment has advanced in many ways over 20 years, the complexity of child maltreatment leaves many critical questions demanding further attention, culture and context among them. To help address these questions, we propose two approaches for future maltreatment research: intersectionality - the simultaneous examination of multiple identities (such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status) - as a framework for understanding the complexity of cultural factors; and neighborhood-based research as a means for understanding the context of child maltreatment from the perspective of an ecological framework.

  9. Judges' views of child sexual abuse: evaluating beliefs against research findings in a Finnish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Julia; Svanbäck, Jatta; Finnilä, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Beliefs impact our decision-making and different professionals have been shown to have beliefs about child sexual abuse (CSA) that do not coincide with scientific findings. In the present study, judges' beliefs regarding CSA were explored. Finnish judges (N = 104) answered a questionnaire about CSA related issues as well as questions regarding their professional experience of CSA cases. The judges held both correct and incorrect beliefs; while their CSA prevalence estimates were rather well in line with research findings, half of the participants estimated that no professionals use suggestive methods when interviewing children and more than 40% thought suggestive methods can be useful when trying to get a child to tell about real events. Judges correctly assumed symptoms cannot be used to assess a CSA case, however, the majority thought play observations were appropriate means for evaluating such suspicions. Experience seemed to lead to more confidence in their own expertise but not in an actual increase in knowledge, namely, judges thought themselves more expert when more experienced although their expertise as measured by the questionnaire did not improve. Overall, the judges had both correct and erroneous beliefs but while experience did not improve the situation, gaining information about CSA did. More research about the beliefs of judges and how such beliefs impact legal decision-making is needed.

  10. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patell, Hilla

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the goal of observation, preparation of the adult, the observer, is necessary. This preparation, says Hilla Patell, requires us to "have an appreciation of the significance of the child's spontaneous activities and a more thorough understanding of the child's needs." She discusses the growth of both the desire to…

  11. AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IN COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF CHILD ADOPTION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefora Marcela SANA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study’s purpose was the analysis of marketing communication tools used by nonprofit and public organizations in sustaining the social cause of child adoption, as part of child protection services. The conceptual framework of the study is based on marketing theory of promotional mix and communication techniques applicable to nonprofit and public institutions. Empirical analyses underlines the correspondence between the level of awareness regarding child adoption services, and communication channels different categories of publics are informed through. The statistical methodology that was used in the conducted research was the analysis of principal components, using the statistical program SPSS 21. Database sample is composed of direct beneficiaries: adoptive parents, friends of adopted parents, respondents who knew cases of adoptions, respondents who were informed through mass-media regarding child adoption and respondents who were not informed about child adoption.

  12. Earth Observation Research for GMES Initial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijma, Sybrand; Balzter, Heiko; Nicolas-Perea, Virginia

    2013-04-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: * Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). * Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centres and market leaders in the private sector. * Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. * Developing a collaborative training network, through the placement of researchers for short periods in other GIONET organizations. Reliable, thorough and up-to-date environmental information is essential for understanding climate change the impacts it has on people's lives and ways to adapt to them. The GIONET researchers are being trained to understand the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers have been placed in industry and universities across Europe, as

  13. Recruitment : A critique of contemporary research on child soldiering

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim-Kristiansen, Siri

    2015-01-01

    Child soldiering is the reality in several historic and contemporary conflicts, and there are numerous case studies and theories discussing the causes and consequences of this phenomenon. In this paper, I critique three of these theories through a comparison with descriptions of conflicts in Nepal, Nigeria, Sri Lanka and Uganda and statistical data from the World Bank Databank. I argue more studies need to be conducted, using a mixed methods framework, to grasp the phenomenon m...

  14. Development and reliability of an observation method to assess food intake of young children in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Sarah C; Benjamin, Sara E; Ward, Dianne S

    2007-04-01

    To our knowledge, a direct observation protocol for assessing dietary intake among young children in child care has not been published. This article reviews the development and testing of a diet observation system for child care facilities that occurred during a larger intervention trial. Development of this system was divided into five phases, done in conjunction with a larger intervention study; (a) protocol development, (b) training of field staff, (c) certification of field staff in a laboratory setting, (d) implementation in a child-care setting, and (e) certification of field staff in a child-care setting. During the certification phases, methods were used to assess the accuracy and reliability of all observers at estimating types and amounts of food and beverages commonly served in child care. Tests of agreement show strong agreement among five observers, as well as strong accuracy between the observers and 20 measured portions of foods and beverages with a mean intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.99. This structured observation system shows promise as a valid and reliable approach for assessing dietary intake of children in child care and makes a valuable contribution to the growing body of literature on the dietary assessment of young children.

  15. Setting priorities in global child health research investments: assessment of principles and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Gibson, Jennifer; Kapiriri, Lydia; Lansang, Mary Ann; Hyder, Adnan A; Lawn, Joy; Darmstadt, Gary L; Cousens, Simon; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y; Black, Maureen; Gardner, Julie Meeks; Webster, Jayne; Carneiro, Ilona; Chandramohan, Daniel; Kosek, Margaret; Lanata, Claudio F; Tomlinson, Mark; Chopra, Mickey; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Campbell, Harry; El Arifeen, Shams; Black, Robert E

    2007-10-01

    This article reviews theoretical and practical approaches for setting priorities in global child health research investments. It also provides an overview of previous attempts to develop appropriate tools and methodologies to define priorities in health research investments. A brief review of the most important theoretical concepts that should govern priority setting processes is undertaken, showing how different perspectives, such as medical, economical, legal, ethical, social, political, rational, philosophical, stakeholder driven, and others will necessarily conflict each other in determining priorities. We specially address present research agenda in global child health today and how it relates to United Nation's (UN) Millennium Development Goal 4, which is to reduce child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. The outcomes of these former approaches are evaluated and their benefits and shortcomings presented. The case for a new methodology for setting priorities in health research investments is presented, as proposed by Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative, and a need for its implementation in global child health is outlined. A transdisciplinary approach is needed to address all the perspectives from which investments into health research can be seen as priorities. This prioritization requires a process that is transparent, systematic, and that would take into account many perspectives and build on advantages of previous approaches.

  16. Parenting and the Family Check-Up: Changes in Observed Parent-Child Interaction Following Early Childhood Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Gill, Anne; Dishion, Thomas; Winter, Charlotte; Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Coercion theory posits a cyclical relationship between harsh and coercive parent-child interactions and problem behavior beginning in early childhood. As coercive interactions have been theorized and found to facilitate the development and growth of early conduct problems, early interventions often target parenting to prevent or reduce early disruptive problem behavior. This study utilizes direct observations of parent-child interactions from the Early Steps Multisite study (N = 731; 369 boys) to examine the effect of the Family Check-Up, a family-centered intervention program, on measures of parent-child positive engagement and coercion from age 2 through 5, as well as on childhood problem behavior at age 5. Results indicate that high levels of parent-child positive engagement were associated with less parent-child coercion the following year, but dyadic coercion was unrelated to future levels of positive engagement. In addition, families assigned to the Family Check-Up showed increased levels of positive engagement at ages 3 and 5, and the association between positive engagement at age 3 and child problem behavior at age 5 was mediated by reductions in parent-child coercion at age 4. These findings provide longitudinal confirmation that increasing positive engagement in parent-child interaction can reduce the likelihood of coercive family dynamics in early childhood and growth in problem behavior.

  17. Differential genetic susceptibility to child risk at birth in predicting observed maternal behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Fortuna

    Full Text Available This study examined parenting as a function of child medical risks at birth and parental genotype (dopamine D4 receptor; DRD4. Our hypothesis was that the relation between child risks and later maternal sensitivity would depend on the presence/absence of a genetic variant in the mothers, thus revealing a gene by environment interaction (GXE. Risk at birth was defined by combining risk indices of children's gestational age at birth, birth weight, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The DRD4-III 7-repeat allele was chosen as a relevant genotype as it was recently shown to moderate the effect of environmental stress on parental sensitivity. Mothers of 104 twin pairs provided DNA samples and were observed with their children in a laboratory play session when the children were 3.5 years old. Results indicate that higher levels of risk at birth were associated with less sensitive parenting only among mothers carrying the 7-repeat allele, but not among mothers carrying shorter alleles. Moreover, mothers who are carriers of the 7-repeat allele and whose children scored low on the risk index were observed to have the highest levels of sensitivity. These findings provide evidence for the interactive effects of genes and environment (in this study, children born at higher risk on parenting, and are consistent with a genetic differential susceptibility model of parenting by demonstrating that some parents are inherently more susceptible to environmental influences, both good and bad, than are others.

  18. Systematically Identifying Relevant Research: Case Study on Child Protection Social Workers' Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…

  19. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried…

  20. Priorities for research in child maltreatment, intimate partner violence and resilience to violence exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Hammerton, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) are major global public health problems. The Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL) Research Network, an international group of over 60 researchers and national and international knowledge-user partners in CM and IPV, sought...

  1. The clinical translation gap in child health exercise research: a call for disruptive innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen; Bamman, Marcas M; Cerny, Frank J; Cooper, Dan M; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ericson, Dawn; Fahey, John; Falk, Bareket; Gabriel, Davera; Kahn, Michael G; Kemper, Han C G; Leu, Szu-Yun; Liem, Robert I; McMurray, Robert; Nixon, Patricia A; Olin, J Tod; Pianosi, Paolo T; Purucker, Mary; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Taylor, Amy

    2015-02-01

    In children, levels of play, physical activity, and fitness are key indicators of health and disease and closely tied to optimal growth and development. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides clinicians with biomarkers of disease and effectiveness of therapy, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response that is hidden when the child is at rest. Yet the growth of clinical trials utilizing CPET in pediatrics remains stunted despite the current emphasis on preventative medicine and the growing recognition that therapies used in children should be clinically tested in children. There exists a translational gap between basic discovery and clinical application in this essential component of child health. To address this gap, the NIH provided funding through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program to convene a panel of experts. This report summarizes our major findings and outlines next steps necessary to enhance child health exercise medicine translational research. We present specific plans to bolster data interoperability, improve child health CPET reference values, stimulate formal training in exercise medicine for child health care professionals, and outline innovative approaches through which exercise medicine can become more accessible and advance therapeutics across the broad spectrum of child health.

  2. Observations of parent-child co-shoppers in supermarkets: children's involvement in food selections, parental yielding, and refusal strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Stang, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed to collect descriptive information on the decision-making processes of adult shoppers around food purchases when young children are present. Anthropological field observations were conducted on adult-child grocery shoppers. Eleven supermarkets in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region. A convenience sample (n = 142) of adult-child shoppers at 8 budget and 3 deluxe supermarkets located in diverse urban and suburban areas. Observations registered adult-child interactions over food selections, including parental yielding or refusal strategies and child engagement in shopping. Means and frequencies were calculated for food items considered. In 67 (50.4%) of the total 133 observations, a child initiated a request. Half (55.2%) of the requests were for sweets or snacks. Nearly half (47.8%) of adults yielded to the child's request. Brands and marketing techniques appeared to be a factor in 28.6% of selections. The most frequent adult refusals either provided an explanation or ignored the request. Adults yield to children's requests for sweets and snacks nearly as often as they refuse them. However, effective refusal strategies are used by many adults. Opportunities exist in the grocery store for adults to reinforce young children's interest in food and nutrition.

  3. Governing the Modern, Neoliberal Child through ICT Research in Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola; Knijnik, Gelsa

    2015-01-01

    Research on the pedagogical uses of ICT for the learning of mathematics formulates cultural thesis about the desired subject of education and society, and thereby contribute to fabricate the rational, Modern, self-regulated, entrepreneurial neoliberal child. Using the Foucauldian notion of govern......Research on the pedagogical uses of ICT for the learning of mathematics formulates cultural thesis about the desired subject of education and society, and thereby contribute to fabricate the rational, Modern, self-regulated, entrepreneurial neoliberal child. Using the Foucauldian notion...

  4. Pockets of Participation: Revisiting Child-Centred Participation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Myfanwy

    2011-01-01

    This article revisits the theme of the clash of interests and power relations at work in participatory research which is prescribed from above. It offers a possible route toward solving conflict between adult-led research carried out by young researchers, funding requirements and organisational constraints. The article explores issues of…

  5. Evaluation of cluster-randomized trials on maternal and child health research in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Sen, Pranab Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To summarize and evaluate all publications including cluster-randomized trials used for maternal and child health research in developing countries during the last 10 years. METHODS: All cluster-randomized trials published between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed, and those that met our criteria...... for inclusion were evaluated further. The criteria for inclusion were that the trial should have been conducted in maternal and child health care in a developing country and that the conclusions should have been made on an individual level. Methods of accounting for clustering in design and analysis were......, and the trials generally improved in quality. CONCLUSIONS: Shortcomings exist in the sample-size calculations and in the analysis of cluster-randomized trials conducted during maternal and child health research in developing countries. Even though there has been improvement over time, further progress in the way...

  6. Communication in the Classroom: Research and Observation. ERIC Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Don M.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of ERIC resources on the following topics: teacher communication; research on classroom interaction; using systematic observations to improve teaching; different systems of classroom observations; and research on classroom observation techniques. (PD)

  7. Model Observers in Medical Imaging Research

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xin; Park, Subok

    2013-01-01

    Model observers play an important role in the optimization and assessment of imaging devices. In this review paper, we first discuss the basic concepts of model observers, which include the mathematical foundations and psychophysical considerations in designing both optimal observers for optimizing imaging systems and anthropomorphic observers for modeling human observers. Second, we survey a few state-of-the-art computational techniques for estimating model observers and the principles of im...

  8. The World Health Organization child growth standards: expected implications for clinical and epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, J; Willie, D; Younger, N

    2009-02-01

    In 2006 and 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) released two sets of child growth standards (World Health Organization, WHO Child Growth Standards. Methods and development. Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age. WHO, Geneva, 2006; World Health Organization, WHO Child Growth Standards: Methods and Development. Head circumference-for-age, arm circumference-for-age, triceps skinfold-for-age and subscapular skinfold-for-age. WHO, Geneva, 2007) to replace the National Center for Health Statistics references (Hamill et al., National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics Series 11, No 165, 1977) as an international tool for growth and nutritional assessment. This paper explores the scope of implications for future anthropometric research, highlighting foreseeable effects on the choice of research questions, choice of nutritional indices, training of measurers, and issues of internal and external validity of research results. The conclusion drawn is that the introduction of the WHO child growth standards is expected to have wide implications for growth and nutrition research. The full scope of this effect will gradually become clear while researchers, similar to health care workers, make the transition to using the new standards, re-evaluate results of past approaches, and explore the uses and functional validity of the standards, including those for indices that were not previously available.

  9. Child-rearing Methods and Their Effect on Performance in the Labor Market: Empirical research in Japan (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Kazuo; Yagi, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Chua (2011) compared widespread parenting methods between China and Western countries, and proposed that strict child-rearing helps children succeed, which has generated heated debate among researchers. Ever since Kim (2013) denied the advantages of the "Tiger Mother" method, research on how parenting affects a child's performance has been receiving greater attention. This study analyzed the influence of parenting methods on a child's future. We used data collected in Japan, and used the chil...

  10. Child anxiety in mental health care: Closing the gaps between research and clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation about child anxiety in mental health care, three gaps between research and everyday clinical practice were addressed. Despite the high prevalence of anxiety disorders in children, only a minority is referred to mental health care. It was found that more severe impairment in the

  11. Governing the Modern, Neoliberal Child through ICT Research in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Paola; Knijnik, Gelsa

    2015-01-01

    Research on the pedagogical uses of ICT for the learning of mathematics formulates cultural thesis about the desired subject of education and society, and thereby contribute to fabricate the rational, Modern, self­-regulated, entrepreneurial neoliberal child. Using the Foucauldian notion of governmentality, the section Technology in the…

  12. Engaging with Families in Child Protection: Lessons from Practitioner Research in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Michael; Smith, Mark; Wosu, Helen; Stewart, Jane; Hunter, Scott; Cree, Viviene E.; Wilkinson, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings from practitioner-led research on engagement with families in the child protection system in Scotland. Engagement is here defined in a participative sense, to mean the involvement of family members in shaping social work processes. Key findings include the importance of workers building trusting relationships; the value…

  13. An Attachment Perspective on the Child--Dog Bond: Interdisciplinary and International Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of attachment formation in young children has been a focal point in child development research for decades. However, young children's attachments are not only with human beings; they also form bonds with companion animals, particularly dogs ("Canis familiaris"). Given the number of dogs that are kept by families…

  14. The Utility and Challenges of Using ICD Codes in Child Maltreatment Research: A Review of Existing Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie; Tonmyr, Lil; Fraser, Jenny; Walker, Sue; McKenzie, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this article are to explore the extent to which the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) has been used in child abuse research, to describe how the ICD system has been applied, and to assess factors affecting the reliability of ICD coded data in child abuse research.…

  15. Postpyloric enteral nutrition in the critically ill child with shock: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustinza Amaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tolerance to enteral nutrition in the critically ill child with shock has not been studied. The purpose of the study was to analyze the characteristics of enteral nutrition and its tolerance in the critically ill child with shock and to compare this with non-shocked patients. Methods A prospective, observational study was performed including critically ill children with shock who received postpyloric enteral nutrition (PEN. The type of nutrition used, its duration, tolerance, and gastrointestinal complications were assessed. The 65 children with shock who received PEN were compared with 461 non-shocked critically ill children who received PEN. Results Sixty-five critically ill children with shock, aged between 21 days and 22 years, received PEN. 75.4% of patients with shock received PEN exclusively. The mean duration of the PEN was 25.2 days and the maximum calorie intake was 79.4 kcal/kg/day. Twenty patients with shock (30.7% presented gastrointestinal complications, 10 (15.4% abdominal distension and/or excessive gastric residue, 13 (20% diarrhoea, 1 necrotising enterocolitis, and 1 duodenal perforation due to the postpyloric tube. The frequency of gastrointestinal complications was significantly higher than in the other 461 critically ill children (9.1%. PEN was suspended due to gastrointestinal complications in 6 patients with shock (9.2%. There were 18 deaths among the patients with shock and PEN (27.7%. In only one patient was the death related to complications of the nutrition. Conclusion Although most critically ill children with shock can tolerate postpyloric enteral nutrition, the incidence of gastrointestinal complications is higher in this group of patients than in other critically ill children.

  16. Parent Child Relationships: A Decade Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, James; Stinnett, Nick

    1971-01-01

    This very extensive review covers such areas as parental attitudes and behavior, sex differences in regard to parental influence, parental identification, father absence and effects of divorce or separation, emotional problems, delinquency, health, generational differences and international research. (CJ)

  17. Formative research methods for designing culturally appropriate, integrated child nutrition and development interventions: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Margaret E; Johnson, Susan L; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study--the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions.

  18. Parent-child mediated learning interactions as determinants of cognitive modifiability: recent research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, D

    1999-05-01

    The main objectives of this article are to describe the effects of mediated learning experience (MLE) strategies in mother-child interactions on the child's cognitive modifiability, the effects of distal factors (e.g., socioeconomic status, mother's intelligence, child's personality) on MLE interactions, and the effects of situational variables on MLE processes. Methodological aspects of measurement of MLE interactions and of cognitive modifiability, using a dynamic assessment approach, are discussed. Studies with infants showed that the quality of mother-infant MLE interactions predict later cognitive functioning and that MLE patterns and children's cognitive performance change as a result of intervention programs. Studies with preschool and school-aged children showed that MLE interactions predict cognitive modifiability and that distal factors predict MLE interactions but not the child's cognitive modifiability. The child's cognitive modifiability was predicted by MLE interactions in a structured but not in a free-play situation. Mediation for transcendence (e.g., teaching rules and generalizations) appeared to be the strongest predictor of children's cognitive modifiability. Discussion of future research includes the consideration of a holistic transactional approach, which refers to MLE processes, personality, and motivational-affective factors, the cultural context of mediation, perception of the whole family as a mediational unit, and the "mediational normative scripts."

  19. Transactions between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence from a Prospective Adoption Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months…

  20. Editorial : Bayesian benefits for child psychology and psychiatry researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-01-01

    For many scientists, performing statistical tests has become an almost automated routine. However, p-values are frequently used and interpreted incorrectly; and even when used appropriately, p-values tend to provide answers that do not match researchers' questions and hypotheses well. Bayesian stati

  1. Parent-Child Play across Cultures: Advancing Play Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Davidson, Kimberly L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a greater understanding of children's play across cultures through better integration of scientific thinking about the developed and developing societies, through consideration of socialization beliefs and goals, and, finally, through the use of more complex models in research investigations. They draw on…

  2. Governing the Modern, Neoliberal Child through ICT Research in Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola; Knijnik, Gelsa

    2015-01-01

    Research on the pedagogical uses of ICT for the learning of mathematics formulates cultural thesis about the desired subject of education and society, and thereby contribute to fabricate the rational, Modern, self-regulated, entrepreneurial neoliberal child. Using the Foucauldian notion...... of governmentality, the section Technology in the mathematics curriculum in the Third International Mathematics Education Research Handbook is discursively analyzed. We problematize how mathematics education research on ICT devices pedagogical technologies that steer the conduct of children to become the desired...... subject. We show how research may create the inclusion and exclusion of different forms of life among children....

  3. Qualitative observation instrument to measure the quality of parent-child interactions in young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieuwesteeg, Anke M; Hartman, Esther E; Pouwer, Frans

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), parents have complete responsibility for the diabetes-management. In toddlers and (pre)schoolers, the tasks needed to achieve optimal blood glucose control may interfere with normal developmental processes and could negatively...... affect the quality of parent-child interaction. Several observational instruments are available to measure the quality of the parent-child interaction. However, no observational instrument for diabetes-specific situations is available. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a qualitative...... behaviors in a qualitative observation instrument; (d) evaluating usability and reliability. Next, we examined preliminary validity (total n = 77) by testing hypotheses about correlations between the observation instrument for diabetes-specific situations, a generic observation instrument and a behavioral...

  4. Observational Research in a Marketing Classroom: A Guidebook

    OpenAIRE

    Winterton, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research plays an integral part in marketing research (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998). In fact, a search of the website for the American Marketing Association for the term “qualitative research” reveals literally hundreds of documents (white papers, case studies, etc) discussing methods of conducting observational research, examples of observational research studies, and the importance of observational research in marketing. Interestingly, though qualitative methods are used frequently...

  5. Building a common pediatric research terminology for accelerating child health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michael G; Bailey, L Charles; Forrest, Christopher B; Padula, Michael A; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal observational clinical data on pediatric patients in electronic format is becoming widely available. A new era of multi-institutional data networks that study pediatric diseases and outcomes across disparate health delivery models and care settings are also enabling an innovative collaborative rapid improvement paradigm called the Learning Health System. However, the potential alignment of routine clinical care, observational clinical research, pragmatic clinical trials, and health systems improvement requires a data infrastructure capable of combining information from systems and workflows that historically have been isolated from each other. Removing barriers to integrating and reusing data collected in different settings will permit new opportunities to develop a more complete picture of a patient's care and to leverage data from related research studies. One key barrier is the lack of a common terminology that provides uniform definitions and descriptions of clinical observations and data. A well-characterized terminology ensures a common meaning and supports data reuse and integration. A common terminology allows studies to build upon previous findings and to reuse data collection tools and data management processes. We present the current state of terminology harmonization and describe a governance structure and mechanism for coordinating the development of a common pediatric research terminology that links to clinical terminologies and can be used to align existing terminologies. By reducing the barriers between clinical care and clinical research, a Learning Health System can leverage and reuse not only its own data resources but also broader extant data resources.

  6. Training highly qualified health research personnel: The Pain in Child Health consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Baeyer, Carl L; Stevens, Bonnie J; Chambers, Christine T; Craig, Kenneth D; Finley, G Allen; Grunau, Ruth E; Johnston, C Celeste; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Stinson, Jennifer N; Dol, Justine; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; McGrath, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain in Child Health (PICH) is a transdisciplinary, international research training consortium. PICH has been funded since 2002 as a Strategic Training Initiative in Health Research of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, with contributions from other funding partners and the founding participation of five Canadian universities. The goal of PICH has been to create a community of scholars in pediatric pain to improve child health outcomes. METHODS: Quantitative analyses enumerated PICH faculty, trainees, training activities and scientific outputs. Interviews with PICH stakeholders were analyzed using qualitative methods capturing perceptions of the program’s strengths, limitations, and opportunities for development and sustainability. RESULTS: PICH has supported 218 trainee members from 2002 through 2013, from 14 countries and more than 16 disciplines. The faculty at the end of 2013 comprised nine co-principal investigators, 14 Canadian coinvestigators, and 28 Canadian and international collaborators. Trainee members published 697 peer-reviewed journal articles on pediatric pain through 2013, among other research dissemination activities including conference presentations and webinars. Networks have been established between new and established researchers across Canada and in 13 other countries. Perceptions from stakeholders commended PICH for its positive impact on the development of pediatric pain researchers. Stakeholders emphasized skills and abilities gained through PICH, the perceived impact of PICH training on this research field, and considerations for future training in developing researchers in pediatric pain. CONCLUSIONS: PICH has been successfully developing highly qualified health research personnel within a Canadian and international community of pediatric pain scholarship. PMID:25299474

  7. The legacy of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert E

    2016-06-01

    Under the Global Forum for Health Research, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) began its operations in 1999 and became a Swiss foundation in 2006. The vision of CHNRI was to improve child health and nutrition of all children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) through research that informs health policy and practice. Specific objectives included expanding global knowledge on childhood disease burden and cost-effectiveness of interventions, promoting priority setting in research, ensuring inclusion of institutions and scientists in LMIC in setting priorities, promoting capacity development in LMIC and stimulating donors and countries to increase resources for research. CHNRI created a knowledge network, funded research through multiple rounds of a global competitive process and published research papers and policy briefs. A signature effort was to develop a systematic methodology for prioritizing health and nutrition research investments. The "CHNRI method" has been extensively applied to global health problems and is now the most commonly used method for prioritizing health research questions.

  8. The legacy of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E Black

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the Global Forum for Health Research, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI began its operations in 1999 and became a Swiss foundation in 2006. The vision of CHNRI was to improve child health and nutrition of all children in low– and middle–income countries (LMIC through research that informs health policy and practice. Specific objectives included expanding global knowledge on childhood disease burden and cost-effectiveness of interventions, promoting priority setting in research, ensuring inclusion of institutions and scientists in LMIC in setting priorities, promoting capacity development in LMIC and stimulating donors and countries to increase resources for research. CHNRI created a knowledge network, funded research through multiple rounds of a global competitive process and published research papers and policy briefs. A signature effort was to develop a systematic methodology for prioritizing health and nutrition research investments. The “CHNRI method” has been extensively applied to global health problems and is now the most commonly used method for prioritizing health research questions.

  9. Child Abuse and Neglect Program Evaluation: A Report from a Symposium on Evaluation Questions and Research Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Susan L.

    Presented in the report on the Symposium on Child Abuse and Neglect Program Evaluation are the critical issues regarding evaluation and research needs which were addressed during the 2-day meeting and a brief description of the meeting's format. A child protective services model involving five stages (identification/reporting,…

  10. Outcome Domains in Child Mental Health Research Since 1996: Have They Changed and Why Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Jensen, Peter S.; Acri, Mary C.; Olin, S. Serene; Lewandowski, R. Eric; Herman, Rachel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Child mental health treatment and services research yields more immediate public health benefit when they focus on outcomes of relevance to a broader group of stakeholders. We reviewed all experimental studies of child and adolescent treatment and service effectiveness published in the last 15 years (1996-2011) and compared the…

  11. Child Maltreatment and Its Relationship to Drug Use in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Overview and Multinational Research Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman-Mills, Samantha; Gonzalez, Yolanda W.; Melendez, Marlon O.; Garcia, Monica R.; Gomez, Juan D.; Juarez, Cristina G.; Martinez, Eduardo A.; Penalba, Sobeyda J.; Pizzanelli, Miguel E.; Solorzano, Lucia I.; Wright, Gloria; Cumsille, Francisco; Sapag, Jaime; Wekerle, Christine; Hamilton, Hayley; Erickson, Patricia; Mann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment and substance abuse are both international public health priorities. Research shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. Thus, recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to prevent and treat substance use and…

  12. Researching children's health experiences: The place for participatory, child-centered, arts-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Bernie; Ford, Karen

    2013-02-01

    A central concern when conducting qualitative health research with children is eliciting data that genuinely reflect their perspectives. Invariably, this involves being child-centered and participatory. Drawing and photography increasingly accompany dialogic methods to facilitate children's communication through arts-based and verbal modes of expression. However, little literature is available on how arts-based tools shape data. We suggest that researchers need to be attentive to how such tools can liberate, constrain and frame data generated by children, drawing attention to the promises of such approaches as well as the conundrums that can arise from their use. We explore the place for participatory, child-centered, arts-based approaches using examples of the use of drawing and photography in our own studies.

  13. Learning to Attend and Observe: Parent-Child Meaning Making in the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Ananda Maria

    Observation is a traditional form of learning and a scientific practice, and as such it plays a significant role in teaching and learning both inside and outside of schools. Recently, educational researchers and philosophers have called attention to the role of observation in scientific knowledge building (Brayboy & Castagno, 2008; Cajete, 2000; Datson & Lunbeck, 2011; Eberbach, 2009; Eberbach & Crowley, 2009; Kawagley, 2006; Norris, 1985; Smith & Reiser, 2005). These scholars have foregrounded the complexity of observation, particularly as it applies to inquiry practices in those domains which are heavily reliant on observation (Eberbach & Crowley, 2009; Maltese, Balliet, & Riggs, 2013; Smith & Reiser, 2005). My dissertation research examines how families with young children engage in the coordinated activity of observation during forest walks. I focus on the ways in which attentional practices support observational inquiry among parents and children between the ages of 5 to 7. Specifically, I examine how families coordinate attention and highlight features of the environment in order to make them observable. I use a mixed methods approach to investigate the range of interactional resources parents and children use as they engage in observation and learning about the natural world. Building on Indigenous scholarship (Cajete, 2000; Deloria & Wildcat, 2010; Kawagley, 2006), sociocultural theories and ecological approaches to development (Cole, 1996; Goodwin, 1994; Ingold, 2000; Rogoff, 2003) and conversation analysis (Heritage, 2008; Pomerantz & Fehr, 1997), I develop a taxonomy of forms of coordination and discuss how spatial arrangements and language work together to link attention, observations and explanations. This work further contributes to our understanding of the situated and cultural nature of learning and serves as a resource for the design of place-based learning environments that are based on the intellectual strengths and resources of diverse families.

  14. The relation between child feeding problems as measured by parental report and mealtime behavior observation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Marijn; Bruinsma, Eke; Hauser, M Paulina

    2016-04-01

    Because feeding problems have clear negative consequences for both child and caretakers, early diagnosis and intervention are important. Parent-report questionnaires can contribute to early identification, because they are efficient and typically offer a 'holistic' perspective of the child's eating in different contexts. In this pilot study, we aim to explore the concurrent validity of a short screening instrument (the SEP, which is the Dutch MCH-FS) in one of its target populations (a group of premature children) by comparing the total score with the observed behavior of the child and caretaker during a regular home meal. 28 toddlers (aged 9-18 months) and their caretakers participated in the study. Video-observations of the meals were coded for categories of eating behavior and parent-child interaction. The results show that the total SEP-score correlates with food refusal, feeding efficiency, and self-feeding, but not with negative affect and parental instructions. This confirms that the SEP has a certain degree of concurrent validity in the sense that its total score is associated with specific 'benchmark' feeding behaviors: food refusal, feeding efficiency and autonomy. Future studies with larger samples are needed to generalize the findings from this pilot to a broader context.

  15. Case Study Observational Research: A Framework for Conducting Case Study Research Where Observation Data Are the Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sonya J; Pullon, Susan R H; Macdonald, Lindsay M; McKinlay, Eileen M; Gray, Ben V

    2016-05-22

    Case study research is a comprehensive method that incorporates multiple sources of data to provide detailed accounts of complex research phenomena in real-life contexts. However, current models of case study research do not particularly distinguish the unique contribution observation data can make. Observation methods have the potential to reach beyond other methods that rely largely or solely on self-report. This article describes the distinctive characteristics of case study observational research, a modified form of Yin's 2014 model of case study research the authors used in a study exploring interprofessional collaboration in primary care. In this approach, observation data are positioned as the central component of the research design. Case study observational research offers a promising approach for researchers in a wide range of health care settings seeking more complete understandings of complex topics, where contextual influences are of primary concern. Future research is needed to refine and evaluate the approach.

  16. Effect observation of 1-year-old child health%1岁儿童保健效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汉广

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore effect of 1-year-old child health, and to improve participation rate of child health.Methods A total of 200 children at 1 year old in child health were divided into observation group (regular child health, 108 cases) and control group (irregular child health, 92 cases) by their participation frequency. Comparisons were made on nutritional status and physical development status between the two groups. Denver developmental screening test (DDST) was applied to evaluate their intelligent development situation. Results There was no statistically significant difference of stature and weight between the two groups (P>0.05). The observation group had higher hemoglobin level, lower bone alkaline phosphatase level and lower incidences of iron-deficiency anemia and rickets than the control group. The difference had statistical significance (P0.05);观察组血红蛋白水平高于对照组,骨碱性磷酸酶水平、缺铁性贫血及佝偻病发生率均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组儿童各项智能发育评分均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论积极参加儿童保健可促进儿童生长发育,应加强家长的儿童保健意识,以改善儿童保健状况。

  17. [An integrative research model for child and adolescent psychiatry bringing together biological, psychological and social research approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remschmidt, Helmut

    2006-11-01

    After some general remarks on the current situation of child and adolescent psychiatric research in Germany, a research concept is presented which in the course of 30 years of testing and further development has proven to be successful both in the inauguration of scientific projects, as well as in the qualification of trainees and co-workers. The nucleus of this concept is a research unit that is to a large extent independent of the daily health care routine. Some of the unit staff members are natural scientists holding permanent positions, complemented by a secondary labour force of young doctors and psychologists aspiring to a scientific career. This research unit provides supply for scientific projects and basic research, as well as for the development of new methods. The unit was endorsed by a Clinical Research Group funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) that proved of value as power supply for research (e.g. by raising substantial third-party funds) and as an instrument for the qualification of young scientists. The article describes some results of four research projects derived from this approach (schizophrenia research, dyslexia research, research on Asperger syndrome, quality assurance, and therapy evaluation research).

  18. Correspondence between mothers' self-reported and observed child-rearing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, G; Kuczynski, L; Radke-Yarrow, M

    1989-02-01

    The correspondence between self-reported child-rearing attitudes and practices and actual child management was examined among 68 mothers of young children. Data on mothers' verbal and physical control techniques along with children's responses (cooperation vs. resistance) were obtained during 90 min of spontaneous interaction in a naturalistic setting. Self-report data (the Block Q-Sort) were obtained 1-2 weeks later. The Block Q-Sort factors were combined to represent authoritarian and authoritative patterns of attitudes. The authoritarian pattern was positively associated with the use of direct commands, physical enforcements, reprimands, and prohibitive interventions, and negatively associated with the use of suggestions. The authoritative pattern was positively related to the use of suggestions and positive incentives, and negatively related to the use of physical enforcements, prohibitive interventions, and direct commands. Mothers' enjoyment of the parental role and their negative affect toward the child, as expressed in the Block Q-Sort, were more a result of the child's cooperation/resistance during the interaction than predictors of maternal control strategies.

  19. Triangulation in cross-cultural research of child development in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, M C; Hayes, J S

    1993-04-01

    Triangulation is the use of multiple concepts and methods to study a single phenomenon. Ethnographic field studies and standardized measures of development were used in a study of long-term effects of perinatal cannabis (marijuana) use in Jamaica. The study was launched in 1983 in order to evaluate the effects of cannabis (or ganja, as it is called in Jamaica) consumption during pregnancy and lactation on infants from birth to school age in rural communities. Some researchers reported symptoms such as increased startles, high-pitched cry in the newborn, shortened gestation, and low birth weight. The project was based in St. Thomas, where ganja use is widespread. The ethnographic part involved home observations and interviews of each child in selected communities. The clinical component included monitoring 60 pregnant women (30 users and 30 nonusers) and their offspring from birth through age 5. The instruments for evaluation included the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS), the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID), the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA, for children aged 2 years 6 months to 8 years 6 months), and the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (BSQ, for temperament in 3 to 7 year olds). The MSCA and BSQ had to be adapted to local culture, partly because of different uses of words in the rural dialect and cultural experience. The MSCA modifications included the elimination of time limits, changes in language, and culturally correct alternative responses. Five of 72 items on the BSQ were modified. Most scores fell in the middle range of about 4, similar to the North American scores, except for the lower mean in the category of Threshold of Responsiveness, because of an unanticipated cultural difference. The adjustments made did not compromise the comparability of the findings.

  20. [Research in child and adolescent psychiatry, promotion of young academics and publication practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Petermann, Franz; Warnke, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Objective is the promotion of the international recognition of research in child and adolescent psychiatry which is published in German language. There is a necessity for change of the strategy of publication in these scientific journals. The goal is to increase the impact factor. The length of the review and publication process has to be shortened, citations should be relevant to the present, interdisciplinarity and the cooperation of the editorial boards of different disciplines should be reinforced. These efforts are necessary for a better international recognition of publications in German language.

  1. Observer-based Satellite Attitude Control and Simulation Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子才; 马克茂

    2002-01-01

    Observer design method is applied to the realization of satellite attitude control law baaed on simplified control model. Exact mathematical model of the satellite attitude control system is also constructed, together with the observer-based control law, to conduct simulation research. The simulation results justify the effectiveness andfeasibility of the observer-based control method.

  2. Problems in Using Diagnosis in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Bickman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a three-part study on diagnosis of children with affective and behavior disorders. We examined the reliability, discriminant, and predictive validity of common diagnoses used in mental health services research using a research diagnostic interview. Results suggest four problems: a some diagnoses demonstrate internal consistency only slightly better than symptoms chosen at random; b diagnosis did not add appreciably to a brief global functioning screen in predicting service use; c low inter-rater reliability among informants and clinicians for six of the most common diagnoses; and d clinician diagnoses differed between sites in ways that reflect different reimbursement strategies. The study concludes that clinicians and researchers should not assume diagnosis is a useful measure of child and adolescent problems and outcomes until there is more evidence supporting the validity of diagnosis.

  3. Lived Observations: Linking the Researcher's Personal Experiences to Knowledge Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Lisbeth; Öhlén, Joakim

    2015-11-01

    As researchers in palliative care, we recognize how involvement with seriously ill and dying persons has an impact on us. Using one's own senses, emotional and bodily responses in observations might open intersubjective dimensions of the research topic. The aim of the article is to highlight how phenomenological theories on intersubjectivity can be useful to develop rich and transparent data generation and analysis. We present three field note examples from observation in a hospice ward, which illuminate how researcher awareness of aspects of intersubjectivity can add valuable insights to data and analysis. Out of the examples, we elaborate on three arguments: (a) how the researcher's lived experience of time and space during fieldwork triggers new research questions, (b) how observations as an embodied activity can bring new insights and open new layers of meaning, and (c) the value of observations in gaining insight into relational aspects in a hospice.

  4. Scope of health systems research in Child Survival and Safe Motherhood programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, P K

    1993-01-01

    Editorial commentary focused on several Health System Research (HSR) approaches which exemplified some of the key issues for application of HSR for further improvement in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in India. The goals of HSR are to delineate health policy which improves the operations of the health care delivery system for sustainability at the district level. HSR is part of a global effort of Health For All by 2000 AD and India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM) program, sponsored by IDA/UNICEF. CSSM aims also to end polio by 2000 AD, eliminate neonatal tetanus by 1995, and prevent deaths and morbidity from measles, diarrheal diseases, and acute respiratory infection. MCH services will be expanded at the village, subcenter, primary health center, and community health center levels in order to reduce maternal mortality to below 2/1000 from the 1990 5/1000 and to reduce mortality of children aged 1-4 years to less than 10/1000 live births from 80/1000 by 2000 AD. States with particularly high levels of child and maternal mortality are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh, which have about 40% of India's population. These states have low marriage ages, low female literacy, and few women in nonagricultural employment. There are about 90 districts in these states with particularly low demographic indicators. India policy directs all CSSM work to be carried out by existing staff; the program emphasis will be training, supervision, and logistics. IEC will need to be directed to attitudinal change in rural areas and urban slums. Research has found that coverage is uneven and quality of MCH services, poor. One study will evaluate the performance over 5 years in Gwalior district in a nutrition and school health program. Another research effort will perform quality assessment of MCH care at the primary health care level and promote community awareness and increased utilization. An ongoing study is evaluating nationally the family welfare

  5. Evidence Base Update: 50 Years of Research on Treatment for Child and Adolescent Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Francis, Sarah E; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorder among children and adolescents. We examined 111 treatment outcome studies testing 204 treatment conditions for child and adolescent anxiety published between 1967 and mid-2013. Studies were selected for inclusion in this review using the PracticeWise Evidence-Based Services database. Using guidelines identified by this journal (Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, 2014), studies were included if they were conducted with children and/or adolescents (ages 1-19) with anxiety and/or avoidance problems. In addition to reviewing the strength of the evidence, the review also examined indicators of effectiveness, common practices across treatment families, and mediators and moderators of treatment outcome. Six treatments reached well-established status for child and adolescent anxiety, 8 were identified as probably efficacious, 2 were identified as possibly efficacious, 6 treatments were deemed experimental, and 8 treatments of questionable efficacy emerged. Findings from this review suggest substantial support for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as an effective and appropriate first-line treatment for youth with anxiety disorders. Several other treatment approaches emerged as probably efficacious that are not primarily CBT based, suggesting that there are alternative evidence-based treatments that practitioners can turn to for children and adolescents who do not respond well to CBT. The review concludes with a discussion of treatments that improve functioning in addition to reducing symptoms, common practices derived from evidence-based treatments, mediators and moderators of treatment outcomes, recommendations for best practice, and suggestions for future research.

  6. Gender Dimensions of Child Labor and Street Children in Brazil. Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Pyne, Hnin Hnin

    Using data from Brazil's 1996 national household survey, various dimensions of child labor were examined by gender, including participation, intensity, and type of activities; the relationships between child labor, education, and future earnings; and the risks of child labor to health and well being. Findings indicate that more boys than girls…

  7. Maternal mind-mindedness during infancy, general parenting sensitivity and observed child feeding behavior: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness, or the tendency to view the child as a mental agent, has been shown to predict sensitive and responsive parenting behavior. As yet the role of mind-mindedness has not been explored in the context of feeding interactions. This study evaluates the relations between maternal mind-mindedness at 6 months of infant age and subsequently observed maternal sensitivity and feeding behaviors with children at age 1 year. Maternal mind-mindedness was greater in mothers who had breast-fed compared to formula-fed. Controlling for breast-feeding, mind-mindedness at 6 months was correlated with observations of more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors at 1 year of age. Mind-mindedness was also associated with greater general maternal sensitivity in play and this general parenting sensitivity mediated the effect of mind-mindedness on more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors. Interventions to promote maternal tendency to consider their child's mental states may encourage more adaptive parental feeding behaviors.

  8. Exploring the assessment of geological observation with design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, John Y.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the assessment of geological observation through the development and field testing of performance tasks. The study addressed a central challenge in geoscience education: for students to observe the world around them and make real-world connections. Yet, there existed no cohesive research approach for the study of observation in geoscience education. The research goal was to understand the assessment of geological observation. The design research of geological observation encountered the situation where few performance assessments existed and few domain-specific learning theories were available. Design research is suited to inquiries in which a domain of learning is unexplored and the phenomena needs to be supported in the classroom in order to study it. This dissertation addressed one general research question and four subquestions: (RQ) How should geological observation be assessed? (S1) What role did perception play in assessing students' geological observations? (S2) What role did explanation play in assessing students' geological observations? (S3) What role did gestures play in assessing students' geological observations? (S4) Were there performance differences between the first and second trial of the GO Inquire prototype with fourth graders? Students were supported in making geological observations with three performance tasks: GO Inquire stamp task, Cutting task, and Fieldguide task. The data set for this study consisted of student response data, videorecordings, and participant observations from seven field tests across one fourth and one fifth grade class. Three data-analytic methods, qualitative coding, item-difficulty analysis, and non-parametric comparisons, were utilized based on four mixed-method data analysis strategies: typology development, data transformation, extreme case analysis, and data consolidation. Analysis revealed that assessment should take into account the separation of visual from verbal

  9. Two methods for engaging with the community in setting priorities for child health research: who engages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wavne Rikkers

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess participatory methods for obtaining community views on child health research.Community participation in research is recognised as an important part of the research process; however, there has been inconsistency in its implementation and application in Australia. The Western Australian Telethon Kids Institute Participation Program employs a range of methods for fostering active involvement of community members in its research. These include public discussion forums, called Community Conversations. While participation levels are good, the attendees represent only a sub-section of the Western Australian population. Therefore, we conducted a telephone survey of randomly selected households to evaluate its effectiveness in eliciting views from a broader cross-section of the community about our research agenda and community participation in research, and whether the participants would be representative of the general population. We also conducted two Conversations, comparing the survey as a recruitment tool and normal methods using the Participation Program.While the telephone survey was a good method for eliciting community views about research, there were marked differences in the profile of study participants compared to the general population (e.g. 78% vs 50% females. With a 26% response rate, the telephone survey was also more expensive than a Community Conversation. The cold calling approach proved an unsuccessful recruitment method, with only two out of a possible 816 telephone respondents attending a Conversation.While the results showed that both of the methods produced useful input for our research program, we could not conclude that either method gained input that was representative of the entire community. The Conversations were relatively low-cost and provided more in-depth information about one subject, whereas the telephone survey provided information across a greater range of subjects, and allowed

  10. Earth observation big data for climate change research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Hua-Dong; ZHANG; Li; ZHU; Lan-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Earth observation technology has provided highly useful information in global climate change research over the past few decades and greatly promoted its development,especially through providing biological,physical,and chemical parameters on a global scale.Earth observation data has the 4V features(volume,variety,veracity,and velocity) of big data that are suitable for climate change research.Moreover,the large amount of data available from scientific satellites plays an important role.This study reviews the advances of climate change studies based on Earth observation big data and provides examples of case studies that utilize Earth observation big data in climate change research,such as synchronous satelliteeaerialeground observation experiments,which provide extremely large and abundant datasets; Earth observational sensitive factors(e.g.,glaciers,lakes,vegetation,radiation,and urbanization); and global environmental change information and simulation systems.With the era of global environment change dawning,Earth observation big data will underpin the Future Earth program with a huge volume of various types of data and will play an important role in academia and decisionmaking.Inevitably,Earth observation big data will encounter opportunities and challenges brought about by global climate change.

  11. “You child is just wonderful!” : On ethics and access in research with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Eldén

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discuss the consequences of the ambiguous view of children in the ethical guidelines – the ambitions to “give voice” while also “protect” – with a point of departure taken in the Swedish context, and in an actual research process of a project on children and care. It shows how the regulation of informed consent through the parent compromises the ideals of child-centred research; firstly, by limiting the child’s possibility to opt in to research; secondly, by affecting the relationship between researcher, child and parent in the research encounter; and thirdly, by jeopardizing the child’s right to confidentiality. The author argues that we should view not only the child’s but also the adult’s consent as a “continuous negotiation” and discusses strategies for strengthening the child’s right to opt in and participate in research on equal terms.

  12. Expert testimony in a child sex abuse case: Translating memory development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Maggie; Ceci, Stephen J

    2013-02-26

    In this paper we describe a custody case that centred on allegations of child sexual abuse. A pair of preschool-aged sisters accused their biological father of various sexual acts, though their allegations were made under problematic conditions and were contradicted by other statements they made. In an affidavit written by one of us (MB), we describe the relevant memory development research in the course of presenting the court with a scientific analysis. We find compelling evidence of multiple risk factors in the way the daughters' recollections were elicited. Although the "ultimate question" of guilt is beyond our purview, our identification of risks was instrumental in the legal system's decision that the children's allegations were not valid. We put this analysis forward as an example of evidence-based testimony in which scientific findings from the memory literature can be used to frame an expert's analysis.

  13. Clinical Observation on 930 Child Epilepsy Cases Treated with Anti-epilepsy Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马融; 李少川; 李新民; 胡思源; 孙希焕; 刘玉珍; 张喜莲; 李向农; 马秀华

    2003-01-01

    1090 cases of child epilepsy were divided randomly into two groups: the treatment group (930 cases treated with anti-epilepsy capsules) and the control group (160 cases treated with luminal). The results showed that in the treatment group, 534 cases were markedly effective, 241 effective, 96 improved, 46 ineffective, and 13 aggravated, with a total effective rate of 83.33%; while in the control group, 64 cases were markedly effective, 19 effective, 38 improved, 29 ineffective, and 10 aggravated, with a total effective rate of 51.88%. The treatment group showed an obviously higher total effective rate than that in the control group (P<0.01). After treatment, cases in the two groups all had lower frequency of epilepsy attacks and shorter duration of each attack as compared with that before treatment (P<0.01), but the situation was obviously better in the treatment group. The anti-epilepsy capsules had very good effect on various types of epilepsy, especially on autonomic epilepsy and on epilepsies due to wind, phlegm, or terror as differentiated in TCM. After treatment, the recovery rate shown by EEG examination was 54.3% in the treatment group, while 38.4% in the control group, the former being obviously higher than the latter (P<0.01).

  14. Recent Progress in Atmospheric Observation Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Recent progress in atmospheric observation techniques,observational systems and their application in China are reviewed.According to different observational platforms,the review is presented in three sections,i.e.,satellite remote sensing(SRS),ground-based observation technologies and applications,and aircraft/balloon measurements.The section"satellite remote sensing"presents advances in SRS techniques,SRS of clouds and aerosols,and SRS of trace gases and temperature/moisture profiles.The section"groundbased observation technologies and applications"focuses on research such as lidar systems and applications,sun/sky radiometer and broadband radiation observations,weather radar and wind profilers,GPS measurements,and some new concept systems.The section"aircraft/balloon measurements"presents some newly developed aircraft-and balloon-based sounding techniques.

  15. Participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy; Buch Løgstrup, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of practice. They do so by combining participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry engaging with practice based explorations to understand if methods and methodologies, understood as being central to anthropological inquiry, can be taught to interaction design......Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites...... their relation with the private end user? What kind of ways can engaging within collaborative processes of designing offer opportunities for both designing and anthropological research inquiry simultaneously?...

  16. Observation of peers in learning to write: Practice and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Elke Van Steendam, Anne Toorenaar,Journal of Writing Research 1(1, 53-83In this paper we discuss the role of observation in learning to write. We argue that the acquisition of skill in such a complex domain as writing relies on observation, the classical imitatio. An important phase in learning to write, at all ages, is learning to write by observing and evaluating relevant processes: writing processes, reading processes or communication processes between writers and readers.First, we present two practical cases: writing lessons in which observation and inquiry are amongst other key elements and where students participate in a community of learners. Then, we review research that may inspire and substantiate proposals for implementing observation as a learning activity in writing education. Two types of studies are discussed: studies in which learners acquire strategies by observing and evaluating writing and reading processes of peers, as a prewriting instructional activity, and studies in which learners are stimulated to 'pre-test' and then revise their first draft, as a post writing instructional activity. The paper closes with some recommendations for further research.

  17. Vocal Production of Young Children with Disabilities during Child-Robot Interactions. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a socially interactive robot on the vocalization production of five children with disabilities (4 with autism, 1 with a sensory processing disorder) were the focus of the intervention study described in this research report. The interventions with each child were conducted over 4 or 5 days in the children's homes and involved…

  18. A call for research exploring social media influences on mothers' child feeding practices and childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann L

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing interest in leveraging social media to prevent childhood obesity, however, the evidence base for how social media currently influences related behaviors and how interventions could be developed for these platforms is lacking. This commentary calls for research on the extent to which mothers use social media to learn about child feeding practices and the mechanisms through which social media influences their child feeding practices. Such formative research could be applied to the development and dissemination of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention programs that utilize social media. Mothers are identified as a uniquely important target audience for social media-based interventions because of their proximal influence on children's eating behavior and their high engagement with social media platforms. Understanding mothers' current behaviors, interests, and needs as they relate to their social media use and child feeding practices is an integral first step in the development of interventions that aim to engage mothers for obesity prevention. This commentary highlights the importance of mothers for childhood obesity prevention; discusses theoretical and analytic frameworks that can inform research on social media and mothers' child feeding practices; provides evidence that social media is an emerging context for social influences on mothers' attitudes and behaviors in which food is a salient topic; and suggests directions for future research.

  19. Hard Science, Thin Air and Unexpected Guests: A Pluralistic Model of Rationality, Knowledge and Conjecture in Child Psychotherapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Psychoanalysis and child psychotherapy have traditionally sought to describe their relationship to science in a variety of ways. As a consequence, different strands of the research programme are underpinned by divergent methodological and epistemic assumptions. The perceived incommensurability of these positions sometimes hinders the development…

  20. Putting Youth Relationship Education on the Child Welfare Agenda: Findings from a Research and Evaluation Review. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mindy E.; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Hawkins, Alan J.; Malm, Karin; Beltz, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Child Trends reviewed existing evidence on a somewhat neglected topic: relationship education for youth in foster care. The goals of this research review were to identify the needs of disadvantaged young people around intimate partner relationships, to identify evaluated relationship education programs, to highlight and synthesize common themes…

  1. Births outside of Marriage: Perceptions vs. Reality. Child Trends Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Moore, Kristin A.

    Research supports the anecdotal observation that unmarried mothers and their children face greater obstacles and suffer greater strains than married couples and their children. Less is known about the specific characteristics of the women who have births outside of marriage. This research brief paints a fuller picture of nonmarital childbearing.…

  2. Pre-eclampsia research in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Magnus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy disorder of unknown origin. In Norway, pre-eclampsia is reported in 3 to 4 per cent of registered births. At present, November 2014, a series of investigations into the etiology of preeclampsia have been published internationally from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and several studies are ongoing. The intention of this paper is to give a short summary of what has been accomplished, and to discuss future avenues of research concerning causes, mechanisms and consequences of pre-eclampsia. The papers that have been published up to now include seven that concern life-styles (physical activity, tobacco and diet, six that include prior pregnancies, infection, gestational weight gain, toxicants and tryptophan metabolism, and two studies concerning issues of selection and validity. Major findings are that tobacco smoking is only associated with reduced risk of pre-eclampsia when it occurs in the last trimester; that processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with increased risk while vegetables, vitamin D and probiotics are associated with reduced risk; and that prior induced abortions have the same risk-reducing effect as a prior pregnancy. For future studies, we suggest that better use should be made of the family structure built into MoBa. This includes better use of the discordant pregnancy design. A series of ongoing genetic studies, partly in international consortia, will hopefully open new etiological insights. The indications that pre-eclampsia is related to cardiovascular disease and other complex disorders should be further investigated through systematic follow-up of pre-eclamptic women and controls. Finally, MoBa is eminently suited to study the influences that pre-eclampsia can have on the growing child.

  3. Physical growth and development of the malnourished child: contributions from 50 years of research at INCAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews the main findings and policy implications of 50 years (1949-1999) of research conducted by INCAP on growth and development. Topical areas reviewed include a) maternal size and birthweight and the causes of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), b) patterns and causes of postnatal growth retardation, c) the relative importance of genetics and the environment in explaining differences in growth among populations, d) the implications of being small, for both children and adults, e) bone growth and maturation and dental development, f) menarche, and g) methodological contributions such as anthropometric reference data, quality control of data collection, development of risk indicators and use of anthropometry in nutrition surveillance systems. Key contributions to knowledge by INCAP include a) characterization of growth failure and maturational delays as mainly occurring during the intrauterine period and the first 3 years of life b) clarification of the role of small maternal size and of inadequate dietary intakes during pregnancy as major causes of intrauterine growth failure, c) evidence that diarrheal diseases and poor dietary intakes are the principal causes of growth failure in early childhood, d) demonstration that environmental factors related to poverty, and not genetic or racial ancestry, account for most of the differences in growth between populations, e) evidence that growth failure predicts functional impairment in the child as well as in the adult andf) demonstration that nutrition interventions are effective in preventing growth failure and its consequences, if targeted to needy women and young children. INCAP's work has contributed knowledge that has informed and improved policies and programs aimed at overcoming maternal and child undernutrition and promoting optimal growth and development.

  4. Editorial: Illuminating the dark matter of developmental neuropsychiatric genetics - strategic focus for future research in child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2014-03-01

    Research on genetic factors influencing cognitive and behavioural traits or which are central to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric diseases has been complicated by a furtive discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. This 'missing heritability' has been either euphemised as the 'dark matter' of gene-trait association or aggravated as the 'looming crisis in behavioural genetics'. Nevertheless, in recognising the importance of this topic for our understanding of child psychiatric conditions and highlighting its commitment to the field, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (JCPP) has for the first time appointed an editor with special responsibility for molecular (epi)genetics.

  5. Comparison of determinants of research knowledge utilization by practitioners and administrators in the field of child and family social services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervais Marie-Joëlle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important gap exists between research production and its utilization. Few studies have examined the factors affecting knowledge utilization in the field of child and family social services. Methods The objectives of the study are to describe knowledge utilization by child protection administrators and practitioners (N = 477 and to compare factors related to knowledge utilization by these two occupational groups. The study was conducted with an adapted version of the Questionnaire sur l'utilisation des connaissances (Knowledge Utilization Questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to collapse data collected on the questionnaire items. Factor score for each respondent served as independent variables in three separate multivariate regression analyses to explore variables likely to predict research-based knowledge utilization. Results A minority of respondents (18% report using on a frequent basis research-based knowledge in their practice. Relational capital between researchers and users and perceived usefulness of research based knowledge were the two factors most strongly related to utilization. There was a specificity in the factors associated with knowledge utilization according to occupational groups in child protection organizations. Use of active knowledge transfer strategies was associated with knowledge utilization by practitioners, while knowledge dissemination efforts played a more significant role for administrators. Conclusion These results encourage both the use of strategies differentiated according to users and the intensification of interactions between users and researchers to foster research knowledge utilization.

  6. Approaches to Use of Observational Methods of a Study of Parent-Child Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    The methodology discussed is used in ongoing research to contrast the effectiveness of several patterns of parental authority with the same children at different ages. The first characteristic of these methods is the use of trait and behavior ratings to assess dispositional tendencies. The construct of a dispositional trait is used to account for…

  7. A "Child's Rights Perspective": The "Right" of Children and Young People to Participate in Health Care Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    As all human beings are consumers of health care provision across the life span and in receipt of care delivered by accountable health care professionals, all should have the right to be involved in shaping the future of their own health care. Rights-based participation, when applied successfully, has the potential to inform and influence the delivery of child health care, the child's experience of health care, plus children's nursing education (Coyne & Gallagher, 2011). The "right" of every child and young person to participate in research that relates to their own health care is also sustained by the author's lead position as a Senior Lecturer in Higher Education for pre-registration children's nursing in Northern Ireland and the appreciation of their voice when practicing as a registered children's nurse and ward sister. The report provides an insight into seminal work on human and child rights; the historical context of children in Western society, and the evolution of children's nursing amid the child's right to participate in shaping their own health care.

  8. Harvard Observing Project (HOP): Involving Undergraduates in Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieryla, Allyson

    2017-01-01

    The Harvard Observing Project (HOP) is designed to get students excited about observational astronomy while collecting data valuable to the scientific community. The primary goal is to give undergraduates a chance to try out observing with “no strings attached”. Observations are led by experienced observers, mostly graduate students. This not only gives graduate students extra opportunities to interact and teach undergraduates, but also a chance for them to get more observing experience. Each semester, we choose an interesting target and monitor it each week over the course of the semester using Harvard University’s 16-inch DFM Clay Telescope. These observing projects often produce large amounts of data. This provides an excellent dataset for a young undergraduate to analyze. Some successful semester-long observing projects have included variable stars, supernova and binary systems. Short-term projects have included exoplanet candidate followup, asteroid and comet followup and collaborating with the Pro-Am White Dwarf Monitoring (PAWM) project in attempts to detect a transiting Earth-sized planet orbiting a white dwarf. Each dataset is an opportunity for an undergraduate to be introduced to scientific research and present the results to the community.

  9. Lonely Parents: Observations by Public Health Nurses of Alienation in Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Marjorie

    Public health nurses (n=191) were queried regarding their observations of alienation in families who abuse their children. Comparison was made of social isolation and powerlessness in abusive families and a control group of non-abusive families, through the Internal-External Locus of Control Scale and FIRO-B, with significant differences noted in…

  10. Critical Observation on Methodologies of Select Doctoral Research Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indrajit Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to critically observe and interpret the methodological deficiencies as found in randomly selected 14 doctoral theses submitted to two different universities in India. Despite their serious deviation from the expected methodological standards, all those theses were accepted and approved by the universities and scholars concerned conferred with PhD degrees. Undoubtedly, those theses kept in the reference sections at the respective university libraries would potentially misguide and mislead the future researchers. Some of the common technical deficiencies, as have been noticed, include (1 absence of careful thoughts in framing research titles, (ii biased method of data collection, (ii absence of logical explanation in favour of sample size and sample selection process, (iii designing and execution of instrument for data collection, (iv theory formulation in terms of framing of objectives, hypotheses and operational definitions etc. The article attempts to present the critical observations on case-to-case basis so that their conceptual, instrumental and procedural deficiencies and deviations are easily understood by the academicians, researchers and students. The content of this article is divided in to three broad sections. The first section deals with an introduction to quantitative and qualitative research methods and their advantages and limitations. The next section deals with the review of the selected theses followed by conclusion and suggested remedial measures. The objective of this article is purely academic and its scope is limited to enhancement of quality of future research studies in the domains and related fields.

  11. School Attendance and Child Labor in Ecuador. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gloria

    Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…

  12. Child Labor, Income Shocks, and Access to Credit. Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev H.; Gatti, Roberta

    Although a growing theoretical literature points to credit constraints as an important source of inefficiently high child labor, little work has been done to assess its empirical relevance. This paper examines the direct effect of a transitory income shock on household child labor choices, as well as the extent to which access to credit helps…

  13. Opportunities for minimization of confounding in observational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartey, George; Feudjo-Tepie, Maurille; Wang, Jixian; Kim, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Observational epidemiological studies are increasingly used in pharmaceutical research to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of medicines. Such studies can complement findings from randomized clinical trials by involving larger and more generalizable patient populations by accruing greater durations of follow-up and by representing what happens more typically in the clinical setting. However, the interpretation of exposure effects in observational studies is almost always complicated by non-random exposure allocation, which can result in confounding and potentially lead to misleading conclusions. Confounding occurs when an extraneous factor, related to both the exposure and the outcome of interest, partly or entirely explains the relationship observed between the study exposure and the outcome. Although randomization can eliminate confounding by distributing all such extraneous factors equally across the levels of a given exposure, methods for dealing with confounding in observational studies include a careful choice of study design and the possible use of advanced analytical methods. The aim of this paper is to introduce some of the approaches that can be used to help minimize the impact of confounding in observational research to the reader working in the pharmaceutical industry.

  14. GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Perea, V.; Balzter, H.

    2012-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: -Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). -Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centers and market leaders in the private sector. -Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. The training program through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics (each carried out by an Early Stage Researchers based in one of the partner organization) divided in 5 main areas: Forest monitoring: Global biomass information systems Forest Monitoring of the Congo Basin using Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR) Multi-concept Earth Observation Capabilities for Biomass Mapping and Change Detection: Synergy of Multi-temporal and Multi-frequency Interferometric Radar and Optical Satellite Data Land cover and change: Multi-scale Remote Sensing Synergy for Land Process Studies: from field Spectrometry to Airborne Hyperspectral and

  15. Interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and child antisocial behavior: examining the role of maternal versus paternal influences using a novel genetically sensitive research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit K; Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2012-11-01

    Past research has linked interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and externalizing behavior problems in childhood. However, few studies have examined these relationships while simultaneously allowing the contribution of common genetic factors underlying associations between family- and parent-level variables on child psychopathology to be controlled. Using the attributes of a genetically sensitive in vitro fertilization research design, the present study examined associations among interparental conflict, parents' antisocial behavior problems, parents' anxiety symptoms, and hostile parenting on children's antisocial behavior problems among genetically related and genetically unrelated mother-child and father-child groupings. Path analyses revealed that for genetically related mothers, interparental conflict and maternal antisocial behavior indirectly influenced child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For genetically unrelated mothers, effects were apparent only for maternal antisocial behavior on child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For both genetically related and genetically unrelated fathers and children, interparental conflict and paternal antisocial behavior influenced child antisocial behavior through father-to-child hostility. Effects of parental anxiety symptoms on child antisocial behavior were apparent only for genetically related mothers and children. Results are discussed with respect to the relative role of passive genotype-environment correlation as a possible confounding factor underlying family process influences on childhood psychopathology.

  16. Research Review: Psychosocial Adjustment and Mental Health in Former Child Soldiers--A Systematic Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and scope: This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age less than 18 years) associated with armed forces and armed groups (CAAFAG)--commonly referred to as child soldiers. Methods: PRISMA standards for systematic reviews were used to search PubMed, PsycInfo, JSTOR,…

  17. Advances in carbon flux observation and research in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guirui; ZHANG Leiming; SUN Xiaomin; FU Yuling; LI Zhengquan

    2005-01-01

    As an important component of FLUXNET, Asia is increasingly becoming the hotspot in global carbon research for its vast territory, complex climate type and vegetation diversity. The present three regional flux observation networks in Asia (i.e. AsiaFlux, KoFlux and ChinaFLUX)have 54 flux observation sites altogether, covering tropic rainforest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest, shrubland, grassland, alpine meadow and cropland ecosystems with a latitudinal distribution from 2°N to 63°N. Long-term and continuous fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere are mainly measured with eddy covariance technique to (1) quantify and compare the carbon, water and energy budgets across diverse ecosystems; (2) quantify the environmental and biotic controlling mechanism on ecosystem carbon, water and energy fluxes; (3) validate the soil-vegetation-atmosphere model; and (4) serve the integrated study of terrestrial ecosystem carbon and water cycle. Over the last decades, great advancements have been made in the theory and technology of flux measurement, ecosystem flux patterns, simulation and scale conversion by Asian flux community. The establishment of ChinaFLUX has greatly filled the gap of flux observation and research in Eurasia. To further promote the flux measurement and research,accelerate data sharing and improve the data quality, it is necessary to present a methodological system of flux estimation and evaluation over complex terrain and to develop the integrated research that combines the flux measurement, stable isotope measurement, remote sensing observation and GIS technique. It also requires the establishment of the Joint Committee of Asian Flux Network in the Asia-Pacific region in order to promote the cooperation and communication of ideas and data by supporting project scientists, workshops and visiting scientists.

  18. Joint Observational Research on Nocturnal Atmospheric Dispersion of Aerosols (JORNADA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    REPORT Joint Observational Research on Nocturnal Atmospheric Dispersion of Aerosols ( JORNADA ) Grant W911NF-07-1-0066 Final Progress Report (January 15...2009) 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Four major analyses were conducted using the stable boundary layer JORNADA data. The first was... JORNADA ) Grant W911NF-07-1-0066 Final Progress Report (January 15, 2009) Report Title ABSTRACT Four major analyses were conducted using the stable

  19. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less.

  20. Science and Observation Recommendations for Future NASA Carbon Cycle Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.; Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Gregg, W. W.; Gervin, J. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Demaio, L. D.; Knox, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Between October 2000 and June 2001, an Agency-wide planning, effort was organized by elements of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to define future research and technology development activities. This planning effort was conducted at the request of the Associate Administrator of the Office of Earth Science (Code Y), Dr. Ghassem Asrar, at NASA Headquarters (HQ). The primary points of contact were Dr. Mary Cleave, Deputy Associate Administrator for Advanced Planning at NASA HQ (Headquarters) and Dr. Charles McClain of the Office of Global Carbon Studies (Code 970.2) at GSFC. During this period, GSFC hosted three workshops to define the science requirements and objectives, the observational and modeling requirements to meet the science objectives, the technology development requirements, and a cost plan for both the science program and new flight projects that will be needed for new observations beyond the present or currently planned. The plan definition process was very intensive as HQ required the final presentation package by mid-June 2001. This deadline was met and the recommendations were ultimately refined and folded into a broader program plan, which also included climate modeling, aerosol observations, and science computing technology development, for contributing to the President's Climate Change Research Initiative. This technical memorandum outlines the process and recommendations made for cross-cutting carbon cycle research as presented in June. A separate NASA document outlines the budget profiles or cost analyses conducted as part of the planning effort.

  1. ICOS, Integrated Carbon Observing System, a Research Infrastructure to Integrate Greenhouse Gas observations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciais, P.; Paris, J.; Rivier, L.; Ceulemans, R.; Dolman, A. J.; Flaud, J.; Garrec, C.; Gerbig, C.; Grace, J.; Huertas, E.; Johannessen, T.; Jordan, A.; Levin, I.; Lindroth, A.; Loustau, D.; Papale, D.; Ramonet, M.; Valentini, R.; Vesala, T.; Kaukolehto, M.; Watson, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a European Research infrastructure. ICOS's mission is to collect data for monitoring greenhouse gas fluxes over Europe and adjacent regions, and to provide the long-term observations required to quantify and to predict the behavior of the carbon cycle. ICOS builds upon the measurement networks and expertise developed under many European and national projects by a research community of more that 2000 researchers and students. ICOS received initial funding for the period 2008-2013 for the preparation of a Research Infrastructure hat will be operational in 2014 and run during the next 20 years a data collection for essential GHG variables including The presentation of ICOS will focus 1) on the mechanisms that have enabled the agencies / networks / governments to produce work products (data products, modeling products, and sensor acquired or human acquired measurements), and 2) on strategies to enable all identified user families, to take those products into assessments and analyses of European time varying maps GHG fluxes, including information on the attribution of these fluxes to underlying human and natural drivers and policy relevant information to improve GHG inventories at regional to national scale. These mechanisms take the form of adherence to technical standards (data, measurements, calibration/validation, modelling protocols), data policies, and governance mechanisms, which may prove complex when many different research councils and ministries are involved, as in the case of the ICOS preparation.

  2. A meta-analysis of the published research on the effects of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, E O; Genuis, M L; Violato, C

    2001-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the published research on the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) was undertaken for 6 outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide, sexual promiscuity, victim-perpetrator cycle, and poor academic performance. Thirty-seven studies published between 1981 and 1995 involving 25,367 people were included. Many of the studies were published in 1994 (24; 65%), and most were done in the United States (22; 59%). All six dependent variables were coded, and effect sizes (d) were computed for each outcome. Average unweighted and weighted ds for each of the respective outcome variables were .50 and .40 for PTSD, .63 and .44 for depression, .64 and .44 for suicide, .59 and .29 for sexual promiscuity, .41 and .16 for victim-perpetrator cycle, and .24 and .19 for academic performance. A file drawer analysis indicated that 277 studies with null ds would be required to negate the present findings. The analyses provide clear evidence confirming the link between CSA and subsequent negative short- and long-term effects on development. There were no statistically significant differences on ds when various potentially mediating variables such as gender, socioeconomic status, type of abuse, age when abused, relationship to perpetrator, and number of abuse incidents were assessed. The results of the present meta-analysis support the multifaceted model of traumatization rather than a specific sexual abuse syndrome of CSA.

  3. "To observe well ... and thence to make himself rules": John Locke's principles and practice of child healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A N

    2007-06-01

    It is often forgotten that the philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) was a highly regarded physician with a lifelong interest in medicine and was frequently consulted on medical matters, including the health of children. This child health aspect in Locke's history has been largely ignored, with even modern commentaries on Locke and medicine giving it only a cursory mention. However, it is clear that, in child health, Locke's influence is far more substantial than GF Still's and George Jackson's opinions, which limited Locke solely to Thoughts concerning education (1692/3). That a fundamental reappraisal of Locke's role in child healthcare is necessary and that his place as a pioneer of modern child healthcare needs to be proclaimed are emphasised here. As modern day child healthcare has evolved to embrace advocacy and learning disability, Locke's importance through his influence on paediatrics, child healthcare and human rights becomes more evident. Locke's influence in child healthcare comes not only through his other celebrated philosophical writings, but also through extensive personal correspondence and case records. As well as throwing light onto the 17th century aspects of child healthcare, Locke, through his enquiry and self-evident humility in his correspondence on medical matters, inspires and educates us with his pragmatic approach to the practice of medicine.

  4. The relation between child feeding problems as measured by parental report and mealtime behavior observation : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Marijn; Bruinsma, Eke; Hauser, M. Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Because feeding problems have clear negative consequences for both child and caretakers, early diagnosis and intervention are important. Parent-report questionnaires can contribute to early identification, because they are efficient and typically offer a 'holistic' perspective of the child's eating

  5. GIONET (GMES Initial Operations Network for Earth Observation Research Training)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, V.; Balzter, H.

    2013-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. Copernicus (previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is a joint undertaking of the European Space Agency and the European Commission. It develops fully operational Earth Observation monitoring services for a community of end users from the public and private sector. The first services that are considered fully operational are the land monitoring and emergency monitoring core services. In GIONET, 14 early stage researchers are being trained at PhD level in understanding the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers are based in industry and universities across Europe, as well as receiving the best technical training and scientific education. The training programme through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics. Each topic is carried out by an Early Stage Researcher based in one of the partner organisations and is expected to lead to a PhD degree. The 14 topics are grouped in 5 research themes: Forest monitoring Land cover and change Coastal zone and freshwater monitoring Geohazards and emergency response Climate adaptation and emergency response The methods developed and used in GIONET are as diverse as its research topics. GIONET has already held two summer schools; one at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany), on 'New operational radar satellite applications: Introduction to SAR, Interferometry and Polarimetry for Land Surface Mapping'. The 2nd summer school took place last September at the University of Leicester (UK )on 'Remote sensing of land cover and forest in GMES'. The next Summer School in September 2013

  6. Building human capacity through early childhood intervention: the Child Development Research Programme at the Tropical Medicine Research Institute, the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S P; Chang, S M; Powell, C A; Baker-Henningham, H

    2012-07-01

    Research conducted by the Child Development Research Group in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute has made significant contributions to the understanding of the importance of early nutrition and the home environment for children's development and the impact of psychosocial stimulation for disadvantaged and/or undernourished children. The work has provided critical evidence that has contributed to the increasing attention given to early childhood development in the work and policies of agencies such as the World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF). This review concerns research which documented the impact of malnutrition on children's development and for the first time demonstrated the benefits and necessity of psychosocial stimulation for improvement in development. Subsequent research was critical in establishing the importance of linear growth retardation (stunting) as a risk factor for poor child development. A twenty-two-year study of stunted children has demonstrated benefits through to adulthood in areas such as educational attainment, mental health and reduced violent behaviour from an early childhood home visiting programme that works through mothers to promote their children's development. The group's research has also demonstrated that it is feasible and effective to integrate the stimulation intervention into primary care services with benefits to children's development and mothers'child rearing knowledge and practices. The group is currently conducting a study to provide information needed for scaling-up of parenting programmes through evaluation of a new approach to improving parenting through health centres and a modified home visit programme.

  7. Tick box for child? The ethical positioning of children as vulnerable, researchers as Barbarians and reviewers as overly cautious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Bernie

    2009-06-01

    Children have historically been marginalized in research with proxies used as appropriate sources of information about children's experiences, perceptions and understandings. In the context of research governance and ethical review, the default setting in many countries reflects a long history of framing children within a discourse of vulnerability and seeing research with (or on) children as inherently risky. This perspective inevitably positions researchers as '(potentially) dangerous' and requires reviewers to adopt a (super-) cautious approach to any research proposal involving children's participation. Halse and Honey [Halse, C., Honey, A., 2007. Rethinking ethics review as institutional discourse. Qualitative Inquiry 13 (3), 336-352] suggest that this forces the researcher into the position of barbarian and the reviewers into the role of the research subject's champion. However, the discourse of child vulnerability competes with the discourse of child participation and involvement. Research with children is further complicated since children also have tended to be viewed as a homogenous group although this clearly misrepresents the diversity, individuality and multiplicity of their geographies. The tensions that arise from children being protected from the predations of the 'barbarian researchers' have meant that researchers have tended to undertake research on the least vulnerable/most adult-like children. This has resulted in some interesting and important research although the findings are likely to have much less utility than if researchers made greater efforts to engage or been given the opportunities to engage with the more marginalized children. Researchers and reviewers are a heterogeneous group each sharing some barbarian and champion tendencies. Both groups need to acknowledge their own 'adultist' assumptions and discursive practices in relation to involving children within research and consider the benefits (as well as the risks) that can accrue

  8. p-Curve and p-Hacking in Observational Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan B Bruns

    Full Text Available The p-curve, the distribution of statistically significant p-values of published studies, has been used to make inferences on the proportion of true effects and on the presence of p-hacking in the published literature. We analyze the p-curve for observational research in the presence of p-hacking. We show by means of simulations that even with minimal omitted-variable bias (e.g., unaccounted confounding p-curves based on true effects and p-curves based on null-effects with p-hacking cannot be reliably distinguished. We also demonstrate this problem using as practical example the evaluation of the effect of malaria prevalence on economic growth between 1960 and 1996. These findings call recent studies into question that use the p-curve to infer that most published research findings are based on true effects in the medical literature and in a wide range of disciplines. p-values in observational research may need to be empirically calibrated to be interpretable with respect to the commonly used significance threshold of 0.05. Violations of randomization in experimental studies may also result in situations where the use of p-curves is similarly unreliable.

  9. p-Curve and p-Hacking in Observational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Stephan B; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-01-01

    The p-curve, the distribution of statistically significant p-values of published studies, has been used to make inferences on the proportion of true effects and on the presence of p-hacking in the published literature. We analyze the p-curve for observational research in the presence of p-hacking. We show by means of simulations that even with minimal omitted-variable bias (e.g., unaccounted confounding) p-curves based on true effects and p-curves based on null-effects with p-hacking cannot be reliably distinguished. We also demonstrate this problem using as practical example the evaluation of the effect of malaria prevalence on economic growth between 1960 and 1996. These findings call recent studies into question that use the p-curve to infer that most published research findings are based on true effects in the medical literature and in a wide range of disciplines. p-values in observational research may need to be empirically calibrated to be interpretable with respect to the commonly used significance threshold of 0.05. Violations of randomization in experimental studies may also result in situations where the use of p-curves is similarly unreliable.

  10. Research Program towards Observation of Neutrino-Nucleus Coherent Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, H T

    2006-01-01

    The article describes the research program pursued by the TEXONO Collaboration towards an experiment to observe coherent scattering between neutrinos and the nucleus at the power reactor. The motivations of studying this process are surveyed. In particular, a threshold of 100-200 eV has been achieved with an ultra-low-energy germanium detector prototype. This detection capability at low energy can also be adapted to conduct searches of Cold Dark Matter in the low-mass region as well as to enhance the sensitivities in the study of neutrino magnetic moments.

  11. Observing the user experience a practitioner's guide to user research

    CERN Document Server

    Kuniavsky, Mike; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The gap between who designers and developers imagine their users are, and who those users really are can be the biggest problem with product development. Observing the User Experience will help you bridge that gap to understand what your users want and need from your product, and whether they'll be able to use what you've created. Filled with real-world experience and a wealth of practical information, this book presents a complete toolbox of techniques to help designers and developers see through the eyes of their users. It provides in-depth coverage of 13 user experience research techniques

  12. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  13. Rain or snow: hydrologic processes, observations, prediction, and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, Adrian A.; Kaplan, Michael L.; Zion Klos, P.; Link, Timothy; McNamara, James P.; Rajagopal, Seshadri; Schumer, Rina; Steele, Caitriana M.

    2017-01-01

    The phase of precipitation when it reaches the ground is a first-order driver of hydrologic processes in a watershed. The presence of snow, rain, or mixed-phase precipitation affects the initial and boundary conditions that drive hydrological models. Despite their foundational importance to terrestrial hydrology, typical phase partitioning methods (PPMs) specify the phase based on near-surface air temperature only. Our review conveys the diversity of tools available for PPMs in hydrological modeling and the advancements needed to improve predictions in complex terrain with large spatiotemporal variations in precipitation phase. Initially, we review the processes and physics that control precipitation phase as relevant to hydrologists, focusing on the importance of processes occurring aloft. There is a wide range of options for field observations of precipitation phase, but there is a lack of a robust observation networks in complex terrain. New remote sensing observations have the potential to increase PPM fidelity, but generally require assumptions typical of other PPMs and field validation before they are operational. We review common PPMs and find that accuracy is generally increased at finer measurement intervals and by including humidity information. One important tool for PPM development is atmospheric modeling, which includes microphysical schemes that have not been effectively linked to hydrological models or validated against near-surface precipitation-phase observations. The review concludes by describing key research gaps and recommendations to improve PPMs, including better incorporation of atmospheric information, improved validation datasets, and regional-scale gridded data products. Two key points emerge from this synthesis for the hydrologic community: (1) current PPMs are too simple to capture important processes and are not well validated for most locations, (2) lack of sophisticated PPMs increases the uncertainty in estimation of hydrological

  14. Lunar-based Earth observation geometrical characteristics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanzhen; Liu, Guang; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    As is known to all, there are various platforms for carrying sensors to observe Earth, such as automobiles, aircrafts and satellites. Nowadays, we focus on a new platform, Moon, because of its longevity, stability and vast space. These advantages make it to be the next potential platform for observing Earth, enabling us to get the consistent and global measurements. In order to get a better understanding of lunar-based Earth observation, we discuss its geometrical characteristics. At present, there are no sensors on the Moon for observing Earth and we are not able to obtain a series of real experiment data. As a result, theoretical modeling and numerical calculation are used in this paper. At first, we construct an approximate geometrical model of lunar-based Earth observation, which assumes that Earth and Moon are spheres. Next, we calculate the position of Sun, Earth and Moon based on the JPL ephemeris. With the help of positions data and geometrical model, it is possible for us to decide the location of terminator and substellar points. However, in order to determine their precise position in the conventional terrestrial coordinate system, reference frames transformations are introduced as well. Besides, taking advantages of the relative positions of Sun, Earth and Moon, we get the total coverage of lunar-based Earth optical observation. Furthermore, we calculate a more precise coverage, considering placing sensors on different positions of Moon, which is influenced by its attitude parameters. In addition, different ephemeris data are compared in our research and little difference is found.

  15. Research and the promotion of child health: a position paper of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Kolacek, Sanja; Phillips, Alan; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Thapar, Nikhil; Baumann, Ulrich; van Goudoever, Johannes; Mihatsch, Walter; de Swarte, Casper; Benninga, Marc; Mearin, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    Children comprise one-fifth of Europe's population. Promoting child health and development is of key importance for society and its future. This position paper highlights opportunities of investing in gastrointestinal, liver, and nutritional research to promote child health and delineates priorities for research. Investing in child health plays a key role in the promotion of population health, well-being, and disease prevention lifelong, with large health economic benefits. Major opportunities for improving knowledge and translational application arise from recent scientific and technological developments, for example, the long-term impact of early environmental cues interacting with genes. Personalised approaches to therapy and prevention should be enhanced. Deciphering the microbiome and its effects on functions can help in promoting long-term health. Epigenetic research can help to understand how early environmental factors influence later gastrointestinal and hepatic health and disease. A linked nutrition and physical activity strategy can promote health and prevent nutritional deficiencies, inactivity, and chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as diabetes, to ensure optimal health and cognition. Special attention should be devoted to populations with low socioeconomic status, migrant background, and ethnic minorities, and to critical life periods, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, and childhood. Improved understanding of optimal nutrition and on maintaining gut and liver homeostasis throughout childhood will help prevent chronic diseases in later life.

  16. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Le, Guan; Swenson, Charles; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Bishop, Rebecca L.; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.; Heelis, Roderick; Loures, Luis; Krause, Linda; Fonseca, Eloi

    2016-07-01

    Structure in the charged particle number density in the equatorial ionosphere can have a profound impact on the fidelity of HF, VHF and UHF radio signals that are used for ground-to-ground and space-to-ground communication and navigation. The degree to which such systems can be compromised depends in large part on the spatial distribution of the structured regions in the ionosphere and the background plasma density in which they are embedded. In order to address these challenges it is necessary to accurately distinguish the background ionospheric conditions that favor the generation of irregularities from those that do not. Additionally we must relate the evolution of those conditions to the subsequent evolution of the irregular plasma regions themselves. The background ionospheric conditions are conveniently described by latitudinal profiles of the plasma density at nearly constant altitude, which describe the effects of ExB drifts and neutral winds, while the appearance and growth of plasma structure requires committed observations from the ground from at least one fixed longitude. This talk will present an international collaborative CubeSat mission called SPORT that stands for the Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task. This mission will advance our understanding of the nature and evolution of ionospheric structures around sunset to improve predictions of disturbances that affect radio propagation and telecommunication signals. The science goals will be accomplished by a unique combination of satellite observations from a nearly circular middle inclination orbit and the extensive operation of ground based observations from South America near the magnetic equator. This approach promises Explorer class science at a CubeSat price.

  17. A solar observing station for education and research in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaname, José Iba, Ishitsuka; Ishitsuka, Mutsumi; Trigoso Avilés, Hugo; Takashi, Sakurai; Yohei, Nishino; Miyazaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Kazunari; Ueno, Satoru; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Maeda, George

    2007-12-01

    Since 1937 Carnegie Institution of Washington made observations of active regions of the Sun with a Hale type spectro-helioscope in Huancayo observatory of the Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP). IGP has contributed significantly to geophysical and solar sciences in the last 69 years. Now IGP and the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica (UNICA) are planning to refurbish the coelostat at the observatory with the support of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. It is also planned to install a solar Flare Monitor Telescope (FMT) at UNICA, from Hida observatory of Kyoto University. Along with the coelostat, the FMT will be useful to improve scientific research and education.

  18. Market research for a business plan : a child-friendly cafeteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rundberg, Janika

    2013-01-01

    The object of this Bachelor's thesis is to see whether there is a market in Turku for a new business plan, a child-friendly cafeteria. The author has an option of starting up a company if the thesis proves that there is a market for the business. The author wanted to know if other people with children feel the same way than she does about the existing cafeteria culture, the lack of healthy food and drink options and not very child-friendly enviroments being the main problems in the market. ...

  19. Research on the tether assisted observation of an asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Wang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    The exploration of asteroids attracts much attention due to its potential in both scientific research and engineering application. However, the observation of an asteroid is a difficult task as the gravitational attraction of the asteroid is limited and complex. This paper proposes a concept of keeping probes in hovering above the asteroid by space tethers. The dynamics of a tethered probe attached to the surface of an asteroid is analyzed and the equations of motion are derived using Lagrange's equation. Then the equilibrium points of the dynamic system are calculated. The equilibrium tether libration angles are determined by the tether length and tether attaching location, while subjected to the constraint of positive tether tension. Afterwards, the stability of the equilibrium points are studied based on Lyapunov's theory. The variation of the equilibrium points with respect to the tether attaching location is numerically analyzed in the scenarios of different tether lengths. A parametric study of the stability of the equilibrium points is also provided. Finally, the dynamic behavior of a tethered probe perturbed from the equilibrium states is simulated to verify the proposed tether assisted technology for the observation of the asteroid.

  20. Research on the Child Development Project: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistich, Victor; Solomon, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Reports on the current status of the Child Development Project (San Ramon, California). States that major concerns focus upon validity of measures and criterion validity. Notes that there are indications that the program is being implemented and children's attitudes are being affected. Predicts additional teacher questionnaire measures and the…

  1. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  2. The proxy problem: Child report versus parent report in health-related quality of life research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Vogels, T.G.C.; Koopman, H.M.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Wit, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluates the agreement between child and parent reports on children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a representative sample of 1,105 Dutch children (age 8-11 years old). Both children and their parents completed a 56 item questionnaire (TACQOL). The questionnaire contains sev

  3. Annual Research Review: Resilience and Child Well-Being--Public Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been an 8-fold increase in use of the term resilience within scientific and scholar literature over the last twenty years. The arena of public policy has also seen increasing use made of the concept, both with respect to child well-being and development and wider issues. Method: A focal sample of literature comprising 108…

  4. Reshaping Child Welfare's Response to Trauma: Assessment, Evidence-Based Intervention, and New Research Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Jackson Foster, Lovie J.; Pecora, Peter J.; Delaney, Nancy; Rodriguez, Wenceslao

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has linked early trauma with severe psychiatric consequences. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a potentially debilitating mental health condition found among some youth in foster care and foster care alumni. However, the current child welfare practice response has not met the demands in both assessment and intervention.…

  5. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, Volume 27. Proceedings of the Annual Child Language Research Forum (20th, Stanford University, California, April 8-10, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eve V., Ed.; Matsumoto, Yo, Ed.

    The proceedings include the following papers: "Why We Study Child Language"; "Children's Use of Information in Word Learning"; "An Examination of the Initial Mapping of Verb Meanings"; "Evidence for the VP Constituent from Child Korean"; "The Role of Stress, Position, and Intonation in the…

  6. [The value of a child abuse observation clinic. Report of an experience in the area of Grenoble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, M; Nalpas, D; Menon, M

    1990-01-01

    In France the epidemiology of child abuse is badly known, because of the lack of connexion between different institutions. We present a child abuse observatory set up in Grenoble in May 1987. The social, educational, judicial and medical department's services are working together. In the first 20 months, 87 cases were recorded: 57 physical abuse, 26 sexual abuse and 5 cases of abuses due to negligence. Precise information was collected concerning the victims, their siblings, the family's risk factor and the offenders, the method by which the information was obtained and the prosecution undertaken. A 10 July 1989 law enforced each Department's governor to set up a service for collecting information about child abuse. Our observatory will serve as a model for this law application.

  7. Child protection and out of home care: Policy, practice, and research connectionsAustralia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an outline of the early development of care and protection in Australia and New Zealand as a backdrop to an overview of child protection systems and policies and the current childprotection profile in both countries. Key issues that have become the focus of policy reform are canvassed and legislative and policy initiatives to promote child safety as well as strengthen families are elaborated. An overview of trends in relation to out of home care, including routes into care, care arrangements and permanency policies is provided. The article profiles selected research studies from Australia focusing on outcomes of care: stability of care, mental health and educational outcomes of looked after children, abuse in care, and routes out of care through reunification and aging out. Other issues treated are the overrepresentation of indigenous children in care systems in both countries and the challenges of maintaining cultural connections. The article concludes with a brief comparative analysis identifying similarities and differences in child welfare systems in both countries.

  8. Concluding Thoughts: Observing, Promoting, Evaluating, and Reviewing Research Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.

    1986-01-01

    When institutional personnel assess faculty research performance, they should consider the extent to which the institution rewards research, ways to encourage faculty to be productive, criteria for evaluating research performance, and the specific steps useful in reviewing research performance within academic units. (Author/MSE)

  9. Enhancing Ecological Thought Through Phenological Observation, Research, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Losleben, M.; Benton, L. M.

    2008-12-01

    Background The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles and phenology on the Nation's resources. Phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological phases, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of same or different species. Phenological data and models developed as part of the network can be applied to scientific research, education and outreach, as well as to stakeholders interested in agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management. The goal of the USA-NPN (www.usanpn.org) is to establish a nationwide science and monitoring program to better understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climatic variation, and to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. Results The NPN has a number of programs through which learners of all ages can observe and interpret their environment using phenology as a platform to facilitate understanding through active learning, engagement, and inquiry-based approaches. For example, since February 2008, the NPN-affiliated network Project BudBurst has registered almost 3000 people who are observing nearly 4000 plants across the continental US and are reporting their observations on-line. In addition, we are developing educational programs, modules, and activities applicable to all stages in the educational process from 'K to gray,' and are partnering with local, state, and federal governmental and non- governmental organizations on education/outreach programming. Dissemination of educational materials and information will be facilitated by the creation of an on-line clearing-house for phenology education and outreach. In sum, the NPN is developing a number of programs and products that will capitalize

  10. Dairy and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review of Recent Observational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Beth H

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of dairy, including milk, cheese and yogurt, has been associated with better quality of diet and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death globally. The purpose of this review is to examine recent literature on the relationship between dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality. Eighteen observational studies were reviewed, the results of which indicate that total dairy intake does not contribute to cardiovascular disease incidence or death. Based on available data, it appears that milk, cheese, and yogurt are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Data pertaining to dairy fat were inconclusive, but point to a potential protective effect of full-fat milk, cheese, and yogurt on risk of cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is a need to study specific well-defined foods, as opposed to calculating nutrients, in order to better understand these relationships. Future research need not replicate the body of literature on total dairy consumption and associated risk of disease, but rather should focus on the effects of individual dairy foods on cardiovascular events in male and female populations.

  11. [Quality management and practice-oriented research in a clinic-network of mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, F; Arnhold-Kerri, S

    2010-04-01

    The Research Network Prevention and Rehabilitation for Mothers and Children is an association of currently 24 rehabilitation centres for mothers, fathers and their children, and a scientific team at the Hannover Medical School. The Research Network combines practice-oriented research on mother and child health with the further development of treatment programmes and the implementation of internal quality management in mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001. The present paper describes the concept of the Research Network and the work contents addressed over the last three years. The advantages and disadvantages of this association and the changes initiated in practice were evaluated from the point of view of 19 quality managers of the participating clinics. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, and a qualitative content analysis was performed in order to quantify the responses. The concept of the Research Network has proven successful. In the view of the quality managers of the clinics, implementation of DIN EN ISO 9001 has lead to structuring of the processes, improved internal communication, and increased motivation in the team. The major obstacles were the lack of time and human resources. In all clinics, the participation in practice-related research projects und scientifically monitored concept development has contributed to optimizing everyday practice. The exchange between the quality managers in external quality circle meetings was of central importance. The conjunction of internal quality management, practice-related research and concept development in a network can be recommended also for other associations of clinics, health centres or medical practices.

  12. Sociocognitive determinants of observed and self-reported compliance to hand hygiene guidelines in child day care centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, T.P.; Erasmus, V.; Empelen, P. van; Looman, C.; Beeck, E.F. van; Tjon-A-Tsien, A.; Richardus, J.H.; Voeten, H.A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although hand hygiene (HH) has proven to be an effective measure to prevent infections, HH compliance is generally low. We assessed sociocognitive determinants of caregivers' HH behavior in child day care centers (DCCs) to develop an effective HH intervention. Methods: Caregivers' compli

  13. Support System of Health Professionals as Observed in the Project of Home Care For the Child With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronseth, Evangeline; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Data acquired in personal interviews administered to physicians and nurses who participated in the first year of the Home Care for the Child with Cancer project provided descriptions of individual sources of social support. The results reveal a range of supportive mechanisms and networks within varied institutional contexts. (Author)

  14. Research of the Influence of Pregnant Women’s Food Nutrition on Maternal and Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the influence of targeted dietary modification and nutrition for pregnant women on maternal and child health. Through taking 200 pregnant women who had health files and accepted dietary guidance at Mary Maternity Hospital from March 2013 to June 2014 as the experimental group, we take 200 pregnant women who don’t accept the conventional filing of targeted dietary modification and nutrition as the control group. For the experimental group, we formulated targeted diet programs according to pregnant women’s weight and fetal growth and development so as to keep calories in a reasonable range. Compare the incidence rate of complication and delivery outcome of the two groups’ mothers and infants. The experiments show that both the incidence rate of complications and the cesarean section rate of the experimental group are lower than those of the control group and targeted dietary modification and nutrition for pregnant women has obvious positive significance on maternal and child health.

  15. The effect of handwashing at recommended times with water alone and with soap on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Luby

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Standard public health interventions to improve hand hygiene in communities with high levels of child mortality encourage community residents to wash their hands with soap at five separate key times, a recommendation that would require mothers living in impoverished households to typically wash hands with soap more than ten times per day. We analyzed data from households that received no intervention in a large prospective project evaluation to assess the relationship between observed handwashing behavior and subsequent diarrhea. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fieldworkers conducted a 5-hour structured observation and a cross-sectional survey in 347 households from 50 villages across rural Bangladesh in 2007. For the subsequent 2 years, a trained community resident visited each of the enrolled households every month and collected information on the occurrence of diarrhea in the preceding 48 hours among household residents under the age of 5 years. Compared with children living in households where persons prepared food without washing their hands, children living in households where the food preparer washed at least one hand with water only (odds ratio [OR]=0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.57-1.05, washed both hands with water only (OR=0.67; 95% CI=0.51-0.89, or washed at least one hand with soap (OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.19-0.47 had less diarrhea. In households where residents washed at least one hand with soap after defecation, children had less diarrhea (OR=0.45; 95% CI=0.26-0.77. There was no significant association between handwashing with or without soap before feeding a child, before eating, or after cleaning a child's anus who defecated and subsequent child diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that handwashing before preparing food is a particularly important opportunity to prevent childhood diarrhea, and that handwashing with water alone can significantly reduce childhood diarrhea.

  16. What role can child-care settings play in obesity prevention? A review of the evidence and call for research efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne S; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-09-01

    Given the widespread use of out-of-home child care and an all-time high prevalence of obesity among US preschool-aged children, it is imperative to consider the opportunities that child-care facilities may provide to reduce childhood obesity. This review examines the scientific literature on state regulations, practices and policies, and interventions for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, and for preventing obesity in preschool-aged children attending child care. Research published between January 2000 and July 2010 was identified by searching PubMed and MEDLINE databases, and by examining the bibliographies of relevant studies. Although the review focused on US child-care settings, interventions implemented in international settings were also included. In total, 42 studies were identified for inclusion in this review: four reviews of state regulations, 18 studies of child-care practices and policies that may influence eating or physical activity behaviors, two studies of parental perceptions and practices relevant to obesity prevention, and 18 evaluated interventions. Findings from this review reveal that most states lack strong regulations for child-care settings related to healthy eating and physical activity. Recent assessments of child-care settings suggest opportunities for improving the nutritional quality of food provided to children, the time children are engaged in physical activity, and caregivers' promotion of children's health behaviors and use of health education resources. A limited number of interventions have been designed to address these concerns, and only two interventions have successfully demonstrated an effect on child weight status. Recommendations are provided for future research addressing opportunities to prevent obesity in child-care settings.

  17. Parental opinions regarding an opt-out consent process for inpatient pediatric prospective observational research in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Danielle M; Roland, Allison P; Morris, Marilyn C

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore parental opinions regarding opt-out consent for inpatient pediatric prospective observational research in the US. Study design A series of handouts describing hypothetical observational research studies with opt-out consent were reviewed by parents of hospitalized children. A verbal survey explored parental opinions about the proposed consent process. Results A total of 166 parents reviewed the handout and completed the survey. Only 2/166 parents (1.2%) objected to the study described and another 10 (6.0%) cited concern about the privacy of their child’s medical information. A total of 157 parents were asked “Is it okay to tell you about this kind of research using this handout?” – 116 (74%) responded positively, 19 (12%) responded negatively, and 21 (13%) made an indeterminate or neutral response. When parents were asked to recommend a specific consent approach for observational research, 86 (52%) chose an opt-in approach, 54 (33%) chose opt-out, and 25 (15%) chose “no consent needed”. There were no significant associations between parental preferences and whether the child was admitted to the intensive care unit vs. pediatric ward, and no significant difference found based on type of handout reviewed (generic vs. study-specific). Conclusion Few parents voiced objection to a hypothetical opt-out consent process for inpatient pediatric prospective observational research. When asked to recommend a specific consent approach, though, approximately half chose an opt-in approach. These data suggest that an opt-out consent process for observational inpatient research is likely to be acceptable to parents, but assessment of an opt-out consent process in a real-world setting is needed. PMID:28176926

  18. Research on network integration technology of observation stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN; Yanjun; MA; Shangchang; ZHUANG; Ting; ZHANG; Sujuan

    2015-01-01

    According to the phenomenon of "four more"and"four low "problems in the observation stations,the surface-based meteorological observing system can’t adapt to the change of the adaptive observation equipment and reduce of business intensification. A station integrated system is proposed,w hich can be configured,connected and extended to all kinds of observation equipment. And the integrated processor is designed,supporting a variety of communication interface standards. Flexible configuration,connection and expansion betw een conventional and new type of meteorological observation equipment are supported. It is capable for online calibration and maintenance of observation equipment. The effectiveness of automatic observation equipment is totally achieved to provide basic information support for disaster prevention and mitigation and national economic development.

  19. Implementation research on community health workers’ provision of maternal and child health services in rural Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckow, Peter W; Kenny, Avi; White, Emily; Ballard, Madeleine; Dorr, Lorenzo; Erlandson, Kirby; Grant, Benjamin; Johnson, Alice; Lorenzen, Breanna; Mukherjee, Subarna; Ly, E John; McDaniel, Abigail; Nowine, Netus; Sathananthan, Vidiya; Sechler, Gerald A; Kraemer, John D; Siedner, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess changes in the use of essential maternal and child health services in Konobo, Liberia, after implementation of an enhanced community health worker (CHW) programme. Methods The Liberian Ministry of Health partnered with Last Mile Health, a nongovernmental organization, to implement a pilot CHW programme with enhanced recruitment, training, supervision and compensation. To assess changes in maternal and child health-care use, we conducted repeated cross-sectional cluster surveys before (2012) and after (2015) programme implementation. Findings Between 2012 and 2015, 54 CHWs, seven peer supervisors and three clinical supervisors were trained to serve a population of 12 127 people in 44 communities. The regression-adjusted percentage of children receiving care from formal care providers increased by 60.1 (95% confidence interval, CI: 51.6 to 68.7) percentage points for diarrhoea, by 30.6 (95% CI: 20.5 to 40.7) for fever and by 51.2 (95% CI: 37.9 to 64.5) for acute respiratory infection. Facility-based delivery increased by 28.2 points (95% CI: 20.3 to 36.1). Facility-based delivery and formal sector care for acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea increased more in agricultural than gold-mining communities. Receipt of one-or-more antenatal care sessions at a health facility and postnatal care within 24 hours of delivery did not change significantly. Conclusion We identified significant increases in uptake of child and maternal health-care services from formal providers during the pilot CHW programme in remote rural Liberia. Clinic-based services, such as postnatal care, and services in specific settings, such as mining areas, require additional interventions to achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:28250511

  20. Reducing stigma and discrimination to improve child health and survival in low- and middle-income countries: promising approaches and implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Usha S; Stangl, Anne L; De Zalduondo, Barbara; Brady, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    The social processes of stigmatization and discrimination can have complex and devastating effects on the health and welfare of families and communities, and thus on the environments in which children live and grow. The authors conducted a literature review to identify interventions for reducing the stigma and discrimination that impede child health and well-being in low- and middle-income countries, with a focus on nutrition, HIV/AIDS, neonatal survival and infant health, and early child development. Despite broad consensus on the importance of stigma and discrimination as barriers to access and uptake of health information and services, the authors found a dearth of research and program evaluations directly assessing effective interventions in the area of child health except in the area of reducing HIV-related stigma and discrimination. While the literature demonstrates that poverty and social exclusion are often stigma-laden and impede adult access to health information and services, and to education relevant to family planning, child rearing, nutrition, health promotion, and disease prevention, the child health literature does not document direct connections between these known mediators of child health and the stigmatization of either children or their caregivers. The child health field would greatly benefit from more research to understand and address stigma as it relates to child health and well-being. The authors suggest applying a framework, adapted from the HIV stigma field, to direct future research and the adaptation of existing strategies to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination to address social and health-related stigmas affecting children and their families.

  1. Hellos and How Are Yous: Predictors and Correlates of Communication between Staff and Families during Morning Drop-Off in Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Michal; Fletcher, Brooke A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The amount and quality of communication between staff and guardians in child care centers was examined using extensive naturalistic observations. Interactions between staff and more than 1,000 guardians who dropped their child off at their child care center were captured through a series of 20-s time-sampled observations.…

  2. The Familiar Observer: Seeing beyond the Expected in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Amy Feiker

    2015-01-01

    Reflection on subjectivity in the qualitative research process is fundamental to the methodology. Although much attention is paid to what to do (identify subjectivities), there is much less emphasis on how one should do this. Furthermore, a researcher engaged in an intimately familiar setting, such as a typical American classroom, faces the unique…

  3. Judicial Training and Research for Child Custody Litigation. Report To Accompany H.R. 1253. Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, 102d Congress, 2d Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    The purpose of House Resolution (HR) 1253, an amendment to the State Justice Institute (SJI) Act of 1984, is to authorize the SJI to carry out research on state judicial decisions and develop judicial training curricula related to child custody litigation involving domestic violence, and to disseminate the results of this research. The report…

  4. Considering New Paths for Success: An Examination of the Research and Methods on Urban School-University Partnerships Post-No Child Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Joseph E.; Hunt, Rebecca D.; Johnson, Laura Ruth; Wickman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines urban school-university partnership research after No Child Left Behind. Central to the review is an analysis in the trend of research methods utilized across studies. It was found that many studies are single-case studies or anecdotal. There are few quantitative, sustained qualitative, or mixed-methods studies represented in…

  5. Observations on positivism and pseudoscience in qualitative nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M

    1999-07-01

    In this paper I will examine the boundaries between positivism, interpretivism and pseudoscience, arguing that some qualitative researchers may risk the credibility of nursing research by utilizing concepts from the margins of science. There are two major threats to the perceived rigour and credibility of qualitative research in its many forms. First is a trend in some work towards a mystical view of both the methods and the content of the qualitative enterprise. This can be detected, I will argue, in the work of Rosemary Parse in particular. The second potentially damaging trend is almost its epistemological opposite, towards excessive reliance on precise procedures, strict definitions and verification exemplified by Juliet Corbin and others. I will suggest that this is nothing to fear, but something to be clear about. This is not social constructionism or interpretivism but a 'qualitative' version of positivism. The paper concludes that students and researchers should be cautious in the uncritical acceptance of theories and 'research' which approach the boundaries of pseudoscience on the one hand, and 'hard' science on the other.

  6. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  7. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.

  8. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  9. Quantifying discipline practices using absolute versus relative frequencies: clinical and research implications for child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139). Discipline practices (aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale. The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects.

  10. Teaching Observational Research in Introductory Psychology: Computerized and Lecture-based Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasko, Dawn G.; Kazmerski, Victoria A.

    1999-01-01

    Compares teaching observational research using a lecture format to using a software program called Courseware for Observational Research (COR). Finds that the COR-instructed class obtained a mean score of 78% on the examination, earned higher grades on the research reports, and rated the usefulness of conducting research more highly than the…

  11. Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

  12. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  13. Observations concerning Research Literature on Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einspruch, Eric L.; Forman, Bruce D.

    1985-01-01

    Identifies six categories of design and methodological errors contained in the 39 empirical studies of neurolinguistic programming (NLP) documented through April 1984. Representative reports reflecting each category are discussed. Suggestions are offered for improving the quality of research on NLP. (Author/MCF)

  14. Street Crossing: Observational Research and Developing Health Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Wyeth, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Students in communication, and particularly in advertising, are encouraged to value creativity. However, even in programs that value creativity, it can be difficult to encourage creativity in the process of research that guides communication efforts. The project described in this paper--"Street Crossing"--is used in upper-division and…

  15. Participant Observation, Anthropology Methodology and Design Anthropology Research Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Wendy; Løgstrup, Louise B.

    2014-01-01

    Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites of practice. They do so by combining participant…

  16. Observing the observers - uncovering the role of values in research assessments of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hermansen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the overall effects of organic food systems is important, but also a challenge because organic food systems cannot be fully assessed from one single research perspective. The aim of our research was to determine the role of values in assessments of organic food systems as a basis...... for discussing the implications of combining multiple perspectives in overall sustainability assessments of the food system. We explored how values were embedded in five research perspectives: (1) food science, (2) discourse analysis, (3) phenomenology, (4) neoclassical welfare economics, and (5) actor......-network theory. Value has various meanings according to different scientific perspectives. A strategy for including and balancing different forms of knowledge in overall assessments of the effects of food systems is needed. Based on the analysis, we recommend four courses of action: (1) elucidate values...

  17. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  18. Maternal depression, stress and feeding styles: towards a framework for theory and research in child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Behadli, Ana F; Sharp, Carla; Hughes, Sheryl O; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of rising rates of obesity in children and adults in the USA, and modest effect sizes for obesity interventions, the aim of the present narrative review paper is to extend the UNICEF care model to focus on childhood obesity and its associated risks with an emphasis on the emotional climate of the parent-child relationship within the family. Specifically, we extended the UNICEF model by applying the systems approach to childhood obesity and by combining previously unintegrated sets of literature across multiple disciplines including developmental psychology, clinical psychology and nutrition. Specifically, we modified the extended care model by explicitly integrating new linkages (i.e. parental feeding styles, stress, depression and mother's own eating behaviour) that have been found to be associated with the development of children's eating behaviours and risk of childhood obesity. These new linkages are based on studies that were not incorporated into the original UNICEF model, but suggest important implications for childhood obesity. In all, this narrative review offers important advancements to the scientific understanding of familial influences on children's eating behaviours and childhood obesity.

  19. [Observations and research on an extract of Inula viscosa Ait ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, L; Rolih, C

    1990-09-01

    The folk medical tradition ascribes to Inula viscosa (a suffrutescent plant of Compositae widely spread along the Mediterranean basin) balsamic, antipyretic, antiphlogistic and antiseptic properties. Pharmacological test on rabbits, made hyperpyretic in laboratory, gave satisfactory antipyretic results. Gas chromatographical separation from a high-boiling fraction of seven azulenes, two of them identified as 1,4-dimethyl-azulene (about 50% and chamazulene (32%), confirmed the antiphlogistic action ascribed to the plant. By the present research (solvent extraction, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography are described in detail) eucalyptol was identified in a fraction of essential oil obtained from fresh leaves of the plant. This datum supports the balsamic and antiseptic properties of Inula viscosa Ait.

  20. Recherches Sur La Psychologie de L'enfant de Milieu Defavorise. Rapport- synthese. (Research Relating to the Psychology of the Child in Disadvantaged Environments. Summary Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Charles E.; Bourbeau, Gerald

    Thirteen doctoral dissertations and five masters theses are summarized in this report of research on the disadvantaged child. Contained in each individual summary are the detailed descriptions of the experimental task, the results obtained and the analysis of these results. The eighteen individual theses are concerned with topics such as:…

  1. Creating a Three-Parent Child: An Educational Paradigm for the Responsible Conduct of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L. Fischbach

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The field of assisted reproduction is renowned for its remarkable advances and constant pushing forward of research boundaries in an effort to offer innovative and effective methods for enhancing fertility. Accompanying these advances, however, are physiological, psychological, and bioethical consequences that must be considered. These concomitant advances and consequences make assisted reproduction an excellent educational paradigm for inculcating responsible conduct in both research and clinical practice. Ultimately, responsible conduct rests on the ethical researcher and clinician. Here, we present the as-yet unapproved, contentious assisted reproductive technology of mitochondrial replacement transfer (MRT as an ideal educational platform to foster the responsible conduct of research by advancing dialogue among multidisciplinary scholars, researchers, and students. Using a likely future case, we present the basic science, legal, and ethical considerations, and the pedagogical principles and strategies for using MRT as an effective educational paradigm. Society will benefit when the ethical issues inherent in creating children with three genetic parents as well as germline interference are discussed across multiple academic levels that include researchers, legal experts, bioethicists, and government-appointed commissions. Furthermore, undergraduate and graduate students should be included because they will likely determine the ethical fates of these biotechnologies. While emerging assisted reproduction technologies such as MRT are highly complex and will take years to be readily available for patients in need, now is the time to consider their scientific, legal, ethical, and cultural/religious implications for ensuring the responsible conduct of research.

  2. Research of Earthquake Potential from Active Fault Observation in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien-Liang, C.; Hu, J. C.; Liu, C. C.; En, C. K.; Cheng, T. C. T.

    2015-12-01

    We utilize GAMIT/GLOBK software to estimate the precise coordinates for continuous GPS (CGPS) data of Central Geological Survey (CGS, MOEA) in Taiwan. To promote the software estimation efficiency, 250 stations are divided by 8 subnets which have been considered by station numbers, network geometry and fault distributions. Each of subnets include around 50 CGPS and 10 international GNSS service (IGS) stations. After long period of data collection and estimation, a time series variation can be build up to study the effect of earthquakes and estimate the velocity of stations. After comparing the coordinates from campaign-mode GPS sites and precise leveling benchmarks with the time series from continuous GPS stations, the velocity field is consistent with previous measurement which show the reliability of observation. We evaluate the slip rate and slip deficit rate of active faults in Taiwan by 3D block model DEFNODE. First, to get the surface fault traces and the subsurface fault geometry parameters, and then establish the block boundary model of study area. By employing the DEFNODE technique, we invert the GPS velocities for the best-fit block rotate rates, long term slip rates and slip deficit rates. Finally, the probability analysis of active faults is to establish the flow chart of 33 active faults in Taiwan. In the past two years, 16 active faults in central and northern Taiwan have been assessed to get the recurrence interval and the probabilities for the characteristic earthquake occurred in 30, 50 and 100 years.

  3. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Wietse A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i purpose of instrument, (ii construct measured, (iii contents of construct, (iv local idioms employed, (v structure of response sets, and (vi comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64 aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old. The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14; CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20. The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7, "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10, and

  4. Maternal alcohol consumption in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa – Research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. DeRoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa is a valuable resource for the study of the effects of maternal alcohol consumption. MoBa’s strengths include a population-based sample of over 107,000 pregnancies, concurrent and retrospective assessment of maternal prenatal and postnatal alcohol consumption, and prospective follow-up for pregnancy and child outcomes. Direct questions were asked on the frequency, dose and timing of maternal alcohol consumption. Screening tools including the T-ACE and partial Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index were used to identify women at risk for drinking during pregnancy. Comprehensive information on potential confounders was collected including maternal medical history, reproductive history, smoking, and other substance use. The detailed alcohol data allow the differentiation between non-binge and binge-level drinking, important for studying different thresholds of exposure. The availability of maternal and infant DNA enables the study of genetic differences in alcohol metabolism. Besides conventional analyses, sibship studies of differentially exposed siblings can be conducted among the offspring of over 15,000 women who participated in the study for more than one pregnancy. Although there are low levels of social disadvantage in Norway (poverty increases the risk of harms from prenatal drinking, binge drinking is a common pattern of consumption and previous studies found that drinking alcohol during pregnancy is not uncommon. Here, I provide a brief review of prenatal alcohol literature and measurement issues, describe MoBa alcohol variables, and discuss how MoBa can contribute to maternal alcohol research within the context of Norway.

  5. PUBLIC POLICY, CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AND BOYS AT RISK: CHALLENGING, ENDURING AND NECESSARY PARTNERSHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinney, Marvin; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Winn, Donna-Marie; Babcock, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Research findings documenting the issues and challenges of boys prebirth through age 5 years have barely penetrated the arena of public policy making nor has it permeated the public agenda of politicians, government, or other funding stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to articulate pathways for researchers to enter into the policy-making process. We review critical issues related to implementing the process of public policy. We argue that the policy process needs to be informed by more dynamic theoretical models of human development, and that researchers and clinicians need to be exposed more deeply to the processes required to inform and subsequently change public policy. We contend that most quantitative research on boys at risk occurs at the micro- and the mesosystem level rather than at the exo- and the macrosystem levels where structural societal policies embedded in economic and racial inequities contribute to risk. Researchers, clinicians, and policy makers need to create collaborative partnerships designed to develop, advocate, and implement more evidence-based policies designed to enhance the quality of life for boys at risk.

  6. An Update on the CHILDES/BIB (formerly ISU/CHILDES) Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Roy

    1990-01-01

    Describes the CHILDES/BIB electronic bibliographic database, its contents, and its relationship to the CHILDES database. CHILDES is a depository of child language corpora and is the publisher of CHAT (a transcription manual) and CLAN (an electronic package for child language research). (GLR)

  7. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom…

  8. Cause and Causality in Daycare Research: An Investigation of Group Differences in Swedish Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Holger; Lamb, Michael E.; Hwang, Carl-Philip

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates problems facing researchers trying to demonstrate causal relationships between types of nonparental care and differences between groups of Swedish children. Argues that efforts must be made to validate and interpret differences that are found. Indicates ways to avoid misinterpretation of differences that are attributable to…

  9. Equity and Early Childhood Education: Reclaiming the Child. A Research Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of English, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Equity can be described as the elimination of privilege, oppression, disparities, and disadvantage that historically have excluded those belonging to particular groups. This is the first and overarching of several research policy briefs around issues of equity. When taken as a whole, these briefs will create a space and open a dialogue around the…

  10. Literacy: A Route to Addressing Child Poverty? National Literacy Trust Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This short document reviews research into the role of low literacy in poverty and disadvantage. It sets out evidence for the impact of parental engagement in home learning and the significance of attitudes, aspirations and literacy development. The National Literacy Trust hopes that this is a useful resource for those with responsibility for, and…

  11. The value and contribution of qualitative research to inform nurse education and policy in response to the child's experience of hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sonya

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the value of qualitative research to inform nurse education and policy for the hospitalized child and young person (CYP). The theoretical issues and tensions inherent in qualitative research with children and young people's nursing are presented in conjunction with a discussion and analysis of how the epistemological and ontological concepts underpin and guide research. It is then followed by an exploration of their influence on enabling nurses to understand the CYP's perspective, before finally leading to an analysis of the impact on the development of policy and research.

  12. WHO Child Growth Standards Are Often Incorrectly Applied to Children Born Preterm in Epidemiologic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bassani, Diego G; Roth, Daniel E

    2015-11-01

    In epidemiologic research, there is no standard approach for accounting for gestational age (GA) at birth when interpreting postnatal anthropometric data in analyses of cohorts that include children born preterm (CBP). A scoping review was conducted to describe analytical approaches to account for GA at birth when applying the WHO Growth Standards (WHO-GS) to anthropometric data in epidemiologic studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science for studies that applied WHO-GS, included CBP in the study population, had access to data within 1 mo of age, and were published between 2006 and 2015 in English. Of the 80 included studies that used the WHO-GS, 80% (64 of 80) included all children regardless of GA, whereas 20% (16 of 80) restricted analyses that used WHO-GS to term-born children. Among the 64 studies that included all children, 53 (83%) used chronological age and 11 (17%) used corrected age for CBP. Of the 53 studies that used chronological age, 12 (23%) excluded data that were likely contributed by CBP (e.g., very low birth weight or extremely low outlying z scores) and 19 (36%) adjusted for or stratified by GA at birth in regression analyses. In summary, researchers commonly apply WHO-GS to CBP, usually based on chronological age. Methodologic challenges of analyzing data from CBP in the application of WHO-GS were rarely explicitly addressed. Further efforts are required to establish acceptable approaches to account for heterogeneity in GA at birth in the analysis of post-term anthropometric data in epidemiologic research.

  13. Shoestrings and bricolage: some notes on researching the impact of a child's death on family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Gordon; Dawson, Pam

    2002-04-01

    An earlier version of this paper appeared as the appendix to our recent book, An Intimate Loneliness: Supporting Bereaved Parents and Children (G. Riches & P. Dawson, 2000). In it, we attempt to offer a brief history of the processes we have gone through in taking a simple research question, developing it into a practical proposal, experiencing how it shifted as we explored it, accounting for the changes that our broader reading imposed on our perceptions of what we were doing, and, finally, how the data itself and our efforts to understand it, resulted in a set of broad theoretical propositions rather than any tight conclusions.

  14. Personal Reflections on Observational and Experimental Research Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen dramatic changes in childhood psychopathology research. The goal of this overview is to contrast observational and experimental research approaches; both have grown more complex such that the boundary between these approaches may be blurred. Both are essential. Landmark observational studies with long-term follow-up…

  15. CLASS-Infant: An Observational Measure for Assessing Teacher-Infant Interactions in Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Kristen Roorbach; Cabell, Sonia Q.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The growing body of literature demonstrating the importance of quality interactions with caregivers to infant development coupled with the increasing number of infants spending time in classroom settings highlights the need for a measure of interpersonal relationships between infants and caregivers. This article introduces a new…

  16. [Human resources management in a mother and child department: a research study on new nursing and obstetric staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferrazza, Silvia; Papalia, Monica; Rossi, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    To put "human resources" in the first place in a working context is an ambitious target. The basic idea is the give more value to the human and professional contribution of each individual in order to create an alliance between an organization and the people who work in it. In this context, the nursing coordinator plays a key role in inserting new staff. In this delicate phase, the expectations of new staff may or may not be fulfilled. The aim of the present study is to examine the possible difficulties that may occur during this phase. The study included 175 new staff and 175 nurses, obstetricians and pediatric nurses already at work for a total of 350. Research instruments consisted of two anonymous ad hoc questionnaires, the first issued to new staff at the Mother and Child Department, the second to staff already working in the same department. Results showed a lack of sensitivity towards new staff and a lack of dedicated procedures to help them during this delicate phase which is fundamental for their future career. Key words: newly assumed staff, work insertion, nurses.

  17. Peer Observation as teaching evaluation approach: An Attempt to review the research area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michek Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review sets out to map research relating to the concept of peer observation when teachers observe lesson of another teacher which is on same level. The review builds on journal papers included in the Web of Science and/or ERIC databases. The study uses documents analysis when the units of analysis are concepts of peer observation, research aims and research methods of studies. The review aims to answer the following questions: What are the objectives of studies focused on peer observation of teacher in the studies? Which methods and approaches do the studies use? What are the results of these studies? The authors conclude the review with a summary of its findings and a discussion. There are a number of research instruments and methods for investigating peer observation by qualitative approach, but the challenge now is to develop ways of quantitative research approach.

  18. Review on the Analysis and Research of Fog Physicochemical Characteristic Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to review the analysis and research on the physicochemical characteristic observation aspect of fog. [Method] To understand the roles of fog microphysical characteristic and chemical reaction on the formation, dissipation, development of fog, the interaction between the microphysical structure, chemical characteristic of fog and the aerosol in the environment, the analysis and research on the micro-physicochemical observation aspect of fog were mainly introduced here. We also ...

  19. Research-Based Recommendations to Improve Child Nutrition in Schools and Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandner, Laura D.; Hair, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This brief discusses aspects of healthy diets for children in elementary and middle school. It summarizes the current guidelines and recommendations for child nutrition and provides information for schools and out-of-school time programs about how to measure child nutrition. (Contains 27 endnotes.)

  20. Research Outcomes of Prenatal Substance Exposure and the Need To Review Policies and Procedures Regarding Child Abuse Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P.

    2001-01-01

    Clarifies policy options for reporting and serving children testing positive at birth for controlled substances. Advocates the strengthening of existing state policies regarding child abuse reporting and response. (JPB)

  1. Some questions on the relationship between theory and research in the application of method of observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the gradual abandonment of the efforts to verify hypotheses and complex theoretical assumptions in the social sciences by observation. The first section shows the classical understanding that emphasized the importance of the theoretically directed observation. The second section shows the efforts towards inclusion of the observed in the interpretation of observations. The third section contains an analysis of the impact of today’s strict division on the qualitative and quantitative methodology. This influence can be seen in a complete separation of the structured observation and participatory observation, the disintegration of observation as a research procedure, its replacement by ethnography and case study method, as well as abandoning more general theoretical ambition within qualitative methodology. The fourth section analyzes the epistemological consequences of efforts to understand the fieldwork primarily as a power relationship and to transform the observed into the subjects of research. Development of the attitudes on the relationship between theory and research in the application of methods of observation in social sciences is associated with theoretical eclecticism in the field of contemporary sociological theory and distancing from philosophy of science with its understanding of the role of research programs and research traditions in the field of growth of scientific knowledge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179035: Izazovi nove društvene integracije u Srbiji: koncepti i akteri

  2. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth De Smit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. Aims To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs and Research Governance Offices (RGOs across Australia. Methods In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA, for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Results Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a “National Ethics Application Form” and three a “Low Negligible Risk” form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22 and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days. Conclusion We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently

  3. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  4. Research Ethics and Ethical Research: Some Observations from the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to achieve two objectives. Firstly, it elicits some of the concerns for universal research ethics. It is argued that ethical codes are never universal; they are geographically sensitive. As such, it is important to "develop authentic individual responses to potentially unique circumstances". Secondly, in going beyond a…

  5. AFSC/ABL: Little Port Walter Marine Research Station Supply Run Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In November, 2006, Oceanographic observations were initiated during the resupply cruises to the Little Port Walter Research Station on lower Baranof Island,...

  6. Soreness during non-music activities is associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems: an observational study of 731 child and adolescent instrumentalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ranelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is exposure to non-music-related activities associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in young instrumentalists? Is non-music-activity-related soreness associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in this group of instrumentalists? Design: Observational study using a questionnaire and physical measures. Participants: 859 instrumentalists aged 7 to 17 years from the School of Instrumental Music program. Results: Of the 731 respondents who completed the questionnaire adequately, 412 (56% experienced instrument-playing problems; 219 (30% had symptoms severe enough to interfere with normal playing. Children commonly reported moderate exposure to non-music-related activities, such as watching television (61%, vigorous physical activity (57%, writing (51% and computer use (45%. Greater exposure to any non-music activity was not associated with playing problems, with odds ratios ranging from 1.01 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.5 for watching television to 2.08 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.3 for intensive hand activities. Four hundred and seventy eight (65% children reported soreness related to non-music activities, such as vigorous physical activity (52%, writing (40%, computer use (28%, intensive hand activities (22%, electronic game use (17% and watching television (15%. Non-music-activity-related soreness was significantly associated with instrument playing problems, adjusting for gender and age, with odds ratios ranging from 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.9 for soreness whilst watching television, to 4.3 (95% CI 2.6 to 7.1 for soreness during intensive hand activities. Conclusion: Non-music-activity-related soreness co-occurs significantly with playing problems in young instrumentalists. The finding of significant co-occurrence of music and non-music-related soreness in respondents in this study suggests that intervention targets for young instrumentalists could include risk factors previously identified in the general child and adolescent

  7. Preventative lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and young child feeding practices: findings from qualitative research in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesorogol, Carolyn; Jean-Louis, Sherlie; Green, Jamie; Iannotti, Lora

    2015-12-01

    To prevent undernutrition in an urban slum in Haiti, a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) was introduced through a randomised control trial. Food supplementation for young child nutrition has a long history in Haiti, but there is little empirical information regarding the effects of supplementation on young child feeding practices. One of the concerns raised by supplementation is that it may disrupt other positive feeding practices such as breastfeeding and use of other complementary foods, with negative consequences for child nutrition. We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with mother-baby pairs from the three comparison groups: control, 3-month LNS supplementation and 6-month LNS supplementation. Findings from those in the LNS groups indicated high acceptance and satisfaction with LNS and perceptions that it positively affects child health and development. LNS was integrated into and enhanced ongoing complementary feeding practices. The effects of LNS use on duration and perceived quantity of breastfeeding were variable, but generally, breastfeeding was maintained during and after the intervention. Interviews generated insights into beliefs regarding infant and young child feeding practices such as introduction and use of complementary foods, and breastfeeding duration, exclusivity and cessation. Implications for the use of LNS in public health nutrition programmes are discussed.

  8. Child Shona noun prefixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R Sibanda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article falls under the broad area of child language acquisition and it aims to present an analysis of the acquisition of Shona noun class prefixes. The data collection procedures involved fortnightly observation and audio-recording of the spontaneous speech of three children who were acquiring Shona as a mother tongue. The results of this investigation confirm findings from earlier studies and show that noun class prefixes are acquired in three partially overlapping stages. In the first stage, nouns are produced without class prefixes and as time progresses, in the second stage, they are produced with them but in the form of an onsetless vowel. In the third stage, nouns are produced with full and phonologically appropriate class prefixes. The empirical and theoretical findings of this investigation are expected to broaden and deepen our knowledge of morphology and the phonology-morphology interface in the context of child language acquisition. As there are few descriptive and theoretical studies on the acquisition of Shona, this research recommends more studies on this subject.

  9. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  10. Music in child care

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2007-01-01

    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  11. Missed opportunities in child healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jonker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various policies in health, such as Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses, were introduced to enhance integrated service delivery in child healthcare. During clinical practice the researcher observed that integrated services may not be rendered.Objectives: This article describes the experiences of mothers that utilised comprehensive child health services in the Cape Metropolitan area of South Africa. Services included treatment for diseases; preventative interventions such as immunisation; and promotive interventions, such as improvement in nutrition and promotion of breastfeeding.Method: A qualitative, descriptive phenomenological approach was applied to explore the experiences and perceptions of mothers and/or carers utilising child healthcare services. Thirty percent of the clinics were selected purposively from the total population. A convenience purposive non-probability sampling method was applied to select 17 mothers who met the criteria and gave written consent. Interviews were conducted and recorded digitally using an interview guide. The data analysis was done using Tesch’s eight step model.Results: Findings of the study indicated varied experiences. Not all mothers received information about the Road to Health book or card. According to the mothers, integrated child healthcare services were not practised. The consequences were missed opportunities in immunisation, provision of vitamin A, absence of growth monitoring, feeding assessment and provision of nutritional advice.Conclusion: There is a need for simple interventions such as oral rehydration, early recognition and treatment of diseases, immunisation, growth monitoring and appropriate nutrition advice. These services were not offered diligently. Such interventions could contribute to reducing the incidence of child morbidity and mortality.

  12. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  13. Recognizing the Child as Knowledgeable Other: Intergenerational Learning Research to Consider Child-to-Adult Influence on Parent and Family Eco-Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istead, Laura; Shapiro, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a review of current research used to shape and guide an investigation into the nature of the influence of children as agents of intergenerational learning in environmental studies. Five children and their mothers were interviewed regarding their views about children's influences on parent and family eco-knowledge and…

  14. Outlooks on Children and Media: Child Rights, Media Trends, Media Research, Media Literacy, Child Participation, Declarations. Children and Media Violence Yearbook, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Feilitzen, Cecilia; Bucht, Catharina

    Focusing on media literacy, this yearbook compiles information on recent and current trends in media effects, including research on children and media, declarations related to the area, and a selection of relevant organizations and Web sites. The report first delineates children's rights as stipulated in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the…

  15. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Ethics and Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chen, Aileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hoffman, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tina Shih, Ya-Chen [Department of Medicine, Section of Hospital Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, and Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yu, James B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  16. Considerations for observational research using large data sets in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E; Chen, Aileen; Chen, Ronald C; Hoffman, Karen; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Smith, Benjamin D; Yu, James B

    2014-09-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  17. The effects of television advertising on materialism, parent-child conflict, and unhappiness: A review of research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a model on the unintended effects of advertising. This model describes the existing hypotheses about the impact of advertising on (a) materialism, (b) parent–child conflict, and (c) unhappiness. The validity of each of these hypotheses was investigated using a vote-coun

  18. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  19. Does Child Labor Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioral Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy. Policy Research Working Papers No. 2116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravallion, Martin; Wodon, Quentin

    This paper examines whether children sent to work in rural Bangladesh are caught in a "poverty trap," with the extra income from child labor coming at the expense of the children's longer-term prospects of escaping poverty through education. The poverty trap argument depends on children's work being substitutable for schooling. Casual…

  20. Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry

    2013-01-01

    as requiring a new model of how advertising communicates and persuades, which, as the authors' textbooks explain, is sheer nonsense and contrary to the goal of integrated marketing. We provide in this article a translation of practitioners' jargon into more scientifically acceptable terminology as well...... product or service or to achieve a higher price that consumers are willing to pay than would obtain in the absence of advertising. What has changed in recent years is the notable worsening of the academic-practitioner divide, which has seen academic advertising researchers pursuing increasingly...... unrealistic laboratory studies, textbook writers continuing to ignore practitioners' research appearing in trade publications and practitioner-oriented journals, and practitioners peeling off into high-sounding but meaningless jargon. also evident is the tendency to regard the new electronic media...

  1. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  2. Multiple Child Care Arrangements and Child Well Being: Early Care Experiences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Chen, Jen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one quarter of Australian children under the age of 5 experience multiple non-parental child care arrangements. Research focused on the relationship between multiple child care arrangements and child socioemotional development is limited, particularly in Australia. Evidence from the United States and Europe has linked multiple child care…

  3. Review of Domestic Researches on Child Sexual Abuse%国内儿童性侵犯问题研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 桂莲

    2014-01-01

    Currently, child sexual a buse is becoming a serious social problem. The present domestic studies focus on five aspects including the concept analysis, incidence rate investigation, the impact on vic-tims, reasons to the problem and measures to resolve the issue, which reflect the development level and trend of researches on child sexual abuse. However, it is crucial to make a forward step to ensure the object of the research, improve the research method, expand the scope of the research as well as refine the classifi-cation of psychological consultation for injured children.%当前,儿童性侵犯日益成为一个社会重视的严肃问题。目前国内研究集中在概念分析、发生率调查结果、对受害者的影响、发生原因以及相关对策方面,呈现出了儿童性侵犯研究的发展水平和总体趋势,但研究对象的细化、研究方法的完善、研究范围和视角的扩大以及受害儿童心理辅导的分类细化等问题有待进一步加强。

  4. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  5. Relational interventions for child maltreatment: past, present, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Gravener-Davis, Julie A; Guild, Danielle J; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-11-01

    It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed, with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment.

  6. The American Association of Variable Star Observers: Serving the Research Community in 2010 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Henden, A. A.; Davis, K.; Kinne, R.; Watson, C.; Saladyga, M.; Waagen, E.; Beck, S.; Menali, G.; Price, A.; Turner, R.

    2010-05-01

    The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) holds the largest single online database of variable star data in the world, collected from thousands of amateur and professional observers during the past century. One of our core missions is to preserve and distribute these data to the research community in service to the science of variable star astronomy. But as an organization, the AAVSO is much more than a data archive. Our services to the research community include: monitoring for and announcement of major astronomical events like novae and supernovae; organization and management of observing campaigns; support for satellite and other TOO observing programs by the professional community; creation of comparison star sequences and generation of charts for the observer community; and observational and other support for the amateur, professional, and educator communities in all things related to variable stars. As we begin a new century of variable star astronomy we invite you to take advantage of the services the AAVSO can provide, and to become a part of our organization yourselves. In this poster, we highlight some of the most important services the AAVSO can provide to the professional research community, as well as suggest ways in which your research may be enhanced with support from the AAVSO.

  7. Child-Mother and Child-Father Play Interaction Patterns with Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…

  8. The relation of parenting, child temperament, and attachment security in early childhood to social competence at school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Kristin M; McGoey, Kara E; Koziol, Natalie A; Schreiber, James B

    2013-10-01

    A wealth of research demonstrates the importance of early parent-child interactions on children's social functioning. However, less is known about the interrelations between child and parent characteristics and parent-child interactions in early childhood. Moreover, few studies have broadly examined the longitudinal relations between these constructs and social competence. This study is an examination of the relations between parent responsiveness, negativity, and emotional supportiveness, attachment security, and child temperament, and their impact on children's social competence from infancy to kindergarten entry. The sample was derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort and included 6850 parent-child dyads. Observational and rating scale data were used. The proposed model was nearly fully supported by path analysis, and it provides insight into the complex relations between early parenting behaviors, child characteristics, and parent-child interactions in the development of social competence.

  9. Children's selective attention to pain and avoidance behaviour: the role of child and parental catastrophizing about pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated selective attention to pain in children, its implications for child avoidance behaviour, and the moderating role of dimensions comprising child and parental catastrophizing about pain (ie, rumination, magnification, and helplessness). Participants were 59 children (31 boys) aged 10-16 years and one of their parents (41 mothers). Children performed a dot-probe task in which child facial pain displays of varying pain expressiveness were presented. Child avoidance behaviour was indexed by child pain tolerance during a cold-pressor task. Children and parents completed measures of child and parent pain catastrophizing, respectively. Findings indicated that both the nature of child selective attention to pain and the impact of selective attention upon child avoidance behaviour were differentially sensitive to specific dimensions of child and parental catastrophizing. Specifically, findings showed greater tendency to shift attention away from pain faces (i.e.,, attentional avoidance) among children reporting greater pain magnification. A similar pattern was observed in terms of parental characteristics, such that children increasingly shifted attention away from pain with increasing levels of parental rumination and helplessness. Furthermore, child attentional avoidance was associated with greater avoidance behaviour (i.e., lower pain tolerance) among children reporting high levels of pain magnification and those whose parents reported greater rumination about pain. The current findings corroborate catastrophizing as a multidimensional construct that may differentially impact outcomes and attest to the importance of assessing both child and parental characteristics in relation to child pain-related attention and avoidance behaviour. Further research directions are discussed.

  10. [Selection of appropriate design in the development of interventional and observational research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinotsu, Shiro

    2014-04-01

    Selecting the appropriate study design is crucial when developing clinical research. A fundamental decision is whether to collect data to address the research question using an observational study or to apply an intervention and measure outcomes in a clinical trial. There are two well-known types of observational studies: cohort studies and cross-sectional studies. In the former, a cohort of subjects is observed over time. In prospective cohort studies, observations begin in the present and follow subjects for a given time period. In retrospective cohort studies, information is collected at time intervals in the past. The third potential study design is the case-control study. In such studies, the researcher compares a group of subjects who have a disease or some other outcome with a group without that characteristic. Among clinical trial options, the randomized clinical trial is thought to be higher evidence level than other clinical trials. Developing clinical research begins with the research question, which specifies the primary endpoint, explanatory variables, and the target population. Then, the clinical question and study outline are expanded to the study protocol and case report form. In developing the study protocol, the investigators consider study design, study size, data quality, and feasibility.

  11. Understanding motivations to participate in an observational research study: Why do patients enroll?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Michael C; Beale, Eleanor E; Suarez, Laura; Beach, Scott R; Mastromauro, Carol A; Celano, Christopher M; Moore, Shannon V; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    By understanding common motivations for participating in observational research studies, clinicians may better understand the perceived benefits of research participation from their clients' perspective. We enrolled 164 cardiac patients in a study about the effects of gratitude and optimism. Two weeks post-enrollment, participants completed a four-item questionnaire regarding motivations for study enrollment. Altruistic motivation ranked highest, while intellectual, health-related, and financial motivations rated lower. Four subgroups of participants emerged, each with distinct characteristics and different priorities for participating. These findings may help front-line clinicians to understand which motivations for participation apply to their clients who enroll in non-treatment-based research projects.

  12. K-12 Students as Ground Observers of Contrails in Support of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lin H.; Moore, Susan W.; Fischer, Joyce D.; Sepulveda, Roberto; Clark, C.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists are very interested in the formation of contrails, both the type and the coverage. To be detected by a satellite-born instrument, the contrail must be of a certain size, which means that some contrails go undetected. The K-12 education community is assisting with the study of contrails by participating in a network of student observers. To provide a venue for student contrail observations, the GLOBE Contrails protocol was developed as part of the GLOBE Atmospheric Science protocols. The first year of observations has provided a rich resource for researcher.

  13. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nicolas; Reddel, Helen; Martin, Richard; Brusselle, Guy; Papi, Alberto; Thomas, Mike; Postma, Dirjke; Thomas, Vicky; Rand, Cynthia; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2014-02-01

    Real-world research can use observational or clinical trial designs, in both cases putting emphasis on high external validity, to complement the classical efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high internal validity. Real-world research is made necessary by the variety of factors that can play an important a role in modulating effectiveness in real life but are often tightly controlled in RCTs, such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments, adherence, inhalation technique, access to care, strength of doctor-caregiver communication, and socio-economic and other organizational factors. Real-world studies belong to two main categories: pragmatic trials and observational studies, which can be prospective or retrospective. Focusing on comparative database observational studies, the process aimed at ensuring high-quality research can be divided into three parts: preparation of research, analyses and reporting, and discussion of results. Key points include a priori planning of data collection and analyses, identification of appropriate database(s), proper outcomes definition, study registration with commitment to publish, bias minimization through matching and adjustment processes accounting for potential confounders, and sensitivity analyses testing the robustness of results. When these conditions are met, observational database studies can reach a sufficient level of evidence to help create guidelines (i.e., clinical and regulatory decision-making).

  14. Developing a Child and Youth Mental Health and Addictions Framework for Yukon as a Foundation for Policy Reform: Engaging Stakeholders Through a Policy and Research Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Mulvale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In April 2015 the Yukon Government released a new child and youth mental health and addictions framework (CYMHAF to improve territory-wide access to basic mental health care and coordination of services for children and families. Yukon’s limited resource base and dispersed population challenges delivery of child and youth mental health and addictions services to small rural communities where needs are often high as a legacy of residential school policies. The objective of CYMHAF is to improve outcomes by identifying and capitalizing on current strengths, and reallocating existing resources to better meet the mental health needs of Yukon youth and families. Access, coordination and quality problems associated with existing services, growing public awareness of mental health issues, and a new national policy framework designed to assist provinces and territories, led Yukon policy makers to partner with researchers to capitalize on a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR strategic grant initiative. CYMHAF was based on extensive stakeholder engagement, best evidence and advice from key informants in other jurisdictions, and offers a cascading model of service delivery through which basic mental health care can be provided by existing health and human service workers in communities. These workers will be trained in child and youth mental health competencies, and will have electronic linkages and support to integrated teams of primary care providers who will be located in regional hubs once fully implemented, and to specialists in Whitehorse and out of Territory. Implementation is underway with some training of front line Health and Social Service and First Nations workers, a new mental wellness strategy for Yukon founded on CYMHAF scheduled for release in spring 2016, and may be accelerated by federal government promises of a new Health Accord and a new relationship with indigenous people.

  15. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  16. Generalizability and decision studies to inform observational and experimental research in classroom settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2014-11-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are necessary to achieve a criterion level of reliability. We conducted G and D studies using observational data from a randomized control trial focusing on social and academic participation of students with severe disabilities in inclusive secondary classrooms. Results highlight the importance of anchoring observational decisions to reliability estimates from existing or pilot data sets. We outline steps for conducting G and D studies and address options when reliability estimates are lower than desired.

  17. Integrating research infrastructures for solid Earth science in Europe: the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, M.; Giardini, D.; EPOS-PP Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) coordinates and integrates the research infrastructures in the European-Mediterranean region, to promote innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. The EPOS 30-year plan aims at integrating the currently scattered, but highly advanced European facilities into one distributed, coherent multidisciplinary Research Infrastructure allowing sustainable long-term Earth science research strategies and an effective coordinated European-scale monitoring facility for solid Earth dynamics taking full advantage of new e-science opportunities. EPOS has been approved by ESFRI (the European Scientific Forum for Research Infrastructures) as one of the critical European Research Infrastructures, and the EPOS Preparatory Phase is supported by the European Commission FP7 program. The cooperation between EPOS and similar US infrastructures (i.e. Earthscope) will be ensured by dedicated NSF-EC funding. EPOS is integrating data from permanent national and regional geophysical monitoring networks (seismological, GPS), with the observations from "in-situ" observatories (volcano observatories, in-situ fault zone test sites) and temporary-monitoring and laboratory experiments through a cyber-infrastructure for data mining and processing, and facilities for data integration, archiving and exchange. The vision is to integrate these existing research infrastructures in order to increase the accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data from monitoring networks, laboratory experiments and computational simulations enhancing worldwide interoperability in Earth Science by establishing a leading integrated European infrastructure and services. More recently the EPOS and the satellite Earth Observation communities are collaborating in order to promote the integration of data from in-situ monitoring

  18. Exploring Researchers in Dialogue: Linguistic and Educational Perspectives on Observational Data from a Sixth Grade Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helg Fottland

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on a collaborative process between two researchers from different backgrounds conducting a joint-venture classroom observation project focusing on language, communication and special education. Focusing on the connection between explorative learning situations and dialogue in relation to children's learning and identity development, the researchers cooperate on all levels in the research process. The article compares findings when approaching data from two different professional traditions, linguistics and education. The main focus is how each of the researchers approaches the data analysis. The combining of approaches in interpreting and writing is also discussed. Narratives and spoken dialogues are vital in this work; transcripts of video material from a primary school classroom are used as illustrations.

  19. The change and development of statistical methods used in research articles in child development 1930-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køppe, Simo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of developmental psychology has been characterized by the use of different quantitative and qualitative methods and procedures. But how does the use of methods and procedures change over time? This study explores the change and development of statistical methods used in articles published in Child Development from 1930 to 2010. The methods used in every article in the first issue of every volume were categorized into four categories. Until 1980 relatively simple statistical methods were used. During the last 30 years there has been an explosive use of more advanced statistical methods employed. The absence of statistical methods or use of simple methods had been eliminated.

  20. The Change and Development of Statistical Methods Used in Research Articles in Child Development 1930-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køppe, Simo; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of developmental psychology has been characterized by the use of different quantitative and qualitative methods and procedures. But how does the use of methods and procedures change over time? This study explores the change and Development of statistical methods used in articles...... published in Child Development from 1930 to 2010. The methods used in every article in the first issue of every volume were categorized into four categories. Until 1980 relatively simple statistical methods were used. During the last 30 years there has been an explosive use of more advanced statistical...... methods employed. The absence of statistical methods or use of simplemethods had been eliminated....

  1. Research Progress in Child and Adolescent Depression%儿童青少年抑郁症研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易俊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童青少年抑郁症与成人抑郁症临床特征差异,为儿童青少年抑郁症的临床诊断提供依据。方法:将儿童青少年抑郁症306例与成人抑郁症314例进行对照研究。结果:儿童青少年组以违拗、不听话、躯体症状、违反纪律、发脾气、哭闹、易激惹、自伤行为等为突出表现;成年组则以自责自罪、自卑、自杀观念及行为、妄想为主,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:儿童青少年抑郁症早期症状不典型,当出现过激行为表现时,常被简单地理解为是青春期叛逆或成长痛苦,而未被引起足够重视,以至酿成很多悲剧。%Objective:To study the child and adolescent depression and adult depression clinical characteristics difference,provide the basis for clinical diagnosis of child and adolescent depression.Method:Child and adolescent depression of 306 cases and 314 patients with adult depression controlled study.Result:Children and adolescent depression often occurred defy,not obedient,somatic symptoms,violation of discipline,temper tantrums,crying, irritability,self-injury behavior;adult depression often occurred self-accusation and self-guilty,inferiority,suicidal thoughts and behavior,and delusion, there were statistics differences(P<0.05).Conclusion:The atypical early symptoms of child and adolescent depression,when appear aggressive behavior is often simply understood as a teenage rebellion or growing pain,is not cause enough attention,so many tragic.

  2. Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Child Dissociation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of the Child Dissociative Checklist found it to be a reliable and valid observer report measure of dissociation in children, including sexually abused girls and children with dissociative disorder and with multiple personality disorder. The checklist, which is appended, is intended as a clinical screening instrument and research measure…

  3. Motor imagery during action observation: A brief review of evidence, theory and future research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lloyd Eaves

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI and action observation (AO have traditionally been viewed as two separate techniques, which can both be used alongside physical practice to enhance motor learning and rehabilitation. Their independent use has been shown to be effective, and there is clear evidence that the two processes can elicit similar activity in the motor system. Building on these well-established findings, research has now turned to investigate the effects of their combined use. In this article, we first review the available neurophysiological and behavioral evidence for the effects of combined action observation and motor imagery (‘AO+MI’ on motor processes. We next describe a conceptual framework for their combined use, and then discuss several areas for future research into AO+MI processes. In this review, we advocate a more integrated approach to AO+MI techniques than has previously been adopted by movement scientists and practitioners alike. We hope this early review of an emergent body of research, along with a related set of research questions, can inspire new work in this area. We are optimistic that future research will further confirm if, how, and when this combined approach to AO+MI can be more effective in motor learning and rehabilitation settings, relative to the more traditional application of AO or MI independently.

  4. Evaluation of the Earth Systems Research Laboratory's global Observing System Simulation Experiment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki C. Privé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE system has been implemented at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Earth Systems Research Laboratory in the US as part of an international Joint OSSE effort. The setup of the OSSE consists of a Nature Run from a 13-month free run of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts operational model, synthetic observations developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modelling and Assimilation Office, and an operational version of the NCEP Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation data assimilation and Global Forecast System numerical weather prediction model. Synthetic observations included both conventional observations and the following radiance observations: AIRS, AMSU-A, AMSU-B, HIRS2, HIRS3, MSU, GOES radiance and OSBUV. Calibration was performed by modifying the error added to the conventional synthetic observations to achieve a match between data denial impacts on the analysis state in the OSSE system and in the real data system. Following calibration, the performance of the OSSE system was evaluated in terms of forecast skill scores and impact of observations on forecast fields.

  5. The psychology of music in gambling environments: an observational research note

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD; Parke, J

    2005-01-01

    Effects of the listening context on responses to music largely have been neglected despite the prevalence of music in our everyday lives. Furthermore, there has been no research on the role of music in gambling environments (e.g., casinos, amusement arcades) despite gambling's increased popularity as a leisure pursuit. An exploratory observational study in gambling arcades was carried out to investigate (i) how music is used as background music in amusement arcades, and (ii) how slot machines...

  6. 儿童家庭教育问题研究的内容分析%Child and Family Education Research Content Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兰; 杨晓萍

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis method as a text-oriented analysis and evaluation methods have been used in the field of education.Child and family education has always been a hot topic of domestic academic research,relevant research results rich.This paper uses content analysis of 1981-2010 between the pool of knowledge resources in China-KNCI series database to "Child and Family Education" the theme of 205 for search of the literature.The results show that from two aspects: the issue of family education of children for quantitative analysis,study of the problem involves many disciplines,research literature showing increasing trend of the year;and qualitative analysis found that the theoretical basis of existing research,research methods and showed a wide range of content like state.Future research should focus on issues of context,comprehensive and dynamic,and gradually improve the quality of research,the integration of multi-disciplinary research to enhance the prediction of the forward-looking.%文章运用内容分析法,对1981—2011年间中国知识资源总库—CNKI系列数据库以"儿童家庭教育"为搜索主题的205篇文献进行分析。分析结果从两个方面表明:儿童家庭教育问题研究的定量分析发现,该问题的研究涉及诸多学科,研究文献呈现年度递增态势;而定性分析发现,已有研究的理论基础、研究方法和研究内容均呈现多元化样态。未来的研究,应侧重问题研究的情境性、全面性和动态性,逐步提高研究的质量,实现多学科研究的融合,加强前瞻性的预测研究。

  7. Narrative Structure and Emotional References in Parent-Child Reminiscing: Associations with Child Gender, Temperament, and the Quality of Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Kelly K.; Choi, Eunsil; Wong, Maria S.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined child gender, temperament, and the quality of parent-child interactions as predictors of narrative style and references to emotion during mother-child and father-child reminiscing. Although models predicting parents' narrative styles were non-significant, results revealed significant interactions between parental…

  8. CHILD ABUSE, FENOMENA DAN KEBIJAKAN DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Suci Wulansari

    2012-01-01

    Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF) results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope...

  9. The use of participant-observation protocol in an industrial engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira e Silva, Renato da; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal; D'Afonseca e Silva, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Based on literature, this article aims to present the "participant-observation' research protocol, and its practical application in the industrial engineering field, more specifically within the area of design development, and in the case shown by this article, of interiors' design. The main target is to identify the concept of the method, i.e., from its characteristics to structure a general sense about the subject, so that the protocol can be used in different areas of knowledge, especially those ones which are committed with the scientific research involving the expertise from researchers, and subjective feelings and opinions of the users of an engineering product, and how this knowledge can be benefic for product design, contributing since the earliest stage of design.

  10. Original research: enhancing power and educating: urban aboriginal family caregivers' perspectives of caring for a child who has chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, N L; Farrell, P

    1998-01-01

    The discovery of chronic renal failure in a child, and the meaning of this experience from the perspective of the child's family caregivers have previously not been described in the literature on aboriginal health. During the summer of 1995, a phenomenological approach was used to explore this phenomena with 10 urban aboriginal family caregivers. These caregivers were providing care for their children who were receiving health care services at the outpatient children's clinic or the transplant unit at one urban tertiary care hospital. The findings of this research have helped create the beginning of a nursing data base of knowledge about aboriginal family caregivers of children who have chronic renal failure. In this paper, three of the main themes: surviving; relocation; enhancing power; and five sub-themes: providing nutrition; getting involved; educating the caregivers; educating the community; and returning to traditional ways are described. Implications of the findings for health care providers of children who have renal failure and their family caregivers are discussed. Issues that need to be addressed to help meet the needs of aboriginal family caregivers are identified. These issues include communication strategies, culturally appropriate teaching methods, access to resources, and community development initiatives.

  11. Sex Differences in Parent and Child Pain Ratings during an Experimental Child Pain Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin C Moon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of pediatric pain has largely ignored the role of fathers in their children’s pain experiences. The first objective of the present study was to examine the effect of the presence of mothers versus fathers on children’s subjective ratings, facial expressions and physiological responses to acute pain. The second objective was to examine whether child and parent sex influence parents’ proxy ratings of their children’s pain. The final objective was to compare levels of agreement between mothers’ and fathers’ assessments of their children’s pain. Participants included 73 children (37 boys, 36 girls, four to 12 years of age, along with 32 fathers and 41 mothers. Children undertook the cold pressor pain task while observed by one of their parents. During the task, the children’s heart rates and facial expressions were recorded. Children provided self-reports and parents provided proxy reports of child pain intensity using the seven-point Faces Pain Scale. Neither child nor parent sex had a significant impact on children’s subjective reports, facial expressions or heart rates in response to acute pain. Fathers gave their sons higher pain ratings than their daughters, whereas mothers’ ratings of their sons’ and daughters’ pain did not differ. Kappa statistics and t tests revealed that fathers tended to be more accurate judges of their children’s pain than mothers. Overall, this research highlights the importance of examining both parent and child sex differences in pediatric pain research.

  12. Impact of observing hand hygiene in practice and research: a methodological reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D J; Creedon, S; Jeanes, A; Drey, N S; Chudleigh, J; Moralejo, D

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of hand hygiene is to break the chain of healthcare-associated infection. In many countries hand hygiene is regularly audited as part of quality assurance based on recommendations from the World Health Organization. Direct observation is the recommended audit method but is associated with disadvantages, including potential for being observed to alter usual behaviour. The Hawthorne effect in relation to hand hygiene is analogous with productivity improvement by increasing the frequency with which hand hygiene is undertaken. Unobtrusive and/or frequent observation to accustom staff to the presence of observers is considered an acceptable way of reducing the Hawthorne effect, but few publications have discussed how to implement these techniques or examine their effectiveness. There is evidence that awareness of being watched can disrupt the usual behaviour of individuals in complex and unpredictable ways other than simple productivity effect. In the presence of auditors, health workers might defer or avoid activities that require hand hygiene, but these issues are not addressed in guidelines for practice or research studies. This oversight has implications for the validity of hand hygiene audit findings. Measuring hand hygiene product use overcomes avoidance tactics. It is cheaper and generates data continuously to assess the compliance of all clinicians without disrupting patient care. Disadvantages are the risk of overestimating uptake through spillage, wastage, or use by visitors and non-clinical staff entering patient care areas. Electronic devices may overcome the Hawthorne and avoidance effects but are costly and are not widely used outside research studies.

  13. Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences: reincarnation of a 50 year old State Observatory of Nainital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Ram

    2006-03-01

    The fifty year old State Observatory, well known as U.P. State Observatory till the formation of Uttaranchal in November 2000, was reincarnated on March 22, 2004 as Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences with acronym ARIES, an autonomous institute, under the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. The growth of academic and technical activities and new mandate of the Institute are briefly described. In early 60's, the Institute was one of the 12 centres established by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, USA, all over the globe but the only centre in India for imaging artificial earth satellites. Commensurating with its observing capabilities, the Institute started a number of front-line research programmes during the last decade, e.g., optical follow up observations of GRB afterglows, radio and space borne astronomical resources, intra-night optical variability in active galactic nuclei as well as gravitational microlensing and milli-magnitude variations in the rapidly oscillating peculiar A type stars. As a part of atmospheric studies, characterisation of aerosol at an altitude of about 2 km is going on since 2002. ARIES has plans for establishing modern observing facilities equipped with latest backend instruments in the area of both astrophysics and atmospheric science. Formation of ARIES, therefore augurs well for the overall development of astrophysics and atmospheric science in India.

  14. Child health insurance coverage and household activity toward child development in four South American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L

    2014-05-01

    We evaluate the association between child health insurance coverage and household activities that enhance child development. We use micro-level data on a unique sample of 2,370 children from four South American countries. Data were collected by physicians via in-person interviews with the mothers. The regression models compare insured and uninsured children seen within the same pediatric care practice for routine well-child care and adjust for several demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. We also stratify these analyses by selective household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and by country. We find that insurance coverage is associated with increasingly engaging the child in development-enhancing household activity in the total sample. This association significantly varies with ethnic ancestry and is more pronounced for children of Native or African ancestry. When stratifying by country, a significant positive association is observed for Argentina, with two other countries having positive but insignificant associations. The results suggest that insurance coverage is associated with enhanced household activity toward child development. However, other data and research are needed to estimate the causal relationship.

  15. Varying Student Behaviours Observed in the Library Prompt the Need for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Melssen

    2014-03-01

    may have led the authors to mistake non-study behaviour for study behaviour. An additional limitation is the short duration of time spent observing the students as well as the proximity of the observer to the student. Observations lasting longer than 3 to 10 seconds and made at a closer range to the students could provide more accurate data regarding what type of behaviours students engage in and for how much time. In addition to the before mentioned limitations, the authors acknowledge that they had no way of knowing if the individuals being observed were actual students: the assumed students could have been faculty, staff, or visitors to the university. Due to the study’s limitations, further research is needed to determine in greater detail what students are doing while they are studying in the library. This data would allow librarians to justify the need to provide both study and non-study space to meet the diverse needs of students. Conducting a cohort study would allow researchers to observe student behaviour longitudinally. It would minimize the limitations of short-term student observation as well as the proximity of the observer to the student. Research on the use of mobile technologies by students, such as smart phones, to access study related material while they are in the library would also yield valuable data regarding student study behaviours.

  16. The Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein abbasnezhadriyabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While a large number of children are losing their lives due to poverty, malnutrition, contagious diseases and war, we are witnessing hundreds of children death by reason of misbehaving. Today, "child abuse" as a social-cultural phenomenon which shows crisis in a society, has a growing process in our country. The goal of this research was to investigate the base factors of child abuse that according to the results are consist as follows, poverty, unemployment, addiction, large families, single-parent, Considering the increase of factors such as poverty, addiction, unemployment, divorce, temporary marriage, street children and other effective factors, the hypothesis based on growth of child abuse was proved in Iran.

  17. Meet the good child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Malene; Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    to be appropriate child and parental behavior. The study takes a practice theoretical perspective, building on previous research on family consumption, and draws empirically on 35 interviews with 5–6 year-olds and 13 family interviews. Findings show that the children recognize the position of ‘the good child......’ and most often prefer to take on this position, which is confirmed by their parents. The children can describe how ‘the good child’—in their eyes—should behave. They prefer consensus and not being embarrassing or embarrassed. The study concludes that the children are strongly immersed in social norms...... and family practices, and that the Danish national/cultural context probably reinforces these children as independent consumers, who are well aware of the requirements of the consumer role. Childing practices are a standard with know-how and rules that these children argue they live by—at least most...

  18. The impact of parental modeling on child pain responses: The role of parent and child sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Katelynn E; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J; LoLordo, Vincent; Uher, Rudolf

    2017-02-01

    Social modeling is a process by which pain behaviours are learned, and research has found parents act as models for their children's behaviour. Despite social learning theory predicting that same-sex models have greater impact, no experimental investigation to date has examined the role of sex of the model or observer in social learning of pediatric pain. The present study recruited 168 parent-child dyads (equal father-son, father-daughter, mother-son, and mother-daughter dyads) where children were generally healthy 6- to 8-year-olds. Unbeknownst to their child, parents were randomly assigned to exaggerate their expression of pain, minimize their expression of pain, or act naturally during the cold pressor task (CPT). Parents completed the CPT while their child observed, then children completed the CPT themselves. Children whose parents were in the Exaggerate condition reported higher anxiety than children of parents in the Minimize condition. Additionally, girls in the Exaggerate condition rated their overall pain intensity during the cold pressor significantly higher than boys in the same condition. No child sex differences were observed in pain intensity for the Control or Minimize conditions. Parent expressions of pain impacts children's anxiety, and sex-specific effects of parental exaggerated pain expression on children's own subsequent pain experience are present.

  19. Academic and research capacity development in Earth observation for environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, Gemma; Woodhouse, Iain H.; Patenaude, Genevieve; Tembo, Mavuto

    2011-10-01

    Sustainable environmental management is one of the key development goals of the 21st century. The importance of Earth observation (EO) for addressing current environmental problems is well recognized. Most developing countries are highly susceptible to environmental degradation; however, the capacity to monitor these changes is predominantly located in the developed world. Decades of aid and effort have been invested in capacity development (CD) with the goal of ensuring sustainable development. Academics, given their level of freedom and their wider interest in teaching and knowledge transfer, are ideally placed to act as catalyst for capacity building. In this letter, we make a novel investigation into the extent to which the EO academic research community is engaged in capacity development. Using the Web of Knowledge publication database (http://wok.mimas.ac.uk), we examined the geographical distribution of published EO related research (a) by country as object of research and (b) by authors' country of affiliation. Our results show that, while a significant proportion of EO research (44%) has developing countries as their object of research, less than 3% of publications have authors working in, or affiliated to, a developing country (excluding China, India and Brazil, which not only are countries in transition, but also have well established EO capacity). These patterns appear consistent over the past 20 years. Despite the wide awareness of the importance of CD, we show that significant progress on this front is required. We therefore propose a number of recommendations and best practices to ease collaboration and open access.

  20. Academic and research capacity development in Earth observation for environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassells, Gemma; Woodhouse, Iain H; Patenaude, Genevieve [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland EH8 9XP (United Kingdom); Tembo, Mavuto, E-mail: g.f.cassells@sms.ed.ac.uk [Department of Land Management, Mzuzu University, Private Bag 201, Luwinga, Mzuzu 2 (Malawi)

    2011-10-15

    Sustainable environmental management is one of the key development goals of the 21st century. The importance of Earth observation (EO) for addressing current environmental problems is well recognized. Most developing countries are highly susceptible to environmental degradation; however, the capacity to monitor these changes is predominantly located in the developed world. Decades of aid and effort have been invested in capacity development (CD) with the goal of ensuring sustainable development. Academics, given their level of freedom and their wider interest in teaching and knowledge transfer, are ideally placed to act as catalyst for capacity building. In this letter, we make a novel investigation into the extent to which the EO academic research community is engaged in capacity development. Using the Web of Knowledge publication database (http://wok.mimas.ac.uk), we examined the geographical distribution of published EO related research (a) by country as object of research and (b) by authors' country of affiliation. Our results show that, while a significant proportion of EO research (44%) has developing countries as their object of research, less than 3% of publications have authors working in, or affiliated to, a developing country (excluding China, India and Brazil, which not only are countries in transition, but also have well established EO capacity). These patterns appear consistent over the past 20 years. Despite the wide awareness of the importance of CD, we show that significant progress on this front is required. We therefore propose a number of recommendations and best practices to ease collaboration and open access.

  1. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  2. Study Of Social Problems And Correlates Of Child Labourers In Slums Of Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambadekar Nitin N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the social and work related problems of child labourers? Objectives:1.To study social problems of child labourers. 2. To study some work related problems of child labourers. 3. To study some factors associated with child labourers. Study design: cross sectional study with comparison group. Setting: shivankarnagar & Hasanbagh slums under field practice area of PSM deptt., Govt. Medical College, Nagapur. Participants: 223 child labourers and 223 randomly selected controls from same area aged upto 15 years, sex matched and group matched for age. Results: Prevalence of child labourers in study areas was 21.3%, 43(19.3 females and 180 (80.7% males. Lower socio-economic status, large family size(>6, parental illiteracy and single parenthood were significantly associated with child labour. They were working in varied occupations â€" majority (32.7% being in garage and workshops. Inadequate family income (74.4% and parental compulsion (20.6% were the common reasons cited by child labourers for their jobs â€" school drop â€" outs 173(78.3%, bad habits 56(25.1%, prolonged working hours (mean-8.5+4.5, no holidays and rest hours, inadequate daily wages, verbal (29% & physical abuse (2.7% were the common problems of child labourers, observed in the present study.

  3. BingEO: Enable Distributed Earth Observation Data for Environmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Yang, C.; Xu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Our planet is facing great environmental challenges including global climate change, environmental vulnerability, extreme poverty, and a shortage of clean cheap energy. To address these problems, scientists are developing various models to analysis, forecast, simulate various geospatial phenomena to support critical decision making. These models not only challenge our computing technology, but also challenge us to feed huge demands of earth observation data. Through various policies and programs, open and free sharing of earth observation data are advocated in earth science. Currently, thousands of data sources are freely available online through open standards such as Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS). Seamless sharing and access to these resources call for a spatial Cyberinfrastructure (CI) to enable the use of spatial data for the advancement of related applied sciences including environmental research. Based on Microsoft Bing Search Engine and Bing Map, a seamlessly integrated and visual tool is under development to bridge the gap between researchers/educators and earth observation data providers. With this tool, earth science researchers/educators can easily and visually find the best data sets for their research and education. The tool includes a registry and its related supporting module at server-side and an integrated portal as its client. The proposed portal, Bing Earth Observation (BingEO), is based on Bing Search and Bing Map to: 1) Use Bing Search to discover Web Map Services (WMS) resources available over the internet; 2) Develop and maintain a registry to manage all the available WMS resources and constantly monitor their service quality; 3) Allow users to manually register data services; 4) Provide a Bing Maps-based Web application to visualize the data on a high-quality and easy-to-manipulate map platform and enable users to select the best data layers online. Given the amount of observation data

  4. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  5. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  6. Exporting analogue behavioral observation from research to clinical practice: useful or cost-defective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, E J; Foster, S L

    2001-03-01

    The special section on analogue behavioral observation (ABO) provided an in-depth review of various ABO assessment procedures. Despite their availability, however, these procedures are rarely used in clinical practice. This may result in part from the traditions on which most ABO assessments are based, from distinctions between clinical and research assessment environments, and from the need for more information about the cost-effectiveness of ABO strategies for meeting specific needs of clinicians in applied settings. Suggestions for bridging the research-clinical gap involve investigating more thoroughly when ABO does and does not provide useful information for various purposes in applied settings and increasing accessibility and cost-effectiveness of ABO procedures for practitioners.

  7. The Asthma Mobile Health Study, a large-scale clinical observational study using ResearchKit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Feng Yvonne; Wang, Pei; Rogers, Linda; Tignor, Nicole; Zweig, Micol; Hershman, Steven G; Genes, Nicholas; Scott, Erick R; Krock, Eric; Badgeley, Marcus; Edgar, Ron; Violante, Samantha; Wright, Rosalind; Powell, Charles A; Dudley, Joel T; Schadt, Eric E

    2017-04-01

    The feasibility of using mobile health applications to conduct observational clinical studies requires rigorous validation. Here, we report initial findings from the Asthma Mobile Health Study, a research study, including recruitment, consent, and enrollment, conducted entirely remotely by smartphone. We achieved secure bidirectional data flow between investigators and 7,593 participants from across the United States, including many with severe asthma. Our platform enabled prospective collection of longitudinal, multidimensional data (e.g., surveys, devices, geolocation, and air quality) in a subset of users over the 6-month study period. Consistent trending and correlation of interrelated variables support the quality of data obtained via this method. We detected increased reporting of asthma symptoms in regions affected by heat, pollen, and wildfires. Potential challenges with this technology include selection bias, low retention rates, reporting bias, and data security. These issues require attention to realize the full potential of mobile platforms in research and patient care.

  8. Stuttering and the Bilingual Child--New Ways to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    What should parents of a child who stutters do if their child speaks more than one language? Research shows that a child's language skills can affect his or her fluency, according to the nonprofit Stuttering Foundation of America. However, it has not been proven that speaking two languages in the home since birth causes stuttering. If the child is…

  9. Globalization, Child Welfare Policy, and the Economics of Social Uplift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Ronnie

    2002-01-01

    Explores both the development of child welfare in the United States and the impact of international declarations of human and child rights from a global perspective, focusing on: child welfare and the visiting teacher profession in the United States; research on the well-being of children; child welfare policy in an international context; the…

  10. Observing the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse from the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Sean Matthew; Cline, J. Donald; Krochmal, Mark; Donald Cline, Mark Krochmal

    2017-01-01

    The Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is located directly under the path of totality of next year’s solar eclipse and possesses two 26m radio telescopes capable of interferometry at simultaneously at 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHZ. PARI is preparing these radio telescopes for use by the astronomical community to observe solar eclipse. We will present the status of PARI’s radio telescopes and information on access for the eclipse. We will also present the status and availability of several optical telescopes.

  11. Ground-Based Network and Supersite Observations to Complement and Enrich EOS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2011-01-01

    as network or supersite observations, which have been playing key roles in major international research projects over diverse aerosol regimes to complement and enrich the EOS scientific research.

  12. Research Article. Improved Dual Frequency PPP Model Using GPS and BeiDou Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP model, which combines GPS and BeiDou observations. Combining GPS and BeiDou observations in a PPP model offers more visible satellites to the user, which is expected to enhance the satellite geometry and the overall PPP solution in comparison with GPSonly PPP solution. However, combining different GNSS constellations introduces additional biases, which require rigorous modelling, including GNSS time offset and hardware delays. In this research, ionosphere-free linear combination PPP model is developed. The additional biases, which result from combining the GPS and BeiDou observables, are lumped into a new unknown parameter identified as the inter-system bias. Natural Resources Canada’s GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS/BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly introduced biases. A total of four data sets at four IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the IGS-MGEX network are used to correct both of the GPS and BeiDou measurements. It is shown that a sub-decimeter positioning accuracy level and 25% reduction in the solution convergence time can be achieved with combining GPS and Bei-Dou observables in a PPP model, in comparison with the GPS-only PPP solution.

  13. Research Article. Improved Dual Frequency PPP Model Using GPS and BeiDou Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, A.; El-Rabbany, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper introduces a new dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) model, which combines GPS and BeiDou observations. Combining GPS and BeiDou observations in a PPP model offers more visible satellites to the user, which is expected to enhance the satellite geometry and the overall PPP solution in comparison with GPSonly PPP solution. However, combining different GNSS constellations introduces additional biases, which require rigorous modelling, including GNSS time offset and hardware delays. In this research, ionosphere-free linear combination PPP model is developed. The additional biases, which result from combining the GPS and BeiDou observables, are lumped into a new unknown parameter identified as the inter-system bias. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS/BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly introduced biases. A total of four data sets at four IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the IGS-MGEX network are used to correct both of the GPS and BeiDou measurements. It is shown that a sub-decimeter positioning accuracy level and 25% reduction in the solution convergence time can be achieved with combining GPS and Bei-Dou observables in a PPP model, in comparison with the GPS-only PPP solution.

  14. The Quality of School-Age Child Care in After-School Settings. Research-to-Policy Connections No. 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Priscilla M.

    2007-01-01

    This brief identifies the features of high-quality after-school settings that have emerged from the research and are reflected in program quality tools. It also examines key research linking program quality to positive developmental outcomes; it reviews current practice in program quality assessment; and it offers considerations for policymakers…

  15. The effects of child- and youth-coaching for children in multi-problem families : Research proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assen, Arjen; Grietens, Hans; Post, Wendy; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2015-01-01

    This research proposal was presented at the ISED research days 2015 at Leiden University. Children and teenagers growing up in environments with multiple stressors are at an increased risk for developing behavioural and emotional problems. In this proposal a study is presented that aims to evaluate

  16. A Profile Approach to Child Care Quality, Quantity, and Type of Setting: Parent Selection of Infant Child Care Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Kim, Se-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Building on prior variable-oriented research which demonstrates the independence of the associations of child care quality, quantity, and type of setting with family factors and child outcomes, the current study identifies four profiles of child care dimensions from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Profiles accounted for…

  17. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  18. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Application to Maltreating Parent-Child Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, S.G.; Urquiza, A.J.; Zebell, N.M.; McGrath, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Parent-Child Interaction Training (PCIT), which uses a social learning framework, is a dyadic intervention that is designed to alter specific patterns of interaction found in parent-child relationships. Previous research suggests that maladaptive and high-risk characteristics found in maltreating parent-child dyads may be responsive to…

  19. Societal Factors Impacting Child Welfare: Validating the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Zeitlin, Wendy; Augsberger, Astraea; McGowan, Brenda G.; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (PCWS). This instrument is designed to assess child welfare workers' understanding of how society views their role and their work. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to analyze data on 538 child welfare workers. Results:…

  20. A Bibliography of Canadian Day Care Research. Report of the Task Force on Child Care: Series 6 = Bibliographie des etudes sur la garde des enfants au Canada. Rapport du groupe d'etude sur la garde des enfants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan R.

    Part of an effort to provide detailed analyses of issues of special relevance to child care and parental leave policies and the effects of these issues on the changing Canadian family, this volume, the last in a series of six, provides a bibliography of Canadian day care research. (RH)

  1. 45 CFR 1304.24 - Child mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental health... concerns about their child's mental health; (ii) Sharing staff observations of their child and...

  2. Commentary: Leveraging discovery science to advance child and adolescent psychiatric research--a commentary on Zhao and Castellanos 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennes, Maarten

    2016-03-01

    'Big Data' and 'Population Imaging' are becoming integral parts of inspiring research aimed at delineating the biological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders. The scientific strategies currently associated with big data and population imaging are typically embedded in so-called discovery science, thereby pointing to the hypothesis-generating rather than hypothesis-testing nature of discovery science. In this issue, Yihong Zhao and F. Xavier Castellanos provide a compelling overview of strategies for discovery science aimed at progressing our understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, they focus on efforts in genetic and neuroimaging research, which, together with extended behavioural testing, form the main pillars of psychopathology research.

  3. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    We started a Japanese initiative - "Arctic Climate Change Research Project" - within the framework of the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT), in 2011. This Project targeted understanding and forecasting "Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences." Four strategic research targets are set by the Ministry: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic; 2. Understanding the Arctic climate system for global climate and future change; 3. Evaluation of the impacts of Arctic change on the weather and climate in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries; 4. Projection of sea ice distribution and Arctic sea routes. Through a network of universities and institutions in Japan, this 5-year Project involves more than 300 scientists from 39 institutions and universities. The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) works as the core institute and The Japan Agency for Marine- Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) joins as the supporting institute. There are 7 bottom up research themes approved: the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, cryosphere, greenhouse gases, marine ecology and fisheries, sea ice and Arctic sea routes and climate modeling, among 22 applications. The Project will realize multi-disciplinal study of the Arctic region and connect to the projection of future Arctic and global climatic change by modeling. The project has been running since the beginning of 2011 and in those 5 years pan-Arctic observations have been carried out in many locations, such as Svalbard, Russian Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. In particular, 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, and intensive atmospheric observations were carried out in 2014 and 2015. In addition, the Arctic Ocean cruises by R/V "Mirai" (belonging to JAMSTEC) and other icebreakers belonging to other

  4. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and...

  5. Commentary: a practical guide for translating basic research on affective science to implementing physiology in clinical child and adolescent assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health recently launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). RDoC is a framework that facilitates the dimensional assessment and classification of processes relevant to mental health (e.g., affect, regulation, cognition, social affiliation), as reflected in measurements across multiple units of analysis (e.g., physiology, circuitry, genes, self-reports). A key focus of RDoC involves opening new lines of research examining patients' responses on biological measures, with the key goal of developing new therapeutic techniques that effectively target mechanisms of mental disorders. Yet applied researchers and practitioners rarely use biological measures within mental health assessments, which may present challenges in translating RDoC-guided research into improvements in patient care. Thus, if RDoC is to result in research that yields clinical tools that reduce the burden of mental illness and improve public health, we ought to develop strategies for effectively implementing biological measures in the context of clinical assessments. In this special issue, we sought to provide an initial step in this direction by assembling a collection of articles from leading research teams carrying out pioneering work on implementing multimodal assessments (biological, subjective, behavioral) of affective processes in applied settings. In this commentary, we expand upon the work presented in this special issue by making a series of suggestions for how to most parsimoniously conduct multimodal assessments of affective processes in applied research and clinical settings. We hope that this approach will facilitate translations of the RDoC framework into applied research and clinic settings.

  6. Child neglect identification: The health visitor's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akehurst, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Child neglect is a significant public health issue, with impact often persisting into adulthood. However, neglect is not easily identifiable and may go undetected for many years. This library-based literature review critically analyses the research to uncover effective practices to aid neglect identification. The literature identifies that professionals may observe particular risk factors in a child's life that make neglect more probable. Additionally, children who suffer neglect, and parents who neglect their children, may display signs that practitioners can be alert to. However, a number of barriers exist that make identification difficult. The literature highlights that health visitors have a significant role to play in identifying neglect. Final conclusions relate to the need for professional supervision, use of assessment tools and frameworks, multi-agency training, and timely interventions to safeguard children.

  7. Research on three-dimension ocean observation data integration and service technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Dong, Wen; Zheng, Zhigang

    2011-03-01

    Currently, ocean data portals are being developed around the world based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a source of ocean data and information. However, given the relatively high temporal frequency and the intrinsic spatial nature of ocean data and information, no current GIS software is adequate to deal effectively and efficiently with spatiotemporal data. Furthermore, while existing ocean data portals are generally designed to meet the basic needs of a broad range of users, they are sometimes very complicated for general audiences, especially for those without training in GIS. In this paper, a new technical architecture for an ocean data integration and service system is put forward that consists of four layers: the operation layer, the extract, transform, and load (ETL) layer, the data warehouse layer, and the presentation layer. The integration technology based on the XML, ontology, and spatiotemporal data organization scheme for the data warehouse layer is then discussed. In addition, the ocean observing data service technology realized in the presentation layer is also discussed in detail, including the development of the web portal and ocean data sharing platform. The application on the Taiwan Strait shows that the technology studied in this paper can facilitate sharing, access, and use of ocean observation data. The paper is based on an ongoing research project for the development of an ocean observing information system for the Taiwan Strait that will facilitate the prevention of ocean disasters.

  8. Research on three-dimension ocean observation data integration and service technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; DONG Wen; ZHENG Zhigang

    2011-01-01

    Currently, ocean data portals are being developed around the world based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a source of ocean data and information. However, given the relatively high temporal frequency and the intrinsic spatial nature of ocean data and information,no current GIS software is adequate to deal effectively and efficiently with spatiotemporal data.Furthermore, while existing ocean data portals are generally designed to meet the basic needs of a broad range of users, they are sometimes very complicated for general audiences, especially for those without training in GIS. In this paper, a new technical architecture for an ocean data integration and service system is put forward that consists of four layers: the operation layer, the extract, transform,and load (ETL) layer, the data warehouse layer, and the presentation layer. The integration technology based on the XML, ontology, and spatiotemporal data organization scheme for the data warehouse layer is then discussed. In addition, the ocean observing data service technology realized in the presentation layer is also discussed in detail, including the development of the web portal and ocean data sharing platform. The application on the Taiwan Strait shows that the technology studied in this paper can facilitate sharing, access, and use of ocean observation data. The paper is based on an ongoing research project for the development of an ocean observing information system for the Taiwan Strait that will facilitate the prevention of ocean disasters.

  9. Did parents and teachers struggle with child survivors 20 months after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan? A retrospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Usami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2011, Japan was struck by the earthquake and tsunami. Twenty months after the disaster, we collected information on the difficulties faced by parents and teachers in dealing with the post-traumatic symptoms of child survivors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between post-traumatic symptoms in children and parents' and teachers' difficulties in dealing with children who survived the huge disaster. METHODS: The subjects included 12,524 children from elementary, middle, and junior high schools in Ishinomaki City. The Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15, a self-rating questionnaire on post-traumatic symptoms, was distributed among the children, and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, a self-rating questionnaire on difficulties in dealing with children, was given to their parents and teachers. With PTSSC-15, a valid response was obtained from 10,909 (89.5% participants. With SDQ for teachers and parents, valid responses were obtained from 10,577 (86.7% and 7052 (83.9% participants, respectively. RESULTS: PTSSC-15 scores were significantly higher (P<0.001 in girls than in boys from the junior high school. These effect sizes were less than 0.30. Correlations of teachers' SDQ scores and PTSSC-15 scores were significantly low (r<0.21, P<0.001 for both genders and all children. Likewise, correlations between SDQ scores assigned by parents (excluding "prosocial behavior" and PTSSC-15 scores were significantly low (r<0.21, P<0.001 for both genders and at all school levels. CONCLUSION: This study elucidated that the difficulties faced by parents and teachers while dealing with child survivors significantly low correlate with the child's post-traumatic symptoms caused by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Thus, it is important that clinicians should not only evaluate post-traumatic symptoms with a self-rating questionnaire but also try to objectively evaluate whether there were

  10. Foster Care and Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Lolita M

    2015-10-01

    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care.

  11. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Samuel; Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6-60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  12. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Glass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N=92 entering care (age 6–60 months combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p=0.001 and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p=0.016 and disinhibited (p=0.004 attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1 overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2 maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  13. The Many Faces of Mitochondrial Autophagy: Making Sense of Contrasting Observations in Recent Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. May

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria—mitophagy—has intensified in recent years, yielding significant insights into the function, mechanism, and regulation of this process in the eukaryotic cell. However, while some molecular players in budding yeast, such as Atg32p, Uth1p, and Aup1p, have been identified, studies further interrogating the mechanistic and regulatory features of mitophagy have yielded inconsistent and sometimes conflicting results. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of mitophagy mechanism, induction, and regulation in yeast, and suggest that differences in experimental conditions used in the various studies of mitophagy may contribute to the observed discrepancies. Consideration and understanding of these differences may help place the mechanism and regulation of mitophagy in context, and further indicate the intricate role that this essential process plays in the life and death of eukaryotic cells.

  14. How Does Observational Learning Affect the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders? A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Betty A.; Kauffman, James M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews research on observational learning, including model characteristics and observers' responses, vicarious reinforcement as implicit punishment, vicarious effects on students with problem behavior, observers' other characteristics and vicarious effects, and aggression and vicarious processes. Regular class placement of students…

  15. Child Second Language Acquisition of Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Usha

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent research in universal grammar-based child second language acquisition (SLA) research, arguing that child SLA studies can better explore the role of biological factors in language acquisition and strengthen the links between SLA and linguistic theory. (129 references) (MDM)

  16. Commentary: Leveraging discovery science to advance child and adolescent psychiatric research--a commentary on Zhao and Castellanos 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennes, M.

    2016-01-01

    'Big Data' and 'Population Imaging' are becoming integral parts of inspiring research aimed at delineating the biological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders. The scientific strategies currently associated with big data and population imaging are typically embedded in so-called discovery science,

  17. Ten Ways to Improve the Use of Statistical Mediation Analysis in the Practice of Child and Adolescent Treatment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Marija; Wiers, Reinout W.; Prins, Pier J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite guidelines and repeated calls from the literature, statistical mediation analysis in youth treatment outcome research is rare. Even more concerning is that many studies that "have" reported mediation analyses do not fulfill basic requirements for mediation analysis, providing inconclusive data and clinical implications. As a result, after…

  18. A Manifesto for Critical Narrative Research and Pedagogy for/with Young Children: Teacher and Child as Critical Annalist

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I pose the question of whether it might be possible to articulate a collaborative, critical narrative mode of research in which teachers and students come together using a critical and analytic epistemology to engage in adventurous pedagogy. This approach has echoes of Freire's "teachers-as-students and…

  19. Hispanic Teen Pregnancy and Birth Rates: Looking Behind the Numbers. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2005-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This research brief focuses on the birth, pregnancy, contraceptive, and relationship behaviors of Hispanic teens because they represent an important risk group. Teen pregnancy and birth rates for U.S. teens have declined dramatically in recent years. Yet for Hispanic teens, reductions in teen pregnancy and childbearing have lagged behind that of…

  20. Trends and Recent Estimates: Contraceptive Use among U.S. Teens. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2006-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetta, Kerry; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Ikramullah, Erum

    2006-01-01

    This Research Brief draws on recently released nationally representative data to provide information on teenagers' patterns of contraceptive use during heterosexual, vaginal intercourse. In this brief, the authors examine these patterns for males and females, for members of racial and ethnic groups, and for younger and older teenagers. Among the…

  1. Building Communities of Support around a Child with Special Education Needs: The Effects of Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Over a period of a year, formal and informal interactions among members of the community around a four-year-old girl with special education needs were focused through participatory action research (PAR). The team included parents, kindergarten teachers, an education support worker, speech-language therapist, early intervention teacher and…

  2. Observation of Curative Effect of Feier Mixtures on Child Anorexia of Disharmony be-tween Spleen and Stomach Type%肥儿合剂治疗脾胃不和型小儿厌食症疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺青华; 姚伟光; 徐佩华

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of Feier mixtures on serum leptin and cholecystokinin level of child anorexia of disharmony between spleen and stomach type. Methods:60 children who met the diagnosis standard of child anorexia of disharmony between spleen and stomach type were randomly divided into two groups:Feier Mixtures group and compound digestive enzyme capsule group. Each group had 30 children. The changes of serum leptin,cholecystokinin,scores of symptoms and signs,and comprehesive curative effect of the two groups after the treatment were observed. Results:After treatment,the curative effect of Feier Mixtures group was superior to compound digestive enzyme capsule group(P0 . 05 ) . The effect on lowering plasma CCK level of Feier Mixtures was superior to that of compound digestive enzyme capsule (P0.05),治疗组治疗后血浆CCK含量低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:肥儿合剂可有效改善患儿厌食症状,能通过调节厌食症患儿血清LEP和血浆CCK水平对食欲产生影响。

  3. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, M. [Wigner RCP, Euratom Association-HAS, Budapest (Hungary); BME NTI, Budapest (Hungary); Anda, G.; Réfy, D.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner RCP, Euratom Association-HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Czopf, A.; Erdei, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, BME IOP, Budapest (Hungary); Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I. [BME NTI, Budapest (Hungary); Nam, Y. U. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera’s measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  4. The Research and Education Collaborative Occultation Network: A System for Coordinated TNO Occultation Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Marc W.; Keller, John M.

    2016-03-01

    We describe a new system and method for collecting coordinated occultation observations of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Occultations by objects in the outer solar system are more difficult to predict due to their large distance and limited span of the astrometric data used to determine their orbits and positions. This project brings together the research and educational community into a unique citizen-science partnership to overcome the difficulties of observing these distant objects. The goal of the project is to get sizes and shapes for TNOs with diameters larger than 100 km. As a result of the system design it will also serve as a probe for binary systems with spatial separations as small as contact systems. Traditional occultation efforts strive to get a prediction sufficiently good to place mobile ground stations in the shadow track. Our system takes a new approach of setting up a large number of fixed observing stations and letting the shadows come to the network. The nominal spacing of the stations is 50 km so that we ensure two chords at our limiting size. The spread of the network is roughly 2000 km along a roughly north-south line in the western United States. The network contains 56 stations that are committed to the project and we get additional ad hoc support from International Occultation Timing Association members. At our minimum size, two stations will record an event while the other stations will be probing the inner regions for secondary events. Larger objects will get more chords and will allow determination of shape profiles. The stations are almost exclusively sited and associated with schools, usually at the 9-12 grade level. We present a full description of the system we have developed for the continued exploration of the Kuiper Belt.

  5. Information for Government Agencies about Specific Environmental Health Issues in Child-Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    research on child care environmental health issues, identify key state and regional healthy child care organizations for partnerships, and see how other states are addressing child care environmental health issues.

  6. Structured Observation of School Administrator Work Activities: Methodological Limitations and Recommendations for Research, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, Nancy J.; Russell, James S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper critically reviews administrator work activity studies which follow the research of Henry Mintzberg. It discusses directions for future research using qualitative and quantitative methods and discourages research that relies solely on Mintzberg's structure. (Author/JAZ)

  7. Global mesospheric tidal winds observed by the high resolution Doppler imager on board the upper atmosphere research satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Y.T.; Lieberman, R.S.; Hays, P.B.; Ortland, D.A.; Marshall, A.R.; Wu, D.; Skinner, W.R.; Burrage, M.D.; Gell, D.A.; Yee, J.H.

    1993-06-18

    This paper presents results of mesospheric and lower thermospheric wind tides. The observations come from the high resolution doppler imager (HRDI) on board the upper atmosphere research satellite. From these observations, the authors report the observation of tidal effects on top of the meridonal winds observed in this region. Previous measurements have been mainly limited to radar measurements from fixed ground stations, which do not give consistent results, and do not provide a global picture of the wave structure.

  8. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  9. Direction of Effects in Child Socialization with Particular Reference to Conduct Disorders: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton, Hugh

    The paper reviews research on parental effects on the child, child effects on the parent, and reciprocal effects for the child's characteristics in general and for conduct disorder in particular. Evidence is cited which suggests validity of both the adult-to-child and child-to-adult effects model. Addressing the question of where the preponderant…

  10. Parent-Child Interactions and Obesity Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Aksan, Nazan; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity research has generally not examined multiple layers of parent-child relationships during weight-related activities such as feeding, eating and play. A literature review was conducted to locate empirical studies that measured parent-child interactions and child eating and child weight variables; five papers met the inclusion criteria…

  11. California's Child Care Crisis: A Crime Prevention Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian

    This report compiles recent research showing that quality child care and early education can greatly reduce crime and argues that California is in the middle of a child care crisis, with a shortage of quality, affordable care. Chapter 1 of the report presents research showing that at-risk children who participate in quality child care programs are…

  12. [Malian first observation of disseminated African histoplasmosis with predominant bone localizations in an HIV-negative child in Bamako (Mali). Review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minta, D K; Sylla, M; Traoré, A M; Soukho-Kaya, A; Coulibaly, I; Diallo, K; Théra, M A; Sidibé, A T; Sidibé, S; Traoré, H A; Pichard, E; Chabasse, D

    2014-06-01

    Endemic deep fungal infections are still under recognised diseases in daily medical practice because of their rarity in sub-Saharan area. The African histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii (H. capsulatum duboisii) is the most frequent variety described in Mali through limited studies in adult patients, since the first case described by Catanei and Kervran (1945). Our case report is a disseminated histoplasmosis in a young 6-year-old african child. He was male and rural. The infectious localisations were mucosae, skin, lymphnodes, urinary tract and bones. Evolution has been marred by an episode of worsening of symptoms despite initial clinical improvement with ketoconazole. After healing of mucocutaneous lesions, we noticed a limitation of ampliation of both wrists. The radiographic bone lesions were lysis of the right lower end of the right radius and cubitus and fragmentation of cubital epiphysis of the same arm. Lacunes were present on the fifth right finger in metatarsus and phalanx; lacune and blowing aspect of the second phalanx of the left third finger was noted. The disseminated form of African histoplasmosis may occur in HIV-negative subject. The prognosis depends on early diagnosis and administration of appropriate and well-conducted therapy.

  13. Rights of the Child in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Anne-Laurence; Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Senegal. Part 1 of the report, "Preliminary Observations," discusses Senegal's ratification of the…

  14. Parent-child interactive exploration and research of bicycle%亲子互动型儿童自行车的探索与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文婷; 秦笃印

    2013-01-01

    基于对儿童心理与需求的研究,对市场现有儿童自行车进行研究与改造。从心理学角度分析儿童在学习使用自行车的过程当中会产生的问题以及应该如何解决。并且对亲子互动如何在儿童自行车上进行设计体现的进行研究和探讨。%Based on the study of children's psychology and demand, existing children bicycle to the market research and reform. From the psychology Angle analysis of children in the process of learning to use a bicycle can produce problems and should be how to solve. And to the parent-child interaction design reflects on how to in children bicycle are studied and discussed.

  15. Towards a Creative Synthesis of Participant Observation and Participatory Research: Reflections on Doing Research "with" and "on" Young Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to Wright and Nelson's (1995) call for a "creative synthesis" of participant observation and participatory research, which may allow the limitations of both methods to be addressed. It does so by reflecting on the experience of doing long-term research both with and on young Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Although participant…

  16. Atmospheric mercury over the marine boundary layer observed during the third China Arctic Research Expedition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Kang; Zhouqing Xie

    2011-01-01

    TGM measurements on board ships have proved to provide valuable complementary information to measurements by a ground based monitoring network.During the third China Arctic Research Expedition (from July 11 to September 24,2008),TGM concentrations over the marine boundary layer along the cruise path were in-situ measured using an automatic mercury vapor analyzer.Here we firstly reported the results in Japan Sea,North Western Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea,where there are rare reports.The value ranged between 0.30 and 6.02 ng/m3 with an average of (1.52 ± 0.68) ng/m3,being slightly lower than the background value of Northern Hemisphere (1.7 ng/m3).Notably TGM showed considerably spatial and temporal variation.Geographically,the average value of TGM in Bering Sea was higher than those observed in Japan Sea and North Western Pacific Ocean.In the north of Japan Sea TGM levels were found to be lower than 0.5 ng/m3 during forward cruise and displayed obviously diurnal cycle,indicating potential oxidation of gaseous mercury in the atmosphere.The pronounced episode was recorded as well.Enhanced levels of TGM were observed in the coastal regions of southern Japan Sea during backward cruise due primarily to air masses transported from the adjacent mainland reflecting the contribution from anthropogenic sources.When ship returned back and passed through Kamchatka Peninsula TGM increased by the potential contamination from volcano emissions.

  17. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  18. Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD? Study underscores importance of good prenatal nutrition To ... during pregnancy could influence a child's risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study warns. Researchers found that ...

  19. Long-term observation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in a child with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and a possible reactivation mechanism for thymidine kinase-negative HSV-1 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Tomoyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections in a child with congenital immunodeficiency syndrome were observed over a 10-year period. The child suffered from recurrent and severe HSV-1 mucocutaneous infections. He frequently suffered from acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) HSV-1 infection in the later phase of his life, especially after the episode of ACV(r) HSV-1 infection. Virological analyses on the HSV-1 isolates recovered from this patient revealed that all the ACV(r) HSV-1 isolates were thymidine kinase (TK)-negative (TK(-)) due to a single cytosine (C) deletion within the 4-C residues (positions 1061 to 1064) in the TK gene, indicating that the recurrent TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 infections throughout the patient's life were due to the identical ACV(r) HSV-1 strain. Furthermore, it was found that the ACV-sensitive (ACV(s)) isolate recovered from the skin lesions that appeared between the episodes of ACV(r) infection at the ages of 8 and 9 contained ACV(r) HSV-1 with the same mutation in the TK gene. These results indicate that, although TK activity is required for reactivation of TK(+)/ACV(s) HSV-1 from latency and TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 is unable to reactivate from latency, the TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 strain isolated herein reactivated in this patient, possibly by using the TK activity induced by the latently co-infected TK(+)/ACV(s) HSV-1.

  20. 失独家庭精神关爱问题研究%Research on the Mental Care for the Family that Lost their Only Child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓兰; 巩文彧

    2014-01-01

    The family that lost their only child refers to the family where parents no longer raise or adopt children after their only child incurs the accident,disability or death. This problem has gradually become a focus of social attention. These families not only have to bear the loss of their children,but also worry about a series of practical problems like the disease and pension difficulties. What we learn through previous studies is that supporting these families simply from the material aspect is not enough because they need more mental care. Therefore,spiritual care and improvement of the spiritual and cultural life of the elderly is the key part of supporting these families. So,this paper chooses the mental care of these families as the research object,based on the careful understanding of the diffi-cult situation faced by them,this paper analyzes and explores ways and means of extending mental care to these families.%失独家庭,指的是独生子女发生意外伤残、死亡,其父母不再生育和收养子女的家庭。近年来,失独问题逐渐成为社会关注的一个焦点。失独群体除了要承受丧失儿女的孤苦,更要担心疾病和养老困难等一系列现实难题。通过以往的研究了解到,失独家庭的困难简单地从物质层面帮助是远远不够的。失独家庭对精神关怀、精神关爱的需求表现更为强烈。因此说,做好失独家庭的精神关爱工作和提高失独老人精神文化生活质量,是目前做好失独家庭帮扶工作的重点。基于此,选择失独家庭的精神关爱作为研究对象,并在认真了解失独家庭面临的困难现状后,分析和探究给予失独家庭精神关爱的方法和途径。

  1. Observing ben wyckoff: from basic research to programmed instruction and social issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rogelio; Lattal, Kennon A

    2011-01-01

    L. Benjamin Wyckoff's seminal contributions to both psychological theory and application are the subject of this review. Wyckoff started his academic career as a graduate student at Indiana University, where he developed the observing-response procedure under the guidance of B. F. Skinner and C. J. Burke. At the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wyckoff refined his mathematical theory of secondary reinforcement. This theory was the impetus for his creation of an electronic simulation of a rat running a T maze, one of the first "computer models" of learning. Wyckoff next went to Emory University, leaving there to help create two of the most successful companies dedicated to the advancement of programmed instruction and teaching machines: Teaching Machines, Inc. and the Human Development Institute. Wyckoff's involvement in these companies epitomizes the application of basic behavior-analytic principles in the development of technology to improve education and human relationships. The emergent picture of Wyckoff is that of a man who, through his research, professional work in educational applications of behavioral principles, and active involvement in the civil rights movement of the 1960s, was strongly committed to applying behavioral science to positively influence human behavior change.

  2. [Clinical research XVII. χ(2) test, from the expected to the observed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D; Pérez, Marcela; Talavera, Juan O

    2013-01-01

    When you want to show if there is a statistical association or differences between categorical variables, it is recommended to use the χ(2) test. This nonparametric test is one of the most used in clinical research; it contrasts nominal or ordinal qualitative variables that are observed in clinical practice. This test calculates the p value that determines whether differences between groups are real or due to chance. The χ(2) test is the basis of other tests to analyze qualitative ordinal variables as χ(2) for linear trend, which compares three groups with two outcomes or McNemar test, which contrasts two related samples (a before and afterward comparison) or Mantel-Haenszel χ(2), which controls for potential confounding variables. When using small samples, where the expected results are less than 5, Fisher's exact test should be used. These tests are the most widely used in the medical literature; however, they do not give us the magnitude or the direction of the event and a proper interpretation that requires clinical judgment is needed.

  3. An integrated, ontology-driven approach to constructing observational databases for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, William; Gonzalez, Nestor R; Chien, Aichi; Pablo Villablanca, J; Pajukanta, Päivi; Viñuela, Fernando; Bui, Alex A T

    2015-06-01

    The electronic health record (EHR) contains a diverse set of clinical observations that are captured as part of routine care, but the incomplete, inconsistent, and sometimes incorrect nature of clinical data poses significant impediments for its secondary use in retrospective studies or comparative effectiveness research. In this work, we describe an ontology-driven approach for extracting and analyzing data from the patient record in a longitudinal and continuous manner. We demonstrate how the ontology helps enforce consistent data representation, integrates phenotypes generated through analyses of available clinical data sources, and facilitates subsequent studies to identify clinical predictors for an outcome of interest. Development and evaluation of our approach are described in the context of studying factors that influence intracranial aneurysm (ICA) growth and rupture. We report our experiences in capturing information on 78 individuals with a total of 120 aneurysms. Two example applications related to assessing the relationship between aneurysm size, growth, gene expression modules, and rupture are described. Our work highlights the challenges with respect to data quality, workflow, and analysis of data and its implications toward a learning health system paradigm.

  4. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  5. Observing efl classrooms in primary or secondary schools: a research task in applied linguistics Observing efl classrooms in primary or secondary schools: a research task in applied linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Heberle

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, com base em princípios da gramática funcional de Halliday e de análise crítica do discurso, bem como minha experiência em Lingüística Aplicada, discuto questões relacionadas à observação de aulas de inglês como língua estrangeira. A análise (de cunho etnográfico surge de discussões nas minhas aulas de Lingüística Aplicada e de relatos de alunos sobre as aulas observadas. O estudo visa contribuir para uma conscientização da relevância de uma prática educacional que vai além de, por exemplo, mera listagem de pronomes pessoais com as formas do verbo to be, para uma discussão de tópicos que possam, de alguma forma, integrar perspectivas socioculturais na educação de professores de inglês como língua estrangeira. In this paper, based on principles of systemic-functional grammar and critical discourse analysis, as well as on my experience as a teacher of Applied Linguistics, I discuss issues related to the observation of EFL classes. The analysis (qualitative, ethnographically-based arises from discussions in my Applied Linguistics course and students’ reports on the classes they observed. The study aims at contributing to an awareness of the relevance of an educational practice that goes beyond the mere listing of personal pronouns with the corresponding forms of the verb to be, for instance, and suggests a discussion of topics which could somehow integrate sociocultural perspectives into EFL teacher education.

  6. A manifesto for critical narrative research and pedagogy for/with young children: Teacher and child as critical annalist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Loughlin Michael

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I pose the question of whether it might be possible to articulate a collaborative, critical narrative mode of research in which teachers and students come together using a critical and analytic epistemology to engage in adventurous pedagogy. This approach has echoes of Freire’s “teachers-as-students and students- -as-teachers,” but elaborates the Freirean metaphor to include conceptions of emotion, creativity, and incorporation of the latent historical subjectivities of teachers and students in the process. Contrary to the deadening, circumscribed epistemology of putatively “evidence-based” pedagogies, in which teachers and children are expected to check their cultural meaning-making capacities and their emotional investments at the door, this is a plea for a regenerative, engaged, local curriculum making process. As I note in the essay, “This is a strategy that cannot work in the service of utilitarian modes of education that are focused only on value (cf. Appiah, 2015. It can only work for forms of schooling that seek to foster values of receptivity, cultural respect, open-mindedness, and critical imaginaries. In these coldly utilitarian times we need to provide leadership to progressively minded teachers to allow them to develop, document, and disseminate such practices.”

  7. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  8. Outcomes in Child Health: Exploring the Use of Social Media to Engage Parents in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave, Kassi; Fernandes, Ricardo M; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Background With the rapid growth of technology and its improved accessibility globally, social media is gaining an increasingly important role in health care. Patients are frequently engaging with social media to access information, share content, and interact with others in online health communities. However, the use of social media as a stakeholder engagement strategy has been minimally explored, and effective methods for involving participants in research on the identification of patient-centered outcomes remain unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of using social media to engage parents in identifying patient-centered outcomes, using acute respiratory infections in children as an example to gauge feasibility. Methods We conducted a process evaluation of a two-phase Web-based strategy to engage parents in research on patient-centered outcomes. In the first phase, we developed a website and study-specific Facebook and Twitter accounts to recruit parents to complete a Web-based survey identifying patient-centered outcomes. In the second phase, we used Facebook to host discussion with parents based on the survey results. The reach of social media as an engagement strategy and the characteristics of the population recruited were assessed. Results During the first phase, there were 5027 visits to the survey site, 110 participants completed the survey, 553 unique users visited the study website (675 visits), the Facebook page received 104 likes, and the Twitter account gained 52 followers over the 14-week study period. Most survey respondents identified Facebook (51.8%, 57/110) or a friend (45.5%, 50/110) as their source of referral. It was found that 70.0% (77/110) of respondents resided in Canada, in urban centers (92.7%, 102/110), and 88.2% (97/110) had a college or university degree or higher. The median year of birth was 1978 and 90.0% (99/110) were female. Most survey responses (88.2%, 97/110) were completed during the first month

  9. Pornography, Religion, and Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Samuel L; Snawder, Kara J

    2017-01-06

    Frequent pornography use is often negatively associated with marital quality. Recent research has argued that this negative association is particularly strong for those who are embedded in religious communities, likely due to the greater stigma and shame associated with viewing pornography. In order to test and extend this theory, the current study examined how religious service attendance moderates the link between parents' pornography consumption and four measures of parent-child relationship quality. Analyses of 2006 Portraits of American Life Study data (N = 2610) revealed that greater pornography viewing predicted negative outcomes on two out of four measures of parent-child relationship quality, while religious service attendance was associated with more positive parent-child relationship outcomes. Interaction effects, however, affirmed that the negative association between porn viewing frequency and three parent-child relationship outcomes was stronger for participants who attended religious services more often. Analyzing fathers (N = 771) and mothers (N = 904) separately revealed that the observed relationships held more consistently for fathers than mothers. Evidence for directionality was presented by incorporating re-interview data from 2012. While pornography use may be negatively associated with some aspects of parent-child relationship quality, this association was particularly strong for those embedded within religious communities, possibly owing to greater attendant guilt and shame.

  10. Community violence as it affects child development: issues of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Durán, Lorena; Horn, John L

    2003-12-01

    The state of the art of definition of community violence as it relates to child development was examined in terms of the definitions used in 23 empirical studies. In all cases community violence was defined in terms of what were assumed to be measurements obtained as linear combinations of a priori numerical weighting of responses to questions--asked either of a child or of the parent of a child--about experiencing and/or witnessing and/or hearing about instances of violence. Thus, the definitions can be seen to represent the perspectives of 2 kinds of observers--the child or the child's parent--and 3 levels of closeness to violence--experiencing, witnessing, or hearing about violence. Combining these perspectives and levels, the following 8 different definitions could be seen to be used in the practice of 1 or more of the 23 empirical studies: Child Self-Report (perception) of either (1) experiencing, or (2) witnessing, or (3) experiencing and witnessing, and hearing about violence; or Parent Report (perception) of the Child (4) experiencing, or (5) witnessing, or (6) experiencing and witnessing and hearing about violence, or (7) = (1) + (4), or (8) = (3) + (6). In almost all the examples of research definitions it was assumed implicitly and without test of the assumption that different violent events were interchangeable, and usually it was assumed (again without test) that the magnitudes of different violence events were equal. Usually, an unstated theory of stress appeared to guide the measurement definition, but in one study definitions were developed and tested in terms of a clearly-stated theory of learning. It was concluded that definition of community violence is a measurement problem; that very likely it is multidimensional; that it could be more nearly solved if better attention were given to specifying it in terms of theory that can be put to test and by attending to basic assumptions and principles of measurement.

  11. Initial formation of teachers of chemistry: the use of the reports of observation of classes as instruments of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiele Cristiane Dias Broietti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used the reports of classroom observation as a research tool, serving as a tool for research on initial teacher training in chemistry. The study analyzed 12 reports prepared by students of Degree in Chemistry and to discuss through the narratives of students, topics related to school structure and teaching of chemistry. The narratives have proved important implements to be analyzed to examine the initial formation. This work confirmed and underscored the relevance of the observation stage in the formation of teaching as a moment of research and reflection of teaching practice.

  12. ‘Mum never loved me.’ How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health through parent–child connectedness: A qualitative study in rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research in high income countries shows parent–child connectedness to be protective against undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes among young people. Little has been done to understand the nature of parent–child connectedness, the structural factors that impact on connectedness and parents’ understanding of how connectedness affects their children's sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. Ethnographic research involved 30 days of observation in 1...

  13. Observing a Client's Grieving Process: Bringing Logical Positivism into Qualitative Grief Counselling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John; Gabriel, Lynne; James, Hazel

    2014-01-01

    This positional paper originates from our need as researcher/practitioners to establish a meaningful epistemological framework for research into bereaved people's journey through loss and grief over time. We describe how the field of grief research has a long and established biological basis, in keeping with a positivist epistemology.…

  14. Definition, Measuring and Prevalence of Child Neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    group, although at least four per cent of all children under one year of age, is subjected to child abuse and neglect. In her study, Else Christensen has attempted to estimate the extent of the problem among children under the age of one year. Furthermose, she has made a theoetical and practical...... clarification of the concept child abuse and neglect. Excatly which signs is the health nurse to observe in order to employ the serious term child abuse and neglect?...

  15. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities

  16. Child Abuse, Child Protection, and Defensive "Touch" in PE Teaching and Sports Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean; Taylor, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This text introduces recently completed research on "no touch" sports coaching, by placing it in a broader social context which problematises the way child abuse and child protection (or safeguarding) are conceived and discussed in terms of policy and practice. It also provides a brief indicative summary of the research findings and…

  17. Observations on European Education and Educational Research: The "European Educational Research Journal" at Work, 2002-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Sverker

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of the "European Educational Research Journal" ("EERJ") since the start in 2002 and up to 2014. Three questions were put forward: what are the ambitions with the journal, how has the journal developed over time, and what are its possible futures? The review is based on minutes and emails from the late 1990s up…

  18. A Method for Naturalistic Observation of the Childbirth Environment: With Application to Theory Building and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Joanne; Standley, Kay

    An instrument for naturalistic observation in the childbirth environment is presented. Observable features of the parturient woman's physical state, stimulus contact she experiences, and themes of conversations with the woman are recorded using a system of categories to time-sample in cycles of 30 seconds for observing followed by 30 seconds for…

  19. Assessing the Impact of Influential Observations on Multiple Regression Analysis on Human Resource Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Reid A.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Burnett, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A case study of learning transfer demonstrates the possible effect of influential observation on linear regression analysis. A diagnostic method that tests for violation of assumptions, multicollinearity, and individual and multiple influential observations helps determine which observation to delete to eliminate bias. (SK)

  20. Research on Aerospace Cooperative Continuation Observation Strategy for Maritime Moving Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiangXingxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maritime moving targets continuation observation has important implications to maintain the safety of the navigation barrier. Existing methods either rely on satellite observations, or only rely on UAV observations. Even though the two cooperative observations, it confined to a simple task allocation. They did not solve the problem of maritime moving targets continuation observation. On the basis of difference between satellites observation and UAV observation, we constructed the aerospace collaborative continuation observation model for maritime moving target, and put forward aerospace collaborative continuation observation strategy (ACCOS to reduce the complexity of solving the model. According to the spatial and temporal characteristics of the task, ACCOS extracted five sub problems to solve the model: Satellite planning, UAV flight plan, UAV observation sequence, target potential area and distribution probability density prediction, UAV path planning. In order to realize the optimization goal of the model, the five sub problems are modelled and solved in turn. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed method can greatly reduce the average observation period of the target, and effectively solve the problem of the continuous observation of maritime moving target.

  1. JING Qicheng wins award for child development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Together with two US psychologists, Prof. JING Qicheng from the CAS Institute of Psychology (IP) has been honored with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Child Development in 2007 by the US-based Society for Research in Child Development(SRCD).

  2. The Effect of Marriage on Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.; Fagan, Patrick F.

    This report examines what share of the current level of child poverty in the United States can be attributed to the growth of single parenthood since the 1960s, focusing on what the child poverty rate would be today if single parent families had remained at the levels that existed before the beginning of the war on poverty. Researchers simulated…

  3. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency departm

  4. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  5. Not Babysitting: Work Stress and Well-Being for Family Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenblatt, Paula; Faulkner, Monica; Lee, Ahyoung; Doan, Linh Thy; Travis, Dnika

    2014-01-01

    Family child care providers contend with a number of work stressors related to the dual roles of operating a small business and providing child care in their home. Research has documented many sources of work related stress for family child care providers; however, research examining family child care providers' experiences outside of the…

  6. New directions in orphan and vulnerable children policy and research: A focus on supporting "suitable" institutions when placement is "necessary" for a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hy V

    2014-07-01

    As the number of children without parental care continues to increase in resource-poor countries, it is important not to discount institutional care as an option before conclusively assessing whether these structures have systematic negative impacts on the millions of children for which they provide care. An almost universal emphasis and focus on deinstitutionalizing children in the face of the urgent necessity for large-scale measures to care for the global orphaned population puts millions of children at risk of deprivation, degradation, and early death. Deinstitutionalizing children in underresourced countries without alternate systems in place could leave many children behind. This article proposes an equal assessment of suitability and necessity of all alternative care options, without relegating institutions as a last resort. Institutional care should be considered as no less suitable in certain cases and for certain children than other options, especially when there is a serious need for such an option in some parts of the world. In addition, recent research challenges early conclusions, shows variability in international institutions, and also documents positive effects of interventions seeking to improve institutions. The Convention of the Rights of the Child and its implicit "last resort" language, as well as subsequent global policies that also use this language, do not create a constructive way of approaching alternative care solutions for any children without parental care. Instead, policymakers and practitioners should establish individualized care plans for all children without parental care, regulate their admission to institutions with periodic reviews of the necessity and appropriateness of their placement, and develop standards for "suitability" of institutions to improve conditions.

  7. Evaluation of a Systems Analysis and Improvement Approach to Optimize Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S.; Robinson, Julia; Kouyate, Seydou; Coutinho, Joana; Nduati, Ruth; Pfeiffer, James; Gloyd, Stephen; Sherr, Kenneth; Granato, S. Adam; Kone, Ahoua; Cruz, Emilia; Manuel, Joao Luis; Zucule, Justina; Napua, Manuel; Mbatia, Grace; Wariua, Grace; Maina, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite large investments to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT), pediatric HIV elimination goals are not on track in many countries. The Systems Analysis and Improvement Approach (SAIA) study was a cluster randomized trial to test whether a package of systems engineering tools could strengthen PMTCT programs. We sought to (1) define core and adaptable components of the SAIA intervention, and (2) explain the heterogeneity in SAIA's success between facilities. Methods: The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) guided all data collection efforts. CFIR constructs were assessed in focus group discussions and interviews with study and facility staff in 6 health facilities (1 high-performing and 1 low-performing site per country, identified by study staff) in December 2014 at the end of the intervention period. SAIA staff identified the intervention's core and adaptable components at an end-of-study meeting in August 2015. Two independent analysts used CFIR constructs to code transcripts before reaching consensus. Results: Flow mapping and continuous quality improvement were the core to the SAIA in all settings, whereas the PMTCT cascade analysis tool was the core in high HIV prevalence settings. Five CFIR constructs distinguished strongly between high and low performers: 2 in inner setting (networks and communication, available resources) and 3 in process (external change agents, executing, reflecting and evaluating). Discussion: The CFIR is a valuable tool to categorize elements of an intervention as core versus adaptable, and to understand heterogeneity in study implementation. Future intervention studies should apply evidence-based implementation science frameworks, like the CFIR, to provide salient data to expand implementation to other settings. PMID:27355497

  8. Effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) in a preschool setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Gershenson, Rachel A; Farahmand, Farahnaz K; Thaxter, Peter J; Behling, Steven; Budd, Karen S

    2009-11-01

    This research addressed the need for trained child care staff to support optimal early social-emotional development in urban, low-income, ethnic minority children. We evaluated effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), an approach adapted from Eyberg's Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). TCIT focuses on increasing preschool teachers' positive attention skills and consistent discipline in order to enhance children's psychosocial functioning and prevent mental health problems. A total of 12 teachers participated in small-group workshop sessions with in vivo coaching on their use of skills in the classroom. A multiple-baseline design across four classrooms (3 teachers each) evaluated effects of training on teacher behaviors during weekly classroom observations. Findings indicated systematic increases in trained skills during intervention, and consumer evaluations showed that the training was rated positively. Our results suggest that TCIT is a promising approach for enhancing positive teacher-child interactions in a preschool setting and should receive further investigation.

  9. Communicative Intentions of Child-Directed Speech in Three Different Learning Environments: Observations from the Netherlands, and Rural and Urban Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Paul; Mastin, J. Douglas; Schots, Diede M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This article compares the communicative intentions observed in the speech addressed to children of 1;1 and 1;6 years old from three cultural communities: the Netherlands, rural Mozambique, and urban Mozambique. These communities represent two prototypical learning environments and a third hybrid: Western, urban, middle-class families; non-Western,…

  10. Parenting Styles and Child Outcomes in Puerto Rican Families

    OpenAIRE

    Colón, Jeisianne Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate observed parenting styles among Puerto Rican parents living in Puerto Rico. Participants included 51 families with a child between the ages of 6 and 11. Families engaged in different behavioral observational tasks. Observations were coded for parenting dimensions and family parenting styles in order to determine its relationship to child outcomes. The Parenting Styles Observation Rating Scale was used to code the observations and the Child Behavior Ch...

  11. Development of Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Fakunmoju

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reliability and validity analyses of the Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale (PCMS. The scale comprised 34 items that measure abusive behaviors related to emotional/psychological abuse (10 items, sexual abuse (6 items, child neglect (6 items, child labor (7 items, and physical abuse (5 items. Analysis was based on a convenience sample of 317 participants in Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation was used to determine construct validity of its five-factor structure (subscales. The overall internal consistency of the PCMS was .95; subscales of Emotional/Psychological Abuse (.93 and Sexual Abuse (.91 were high, whereas those of Child Neglect (.89, Child Labor (.86, and Physical Abuse (.84 were good. Cutoff scores were computed categorizing scores into low/weak, medium/moderate, and high/strong perceptions of child maltreatment. Strengths and limitations as well as practical applications and implications of the scale for research were discussed.

  12. Change Trajectories for Parent-Child Interaction Sequences during Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakman, Melissa; Chaffin, Mark; Funderburk, Beverly; Silovsky, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) has been found to reduce future child abuse reports among physically abusive parents. Reductions in observed negative parenting behaviors mediated this benefit. The current study examined session-by-session interaction sequences in order to identify when during treatment these changes occur and…

  13. Continuity of Care, Caregiver-Child Interactions, and Toddler Social Competence and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Karen; Elicker, James; Choi, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Continuity of care is a recommended practice in child care intended to promote secure and supportive relationships between infants and toddlers and their caregivers. Toddlers (N = 115) between 12 and 24 months were observed in 30 continuity and 29 noncontinuity classrooms. The average duration of care for toddlers with…

  14. 推拿对寒湿型小儿秋季腹泻预后影响的比较研究%Clinical Observation of Child Massage Therapy on Children Autumn Diarrhea of Hanshi Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何嘉莹; 周翔

    2013-01-01

      [目的]观察小儿推拿对寒湿型小儿秋季腹泻的临床疗效。[方法]将75例随机分成2组,对照组38例予以补液纠酸等对症处理;治疗组37例在对照组治疗的基础上,加用小儿推拿手法。两组均治疗7天后以患儿临床症状体征判定疗效。[结果]最终统计结果时治疗组纳入35例,临床治愈25例,显效6例,有效4例,无效0例,总有效率为100%;对照组纳入35例,临床治愈15例,显效12例,有效3例,无效5例,总有效率为85.77%。两组比较,有显著性差异(P<0.05)。[结论]小儿推拿治疗寒湿型小儿秋季腹泻的疗效优于单用西药组,未发生不良事件,具有临床推广应用价值。%  [Objective] To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of treating children autumn diarrhea of Hanshi syndrome with child massage therapy. [Methods]75 cases were randomly divided into two groups.Cases in control group were treated by symptomatic treatment;the others in treatment group were treated by combination of child massage therapy. After the treatment, clinical symptoms were used as indicators for effect evaluation and comparison. [Results] 35 cases in treatment group had 25 cases in clinical cure,6 excel ent,4 effective,0 in vain. The clinical total effective rate of Chinese medicine group was 100%.Meanwhile,35 cases' clinical total effective rate was 80.77% in control group.[Conclution] Combination of child massage therapy has bet-ter therapeutic effects on migraine.

  15. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown that there ......Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  16. Parental and child health beliefs and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M

    1982-01-01

    Personal interviews concerning health beliefs and behaviors were conducted with a parent and child in each of 250 households. Index scores were constructed for parental and child health beliefs, and these scores were entered, along with demographic variables, in a series of multiple regression analyses predicting child health beliefs and behaviors. The age of the child was the variable most highly associated with three of four child health behaviors and four of six child health beliefs. The children's snacking between meals and cigarette smoking were related to several parental behaviors and, to a lesser extent, parental health beliefs. The children's health beliefs were less predictable than were their health behaviors, and the observed significant relationships were with parental health beliefs and demographics. The implications for the design of health education programs are discussed.

  17. Emotion regulatory function of parent attention to child pain and associated implications for parental pain control behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Sütterlin, Stefan; Caes, Line; Moors, Agnes

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the function of parental attention to child pain in regulating parental distress and pain control behaviour when observing their child performing a painful (cold pressor) task (CPT); we also studied the moderating role of parental state anxiety. Participants were 62 schoolchildren and one of their parents. Parental attention towards or away from child pain (ie, attend to pain vs avoid pain) was experimentally manipulated during a viewing task pairing unfamiliar children's neutral and pain faces. Before and after the viewing task, parental distress regulation was assessed by heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). In a subsequent phase, parents observed their own child perform a CPT task, allowing assessment of parental pain control behaviour (indexed by latency to stop their child's CPT performance) and parental distress, which was assessed via self-report before and after observation of child CPT performance. Eye tracking during the viewing task and self-reported attention to own child's pain confirmed successful attention manipulation. Further, findings indicated that the effect of attentional strategy on parental emotion regulation (indexed by HR, self-report) and pain control behaviour depended on parents' state anxiety. Specifically, whereas low anxious parents reported more distress and demonstrated more pain control behaviour in the Attend to Pain condition, high anxious parents reported more distress and showed more pain control behaviour in the Avoid Pain condition. This inverse pattern was likewise apparent in physiological distress indices (HR) in response to the initial viewing task. Theoretical/clinical implications and further research directions are discussed.

  18. Rights of the Child in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Algeria. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes legislative and institutional efforts made by Algeria since…

  19. Initial formation of teachers of chemistry: the use of the reports of observation of classes as instruments of research

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used the reports of classroom observation as a research tool, serving as a tool for research on initial teacher training in chemistry. The study analyzed 12 reports prepared by students of Degree in Chemistry and to discuss through the narratives of students, topics related to school structure and teaching of chemistry. The narratives have proved important implements to be analyzed to examine the initial formation. This work confirmed and underscored the relevance of the obs...

  20. Teacher-child relationships as a developmental issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher-child relationships may be a developmental issue in its own right, instead of an aspect of wider developmental issues such as attachment or adaptation to school. This paper discusses research findings on teacher-child relationships to argue that teacher-child relationships are important for

  1. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  2. Attributing Responsibility for Child Maltreatment when Domestic Violence Is Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Miriam J.; Hartley, Carolyn Copps

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence how child welfare workers attribute responsibility for child maltreatment and child safety in cases involving domestic violence. Methods: The study used a factorial survey approach, combining elements of survey research with an experimental design. Case vignettes were…

  3. Integrating experimental and observational personality research--the contributions of Hans Eysenck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, William; Oehlberg, Katherine

    2008-12-01

    A fundamental aspect of Hans Eysenck's research was his emphasis upon using all the tools available to the researcher to study personality. This included correlational, experimental, physiological, and genetic approaches. Fifty years after Cronbach's call for the reunification of the two disciplines of psychology (Cronbach, 1957) and 40 years after Eysenck's plea for experimental approaches to personality research (H. J. Eysenck, 1966), what is the status of the unification? Should personality researchers use experimental techniques? Do experimental techniques allow us to tease out causality, and are we communicating the advantages of combining experimental with multivariate correlational techniques? We review the progress made since Cronbach's and Eysenck's original papers and suggest that although it is still uncommon to find experimental studies of personality, psychology would benefit from the joint use of correlational and experimental approaches.

  4. Biological and Environmental Research: Climate and Environmental Sciences Division: U.S./European Workshop on Climate Change Challenges and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; McCord, Raymond [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sisterson, Doug [Argonne National Laboratory; Voyles, Jimmy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2012-11-08

    The workshop aimed to identify outstanding climate change science questions and the observational strategies for addressing them. The scientific focus was clouds, aerosols, and precipitation, and the required ground- and aerial-based observations. The workshop findings will be useful input for setting priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the participating European centers. This joint workshop was envisioned as the first step in enhancing the collaboration among these climate research activities needed to better serve the science community.

  5. Maternal and Child Health Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Programs & Initiatives Funding Opportunities Data, Research & Epidemiology About MCHB Maternal and Child Health Bureau  News & Announcements HHS Awards more than $742,000 to Health Centers in American Samoa and the Virgin Islands to Fight Zika (6/23/16) Approved on June 6, 2016 -- ...

  6. Hyperactivity: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    Containing 27 references on hyperactivity selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts", the bibliography cites research reports, conference papers, journal articles, texts, and program guides. Each entry provides bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts of the documents. The…

  7. Autism: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings, the bibliography contains 47 items of research reports, conference papers, journal articles, texts, and program guides selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts". Each entry on autism provides bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and…

  8. The Ups and Downs of Child Care: Variations in Child Care Quality and Exposure across the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Kathryn; Habasevich-Brooks, Tara

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable policy interest in understanding the role of child care in children's development. Yet little research has examined whether individual children experience changes in child care quality across their early years, and less has included children's varying levels of exposure to care in analyses of child care trajectories. Using…

  9. Awareness of child sex tourism among young Finnish travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon Nurmi, Sara Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis is written about one of the dark sides of tourism: child sex tourism. It is commisioned by a Finnish NGO, Reilun Matkailun Yhdistys and the aim was to conduct a research in order to find out about the awareness and attitudes of young Finnish travelers about child sex tourism. The theoretical framework consists of theory about child sex tourism and abot the much wider problem from which child sex tourism is origined: commercial sexual exploitation of children. Furth...

  10. Progress in developing an infant and child feeding index

    OpenAIRE

    Arimond, Mary; Ruel, Marie T., ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Feeding practices are an important determinant of the nutritional status of infants and children. It is therefore useful to measure and describe infant and child feeding practices in a number of contexts. Such measurements could enable (1) international comparisons of the adequacy of infant and child feeding, (2) research linking infant and child feeding to determinants or outcomes, (3) advocacy regarding the importance of adequate infant and child feeding, and (4) monitoring and evaluation ...

  11. Conceptual Research of Lunar-based Earth Observation for Polar Glacier Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zhixing; Liu, Guang; Ding, Yixing

    2016-07-01

    The ice flow velocity of glaciers is important for estimating the polar ice sheet mass balance, and it is of great significance for studies into rising sea level under the background of global warming. However so far the long-term and global measurements of these macro-scale motion processes of the polar glaciers have hardly been achieved by Earth Observation (EO) technique from the ground, aircraft or satellites in space. This paper, facing the demand for space technology for large-scale global environmental change observation,especially the changes of polar glaciers, and proposes a new concept involving setting up sensors on the lunar surface and using the Moon as a platform for Earth observation, transmitting the data back to Earth. Lunar-based Earth observation, which enables the Earth's large-scale, continuous, long-term dynamic motions to be measured, is expected to provide a new solution to the problems mentioned above. According to the pattern and characteristics of polar glaciers motion, we will propose a comprehensive investigation of Lunar-based Earth observation with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Via theoretical modeling and experimental simulation inversion, intensive studies of Lunar-based Earth observation for the glacier motions in the polar regions will be implemented, including the InSAR basics theory, observation modes of InSAR and optimization methods of their key parameters. It will be of a great help to creatively expand the EO technique system from space. In addition, they will contribute to establishing the theoretical foundation for the realization of the global, long-term and continuous observation for the glacier motion phenomena in the Antarctic and the Arctic.

  12. Boys, Girls, and "Two Cultures" of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Abby C.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in the quality of child care experienced by toddler boys and girls. Boys were more likely to be in lower-quality child care than girls, assessed with both setting-level measures and observations of caregiver-child interaction. A possible explanatory mechanism for the gender differences is suggested by evidence that…

  13. Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Child and Parent Distress during Venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated behavioral intervention to control child distress during invasive cancer treatment. Children (n=23) requiring physical restraint to complete venipuncture were alternately assigned to behavioral intervention or attention control condition. Observed child distress, parent-rated child distress, and parent ratings of own distress were…

  14. The Oriental Characters of Child's World :The Design Research of Child's Playground in The Residential District%儿童世界的东方细雨一一居住区儿童游戏场设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 李珎

    2011-01-01

    该文针对居住区儿童游戏场的文化缺失现象,提出了将中国传统文化元素导入居住区儿童游戏场设计的途径,从形态中感悟、游戏中体验和故事中解读三个角度探索具体的导入手法.%In view of the culture of children's playground in the community flaw phenomenon; the paper proposes that China traditional culture element will be implanted to the child play-ground's designation of community; and to explore the concretely technique of the implantation from three respects: influence from the shape; learn through practice from game; listen from the story.

  15. From Dogmatic Discussions to Observations and Planned Experiments: Some Examples from Early Aurora Borealis Research in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Traces the evolution of physics research methods in Finland from passive observations to planned experiments. Presents examples of planned experiments designed to solve particular problems with the goal of establishing a theory of the phenomenon under study. Contains 16 references. (JRH)

  16. Observing, studying, and managing for change-Proceedings of the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Nicolas; Patterson, Glenn; Parker, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    These proceedings contain the abstracts, manuscripts, and posters of presentations given at the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds-Observing, Studying, and Managing for Change, held at the Westmark Hotel in Fairbanks, Alaska, September 26-30, 2011. The conference was jointly hosted by the Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service.

  17. Parent Experiences with State Child Care Subsidy Systems and Their Perceptions of Choice and Quality in Care Selected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…

  18. Annual Research Review: Categories versus Dimensions in the Classification and Conceptualisation of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders--Implications of Recent Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, David; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether child and adolescent mental disorders are best classified using dimensional or categorical approaches is a contentious one that has equally profound implications for clinical practice and scientific enquiry. Here, we explore this issue in the context of the forth coming publication of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 approaches to…

  19. No Child Left with Crayons: The Imperative of Arts-Based Education and Research with Language "Minority" and Other Minoritized Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Sharon Verner; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa

    2013-01-01

    Since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, public discourse on "failing schools" as measured by high-stakes standardized tests has disproportionately affected students from minoritized communities (such as language, race, class, dis/ability), emphasizing climates of assessment at the expense of broader, more democratic, and…

  20. Collaborative Research. Separating Forced and Unforced Decadal Predictability in Models and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DelSole, Timothy [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The purpose of the proposed research was to identify unforced predictable components on decadal time scales, distinguish these components from forced predictable components, and to assess the reliability of model predictions of these components. The question of whether anthropogenic forcing changes decadal predictability, or gives rise to new forms of decadal predictability, also will be

  1. Research in Geodesy Based Upon Radio Interferometric Observations of GPS (Global Positioning System) Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-31

    1983. Robertson, D. S., Carter, W. E., Eanes, R. J., Schutz , B. E., Tapley, B. D., King, R. W., Langley, R. B., Morgan, P. J., and Shapiro, I. I... Alfred Leick (on leave from the Univ. of Maine) Staff Scientists: Drs. Richard I. Abbot, Yehuda Bock, and Sergei A. Gourevitch Principal Research

  2. Researching Real-World Web Use with Roxy: Collecting Observational Web Data with Informed Consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Menchen-Trevino (Ericka); C. Karr (Chris)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOutside of a laboratory environment, it has been difficult for researchers to collect both behavioral and self-reported Web use data from the same participants. To address this challenge, we created Roxy, which is software that collects real-world Web-use data with participants' informed

  3. Methods Evolved by Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…

  4. Research on the stability, controllability and observability for fractional order LTI systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen-bin; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2006-01-01

    The state space representations of fractional order linear time-invariant (LTI ) systems are introduced, and their solution formulas are deduced by means of Laplace transform. The stability condition of fractional order LTI systems is given, and its proof is deduced by means of using linear non-singularity transform and the derivative property of Mittag-Leffler function. The controllability condition of fractional order LTI systems is given, and its proof is deduced by means of using its characteristic polynomial and the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. The observability condition of fractional order LTI systems is given, and its proof is deduced by means of their solution formulas. Finally an example is given to prove the correctness of the stability, controllability, and observability conditions mentioned above. s are deduced by means of Laplace transform. Their stability, controllability and observability conditions are given as well as their proofs.

  5. Spatio-temporal variability of the polar middle atmosphere. Insights from over 30 years of research satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahoz, W.A.; Orsolini, Y.J.; Manney, G.L.; Minschwaner, K.; Allen, D.R.; Errera, Q.; Jackson, D.R.; Lambert, A.; Lee, J.; Pumphrey, H.; Schwartz, M.; Wu, D.

    2012-07-01

    We discuss the insights that research satellite observations from the last 30 years have provided on the spatio-temporal variability of the polar middle atmosphere. Starting from the time of the NASA LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instruments, both launched in 1978, we show how these observations have augmented our knowledge of the polar middle atmosphere, in particular how information on ozone and tracers has augmented our knowledge of: (i) the spatial and temporal characteristics of the wintertime polar stratosphere and the summertime circulation; and (ii) the roles of chemistry and transport in determining the stratospheric ozone distribution. We address the increasing joint use of observations and models, in particular in data assimilation, in contributing to this understanding. Finally, we outline requirements to allow continuation of the wealth of information on the polar middle atmosphere provided by research satellites over the last 30 years.(Author)

  6. A research proposal on spectroscopy of gases and solids observed in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, F. P. J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Giver, L. P.; Goorvitch, D.

    1986-01-01

    It is well recognized and accepted that the interpretation and analysis of any type of remote planetary spectroscopic observation requires that basic molecular parameters be available. Furthermore, the newly developed capabilities of air, ground, and space borne spectrometers trained on bodies in the solar system are producing results which are extremely difficult to understand on the basis of available data. This is particularly true in the case of spectral features arising from gases and volatiles condensed as ices. With the objective to continue to extend the understanding of spectroscopic observations of solar system objects (including comets) , laboratory studies of both gas phase molecules and ices and dusts are proposed.

  7. The Reporting of Observational Research Studies in Dermatology Journals A Literature-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langan, Sinead; Schmitt, Jochen; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Svensson, Ake; von Elm, Erik; Williams, Hywel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of reporting in observational studies in dermatology. Data Sources: Five dermatology journals-the Archives of Dermatology, the British Journal of Dermatology, the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, and Acta Derma

  8. The Kernel Levine Equipercentile Observed-Score Equating Function. Research Report. ETS RR-13-38

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the observed-score equating methods for the nonequivalent groups with anchor test design, there are 3 fundamentally different ways of using the information provided by the anchor scores to equate the scores of a new form to those of an old form. One method uses the anchor scores as a conditioning variable, such as the Tucker…

  9. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Assessing Physical Activity and Its Contexts Using Systematic Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more…

  10. Instrumented Collective Learning Situations (ICLS): the Gap between Theoretical Research and Observed Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Christine; George, Sebastien

    2007-01-01

    According to socio-constructivism approach, collective situations are promoted to favor learning in classroom, at a distance or in a blended educational context. So, many Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are provided to teachers but there are no clear studies about the way they are used and perceived. Our research is based on the hypothesis that practices of educational actors (instructional designers and tutors) are far away from theoretical results of research in education technologies. In this paper, we consider a precise kind of situation: Instrumented Collective Learning Situations (ICLS). By a survey on 13 fields in higher education in France, Switzerland and Canada, we present how ICLS are designed and how teachers used them. Conclusions give an indication on the gap between the way information technologies are prescribed and the way they are actually used and perceived by teachers.

  11. Boy-lovers and their influence on boys: distorted research and anecdotal observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brongersma, E

    1990-01-01

    A wide experience with boy-lovers has convinced the author that one can often learn more about them from reading some excellent novels than from so-called scientific studies. All too often research is unreliable because (1) it assumes pedosexual activity is a positive indicator of pedophilia; (2) no distinction is drawn between pseudo-pedophiles and real pedophiles; (3) no difference is recognized between boys and girls as partners; and (4) it is highly distorted by bias. Representative samples for research cannot be drawn from members of boy-love organizations. The incidence of violence is very low in pedophile contacts with boys. The influence can be strong in lasting relationships; it can be either wholesome or unwholesome. Within a relationship, sex is usually only a secondary element, although it can be important in sexual instruction and education. The impact of the law, the hostility of parents and the problem of the partners' inequality are discussed.

  12. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  13. One hundred years of migraine research: major clinical and scientific observations from 1910 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Koehler, Peter J

    2011-05-01

    Pain research, and headache research in particular, during the 20th century, has generated an enormous volume of literature promulgating theories, questions, and temporary answers. This narrative review describes the most important events in the history of migraine research between 1910 and 2010. Based on the standard textbooks of headache: Wolff's Headache (1948 and 1963) and The Headaches (1993, 2000, and 2006) topics were selected for a historical review. Most notably these included: isolation and clinical introduction of ergotamine (1918); further establishment of vasodilation in migraine and the constrictive action of ergotamine (1938); identification of pain-sensitive structures in the head (1941); Lashley's description of spreading scotoma (1941); cortical spreading depression (CSD) of Leão (1944); serotonin and the introduction of methysergide (1959); spreading oligemia in migraine with aura (1981); oligemia in the wake of CSD in rats (1982); neurogenic inflammation theory of migraine (1987); a new headache classification (1988); the discovery of sumatriptan (1988); migraine and calcitonin gene-related peptide (1990); the brainstem "migraine generator" and PET studies (1995); migraine as a channelopathy, including research from the genetic perspective (1996); and finally, meningeal sensitization, central sensitization, and allodynia (1996). Pathophysiological ideas have evolved within a limited number of paradigms, notably the vascular, neurogenic, neurotransmitter, and genetic/molecular biological paradigm. The application of various new technologies played an important role within these paradigms, in particular neurosurgical techniques, EEG, methods to measure cerebral blood flow, PET imaging, clinical epidemiological, genetic, and molecular biological methods, the latter putting migraine (at least hemiplegic migraine) within a completely new classification of diseases.

  14. Role of the Veterinary Pathologist on the Tropical Medicine Research Team; Observations in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-08

    mice. Approximately 3 weeks later, the spleens from these mice were harvested and passed a second time intra- peritoneally into another group of white...second passage mice were forwarded to more sophisti- cated infectious disease research centers for further confirmation. Tissues from all the trapped...and domestic felines . Frequent nocturnal examination of the blood of these laboratory animals demon- strated the presence of circulating microfilaria

  15. Collaborative Research: Separating Forced and Unforced Decadal Predictability in Models and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippett, Michael K. [Columbia University

    2014-04-09

    This report is a progress report of the accomplishments of the research grant “Collaborative Research: Separating Forced and Unforced Decadal Predictability in Models and Observa- tions” during the period 1 May 2011- 31 August 2013. This project is a collaborative one between Columbia University and George Mason University. George Mason University will submit a final technical report at the conclusion of their no-cost extension. The purpose of the proposed research is to identify unforced predictable components on decadal time scales, distinguish these components from forced predictable components, and to assess the reliability of model predictions of these components. Components of unforced decadal predictability will be isolated by maximizing the Average Predictability Time (APT) in long, multimodel control runs from state-of-the-art climate models. Components with decadal predictability have large APT, so maximizing APT ensures that components with decadal predictability will be detected. Optimal fingerprinting techniques, as used in detection and attribution analysis, will be used to separate variations due to natural and anthropogenic forcing from those due to unforced decadal predictability. This methodology will be applied to the decadal hindcasts generated by the CMIP5 project to assess the reliability of model projections. The question of whether anthropogenic forcing changes decadal predictability, or gives rise to new forms of decadal predictability, also will be investigated.

  16. The persistence of the subjective in neuropsychopharmacology: observations of contemporary hallucinogen research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlitz, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The elimination of subjectivity through brain research and the replacement of so-called "folk psychology" by a neuroscientifically enlightened worldview and self-conception has been both hoped for and feared. But this cultural revolution is still pending. Based on nine months of fieldwork on the revival of hallucinogen research since the "Decade of the Brain," this paper examines how subjective experience appears as epistemic object and practical problem in a psychopharmacological laboratory. In the quest for neural correlates of (drug-induced altered states of) consciousness, introspective accounts of test subjects play a crucial role in neuroimaging studies. Firsthand knowledge of the drugs' flamboyant effects provides researchers with a personal knowledge not communicated in scientific publications, but key to the conduct of their experiments. In many cases, the "psychedelic experience" draws scientists into the field and continues to inspire their self-image and way of life. By exploring these domains the paper points to a persistence of the subjective in contemporary neuropsychopharmacology.

  17. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction.

  18. Observing Ben Wyckoff: From Basic Research to Programmed Instruction and Social Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Rogelio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2011-01-01

    L. Benjamin Wyckoff's seminal contributions to both psychological theory and application are the subject of this review. Wyckoff started his academic career as a graduate student at Indiana University, where he developed the observing-response procedure under the guidance of B. F. Skinner and C. J. Burke. At the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Wyckoff refined his mathematical theory of secondary reinforcement. This theory was the impetus for his creation of an electronic simulation of a rat ...

  19. Does the gender of parent or child matter in child maltreatment in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Naixue; Xue, Jia; Connolly, Cynthia A; Liu, Jianghong

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem worldwide, and China is no exception. However, the pattern of child maltreatment remains unknown, including whether the gender of children and their parents has an impact on the occurrence of maltreatment. This study aims at examining the rates and frequency of child maltreatment, including physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect perpetrated by mothers and fathers. We also test whether the interaction between parents' gender and their child's gender affects the occurrence of child maltreatment in China. 997 children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study participated in the present study and reported their maltreatment experience perpetrated by their mothers and fathers using the questionnaire, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC_CA). Generalized linear model analyses show that boys were more likely than girls to report physical abuse, and, in particular, boys were more likely than girls to be physically abused by their fathers. On the other hand, mothers were more likely than fathers to exhibit psychological aggression and use corporal punishment for both boys and girls. There was no difference based on the child's or parent's gender in the occurrence of neglect. The findings present empirical evidence that enhances the understanding of the pattern of child maltreatment in China, provide implications for social workers and health professionals to identify children at risk of child maltreatment, and shed light on future research studies.

  20. The Slogan of the Century: "Music for Every Child; Every Child for Music"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidingsfelder, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This article is a review of literature detailing the 1923 origin of the phrase "Music for Every Child; Every Child for Music" and tracing its use in music education periodicals through the next nine decades. By delving into the now century-old archives for "Music Educators Journal" to research the historic declaration of Karl…

  1. Parental Cognitive Impairment, Mental Health, and Child Outcomes in a Child Protection Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice; McConnell, David; Aunos, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Parents with cognitive impairments (CI) are overrepresented in child custody cases and their children are at risk for adverse outcomes. Ecological-transactional researchers propose that child outcomes are a function of the interaction of multiple distal, intermediate, and proximal risk and resilience factors. This study tested the fit of, and…

  2. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

  3. In situ observational research of the gap wind "Hijikawa-Arashi" in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yukitaka; Terao, Toru; Shigeta, Yoshinori; Ohsawa, Teruo

    2015-02-01

    The Hijikawa-arashi, a gap wind occurring in Ozu City, Ehime Prefecture, Japan, was investigated through in situ observations of horizontal and vertical directions. Analysis of surface air temperature data revealed that the inland Ozu Basin was radiatively cooled on the days on which the Hijikawa-arashi events occurred. This induced a greater difference in air temperature between the basin and the estuary of the Hijikawa River in comparison to days that no basin cooling occurred. In addition, the wind speeds of the Hijikawa-arashi observed at the estuary of the Hijikawa River were strongly proportional to the sea-level pressure difference between the inland Ozu Basin and the estuary. Theoretical calculations indicated that this pressure gradient force was sufficient for driving the strong wind of the Hijikawa-arashi. Moreover, calculation of the Froude number using vertical meteorological data revealed that the Hijikawa-arashi developed as a supercritical flow. That is, the flow was intensified at the exit of the gap, in accordance with the hydraulic theory. The vertical observations detected the inversion layer over the Hijikawa-arashi and suggested an application of the shallow water theory to this gap wind. The Hijikawa-arashi is an interesting gap flow with a strong wind, despite its small-scale geography relative to other gap winds worldwide. There is an important trigger getting higher basin pressure upstream due to the radiative cooling of the atmosphere and formation of a cold pool at the basin.

  4. Observational Research on Alcohol Use and Chronic Disease Outcome: New Approaches to Counter Biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The frequently reported protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption in observational studies may be due to unadjusted bias. Aim. To examine two new approaches that account for unknown confounding factors and allow the application of intention-to-treat analysis. Method. This study used data from the 2008, 2009, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys conducted in the United States. Unknown confounding effects were estimated through the association between parental alcohol use and health outcomes for children, because the presence of hypothetical physiological effects of alcohol can be ruled out for this association. In order to apply intention-to-treat analysis, previous alcohol use of former drinkers was obtained by using multiple imputations. Estimates with new adjustment approaches were compared with the traditional approach. Results. The traditional analytical approach; appears to be consistent with findings from previous observational studies; when two further adjustment approaches were used, the “protective” effects of moderate drinking almost disappeared. Conclusion. Use of a proxy outcome to estimate and control residual confounding effects of alcohol use and application of the intention-to-treat principle could provide a more realistic estimation of the true effects of alcohol use on health outcomes in observational epidemiological studies.

  5. Assimilation of microwave, infrared, and radio occultation satellite observations with a weather research and forecasting model for heavy rainfall forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyuen, Pakornpop; Wu, Falin; Phunthirawuth, Parwapath; Zhao, Yan

    2016-10-01

    In this research, satellite observation data were assimilated into Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) by using Three-dimensional Variational Data Assimilation System (3DVAR) to analyze its impacts on heavy rainfall forecasts. The weather case for this research was during 13-18 September 2015. Tropical cyclone VAMCO, forming in South China Sea near with Vietnam, moved on west direction to the Northeast of Thailand. After passed through Vietnam, the tropical cyclone was become to depression and there was heavy rainfall throughout the area of Thailand. Observation data, used in this research, included microwave radiance observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A), infrared radiance observations from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and GPS radio occultation (RO) from the COSMIC and CHAMP missions. The experiments were designed in five cases, namely, 1) without data assimilation (CTRL); 2) with only RO data (RO); 3) with only AMSU-A data (AMSUA); 4) with only IASI data (IASI); and 5) with all of RO, AMSU-A and IASI data assimilation (ALL). Then all experiment results would be compared with both NCEP FNL (Final) Operational Global Analysis and the observation data from Thai Meteorological Department weather stations. The experiments result demonstrated that with microwave (AMSU-A), infrared (IASI) and GPS radio occultation (RO) data assimilation can produce the positive impact on analyses and forecast. All of satellite data assimilations have corresponding positive effects in term of temperature and humidity forecasting, and the GPS-RO assimilation produces the best of temperature and humidity forecast biases. The satellite data assimilation has a good impact on temperature and humidity in lower troposphere and vertical distribution that very helpful for heavy rainfall forecast improvement.

  6. Particulate matter pollution research in the Yangtze River Delta: Observations, processes, modeling and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian Zhen; Cao, Junji; Hu, Min; Kan, Haidong; Fu, Tzung-May

    2015-12-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) covers an area of 110,915 square km, including seven cities of northern Zhejiang Province, the Shanghai municipality and eight cities of southern Jiangsu Province. It is home to ∼110 million people and its GDP accounts for 17.4% of the whole China Economy (Hong Kong Trade Development Council Research, 2013). The YRD economy is greatly driven by heavy industries such as machinery, chemicals and automobile manufacturing. It is also a large producer of agricultural products, including wheat, rice, and corn. Its transport infrastructure is highly developed, with the number of vehicles per km2 higher than that in the developed countries. Two out of the ten top ports in China (Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan ports) are located in the YRD. As a fast-developing and an important economic powerhouse of the Chinese Mainland, worsening of air quality and increasing pollution episodes in this region has led to heightened public health concerns and intensified research.

  7. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Childhood Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero ... Children with Disabilities October 12, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North ...

  8. Well-child visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who has questions about issues such as feeding, circumcision , and general child health issues. After the baby ... deep tendon reflexes as the child gets older Neonatal jaundice -- first few visits only Palpation Percussion Standard ...

  9. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  10. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  11. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  12. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  13. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  14. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  15. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  16. Studies in Child Language and Multilingualism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 345.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Virginia, Ed.; White, Sheila J., Ed.

    This compilation contains the following research reports on child language: (1) "Nouns: Love 'Em or Leave 'Em" by Dianne Horgan; (2) "Logic in Early Child Language" by Roy D. Pea; and (3) "Theories of the Child's Acquisition of Syntax: A Look at Rare Events and at Necessary, Catalytic, and Irrelevant Components of Mother-Child Conversation" by…

  17. Maternal Overcontrol and Child Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Perceived Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affrunti, Nicholas W.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that maternal overcontrol is related to higher levels of child anxiety. It has been theorized, though not empirically tested, that maternal overcontrol decreases child perceived competence and mastery, which increases child anxiety. The present study investigated this theory using a sample of 89 mother-child dyads…

  18. Understanding and Avoiding Immortal-Time Bias in Gastrointestinal Observational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targownik, Laura E; Suissa, Samy

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacoepidemiologic analyses, in which observational data is interrogated to evaluate relationships between patterns of drug use and both beneficial and adverse outcomes, are being increasingly used in the study of inflammatory bowel disease. However, the results of many of these analyses may be corrupted by the presence of immortal person-time bias, an analytic error which can result in an overestimation of the benefits of medical therapy. In this report, we will describe immortal person-time bias, explain the mechanism through which it confers a false benefit, and guide the reader in how to identify this source of bias in the medical literature.

  19. Collaborative Research: Reducing tropical precipitation biases in CESM — Tests of unified parameterizations with ARM observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Vincent [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Gettelman, Andrew [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Morrison, Hugh [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bacmeister, Julio [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Feingold, Graham [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Lee, Seoung-soo [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Williams, Christopher [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-09-14

    In state-of-the-art climate models, each cloud type is treated using its own separate cloud parameterization and its own separate microphysics parameterization. This use of separate schemes for separate cloud regimes is undesirable because it is theoretically unfounded, it hampers interpretation of results, and it leads to the temptation to overtune parameters. In this grant, we are creating a climate model that contains a unified cloud parameterization and a unified microphysics parameterization. This model will be used to address the problems of excessive frequency of drizzle in climate models and excessively early onset of deep convection in the Tropics over land. The resulting model will be compared with ARM observations.

  20. Observation and Research on Gravitational Erosion Process of Bank Slopes in Headstream Area of Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zi-li; CUI Peng; CHEN Xiao-qin; CHEN Jie; ZHU Yin-yan

    2005-01-01

    To reveal the gravitational erosion process in the headstream area of Jiangjia Ravine, continuous observation was conducted duing the rainy season. The observation and research show that the change of water content of the bank slope lags the precipitation process, the infiltration water concentrates mainly in the shallow layer of the bank slope, also the bank slope was unsaturated, the floods and debris flows in the gully down cut the gully bed, and scour the foot of the bank slope. These results in many collapses, which is the main type of gravitational erosion process, and it provides large amounts of loose solid materials for the eruption of debris flows.

  1. Clinical research design technical points on child anorexia treated by new TCM drugs%中药新药治疗小儿厌食临床研究设计技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卉; 胡思源

    2012-01-01

    Through literature and practice search, the author puts forward ideas on new TCM drugs in the treatment of child anorexia clinical research, including test purpose and design, diagnosis and the standard of TCM syndromes, the choice of subjects, exit criteria, choice of control drugs, test process, effectiveness evaluation, safety indicators, combination therapy and quality control of test. New ideas of design and evaluation method on child anorexia clinical research , as well as new TCM drugs clinical research are provided for reference.%本文立足国内研究进展和实践经验,对中药新药治疗小儿厌食临床研究方案设计过程中的关键问题,从试验目的与总体设计、诊断标准、中医辨证标准、受试者的选择、对照药的选择、导入期、疗程及随访、有效性评价、安全性评价、合并用药、质量控制等各个方面,阐述了作者的认识,为中药新药治疗小儿厌食的临床研究设计提出了具体的思路,也为中药新药的临床研究设计与评价方法提供了借鉴.

  2. Dance-movement therapy for movement development of a child with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sernec, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Movement is a basic need of children that allows them to learn appropriate responses and control behavior. The research problem refers to the observation of the qualitative aspect of the movement of a child with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. The main purpose of the study was to verify the effects of the dance-movement therapy on movement repertoire and expression and also movement competence in different situations. The survey was conducted as action research. Case-study was b...

  3. The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO: A new tool for atmospheric boundary layer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Reuder

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO has been developed as a cost-efficient measurement system with the aim to close the existing observational gap of atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes. The system is highly flexible and has the capability for in-situ ABL measurements with unique spatial and temporal resolution. SUMO is based on a light-weighted styrofoam model airplane, equipped with an autopilot system for autonomous flight missions and in its recent version with meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and a total lift-off weight of 580 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas with limited infrastructure. During several field campaigns in 2007 and 2008 the system has been successfully tested and operated. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground during the FLOHOF (FLOw over and around HOFsjökull field campaign in Central Iceland in July/August 2007. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m even at ground temperatures of -20° C and wind speeds up to 15 m s-1.

  4. SUMO: A small unmanned meteorological observer for atmospheric boundary layer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuder, J; Jonassen, M; Mayer, S [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allegaten 70, 5009 Bergen (Norway); Brisset, P [Ecole Nationale de l' Aviation Civile (ENAC), 7 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Mueller, M [Orleansstrasse 26a, 31135 Hildesheim (Germany)], E-mail: joachim.reuder@gfi.uib.no, E-mail: pascal.brisset@enac.fr, E-mail: marius.jonassen@gfi.uib.no, E-mail: martin@pfump.org, E-mail: stephanie.mayer@gfi.uib.no

    2008-05-01

    A new system for atmospheric measurements in the lower troposphere has been developed and successfully tested. The presented Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO) is based on a light-weighted commercially available model airplane, equipped with an autopilot and meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. During the 5 week field campaign FLOHOF (Flow over and around HofsjoUkull) in Central Iceland the system has been successfully tested in July/August 2007. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground. In addition the applicability of SUMO for horizontal surveys up to 4 km away from the launch site has been approved. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under harsh polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m at ground temperatures of -20 deg. C and wind speeds up to 15 m s{sup -1}. With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and its weight of below 600 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas. The direct material costs for one SUMO unit, including airplane, autopilot and sensors are below 1200 Euro. Assuming at least several tenths of flights for each airframe, SUMO provides a cost-efficient measurement system with a large potential to close the existing observational gap of reasonable atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes.

  5. The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO. A new tool for atmospheric boundary layer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuder, Joachim; Jonassen, Marius; Mayer, Stephanie [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Geophysical Inst.; Brisset, Pascal [Ecole Nationale de l' Aviation Civile (ENAC), Toulouse (France); Mueller, Martin [Martin Mueller Engineering, Hildesheim (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO has been developed as a cost-efficient measurement system with the aim to close the existing observational gap of atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes. The system is highly flexible and has the capability for in-situ ABL measurements with unique spatial and temporal resolution. SUMO is based on a light-weighted styrofoam model airplane, equipped with an autopilot system for autonomous flight missions and in its recent version with meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and a total lift-off weight of 580 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas with limited infrastructure. During several field campaigns in 2007 and 2008 the system has been successfully tested and operated. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground during the FLOHOF (FLOw over and around HOFsjoekull) field campaign in Central Iceland in July/August 2007. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m even at ground temperatures of -20 C and wind speeds up to 15 m s{sup -1}. (orig.)

  6. Your Child's Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the number of shots a child receives. The Vaccines Your Child Needs The following vaccinations and schedules are recommended ... are developed. Your doctor will determine the best vaccinations and schedule for your child. Recommended vaccinations: Chickenpox (varicella) vaccine Diphtheria, tetanus, and ...

  7. Supporting Each Child's Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Buchanan, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    In using developmentally appropriate practices, teachers should intentionally address all aspects of a child's being, the spiritual along with the physical and the cognitive. Because spirituality is a vital part of human nature, a whole-child teaching approach must include the part of the child some call spirituality. Many have attempted to…

  8. Child Care Services Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  9. [Autism and child protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coron, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  10. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…

  11. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  12. IASOA circumpolar observations in service for research of atmospheric transports into and out of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihma, Timo; Uttal, Taneil; Walden, Von; Cox, Christopher; Starkweather, Sandy; Makshtas, Alexander; Key, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    The International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) is an International Polar Year legacy consortium that focuses on coordinating measurements of the Arctic atmosphere collected at ten observatories in the U.S., Canada, Russia, Norway, Finland, and Greenland. The IASOA data portal and collaboratory process support thematic expert groups that work towards common goals for utilizing interoperable data products across the observatories. In addition to detailed surface observations and upper-air radiosonde program, some of the IASOA observatories collect information on the vertical profiles of moisture, cloud boundaries, cloud water/ice contents, and aerosols using radars, lidars ceilometers and radiometers. Collectively the IASOA network provides a unique source of information that can be utilized in order to provide the best possible empirical estimates of the horizontal atmospheric transports of momentum, heat, moisture, cloud water, cloud ice, and aerosols into and out of the Arctic Ocean region. These can be used in turn to support the evaluation of atmospheric reanalyses, weather and climate models, and satellite remote sensing products, and subsequently studies on the interaction between the Arctic and lower latitudes including the role of mid- and low-latitude forcing on the Arctic amplification of climate warming and the effects of Arctic changes on mid-latitude weather and climate. In addition, the IASOA data are valuable for the evaluation of gridded products (reanalyses, models, and satellite data) with respect to Earth surface variables, such as snow depth, soil moisture, surface temperature, radiative fluxes, albedo, as well as turbulent fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, CO2, and CH4. Evaluation of surface fluxes is a vital to complement the evaluation of horizontal transports. These together will yield a comprehensive assessment of the quality of available gridded products in representing atmospheric budgets of heat, moisture

  13. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Hansen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT) derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (un)healthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1) child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2) child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents' major driving forces behind reducing children's consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents' provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.

  14. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth L. Melbye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (unhealthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1 child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2 child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents’ major driving forces behind reducing children’s consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents’ provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.

  15. Clinical observation of ganciclovir treatment for the young child viral encephalitis%更昔洛韦治疗小儿病毒性脑炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓宝; 吴小平; 李文君

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe effect of ganciclovir on the treatment of the young child viral encephalitis. Methods 68 cases of viral encephalitis were randomly divided into treatment group(45 cases) and the control group (23 cases), the two groups of children with clinical manifestations and treatment effects were observed. Results Headache, vomiting, convulsions symptoms and the resumption of the time was obviously shorter in treatment group than that of the control group, fever symptoms persisted despite the shortened time, but the difference was not statis- tically significant. Conclusion Ganciclovir in children with viral encephalitis have significant effect.%目的 观察更昔洛韦治疗小儿病毒性脑炎的临床疗效.方法 子将68例病毒性脑炎患儿随机分为治疗组(45例)和对照组(23例),对两组患儿的临床表现及治疗效果进行观察.结果 治疗组头痛、呕吐及抽搐症状和恢复神志的时间明显较对照组缩短,发热症状消退的时间虽有所缩短,但两者比较差异无统计学意义.结论 更昔洛韦对小儿病毒性脑炎有明显疗效,值得临床推广.

  16. Research of Compound Control for DC Motor System Based on Global Sliding Mode Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of modeling errors, parameter variations, and load moment disturbances in DC motor control system, one global sliding mode disturbance observer (GSMDO is proposed based on the global sliding mode (GSM control theory. The output of GSMDO is used as the disturbance compensation in control system, which can improve the robust performance of DC motor control system. Based on the designed GSMDO in inner loop, one compound controller, composed of a feedback controller and a feedforward controller, is proposed in order to realize the position tracking of DC motor system. The gains of feedback controller are obtained by means of linear quadratic regulator (LQR optimal control theory. Simulation results present that the proposed control scheme possesses better tracking properties and stronger robustness against modeling errors, parameter variations, and friction moment disturbances. Moreover, its structure is simple; therefore it is easy to be implemented in engineering.

  17. Language of perfectionistic parents predicting child anxiety diagnostic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Geronimi, Elena M C; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has identified parental perfectionism as a risk factor for child anxiety. Yet few studies investigated why parental perfectionism may play such a role. Based on research suggesting parental verbal information and language use are associated with increased child fear beliefs and anxiety, the current study investigated the linguistic style of perfectionistic mothers and its relation to child anxiety. Participants were 71 mother-child dyads. Children were 3-12 years old, 57.7% female, and 30 were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Analyses showed that parental perfectionism was associated with increased second person pronouns, decreased adverbs, negative emotion words, and anger words. Second person pronouns and negative emotion words predicted child anxiety diagnostic status and mediated the relation between maternal perfectionism and child anxiety. These findings suggest that parental perfectionism may be associated with a specific language style that is related to child anxiety. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  18. Impact of parental catastrophizing and contextual threat on parents' emotional and behavioral responses to their child's pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caes, Line; Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Goubert, Liesbet

    2012-03-01

    Limited research has addressed processes underlying parents' empathic responses to their child's pain. The present study investigated the effects of parental catastrophizing, threatening information about the child's pain, and child pain expression upon parental emotional and behavioral responses to their child's pain. A total of 56 school children participated in a heat pain task consisting of 48 trials while being observed by 1 of their parents. Trials were preceded by a blue or yellow circle, signaling possible pain stimulation (i.e., pain signal) or no pain stimulation (i.e., safety signal). Parents received either neutral or threatening information regarding the heat stimulus. Parents' negative emotional responses when anticipating their child's pain were assessed using psychophysiological measures- i.e., fear-potentiated startle and corrugator EMG activity. Parental behavioral response to their child's pain (i.e., pain attending talk) was assessed during a 3-minute parent-child interaction that followed the pain task. The Child Facial Coding System (CFCS) was used to assess children's facial pain expression during the pain task. Results indicated that receiving threatening information was associated with a stronger parental corrugator EMG activity during pain signals in comparison with safety signals. The same pattern was found for parental fear-potentiated startle reflex, particularly when the child's facial pain expression was high. In addition, parents who reported high levels of catastrophizing thought about their child's pain engaged, in comparison with low-catastrophizing parents, in more pain-attending talk when they received threatening information. The findings are discussed in the context of affective-motivational theories of pain.

  19. CHILD ABUSE, FENOMENA DAN KEBIJAKAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Wulansari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope to be able to do an early diagnose, prevention, and right therapy to minimize the negative impacts that can happen. Raising competencies of health care providers and building more hospitals that can be an integrated crisis centre in child abuse is a must. The government has built some policies to prevent children from child abuse, that has to be socialized, implemented an evaluated. It is hoped that Health Department has to make a continued and integrated systems and make a standard procedures for all of health care providers to prevent and provide the right therapy for the victim of child abuse. Key words: Child Abuse, growth and development, policies

  20. Musings: What child and adolescent psychiatry means to me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Eugene Arnold

    2008-01-01

    has been to participate in research on nutritional aspects of child psychiatry. Equally gratifying is to participate in efforts to make such interest and research respectable. The implicit double standard about drugs and psychosocial treatments on the one hand and nutrition and other complementary considerations on the other seems to make many intelligent colleagues reluctant to acknowledge any interest in this area. The discovery of closet nutritionists after boldly speaking out on the subject has been a repeated joy.The experience of observing nature's healing power, coupled with the interest in research, has led me to a great interest in placebo/Hawthorne effect. I'm fascinated by the fact that this no-risk treatment can produce an improvement, depending on the disorder, that is a tenth to twice as much as active medication. For example, if an antidepressant has a 60% response rate and placebo 40% response rate, then the pharmacological effect is 20% response, the difference. In this case, the placebo effect is twice as strong as the pharmacological effect and when you give an antidepressant, 2/3 of the effect is placebo. This is why witch doctors, shamans and charlatans thrive: in the example given, they can be 2/3 as effective as the most expert allopathic psychiatrist. We need to understand this effect better: how much of it is real improvement, how much statistical regression to the mean, how much rater expectation, etc.? Mastery of placebo effect for the good of our patients is particularly important in child psychiatry because children are subject to two sets of expectations: their own and their parents'; and they are probably more sensitive to the expectation matrix than adults are. We should strive to be good witch doctors as well as good psychotherapy technicians, pharmacologists and nutrition experts. I can proudly (and humbly say that I've become the best witch doctor I can be.And that's what child and adolescent psychiatry means to me.

  1. A naturalistic observation study of the links between parental depressive symptoms and preschoolers' behaviors in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has shown that parental depressive symptoms are linked to a number of negative child outcomes. However, the associations between parental depressive symptoms and actual child behaviors in everyday life remain largely unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the links between parental depressive symptoms and everyday child behaviors and emotional language use using a novel observational methodology, and to explore the potential moderating role of parent-child conflict. We tracked the behaviors and language use of 35 preschool-aged children for two 1-day periods separated by one year using a child version of the Electronically Activated Recorder, a digital voice recorder that records ambient sounds while participants go about their daily lives. Parental depressive symptoms were positively associated with multiple problem behaviors among children (i.e., crying, acting mad, watching TV) when measured both concurrently and prospectively, and with negative emotion word use prospectively. Further, the links between parental depressive symptoms and child crying were moderated by parents' perceptions of parent-child conflict. This study offers the first empirical evidence of direct links between parental depressive symptoms and child behaviors in daily life and presents a promising research tool for the study of everyday child behaviors.

  2. Maltreatment, Child Welfare, and Recidivism in a Sample of Deep-End Crossover Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; Piquero, Alex R; Bilchik, Shay; Jackowski, Katherine; Greenwald, Mark A; Epps, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Although research has oft-documented a maltreatment-delinquency link, the effect of involvement in-and timing of-child welfare system involvement on offending has received less attention. We examine whether the timing of child welfare involvement has differential effects on recidivism of deep-end juvenile offenders (youth who have been adjudicated delinquent by the court and placed in juvenile justice residential programs). The current study uses a large, diverse sample of 12,955 youth completing juvenile justice residential programs between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013 in Florida (13 % female, 55 % Black, 11 % Hispanic). Additionally, we explore the direct effects of childhood traumatic events on delinquency, as well as their indirect effects through child welfare involvement using structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that adverse childhood experiences fail to exert a direct effect on recidivism, but do exhibit a significant indirect effect on recidivism through child welfare involvement, which is itself associated with recidivism. This means that while having exposures to more types of childhood traumatic events does not, in and of itself, increase the likelihood of re-offending, effects of such experiences operate through child welfare placement. Differences in the effects of maltreatment timing and of adverse childhood experiences are observed across sex and race/ethnicity subgroups. Across all racial subgroups, exposures to adverse childhood experiences have a significant effect on the likelihood of child welfare placement, yet child welfare placement exerts a significant effect on recidivism for White and Hispanic youth, but not for Black youth. Only Hispanic female and White male youth with overlapping child welfare and juvenile justice cases (open cases in both systems at the same time during the study period) were more likely to recidivate than their delinquent-only counterpart youth. Crossover status (child welfare and juvenile justice

  3. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  4. Employee Training and Development in Nigerian Organisaitons: Some Observations and Agenda for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Obisi , Ph.D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate aim of any training program is to add value and once a training program cannot add value, it should be reworked or altogether cancelled. Without training, it will be very difficult to acquire skills and without skills organizations will not achieve its objectives through people. Some organizations see training as an expensive venture and may put embargo on training and utilize the money for other projects in the organization. Organizations must encourage learning organizations through its serious approach to training and development. A leadership organization is one which continuously enhances the skills of its entireworkforce. Organizations should show in words and indeed its resolve to place high emphasis on training by having a training philosophy, identifying training needs, training objectives, training administration and also evaluating training needs. It is discovered that organizations show poor attitude to training administration by not preparing and equipping their trainees before, during and after a training program. More importantly, research efforts should be devoted to identifying missing gaps in the reviewed materials. Priority would be given to empirical analysis of the significance of identifying specific and appropriate needs before venturing into training and the reason why training fails.

  5. The Nonprofit Advantage: Producing Quality in Thick and Thin Child Care Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers--lower child--staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of…

  6. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

  8. Use and misuse of p-values in designed and observational studies: guide for researchers and reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David A

    2005-07-01

    Analysis of scientific data involves many components, one of which is often statistical testing with the calculation of p-values. However, researchers too often pepper their papers with p-values in the absence of critical thinking about their results. In fact, statistical tests in their various forms address just one question: does an observed difference exceed that which might reasonably be expected solely as a result of sampling error and/or random allocation of experimental material? Such tests are best applied to the results of designed studies with reasonable control of experimental error and sampling error, as well as acquisition of a sufficient sample size. Nevertheless, attributing an observed difference to a specific treatment effect requires critical thinking on the part of the scientist. Observational studies involve data sets whose size is usually a matter of convenience with results that reflect a number of potentially confounding factors. In this situation, statistical testing is not appropriate and p-values may be misleading; other more modern statistical tools should be used instead, including graphic analysis, computer-intensive methods, regression trees, and other procedures broadly classified as bioinformatics, data mining, and exploratory data analysis. In this review, the utility of p-values calculated from designed experiments and observational studies are discussed, leading to the formation of a decision tree to aid researchers and reviewers in understanding both the benefits and limitations of statistical testing.

  9. Child human trafficking victims: challenges for the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Berger Cardoso, Jodi

    2010-08-01

    Since the passing of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in 2000 and its reauthorization by President George Bush in 2008, federal, state and community efforts in identifying and providing services for victims of human trafficking have significantly improved. However, most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards adults rather than children. Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population. This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations.

  10. The 4-Day Wave as Observed from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.; Elson, L. S.; Fishbein, E. F.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The "4-day wave" is an eastward moving quasi-nondispersive feature with period near 4 days occurring near the winter polar stratopause. This paper presents evidence of the 4-day feature in Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) temperature, geopotential height, and ozone data from the late southern winters of 1992 and 1993. Space-time spectral analyses reveal a double-peaked temperature structure consisting of one peak near the stratopause and another in the lower mesosphere, with an out-of-phase relationship between the two peaks. This double- peaked structure is reminiscent of recent three-dimensional barotropic/baroclinic instability model predictions and is observed here for the first time. The height variation of the 4-day ozone signal is shown to compare well with a linear advective-photochemical tracer model. Negative regions of quasigeostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradient and positive Eliassen-Palm flux divergence are shown to occur, consistent with instability dynamics playing a role in wave forcing. Spectral analyses of PV derived from MLS geopotential height fields reveal a 4-day signal peaking near the polar stratopause. The three-dimensional structure of the 4-day wave resembles the potential vorticity "charge" concept, wherein a PV anomaly in the atmosphere (analogous to an electrical charge in a dielectric material) induces a geopotential field, a vertically oriented temperature dipole, and circulation about the vertical axis.

  11. Statistical research on the motion properties of the magnetotail current sheet:Cluster observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.REME; E.LUCEK

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the flapping motion of the earth’s magnetotail current sheet is one of the most important problems in the magnetotail dynamics.Using Cluster data,we make a statistical research on the motion properties of the magnetotail current sheet of 2001 and 2003.We calculate the velocities of the magnetotail current sheet using new methods and obtain the distribution of the magnetotail current sheet velocities in the X-Y plane in GSE coordinate system.Our results show that although most of the current sheets were propagating toward the tail flanks and those of the exceptions lay in dusk side,which is consistent with previous studies,the proportions of the current sheet which were propagating toward midnight (where |YGSE|=0) were higher than those in previous studies.Motions of the current sheet in the middle area (|YGSE|<8 Re) of the magnetotail are investigated.Relatively high value of the Z component of the velocity further confirms that the middle area of the magnetotail might be a source region for the motion of the current sheets which were propagating towards the tail flanks.According to our case studies,the way the current sheets propagated toward midnight area differs significantly from that toward dusk and dawn side,from which we infer that there might be two different kinds of current sheet motions originated from different sources.The statistical results of this paper may give some clues for further studies on the origin of the flapping motion of the magnetotail current sheet.

  12. Child Labor - Moral Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lagasse, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  13. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C

    2015-08-01

    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category-property, person, and society-provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed.

  14. Collaboration Between Astronomers at UT Austin and K-12 Teachers: Connecting the Experience of Observing and Research with the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Sneden, Christopher; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Preston, Sandra; EXES Teachers Associate Program

    2015-01-01

    McDonald Observatory has a long history of providing teacher professional development (PD), and recently we have developed a new workshop model for more advanced participants. By choosing a select group of middle and high school teachers from those previously involved in our past PD programs, we have created a joint workshop / observing run program for them. After traveling to the observatory, the teachers participate in an actual observing run with a research astronomer. The teachers are trained first-hand how to take observations, operate the telescope, set up the instrument, and monitor observing conditions. The teachers are fully put in the role of observer. They are also given background information before and during the workshop related to the science and data they are helping to collect. The teachers work in teams to both perform the nightly observations with an astronomer, but to also perform new interactive classroom activities with education staff, and use other telescopes on the mountain. This is a unique experience for teachers since it allows them to take the resources and experiences directly back to their classrooms and students. They can directly relate to their students what skills for specific careers in STEM fields are needed. Evaluation from these workshops shows that there is: increased content knowledge among participants, greater impact that will be passed on to their students, and an authentic research experience that can't be replicated in other PD settings. In addition, not only is this program beneficial to the teachers, but this group is benefit to the education program of McDonald Observatory. Building on an existing PD program (with a 16 year history) we have the opportunity to test out new products and new education endeavors with this devoted group of well-trained teachers before bringing them to wider teacher and student audiences. This program is currently supported by the NSF grant AST-1211585 (PI Sneden).

  15. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2016-04-29

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  17. From child to child: children as communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J

    1993-01-01

    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  18. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  19. Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Yu

    2016-11-01

    on child height restriction from 0 to 11 months occurred in half the countries studied after adjusting for confounders. Poorer growth continuing after 24 months in children of younger mothers was observed in all regions, but needs further research to determine the causes. The effects were about double (in stunting prevalence terms in Africa, where there was an increase in 10 ppts in stunting for children of young mothers.

  20. Progress of research on the prophylaxis of child passenger injury%预防儿童乘客车内伤害的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘曙明

    2010-01-01

    Seat belts and air bags are all designed according to adult, so which used by children will only increase their injury. Children who sitting in the front row do not use any restraint devices have the highest risk in the car accident,but who sat in the back with the appropriate child restraint devices only have the low risk. Education for families and parents that is basics of implementing legislation and promoting child restraint devices, but which need to integrate other method or means of effective intervention is possible. Legislation is one of the most powerful tool to prevent child passenger injury, but how to implement and enforce these laws are more important in developing countries.%汽车上的安全措施如安全带和气囊等都是依据成人设计的,因此儿童使用专为成人设计的安全设施只会增加受伤的可能.研究发现交通事故中坐在车内前排不使用任何约束装置的儿童受伤风险最高,坐在后排使用合适约束装置的儿童受伤风险最小.针对儿童家庭和家长的教育是实施立法和推广儿童约束装置使用的基础,但需要和其他方法或手段结合干预才可能有效.立法是预防儿童乘客伤害的一种最有力工具,但是如何在发展中国家一贯地实施和有力地执行这些法律更加重要.