WorldWideScience

Sample records for child nutrition disorders

  1. Child Nutrition Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志强

    2005-01-01

    The Child Nutrition Program invites all students to participate in the school breakfast and lunch program at school. Our goal is to improve the health and education of students by providing nutritious meals that promote food choices for a healthy diet. Failure to eat balanced meals increases the risk of illness including obesity ,

  2. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  3. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  4. Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Nutrition URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  6. Child nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to reduce malnutrition, particularly in densely populated, peri-urban areas, is considered a priority among governments around the world. The problem is especially acute in Africa due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency. The International Atomic Energy Agency is providing technical support to a community nutrition programme in Senegal where nuclear techniques help to monitor the programme's effectiveness in order to ensure that it produces maximum benefits on vulnerable groups (women and children). (IAEA)

  7. Clinical practice: vegetarian infant and child nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winckel, Myriam; Vande Velde, Saskia; De Bruyne, Ruth; Van Biervliet, Stephanie

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this review is to give insight on the benefits and risks of vegetarianism, with special emphasis on vegetarian child nutrition. This eating pattern excluding meat and fish is being adopted by a growing number of people. A vegetarian diet has been shown to be associated with lower mortality of ischaemic heart disease and lower prevalence of obesity. Growth in children on a vegetarian diet including dairy has been shown to be similar to omnivorous peers. Although vegetarianism in adolescents is associated with eating disorders, there is no proof of a causal relation, as the eating disorder generally precedes the exclusion of meat from the diet. A well-balanced lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, including dairy products, can satisfy all nutritional needs of the growing child. In contrast, a vegan diet, excluding all animal food sources, has at least to be supplemented with vitamin B(12), with special attention to adequate intakes of calcium and zinc and energy-dense foods containing enough high-quality protein for young children. The more restricted the diet and the younger the child, the greater the risk for deficiencies. PMID:21912895

  8. Clinical practice: vegetarian infant and child nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winckel, Myriam; Vande Velde, Saskia; De Bruyne, Ruth; Van Biervliet, Stephanie

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this review is to give insight on the benefits and risks of vegetarianism, with special emphasis on vegetarian child nutrition. This eating pattern excluding meat and fish is being adopted by a growing number of people. A vegetarian diet has been shown to be associated with lower mortality of ischaemic heart disease and lower prevalence of obesity. Growth in children on a vegetarian diet including dairy has been shown to be similar to omnivorous peers. Although vegetarianism in adolescents is associated with eating disorders, there is no proof of a causal relation, as the eating disorder generally precedes the exclusion of meat from the diet. A well-balanced lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, including dairy products, can satisfy all nutritional needs of the growing child. In contrast, a vegan diet, excluding all animal food sources, has at least to be supplemented with vitamin B(12), with special attention to adequate intakes of calcium and zinc and energy-dense foods containing enough high-quality protein for young children. The more restricted the diet and the younger the child, the greater the risk for deficiencies.

  9. Nutritional and Pubertal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Calvo, M Teresa; Argente, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Caloric-protein malnutrition can slow growth and cause pubertal delay. This chapter focuses on endocrine abnormalities and pubertal alterations in patients with eating disorders, childhood obesity, the female athlete triad and children cancer survivors. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit multiple endocrine abnormalities, including isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The delay in pubertal development and reduction in growth seen in AN patients may be a direct result of malnutrition. Appropriate psychiatric, nutritional and hormonal therapy is necessary. It is suggested that obesity during childhood can accelerate pubertal onset and these children usually exhibit accelerated linear growth during puberty. In girls the relationship between childhood obesity and early pubertal onset could be related to their insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia. The female athlete triad is often observed in physically active girls and women in whom low energy availability with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density can be present. In prepubertal girls excess exercise can cause delayed menarche with no effects on adult height, while in postpubertal females it results in menstrual cycle irregularities. The consequences of childhood cancer depend on the type of cancer, its location, the age at which the disease was diagnosed, the dose of radiotherapy, and the type and dose of chemotherapy. PMID:26680577

  10. Child nutrition, child health, and school enrollment : a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.; Lavy, Victor; Menon, Rekha

    1997-01-01

    Better health and nutrition are thought to improve children's performance in school, and therefore their productivity after school. Most literature ignores the fact that child health and schooling reflect behavioral choices, so the estimated impact of health and nutrition on a child's schooling reflects biases in the studies. Using an explicit dynamic model for preferred estimates, the authors use longitudinal data to investigate how children's health and nutrition affect school enrollment in...

  11. 76 FR 16724 - Child Nutrition Programs-Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs--Income Eligibility Guidelines..., Supervisory Program Analyst, School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service...)), and sections 3(a)(6) and 4(e)(1)(A) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1772(a)(6) and...

  12. 77 FR 17004 - Child Nutrition Programs-Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs--Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and..., School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA, Alexandria... 3(a)(6) and 4(e)(1)(A) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1772(a)(6) and...

  13. 78 FR 17628 - Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and..., School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA, Alexandria... 3(a)(6) and 4(e)(1)(A) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1772(a)(6) and...

  14. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Karen F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such

  15. Effects of integrated child development and nutrition interventions on child development and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Fernald, Lia C H; Kagawa, Rose M C; Walker, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that examined the effect of interventions combining a child development component with a nutrition one; in some cases the nutrition interventions also included health-promotion components. Only papers with both child development and nutrition outcomes and rated as moderate-to-good quality were included. Eleven efficacy and two nonrandomized trials, and eight program evaluations were identified. Only six trials examined interventions separately and combined. The trials showed nutritional interventions usually benefited nutritional status and sometimes benefited child development. Stimulation consistently benefited child development. There was no significant loss of any effect when interventions were combined, but there was little evidence of synergistic interaction between nutrition and stimulation on child development. Only three trials followed up the children after intervention. All at-scale program evaluations were combined interventions. Five benefited child development, but one did not, and two showed deficits. There was generally little benefit of at-scale programs to nutritional status. We found no rigorous evaluations of adding stimulation to health and nutrition services at scale and there is an urgent need for them. There is also a need to establish quality-control mechanisms for existing scaled-up programs and to determine their long-term effects. There is also a need to determine if there are any sustained benefits for the children after programs finish.

  16. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube with warm water. If you have a nasogastric tube, remove and replace the tube (you will need ... child coughs or gags when you insert the nasogastric tube: Pinch the tube, and pull it out. Comfort ...

  17. Pregnancy smoking, child health and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Koshy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research in this thesis was to assess, through cross-sectional school child health surveys, the health and nutrition of primary school children (5-11 years) in Merseyside, England, in relation to their mother’s history of pregnancy smoking. Childhood health outcomes assessed included

  18. Intervention in child nutrition : evaluation studies in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this monograph three major types of intervention in child nutrition are examined: nutrition education, food supplementation and nutrition rehabilitation. Detailed evaluations were carried out, between 1976 and 1979, of programmes in Central Kenya operating under different ecological circumstances

  19. Child nutrition and growth: butterfly effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France

    2008-02-01

    The international symposium organised by the Danone Institute as a pre-congress satellite of the European Nutrition Societies Congress, in Paris, in July 2007, brought together experts of child nutrition and behaviour. These experts coming from several countries of Europe and North America shared their views on the impact of numerous factors affecting child eating and health in present-day developed societies. Topics included nutritional influences during foetal life, early life development of food likes and dislikes, neophobia, ability for energy regulation, impact of media and advertisement, etc. Most contributions addressed the obesity epidemics and the problems associated with body weight control. Other aspects of child health were also considered, for example the nutritional challenge of adequately feeding children with type 1 diabetes. The nine speakers were asked to underline practical strategies to improve nutrition in early life, so as to maximise health, growth and quality of life in today's environment. The present paper is a summary of the ideas expressed by the experts, highlighting agreements, convergences, and occasional disagreements between expert opinions. PMID:18257951

  20. Child abuse in panic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bonevski Dimitar; Novotni Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering...

  1. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Mullany, Luke C; Hurley, Kristen M; Katz, Joanne; Black, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the central role of nutrition in advancing the maternal, newborn, and child health agenda with a focus on evidence for effective interventions generated using randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 1000 days spanning from conception to 2 years of life are a critical period of time when nutritional needs must be ensured; failure to do so can lead to adverse impacts on short-term survival as well as long-term health and development [corrected]. The burden of maternal mortality continues to be high in many under-resourced settings; prenatal calcium supplementation in populations with low intakes can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia morbidity and mortality and is recommended, and antenatal iron-folic acid use in many countries may reduce anemia, a condition that may be an underlying factor in postpartum hemorrhage. Sufficient evidence exists to promote multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to reduce fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour), exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, and vitamin A supplementation in the first few days of life in Asia (but not in Africa) reduce infant mortality. Biannual large-dose vitamin A supplements to children 6-59 months of age and zinc for treatment of diarrhea continue to be important strategies for improving child health and survival. Early nutrition and micronutrient status can influence child development but should be integrated with early responsive learning interventions. Future research is needed that goes beyond the 1000 days to ensure adequate preconceptional nutrition and health, with special emphasis on adolescents who contribute to a large proportion of first births in many LMIC. Thus, we make the case for integrating proven nutrition interventions with those for health in pregnant women, and with those for health and child development in neonates, infants, and

  2. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Mullany, Luke C; Hurley, Kristen M; Katz, Joanne; Black, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the central role of nutrition in advancing the maternal, newborn, and child health agenda with a focus on evidence for effective interventions generated using randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 1000 days spanning from conception to 2 years of life are a critical period of time when nutritional needs must be ensured; failure to do so can lead to adverse impacts on short-term survival as well as long-term health and development [corrected]. The burden of maternal mortality continues to be high in many under-resourced settings; prenatal calcium supplementation in populations with low intakes can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia morbidity and mortality and is recommended, and antenatal iron-folic acid use in many countries may reduce anemia, a condition that may be an underlying factor in postpartum hemorrhage. Sufficient evidence exists to promote multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to reduce fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour), exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, and vitamin A supplementation in the first few days of life in Asia (but not in Africa) reduce infant mortality. Biannual large-dose vitamin A supplements to children 6-59 months of age and zinc for treatment of diarrhea continue to be important strategies for improving child health and survival. Early nutrition and micronutrient status can influence child development but should be integrated with early responsive learning interventions. Future research is needed that goes beyond the 1000 days to ensure adequate preconceptional nutrition and health, with special emphasis on adolescents who contribute to a large proportion of first births in many LMIC. Thus, we make the case for integrating proven nutrition interventions with those for health in pregnant women, and with those for health and child development in neonates, infants, and

  3. Child abuse in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonevski Dimitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

  4. Nutrition in the severely burned child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J R

    1981-01-01

    Adequate nutrition in the severely burned child often determines the morbidity and mortality and its supervision demands a high priority in the management of the burn injury. A disciplined, detailed programme is required, but this is often neglected. The hypermetabolism experienced in the severe burn may require a calorie intake up to 2 1/2 times normal, and in the growing child, with extra requirements, a negative balance can easily eventuate if careful management is not instituted. A daily metabolic plan provides firstly, the basic calories and protein per kilogram depending on age as for a normal child and, secondly additional requirements depending on the surface area of the burn. With such a programme the weakness of treating all children, whatever their age, on the same formula related only to surface area burn, is overcome. Parenteral nutrition is commenced as soon as the shock phase has been controlled and is continued until enteral intake by gastric tube is sufficient to cover the requirements. Such tube feeding requires the selection of an isotonic liquid diet so as so limit the possibility of diarrhoea. Isocal (Mead Johnson) has been found generally acceptable. Gradually as the patient recovers, oral intake is introduced and the child returns home on a normal nutritional diet, expectantly without weight loss and even with some weight gain, which befits any normal child under treatment for some months. Preburn nutrition, disease and infection, hyperthermia, hypothermia, evaporative water loss, active exercise, psychological well being, social state, early skin cover and limitation of stress are important aspects affecting metabolism and require careful supervision and management. The limitation of metabolism is as important as increasing the caloric intake and this is exemplified at the time of operation, which should be as nonstressful as possible. Every two weeks an adjusted assessment is made of the burned area still to be grafted and the caloric

  5. Domestic violence and child nutrition in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. PMID:22185910

  6. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 226 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226, App. C Appendix C to Part 226—Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program 1. The Child Nutrition (CN)...

  7. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is follo

  8. Nutrition training improves health workers’ nutrition knowledge and competence to manage child undernutrition: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F Sunguya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers’ nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. Methods: We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and WHO regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Results: Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers’ nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers’ child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention.Conclusion: In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken towards improving the overall nutritional status of

  9. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Karen F; Lakhan Shaheen E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable ...

  10. Time allocation of the mother and child nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, B M

    1980-01-01

    The effects of labor force participation of mothers on dietary and time inputs into child care, as well as the resultant impact on the nutritional status of children from 34 rural barios in Laguna, Philippines, are examined. Rural mothers who engage in market activities especially in jobs incompatible with child care, are shown to reduce the time they devote to leisure and child care. Child care provided by older-sibling mother substitutes replaces a part of the mother's reduced child care time. Mothers who engage in market activities are able to provide their children with more calories and protein in relation to their needs. Analysis showed, however, that the intrahousehold time substitutions have net negative effects on the average nutritional status of children ages 1-71 months in each rural household. The results of this study are compatible with other studies which indicate potential conflicts between the mother's participation in market work and child nutrition.

  11. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Pt. 225, App. C Appendix C to Part 225—Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program 1. The Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling...

  12. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 220 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM Pt. 220, App. C Appendix C to Part 220—Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program 1. The Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling...

  13. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 210 - Child Nutrition Labeling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Pt. 210, App. C Appendix C to Part 210—Child Nutrition Labeling Program 1. The Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program is...

  14. 75 FR 41140 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Request--Child Nutrition Database AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... industry to update and expand the Child Nutrition Database in support of the School Meals Initiative for... Assistance Section, Nutrition Promotion and Technical Assistance Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Room...

  15. 78 FR 79660 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Request--Child Nutrition Database AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... from the food service industry to update and expand the Child Nutrition Database in support of the..., Nutrition Promotion and Technical Assistance Division, Child Nutrition Programs, Room 630, Food...

  16. Nutrition Training Improves Health Workers' Nutrition Knowledge and Competence to Manage Child Undernutrition: A Systematic Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on ...

  17. Nutrition training improves health workers’ nutrition knowledge and competence to manage child undernutrition: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P; Junko eYasuoka; Masamine eJimba

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on ...

  18. What could infant and young child nutrition learn from sweatshops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagoe-Moses Isabella

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate infant and young child nutrition demands high rates of breastfeeding and good access to nutrient rich complementary foods, requiring public sector action to promote breastfeeding and home based complementary feeding, and private sector action to refrain from undermining breastfeeding and to provide affordable, nutrient rich complementary foods. Unfortunately, due to a lack of trust, the public and private sectors, from both the North and the South, do not work well together in achieving optimal infant and young child nutrition. Discussion As the current debate in infant and young child nutrition is reminiscent of the "sweatshop" debate fifteen years ago, we argue that lessons from the sweatshops debate regarding cooperation between public and private sectors - and specific organizational experiences such as the Ethical Trading Initiative in which companies, trade unions, and civil society organizations work together to enhance implementation of labour standards and address alleged allegations - could serve as a model for improving cooperation and trust between public, civil society and private groups, and ultimately health, in infant and young child nutrition. Summary Lessons from the sweatshops debate could serve as a model to promote cooperation and trust between public and private groups, such that they learn to work together towards their common goal of improving infant and young child nutrition.

  19. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. PMID:24571211

  20. Neuroimaging in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    Neuroimaging in child psychiatry is a rapidly developing field and the number of different techniques being used is increasing rapidly. This review describes the current status of neuroimaging in childhood psychopathology and discusses limitations of the various studies. As yet, no specific and consistent abnormality has been detected in childhood psychiatric disorders. Obsessive compulsive disorder has shown the most consistent findings so far, with orbitofrontal cortex and...

  1. [Influence of child nutrition on health status during adult years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiazyk, J

    2000-01-01

    The problem of safety of child's nutrition should be considered from the moment of his conception because intrauterine growth may be related to the diseases in adult life: atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Strict vegetarian diets are not appropriate for children. The task of proper nutrition in childhood is to prevent adult life diseases and to promote potentially highest quality of life and development of cognitive and intellectual functions, and proper growth. The role of microelements - iron and zinc - is also discussed.

  2. Cultural perceptions and nutritional disorders: a Jamaican case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonaroff, A

    1975-01-01

    This case study brings out differences in the way protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) in Jamaica is regarded by women who use medical services, women who do not, indigenous health practitioners, and trained health workers. The study reveals that women who utilize modern health clinics are able to identify appropriate techniques for reducing a child's susceptibility to PCM. But women who rely on indigenous medical services, as well as the actual providers of such services, frequently misdiagnose PCM as a "marasmi cold" and treat it as such. This treatment often involves actions which decrease the child's resistance to nutrition-related disorders. Both groups of women, and also the indigenous practitioners, provided more information about marasmus than about kwashiorkor, and often identified the latter as a form of robust good health. All of the mothers believed that improper prenatal and postnatal care would increase a child's susceptibility marasmus, although some mothers did not associate the condition with nutritional deficiency. These and other findings are used to recommend ways of organizing and disseminating information about PCM to the public at large. Such educational efforts should emphasize that food is a prime etiological and therapeutic factor, and that the quality and quantity of foods influence a child's susceptibility to PCM. Education programs, however, need not attempt to change indigenous practices which are neutral or harmless; ideas about PCM which parallel rather than conflict with traditional beliefs may stand the best chance of altering PCM incidence. It is also recommended that influential family members and native practitioners such as the nana be enlisted as local sources in the effort to provide health information about PCM. PMID:808243

  3. Beyond an assumed mother–child symbiosis in nutritional guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    practical solutions for the whole family in a busy everyday life, to socialise the child into the family and society at large, and to create personal relief from the strain small children put on time and energy all served as socially acceptable reasons for knowingly departing from nutritional......Researchers question the implications of the way in which “motherhood” is constructed in public health discourse. Current nutritional guidelines for Danish parents of young children are part of this discourse. They are shaped by an assumed symbiotic relationship between the nutritional needs...... of the child and the interest and focus of the mother. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore mothers’ concerns and feeding practices in the context of everyday life. A total of 45 mothers with children either seven months old or 13 months old participated. The results showed that the need to find...

  4. IAEA Nobel Peace fund schools for nutrition. Combating child malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Dhaka, Bangladesh - Malnutrition remains the world's most serious health problem and the single biggest contributor to child deaths in the developing world, according to the World Bank. Now, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is using its Nobel Peace Prize earnings to promote the use of nuclear techniques to combat malnutrition during the earliest years of life. 'One out of every ten children born in developing countries will die before his or her fifth birthday,' explains IAEA nutrition expert Lena Davidsson. 'That's more than 10 million dead children each year. And the vast majority of these child deaths in developing countries are preventable with a combination of good care, adequate nutrition and appropriate medical treatment,' explains Dr. Davidsson. 'This brings us hope that unacceptably high childhood mortality can be substantially reduced with effective and well-targeted nutritional interventions.' Undernutrition is an important factor in more than half of all child deaths worldwide. The high prevalence of infants born with low birth weight and undernutrition among Asian children, especially in South Asia, emphasizes the urgent need to develop effective nutrition interventions within 'the window of opportunity', i.e., to target young women before pregnancy as well as infants and young children during the first 2 years of life. The IAEA Nobel Peace Prize Fund School for Nutrition for Asia will be held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, April 22-26, 2007. It will focus on Interventions to combat undernutrition during early life and seeks to disseminate information about the usefulness of stable isotope techniques in intervention programs that reduce malnutrition, in particular in infants and children. The event is hosted by the Government of Bangladesh through the International Centre for Health and Population Research (ICDDR, B) and the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC). The IAEA is assisting some of the world's poorest countries in their

  5. What could infant and young child nutrition learn from sweatshops?

    OpenAIRE

    Sagoe-Moses Isabella; Ansett Sean; Singer Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adequate infant and young child nutrition demands high rates of breastfeeding and good access to nutrient rich complementary foods, requiring public sector action to promote breastfeeding and home based complementary feeding, and private sector action to refrain from undermining breastfeeding and to provide affordable, nutrient rich complementary foods. Unfortunately, due to a lack of trust, the public and private sectors, from both the North and the South, do not work wel...

  6. Nutritional Disorders of Children. Prevention, Screening, and Followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Intended for child health care providers, the text contains information on improving preventive efforts in nutrition, particurlarly those focused on prevention of the major health problems which are nutrition related (obesity, atherosclerosis, dental caries, and anemia). Part I focuses on screening of individual children likely to be at risk of…

  7. Rural-urban disparities in child nutrition in Bangladesh and Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Chittur S.; Zanello, Giacomo; Shankar, Bhavani

    2013-01-01

    Background The persistence of rural-urban disparities in child nutrition outcomes in developing countries alongside rapid urbanisation and increasing incidence of child malnutrition in urban areas raises an important health policy question - whether fundamentally different nutrition policies and interventions are required in rural and urban areas. Addressing this question requires an enhanced understanding of the main drivers of rural-urban disparities in child nutrition outcomes especiall...

  8. Macro shocks and micro outcomes: child nutrition during Indonesia's crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Steven A; Kiess, Lynnda; Webb, Patrick; Kosen, Soewarta; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Bloem, Martin W; Timmer, C Peter

    2004-03-01

    A survey of households in rural Java is used to assess the nutritional impact of Indonesia's drought and financial crisis of 1997/1998. A time-age-cohort decomposition reveals significant nutritional impacts. However, child weight-for-age (WAZ) remained constant throughout the crisis, despite rapid increases in food prices and the consequent household consumption shock. The evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that within households, mothers buffered children's caloric intake, resulting in increased maternal wasting. However, reductions in the consumption of high-quality foods further resulted in increased prevalence of anemia for both mothers and children. The combined effects were particularly severe for cohorts conceived and weaned during the crisis.

  9. Esophago-gastric motility and nutritional management in a child with ATR-X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshihiko; Arai, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Masataka; Ohno, Michinobu; Sato, Kaori; Fuchimoto, Yasushi; Wada, Takahiko; Ida, Shinobu; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Kanamori, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    X-linked alpha thalassemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder that often involves gastrointestinal symptoms. Aspiration pneumonia related to gastroesophageal reflux has been reported as the major cause of death, but gastrointestinal function has not been well investigated. The present report describes a child with ATR-X syndrome who suffered from periodical episodes of refractory vomiting. We investigated the function of upper alimentary tract and found that esophago-gastric dysmotility and severe gastric volvulus were the major causes of gastrointestinal symptoms. This child was surgically treated with anterior gastropexy and jejunal alimentation through gastrostomy, and the symptoms were relieved with good weight gain. This report may provide insight into the gastrointestinal function and nutritional management in children with ATR-X syndrome. PMID:25252072

  10. The child anxiety impact scale: examining parent- and child-reported impairment in child anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Audra K; Falk, Avital; Peris, Tara; Wiley, Joshua F; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda; Birmaher, Boris; March, John; Albano, Ann Marie; Piacentini, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of both the Child and Parent version of the Child Anxiety Impact Scale (CAIS) using data obtained from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (Walkup et al., 2008 ). The CAIS child and parent versions measure anxiety-related functional impairment in school, social, and family domains. Participants were 488 children ages 7 to 17 (M age = 10.7, SD = 2.8 years) enrolled as part of the CAMS study across 6 sites and their primary parent or caregiver. Families participated in a structured diagnostic interview and then completed the CAIS along with other measures. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the a priori three-factor structure (school, social, and home/family) for the CAIS parent- and CAIS child-report was a reasonable fit, with a comparative fit index of .88 and root mean square error of approximation of .05. Internal consistency was very good for total score and subscales of both versions of the scale (Cronbach's α = .70-.90). The CAIS total scores demonstrated good construct validity, showing predicted significant correlations with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing Scale, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) Total Scores, the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. In addition, CAIS Social and School subscales were significantly related to similar subscales on the CBCL, SCARED, and MASC. The results provide support that the CAIS is a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of the impact of anxiety on child and adolescent functioning.

  11. Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shougang Wei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMinistry of Health website and the National WorkingCommittee on Children and Women website.ResultsDuring its poverty-stricken 1950s–1970s, China protectedchildren’s health mainly through prevention and control ofcommon infectious diseases and severe malnutrition withina comprehensive healthcare system. After the subsequent30 years of rapid socio-economic development, China hasachieved great success in reducing childhood mortality ratesand promoting child growth, meeting the MillenniumDevelopment Goal 4 targets and the WHO child growthstandards. Meanwhile, new challenges for children’shealthcare emerged, including: large disparities in thehealth, growth and nutritional status of children, and in theaccessibility and quality of child healthcare, between urbanand rural areas and across different regions of China; thenutritional and healthcare concerns of the fast-expandingpopulation of migrant children and rural left-behindchildren; the burgeoning epidemic of childhood obesity inurban and economically developed areas; micronutrientdeficiencies such as calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A; andincreasing prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders.ConclusionUnder poor economic conditions, healthcare plays a keyrole in protecting children against diseases. With thedevelopment of social economy, new challenges present tohealthcare services, specifically, to comprehensivelypromote and optimise childrens’ health and nutrition.

  12. 76 FR 28727 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a... collection for the Child Nutrition Labeling Program. DATES: Comments on this document must be received by....regulations.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Child Nutrition Labeling Program. OMB Number:...

  13. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments: Child Diet and the School Nutrition Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L

    2015-10-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  14. Is Exposure to Poultry Harmful to Child Nutrition? An Observational Analysis for Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Although strategic thinking on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has prioritized reducing exposure to human feces in order to limit diarrheal infections, recent research suggests that elevated exposure to livestock–particularly poultry and poultry feces–may be an important risk factor for diarrhea, environmental enteric disorder (EED) and respiratory infections, all of which may seriously retard linear growth in young children. Yet a very different literature on nutrition-sensitive agriculture suggests that livestock ownership is highly beneficial for child growth outcomes through its importance for increasing consumption of nutrient-rich animal sourced foods, such as eggs. Together, these two literatures suggest that the net nutritional benefit of poultry ownership is particularly ambiguous and potentially mediated by whether or not children are highly exposed to poultry. We test this novel hypothesis using a large agricultural survey of rural Ethiopian households that includes measures of child height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), ownership of poultry and other types of livestock, and an indicator of whether livestock are kept within the main household dwelling overnight. We used least squares regression analysis to estimate unadjusted and adjusted models that control for a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We find that while poultry ownership is positively associated with child HAZ [β = 0.291, s.e. = 0.094], the practice of corralling poultry in the household dwelling overnight is negatively associated with HAZ [β = -0.250, s.e. = 0.118]. Moreover, we find no negative associations between HAZ and corralling other livestock species indoors. These results suggest that while poultry ownership can be beneficial to child growth, overly close exposure to poultry poses a concurrent risk factor for undernutrition, most likely because of increased risk of infection. PMID:27529178

  15. Is Exposure to Poultry Harmful to Child Nutrition? An Observational Analysis for Rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Derek; Hirvonen, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    Although strategic thinking on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has prioritized reducing exposure to human feces in order to limit diarrheal infections, recent research suggests that elevated exposure to livestock-particularly poultry and poultry feces-may be an important risk factor for diarrhea, environmental enteric disorder (EED) and respiratory infections, all of which may seriously retard linear growth in young children. Yet a very different literature on nutrition-sensitive agriculture suggests that livestock ownership is highly beneficial for child growth outcomes through its importance for increasing consumption of nutrient-rich animal sourced foods, such as eggs. Together, these two literatures suggest that the net nutritional benefit of poultry ownership is particularly ambiguous and potentially mediated by whether or not children are highly exposed to poultry. We test this novel hypothesis using a large agricultural survey of rural Ethiopian households that includes measures of child height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), ownership of poultry and other types of livestock, and an indicator of whether livestock are kept within the main household dwelling overnight. We used least squares regression analysis to estimate unadjusted and adjusted models that control for a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We find that while poultry ownership is positively associated with child HAZ [β = 0.291, s.e. = 0.094], the practice of corralling poultry in the household dwelling overnight is negatively associated with HAZ [β = -0.250, s.e. = 0.118]. Moreover, we find no negative associations between HAZ and corralling other livestock species indoors. These results suggest that while poultry ownership can be beneficial to child growth, overly close exposure to poultry poses a concurrent risk factor for undernutrition, most likely because of increased risk of infection. PMID:27529178

  16. Child-Centered Play Therapy in Management of Somatoform Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Renuka; Mehta, Manju

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Child-centered play therapy is a well recognized and research-supported form of child psychotherapy. Methods: Fifteen children in the age range of 5-11 years (eight girls and seven boys) with somatoform disorder were administered 25 sessions of non directive play therapy. Parents received 3 reflective counseling sessions. Children…

  17. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  18. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Pirdehghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001. The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001. Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders.

  19. Cash Transfers and Child Nutrition: What we know and what we need to know

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhanshu Handa; Amber Peterman; Richard de Groot; Luigi Peter Ragno; Tia Palermo; UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the impacts of cash transfer programmes on the immediate and underlying determinants of child nutrition, including the most recent evidence from impact evaluations across sub-Saharan Africa. It adopts the UNICEF extended model of care conceptual framework of child nutrition and highlights evidence on the main elements of the framework – food security, care and health care. It finds that several key gaps should be addressed in future inclu...

  20. Nutritional disorders in Eucalyptus citriodora. [In Portugese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, H.P.; Simoes, J.W.; de Oliveira, G.D.; Sarruge, J.R.; Poggiani, F.

    1977-01-01

    Eucalyptus spp., especially E. citriodora, when grown on the poor soils characteristic of cerrado areas in Brazil, sometimes show signs of an unusual disorder. The youngest leaves in the crown (and later most of the older leaves) wither but remain attached to the shoots, and the bark splits and exudes gum. Samples of leaves from a 4-year-old E. citriodora plantation in Sao Paulo that showed these symptoms were collected and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The disorder is attributed to general malnutrition, and especially to a lack of S, Ca and P.

  1. Federal Child Nutrition Programs Are Important to Rural Households. Issue Brief No. 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauchope, Barbara; Shattuck, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This brief, based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau, examines how rural families use four of the major federal child nutrition programs. It finds that 29 percent of rural families with children participate but that there are barriers to these nutrition programs, such as the lack of public transportation and high operating costs for rural schools…

  2. Does livestock ownership affect animal source foods consumption and child nutritional status ? evidence from rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Azzarri, Carlo; Cross, Elizabeth; Haile, Beliyou; Zezza, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries, consumption of animal source foods among the poor is still at a level where increasing its share in total caloric intake may have many positive nutritional benefits. This paper explores whether ownership of various livestock species increases consumption of animal source foods and helps improve child nutritional status. The paper finds some evidence that food ...

  3. Genomic and Epigenomic Insights into Nutrition and Brain Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Joy Dauncey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous protein-coding and non-coding regions of the genome. However, genotype does not necessarily determine neurological phenotype because the epigenome modulates gene expression in response to endogenous and exogenous regulators, throughout the life-cycle. Studies using both genome-wide analysis of multiple genes and comprehensive analysis of specific genes are providing new insights into genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition and neuroscience. This review provides a critical evaluation of the following related areas: (1 recent advances in genomic and epigenomic technologies, and their relevance to brain disorders; (2 the emerging role of non-coding RNAs as key regulators of transcription, epigenetic processes and gene silencing; (3 novel approaches to nutrition, epigenetics and neuroscience; (4 gene-environment interactions, especially in the serotonergic system, as a paradigm of the multiple signalling pathways affected in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Current and future advances in these four areas should contribute significantly to the prevention, amelioration and treatment of multiple devastating brain disorders.

  4. Nutrition and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    OpenAIRE

    Urban Jonsson

    1993-01-01

    Nutrition is mentioned specifically only three times in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, through its emphasis upon food, health, and care, the Convention makes it clear that good nutrition should be regarded as a fundamental human right. This study reviews the progress that governments have made in implementing this aspect of the Convention, providing ‘status reports’ on the inclusion of nutrition goals in individual ‘National Programmes of Action’. The paper includes a bac...

  5. McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (McGovern-Dole program) helps support education, child development, and food security for some of the world's poorest children. It provides for donations of U.S. agricultural products, as well as financial and technical assistance, for school feeding and maternal and…

  6. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  7. Evidence-Based Psychotherapies and Nutritional Interventions for Children With Bipolar Spectrum Disorders and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristad, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Treatment guidelines recommend that psychotherapy be used in conjunction with pharmacotherapy in children with bipolar disorder. A well-established category of psychotherapy is family skill-building plus psychoeducation; 3 examples of this are family-focused treatment, psychoeducational psychotherapy, and child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy. These treatments share several common elements that are important in pediatric populations, including being family-based, providing psychoeducation on symptoms and their management, and training patients and families in emotion regulation, communication, and problem-solving skills. Clinicians may also wish to explore nutritional interventions; multinutrient complexes are experimental, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements are possibly efficacious. Nutritional interventions are particularly attractive in this patient population because of their favorable safety profile. PMID:27570930

  8. For the Mouths of Babes: Nutrition Literacy Outreach to a Child Care Center

    OpenAIRE

    Ballance, Darra; Webb, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is at crisis levels in the United States. Risk factors for obesity can begin as early as infancy. Approximately 12 million children up to five years of age spend about 22.5 hours per week in child care centers where they receive a significant portion of their daily nutrition. Child care center personnel may not know how to select nutritious meal and snack choices. A health sciences librarian, a child care center director and a dietitian designed an outreach...

  9. Asthma, allergy, mood disorders, and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczynska-Kwiatek A; Bargiel-Matusiewicz K; Lapinski L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Growing evidence supports comorbidity of asthma and allergies with mood disorders and various connections between these diseases. It still remains unclear whether this comorbidity is caused by the same pathophysiological factors or whether there are other links between asthma and depression. There is no definite answer to the question of an optimal treatment to deal with both asthma and depression, when they occur simultaneously. Epidemiological and clinical trials on the ...

  10. Nutrition-related disorders in Indigenous Australians: how things have changed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    Awareness of a serious Indigenous health problem in Australia did not emerge until the 1960s and 1970s. Much attention was focused at the time on poor pregnancy outcomes, high infant and young child mortality rates, and childhood malnutrition and impaired growth, often associated with high infectious disease burdens. Although that situation has improved somewhat, Indigenous infant and child health is still poor compared with that of other Australian children. Over recent decades, there has been a rapid rise among Indigenous people of nutrition-related "lifestyle" disorders such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic renal disease and their complications. This epidemic of disabling and often fatal chronic diseases in Indigenous Australians is also occurring in disadvantaged groups in many other countries. Control of this potentially disastrous epidemic must become a much higher priority in Indigenous health programs. Governments must commit to this task in cooperation and collaboration with Indigenous organisations and communities. PMID:17229025

  11. Social protection for all ages? Impacts of Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Program on child nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Catherine; Goyal, Radhika

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the impact of a large-scale social protection scheme, the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) in Ethiopia, on child nutritional outcomes. Children living in households that receive cash transfers should experience improved child nutrition. However, in the case of the PSNP, which for the majority of participants is a public works program, there are several potential threats to finding effects: first, without conditionality on child inputs, increased household income may not be translated into improved child nutrition. Second, the work requirement may impact on parental time, child time use and calories burned. Third, if there is a critical period for child human capital investment that closes before the age of 5 then children above this age may not see any improvement in medium-term nutritional outcomes, measured here as height-for-age. Using a cohort study that collected data both pre-and post-program implementation in 2002, 2006 and 2009, we exploit several novel aspects of the survey design to find estimates that can deal with non-random program placement. We present both matching and difference-in-differences estimates for the index children, as well as sibling-differences. Our estimates show an important positive medium-term nutritional impact of the program for children aged 5-15 that are comparable in size to Conditional Cash Transfer program impacts for much younger children. We show indicative evidence that the program impact on improved nutrition is associated with improved food security and reduced child working hours. Our robustness checks restrict the comparison group, by including only households who were shortlisted, but never received PSNP, and also exclude those who never received aid, thus identifying impact based on timing alone. We cannot rule out that the nutritional impact of the program is the same for younger and older children. PMID:27176466

  12. Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children's body mass index.

    OpenAIRE

    Alkon, A; Crowley, AA; Neelon, SE; Hill, S.; Pan, Y.; Nguyen, V.; Rose, R.; Savage, E; Forestieri, N; Shipman, L; Kotch, JB

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children's body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A seven-month randomized control tr...

  13. Malnutrition in the Critically Ill Child: The Importance of Enteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús López-Herce Cid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition affects 50% of hospitalized children and 25–70% of the critically ill children. It increases the incidence of complications and mortality. Malnutrition is associated with an altered metabolism of certain substrates, increased metabolism and catabolism depending on the severity of the lesion, and reduced nutrient delivery. The objective should be to administer individualized nutrition to the critically ill child and to be able to adjust the nutrition continuously according to the metabolic changes and evolving nutritional status. It would appear reasonable to start enteral nutrition within the first 24 to 48 hours after admission, when oral feeding is not possible. Parenteral nutrition should only be used when enteral nutrition is contraindicated or is not tolerated. Energy delivery must be individually adjusted to energy expenditure (40–65 kcal/100 calories metabolized/day with a protein delivery of 2.5–3 g/kg/day. Frequent monitoring of nutritional and metabolic parameters should be performed.

  14. Nutritional Needs of the Child with a Handicap or Chronic Illness. Manual II: Clinical Nutrition. Presentations from a National Interdisciplinary Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekvall, Shirley M.; Wheby, Elizabeth A.

    The following papers were presented at a symposium on clinical nutrition for the child who is chronically ill or handicapped: (1) "Food Allergy"; (2) "Anemia and the Chronically Ill or Handicapped Child"; (3) "Nutrition and Neurotransmitters--Clinical Implications"; (4) "The Importance of Lipid Type in the Diet after Burn Injury"; (5) "Advances of…

  15. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Liu; Juan Liu; Xueqin Xiong; Ting Yang; Nali Hou; Xiaohua Liang; Jie Chen; Qian Cheng; Tingyu Li

    2016-01-01

    Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years) and 73 typically-developing (TD) children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years) from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)...

  16. The nutritional management of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J V

    2001-01-01

    Diet is one of the mainstays of the treatment of patients with urea cycle disorders. The protein intake should be adjusted to take account of the inborn error and its severity and the patient's age, growth rate, and individual preferences. Currently, the widely used standards for protein intake are probably more generous than necessary, particularly for those with the more severe variants. Most patients, except those with arginase deficiency, will need supplements of arginine, but the value of other supplements including citrate and carnitine is unclear. Any patient on a low-protein diet should be monitored clinically and with appropriate laboratory tests. All should have an emergency (crisis) regimen to prevent decompensation during periods of metabolic stress.

  17. Growth and Nutrition Disorders in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    KUPERMINC, MICHELLE N; Stevenson, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Growth and nutrition disorders are common secondary health conditions in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Poor growth and malnutrition in CP merit study because of their impact on health, including psychological and physiological function, healthcare utilization, societal participation, motor function, and survival. Understanding the etiology of poor growth has led to a variety of interventions to improve growth. One of the major causes of poor growth, malnutrition, is the best-studied cont...

  18. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  19. Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world. Discussion To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties. Summary A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world.

  20. Tratamento nutricional dos transtornos alimentares Nutritional treatment of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Romero Latterza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com transtornos alimentares possuem inadequações profundas no consumo, padrão e comportamento alimentar, além de diversas crenças equivocadas sobre alimentação, o que geralmente acarreta piora do estado nutricional. O tratamento nutricional visa a reverter tais alterações e promover hábitos alimentares saudáveis e melhor relação para com o alimento. Os objetivos e características do tratamento diferem para a anorexia nervosa e a bulimia nervosa, contudo, usualmente, a abordagem é dividida em duas fases: a educacional, cujas principais metas são a regularização do hábito alimentar e o aumento do conhecimento nutricional, e a experimental, que visa a propiciar maior reabilitação nutricional e mudanças mais profundas no comportamento alimentar. As evidências existentes sugerem que o tratamento nutricional promove a melhora de tais parâmetros, porém, alguns comportamentos alimentares, como a sensação de incompetência ao lidar com os alimentos, permanecem. Desta forma, mais estudos são necessários para que se possa de fato avaliar a eficácia da abordagem nutricional.Patients with eating disorders have disturbed food intake, food pattern, food behavior, and mistaken beliefs about food and nutrition, which can worsen nutritional status. The nutritional treatment aims to revert such alterations and to promote better food habits and relationship with food. The objectives and characteristics of the treatment are different for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, but usually the approach has two phases: the educational phase, whose major goals are regularization of food habits and increase of nutrition knowledge; and the experimental phase, whose targets are better nutritional rehabilitation and more complex improvements of nutritional behavior. Evidence suggests that nutritional treatment can ameliorate such parameters, but some inadequate food behaviors remain, such as feeling of incompetence while dealing with

  1. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference. PMID:27187906

  2. Family-based Treatment of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Sarah; Lock, James

    2015-07-01

    Best-practice guidelines for the treatment of child and adolescent eating disorders recommend the inclusion of parents. Family-based treatment (FBT) posits that families are not only important in supporting their children but are critical change agents in the recovery process. As originally developed for anorexia nervosa, parents take a central role in managing and disrupting eating disorder symptoms. The most evidence-based treatment model for adolescent anorexia nervosa, FBT has also recently been found to be useful in the treatment of adolescent bulimia nervosa. This article provides a summary of the theoretic model, evidence base, and application of FBT. PMID:26092743

  3. Living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Britt; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet; Jørgensen, Rikke;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This systematic review is aimed to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on parenting experiences of living with a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, including their experiences of healthcare and other services. METHODS: A meta-synthesis was conducted following...... multiple challenges, it is not all bad. CONCLUSION: The findings illustrate the complexity of parental experiences that are influenced by guilt, hope, blame, stigmatization, exhaustion, reconciliation, and professional collaboration. The findings address the impact that attention-deficit hyperactivity...

  4. Vitamin C deficiency: more than just a nutritional disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Delanghe, Joris R.; Langlois, Michel R.; De Buyzere, Marc L.; Na, Na; Ouyang, Jin; Speeckaert, Marijn M.; Torck, Mathieu A.

    2011-01-01

    Although vitamin C deficiency and scurvy are generally considered as pure nutritional disorders, only a minority of the vitamin C concentration is determined by food intake. In the presence of transition metals (iron and copper), the antiscorbutic factor shifts from an antioxidant to a pro-oxidant function. Haptoglobin (Hp) is a plasma α-2 glycoprotein characterized by 3 common phenotypes (Hp 1–1, Hp 2–1 and Hp 2–2). Its free hemoglobin (Hb)-binding capacity prevents Hb-driven oxidative damag...

  5. Household and community socioeconomic and environmental determinants of child nutritional status in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongou Roland

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD, i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006 and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026 between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs.

  6. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Ullsperger, Josie M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly A.

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD’s) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6–17 years (N=498; 50.4 % ADHD, ...

  7. Urban-rural disparities in child nutrition-related health outcomes in China: The role of hukou policy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong; John A. Rizzo; Fang, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background Hukou is the household registration system in China that determines eligibility for various welfare benefits, such as health care, education, housing, and employment. The hukou system may lead to nutritional and health disparities in China. We aim at examining the role of the hukou system in affecting urban-rural disparities in child nutrition, and disentangling the institutional effect of hukou from the effect of urban/rural residence on child nutrition-related health outcomes. Me...

  8. Eating disorders, pregnancy, and the postpartum period:Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunna J. Watson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and largesample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 eating disorder studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating.

  9. Evaluating the Impacts of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health. PRGS Dissertation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi Maria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

  10. 78 FR 13443 - Child Nutrition Programs: Nondiscretionary Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ...), Public Law 111- 296, makes important improvements to the Child Nutrition Programs that serve the nation's...)-1, and be exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of that Code, 26 U.S.C. 1.501(a)-1. Section 441...) principles for safe food handling be applied to any facility, or part of a facility in which food for...

  11. Child nutritional status in contexts of urban poverty: a reliable indicator of family health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Huergo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work questions the premise that the nutritional status of children under six years of age is a reliable indicator of family health. To do so, a research strategy based in case studies was carried out, following a qualitative design (participant observation and semistructured interviews using intentional sampling and framed within the interpretivist paradigm. The anthropometric measurements of 20 children under six years of age attending the local Child Care Center in Villa La Tela, Córdoba were evaluated. Nutritional status was understood as an object that includes socially determined biological processes, and was therefore posited analytically as a cross between statistical data and its social determination. As a statistic, child nutritional status is merely descriptive; to assist in the understanding of its social determination, it must be placed in dialectical relationship with the spheres of sociability proposed to analyze the reproduction of health problems.

  12. Research of the Influence of Pregnant Women’s Food Nutrition on Maternal and Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the influence of targeted dietary modification and nutrition for pregnant women on maternal and child health. Through taking 200 pregnant women who had health files and accepted dietary guidance at Mary Maternity Hospital from March 2013 to June 2014 as the experimental group, we take 200 pregnant women who don’t accept the conventional filing of targeted dietary modification and nutrition as the control group. For the experimental group, we formulated targeted diet programs according to pregnant women’s weight and fetal growth and development so as to keep calories in a reasonable range. Compare the incidence rate of complication and delivery outcome of the two groups’ mothers and infants. The experiments show that both the incidence rate of complications and the cesarean section rate of the experimental group are lower than those of the control group and targeted dietary modification and nutrition for pregnant women has obvious positive significance on maternal and child health.

  13. The early years. Keys to child nutrition and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four of the eight Millennium Development Goals highlight the importance of adequate nutrition for human health and development. The IAEA is assisting Member States in their efforts to achieve these goals by providing technical support for strategies to combat undernutrition. In particular, the IAEA contributes technical expertise in the use of stable isotope techniques in the development and evaluation of nutrition interventions. Stable isotope techniques have been used as research tools in nutrition for many years. However, the application of stable isotope techniques in programme development and evaluation is a relatively new approach, where the IAEA has a unique opportunity to contribute. As only stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are used, the techniques can be applied in the most vulnerable population groups, i.e., infants and children. The use of stable isotope techniques adds value by increasing the sensitivity and specificity of measurements as compared to conventional techniques. This brief overview highlights selected activities in infant nutrition where stable isotope techniques have been used. They include projects to measure human milk intake in breast-fed infants, lean body mass (muscle mass) in lactating mothers, and bioavailability of iron in infants and young children

  14. Scaling up a community-based program for maternal and child nutrition in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2014-06-01

    The first national nutrition survey of Thailand in 1960 revealed that malnutrition among children and women in this rice-exporting country was highly prevalent. Malnutrition received national-level attention in the 1970s, when a national multisectoral nutrition plan was included in the Fourth National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP) (1977-81), followed by effective implementation through Thailand's primary healthcare system and poverty alleviation plan in the 1982-87 NESDP. Nutrition was embedded into primary healthcare, and a community-based nutrition program was successfully implemented through community participation via manpower mobilization and capacity-building, financing, and organization. Growth-monitoring, promotion of infant and young child feeding, and joint financing (government and community) of a nutrition fund were implemented. The poverty alleviation plan made it possible to streamline resource allocations at the national level down to priority poverty areas, which also facilitated microlevel planning. Effective, integrated actions were undertaken using the basic minimum needs approach, wherein community people identified problems and participated in actions with inputs from government personnel. This effective process took about 5 years to put in place. In response, child undernutrition declined significantly. Severe malnutrition was practically eradicated, and it remains resilient despite social and economic challenges, such as the Asian economic crisis in 1977. Currently, stunting and subclinical micronutrient deficiencies remain, while overweight and obesity among children are rising rapidly. A different paradigm and strategy will be essential to address the nation's current nutrition challenges.

  15. Integrating nutrition and child development interventions: scientific basis, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez

    2015-11-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5.

  16. Integrating nutrition and child development interventions: scientific basis, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez

    2015-11-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208

  17. Economic shocks and child welfare: the effect of past economic shocks on child nutritional achievements, schooling and work in rural and urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Young Lives younger cohort, we examine the effect of economic shocks on nutritional achievement, schooling and child work of index children (at age 5), controlling for various individual and household characteristics. Shocks that occurred both before and after the child was born

  18. Chemicals, Nutrition, and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Honda, Yukiko; Sampei, Makiko; Tani, Yukako

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: (1) smoke/tobacco, (2) alcohol, (3) air pollution, (4) pesticides, (5) endocrine-disrupting chemicals, (6) heavy metals, (7) micronutrients, (8) fatty acid, and (9) parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5), pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations. PMID:27147957

  19. Chemicals, nutrition, and autism spectrum disorder: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: 1 smoke/tobacco, 2 alcohol, 3 air pollution, 4 pesticides, 5 endocrine-disrupting chemicals, 6 heavy metals, 7 micronutrients, 8 fatty acid, and 9 parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5, pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations.

  20. Association between state school nutrition laws and subsequent child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakshappa, Deepak; Fiks, Alexander G; Faerber, Jennifer A; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Many states have enacted laws to improve school nutrition. We tested whether stronger state nutrition laws are associated with subsequently decreased obesity. We conducted a retrospective national multi-year panel data study (analyzed 2014-2016 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia). The predictors were 2010 laws regarding 9 nutrition categories from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students, which grades the strength of state laws (none, weak, or strong). The outcome was weight status (healthy weight, overweight, or obese) in elementary, middle, and high school from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health. We tested the association between the strength of laws and weight using multinomial logistic regression. To further evaluate our main results, we conducted state-level longitudinal analyses testing the association between competitive food and beverage laws on the change in obesity from 2003-2011. In main analyses of 40,177 children ages 10-17years, we found strong state laws restricting the sale of competitive food and beverages in elementary school (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.96) and strong advertising laws across all grades (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86) were associated with reduced odds of obesity. In longitudinal analyses, states with strong competitive food and beverage laws from 2003-2010 had small but significant decreases in obesity, compared to states with no laws. Although further research is needed to determine the causal effect of these laws, this study suggests that strong state laws limiting the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages in schools are associated with decreased obesity rates.

  1. Association between state school nutrition laws and subsequent child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakshappa, Deepak; Fiks, Alexander G; Faerber, Jennifer A; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Many states have enacted laws to improve school nutrition. We tested whether stronger state nutrition laws are associated with subsequently decreased obesity. We conducted a retrospective national multi-year panel data study (analyzed 2014-2016 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia). The predictors were 2010 laws regarding 9 nutrition categories from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students, which grades the strength of state laws (none, weak, or strong). The outcome was weight status (healthy weight, overweight, or obese) in elementary, middle, and high school from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health. We tested the association between the strength of laws and weight using multinomial logistic regression. To further evaluate our main results, we conducted state-level longitudinal analyses testing the association between competitive food and beverage laws on the change in obesity from 2003-2011. In main analyses of 40,177 children ages 10-17years, we found strong state laws restricting the sale of competitive food and beverages in elementary school (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.96) and strong advertising laws across all grades (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86) were associated with reduced odds of obesity. In longitudinal analyses, states with strong competitive food and beverage laws from 2003-2010 had small but significant decreases in obesity, compared to states with no laws. Although further research is needed to determine the causal effect of these laws, this study suggests that strong state laws limiting the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages in schools are associated with decreased obesity rates. PMID:27370166

  2. Looking upstream: enhancers of child nutritional status in post-flood rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Ranjan-Dash, Shishir; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background. Child undernutrition and flooding are highly prevalent public health issues in many developing countries, yet we have little understanding of preventive strategies for effective coping in these circumstances. Education has been recently highlighted as key to reduce the societal impacts of extreme weather events under climate change, but there is a lack of studies assessing to what extent parental education may prevent post-flood child undernutrition. Methods and Materials. One year after large floods in 2008, we conducted a two-stage cluster population-based survey of 6-59 months children inhabiting flooded and non-flooded communities of Jagatsinghpur district, Odisha (India), and collected anthropometric measurements on children along with child, parental and household level variables through face-to-face interviews. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we examined separately the effect of maternal and paternal education and other risk factors (mainly income, socio-demographic, and child and mother variables) on stunting and wasting in children from households inhabiting recurrently flooded communities (2006 and 2008; n = 299). As a comparison, separate analyses on children in non-flooded communities were carried out (n = 385). All analyses were adjusted by income as additional robustness check. Results. Overall, fathers with at least completed middle education (up to 14 years of age and compulsory in India) had an advantage in protecting their children from child wasting and stunting. For child stunting, the clearest result was a 100-200% lower prevalence associated with at least paternal secondary schooling (compared to no schooling) in flooded-areas. Again, only in flooded communities, an increase in per capita annual household income of 1,000 rupees was associated to a 4.7-4.9% lower prevalence of child stunting. For child wasting in flooded areas, delayed motherhood was associated to better nutritional outcomes (3.4% lower prevalence per

  3. A Review of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating amongst Nutrition Students and Dietetic Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Heather Mciver; Lordly, Daphne

    2015-03-01

    The diet industry and media have a powerful influence over women, leading many to believe that they must modify their appearance for societal acceptance. Dietetics, as one of many predominantly female professions, may be particularly vulnerable to these pressures. An integrative review process was used to examine eating disorders and disordered eating within the dietetics profession with the aim to both synthesize existing data and develop questions for future research. Seventeen articles were reviewed using broad search terms and dates because of the dearth of available literature. Given nutrition programs and dietetic practice often involve significant exposure to food, ideas and opinions about food, weight, and its place in health and dietetic practice researchers were compelled to ask "why". Findings were organized under 3 categories including thinness ideology, implications of food and body associated with nutrition or dietetic education, and establishment of a continuum. This review serves as a platform to inspire future research in an understudied but important topic related to dietetic education and practice. Minimally as a profession, baseline data need to be collected to understand the prevalence of disordered eating and eating disorders along the continuum of practice in Canada. PMID:26067246

  4. Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD? Study underscores importance of good prenatal nutrition To ... during pregnancy could influence a child's risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study warns. Researchers found that ...

  5. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-06-05

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity.

  6. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity. PMID:24901796

  7. Impacts of domestic violence on child growth and nutrition: a conceptual review of the pathways of influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2011-05-01

    Domestic violence against women is a global problem, and young children are disproportionate witnesses. Children's exposure to domestic violence (CEDV) predicts poorer health and development, but its effects on nutrition and growth are understudied. We propose a conceptual framework for the pathways by which domestic violence against mothers may impair child growth and nutrition, prenatally and during the first 36 months of life. We synthesize literatures from multiple disciplines and critically review the evidence for each pathway. Our review exposes gaps in knowledge and opportunities for research. The framework also identifies interim strategies to mitigate the effects of CEDV on child growth and nutrition. Given the global burden of child malnutrition and its long-term effects on human-capital formation, improving child growth and nutrition may be another reason to prevent domestic violence and its cascading after-effects. PMID:21492979

  8. Improving Child Nutrition Outcomes in India : Can the Integrated Child Development Services Program Be More Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Das Gupta, Monica; Lokshin, Michael; Gragnolati, Michele; Ivaschenko, Oleksiy

    2005-01-01

    Levels of child malnutrition in India fell only slowly during the 1990s, despite significant economic growth and large public spending on the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, of which the major component is supplementary feeding for malnourished children. To unravel this puzzle, the authors assess the program's placement and its outcomes using National Family Health Survey data from 1992 and 1998. They find that program placement is clearly regressive across states. The s...

  9. Improving child nutrition outcomes in India : can the integrated child development services be more effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Das Gupta, Monica; Lokshin, Michael; Gragnolati, Michele; Ivaschenko, Oleksiy

    2005-01-01

    Levels of child malnutrition in India fell only slowly during the 1990s, despite significant economic growth and large public spending on the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, of which the major component is supplementary feeding for malnourished children. To unravel this puzzle, the authors assess the program's placement and its outcomes using National Family Health Survey data from 1992 and 1998. They find that program placement is clearly regressive across states. The s...

  10. Whose education affects a child's nutritional status? From parents' to household's education

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Burchi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The paper engages in the ongoing debate regarding the determinants of child nutrition in developing countries and stresses the potential contribution of the education of household members other than the child's parents. OBJECTIVE The aim of the paper is threefold: (1) to verify whether there is evidence of the key role of parents' education for children's nutrition; (2) to explore the possible presence of the externalities generated by the literacy of household membe...

  11. THE IMPACT OF HOUSEHOLD-LEVEL DETERMINANTS OF CHILD HEALTH AND NUTRITION: CROSS-COUNTRY EVIDENCE FROM WEST AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Penders, Christopher L.; Staatz, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Poor child health and nutrition persist throughout West Africa. This research analyzes the impact of key economic variables, including income, education and background characteristics, on child health and nutrition across nine different countries. The results are interpreted in the context of differing levels of economic development among these nations. The findings do not show wealth and parental education to be robust across the sample, but maternal background characteristics have a positiv...

  12. Women's empowerment and child nutritional status in South Asia: a synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kenda; Ruel, Marie; Ferguson, Elaine; Uauy, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Women's disempowerment is hypothesised to contribute to high rates of undernutrition among South Asian children. However, evidence for this relationship has not been systematically reviewed. This review of empirical studies aims to: (1) synthesise the evidence linking women's empowerment and child nutritional status in South Asia and (2) suggest directions for future research. We systematically searched Global Health, Embase (classic and Ovid), MEDLINE, Campbell Collaboration, Popline, Eldis, Web of Science, EconLit and Scopus. We generated 1661 studies for abstract and title screening. We full-text screened 44 of these, plus 10 additional studies the authors were aware of. Only 12 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We included English materials published between 1990 and 2012 that examined the relationship(s) of at least one women's empowerment domain and nutritional status among South Asian children. Data were extracted and synthesised within three domains of empowerment: control of resources and autonomy, workload and time, and social support. The results showed women's empowerment to be generally associated with child anthropometry, but the findings are mixed. Inter-study differences in population characteristics, settings or methods/conceptualisations of women's empowerment, and the specific domains studied, likely contributed to these inconsistencies. This review also highlights that different women's empowerment domains may relate differently to child nutritional status. Future research should aim to harmonise definitions of women's empowerment, which key domains it should include, and how it is measured. Rigorous evaluation work is also needed to establish which policies and programmes facilitate women's empowerment and in turn, foster child nutritional well-being.

  13. Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World

    OpenAIRE

    Daar Abdallah S; Singh Jerome; Singer Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant an...

  14. Public Opinion on Nutrition-Related Policies to Combat Child Obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Paul A.; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S.; Shih, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurant...

  15. Associations between women's autonomy and child nutritional status: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Gwen J; Kordas, Katarzyna; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, many women continue to experience low levels of autonomy. Recent literature has reported that the health consequences of low maternal autonomy extend beyond mothers and translate into health consequences for their children, and may be an important causal factor in child malnutrition. This review summarises the current knowledge of the relationship between maternal autonomy and children's nutritional status (defined as any measure that reflects the nutritional state of the body, such as birthweight or anthropometric scores) and child-feeding practices. The review also includes both discussion of the limitations found in the literature and directions for future research. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Results of the studies included in the review strongly suggest that raising maternal autonomy is an important goal for improving children's nutritional status, yet gaps in the current knowledge exist, further confounded by issues with how autonomy is measured and limitations of cross-cultural comparability. A thorough understanding of the consequences of restricting women's autonomy will inform programmes and policy worldwide, and speed progress towards both empowering women and alleviating the global burden of child malnutrition.

  16. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullsperger, Josie M; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD's) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6-17 years (N = 498; 50.4 % ADHD, 55 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment that included parent, child, and teacher report measures of parenting practices, child temperament, and ADHD symptoms. Statistical models examined the direct and indirect effects of maternal and paternal involvement, poor supervision, and inconsistent discipline on inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity via child temperament and personality traits. Results indicated differential patterns of effect for negative and positive parenting dimensions. First, inconsistent discipline exerted indirect effects on both ADHD symptom dimensions via child conscientiousness, such that higher levels of inconsistency predicted lower levels of conscientiousness, which in turn, predicted greater ADHD symptomatology. Similarly, poor supervision also exerted indirect effects on inattention via child conscientiousness as well as significant indirect effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity via its impact on both child reactive control and conscientiousness. In contrast, primarily direct effects of positive parenting (i.e., involvement) on ADHD emerged. Secondary checks revealed that similar pathways may also emerge for comorbid disruptive behavior disorders. Current findings extend upon past work by examining how parenting practices influence child ADHD via with-in child mechanisms and provide support for multi-pathway models accounting for heterogeneity in the disorder. PMID:25684446

  17. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullsperger, Josie M; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD's) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6-17 years (N = 498; 50.4 % ADHD, 55 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment that included parent, child, and teacher report measures of parenting practices, child temperament, and ADHD symptoms. Statistical models examined the direct and indirect effects of maternal and paternal involvement, poor supervision, and inconsistent discipline on inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity via child temperament and personality traits. Results indicated differential patterns of effect for negative and positive parenting dimensions. First, inconsistent discipline exerted indirect effects on both ADHD symptom dimensions via child conscientiousness, such that higher levels of inconsistency predicted lower levels of conscientiousness, which in turn, predicted greater ADHD symptomatology. Similarly, poor supervision also exerted indirect effects on inattention via child conscientiousness as well as significant indirect effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity via its impact on both child reactive control and conscientiousness. In contrast, primarily direct effects of positive parenting (i.e., involvement) on ADHD emerged. Secondary checks revealed that similar pathways may also emerge for comorbid disruptive behavior disorders. Current findings extend upon past work by examining how parenting practices influence child ADHD via with-in child mechanisms and provide support for multi-pathway models accounting for heterogeneity in the disorder.

  18. Pediatric obesity in Texas: does the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy affect child nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    A significant increase in the incidence of pediatric obesity has been reported in Texas. This study evaluated how effectively the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy promoted the understanding of proper nutrition by fourth-grade schoolchildren and their parents in three school districts in Bell County and Harris County. Fourth-grade schoolchildren were surveyed at two times (T1, T2) during the spring semester of the 2004-2005 school year to assess their dietary intake, their health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and their understanding and satisfaction with the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy. Participating students' parents also were surveyed. The overall obesity rate in surveyed children averaged 26.1%. No significant difference was found between HRQOL scores for obese and normal-weight children, although HRQOL scores for normal-weight children were significantly lower than those in previous population studies of healthy children. In addition, the HRQOL scores of obese and healthy children increased significantly from T1 to T2 for Bell County but only for healthy children in Harris County. Children from Bell County were more likely to eat food from the cafeteria while children from Harris County were more likely to eat food brought from home. Parents of minority children reported that they were more likely to change dietary habits at home as a result of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy. Obese children were less likely than normal-weight children to try to lose weight. This study suggests that lunch intake varies considerably in Texas, and state policy should try to institute more uniform nutrition guidelines for all school districts. Because minority children are at increased risk of obesity, the preliminary findings that their parents are more likely to change their dietary habits at home are very encouraging. PMID:17628963

  19. Potential Mediators of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Child Witnesses to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Kym L.; Williams, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined variables that might mediate the incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 20 Australian child witnesses (ages 6-12) to domestic violence. Results found PTSD was not mediated by maternal emotional well-being, age and gender of the child, or the child's style of coping with parental conflict. (Author/CR)

  20. Child Nutritional Status: A Representative Survey in a Metropolitan School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rosati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and thinness among children in an Italian school. Methods. Five hundred ninety-five children (289 males and 306 females were enrolled, aged between 6 and 19 years old, in Italian school in Rome. Body mass index (BMI was calculated according to International Obesity Task Force (IOFT cut-off points. By age criterion all participants have been classified in age classes. Results. A normal BMI was recorded in 73.6% of all cases. Obesity, overweight, and thinness prevalence was 5.9%, 9.6%, and 10.9%, respectively, without statistical differences in both genders, except the prevalence of overweight that resulted statistically significant (13.1% males versus 6.2% females, . Differences in the age groups have been found. About 23.4% of children between 7 to 11 years were defined obese and about 42.3% between 6 to 8 years thin grade 2, respectively. Conclusion. The study reports the low prevalence of overweight and obesity, in contrast to the unexpected thinness prevalence. The identification of specific age groups with abnormal nutritional status could be the first step to address future epidemiological investigations in order to plan strategic approach in selected age periods.

  1. Nutritional Intervention in Young Women with Eating Disorders: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleavey, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders in young women are often associated with a number of comorbid conditions, including mood disorders and cognitive problems. Although group therapy is often used as part of overall treatment for eating disorders in many types of settings, specific nutritional interventions used in such settings have rarely been evaluated. In this…

  2. Perceived Neighborhood Social Disorder and Residents' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationship between perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting child physical abuse. Method: Data from a national probabilistic sample (N = 9,759) were used. Responses about the perception of neighborhood social disorder, perceived frequency of child physical abuse in Spanish…

  3. A Parent-Child Interactional Model of Social Anxiety Disorder in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Benoit, Kristy E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, one of the most common disorders of childhood and adolescence, social anxiety disorder (SAD), is examined to illustrate the complex and delicate interplay between parent and child factors that can result in normal development gone awry. Our parent-child model of SAD posits a host of variables that converge to occasion the onset and…

  4. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E. Lindhout; M.T. Markus; T.H.G. Hoogendijk; F. de Boer

    2009-01-01

    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether

  5. Maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and mother-child interactions in families of children with externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Pelham, W E

    1990-08-01

    Relationships among maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and observed mother-child interactions were examined in a sample of 40 4- to 12-year-old children with externalizing disorders. Mothers and children were observed in a task interaction and mothers provided self-reports of depressed mood, parenting self-esteem, marital satisfaction, social support, and life stress. Child behavior was rated by both mothers and teachers. Several significant correlations were found among observed mother and child behaviors and among maternal self-report measures. However, few significant relationships were found between maternal characteristics and observed mother or child behavior. Although life stress predicted increased child negativity, maternal depressed mood was related to more appropriate child behavior. Mother and teacher ratings of child behavior demonstrated few significant relationships with other measures. These results suggest that, in samples comprised primarily of children with attention deficit disorder from socially advantaged families, few relationships exist between maternal characteristics, parenting behavior, and child behavior. PMID:2246432

  6. Reproductive Disorders in Cattle due to Nutritional Status

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Rajani; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu

    2008-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview on nutrition and incidences of reproductive problems in cattle. Overfeeding and underfeeding are equally detrimental to normal reproductive function. The exact mechanism of nutrition on reproduction is still not clear, but it is clear that the primary target area for sensing and reacting to nutritional status is the hypothalamus. Nutrition or perhaps more specifically certain food nutrients can influence the hormonal status of animals at several levels. G...

  7. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Cerebral Palsy and Down Syndrome: A Scoping Review

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Safiza Mohamad Nor; Nur Shahida Abdul Aziz; Cheong Siew Man; Rashidah Ambak; Mohd Azahadi Omar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS) and Cerebral Palsy (CP) are the most common disabilities among children. Nutritional status assessment is important as these children are at risk of underweight, overweight or obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this review were to identify evidence on the prevalence of nutritional status of children with DS, CP and ASD, and to determine tools and indicators to measure the nutritional status of these children. Methods: This s...

  8. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years and 73 typically-developing (TD children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = −0.222, p = 0.021. No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied.

  9. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Juan; Xiong, Xueqin; Yang, Ting; Hou, Nali; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Li, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years) and 73 typically-developing (TD) children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years) from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH) vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = -0.222, p = 0.021). No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied. PMID:27187463

  10. Parental and Child Characteristics Related to Early-Onset Disordered Eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Micali, Nadia;

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are rare in children, but disordered eating is common. Understanding the phenomenology of disordered eating in childhood can aid prevention of full-blown eating disorders. The purpose of this review is to systematically extract and synthesize the evidence on parental and child...... characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using the following search terms: eating disorder, disordered eating, problem eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, child, preadolescent, and early onset. Studies...... published from 1990 to 2013 addressing parental and child characteristics of disordered eating in children aged 6 to 12 years were eligible for inclusion. The search was restricted to studies with cross-sectional, case-control, or longitudinal designs, studies in English, and with abstracts available. Forty...

  11. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Francis M; Reid, Brianna M; Humphrey, Jean H; Mbuya, Mduduzi N; Pelto, Gretel; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first 3 years of life, when gut health and linear growth are established. We review evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth, and highlight pathways through which WASH may affect early child development, primarily through inflammation, stunting, and anemia. Environmental enteropathy, a prevalent subclinical condition of the gut, may be a key mediating pathway linking poor hygiene to developmental deficits. Current early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection. Solutions to this problem will require appropriate behavior change and technologies that are adapted to the social and physical context and conducive to infant play and socialization. We propose the concept of baby WASH as an additional component of early childhood development programs. PMID:24571214

  12. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Francis M; Reid, Brianna M; Humphrey, Jean H; Mbuya, Mduduzi N; Pelto, Gretel; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first 3 years of life, when gut health and linear growth are established. We review evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth, and highlight pathways through which WASH may affect early child development, primarily through inflammation, stunting, and anemia. Environmental enteropathy, a prevalent subclinical condition of the gut, may be a key mediating pathway linking poor hygiene to developmental deficits. Current early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection. Solutions to this problem will require appropriate behavior change and technologies that are adapted to the social and physical context and conducive to infant play and socialization. We propose the concept of baby WASH as an additional component of early childhood development programs.

  13. Co-occurrence of avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse predicts poor outcome in longstanding eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vrabel, KariAnne R.; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Hoffart, Asle; Rø, Øyvind; Martinsen, Egil W.

    2009-01-01

    Few consistent predictive factors for eating disorder have been identified across studies. In the current five year prospective study, the objective was to examine whether (1) personality disorder and child sexual abuse predict the course of severity of eating disorder symptoms after inpatient treatment and (2) how the predictors interact. A total of 74 patients with long standing eating disorder and mean age of 30 years were assessed at the beginning and end of inpatient therapy and at one-,...

  14. The legacy of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert E

    2016-06-01

    Under the Global Forum for Health Research, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) began its operations in 1999 and became a Swiss foundation in 2006. The vision of CHNRI was to improve child health and nutrition of all children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) through research that informs health policy and practice. Specific objectives included expanding global knowledge on childhood disease burden and cost-effectiveness of interventions, promoting priority setting in research, ensuring inclusion of institutions and scientists in LMIC in setting priorities, promoting capacity development in LMIC and stimulating donors and countries to increase resources for research. CHNRI created a knowledge network, funded research through multiple rounds of a global competitive process and published research papers and policy briefs. A signature effort was to develop a systematic methodology for prioritizing health and nutrition research investments. The "CHNRI method" has been extensively applied to global health problems and is now the most commonly used method for prioritizing health research questions.

  15. The legacy of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E Black

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the Global Forum for Health Research, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI began its operations in 1999 and became a Swiss foundation in 2006. The vision of CHNRI was to improve child health and nutrition of all children in low– and middle–income countries (LMIC through research that informs health policy and practice. Specific objectives included expanding global knowledge on childhood disease burden and cost-effectiveness of interventions, promoting priority setting in research, ensuring inclusion of institutions and scientists in LMIC in setting priorities, promoting capacity development in LMIC and stimulating donors and countries to increase resources for research. CHNRI created a knowledge network, funded research through multiple rounds of a global competitive process and published research papers and policy briefs. A signature effort was to develop a systematic methodology for prioritizing health and nutrition research investments. The “CHNRI method” has been extensively applied to global health problems and is now the most commonly used method for prioritizing health research questions.

  16. Design and Implementation of a Nutrition and Physical Activity Curriculum for Child Care Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Dunn, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood overweight continues to increase in the United States. Children should begin establishing healthy eating and physical activity behaviors at a young age. Context Many children spend a large part of their day in child care settings, whether in preschools or home day care settings. Child care providers in these settings have an opportunity to establish and reinforce habits that promote good health. However, the providers need training and creative educational materials to teach children about healthy eating and physical activity. Color Me Healthy is an educational program focusing on nutrition and physical activity that was developed for children aged 4 and 5 years by three of the authors (C.D., C.T., and L.P.. Methods In 2001 and 2002, the program was implemented in 47 North Carolina counties and the North Carolina Cherokee reservation. In December 2001, we used an information-dissemination model called Train the Trainer during a session to teach county teams comprising local public health professionals and cooperative extension employees how to teach child care providers in their communities to use the curriculum. The child care providers were then trained between March and August 2002. Follow-up evaluation forms were given to trained child care providers 8 weeks after the training. Consequences Of the providers who completed the evaluations (n = 486, 92.0% indicated that using the Color Me Healthy curriculum increased the physical activity of their students, and 91.8% indicated that it increased the children’s knowledge about movement. In addition, 93.0% of providers also indicated that using Color Me Healthy had increased the children’s knowledge about healthy eating. Interpretation Child care providers need educational materials on healthy eating and physical activity and should be trained to use them. The Train the Trainer model is an effective way to teach public health professionals to train child care providers on

  17. Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. Method The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis o...

  18. School-Based Nutrition Programs Are Associated with Reduced Child Food Insecurity over Time among Mexican-Origin Mother-Child Dyads In Texas Border Colonias12

    OpenAIRE

    Nalty, Courtney C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, an estimated 50.2 million adults and children lived in US households with food insecurity, a condition associated with adverse health effects across the life span. Relying solely on parent proxy may underreport the true prevalence of child food insecurity. The present study sought to understand mothers’ and children’s (aged 6–11 y) perspectives and experiences of child food insecurity and its seasonal volatility, including the effects of school-based and summertime nutrition programs...

  19. The implication of health insurance for child development and maternal nutrition: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaobo; Conley, Dalton

    2016-06-01

    We use the implementation of the new rural cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) in China to investigate the effect of health insurance on maternal nutrition and child health. Given the uneven roll-out of the NCMS across rural counties, we are able to deploy its implementation as a natural experiment in order to obviate problems of adverse selection that typically plague research on the effects of health insurance. We find that, among children, the NCMS has the greatest positive effect on infants between birth and 5 years of age. Also, with respect to female nutritional status, our models show that the NCMS has the greatest effect on women of childbearing age (aged between 16 and 35), indicating that women who benefit from the NCMS benefits may, in turn, give birth to healthier babies. Thus, taken together, our findings indicate that the NCMS plays an important role in health dynamics in rural China. PMID:26024841

  20. Parent-Child Agreement in the Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavera, Kristin E.; Wilkins, Kendall C.; Pincus, Donna B.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to extend research regarding parent-child agreement in the assessment of anxiety disorders to include youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ninety-three children and adolescents with OCD (50 female, 43 male), ages 6 to 17 years, and their parents were administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview…

  1. Whose education affects a child's nutritional status? From parents' to household's education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Burchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The paper engages in the ongoing debate regarding the determinants of child nutrition in developing countries and stresses the potential contribution of the education of household members other than the child's parents. OBJECTIVE The aim of the paper is threefold: (1 to verify whether there is evidence of the key role of parents' education for children's nutrition; (2 to explore the possible presence of the externalities generated by the literacy of household members different from the child's parents; (3 to test whether there is difference in the influence of these variables on the two indicators of child nutrition, child height-for-age and weight-for-age. METHODS The determinants of child nutrition were analyzed by estimating a series of econometric models through OLS regressions applied on data from the 2003 DHS survey in Mozambique. By means of seemingly unrelated regression together with formal testing we compared the impact of the covariates on the two outcomes. RESULTS In line with previous studies, we find that one year of mother's education increases their children's height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores by nearly 0.025 and 0.015. The presence of another literate household member has a significant, though limited, effect on child height while it has no influence on child weight. Lastly, there is no statistically significant difference in the effect of parents' education on the two indicators while our measure of proximate literacy has a significantly larger impact on child height. CONCLUSIONS These findings should orient policy-makers toward income-augmenting and education-enhancing policies: the importance of non-parents' literacy opens a further space for investment in education.

  2. Risk factors affecting child cognitive development: a summary of nutrition, environment, and maternal-child interaction indicators for sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, N D; Stein, A D

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 200 million children worldwide fail to meet their development potential due to poverty, poor health and unstimulating environments. Missing developmental milestones has lasting effects on adult human capital. Africa has a large burden of risk factors for poor child development. The objective of this paper is to identify scope for improvement at the country level in three domains--nutrition, environment, and mother-child interactions. We used nationally representative data from large-scale surveys, data repositories and country reports from 2000 to 2014. Overall, there was heterogeneity in performance across domains, suggesting that each country faces distinct challenges in addressing risk factors for poor child development. Data were lacking for many indicators, especially in the mother-child interaction domain. There is a clear need to improve routine collection of high-quality, country-level indicators relevant to child development to assess risk and track progress. PMID:26358240

  3. Cognitive, affective and behavioural characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Creswell, Catharine; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective and behavioural parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations and appraisals of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 not anxious (NONANX) and 44 with a current anxiety disorder (ANX)) before and after interacting wi...

  4. World wide use of psychotropic drugs in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, J G; Wiggins, D M; Williams, E

    1995-05-01

    1. Questionnaires were mailed to child psychiatrists world wide to obtain more precise information on views and approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders. 2. Results indicated important problems related to the management of child psychiatry practice both overseas and in Canada. 3. The choice of medication was frequently restricted by lack of availability, and political or social attitudes. 4. A consensus on diagnosis and treatment guidelines in child and adolescent psychiatry remains an important issue.

  5. Mothers' experiences of their child's diagnosis with an autism spectrum disorder / Melinda Wiese

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurological condition that impairs social interaction, communication and behaviour. The current increase in the prevalence of ASD is alarming. A large population of parents is left searching for answers regarding their child’s developmental delays. Once their child has been diagnosed, they have to deal with the challenge of raising such a child. Parenting a child with ASD is particularly challenging for mothers as it has been reporte...

  6. Volunteers as Teachers of Child Management to Parents of Behaviour-Disordered Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Frederick W.; France, Karyn G.

    1984-01-01

    Ten women volunteers were trained as teachers of child management skills to parents of behavior-disordered preschoolers. Evaluation of the project's outcomes using a consumer satisfaction survey, parent ratings on a problem behavior checklist, and staff ratings of goal attainment, showed major changes in child behavior maintained at three-month…

  7. Child-Parent Interventions for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior…

  8. Research-Based Recommendations to Improve Child Nutrition in Schools and Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandner, Laura D.; Hair, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This brief discusses aspects of healthy diets for children in elementary and middle school. It summarizes the current guidelines and recommendations for child nutrition and provides information for schools and out-of-school time programs about how to measure child nutrition. (Contains 27 endnotes.)

  9. Electroconvulsive therapy in a child suffering from acute and transient psychotic disorder with catatonic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is a recognized and effective treatment in adults for several psychiatric disorders. However, the lack of knowledge and experience with the use of ECT among child and adolescent psychiatrists is an obstacle to its appropriate use. Treatment using ECT in children of prepubertal age has been less reported. We present a case of 10-year-old child with a diagnosis of acute and transient psychotic disorder with catatonic features, where we have used ECT successfully.

  10. School-based nutrition programs are associated with reduced child food insecurity over time among Mexican-origin mother-child dyads in Texas Border Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalty, Courtney C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R

    2013-05-01

    In 2011, an estimated 50.2 million adults and children lived in US households with food insecurity, a condition associated with adverse health effects across the life span. Relying solely on parent proxy may underreport the true prevalence of child food insecurity. The present study sought to understand mothers' and children's (aged 6-11 y) perspectives and experiences of child food insecurity and its seasonal volatility, including the effects of school-based and summertime nutrition programs. Forty-eight Mexican-origin mother-child dyads completed standardized, Spanish-language food-security instruments during 2 in-home visits between July 2010 and March 2011. Multilevel longitudinal logistic regression measured change in food security while accounting for correlation in repeated measurements by using a nested structure. Cohen's κ statistic assessed dyadic discordance in child food insecurity. School-based nutrition programs reduced the odds of child food insecurity by 74% [OR = 0.26 (P food insecurity [OR = 4.63 (P = 0.03)]. Fair dyadic agreement of child food insecurity was observed [κ = 0.21 (P = 0.02)]. Obtaining accurate prevalence rates and understanding differences of intrahousehold food insecurity necessitate measurement at multiple occasions throughout the year while considering children's perceptions and experiences of food insecurity in addition to parental reports.

  11. Introducing infant and young child feeding indicators into national nutrition surveillance systems: lessons from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Do Thanh; de Onis, Mercedes

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive set of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators for international use was published in 2008. We describe the process followed to incorporate these indicators into Vietnam's National Nutrition Surveillance System (NNSS). Following its establishment in 1980, the National Institute of Nutrition introduced the Vietnam NNSS to provide an evidence base for nutrition interventions. While anthropometric indicators based on international standards were regularly used for programme purposes, data on IYCF could not be collected with similar rigor until 2010. In 2009, with support from Alive & Thrive and UNICEF, the NNSS questionnaire was reviewed and additional content incorporated to measure IYCF practices. The tool was pilot-tested in 10 provinces and revised before nationwide roll-out in 2010.The tool comprises four pages, the first three of which focus on collecting data relating to maternal nutrition and IYCF. The last page is flexibly designed to incorporate planners' data requests for other relevant activities (e.g. mass media interventions, food security). Once analysed, the data are presented in a report comprising provincial profiles and maps illustrating IYCF practices. Importantly, the IYCF data have been used for policy advocacy (e.g. maternity leave legislation, advertisement law), programme planning, trend monitoring and capacity building. Adoption of the IYCF indicators was successful due to strategic timing, a phased approach, buy-in from stakeholders and capacity building at all levels to ensure the quality and use of data. Further revisions to the NNSS (e.g. sampling methodology, quality assurance systems) will be important to ensure the reliability of indicators. PMID:24074323

  12. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia.

  13. One-Year Follow-Up of Family versus Child CBT for Anxiety Disorders: Exploring the Roles of Child Age and Parental Intrusiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Piacentini, John C.; Sigman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the relative long-term benefit of family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) and child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT) for child anxiety disorders at a 1-year follow-up. Method: Thirty-five children (6-13 years old) randomly assigned to 12-16 sessions of family-focused CBT (FCBT) or child-focused CBT…

  14. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Nadjilem, Djasndibye

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Chad, as one of the six targeted countries. These findings are available to assist in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between June and October of 2008, key informants responsible for IYCN-related activities in Chad were interviewed, and 53 documents were examined on the following themes: the promotion of optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, management of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), food security, and promotion of good hygienic practices. Chad is not on track to reaching the MDGs of reducing mortality by two-thirds and malnutrition by half among children malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. No national nutrition policy was yet ratified in Chad, so the target of many documents reviewed was the malnourished child. Researchers have identified some barriers to optimal feeding practices. However, the majority of these surveys were small scale, so they do not necessarily provide information relevant to the general population. Expanded surveys would be needed for developing evidence-based educational messages targeted to local needs. Reviewed training materials and related programmes being implemented in Chad provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics, except for appropriate feeding choices for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Some of the programmes were intended for national coverage, but we could not confirm whether these programmes were actually implemented nationally. Monitoring and evaluation reports were available for some small-scale programmes, but few of these evaluated whether IYCN-specific programme components were implemented as designed and none evaluated whether participants adopted the promoted feeding practices. Establishment of the policy and programme framework has

  15. Indirect calorimetry: a guide for optimizing nutritional support in the critically ill child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion-Sarid, Racheli; Cohen, Jonathan; Houri, Zion; Singer, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    The metabolic response of critically ill children is characterized by an increase in resting energy expenditure and metabolism, and energy needs of the critically ill child are dynamic, changing from a hypermetabolic to hypometabolic state through the continuum of the intensive care unit (ICU) stay. It therefore appears essential to have a precise evaluation of energy needs in these patients in order to avoid underfeeding and overfeeding, loss of critical lean body mass, and worsening of any existing nutrient deficiencies. However, there are no clear definitions regarding either the exact requirements or the ideal method for determining metabolic needs. In clinical practice, energy needs are determined either by using predictive equations or by actual measurement using indirect calorimetry. Although many equations exist for predicting resting energy expenditure, their accuracy is not clear. In addition, very few clinical trials have been performed so that no firm evidence-based recommendations are available regarding optimal nutritional management of critically ill children and infants. Most studies have come to the same conclusion (i.e., current predictive equations do not accurately predict required energy needs in the pediatric ICU population and predictive equations are unreliable compared with indirect calorimetry). The recent American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition clinical guidelines for nutrition support of the critically ill child suggest that indirect calorimetry measurements be obtained when possible in pediatric patients with suspected metabolic alterations or malnutrition, according to a list of criteria that may lead to metabolic instability, thus making standardized predictive equations even less reliable. Although the standard use of indirect calorimetry is limited due to equipment availability, staffing, and cost, the accuracy of the commercially available devices continues to improve and the measurements have become more reliable and

  16. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  17. Comparison of Child Behavior Checklist subscales in screening for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Aaron Skovby; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents associated with significant functional impairment. Early and correct diagnosis is essential for an optimal treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine which of four subscales...... derived from the Child Behavior Checklist best discriminates OCD patients from clinical and population-based controls....

  18. An adult version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-A)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels

    2014-01-01

    Many questionnaires exist for measuring anxiety; however, most are developed for children or adults only, or do not capture symptoms of all anxiety disorders. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) is a well-validated questionnaire for children, measuring symptoms of most

  19. Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. Method The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 30), and a c...

  20. Role of Young Child Formulae and Supplements to Ensure Nutritional Adequacy in U.K. Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Brouzes, Chloé M C; Maillot, Matthieu; Briend, André; Hankard, Régis; Lluch, Anne; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that young child formulae (YCFs) "cannot be considered as a necessity to satisfy the nutritional requirements" of children aged 12-36 months. This study quantifies the dietary changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children who consume YCFs and/or supplements and in those who do not. Dietary data from 1147 young children (aged 12-18 months) were used to identify, using linear programming models, the minimum changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy: (i) by changing the quantities of foods initially consumed by each child (repertoire-foods); and (ii) by introducing new foods (non-repertoire-foods). Most of the children consumed neither YCFs, nor supplements (61.6%). Nutritional adequacy with repertoire-foods alone was ensured for only one child in this group, against 74.4% of the children consuming YCFs and supplement. When access to all foods was allowed, smaller food changes were required when YCFs and supplements were initially consumed than when they were not. In the total sample, the main dietary shifts needed to ensure nutritional adequacy were an increase in YCF and a decrease in cow's milk (+226 g/day and -181 g/day, respectively). Increasing YCF and supplement consumption was the shortest way to cover the EFSA nutrient requirements of U.K. children. PMID:27598195

  1. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition intervention in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition intervention, including nutritional counseling, by a registered dietitian (RD) is an essential component of the team treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders during assessment and treatment across the continuum of care. Diagnostic criteria for eating disorders provide important guidelines for identification and treatment. However, it is thought that a continuum of disordered eating may exist that ranges from persistent dieting to subthreshold conditions and then to defined eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Understanding the complexities of eating disorders, such as influencing factors, comorbid illness, medical and psychological complications, and boundary issues, is critical in the effective treatment of eating disorders. The nature of eating disorders requires a collaborative approach by an interdisciplinary team of psychological, nutritional, and medical specialists. The RD is an integral member of the treatment team and is uniquely qualified to provide medical nutrition therapy for the normalization of eating patterns and nutritional status. RDs provide nutritional counseling, recognize clinical signs related to eating disorders, and assist with medical monitoring while cognizant of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy that are cornerstones of eating disorder treatment. Specialized resources are available for RDs to advance their level of expertise in the field of eating disorders. Further efforts with evidenced-based research must continue for improved treatment outcomes related to eating disorders along with identification of effective primary and secondary interventions.

  2. Nutritional status and cognitive performance of mother-child pairs in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean ± standard deviation age of the mothers was 29 ± 6 years and family size was 7.0 ± 2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI child health but also cognitive function.

  3. Risk of Schizophrenia Increases After All Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibing, Cecilie Frejstrup; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Benros, Michael Eriksen;

    2015-01-01

    -2000 and the cohort was followed until December 31, 2012. Data were analyzed using survival analyses and adjusted for calendar year, age, and sex. Results: A total of 25138 individuals with child and adolescent psychiatric disorders were identified, out of which 1232 individuals were subsequently diagnosed......Objective: Earlier smaller studies have shown associations between child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and schizophrenia. Particularly, attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and autism have been linked with schizophrenia. However, large-scale prospective studies have been lacking. We......, therefore, conducted the first large-scale study on the association between a broad spectrum of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods: Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort consisting of all persons born during 1990...

  4. Parenting experiences of living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Britt; Grønkjær, Mette

    2015-01-01

    synthesized findings: 1) An emotional roller coaster between hope and hopelessness, 2) Mothers as advocates in a battlefield within the system and family, 3) Parental experiences in a crossfire of blame, self-blame and stigmatization, 4) Shuttling between supportive and non-supportive services......BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most prevalent mental disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging and parents find it difficult to raise the child and struggle to get professional...... support. Research has shown how living with a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder influences the families' daily life. This includes how the parents manage to maintain a bearable family life, supportive or not supportive factors as well as parents' experiences of collaboration...

  5. A Disordered Eating Response Team's Effect on Nutrition Practices in College Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Baer, Janine T.; Walker, William F.; Grossman, Jayd M.

    1995-01-01

    The disordered eating response team developed a protocol for assessment and intervention for athletes who are identified as at risk for disordered eating. Team members included the team physician, athletic trainers, a dietitian with knowledge of sports nutrition, and a psychologist. Team members also developed education programs for coaches and athletic trainers, athletes, and dining services personnel regarding eating to support health and athletic performance. During the first year of the p...

  6. Review on nutritional management of cardiac disorders in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Devi

    Full Text Available A variety of nutritional deficiencies, dietary protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and trace elements are known to cause cardiac disease in various species. Nutritional management of dogs with cardiac problems can be handling with providing adequate calories, protein and modulating cytokine production to manage the possible cause of decreased appetite of the side effects of medications. Owners should be aware that dietary supplements are not regulated in the same way as drugs. They do not require proof of safety, efficacy, or quality control before they can be sold. Therefore, careful selection of type, dose, and brand is important to avoid toxicities or complete lack of efficacy. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 482-485

  7. FEEDING, GROWTH AND NUTRITION DISORDERS IN CEREBRAL PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    Rosulescu Eugenia; Ilona Ilinca; Mihaela Zăvăleanu; Costin Nanu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the growth, physical development and nutrition status for a sample of cerebral palsied children with spastic, dyskinetic and ataxic type.Material and methods: A total of 81 children with CP, who were rehabilitated in the pediatrics rehabilitation clinic between 2005 - 2008 years, were included. Children’s assessments included: anthropometric measures (height H, recumbent length L, weight W), anthropometric indicators (weight fot length WL, body mass indexBMI) and was ca...

  8. Does mass azithromycin distribution impact child growth and nutrition in Niger? A cluster-randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdou Amza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use on animals demonstrates improved growth regardless of whether or not there is clinical evidence of infectious disease. Antibiotics used for trachoma control may play an unintended benefit of improving child growth.In this sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial, we assess anthropometry of pre-school children in a community-randomized trial of mass oral azithromycin distributions for trachoma in Niger. We measured height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC in 12 communities randomized to receive annual mass azithromycin treatment of everyone versus 12 communities randomized to receive biannual mass azithromycin treatments for children, 3 years after the initial mass treatment. We collected measurements in 1,034 children aged 6-60 months of age.We found no difference in the prevalence of wasting among children in the 12 annually treated communities that received three mass azithromycin distributions compared to the 12 biannually treated communities that received six mass azithromycin distributions (odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.53 to 1.49.We were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant difference in stunting, underweight, and low MUAC of pre-school children in communities randomized to annual mass azithromycin treatment or biannual mass azithromycin treatment. The role of antibiotics on child growth and nutrition remains unclear, but larger studies and longitudinal trials may help determine any association.

  9. Family-Based Interventions for Child and Adolescent Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Broth, Michelle Robbins; Smith, Chaundrissa Oyeshiku; Collins, Marietta H.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral symptoms and disorders are prevalent in children and adolescents. There has been a burgeoning literature supporting evidence-based treatments for these disorders. Increasingly, family-based interventions have been gaining prominence and demonstrating effectiveness for myriad childhood and adolescent disorders. This article…

  10. Association of maternal and child nutritional status in Brazil: a population based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos Felisbino-Mendes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although child undernutrition and stunting has been decreasing worldwide while obesity rates increase, these extreme conditions might coexist in families from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between maternal and child anthropometric indicators using a population representative sample. METHODS: 4,258 non-pregnant women and their children 2. RESULTS: HAZ was positively associated with maternal height and WC in a linear fashion. After adjustment, for sociodemographic characteristics, children whose mothers' height was<145 cm had 1.2 lower HAZ than children whose mothers were ≥160 cm tall (p-trend<0.0001. After further adjustment for maternal height and maternal BMI, children of mothers with a waist circumference ≥88 cm had 0.3 higher HAZ than those of mothers with WC<80 cm (p-trend<0.01. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI for stunting by the categories of maternal height (<145, 145-149, 150-154, 155-159 and ≥160 cm were, respectively, 2.95 (1.51;5.77, 2.29 (1.33;3.93, 1.09 (0.63;1.87, and 0.89 (0.45;1.77, (p-trend = 0.001. BAZ was positively associated with maternal BMI and WC. CONCLUSION: We observed a strong, positive association of maternal and child nutritional status. Mothers of low stature had children with lower stature, mothers with central obesity had taller children, and mothers with overall or abdominal obesity had children with higher BAZ.

  11. Research and the promotion of child health: a position paper of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Kolacek, Sanja; Phillips, Alan; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Thapar, Nikhil; Baumann, Ulrich; van Goudoever, Johannes; Mihatsch, Walter; de Swarte, Casper; Benninga, Marc; Mearin, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    Children comprise one-fifth of Europe's population. Promoting child health and development is of key importance for society and its future. This position paper highlights opportunities of investing in gastrointestinal, liver, and nutritional research to promote child health and delineates priorities for research. Investing in child health plays a key role in the promotion of population health, well-being, and disease prevention lifelong, with large health economic benefits. Major opportunities for improving knowledge and translational application arise from recent scientific and technological developments, for example, the long-term impact of early environmental cues interacting with genes. Personalised approaches to therapy and prevention should be enhanced. Deciphering the microbiome and its effects on functions can help in promoting long-term health. Epigenetic research can help to understand how early environmental factors influence later gastrointestinal and hepatic health and disease. A linked nutrition and physical activity strategy can promote health and prevent nutritional deficiencies, inactivity, and chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as diabetes, to ensure optimal health and cognition. Special attention should be devoted to populations with low socioeconomic status, migrant background, and ethnic minorities, and to critical life periods, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, and childhood. Improved understanding of optimal nutrition and on maintaining gut and liver homeostasis throughout childhood will help prevent chronic diseases in later life. PMID:24796801

  12. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-02-15

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of "children left behind". The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6-59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  13. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Jayatissa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  14. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-02-01

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of "children left behind". The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6-59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. PMID:26891313

  15. Evaluation design of New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Goodman, Ken; Dunn, Lillian; Stephens, Robert L; Dawkins, Nicola; Dixon, Beth; Jernigan, Jan; Kakietek, Jakub; Lesesne, Catherine; Lessard, Laura; Nonas, Cathy; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Osuji, Thearis A; Bronson, Bernice; Xu, Ye; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the multi-method cross-sectional design used to evaluate New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's regulations of nutrition, physical activity, and screen time for children aged 3 years or older in licensed group child care centers. The Center Evaluation Component collected data from a stratified random sample of 176 licensed group child care centers in New York City. Compliance with the regulations was measured through a review of center records, a facility inventory, and interviews of center directors, lead teachers, and food service staff. The Classroom Evaluation Component included an observational and biometric study of a sample of approximately 1,400 children aged 3 or 4 years attending 110 child care centers and was designed to complement the center component at the classroom and child level. The study methodology detailed in this paper may aid researchers in designing policy evaluation studies that can inform other jurisdictions considering similar policies. PMID:25321635

  16. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Traut, A.; Kaminer, D; Boshoff, D; Seedat, S; S. Hawkridge; Stein, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD. Design. A retrospective chart study of all patients presenting to a child and adolescent inpatient unit was conducted between 1994-1996. For children and adolescents diagnosed with...

  17. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NSIP) The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) Child Nutrition Programs Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program National School Lunch Program (NSLP) School Breakfast Program ... Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program ...

  18. Body Image and Eating Disorders among Female Students: A Pilot Nutritional Psychology Study in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort Nora Ntim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image and eating disorders have emerged as an essential facet of bio-psychosocial well-being. Although considered less prevalent in Ghana than in the West, body image and eating disorders are issues of global concern. One hundred (100 female participants with a mean age of approximately 21 years were recruited after informed consent for this pilot study. Results showed a positive correlation between body image and eating disorders. In addition, there was no significant difference between the levels of university education on female body image and eating distortions in Ghana. These findings underscore the importance for more future studies in nutritional psychology and related clinical management.

  19. Effects of posttraumatic stress disorder and child sexual abuse on self-efficacy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Amy S; Prout, Maurice F

    2002-04-01

    The symptoms of child sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affect a child's self-efficacy. A child's self-efficacy beliefs impact the course and treatment of PTSD, because perceived self-efficacy plays a mediating role in children's ability to cope with trauma. Self-efficacy research indicates that emotional competence can be learned and may provide treatment for PTSD that provides symptom reduction as well as a means of substituting problem-solving coping skills for emotion-focused coping skills. PMID:15792065

  20. Effects of posttraumatic stress disorder and child sexual abuse on self-efficacy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Amy S; Prout, Maurice F

    2002-04-01

    The symptoms of child sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affect a child's self-efficacy. A child's self-efficacy beliefs impact the course and treatment of PTSD, because perceived self-efficacy plays a mediating role in children's ability to cope with trauma. Self-efficacy research indicates that emotional competence can be learned and may provide treatment for PTSD that provides symptom reduction as well as a means of substituting problem-solving coping skills for emotion-focused coping skills.

  1. CBT for the treatment of child anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise;

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety affects 10% of all children and disrupts educational, socio-emotional development and overall functioning of the child and family. Research has shown that parenting factors (i.e. intrusiveness, negativity, distorted cognitions) contribute to the development and maintenance of childhood....... This article investigates possible reasons for this inconsistency and in particular differences in methodology and the theoretical relevance of the applied parental components are highlighted as possible contributory factors. Another factor is that treatment effect is mainly measured by change in the child...

  2. World Health Organization 2006 Child Growth Standards and 2007 Growth Reference Charts: A Discussion Paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turck, Dominique; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Shamir, Raanan;

    2013-01-01

    Growth charts are essential for evaluating children’s health including their nutrition; however, the evaluation of child growth trajectories and consequently the decision to intervene are highly dependent on the growth charts used. The aim of this discussion paper of the European Society...... for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition is to provide information on the background and rationale of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 child growth standards and WHO 2007 growth reference charts, describe their development, outline their main innovative aspects...... on Nutrition recommends that WHO child growth standards should be used to monitor growth in all children in the age range 0 to 2 years in Europe, whether breastor formula-fed, and that they should be considered to be used in the age range 2 to 5 years. Implementation of the WHO child growth standards should...

  3. Maternal employment, child care, and nutritional status of 12-18-month-old children in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, J F; Engle, P L; Zeitlin, M F

    1998-02-01

    Relationships among women's employment, child care strategies, and nutritional status of children 12-18 months of age were examined in 80 Nicaraguan households sampled by randomized block design in 10 low income urban communities. Multiple regression analyses showed that children of employed mothers (56%) fared better in weight/height than those whose mothers were not employed, with and without controlling for socioeconomic status and maternal education, paternal financial support, child care adequacy, and sex and age of the child. Children with inadequate alternate child care (care by a preteen or care at the work place) had lower height for age, even controlling for the same variables and for maternal employment. Differences in 10 caregiving behaviors between families as a function of work status of the mother and adequacy of child care were examined. In families with working mothers, caregivers were less likely to be observed washing their hands, suggesting that the positive associations of work for earnings might be due to income rather than improved care. Inadequate care was associated with less food variety, less use of health care, and marginally less hand-washing. Inadequate child care, which tends to be associated with informal work, nuclear families and poverty, should be a concern for child welfare. PMID:9460821

  4. Disentangling the relative contribution of parental antisociality and family discord to child disruptive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A; Blazei, Ryan; Malone, Stephen H; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2013-07-01

    A number of familial risk factors for childhood disruptive disorders have been identified. However, many of these risk factors often co-occur with parental antisociality, which by itself may account for both the familial risk factors and the increased likelihood of offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). The current study aimed to examine the association of parenting behaviors, marital conflict, and divorce with child DBDs while accounting for (a) coparent parenting behaviors, and (b) parental adult antisocial behavior (AAB). A series of regressions tested the association between family-level variables (namely, parent-child relationship quality, parental willingness to use physical punishment, marital adjustment, and history of divorce) and DBDs (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder) alone and after statistically adjusting for coparent variables and parental AAB. Results indicated that parents with AAB were more likely to engage in various forms of maladaptive parenting, to divorce, and to have conflictual marriages. Maladaptive parenting, marital conflict, and divorce were associated with heightened rates of child DBDs, and these associations persisted after adjusting for coparent parenting and parental AAB. Finally, the mother's parenting behaviors had a higher impact on child DBDs than the father's parenting behaviors. Thus, familial variables continue to have an effect on childhood DBDs even after accounting for confounding influences. These variables should be a focus of research on etiology and intervention.

  5. Assessment of food, nutrition, and physical activity practices in Oklahoma child-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Susan B; Campbell, Janis E; May, Kellie B; Brittain, Danielle R; Monroe, Lisa A; Guss, Shannon H; Ladner, Jennifer L

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the obesogenic practices in all-day child-care centers caring for preschool-aged children. This study used a cross-sectional, self-reported survey mailed to centers across Oklahoma (n=314). Frequency of responses and χ(2) were calculated comparing region and star rating. Items where the majority of centers frequently report best practices include: daily fruits served (76%), daily nonfried vegetables served (71%), rarely/never served sugary drinks (92%), rarely/never used food to encourage good behaviors (88%), staff join children at table most of the time (81%), staff rarely eat different foods in view of children (69%), visible self-serve or request availability of water (93%), regular informal communication about healthy eating (86%), opportunities for outdoor play (95%), not withholding activity for punishment (91%), accessible play equipment (59% to 80% for different types of equipment), and minimization of extended sitting time (78%). Practices where centers can improve include increasing variety of vegetables (18%), reducing frequency of high-fat meats served (74% serve more than once per week), increasing high-fiber and whole-grain foods (35% offer daily), serving style of "seconds" (28% help kids determine whether they are still hungry), nonfood holiday celebrations (44% use nonfood treats), having toys and books that encourage healthy eating (27%) and physical activity (25%) in all rooms in the center, a standard nutrition (21%) and physical education (50%) curriculum, and following a written physical activity policy (43%). Practitioners can use these data to develop benchmarks and interventions, as this was the first study to assess statewide obesogenic practices in child care.

  6. When the Child is Suspected to Have Autism Spectrum Disorder: Recommendation for Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Borodina L.G.; Soldatenkova E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Experts in the area of treatment and intervention for autism spectrum disorders provide parents with recommenda¬tions for situations when their children are suspected to have autism or have been diagnosed. These recommenda¬tions are universal and are appropriate for raising a child with any spectrum disorder. Following these recommenda¬tions will allow parents to comprehend the situation with the child’s development, access approaches, that are used by professionals, and will help them to not...

  7. Exploring Maternal and Child Effects of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders among African American Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden

    2013-01-01

    Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depressio...

  8. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 5 Years in Children Exposed Prenatally to Maternal Dental Amalgam: The Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Gene E.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M. T.; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S.; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Strain, J.J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M. W.; Myers, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg0) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children’s neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of pr...

  9. How Many Families in Child Welfare Services Are Affected by Parental Substance Use Disorders? A Common Question that Remains Unanswered

    OpenAIRE

    Seay, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Associated with extensive negative outcomes for children, parental substance use disorders are a major concern within the child welfare system. Obtaining actual prevalence rate data has been difficult, however, and there are no recent published reports on this issue. Using a systematic search, this paper examines: (1) Prevalence estimates of parental substance use disorders in the child welfare population; (2) the types of child welfare involvement for reported prevalence estimates; and (3) h...

  10. Context-Situated Communicative Competence in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuononen, Katja J. S.; Laitila, Aarno; Kärnä, Eija

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often linked with difficulties in triadic interaction or joint attention. This paper investigated the communicative competencies that children with ASD might have in these skills. We report findings from a pilot case study that focused on a school-aged child with ASD who interacted with his adult co-participants…

  11. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  12. Marital and Parent-Child Relationships in Families with Daughters Who Have Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…

  13. Examining the Link between Child Maltreatment and Delinquency for Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, Kimber W.; Meisel, Sheri M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined service delivery and risk factors for 93 youth with emotional and behavioral disorders who were served by one jurisdiction's child welfare, juvenile justice, and special education agencies. The researchers collected data through an archival review of agency records. The article discusses findings as they relate to the link…

  14. Parenting Stress in Mothers and Fathers of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Associations with Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Naomi Ornstein; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated parenting stress is observed among mothers of older children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little is known about parents of young newly-diagnosed children. Associations between child behavior and parenting stress were examined in mothers and fathers of 54 toddlers with ASD (mean age = 26.9 months). Parents reported elevated…

  15. Maternal Psychiatric Disorders, Parenting, and Maternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study, were used to investigate associations between maternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Maternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed in 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Maternal anxiety,…

  16. Referral for Occupational Therapy after Diagnosis of Developmental Disorder by German Child Psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…

  17. Parent-Child Agreement of Anxiety Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Reaven, Judy; Ridge, Katherine; Hepburn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Best practice for assessment of anxiety symptoms in children suggests that child self-report is an important element to consider. Yet, it is not known if it is a reliable assessment method for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The present study examines the extent to which verbally fluent children with ASD and their…

  18. Reliability and Validity of Parent- and Child-Rated Anxiety Measures in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaat, Aaron J.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anxiety frequently co-occur. Research on the phenomenology and treatment of anxiety in ASD is expanding, but is hampered by the lack of instruments validated for this population. This study evaluated the self- and parent-reported Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale in…

  19. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Problems: Effects of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2-18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1…

  20. Diet choice in weight-restored patients with eating disorders: progressive autonomy process by nutritional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human eating behaviour is regulated by multiple factors. Anorexia nervosa patients show a restrictive eating pattern while bulimia nervosa patients present bingeing-purging episodes. Although treatments are specially successful in the normalization of body composition, maladaptive eating behaviours tend to persist being a risk factor for relapse and recurrence. Objectives: The aim of this work was to assess the quality of the nutritional choice of eating disorders patients after a year of nutritional education and to assess improvements in choice capacity. Methods: Thirty-one outpatients of an eating disorders unit planned a menu after body composition normalization and repeated this plan each three months during a one-year programme of nutritional education. Results: Patients improved the time spent on the assignment (p < 0.01, Body Mass Index (p < 0.01, their body fat mass (p < 0.01 and the content of energy (p < 0.05, carbohydrates (p < 0.01 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.05 in their chosen menus. No differences were found on proteins, total fat or fat profile, vitamins or minerals. 12.9% and 3.2% of the patients chose their menu according to the recommendations of caloric and lipid profile, respectively, after a year of nutritional education. Discussion: Although patients improved energy and carbohydrates content of the menus they tended to reduce caloric and fat food choices, which could lead to relapse and recurrence. Specific nutritional education programmes along with the mandatory psychological and psychiatric treatment may be effective. Conclusions: One year of nutritional education combined with psychological and psychiatric treatment improved those factors usually involved in relapse and recurrence, thus contributing to a proper outcome.

  1. The relationship between alliance and client involvement in CBT for child anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D; Islam, Nadia Y; Chiu, Angela W; Smith, Meghan M; Chu, Brian C; Wood, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the nature of the relationship between the alliance and client involvement in child psychotherapy. To address this gap, we examined the relationship between these therapy processes over the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for child anxiety disorders. The sample was 31 child participants (M age = 9.58 years, SD = 2.17, range = 6-13 years, 67.7% boys; 67.7% Caucasian, 6.5% Latino, 3.2% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 22.6% mixed/other) diagnosed with a primary anxiety disorder. The participants received a manual-based individual CBT program for child anxiety or a manual-based family CBT program for child anxiety. Ratings of alliance and client involvement were collected on early (Session 2) and late (Session 8) treatment phases. Two independent coding teams rated alliance and client involvement. Change in alliance positively predicted late client involvement after controlling for initial levels of client involvement. In addition, change in client involvement positively predicted late alliance after controlling for initial levels of the alliance. The findings were robust after controlling for potentially confounding variables. In CBT for child anxiety disorders, change in the alliance appears to predict client involvement; however, client involvement also appears to predict the quality of the alliance. Our findings suggest that the nature of the relationship between alliance and client involvement may be more complex than previously hypothesized. In clinical practice, tracking alliance and level of client involvement could help optimize the impact and delivery of CBT for child anxiety. PMID:24245994

  2. Nutrition disorder frequency in 5- to 9-year-old children from Colima, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Clemente; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Velasco-Rodríguez, Raymundo; Bautista-Hernández, Víctor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS. The objectives were to determine nutrition disorder frequency, energy intake and type of nutrients in the diet of 5- to 9-year-old children from Colima, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A populational survey was applied to 1992 children in the state of Colima, Mexico. The variables studied were weight, age, age-related weight, age-related height and body mass index (the last 3 expressed in percentiles). In a direct survey, parents provided information on all foods their...

  3. Students of dietetics & nutrition; a high risk group for eating disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Mealha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Changes in eating behaviour of university students are common and widely studied. Although the risk of developing eating disorders seems to be obvious among nutrition students, there is a lack of research in this field. This study aimed to: determine the risk of developing eating disorders in Dietetics and Nutrition (DN students, through the comparison of eating behaviours, food habits, nutritional status, body composition and physical activity with those of other college students (from health and non-health degrees. Methods: Cross-sectional and comparative study. The sample included 189 female students, aged 18 to 25 years (20.3 ± 2.0, from two Portuguese public universities. All students were measured (weight, height, % fat mass and waist circumference and answered four validated questionnaires to assess eating behaviour, food patterns and physical activity. Results: There was a low risk of eating disorders development among these students (4.2%. No significant differences between students from DN, health and non-health degrees concerning eating behaviour, nutritional status and body composition were found, contrasting with differences in some food habits and physical activity (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Despite the low risk of eating disorders among DN students, a large percentage of them had body weight concerns. DN students had the highest percentages of normal weight, no cardio-metabolic risk according to waist circumference and normal fat mass. DN students had the healthiest food habits and they also practiced moderate and intense physical activity in a high percentage, suggesting a possible positive influence of more knowledge on food and health. Results suggested the importance of more research in college students in order to identify the need for intervention and improve their lifestyle.

  4. Relationship between dementia and nutrition-related factors and disorders: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno-Kennedy, Rossana; Cashman, Kevin D

    2005-03-01

    This review gives a brief overview of the main types of dementia and summarizes current thinking on the relationship between nutritional-related factors and disorders, and dementia. Dementia is a multi-factor pathological condition, and nutrition is one factor that may play a role on its onset and progression. An optimal intake of nutrients doesn't protect people from dementia. However, studies in this area show that inadequate dietary habits, which are of particular concern in elderly populations, may increase the risk of developing a number of age-related diseases, including disorders of impaired cognitive function. They show that a deficiency in essential nutrients, such as certain B complex vitamins, can result in hyperhomocysteinemia, a well-known risk factor for atherosclerosis and recently associated with cognitive impairment in old age. A deficiency of antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, and beta-carotene, as well as nutrition-related disorders like hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes, may also have some role in cognitive impairment. These factors can be present for a long time before cognitive impairment becomes evident, therefore they could be potentially detected and corrected in a timely manner. PMID:15929630

  5. Is physiotherapy effective in the management of child and adolescent conversion disorder? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Tara L; Southby, Alesha K; Haines, Terrence P; Hough, Janet P; Skinner, Elizabeth H

    2015-02-01

    Child and adolescent conversion disorder has the potential to impart significant burden on health-care services and affect quality of life. Clinically, physiotherapists are involved in conversion disorder management; however, no systematic reviews have examined physiotherapy effectiveness in its management. The aim of this review is to identify the efficacy of physiotherapy management of child and adolescent conversion disorder. A search of multiple databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO, PEDro and the Cochrane Library) was completed along with manual searching of relevant reference lists to identify articles including children 0-18 years with a diagnosis of conversion disorder who received physical management. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts using criteria. Data were extracted regarding study characteristics, functional outcome measures, length of stay, physiotherapy service duration and resolution of conversion symptoms. Methodological quality was assessed using a tool designed for observational studies. Twelve observational studies were included. No functional outcome measures were used to assess the effectiveness of the treatment protocols in the case studies. Resolution of symptoms occurred in all but two cases, with conversion symptoms still present at 11 months and at 2 years. Length of stay varied from 3 days to 16 weeks, with similar variation evident in length of physiotherapy service provision (2.5 weeks to 16 weeks). There was limited and poor quality evidence to establish the efficacy of physiotherapy management of child and adolescent conversion disorders. More rigorous study designs with consistent use of reliable, valid and sensitive functional outcome measures are needed in this area.

  6. Prevalence of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders in Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitlich-Bilyk, Back; Goodman, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and the pattern of comorbidity in a population-based sample of 7- to 14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. Method: Random sampling of schools (stratified into private, public rural, and public urban) was followed by random sampling of pupils from school lists. In 2000-2001, a total of 1,251…

  7. Anaesthetic management of a child with congenital afibrinogenemia - A rare inherited coagulation disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sham Sunder Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital afibrinogenemia is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder, results from mutation that affects plasma fibrinogen concentration. It is frequently associated with bleeding diathesis of varying severity. We describe the case of a 10-year-old child diagnosed of congenital afibrinogenemia who presented to hospital with subperiosteal haematoma and was posted for incision and drainage. Replacement therapy is the mainstay of treatment of bleeding episodes in this patient and plasma-derived fibrinogen concentrate is the agent of choice. Cryoprecipitate and fresh frozen plasma are alternative treatments. Appropriate amount of cryoprecipitate were transfused pre-operatively to the child. Individuals with congenital afibrinogenemia should be managed by a comprehensive bleeding disorder care team experienced in diagnosing and managing inherited bleeding disorders. Anaesthesiologist, surgeons and haematologist should work like a unit to manage the surgical emergencies.

  8. Current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychiatric disorders: Fertility rates, parent-child relationship quality, and psychiatric disorders across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nicholas C

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to evaluate the current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychopathology by examining whether these disorders impact the quantity of offspring or the quality of the parent-child relationship across the life span. Using the National Comorbidity Survey, this study examined whether DSM-III-R anxiety, posttraumatic stress, depressive, bipolar, substance use, antisocial, and psychosis disorders predicted later fertility and the quality of parent-child relationships across the life span in a national sample (N = 8,098). Using latent variable and varying coefficient models, the results suggested that anxiety in males and bipolar pathology in males and females were associated with increased fertility at younger ages. The results suggested almost all other psychopathology was associated with decreased fertility in middle to late adulthood. The results further suggested that all types of psychopathology had negative impacts on the parent-child relationship quality (except for antisocial pathology in males). Nevertheless, for all disorders, the impact of psychopathology on both fertility and the parent-child relationship quality was affected by the age of the participant. The results also showed that anxiety pathology is associated with a high-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy followed by a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy. Further, the results suggest that bipolar pathology is associated with an early high-quantity and a continued low-quality parenting strategy. Posttraumatic stress, depression, substance use, antisocial personality, and psychosis pathology are each associated with a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy, particularly in mid to late adulthood. These findings suggest that the evolutionary impact of psychopathology depends on the developmental context. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362490

  9. Current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychiatric disorders: Fertility rates, parent-child relationship quality, and psychiatric disorders across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nicholas C

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to evaluate the current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychopathology by examining whether these disorders impact the quantity of offspring or the quality of the parent-child relationship across the life span. Using the National Comorbidity Survey, this study examined whether DSM-III-R anxiety, posttraumatic stress, depressive, bipolar, substance use, antisocial, and psychosis disorders predicted later fertility and the quality of parent-child relationships across the life span in a national sample (N = 8,098). Using latent variable and varying coefficient models, the results suggested that anxiety in males and bipolar pathology in males and females were associated with increased fertility at younger ages. The results suggested almost all other psychopathology was associated with decreased fertility in middle to late adulthood. The results further suggested that all types of psychopathology had negative impacts on the parent-child relationship quality (except for antisocial pathology in males). Nevertheless, for all disorders, the impact of psychopathology on both fertility and the parent-child relationship quality was affected by the age of the participant. The results also showed that anxiety pathology is associated with a high-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy followed by a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy. Further, the results suggest that bipolar pathology is associated with an early high-quantity and a continued low-quality parenting strategy. Posttraumatic stress, depression, substance use, antisocial personality, and psychosis pathology are each associated with a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy, particularly in mid to late adulthood. These findings suggest that the evolutionary impact of psychopathology depends on the developmental context. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Miranda L; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Duffy, Emeir M; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  11. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Miranda L., E-mail: Miranda_Lynch@urmc.rochester.edu [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Huang, Li-Shan [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Cox, Christopher [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Strain, J.J. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Myers, Gary J. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Bonham, Maxine P. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Shamlaye, Conrad F. [Ministry of Health, Republic of Seychelles (Seychelles); Stokes-Riner, Abbie [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy

  12. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  13. Child maltreatment and interpersonal relationship among Chinese children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Chi, Peilian; Wang, Zhonghui; Heath, Melissa Allen; Du, Hongfei; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment negatively affects children's development and wellbeing. This study investigated the associations between child maltreatment (i.e., emotional neglect, emotional abuse, and physical abuse) and interpersonal functioning, including parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, and peer relationships among children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). A total of 256 children with ODD and their parents and class master teachers from Mainland China completed questionnaires. Results showed a negative correlation between emotional abuse (parent-reported) and children's interpersonal relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Emotional neglect and physical abuse were related to poor parent-child relationships. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of child maltreatment among children with ODD. ODD children with more severe levels of one type of maltreatment were also more likely to have experienced severe levels of other types of maltreatment. Children with ODD who were in the group of high maltreatment had the poorest quality of interpersonal relationships. Our findings highlight the urgent need to prevent child maltreatment and promote more positive parenting in families with ODD children. PMID:26560234

  14. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hullmann Stephanie E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59 of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. Conclusions These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage.

  15. The comparative cost-effectiveness of an equity-focused approach to child survival, health, and nutrition: a modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Carlos; Azrack, Adeline; Begkoyian, Genevieve; Pfaffmann, Jerome; Ribaira, Eric; O'Connell, Thomas; Doughty, Patricia; Aung, Kyaw Myint; Prieto, Lorena; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Sharkey, Alyssa; Chopra, Mickey; Knippenberg, Rudolf

    2012-10-13

    Progress on child mortality and undernutrition has seen widening inequities and a concentration of child deaths and undernutrition in the most deprived communities, threatening the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Conversely, a series of recent process and technological innovations have provided effective and efficient options to reach the most deprived populations. These trends raise the possibility that the perceived trade-off between equity and efficiency no longer applies for child health--that prioritising services for the poorest and most marginalised is now more effective and cost effective than mainstream approaches. We tested this hypothesis with a mathematical-modelling approach by comparing the cost-effectiveness in terms of child deaths and stunting events averted between two approaches (from 2011-15 in 14 countries and one province): an equity-focused approach that prioritises the most deprived communities, and a mainstream approach that is representative of current strategies. We combined some existing models, notably the Marginal Budgeting for Bottlenecks Toolkit and the Lives Saved Tool, to do our analysis. We showed that, with the same level of investment, disproportionately higher effects are possible by prioritising the poorest and most marginalised populations, for averting both child mortality and stunting. Our results suggest that an equity-focused approach could result in sharper decreases in child mortality and stunting and higher cost-effectiveness than mainstream approaches, while reducing inequities in effective intervention coverage, health outcomes, and out-of-pocket spending between the most and least deprived groups and geographic areas within countries. Our findings should be interpreted with caution due to uncertainties around some of the model parameters and baseline data. Further research is needed to address some of these gaps in the evidence base. Strategies for improving child nutrition and survival, however

  16. Isolated Upper Extremity Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halula, Sarah E; Leino, Daniel G; Patel, Manish N; Racadio, John M; Lungren, Matthew P

    2015-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-described complication of solid organ and bone marrow transplants. The most common presentation is intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy or single or multiple intraparenchymal masses involving the liver, spleen, or kidneys. Here we describe the imaging and pathology findings of an unusual case of PTLD appearing as an intramuscular forearm lesion in a pediatric male. The manifestation of PTLD as an isolated upper extremity mass in a pediatric patient has to our knowledge not been described. PMID:26167324

  17. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  18. [The genetic approaches of the disorders of the child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajer, Y

    2006-01-01

    Genetics, which encompasses cytogenetic, molecular genetics, genetic of populations, pharmacogenetics and gene therapy, become as numerous and almost independent applications (fields). Deriving from the original questions on the origin and mechanisms of diseases, these represent essential tools to better understand physiopathogenesis. Cytogenetics (Chromosomes study, aberrations and their impact on the apparition of diseases) and genomics (the understand of the structure, organisation and DNA expression) are dedicated to clinical genetics as diagnostic and basic science improvements. The identification of new mechanisms of diseases were responsible for the creation of new tools which allow in turn to precise the intimate and underlying processes of diseases or syndromes. Due to the explosion of findings and research programs on fetal, embryologic and pediatric fields, laboratory and reference centers were build. Any child identified as carrier and/or affected from a pathogenic mutation became the primary step for the development of fetal, prenatal and preimplantatory medicines. Ethics came into play since responsibilities for 'do not harm', 'eugenism' temptations and 'individual life' with respect to medical laws should be guaranteed. These are part of the geneticist tasks and the reasons for professionalisation as for teaching genetics as part of medical traineeships that Paediatrics, among others, represents. The present review will systematically describe the principles of these different genetic fields.

  19. Nutritional disorder of lettuce cv. Veronica in nutrient solution with suppressed macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Batista Firmato de Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is the most popular of the leafy vegetables. It is known worldwide and its consumption occurs mainly in the natural form. The objective was to evaluate the effect of macronutrient omission on the growth and nutritional status of the lettuce cv. Veronica, and to describe the visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency. The treatments complete consisted of the solution and the individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S, under a completely randomized design with three replications. Plants were grown in Hoagland & Arnon, in pots (8L. At 56 days after transplant we evaluated plant height, leaf number, leaf area, SPAD index, dry matter of shoots, roots and whole plant, levels of macronutrients in shoots and roots, and the nature of nutritional disorders. The omission of nutrients affected the growth variables. The nutrients found in lettuce plants from nutrient solution and the complete omission in the shoot were, respectively, N= 23.2 to 9.5, P= 5.4 to 1.3, K= 58,9 to 3.2, Ca= 12.1 to 3.6, Mg= 5.5 to 0.7 and S= 3.2 to 1.5g.kg-1. The omission of macronutrients caused quality losses, since it affected the nutrition of the vegetables and this resulted in morphological changes, reflected as symptoms of deficiency for each nutrient.

  20. Concurrent Treatment of Substance Abuse, Child Neglect, Bipolar Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Domestic Violence: A Case Examination Involving Family Behavior Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue, Brad C.; Romero, Valerie; Herdzik, Karen; LaPota, Holly; Al, Ruwida Abdel; Allen, Daniel N.; Azrin, Nathan H.; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.

    2009-01-01

    High rates of co-occurrence between substance abuse and child neglect have been well documented and especially difficult to treat. As a first step in developing a comprehensive evidence-based treatment for use in this population, the present case examination underscores Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) in the treatment of a mother who evidenced Substance Dependence, child neglect, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, and domestic violence. Utilizing psychometrically validated self...

  1. PREVENTING CHILD AND ADOLESCENT ANXIETY DISORDERS: OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kathryn; Manassis, Katharina; Duda, Stephanie; Bagnell, Alexa; Bernstein, Gail A; Garland, E Jane; Miller, Lynn D; Newton, Amanda; Thabane, Lehana; Wilansky, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    Overviews of systematic reviews (OSRs) provide rapid access to high quality, consolidated research evidence about prevention intervention options, supporting evidence-informed decision-making, and the identification of fruitful areas of new research. This OSR addressed three questions about prevention strategies for child and adolescent anxiety: (1) Does the intervention prevent anxiety diagnosis and/or reduce anxiety symptoms compared to passive controls? (2) Is the intervention equal to or more effective than active controls? (3) What is the evidence quality (EQ) for the intervention? Prespecified inclusion criteria identified systematic reviews and meta-analyses (2000-2014) with an AMSTAR quality score ≥ 3/5. EQ was rated using Oxford evidence levels EQ1 (highest) to EQ5 (lowest). Three reviews met inclusion criteria. One narrative systematic review concluded school-based interventions reduce anxiety symptoms. One meta-analysis pooled 65 randomized controlled trials (RCTs; any intervention) and reported a small, statistically significant reduction in anxiety symptoms and diagnosis incidence. Neither review provided pooled effect size estimates for specific intervention options defined by type (i.e., universal/selective/indicated), intervention content, or comparison group (i.e., passive/active control), thus precluding EQ ratings. One meta-analysis pooled trials of vigorous exercise and reported small, nonstatistically significant reductions in anxiety symptoms for comparisons against passive and active controls (EQ1). Better use of primary studies in meta-analyses, including program-specific pooled effect size estimates and network meta-analysis is needed to guide evidence-informed anxiety prevention program choices. RCTs of innovative community/primary care based interventions and web-based strategies can fill knowledge gaps.

  2. Child-Report of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders: Comparison and Integration with Mother-Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Scharfstein, Lindsay; Jones, Johnna

    2015-08-01

    Reducing family accommodation (FA) may be beneficial in cases of childhood anxiety disorders. Assessment of FA has so far relied on single-informant maternal report, which may be biased by factors including maternal anxiety. We compared child and mother reports of FA, and examined whether maternal anxiety moderates the association between mother and child report. Participants were fifty children with primary DSM-5 anxiety disorders, and their mothers. Mother-child agreement was good for overall FA and moderate for subdomains of FA. Mothers reported significantly more FA than children. Maternal anxiety moderated the association between mother and child report of FA, such that the correlation was stronger in more anxious mothers. Children agreed that FA helps them feel less anxious and did not agree that parents should accommodate less. FA is an important clinical characteristic of childhood anxiety disorders and assessment can be enhanced through child report and consideration of maternal anxiety.

  3. The role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of substance-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of substance-related disorders, a systematic review of the several articles on the childhood sexual abuse-related risk for developing substance problems in adolescence or adulthood is provided. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand-search of reference lists. Six reviews, including 200 studies, were included. Results indicate that child sexual abuse is a statistically significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for substance problems. Other biological and psychosocial variables contribute to substance-related disorders, with sexual abuse conferring additional risk, either as a distal, indirect cause or as a proximal, direct cause. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  4. When the Child is Suspected to Have Autism Spectrum Disorder: Recommendation for Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodina L.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experts in the area of treatment and intervention for autism spectrum disorders provide parents with recommenda¬tions for situations when their children are suspected to have autism or have been diagnosed. These recommenda¬tions are universal and are appropriate for raising a child with any spectrum disorder. Following these recommenda¬tions will allow parents to comprehend the situation with the child’s development, access approaches, that are used by professionals, and will help them to not waste precious time on finding primary information after the diagnosis.

  5. [Treatment of eating disorders in adolescents--the view of a child and adolescence psychiatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ernst; Hansen, Berit; Korte, Alexander; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike

    2005-04-01

    The paper presents--in the sense of clinical guidelines--reality of clinical care in a child and adolescence university hospital specialised on eating disorders. Need of a multimodal therapeutic approach is emphasized, including normalisation of weight and eating behaviour, nursing and pedagogical measures, individual, group and family therapy, completed by body therapy, art and music therapy and in case psychopharmacotherapy. Recommendations for overcoming weak spots are made.

  6. [Treatment of eating disorders in adolescents--the view of a child and adolescence psychiatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ernst; Hansen, Berit; Korte, Alexander; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike

    2005-04-01

    The paper presents--in the sense of clinical guidelines--reality of clinical care in a child and adolescence university hospital specialised on eating disorders. Need of a multimodal therapeutic approach is emphasized, including normalisation of weight and eating behaviour, nursing and pedagogical measures, individual, group and family therapy, completed by body therapy, art and music therapy and in case psychopharmacotherapy. Recommendations for overcoming weak spots are made. PMID:15918540

  7. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  8. Do sack lunches provided by parents meet the nutritional needs of young children who attend child care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Sara J; Briley, Margaret E; Robert-Gray, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in Texas state regulations of child-care foodservice have resulted in more centers halting meal and snack preparation and requiring parents to provide food from home for their children. In the spring of 2006, sack lunches prepared at home for children attending licensed child-care centers were evaluated based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) standards. The study included 3- to 5-year-old children attending full-time child-care centers that required parents to provide lunches. Lunch contents were observed and recorded for 3 consecutive days. A 3-day mean nutrient content was used to determine whether the lunches provided a minimum of 33% of the DRI. The following nutrients were evaluated: energy, carbohydrates, protein, dietary fiber, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin A, calcium, iron, zinc, and sodium. Food items were summarized and compared with CACFP standards. More than 50% of the 3-day means provided less than 33% of the DRIs for energy (n=58), carbohydrate (n=59), vitamin A (n=58), calcium (n=49), iron (n=44), and zinc (n=38). Seventy-one of the 74 children (96%) received less than 33% of the DRI for dietary fiber, yet the mean amount of sodium in observed lunches was 114% of the DRI. The observed lunches did not meet the CACFP standards for servings of fruits and vegetables for 157 (71%) or for servings of milk in 178 (80%). Sack lunches sent from home may not regularly provide adequate nutrients for the growth and development of young children. Nutrition education should be provided to parents to ensure that sack lunches sent from home meet children's nutritional needs. PMID:19103336

  9. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Cerebral Palsy and Down Syndrome: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Safiza Mohamad Nor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, Down Syndrome (DS and Cerebral Palsy (CP are the most common disabilities among children. Nutritional status assessment is important as these children are at risk of underweight, overweight or obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this review were to identify evidence on the prevalence of nutritional status of children with DS, CP and ASD, and to determine tools and indicators to measure the nutritional status of these children. Methods: This scoping review was conducted using a framework suggested by Arksey and O'Maley. A comprehensive search was performed to identify published and unpublished works, reviews, grey literature and reports. Inclusion criteria for the search were articles in English published from 1990 to 2014 and related to children with ASD, DS and CP. Titles, abstract, and keywords for eligibility were examined independently by the researchers. Results: A total of 305,268 titles were extracted from electronic databases and other resources. Based on the inclusion criteria, 21 articles were selected for review. The prevalence of overweight or obese children with DS ranged from 33.5% to 43.5%. The prevalence of underweight children with CP was 22.2% to 78.2%. Children with ASD at a younger age were more likely to be overweight or obese compared with normal developing children. The common nutritional indicators used were z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, body mass index-for-age, and head circumference-for-age. Conclusions: Overall, there is emerging evidence on the nutritional status of children with ASD, DS and CP although this is still very limited in developing countries including Malaysia. The evidence shows that children with CP were at risk of being underweight, while children with DS and ASD were at risk of being overweight or obese.

  10. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  11. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  12. Nutritional disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005177 Prevalence of iron deficiency in pregnant and premenopausal women in China: A nationwide epidemiological survey. LIAO Qing-kui(廖清奎) ,et al. Instit Pediatr Hematol/Oncol, Huaxi 2nd Hosp, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu 610041. Chin J Hematol, 2004;25(11):653-657. Objective: In order to better understand the iron status in pregnant and premenopausal nonpregnant women in China. Methods: A nationwide epidemic-

  13. Nutritional disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930462 Studies on the rare earths content infood and its daily intake in man.SU Dezhao (苏德昭),et al.lnstit Food Safe Contr &.Inspect,Public Health Ministr,Beijing,100021.Chin JPrev Med 1993;27(1):6—8.The rare earths contents of major food in Chi-na,which are distributed over 17 provinces andcities were examined by three—wavelength spec-trophotometry.The rare earths contents werenamed as follows:0.41±0.35mg/kg in grain,0.23±0.18mg/kg in vegetables,0.19±0.11mg/kgin fruits,0.83±0.73mg/kg in beans,0.66±0.50mg/kg in potato,1.76±0.23mg/kg in tea,0.07±0.05mg/kg in meat,domestic fowls and

  14. Nutritional disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009157 Adipokines and highly active antiretroviral therapy related lipodystrophy:clinical study of 52 cases.TAO Meimei(陶梅梅),et al.Dept infect Dis,PUMC Hosp,PUMC & CAMS,Beijing 100730.Natl Med J China,2009;89(13):867-871.

  15. Response inhibition deficits in externalizing child psychiatric disorders: An ERP-study with the Stop-task

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich Hartmut; Brandeis Daniel; Banaschewski Tobias; Albrecht Björn; Rothenberger Aribert

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that impaired motor response inhibition may be common to several externalizing child psychiatric disorders, although it has been proposed to be the core-deficit in AD/HD. Since similar overt behaviour may be accompanied by different covert brain activity, the aim of this study was to investigate both brain-electric-activity and performance measures in three groups of children with externalizing child psychiatric disorders and a gr...

  16. Response inhibition deficits in externalizing child psychiatric disorders: An ERP-study with the Stop-task

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, B.; Banaschewski, T; Brandeis, D.; Heinrich, H.; Rothenberger, A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that impaired motor response inhibition may be common to several externalizing child psychiatric disorders, although it has been proposed to be the core-deficit in AD/HD. Since similar overt behaviour may be accompanied by different covert brain activity, the aim of this study was to investigate both brain-electric-activity and performance measures in three groups of children with externalizing child psychiatric disorders and a group of n...

  17. Child Abuse in Group of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hadianfard, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are very difficult to handle. It can be very frustrating and needs an outstanding tolerance. Behavioral difficulties in ADHD children may increase the risk of child abuse for them. The aim of this research was to compare child abuse, and neglect between ADHD group and normal children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 30 ADHD students (10 girls and 20 boys) were selected from regional mental behavior disord...

  18. The Impact of Nutrition on Child Development at 3 Years in a Rural Community of India

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Sadat Ali; Dhaded; Shivprasad Goudar

    2014-01-01

    Background: In India, child malnutrition is mostly the result of high levels of exposure to infection and inappropriate infant and young child feeding and caring practices and has its origins almost entirely during the first 2 to 3 years of life. This study aims in assessing the impact of breast feeding on child development of children at 3 years. Methods: About 530 children at 3 years were assessed for developmental delay by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Growth measurements and he...

  19. Nutrition and Its Effects on the Hyperkinetic Child's Behavior and Learning: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Roberta L.

    This case study reviews the literature related to diet, behavior and learning and describes procedures and results of a change in the diet of an adolescent girl who had an extensive history of problems at home and at school. Studies of nutritional deficiency, nutritional imbalance, allergies, and synthetic food additives are briefly overviewed.…

  20. An introduction to nutritional treatment in inborn errors of metabolism--different disorders, different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcken, Bridget

    2003-01-01

    Treatment of metabolic disease aims to restore homeostasis, where possible. This can be achieved in a number of ways. For disorders of intermediary metabolism, treatment involves a thorough understanding of the disorder and the pathogenesis of the deleterious effects The various approaches indicated may involve substrate restriction, replacement of deficient products, removal of toxic metabolites or stimulation of residual enzymes. Newer therapies include enzyme replacement and gene therapy. Often, the cornerstone of treatment is dietary. Substrate restriction includes not only a diet low in the substrate indicated by the disorder, but also strict calorie support in times of illness to avoid catabolism. Useful levels of substrate restriction may require the use of supplements of "medical foods", for example amino acid mixtures. Provision of the deficient products is important in disorders affecting energy metabolism. To understand the problems involved in nutritional treatment it is helpful to consider examples of different types of disorders. In Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), treatment with a very strict low-protein diet, supplemented by a branched-chain-free amino acid mixture is successful, but each intercurrent illness is hazardous, regimens for sick days vital, and strict lifelong treatment is needed. Treatment for phenylketonuria is similar in restricting a substrate but there is no tendency for systemic illness if the phenylalanine levels are too high. Disorders of the urea cycle are difficult dietary challenges because while a very low-protein diet is required, no specific amino acid needs to be avoided and there is a fine line between adequate protein intake and chronic catabolism. Fatty acid oxidation disorders affect energy production and can be detected by newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry. For long-chain fatty acid disorders, long chain fats must largely be avoided and medium-chain fats must be substituted while strictly avoiding

  1. Psychometric properties of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Children (KOOS-Child) in children with knee disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortqvist, Maria; Iversen, Maura D; Janarv, Per-Mats;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire for adults with joint injury or degenerative disease. Recent data indicate a lack of comprehensibility when this is used with children. Thus, a preliminary KOOS......-Child was developed. This study aims to evaluate psychometric properties of the final KOOS-Child when used in children with knee disorders. METHODS: 115 children (boys/girls 51/64, 7-16 years) with knee disorders were recruited. All children (n=115) completed the KOOS-Child, the Child-Health Assessment Questionnaire...... to evaluate responsiveness and interpretability. RESULTS: After item reduction, the final KOOS-Child consists of 39 items divided into five subscales. No floor or ceiling effects (≤15%) were found. An exploratory factor analysis on subscale level demonstrated that items in all subscales except for Symptoms...

  2. Reducing stunting by improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition in regions such as South Asia: evidence, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-05-01

    Meeting the high nutrient needs of pregnant and lactating women and their young children in regions such as South Asia is challenging because diets are dominated by staple foods with low nutrient density and poor mineral bioavailability. Gaps in nutritional adequacy in such populations probably date back to the agricultural revolution ~10 000 years ago. Options for improving diets during the first 1000 days include dietary diversification and increased intake of nutrient-rich foods, improved complementary feeding practices, micronutrient supplements and fortified foods or products specifically designed for these target groups. Evidence from intervention trials indicates that several of these strategies, both prenatal and post-natal, can have a positive impact on child growth, but results are mixed and a growth response is not always observed. Nutrition interventions, by themselves, may not result in the desired impact if the target population suffers from frequent infection, both clinical and subclinical. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying both prenatal and post-natal growth restriction. In the meantime, implementation and rigorous evaluation of integrated interventions that address the multiple causes of stunting is a high priority. These intervention packages should ideally include improved nutrition during both pregnancy and the post-natal period, prevention and control of prenatal and post-natal infection and subclinical conditions that restrict growth, care for women and children and stimulation of early child development. In regions such as South Asia, such strategies hold great promise for reducing stunting and enhancing human capital formation.

  3. Nutritional care of the elite child and adolescent athlete: Part II: Special dietary issues and competition nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Hattie

    2009-01-01

    This article (second of two parts) presents a review of literature and resources on special dietary issues and sport performance. Young athletes preparing for competition adopt various dietary plans. Those adopting a vegetarian diet should be screened for possible low energy and specific micronutrient (e.g Fe, Ca, vit B12) intakes which can be avoided with a well-balanced diet and appropriate supplementation. Vegetarianism has also been linked with disordered eating (DE). The prevalence of DE...

  4. Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Subsequent Pregnancy, Child-Birth and Abortion: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Research on teenage pregnancy and abortion has primarily focused on socio-economic disadvantage. However, a few studies suggest that risk of unwanted pregnancy is related to conduct disorder symptoms. We examined the relationship between level of conduct disorder symptoms at age 15 and subsequent pregnancy, child-birth and abortion. A…

  5. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSousa, Diogo Araujo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahao; Isolan, Luciano Rassier; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional community-based study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) to the diagnosis of anxiety disorders (AD). Participants were 119 students aged 9-18. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by a psychiatrist throughout a structural clinical…

  6. Child Behavior Checklist Profiles of Children and Adolescents with and at High Risk for Developing Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Lisa L.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without ("at-risk" or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores greater than or equal to…

  7. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in children exposed prenatally to maternal dental amalgam: the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gene E; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M W; Myers, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg⁰)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg⁰ from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age.

  8. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get nutrition from a special formula through a vein in the ... you can also eat and drink while getting nutrition from TPN. Your nurse will teach you how ...

  9. Parent-child gesture use during problem solving in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Kristen; Winsler, Adam

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between child language skills and parent and child gestures of 58 youths with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Frequencies and rates of total gesture use as well as five categories of gestures (deictic, conventional, beat, iconic, and metaphoric) were reliably coded during the collaborative Tower of Hanoi task. Children with ASD had lower Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores and gestured less and at lower rates compared to typically developing children. Gesture use was unrelated to vocabulary for typically developing children, but positively associated with vocabulary for those with ASD. Demographic correlates of gesturing differed by group. Gesture may be a point of communication intervention for families with children with ASD. PMID:24535577

  10. Capacity building in the health sector to improve care for child nutrition and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Daelmans, Bernadette; Manji, Sheila; Arnold, Caroline; Lingam, Raghu; Muskin, Joshua; Lucas, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions promoting healthy child growth and development depends upon the capacity of the health system to deliver a high-quality intervention. However, few health workers are trained in providing integrated early child-development services. Building capacity entails not only training the frontline worker, but also mobilizing knowledge and support to promote early child development across the health system. In this paper, we present the paradigm shift required to build effective partnerships between health workers and families in order to support children's health, growth, and development, the practical skills frontline health workers require to promote optimal caregiving, and the need for knowledge mobilization across multiple institutional levels to support frontline health workers. We present case studies illustrating challenges and success stories around capacity development. There is a need to galvanize increased commitment and resources to building capacity in health systems to deliver early child-development services.

  11. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; El Hafed Ould Dehah, Cheikh Mohamed

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal). These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November of 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Mauritania were interviewed, and 46 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), management of acute malnutrition, food security, and hygienic practices. Mauritania is on track to reaching the MDG of halving undernutrition among children malnutrition remains high, mortality rates did not decrease as malnutrition rates decreased, the overall prevalence of desirable nutrition-related practices is low, and human resources are reportedly insufficient to carry out all nutrition-related programme activities. Very little nutrition research has been conducted in Mauritania, and key informants identified gaps in adapting international programmes to local needs. Monitoring and evaluation reports have not been rigorous enough to identify which programme activities were implemented as designed or whether programmes were effective at improving nutritional and health status of young children. Therefore, we could not confirm which programmes might have been responsible for the reported improvements, or if other population-wide changes contributed to these changes. The policy framework is supportive of optimal IYCN practices, but greater resources and capacity building are needed to (i) support activities to adapt training materials and programme protocols to fit local needs, (ii) expand and track the implementation of evidence-based programmes nationally, (iii) improve and carry out monitoring and evaluation that identify effective and ineffective programmes, and (iv

  12. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Traut

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD. Design. A retrospective chart study of all patients presenting to a child and adolescent inpatient unit was conducted between 1994-1996. For children and adolescents diagnosed with PTSD; demographic, diagnostic and treatment variables, including trauma type, family history, and delays in treatment seeking, were documented. Setting. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Unit, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town. Subjects. Children and adolescents (2 to 18 years presenting to an inpatient unit (n=737. Results. 10.3% (n=76 met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Gender differences were clearly evident: PTSD was six times more prevalent in girls (65 with PTSD were female and 11 were male; girls were most likely to have experienced rape or sexual abuse while boys were most likely to have witnessed a killing. Psychotherapy was the most common intervention for PTSD, followed by treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant. 97.4% of children and adolescents who were treated demonstrated significant improvement. Delays in seeking treatment and problems with the primary support group were highly prevalent. Conclusion. PTSD is a common disorder that is responsive to treatment with psychotherapy and/or tricyclic antidepressants in child and adolescent inpatients. These findings underscore the importance of early identification and treatment of childhood PTSD in mental health settings, in particular tertiary service institutions.

  13. MedlinePlus: Toddler Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toddler Nutrition -- see more articles Reference Desk Toddler Nutrition and Health Resource List (Department of Agriculture) - PDF Find an ... Related Health Topics Child Nutrition Infant and Newborn Nutrition National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Toddler ...

  14. The impact of nutrition on child development at 3 years in a rural community of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sadat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Breast feeding has a positive effect on the overall development of the child and should be promoted in the present generation. In India, child malnutrition is responsible for a higher percentage of the country′s burden of disease. Undernutrition also affects cognitive and motor development and undermines educational attainment; and ultimately impacts on productivity at work and at home, with adverse implications for income and economic growth.

  15. A Multitrait–Multimethod Analysis of the Construct Validity of Child Anxiety Disorders in a Clinical Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Piacentini, John C.; Langer, David Adam

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic. Parent and child ratings of symptom severity were assessed using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). Diagnostician ratings were obtai...

  16. Parent and Child Agreement for Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychopathology in a Prospective Study of Children and Adolescents Exposed to Single-Event Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…

  17. Child Mortality as Predicted by Nutritional Status and Recent Weight Velocity in Children under Two in Rural Africa.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    WHO has released prescriptive child growth standards for, among others, BMI-for-age (BMI-FA), mid-upper arm circumference-for-age, and weight velocity. The ability of these indices to predict child mortality remains understudied, although growth velocity prognostic value underlies current growth monitoring programs. The study aims were first to assess, in children under 2, the independent and combined ability of these indices and of stunting to predict all-cause mortality within 3 mo, and second, the comparative abilities of weight-for-length (WFL) and BMI-FA to predict short-term (<3 mo) mortality. We used anthropometry and survival data from 2402 children aged between 0 and 24 mo in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo with high malnutrition and mortality rates and limited nutritional rehabilitation. Analyses used Cox proportional hazard models and receiver operating characteristic curves. Univariate analysis and age-adjusted analysis showed predictive ability of all indices. Multivariate analysis without age adjustment showed that only very low weight velocity [HR = 3.82 (95%CI = 1.91, 7.63); P < 0.001] was independently predictive. With age adjustment, very low weight velocity [HR = 3.61 (95%CI = 1.80, 7.25); P < 0.001] was again solely retained as an independent predictor. There was no evidence for a difference in predictive ability between WFL and BMI-FA. This paper shows the value of attained BMI-FA, a marker of wasting status, and recent weight velocity, a marker of the wasting process, in predicting child death using the WHO child growth standards. WFL and BMI-FA appear equivalent as predictors.

  18. 7 CFR 227.37 - State plan for nutrition education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING...) nutrition education of children, (iii) inservice training in nutrition education for teachers; (3) Goals and... advice and recommendations of the National Advisory Council on Child Nutrition, State educational...

  19. The functional brain connectome of the child and autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevel, Katell; Fransson, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Brain connectomics is a relatively new field of research that maps the brain's large-scale structural and functional networks at rest. The connectome of the human brain develops progressively from early infancy to late adolescence, and this review describes the theory behind the concept and its applicability to studying the development and dynamics of brain networks through graph theoretical metrics. We also describe how the brain connectome concept could further our understanding of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) CONCLUSION: Further research into the functional child brain connectome concept could enhance our understanding of atypical brain connectivity patterns presumed to be linked to ASD. PMID:27228241

  20. Zen Shiatsu: A Longitudinal Case Study Measuring Stress Reduction in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that manifests as impairments in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Objective The objective of this study is to determine if Zen Shiatsu can reduce short- and long-term stress levels in a child with ASD. Methods This is a longitudinal case study of a seven-year-old male with a diagnosis of autism who was given 20-min Zen Shiatsu sessions weekly for six consecutive weeks. Using a five-point stress scale des...

  1. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Problems: Effects of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Child Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; John R. Seeley; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2–18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1 grandparents. Results indicated that G1 MDD conferred risk for G2 MDD, but not for G3 CBCL scores. G2 MDD predicted higher G3 Internalizing and Anxious/Depre...

  2. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part II. The vulnerable child syndrome and its relation to parental overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Shonkoff, J P; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C

    1995-08-01

    Parents who are excessively concerned about their child's health are often characterized as being overprotective. We hypothesized that parental overprotection is independent of parental perception of child vulnerability to illness or injury despite their presumed interchangeability. A community-based sample of 892 parents (92% white, 84% married, 88% middle-upper socioeconomic status, 90% mothers) completed a three-part protocol (clinical background data, the Child Vulnerability Scale, and the Parent Protection Scale). Correlates of high parental perception of child vulnerability included a medical condition in the child, a history of life-threatening illness or injury, and the child being seen for a sick visit. Correlates of high parental overprotection included younger age of child and parent. Only 20% of those parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective. PMID:7593660

  3. Farm to School and the Child Nutrition Act: Improving School Meals through Advocating Federal Support for Farm-to-School Programs. Program Results Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James

    2011-01-01

    From 2009 to 2010, the Community Food Security Coalition advocated for more federal support and funding for farm-to-school programs as Congress considered reauthorizing the Child Nutrition Act. Farm-to-school initiatives aim to improve the quality and healthfulness of student meals through the inclusion of more fresh fruits and vegetables provided…

  4. Eating disorder risk, exercise dependence, and body weight dissatisfaction among female nutrition and exercise science university majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Natalie; Gee, David; D’Acquisto, Debra; Ogan, Dana; Pritchett, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Past research has examined eating disorder risk among college students majoring in Nutrition and has suggested an increased risk, while other studies contradict these results. Exercise Science majors, however, have yet to be fully examined regarding their risk for eating disorders and exercise dependence. Based on pressures to fit the image associated with careers related to these two disciplines, research is warranted to examine the potential risk for both eating disorder and exercise dependence. The purpose of this study is to compare eating disorder risk, exercise dependence, and body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) between Nutrition and Exercise Science majors, compared to students outside of these career pathways. Methods Participants (n = 89) were divided into three groups based on major; Nutrition majors (NUTR; n = 31), Exercise Science majors (EXSC; n = 30), and other majors (CON; n = 28). Participants were given the EAT-26 questionnaire and the Exercise Dependence Scale. BWD was calculated as the discrepancy between actual BMI and ideal BMI. Results The majority of participants expressed a desire to weigh less (83%) and EXSC had significantly (p = .03) greater BWD than NUTR. However, there were no significant differences in eating disorder risk or exercise dependence among majors. Discussion and Conclusions This study suggested there was no significant difference in eating disorder risk or exercise dependence between the three groups (NUTR, EXSC, and CON). PMID:26551912

  5. Age-appropriate feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending child welfare clinic at a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar M Lawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ≤12 months and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINITAB ® 12.21 (USA statistical software. Results: All the infants studied were still on breast milk. Most of the mothers demonstrated correct body positioning (89.9 and attachment (78.7% during breastfeeding, and effective suckling was demonstrated in 77.0%. Interestingly, none of the infants was either exclusively breastfed for 6 months or currently on exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, only 64 (58.2% of the 110 infants that were more than 6 months of age had appropriately been started on complementary feeding from 6 months of age. Overall, most caregivers (88.7% had "fair" to "good" infant feeding practices. The practices were significantly associated with their level of education, and their relationship with the infants. Up to 40.0% and 73.7% of the infants had varying degrees of wasting and stunting respectively. Infant feeding practices and the age of the infants emerged as the only factors significantly associated with stunting, while both the caregivers′ practices and age of the infants emerged as significant predictors of wasting in the infants. Conclusion and Recommendations: Barely 3 years to the 2015 target of the millennium development goals (MDGs, infant feeding and nutritional status still poses a serious threat to the dream of realizing the MDG-4. The Ministry of Health and relevant developing partners in this region should as a matter of urgency, formulate and implement a strong community-based public health intervention program to

  6. PREVALENCE OF VARIOUS MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS IN CHILD CARE WORKERS IN DAY CARE SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariet Caroline, MPT,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child care workers are those who take care of children in the absence of their parents. Child care workers are exposed to various kinds of occupational injuries which include infections, sprains and strains, trauma like bites from children, trip falls and noise exposure. The risks of injury among these workers are due to their nature of the job. One of the common occupational risks found in these workers is musculoskeletal injury, it occurs as a result of working in awkward postures such as bending, twisting, lifting and carrying in incorrect positions, which may result in various injuries like strain, sprain and soft tissue ruptures. Workers with poor physical conditioning may tend to undergo these changes very rapidly. The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders in child care workers who are taking care of the babies. The study was conducted around various day care centres, among 160 women from who were chosen for the study and were given musculoskeletal analysis questionnaires (Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire , The Questionnaires were evaluated using descriptive statistics, analysed using SPSS and the results were computed in percentage. Following the analysis, it was concluded that low back injury was predominant among 44% of workers followed by 18% with neck pain, 11% of shoulder pain, 9% of knee pain, 7% of elbow, 6% of wrist, 4% of others and surprisingly 1 % had no musculoskeletal complaints.

  7. Child Abuse and Other Traumatic Experiences, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Health Problems in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Duncan B.; Thatcher, Dawn L.; Martin, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We prospectively examined the health effects of child abuse and other traumatic events, with objective health indicators and consideration of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods Adolescents (n = 668) were recruited from clinical and community sources. At baseline, we examined child abuse and other traumas, AUD, health-related symptoms, physical findings, and blood assays. Subjects were assigned to Trauma Classes (TC), including witnessing violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse....

  8. Delivering Evidence-Based Treatments for Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the Context of Parental ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Christine H.; Mazursky-Horowitz, Heather; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral parent training (BPT) and stimulant medications are efficacious treatments for child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, there is some evidence to suggest that parental ADHD may reduce the effectiveness of both treatment modalities. This review paper summarizes the literature related to the evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatment of child ADHD in the context of parental ADHD. We also review the literature on the effects of treating parents’ ADH...

  9. Women's work in farming, child feeding practices and nutritional status among under-five children in rural Rukwa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordang, Sunniva; Shoo, Tiransia; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Kinabo, Joyce; Wandel, Margareta

    2015-11-28

    Some progress has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Tanzania. In the Rukwa region (2010), the level of stunted and underweight children was 50·4 and 13·5 %, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, feeding practices and risk factors of undernutrition in a rural village in the Rukwa region, as well as to discuss the results in light of a similar study conducted in 1987/1988. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 households with children under 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the child's main caretaker and the household head, using a structured questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall. Children's length/height and weight were measured. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was found to be 63·8 and 33·6 % (Z-scorechild-feeding practices were not in line with WHO recommendations. Women working in farms, food shortage, dry-season cultivation and diseases partly explain the children's poor nutritional status.

  10. Recommendations to USDA for the 2009 Child Nutrition Programs Reauthorization. Testimony 08-337

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagert, Celia

    2008-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the Center for Public Policy Priorities (CPPP) has been a nonpartisan, nonprofit 501(c)(3) research organization committed to improving public policies and private practices to better the economic and social conditions of low- and moderate-income Texans. CPPP believes the upcoming reauthorization of the child nutrition…

  11. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries.

  12. Child Nutritional Status in Poor Ethiopian Households: The role of gender, assets and location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, A.; Bezuayehu, T.O.; Woldehanna, T.; Jones, N.; Seager, J.; Alemu, T.; Asgedom, G.

    2005-01-01

    As one of the poorest countries in the world, Ethiopia¿s rate of child malnutrition is one of the highest, even within sub¿Saharan Africa. The causes and relative importance of various determinants of malnutrition in Ethiopia are not well understood. This paper specifically explores some of the less

  13. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  14. Parental education, gender preferences and child nutritional status: Evidence from four developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Novella, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether the distribution of bargaining power between parents affects permanent and transitory nutritional indicators in the early stages of boys’ and girls’ life. I use the Young Lives sample, which is a survey of young children living in poor households in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh state), Peru and Vietnam. By adopting a methodology to disentangle gender differences produced by technology and preferences, I find evidence that the allocation of household resource...

  15. Dynamics of caste-based deprivation in child under-nutrition in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rudra Narayan Mishra

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional deprivation among Indian children is one of the parameters of underdevelopment mentioned in development discourse in recent times. And such deprivation is more often associated with well known socio-economic indicators of deprivation; prominent among them is caste, which ranks the society into a hierarchy in terms of benefit and welfare. Though caste dimension has been frequently considered as a category of understanding deprivation, it is rare to find explicit disadvantage of cas...

  16. Parent-child parallel nutritional status assessment using silhouette rating scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorga Jagoda B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the validity of silhouettes in assessing genetic factors of obesity in school children aged 12-14. Material and methods 290 primary school students aged 12-14 from Belgrade had undergone body height and weight measurements as well as answering questionnaires. Silhouette rating scales were used to assess the nutritional status of students (6-silhouette scale and their parents (9-silhouette scale. Results Significant differences in body mass index (BMI were found among children whose parents had been rated "normal" and those rated “problematic”. BMI status and gender significantly affected assessment of the nutritional status. An interaction between factors was found (F (1.230 =7.017, p<0.01. The majority of children from the normal BMI category (64.5% selected silhouettes 3 and 4 to describe their current appearance. On the other hand, 70% of children with problematic BMI selected silhouettes 5 and 6. Girls generally selected significantly smaller silhouettes than boys. Girls within the problematic BMI category selected significantly bigger silhouettes for their mother's than the other children. Boys within the normal BMI category, selected significantly bigger silhouettes representing their father’s body size. Discussion According to the results, silhouette rating scales appear to be reliable in parallel assessment of the nutritional status of children and their parents. This subject can be further developed by acquiring data on parents` height and body mass.

  17. Eggs: the uncracked potential for improving maternal and young child nutrition among the world's poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Bunn, David A; Stewart, Christine P

    2014-06-01

    Eggs have been consumed throughout human history, though the full potential of this nutritionally complete food has yet to be realized in many resource-poor settings around the world. Eggs provide essential fatty acids, proteins, choline, vitamins A and B12 , selenium, and other critical nutrients at levels above or comparable to those found in other animal-source foods, but they are relatively more affordable. Cultural beliefs about the digestibility and cleanliness of eggs, as well as environmental concerns arising from hygiene practices and toxin exposures, remain as barriers to widespread egg consumption. There is also regional variability in egg intake levels. In Latin American countries, on average, greater proportions of young children consume eggs than in Asian or African countries. In China and Indonesia, nutrition education and social marketing have been associated with greater amounts of eggs in the diets of young children, though generally, evidence from interventions is minimal. Homestead chicken-and-egg production with appropriate vaccination, extension service, and other supports can simultaneously address poverty and nutrition in very poor rural households. With undernutrition remaining a significant problem in many parts of the world, eggs may be an uncracked part of the solution. PMID:24807641

  18. Reliability and validity of the Norwegian translation of the Child Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Ian; Wisting, Line; Øverås, Maria; Midtsund, Marie; Lask, Bryan

    2011-04-01

    The Child Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE) is a valid and reliable semi-structured interview, which measures eating-disorder specific psychopathology in children and young adolescents. The instrument is an adaptation of version 12.0D of the original Eating Disorder Examination (EDE 12.0) for adults. The Norwegian translation of the ChEDE is currently the only instrument for assessing eating disorder psychopathology in Norwegian children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translation of the ChEDE 12.0. The Norwegian version of ChEDE 12.0 was administered to 15 Norwegian children with anorexia nervosa (AN), 15 children with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM) and two groups of 15 age-matched controls. The groups were compared using a matched pairs design. The results showed that the subscale scores of the AN group were significantly higher than those of the other groups, and the DM comparison group did not differ from its control group. The current AN group scored significantly higher on the Shape Concern subscale than the previous UK sample, with implications for construct validity or cross-cultural effects worthy of further study. Inter-rater reliability was generally high (r=0.91 to 1.00), although there were significant differences between raters on specific items for individual participants. Alpha coefficients for each of the ChEDE subscales indicated a high degree of internal consistency. It was concluded that the Norwegian version of the ChEDE 12 has adequate psychometric properties and can be recommended for clinical and research use with young people with eating disorders in Norway.

  19. Utility of the Child Behavior Checklist as a Screener for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havdahl, K. Alexandra; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine; Bishop, Somer L.

    2016-01-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) has been proposed for screening of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in clinical settings. Given the already widespread use of the CBCL, this could have great implications for clinical practice. This study examined the utility of CBCL profiles in differentiating children with ASD from children with other clinical disorders. Participants were 226 children with ASD and 163 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disability, language disorders, or emotional disorders, aged 2–13 years. Diagnosis was based on comprehensive clinical evaluation including well-validated diagnostic instruments for ASD and cognitive testing. Discriminative validity of CBCL profiles proposed for ASD screening was examined with area under the curve (AUC) scores, sensitivity, and specificity. The CBCL profiles showed low discriminative accuracy for ASD (AUC 0.59–0.70). Meeting cutoffs proposed for ASD was associated with general emotional/behavioral problems (EBP; mood problems/aggressive behavior), both in children with and without ASD. Cutoff adjustment depending on EBP-level was associated with improved discriminative accuracy for school-age children. However, the rate of false positives remained high in children with clinical levels of EBP. The results indicate that use of the CBCL profiles for ASD-specific screening would likely result in a large number of misclassifications. Although taking EBP-level into account was associated with improved discriminative accuracy for ASD, acceptable specificity could only be achieved for school-age children with below clinical levels of EBP. Further research should explore the potential of using the EBP adjustment strategy to improve the screening efficiency of other more ASD-specific instruments. PMID:26140652

  20. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy. PMID:23557321

  1. Stability and change in resolution of diagnosis among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: Child and parental contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirmiya, Nurit; Seidman, Ifat; Koren-Karie, Nina; Oppenheim, David; Dolev, Smadar

    2015-11-01

    The contribution of change over time in parent and child characteristics to parents' resolution of child's diagnosis was examined among 78 mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Children's characteristics (e.g., mental age and severity of symptoms), parental characteristics (e.g., attachment-related anxiety and stress level), and parents' resolution of their child's diagnosis (resolved vs. unresolved) were examined at Time 1, and reassessed 3 years later at Time 2. Results indicated a deferential contribution of change in parent and child characteristics among mothers and fathers. An increase in child symptom severity and in maternal attachment-related anxiety, as well as longer durations of time since receiving the diagnosis, significantly predicted maternal resolved status at Time 2. Conversely, none of the changes in children's or paternal characteristics predicted paternal resolved status at Time 2. Results are discussed in relation to child and parental contributions to resolution, the differences in the adjustment and well-being of mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder, parental growth following receiving the diagnosis, and the need for intervention components specific to parental resolution and attachment-related anxiety.

  2. Anger and parent-to-child aggression in mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, O K; Pilkonis, P A; Kolko, D J

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between anger and parent-to-child aggression (PTCA) was examined in mothers presenting for treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, because parental anger may have adverse effects on children and anger may decrease with treatment. Anger's role as mediator and moderator of the effects of the following predictors on PTCA was assessed: depression, anxiety, and ecologic variables that can induce or buffer against stress (partner verbal aggression, satisfaction with and perceived availability of social support, socioeconomic status, and number of children). Anger was found to mediate the effects of depression, partner verbal aggression, satisfaction with social support, and number of children on PTCA. Anger also had significant effects on PTCA after controlling for these variables. The other predictors did not have effects on PTCA, and anger did not moderate their effects. If replicated, these findings suggest the importance of examining whether treatment to reduce parental anger will reduce PTCA.

  3. Screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders: are subscale scores reliable? A bifactor model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSousa, Diogo Araújo; Zibetti, Murilo Ricardo; Trentini, Clarissa Marceli; Koller, Silvia Helena; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of creating and scoring subscales for the self-report version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) by examining whether subscale scores provide reliable information after accounting for a general anxiety factor in a bifactor model analysis. A total of 2420 children aged 9-18 answered the SCARED in their schools. Results suggested adequate fit of the bifactor model. The SCARED score variance was hardly influenced by the specific domains after controlling for the common variance in the general factor. The explained common variance (ECV) for the general factor was large (63.96%). After accounting for the general total score (ωh=.83), subscale scores provided very little reliable information (ωh ranged from .005 to .04). Practitioners that use the SCARED should be careful when scoring and interpreting the instrument subscales since there is more common variance to them than specific variance.

  4. How parents process child health and nutrition information: A grounded theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate low-income parents' experiences receiving, making meaning of, and applying sociocultural messages about childhood health and nutrition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents from 16 low-income Early Head Start families. Verbatim interview transcripts, observations, field notes, documentary evidence, and follow-up participant checks were used during grounded theory analysis of the data. Data yielded a potential theoretical model of parental movement toward action involving (a) the culture and context influencing parents, (b) parents' sources of social and cultural messages, (c) parental values and engagement, (d) parental motivation for action, (e) intervening conditions impacting motivation and application, and (f) parent action taken on the individual and social levels. Parent characteristics greatly impacted the ways in which parents understood and applied health and nutrition information. Among other implications, it is recommended that educators and providers focus on a parent's beliefs, values, and cultural preferences regarding food and health behaviors as well as his/her personal/family definition of "health" when framing recommendations and developing interventions.

  5. How parents process child health and nutrition information: A grounded theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate low-income parents' experiences receiving, making meaning of, and applying sociocultural messages about childhood health and nutrition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents from 16 low-income Early Head Start families. Verbatim interview transcripts, observations, field notes, documentary evidence, and follow-up participant checks were used during grounded theory analysis of the data. Data yielded a potential theoretical model of parental movement toward action involving (a) the culture and context influencing parents, (b) parents' sources of social and cultural messages, (c) parental values and engagement, (d) parental motivation for action, (e) intervening conditions impacting motivation and application, and (f) parent action taken on the individual and social levels. Parent characteristics greatly impacted the ways in which parents understood and applied health and nutrition information. Among other implications, it is recommended that educators and providers focus on a parent's beliefs, values, and cultural preferences regarding food and health behaviors as well as his/her personal/family definition of "health" when framing recommendations and developing interventions. PMID:26626822

  6. Integrating early child development programs into health and nutrition services in Bangladesh: benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Jena Derakhshani; Nahar, Baitun; Huda, Syed Nazmul; Tofail, Fahmida

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries of the world with the highest population density. The Bangladesh government recognizes the educational and financial benefits of early childhood development (ECD) and has incorporated ECD into the national plan of action. However, ECD activities are not fully established in the country and there have been few evaluations. In this paper, we present ECD programs that are integrated into health and nutrition services in Bangladesh. We present four evaluation reports of such programs and we also include seven published research projects showing evidence that such integrations are feasible. We provide short reviews on coverage, methodology, and effects of the published reports and share our experience of challenges faced and steps taken to solve them. Overall, very few programs are based on scientific evidence and fewer are even evaluated. The research projects so far conducted are promising and there is sufficient evidence on feasibility of integrating ECD activities into nutrition and health programs. Suggestions are made on measures to overcome the implementation problems and on suitable methods to establish high-quality ECD programs in Bangladesh and in other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24571219

  7. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling.

  8. The process of assisting behavior modification in a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Shih, Ying-Ling

    2007-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disease among children. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of assisting with behavior modification in a child with ADHD. The patient had undergone medical treatment for a year with no obvious effect. With the guidance of other professional people, the child's teachers and nursing instructors, the researchers proceeded with behavioral modification in conjunction with medication for another year. The medication treatment followed doctors' prescriptions, and, as regards the behavioral treatment, doctors and experts drafted and decided the content of the behavioral contract. The main basic techniques were skillful reinforcement and punishment. Then, via interviews with his parents and teachers, information was obtained that provided an understanding of the patient's condition and progress. It was found that the improvements were very significant. On the basis of the research results, the researchers submit that: (1) drug treatment combined with behavioral treatment apparently improves the daily behaviors of hyperactive children; (2) good communication with parents and psychological preparation are the most critical keys to the success of substantial behavioral improvement among hyperactive children; (3) establishment and integration of social resources, including provision of transitional parenting education solutions, and cooperation and sound interaction from school teachers, which fosters consolidated team work, are the critical factors to behavioral improvement among hyperactive children.

  9. Sketching to Remember: Episodic Free Recall Task Support for Child Witnesses and Victims with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Dando, Coral J.; Ormerod, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in episodic free-recall memory performance have been reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet best practice dictates that child witness/victim interviews commence with a free-recall account. No "tools" exist to support children with ASD to freely recall episodic information. Here, the efficacy of a novel…

  10. Maternal Parenting Styles and Mother-Child Relationship among Adolescents with and without Persistent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD…

  11. The Relationship between Clinicians' Confidence and Accuracy, and the Influence of Child Characteristics, in the Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Nevill, Rose; Uljarevic, Mirko; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the confidence accuracy relationship, and the influence of child characteristics on clinician confidence, when predicting a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder during screening of 125 referred children aged under 3.5 years. The diagnostic process included observation, interview, language and developmental testing. Clinical…

  12. Maternal Parenting Behavior and Child Behavior Problems in Families of Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,…

  14. Learning the Dance of Connection: Helping a Foster Mother and a Child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnegar, Zohreh

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol results in complex problems for the developing child, some of which are long lasting, and may be irreversible. The earlier the intervention, the higher the probability of a positive outcome. In this article, the author illustrates the complex challenges stemming from Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and how a…

  15. Resolution of the Diagnosis among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Associations with Child and Parent Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milshtein, Shahaf; Yirmiya, Nurit; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Levi, Shlomit

    2010-01-01

    Resolution with the diagnosis of one's child involves coming to terms with and accepting the diagnosis and its implications. Parental resolution with the diagnosis was examined among 61 mothers and 60 fathers of 61 children with autism spectrum disorders aged 2-17 years. We investigated resolution rates and subtypes, and associations between…

  16. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Child and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    While a plethora of cognitive behavioral empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are available for treating child and adolescent anxiety and depressive disorders, research has shown that these are not as effective when implemented in routine practice settings. Research is now indicating that is partly due to ineffective EST training methods,…

  17. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, I. S.; Horwood, L. J.; Fergusson, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which...... positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate the risk of later internalising disorders amongst children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal using data from a 30 years longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort. The findings of this study showed that: (a) increasing rates of early...... anxiety/withdrawal were associated with an increased risk of later anxiety and depression; (b) positive parent-child attachment in adolescence was associated with a decline in the risk of later anxiety and depression; and (c) these associations persisted even after controlling for confounding factors...

  18. Factors associated with functioning style and coping strategies of families with a child with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J; Bailey, Susan R; Pearce, Julian C

    2005-05-01

    A survey of parents/caregivers of a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was conducted to examine the relationship between ASD characteristics, family functioning and coping strategies. Having a child with ASD places considerable stress on the family. Primary caregivers of a child with ASD from a regional and rural area in Victoria, Australia (N = 53) were surveyed concerning their child with ASD, family functioning (adaptability and cohesion), marital satisfaction, self-esteem and coping strategies. Results suggest that these caregivers had healthy self-esteem, although they reported somewhat lower marital happiness, family cohesion and family adaptability than did norm groups. Coping strategies were not significant predictors of these outcome variables. Results highlight the need for support programmes to target family and relationship variables as well as ASD children and their behaviours, in order to sustain the family unit and improve quality of life for parents and caregivers as well as those children. PMID:15857858

  19. Factors associated with functioning style and coping strategies of families with a child with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J; Bailey, Susan R; Pearce, Julian C

    2005-05-01

    A survey of parents/caregivers of a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was conducted to examine the relationship between ASD characteristics, family functioning and coping strategies. Having a child with ASD places considerable stress on the family. Primary caregivers of a child with ASD from a regional and rural area in Victoria, Australia (N = 53) were surveyed concerning their child with ASD, family functioning (adaptability and cohesion), marital satisfaction, self-esteem and coping strategies. Results suggest that these caregivers had healthy self-esteem, although they reported somewhat lower marital happiness, family cohesion and family adaptability than did norm groups. Coping strategies were not significant predictors of these outcome variables. Results highlight the need for support programmes to target family and relationship variables as well as ASD children and their behaviours, in order to sustain the family unit and improve quality of life for parents and caregivers as well as those children.

  20. Accelerating improvements in nutritional and health status of young children in the Sahel region of Sub-Saharan Africa: review of international guidelines on infant and young child feeding and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Hess, Sonja Y; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-04-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child holds governments responsible to ensure children's right to the highest attainable standard of health by providing breastfeeding support, and access to nutritious foods, appropriate health care, and clean drinking water. International experts have identified key child care practices and programmatic activities that are proven to be effective at reducing infant and young child undernutrition, morbidity, and mortality. Nevertheless, progress towards reducing the prevalence of undernutrition has been sporadic across countries of the Sahel sub-region of Sub-Saharan Africa. In view of this uneven progress, a working group of international agencies was convened to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel.' The first step towards this goal was to organize a situational analysis of the legislative, research, and programmatic activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) in six countries of the sub-region: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal. The purposes of this introductory paper are to review current information concerning the nutritional and health status of infants and young children in the Sahel and to summarize international guidelines on optimal IYCN practices. These guidelines were used in completing the above-mentioned situational analyses and encompass specific recommendations on: (i) breastfeeding (introduction within the first hour after birth, exclusivity to 6 months, continuation to at least 24 months); (ii) complementary feeding (introduction at 6 months, use of nutrient dense foods, adequate frequency and consistency, and responsive feeding); (iii) prevention and/or treatment of micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin A, zinc, iron and anaemia, and iodine); (iv) prevention and/or treatment of acute malnutrition; (v) feeding practices adapted to the maternal situation to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV; (vi) activities to ensure food

  1. Seasonality of Food Supply, Coping Strategies and Child Nutritional Outcome in Sabatia-Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A. Ayieko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Kenya. Samples of children and caregivers were selected using the EPI method. Food vendors and procurement strategy, demographic and socio-economic indicators of household were analyzed. A social economic index was derived. To understand the association between D ietary D iversity Score and mean anthropometric indices, confounding factors were identified on the basis of the UNICEF conceptual model of causes of malnutrition. A stepwise testing of confounders was done systematically resulting in a final m ultivariate model of regression on the mean nutritional indices. Only 32.8% were able to produce enough to last a year, most households did not meet their dietary needs. 48% of the households received food remittance as supplementary. Coping strategies within households were identified based on their frequency of occurrence. The observed poor breastfeeding beyond infancy underscores the need to stress on the contribution and benefits of breastfeeding to children, communities, and health system s. Dietary diversity positively correlated to household food availability. Increased consumption of common staples negatively correlated to food availability and dietary diversity. Stepw ise regression identified access to roots and tubers, legumes and pulses, and carbonated drinks as the main determinants of food procurement and availability. Study shows that food production in households cannot meet food needs of even an area w ith adequate rainfall patterns. Low levels of education, employment and income observed among female caregivers constrain household purchasing power and knowledge required to select nutritious foods. Thus, empowering the women has far reaching benefits for nutritional outcomes of children.

  2. Setting global research priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM): Results from a CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Kerri Wazny; Salim Sadruddin; Alvin Zipursky; Davidson H Hamer; Troy Jacobs; Karin Kallander; Franco Pagnoni; Stefan Peterson; Shamim Qazi; Serge Raharison; Kerry Ross; Mark Young; Marsh, David R

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM). METHODS: An iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG) identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked us...

  3. Mainstreaming nutrition into maternal and child health programmes: scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Nita; Kabir, A K M Iqbal; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2008-04-01

    Interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding have been estimated to have the potential to prevent 13% of all under-5 deaths in developing countries and are the single most important preventive intervention against child mortality. According to World Health Organization and United Nations Children Funds (UNICEF), only 39% infants are exclusively breastfed for less than 4 months. This review examines programme efforts to scale up exclusive breastfeeding in different countries and draws lesson for successful scale-up. Opportunities and challenges in scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding into Maternal and Child Health programmes are identified. The key processes required for exclusive breastfeeding scale-up are: (1) an evidence-based policy and science-driven technical guidelines; and (2) an implementation strategy and plan for achieving high exclusive breastfeeding rates in all strata of society, on a sustainable basis. Factors related to success include political will, strong advocacy, enabling policies, well-defined short- and long-term programme strategy, sustained financial support, clear definition of roles of multiple stakeholders and emphasis on delivery at the community level. Effective use of antenatal, birth and post-natal contacts at homes and through community mobilization efforts is emphasized. Formative research to ensure appropriate intervention design and delivery is critical particularly in areas with high HIV prevalence. Strong communication strategy and support, quality trainers and training contributed significantly to programme success. Monitoring and evaluation with feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to very high coverage. Legal framework must make it possible for mothers to exclusively breastfeed for at least 4 months. Sustained programme efforts are critical to achieve high coverage and this requires strong national- and state-level leadership.

  4. Pre-treatment child and family characteristics as predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for youth anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, Irene; Hougaard, Esben; Thastum, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for children and adolescents (6-18 years) with anxiety disorders, but the non-response rate is high-a fact that may argue for the importance of studies on pre-treatment characteristics of children and their families...... that predict treatment outcome. AIMS: To provide a systematic review of clinical and demographic pre-treatment child and family predictors of treatment outcome in CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted based on electronic databases (PsycINFO, Embase and Pub......-treatment child and family predictors of outcome in CBT for youth anxiety disorders have until now resulted in few findings of clinical or theoretical significance....

  5. [Guiltless guilty--trauma-related guilt and posttraumatic stress disorder in former Ugandan child soldiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Fionna; Schrage, Jana; Post, Manuela; Adam, Hubertus

    2011-01-01

    Despite international bans, more than 250,000 children and adolescents are exploited as soldiers worldwide, almost half of them in Africa. These children are exposed to a tremendous amount of violence and are often forced to commit atrocities themselves. In the present study, 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age: 11-17, female: 48.5%) were interviewed regarding traumatic experiences, trauma-related guild, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Affective and cognitive aspects of guilt were assessed with the Trauma-related Guilt Inventory (TRGI) and PTSD with a diagnostic interview (MINI-KID). Children had been abducted at a mean age of 10.75 years and served for an average period of 19.81 months. They were exposed to numerous traumatic experiences during abduction, e. g., 86.4% were exposed to killings, 87.9% were threatened with death, 52.6% were forced to kill another person, and 25.8% were raped. Diagnostic criteria for PTSD were fulfilled by 33% of the children. Higher guilt cognitions were significantly related to posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study has implications for the development of clinical interventions for war-affected children. PMID:21425638

  6. Effect of a child care center-based obesity prevention program on body mass index and nutrition practices among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Asfour, Lila; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention program on changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and nutrition practices. Eight child care centers were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control arm. Participants were a multiethnic sample of children aged 2 to 5 years old (N = 307). Intervention centers received healthy menu changes and family-based education focused on increased physical activity and fresh produce intake, decreased intake of simple carbohydrate snacks, and decreased screen time. Control centers received an attention control program. Height, weight, and nutrition data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Analysis examined height, weight, and BMI z-score change by intervention condition (at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months). Pearson correlation analysis examined relationships among BMI z-scores and home activities and nutrition patterns in the intervention group. Child BMI z-score was significantly negatively correlated with the number of home activities completed at 6-month post intervention among intervention participants. Similarly, intervention children consumed less junk food, ate more fresh fruits and vegetables, drank less juice, and drank more 1% milk compared to children at control sites at 6 months post baseline. Ninety-seven percent of those children who were normal weight at baseline were still normal weight 12 months later. Findings support child care centers as a promising setting to implement childhood obesity prevention programs in this age group.

  7. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on 'Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition' held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers

  8. Early-adult outcome of child and adolescent mental disorders as evidenced by a national-based case register survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie; Caffo, Ernesto;

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders show varying degrees of continuity from childhood to adulthood. This study addresses the relationship of child and adolescent mental disorders to early adult psychiatric morbidity. Methods From a population at risk of 830,819 children and adolescents aged 6–16 years, we...... selected all those (n = 6043) who were enrolled for the first time in the Danish Psychiatric Register with an ICD-10 F00–99 diagnosis in 1995–1997, and identified any mental disorder for which they received treatment up to 2009. Results Neurodevelopmental and conduct disorders were the principal diagnostic...... groups at 6–16 years and exhibited a characteristic male preponderance; while affective, eating, neurotic, stress-related and adjustment disorders were more common in girls. Over a mean follow-up period of 10.1 years, 1666 (27.6%) cases, mean age 23.4 years, were referred for treatment to mental health...

  9. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Karen F

    2010-10-01

    scale, had adverse premenstrual symptoms or were peri-menopausal, reported anxiety and insomnia, or had one month or more of elevated generalized anxiety. Heterogeneity and the small number of studies for each supplement or combination therapy prevented a formal meta-analysis. Of the randomized controlled trials reviewed, 71% (15 out of 21 showed a positive direction of evidence. Any reported side effects were mild to moderate. Conclusions Based on the available evidence, it appears that nutritional and herbal supplementation is an effective method for treating anxiety and anxiety-related conditions without the risk of serious side effects. There is the possibility that any positive effects seen could be due to a placebo effect, which may have a significant psychological impact on participants with mental disorders. However, based on this systematic review, strong evidence exists for the use of herbal supplements containing extracts of passionflower or kava and combinations of L-lysine and L-arginine as treatments for anxiety symptoms and disorders. Magnesium-containing supplements and other herbal combinations may hold promise, but more research is needed before these products can be recommended to patients. St. John's wort monotherapy has insufficient evidence for use as an effective anxiolytic treatment.

  10. Behavioral Couples Treatment for Substance Use Disorder: Secondary Effects on the Reduction of Risk for Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Braitman, Abby L; Lawless, Adrienne K; Lawrence, Hannah R

    2016-03-01

    Risk for child abuse was examined prior to and after behavioral couples treatment (BCT) among 61 couples in which one or both parents were diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD). All couples were residing with one or more school-age children. Mothers and fathers completed pretreatment, post-intervention, and 6-month post-intervention follow-up assessments. Results of piecewise latent growth models tested whether the number of BCT sessions attended and number of days abstinent from drugs and alcohol influenced relationship satisfaction and its growth over time, and in turn if relationship satisfaction and change in relationship satisfaction influenced risk for child abuse. For both mothers and fathers, attending more BCT sessions lead to a direct increase in relationship satisfaction, which in turn led to stronger reductions in risk for child abuse. This effect was maintained from the post-intervention through the 6-month post-intervention follow-up. For fathers, number of days abstinent significantly influenced reduction in child abuse potential at post-intervention via relationship satisfaction. This indirect effect was not present for mothers. The overall benefits of BCT on mothers' and fathers' risk for child abuse suggest that BCT may have promise in reducing risk for child abuse among couples in which one or both parents have SUD.

  11. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get ...

  12. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42% and 180 females (58%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p Conclusions The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  13. Correlates of Accommodation of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Parent, Child, and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Langley, Audra; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    The article examines family's involvement in child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in relation to parent-, child- and family-level correlates. Results suggest that greater parental involvement in OC symptoms results in higher levels of child symptom severity and higher level of parental anxiety and hostility.

  14. Successful child psychotherapy of attention deficit/hyperactive disorder: an agitated depression explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitler, Burton Norman

    2008-09-01

    Science tries to explain phenomena in ways that are demonstrable and replicable to develop logical, coherent, parsimonious, and predictive theoretical systems. Yet hyperactive children are given stimulants to "calm" them down, despite the fact that science would predict stimulants would increase hyperactivity. Bradley (1937, 1950) observed that half of the behavior-problem children to whom he administered a stimulant for one week became subdued. He called this finding paradoxical, speculating that inhibitory centers of the central nervous system were stimulated. While Bradley's assertion of a paradoxical reverse effect in children may be an empirical observation, it is not an explanation. The Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is inferred to exist from hyperactive behavior, which in turn, is inferred to be neurological in origin, a circular argument. An inevitable consequence of the belief in the hypothetical neurological etiology of ADHD is that children are typically given stimulants. Using the case of a seven-year old child, described as experiencing ADHD, who was treated successfully without medication as an illustration, the author provides an alternative, more parsimonious explanation of the etiology, suggesting that ADHD is related to agitated depression. PMID:18756317

  15. Can i have a second child? dilemmas of mothers of children with pervasive developmental disorder: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Omiya Tomoko; Mochizuki Mieko; Yamazaki Yoshihiko; Kimura Miyako

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) has an uncertain etiology, no method of treatment, and results in communication deficiencies and other behavioral problems. As the reported recurrence risk is 5%-10% and there are no methods of either prevention or prenatal testing, mothers of PDD children may face unique challenges when contemplating second pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to explore the mothers' lived experiences of second child-related decision-making aft...

  16. Psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: risk factors and associations with birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Koen, Nastassja; Brittain, Kirsty; Donald, Kirsten A; Barnett, Whitney; Koopowitz, Sheri; Maré, Karen; Zar, Heather J; Stein,Dan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal–fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition.Objective: We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their association with adverse birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a South African birth cohort study.Methods: Pregnant women were recrui...

  17. Associations between Parental Anxiety/Depression and Child Behavior Problems Related to Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Roles of Parenting Stress and Parenting Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Rezendes, Debra L.; Angela Scarpa

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been shown to experience increases in stress, depression, and anxiety, which are also associated with child behavior problems related to ASDs. Literature-examining potential mechanisms that underlie the relationship of child behavior problems and parental anxiety/depression in this population are scarce. The current study sought to examine the roles of parenting stress and parenting self-efficacy as mediators between child behavio...

  18. Transitioning to new child-care nutrition policies: nutrient content of preschool menus differs by presence of vegetarian main entrée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Hales, Sarah B; Baum, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Children who attend child care outside the home may be at increased risk for developing obesity. In 2012, the South Carolina ABC Child Care program issued new standards for food and nutrition. The goal of our study (conducted June to December 2012) was to examine changes that occurred at a large, Columbia, SC, preschool during the implementation of the South Carolina ABC Child Care program standards using an observational design, including a survey of parents and nutrient analysis of menus. The nutrition content of menu items before (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) and after (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) implementation of the new standards was compared. In addition, parents (N=75) were surveyed to examine opinions and support for the changes. Independent samples t tests were used to compare nutrient values before and after menu changes and analysis of variance was used to compare pre- and post-change vegetarian menus and pre- and post-change nonvegetarian menus. There were no significant differences between before and after menus with the exception of a 0.3 cup/day increase in vegetables (PVegetarian menus after the revisions were significantly higher in fiber (13 ± 3 g) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (11 ± 3 g; Pvegetarian menu items has the potential to improve the nutrient content of menus while keeping energy intake, saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol levels at a more optimum level.

  19. The Impact of Interrupted Use of a Speech Generating Device on the Communication Acts of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Richard A.; Pulliam, Mary Hannah; Catt, Merrill; McDaniel, D. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined the initial and renewed impact of speech generating devices on the expressive communication behaviors of a child with autism spectrum disorder. The study spanned six years of interrupted use of two speech generating devices. The child's communication behaviors were analyzed from video recordings and included communication…

  20. Maternal eating disorder and infant diet. A latent class analysis based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    OpenAIRE

    Torgersen, Leila; Ystrom, Eivind; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Berg, Cecilie Knoph; Zerwas, Stephanie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of infant diet and feeding practices among children of mothers with eating disorders is essential to promote healthy eating in these children. This study compared the dietary patterns of 6-month-old children of mothers with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified - purging subtype, to the diet of children of mothers with no eating disorders. The study was based on 53,879 mothers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort St...

  1. Nonconsensual withdrawal of nutrition and hydration in prolonged disorders of consciousness: authoritarianism and trustworthiness in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2014-11-07

    The Royal College of Physicians of London published the 2013 national clinical guidelines on prolonged disorders of consciousness (PDOC) in vegetative and minimally conscious states. The guidelines acknowledge the rapidly advancing neuroscientific research and evolving therapeutic modalities in PDOC. However, the guidelines state that end-of-life decisions should be made for patients who do not improve with neurorehabilitation within a finite period, and they recommend withdrawal of clinically assisted nutrition and hydration (CANH). This withdrawal is deemed necessary because patients in PDOC can survive for years with continuation of CANH, even when a ceiling on medical care has been imposed, i.e., withholding new treatment such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation for acute life-threatening illness. The end-of-life care pathway is centered on a staged escalation of medications, including sedatives, opioids, barbiturates, and general anesthesia, concurrent with withdrawal of CANH. Agitation and distress may last from several days to weeks because of the slow dying process from starvation and dehydration. The potential problems of this end-of-life care pathway are similar to those of the Liverpool Care Pathway. After an independent review in 2013, the Department of Health discontinued the Liverpool Care pathway in England. The guidelines assert that clinicians, supported by court decisions, have become the final authority in nonconsensual withdrawal of CANH on the basis of "best interests" rationale. We posit that these guidelines lack high-quality evidence supporting: 1) treatment futility of CANH, 2) reliability of distress assessment from starvation and dehydration, 3) efficacy of pharmacologic control of this distress, and 4) proximate causation of death. Finally, we express concerns about the utilitarian-based assessment of what constitutes a person's best interests. We are disturbed by the level and the role of medical authoritarianism institutionalized by these

  2. Parent-Child Agreement Using the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and a Thermometer in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD experience high anxiety which often prompts clinical referral and requires intervention. This study aimed to compare parent and child reports on the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS and a child-reported “worry thermometer” in 88 children aged 8–13 years, 44 with ASD and 44 age, gender, and perceptual IQ matched typically developing children. There were no gender differences in child report on the SCAS and worry thermometers. Results indicated generally good correlations between parent and child self-reported SCAS symptoms for typically developing children but poor agreement in parent-child ASD dyads. The worry thermometer child-report did not reflect child or parent reports on the SCAS. Findings suggest 8–13-year-old children with ASD may have difficulties accurately reporting their anxiety levels. The clinical implications were discussed.

  3. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  4. Child health promotion program in South Korea in collaboration with US National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Improvement in dietary and nutrition knowledge of young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjung; Kim, JiEun; Min, Jungwon; Carvajal, Nubia A.; Lloyd, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. Development of effective and sustainable programs to promote healthy behaviors from a young age is important. This study developed and tested an intervention program designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity among young children in South Korea by adaptation of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mission X (MX) Program. SUBJECTS/METHODS The intervention program consisted of 4 weeks of fitness and 2 weeks of nutrition education. A sample of 104 subjects completed pre- and post-surveys on the Children's Nutrition Acknowledgement Test (NAT). Parents were asked for their children's characteristics and two 24-hour dietary records, the Nutrition Quotient (NQ) at baseline and a 6-week follow-up. Child weight status was assessed using Korean body mass index (BMI) percentiles. RESULTS At baseline, 16.4% (boy: 15.4%; girl: 19.2%) of subjects were overweight or obese (based on BMI≥85%tile). Fat consumption significantly decreased in normal BMI children (48.6 ± 16.8 g at baseline to 41.9 ± 18.1 g after intervention, P NASA MX project is feasible and shows favorable changes in eating behaviors and nutritional knowledge among young children. PMID:27698964

  5. A Historical Review of Changes in Nutrition Standards of USDA Child Meal Programs Relative to Research Findings on the Nutritional Adequacy of Program Meals and the Diet and Nutritional Health of Participants: Implications for Future Research and the Summer Food Service Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Hopkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The USDA child meal programs (CMPs (National School Lunch Program (NSLP, School Breakfast Program (SBP, and Summer Food Service Program (SFSP were established in 1946 (NSLP and 1975 (SBP and SFSP to improve the diet and nutritional health of US children. There is concern that participation in these programs may in fact be a contributor to the current childhood obesity epidemic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if the CMPs are meeting their intended goal by reviewing the historical changes to nutrition standards of the CMPs in correspondence with the literature that examines the nutritional adequacy of meals served as part of these programs, as well as the dietary intakes and nutritional status of participants. Methods: Public Law and the Federal Register were reviewed and websites and online databases were systematically searched. Results: NSLP and SBP first underwent updates to the nutrition standards in 1994 and subsequently 2010, whereas SFSP last underwent modifications in 2000. The majority of data, all collected prior to 2010, demonstrate that meals served as part of the NSLP and SBP are not meeting nutrition standards. In addition, the dietary intakes of NSLP and SBP participants are high in calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and low in fiber. Studies examining the weight status and other nutrition-related health outcomes of NSLP and SBP participants have produced mixed results. In contrast, no studies published in the peer-reviewed literature have been conducted examining the nutritional adequacy of SFSP meals or the dietary intakes or nutritional health of SFSP participants. There are public reports available on the nutritionally adequacy of SFSP meals, however, they are severely outdated (1988 and 2003. Due to this dearth of information, a case study on a sample SFSP menu from summer 2015 was conducted; results showed that the meals are high in carbohydrate and protein content and insufficient in

  6. Soporte nutricional en el lactante y niño menor de 3 años Nutritional support in the infant and child under 3 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. García Calatayud

    2012-01-01

    ages. Medical assessment in these cases must start from a clinical history, a dietary assessment and physical examination considering the need for additional tests. Poor food intake, physical illness, problems in caregiver-child interaction and growth problems or malnutrition must be identified. The basis of the treatment of these problems are nutritional support, treatment of eating disorders and treatment of specific nutritional deficiencies. Nutritional support begins with a clinical assessment and will consist of improvements of oral intake, evaluating the indication for enteral feeding via nasogastric or gastrostomy and using nutritional supplements or complete enteral diets. The treatment of eating disorders starts valuing the knowledge about food and nutrition in caregivers, encouraging and instructing them in conflict situations. However, sometimes multidisciplinary approach will be necessary.

  7. Validity of the OSU Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale and the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality with Child Tornado Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linda Garner; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Tornadoes and other natural disasters can lead to anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. This study provides further validity for the Oklahoma State University Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-Child Form (OSU PTSDS-CF) by comparing it to the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP).…

  8. A Meta-Analysis of the Cross-Cultural Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, William W.; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Accumulating studies have demonstrated that the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), a modern youth anxiety questionnaire with scales explicitly designed to map onto specific DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders, has good psychometric properties for children and adolescents from various countries. However, no study has…

  9. The Experience of Mothers and Teachers of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Children, and Their Management Practices for the Behaviors of the Child a Descriptive Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazni, Lubna; Alkaissi, Aidah

    2016-01-01

    ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a childhood disorder affecting children worldwide and has a major burden on the child, family and other caregivers. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate and describe the experience of the adults that interact on a daily basis with school-aged children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity…

  10. Child Behavior Checklist-Mania Scale (CBCL-MS) : Development and Evaluation of a Population-Based Screening Scale for Bipolar Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachristou, Efstathios; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Kyriakopoulos, Marinos; Reinares, Maria; Reichenberg, Abraham; Frangou, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Early identification of Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poor despite the high levels of disability associated with the disorder. Objective: We developed and evaluated a new DSM orientated scale for the identification of young people at risk for BD based on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)

  11. Classroom Management of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. A Storied Model: Torey Hayden's One Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; Disney, Gayle; Wilson, Kayce Jo

    2004-01-01

    Torey Hayden's style of classroom management in her nonfiction book "One Child" was examined. "One Child" unfolds within the space of a special education classroom for children with severe behavioral impairments and focuses on Sheila, a troubled 6-year-old, who has tied a 3-year-old boy to a tree and critically burned him. Each technique Hayden…

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Chiari 1 Malformation Co-occurring in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Ferdnand C; Amalraj, Benedict; Noveloso, Bernard D; Aikoye, Salisu A; Bradley, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Very few studies have shown associations between autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Chiari 1 malformation. Here, we report an 10-year-old male that presented after having seizures with a history of Chiari 1 malformation, autism spectrum disorder and ADHD with moderate mental retardation and speech delay. This case highlights the fact that autism spectrum disorder as biologically based neurodevelopmental disorder with altered brain growth may be associated with Chiari 1 malformation and ADHD. PMID:27050897

  13. The management of dental fracture on tooth 61 in a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veranica Veranica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often characterized as a neurobehavioral developmental disorder, impaired concentration, impaired motor skills, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, and also diagnosed as psychiatric disorders. Children with ADHD would have a tendency of the traumatized anterior teeth because of their hyperactive behavior. Dental trauma is actually one of factors causing the damages of the deciduous teeth and the permanent teeth. Dental and mouth care for children with special needs, such as children with ADHD, requires special treatment. Purpose: This study is aimed to report the case management of the dental fracture of the tooth 61 in a child with ADHD. Case: A four-year old girl suffered from both ADHD and dental fracture involving the dentin of the tooth 61. Case management: The examination of the patient with dental fracture consists of emergency examination and further investigation. The emergency examination covers general condition and clinical situation. Based on the dental radiographic assessment, it is known that the dental fracture of the tooth 61 had involved the dentine, the resorption had reached 1/3 of the apical teeth and the permanent teeth had been formed. The application of calcium hydroxide on the opened dentin is aimed to improve the formation of the secondary dentin served as pulp protector. Next, the restoration of the traumatized teeth used compomer since it does not only meet all the aesthetic requirements, but it also releases fluoride. Management of the patient’s behavior with ADHD was conducted by non-pharmacological method; tell show do (TSD method combined with restrain method. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the application of calcium hydroxide and the restoration of the teeth with compomer could provide maximum results through the combination of TSD and restrain methods that can effectively increase the positive value to replace the negative behaviors that have been

  14. On the nutrition and health of infant and young child%论当前的婴幼儿营养与保健研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚清

    2013-01-01

    婴幼儿时期的营养与保健是孩子健康成长的重要组成部分,婴幼儿时期的营养问题可能会导致儿童不可逆转的生长和认知发育迟缓,以及近期和远期的不良后果。因此,当前婴幼儿营养与保健问题成为家长普遍关注的话题。其中母乳喂养和合理的添加辅助食品是预防儿童营养不良的重要举措。本文将分析当前婴幼儿营养与保健方面存在的问题,进而提出婴幼儿营养与保健的方法。%The nutrition and health of infant period is an important part of the healthy growth of children, nutritional problems of infants and young children may lead to irreversible growth and cognitive retardation, and short-term and long-term adverse consequences. Therefore, the current problems of infant nutrition and health has become a topic of common concern of parents. The breastfeeding and to add supplementary food reasonably are important measure to prevent child malnutrition. This article will analyze the existing problems of nutrition and health of infants, and then put forward the method of nutrition and health of infants and young children.

  15. The Child Behavior Checklist as an indicator of posttraumatic stress disorder and dissociation in normative, psychiatric, and sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Leslie; Friedrich, William N; Davies, W Hobart; Trentham, Bart; Lengua, Liliana; Pithers, William

    2005-12-01

    Expert ratings and confirmatory factor analyses were used to derive a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dissociation, and a combined PTSD/dissociation scale from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Validity was established by examining the relationship of these scales to features of sexual abuse thought to relate to severity and chronicity, as well as to self-report scales of PTSD and dissociation. In addition, this study examined differences between normative, psychiatric, and sexually abused children on the new scales. Both the sexual abuse and psychiatric sample differed significantly from the normative sample on all scales, but not from each other. Despite correlations of the dissociation and PTSD/dissociation combined scale with features of trauma and child self-report of PTSD and dissociation, the absence of differences between the clinical groups on the derived scales suggests that the scales measure generic, as opposed to trauma-related, distress. PMID:16382422

  16. German Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED: Reliability, Validity, and Cross-Informant Agreement in a Clinical Sample

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    Wiegand-Grefe Silke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychometric properties and cross-informant agreement of a German translation of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED were assessed in a clinical sample Methods 102 children and adolescents in outpatient psychotherapy and their parents filled out the SCARED and Youth Self Report/Child Behaviour Checklist (YSR/CBCL. Results The German SCARED showed good internal consistency for both parent and self-report version, and proved to be convergently and discriminantly valid when compared with YSR/CBCL scales. Cross-informant agreement was moderate with children reporting both a larger number as well as higher severity of anxiety symptoms than their parents. Conclusion In conclusion, the German SCARED is a valid and reliable anxiety scale and may be used in a clinical setting

  17. Can i have a second child? dilemmas of mothers of children with pervasive developmental disorder: a qualitative study

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    Omiya Tomoko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD has an uncertain etiology, no method of treatment, and results in communication deficiencies and other behavioral problems. As the reported recurrence risk is 5%-10% and there are no methods of either prevention or prenatal testing, mothers of PDD children may face unique challenges when contemplating second pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to explore the mothers' lived experiences of second child-related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD. Methods The participants for this study were restricted to mothers living within the greater Tokyo metropolitan area who had given birth to a first child with PDD within the past 18 years. The ten participants were encouraged to describe their experiences of second-child related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD on the basis of semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was performed by using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA, which is concerned with understanding what the participant thinks or believes about the topic under discussion. Results We identified two superordinate themes. The first was balancing hopes and fears, in which hope was the potential joy to be gained by the birth of a new child without PDD and fears were characterized as uncertainty of PDD and perception of recurrence risk, burden on later-born children, and negative effects on a child with PDD. The second superordinate theme was assessing the manageability of the situation, which was affected by factors as diverse as severity of PDD, relationship between mother and father, and social support and acceptance for PDD. Our 10 participants suffered from extreme psychological conflict, and lack of social support and acceptance for PDD created numerous practical difficulties in having second children. Conclusions Our participants faced various difficulties when considering second pregnancies after the birth of children with PDD in

  18. Child behaviour checklist emotional dysregulation profiles in youth with disruptive behaviour disorders: clinical correlates and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Muratori, Pietro; Manfredi, Azzurra; Pisano, Simone; Milone, Annarita

    2015-01-30

    Two Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) profiles were correlated to poor self-regulation, Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation (DESR) (elevation between 1 and 2 Standard Deviations (SD) in Anxiety/Depression, Aggression, Attention subscales), and Dysregulation Profile (DP) (elevation of 2 Standard Deviations or more). We explored youths with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) whether these profiles are associated with specific clinical features. The sample included 57 patients with DESR profile and 41 with DP profile, ages 9 to 15 years, all assigned to a non-pharmacological Multimodal Treatment Program. No differences resulted between groups in demographic features, diagnosis ratio, and comorbidities with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Bipolar Disorder (BD), and Anxiety Disorder. The DP group was associated with higher scores in Withdrawn, Social Problem, Thought, Rule Breaking, and Somatic CBCL subscales, and higher scores in Narcissism and Impulsivity (but not Callous-Unemotional (CU)), according to the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). After treatment, patients with DESR improved their personality traits (Narcissistic and Callous-Unemotional, but not Impulsivity), while changes in CBCL scales were modest. Patients with DP improved scales of Attention, Aggression, Anxiety-Depression, Rule Breaking, Withdrawal, Social Problem and Thought, while personality features did not change. These results suggest diagnostic implications of CBCL profiles, and indications for targeted treatment strategies. PMID:25480545

  19. Validation of the UCLA Child Post traumatic stress disorder-reaction index in Zambia

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    Cohen Judith A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool - the UCLA Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Reaction Index (PTSD-RI in Zambia. Methods The PTSD-RI was adapted through the addition of locally relevant items and validated using local responses to three cross-cultural criterion validity questions. Reliability of the symptoms scale was assessed using Cronbach alpha analyses. Discriminant validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores of cases and non-cases. Concurrent validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores to a traumatic experience index. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were run using receiver operating curves. Results Analysis of data from 352 youth attending a clinic specializing in sexual abuse showed that this adapted PTSD-RI demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores greater than .90 on all the evaluated scales. The symptom scales were able to statistically significantly discriminate between locally identified cases and non-cases, and higher symptom scale scores were associated with increased numbers of trauma exposures which is an indication of concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity analyses resulted in an adequate area under the curve, indicating that this tool was appropriate for case definition. Conclusions This study has shown that validating mental health assessment tools in a low-resource country is feasible, and that by taking the time to adapt a measure to the local context, a useful and valid Zambian version of the PTSD-RI was developed to detect

  20. A Disordered Eating Response Team's Effect on Nutrition Practices in College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Janine T.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The University of Cincinnati's Disordered Eating Response Team supports health and athletic performance for all athletes, particularly those with eating disorders. The protocol for assessment and intervention for athletes at risk includes education for coaches, trainers, athletes, and dining service personnel. Evaluations indicate the program is…

  1. Alimentação, estado nutricional e condição bucal da criança Food, nutritional status and oral condition of the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rodrigues Vieira Batista

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre alimentação, estado nutricional e a condição bucal ainda não está bem esclarecida, apresentando, muitas vezes, versões controversas e conhecimento limitado. Existe certa concordância de que a alimentação e, conseqüentemente, o estado nutricional, possam exercer certa influência sobre a condição bucal imediata e futura da criança. O objetivo desta comunicação é apresentar possíveis relações entre alimentação, estado nutricional e a condição bucal da criança. O estado nutricional pode afetar os dentes durante o seu período de formação e após a erupção na cavidade bucal. Os efeitos sistêmicos provenientes da nutrição podem alterar o desenvolvimento dos dentes, a quantidade e a qualidade da saliva, assim como os efeitos externos também podem determinar uma maior prevalência de cárie dentária, uma vez que tanto a quantidade de sacarose ingerida, quanto a freqüência de ingestão são importantes fatores envolvidos em sua etiologia. As reflexões deste trabalho sugerem a necessidade de ações interdisciplinares para obtenção de resultados na prevenção e no tratamento das doenças bucais.The relationship among food, nutritional status and oral condition is not yet well established, many times presenting controversial versions and limited knowledge. There seems to be an agreement that eating, and consequently, the nutritional status, may have a certain amount of influence over present and future oral conditions of the child. The objective of this communication is to discuss possible relations among food, nutritional status and oral condition in the child. Nutritional status may affect the teeth during their formation period and after eruption in the oral cavity. Systemic effects of nutrition may alter the development of teeth, quantity and quality of saliva, and the external effect may also determine a bigger prevalence of dental cavities, since both the quantity and the frequency of

  2. The Concurrence of Eating Disorders with Histories of Child Abuse among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between eating disorders and history of physical abuse, incest, and extrafamilial sexual abuse. Results of a survey of adolescents (n=6,224) indicate that eating disorders are correlated with all 3 types of abuse. Presence of an eating disorder also correlates with presence of other addictive behaviors, family history of…

  3. Gestural Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Mother-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, Marilina; Capirci, Olga; Cuva, Simone; Venuti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders display atypical development of gesture production, and gesture impairment is one of the determining factors of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Despite the obvious importance of this issue for children with autism spectrum disorder, the literature on gestures in autism is scarce and contradictory. The…

  4. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  5. Mental health disorders in child and adolescent survivors of post-war landmine explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmati, Mohammad Ali; Shokoohi, Hamid; Masoumi, Mehdi; Khateri, Shahriar; Soroush, Mohammadreza; MODIRIAN, EHSAN; Poor Zamany Nejat Kermany, Mahtab; HOSSEINI, Maryam; Mousavi, Batool

    2015-01-01

    Background To describe the mental health status of 78 child and adolescent survivors of post-war landmine explosions. Methods Child and adolescent survivors of landmine explosions who were younger than 18 years old at the time of the study were identified and enrolled in this study. The mental health status of the participants was assessed by general health assessment and psychiatric examinations. Psychiatric assessment and diagnosis were undertaken using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual...

  6. Risk and Consequences of Child Abuse in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    s. Gulin Evinc; Dilsad Foto-Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    Awareness about child physical and emotional abuse and ndash;as well as sexual abuse- is increasing day by day. It is stated that the physical or emotional harm given to a child can result in serious psychological problems both in short and long terms. In addition to this, it is known that, the traditional discipline styles, especially applied in developing countries, can be physically and emotionally harmful and sometimes abusive. The stress level of the parent determines the parent's choic...

  7. Disordered eating among preadolescent boys and girls : the relationship with child and maternal variables

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Paulo P. P.; A. Rui Gomes; Margarida Silva; Sónia Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Objective: (i) To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii) to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old) and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Ea...

  8. Peer education is a feasible method of disseminating information related to child nutrition and feeding between new mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy; Collins, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined whether peer education based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour is a feasible method to share and disseminate nutrition and feeding information between mothers of babies and toddlers. Methods The Peer Educator Nutrition Training (PeerENT) study was a feasibility study. Participants were recruited from an existing cohort of mothers of six month to two year olds. An online survey tool was used to collect and collate data, which was then analysed using STATA statis...

  9. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Michelle J; Moore, Carolyn E; Tsai, Cynthia M; Shulman, Robert J; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2014-03-01

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with functional GI disorders. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11 to 17 years old with functional GI disorders and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using χ2, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Spearman's ρ. Children identified a median of 11 (range=2 to 25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow's milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified, including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range=1 to 20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent's assessment of their child's QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with functional GI disorders. In addition, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms can adversely impact children's QOL in several important areas.

  10. The role of the mother-child relationship for anxiety disorders and depression: results from a prospective-longitudinal study in adolescents and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother-child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14-17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother-child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression.

  11. Evaluation of selected aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic Programme offered to HIV-positive women of child-bearing age in Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    Tine T. Hansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Nutrition Therapeutic Programme (NTP involves the provision of food supplements at primary health clinics (PHCs to correct nutritional deficiencies in vulnerable groups. Although previous studies have identified problems with implementing the programme at PHCs, assessments of its efficiency have been scarce.Objective: To evaluate implementation of the NTP at PHCs that provide antiretroviral therapy.Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 17 PHCs located within 3 districts of Western Cape Province. Two target groups were chosen: 32 staff members working at the sites and 21 women of child-bearing age enrolled in the NTP. Questionnaires were used to obtain data.Results: Only 2 women (10% lived in food-secure households; the rest were either at risk of hunger (29% or classified as hungry (61%. Most of the women knew they had to take the supplements to improve their nutritional status, but the majority only recalled receiving basic nutritional advice, and the information was mainly given verbally. Ten of the women had shared their supplements with others, mostly with their children. The study identified lack of clearly defined NTP responsibilities at the PHCs, causing confusion amongst the staff. Although many staff members expressed problems with the NTP, only 38% of them reported having routine evaluations regarding the programme.Conclusion: Several aspects compromised the effectiveness of the NTP, including socio- economic factors leading to clients’ non-compliance. The strategic organisation and implementation of the NTP varied between different PHCs offering antiretroviral therapy, and staff experienced difficulties with the logistics of the programme.

  12. Assessment of nutritional activities under integrated child development services at anganwadi centers of different districts of Gujarat from April 2012 to March 2015

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    Rajesh K Chudasama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS program aims at enhancing survival and development of children from the vulnerable sections of the society. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess various nutritional activities at anganwadi centers (AWCs in different districts of Gujarat state. Settings and Design: AWCs, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 AWCs were selected including 95 from rural and 35 from urban area from April 2012 to March 2015 including 12 districts of Gujarat and union territory, Diu. Five AWCs were selected from one district randomly. Detailed information about various nutritional activities including growth monitoring, preschool education (PSE and nutrition and health education (NHED, coverage for supplementary nutrition (SN, type of food provided under SN, and its issues at AWCs was collected. Statistical Analysis: Percentages, proportions, Chi-square/Fischer's exact test. Results: Growth chart was available in 96.9% AWCs. The malnutrition was reported among 14.9% children. PSE received by all children was only in 14.6% AWCs. NHED meeting was conducted in 73.8% AWCs. High coverage of receiving SN among enrolled was reported in pregnant and lactating mothers (84.6% and adolescents (79.2%. SN was fully acceptable in 91.5% AWCs. Interruption in SN supply during last 6 months was reported in 55.4% AWCs. Conclusion: Regular workshops should be conducted for ICDS staff to sensitize them about the importance of and practices on PSE. Interruption in supply of SN should be corrected by regular and adequate provision of SN foods to the beneficiaries.

  13. A prospective-longitudinal study on the association of anxiety disorders prior to pregnancy and pregnancy- and child-related fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Julia; Asselmann, Eva; Einsle, Franziska; Strehle, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relation between anxiety disorders prior to pregnancy and specific pregnancy- and child-related fears during pregnancy and after delivery. 306 expectant mothers were interviewed regarding anxiety (and depressive) disorders prior to pregnancy and pregnancy- and child-related fears (e.g. fear of labor pain, fear of infant injury) using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V). Pregnancy- and child-related fears were particularly pronounced in women with multiple anxiety disorders and women with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy. Further analyses revealed associations between particular anxiety disorders and specific pregnancy- and child-related fears. Results remained stable when considering potential confounders such as maternal age, education, marital status, parity, prior abortion and preterm delivery or low birth weight. Our study suggests that especially women with multiple anxiety and/or comorbid depressive disorders may benefit from early targeted interventions to prevent an escalation of anxiety and fears over the peripartum period.

  14. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  15. Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder Subsequent to Child Maltreatment: Examining Change across Multiple Levels of Analysis to Identify Transdiagnostic Risk Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Shenk, Chad E.; Griffin, Amanda M.; O’Donnell, Kieran J.

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: 1) neuroendocrine, 2) autonomic, 3) affective, and 4) emotion regulation. Femal...

  16. The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Horvath Marques; Thomas G O'connor; Christine eRoth; Ezra eSusser; Anne-Lise eBjørke-Monsen

    2013-01-01

    The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gesta...

  17. Validity of the Questionnaire for the Revised Version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-41

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    Mehdi Rabie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: 4TThe revised version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-41 is a self-report questionnaire that measures symptoms (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, school phobia, social phobia of DSM-IV linked anxiety disorders in children with aged 8 to 18 years. The aim of the present study was to examine the validation of the (SCARED-41 in a sample of 300 school children. Materials and Methods:4T After the translation of the original version of the mentioned Scale to Farsi and confirming it by two psychology and English language professors, the final version was administered to 300 students (150 males, 150 females of Isfahan who were selected through stratified-cluster sampling. The age range of the participants was between 19 to 35 years. To assess reliability, internal consistency and split half methods were used. Also, concurrent, validity of convergent and divergent and factorial structure were used to determine validity. Results: 4TThe range of Cronbach’s alpha and retest were from 0.52 to 0.93 for subscale. Also, the coefficients of total Cronbach’s alpha reliability and retest were 0.93, and 0.92 respectively. Moreover, results of the concurrent validity, validity of convergent and divergent and factorial structure showed that (SCARED-41 has satisfactory validity. Conclusion: 4TThe revised version of the SCARED-41 has satisfactory reliability and validity in the sample of Iranian students, and could be used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  18. Bidirectional relations between parental symptoms of personality disorders and child symptoms of anxiety and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Elisabeth Hindrum; Hågenrud, Marte

    2015-01-01

    Earlier cross-sectional studies have reported associations between parental symptoms of personality disorders and mental health problems in children. However, it cannot be precluded that mental health problems in children may aggravate symptoms of personality disorders in parents; just as parents’ personality disorders may influence their children’s mental health. To discern the order of alleged cause and effect prospective studies are needed. However, no longitudinal study has...

  19. Evaluation of Oxidative Metabolism in Child and Adolescent Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kul, Muslum; Unal, Fatih; Kandemir, Hasan; Sarkarati, Bahram; Kilinc, Kamer; Kandemir, Sultan Basmacı

    2015-01-01

    Objective Oxidative metabolism is impaired in several medical conditions including psychiatric disorders, and this imbalance may be involved in the etiology of these diseases. The present study evaluated oxidative balance in pediatric and adolescent patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods The study included 48 children and adolescents (34 male, 14 female) with ADHD who had no neurological, systemic, or comorbid psychiatric disorders, with the exception of opposi...

  20. Lexical-semantic immaturities manifesting as grammatical disorders: evidence from a child language sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Zaneta; Kipka, Peter F

    2009-11-01

    Given the growing evidence of the integral role that semantic development plays in normal child syntactic acquisition, it is very likely that lexical-semantic deficits can have ramifications for a child's grammar. This paper illustrates how semantics and syntax interact in a case study of a child, 5;3 years, with apparent grammatical deficits. Using concepts from Principles and Parameters Theory, a language sample analysis revealed that what appeared to be purely grammatical deficits arose via underlying lexical-semantic mechanisms. Language sample analyses to adequately guide intervention planning may thus need to move beyond superficial surface structures and utilize linguistic frameworks capable of addressing the interaction among language-internal components.

  1. NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS BY DEFICIENCY IN SUNFLOWER var. CATISSOL-01 DESORDENS NUTRICIONAIS POR DEFICIÊNCIA EM GIRASSOL var. CATISSOL-01

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    Renato de Mello Prado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out in aerated nutritive solution to evaluate the effect of macronutrients, boron, and zinc omission on plant growth, dry matter production, visual symptoms and nutritional status of sunflower. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with two replications and nine treatments corresponding to the complete solution (macro and micronutrients and individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, S, Mg, B and Zn. We measured plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, leaf area and dry matter, and leaf content of macro and micronutrients. The individual omissions of N, P, K, and Ca were the most limiting to plant dry matter production, and resulted in morphological alterations represented by characteristical visual symptoms of the nutritional deficiency of each element.

    KEY-WORDS: Helianthus annuus; deficiency; nutritional disorder; nutrients; visual symptom.

    Objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes, de boro e de zinco no crescimento, na produção de matéria seca, nos sintomas visuais e no estado nutricional de plantas de girassol. Conduziu-se um experimento em solução nutritiva aerada. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com nove tratamentos, que corresponderam à solução completa (macro e micronutrientes e à omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, S, Mg, B e Zn, em duas repetições. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o número de folhas, o diâmetro do caule, a área foliar e a matéria seca, além do teor foliar de macro e micronutrientes. As omissões individuais de N, P, K e Ca foram as mais limitantes para o crescimento vegetativo do girassol, avaliado sobre a produção de matéria seca das plantas. Isso resultou em alterações morfológicas que se traduziram em sintomas visuais característicos da defici

  2. The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Treatment of Child Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannesdottir, Dagmar Kristin; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    In this review, we examine the role of emotion regulation in the treatment of children with anxiety disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to "work" for children with anxiety disorders and it has been categorized as an evidence-based treatment. However, most studies have shown that the treatment is effective for about 60-70%…

  3. Prevalence of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders in Chile: A Community Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Benjamin; Saldivia, Sandra; de la Barra, Flora; Kohn, Robert; Pihan, Ronaldo; Valdivia, Mario; Rioseco, Pedro; Melipillan, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Latin America, there is limited research on the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. This Chilean survey is the first national representative survey in the Latin American region to examine the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders in the region in children and…

  4. Are child anxiety and somatization associated with pain in pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated individual and incremental contributions of somatization and trait anxiety to pain report in children with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. Eighty children (7-10 years) with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders completed the State-Trait Anxiet...

  5. Parental Romantic Expectations and Parent-Child Sexuality Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Laura G.; Himle, Michael B.; Strassberg, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, parental romantic expectations, and parental provision of sexuality and relationship education in an online sample of 190 parents of youth 12-18 years of age with a parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Regression analyses were conducted…

  6. Parent and Child Agreement on Anxiety Disorder Symptoms Using the DISC Predictive Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Horigian, Viviana E.; Robbins, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Growing recognition of the negative impact of anxiety disorders in the lives of youth has made their identification an important clinical task. Multiple perspective assessment (e.g., parents, children) is generally considered a preferred method in the assessment of anxiety disorder symptoms, although it has been generally thought that disagreement…

  7. A five-year prospective follow-up of longstanding eating disorders : influence from personality disorders and child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Vrabel, KariAnne R.

    2010-01-01

    Follow-up studies have shown that 20-30% of patients with eating disorders develop longstanding symptoms seriously impairing their daily life. There are very few studies on the course of these patients. This dissertation consists of three papers on patients admitted to a specialized inpatient treatment program at the Modum Bad psychiatric hospital. The participants were assessed upon admission, discharge and at one-, two-, and five-year follow-up. Paper I reports on the course and outco...

  8. Child and Family Factors Associated with the Use of Services for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Dwight W.; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.; Hume, Kara; Odom, Samuel L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines child and family characteristics thought to affect the dosage and type of common in-school and private services (i.e., speech language therapy (SLT), occupational therapy (OT) and applied behavior analysis (ABA)) received by children with ASD. Participants included 137 families and their preschool-aged children with ASD from…

  9. Population Mean Scores Predict Child Mental Disorder Rates: Validating SDQ Prevalence Estimators in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Goodman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: For adult physical and mental health, the population mean predicts the proportion of individuals with "high" scores. This has not previously been investigated for child mental health. It is also unclear how far symptom scores on brief questionnaires provide an unbiased method of comparing children with different individual, family or…

  10. Social Conformity and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Child-Friendly Take on a Classic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafai, Abdul-Fattah; Verrier, Diarmuid; Reidy, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps surprisingly, given the importance of conformity as a theoretical construct in social psychology and the profound implications autism has for social function, little research has been done on whether autism is associated with the propensity to conform to a social majority. This study is a modern, child-friendly implementation of the…

  11. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child and Adolescent Disorders: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Eric J.; Hunsley, John

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this article and this special section is to encourage greater attention to evidence-based assessment (EBA) in the development of a scientifically supported clinical child and adolescent psychology. This increased attention is especially important in light of (a) the omission of assessment considerations in recent efforts to…

  12. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement. PMID:24942100

  13. Does Nutritional Intake Differ between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Children with Typical Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Alison C.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Johnson, Susan L.; Leiferman, Jenn; Reynolds, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Consumption of macro- and micronutrients and food group servings by children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; n = 46) and typical development (n = 31) were compared using 3-day diet records. Children with ASDs consumed significantly more vitamin B6 and E and non-dairy protein servings, less calcium, and fewer dairy servings (p less than…

  14. Child Labor and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Dinopoulos; Laixun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper embeds child labor in a standard two-sector general-equilibrium model of a small open economy facing perfectly competitive markets, efficiency wages, and free-trade. The modern sector produces a homogeneous good using skilled adult labor and capital, and offers effort-based efficiency wages. The agrarian (traditional) sector produces a homogeneous good using unskilled (child and adult) labor and skilled adult labor, and offers nutritional efficiency wages to child workers. Nutrition...

  15. Production of fortified food for a public supplementary nutrition program: performance and viability of a decentralised production model for the Integrated Child Development Services Program, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antier, Clémentine; Kumar, Salil; Bhagwat, Sadhana; Sankar, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Child Development Services in India through its supplementary nutrition programme covers over 100 million children, pregnant and lactating women across the country. Providing a hot cooked meal each day to children aged between 3-6 years and a take-home ration to children aged between 6-36 months, pregnant and lactating women, the Integrated Child Development Services faces a monumental task to deliver this component of services of desired quality and regularity at scale. From intermediaries or contractors who acted as agents for procuring and distributing food to procurement directly from large food manufacturers to using women groups as food producers, different State Governments have adopted a variety of strategies to procure and distribute food, especially the take-home ration. India's Supreme Court, through its directive of 2004, encouraged the Government to engage women's groups for the production of the supplementary food. This study was conducted to determine the operational performance, economic sustainability and social impact of a decentralised production model for India's Supplementary Nutrition Program, in which women groups run smallscale industrialised units. Data were collected through observation, interviews and group discussions with key stakeholders. Operational performance was analysed through standard performance indicators that measured consistency in production, compliance with quality standards and distribution regularity. Assessment of the economic viability included cost structure analysis, five-year projections, and financial ratios. Social impact was assessed using a qualitative approach. The pilot unit has demonstrated its operational performance and cost-efficiency. More data is needed to evaluate the scalability and sustainability of this decentralised model.

  16. SURGICAL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Kurniawan Darianto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing surgery faces great physiologic and psychologic stress. so nutritional demands are greatly increased during this period and deficiencies can easily develop. If these deficiencies are allowed to develop and are not in screening, serious malnutrition and clinical problem can occur. Therefore careful attention must be given to a patient's nutritional status in preparation of surgery, as well as to the individual nutritional needs. If these needs are met, complications are less likely developing. Natural resources provide for rapid recovery. Proper nutrition can speed healing in surgical patients with major trauma, severe malnutition, burns, and other severe illnesses. New techniques for tube feeding, intravenous nutrition for patients with serious weight loss due to gastrointestinal disorders, and use of supplements can hasten wound healing and shorten recovery times.

  17. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, L.; Segura, E.R.; Huayanay-Espinoza, C.A.; Niño de Guzman, J.; Restrepo-Méndez, M.C.; Tam, Y.; Barros, A.J.D.; Victora, C.G.; Hernández-Peña, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply. W

  18. Response inhibition deficits in externalizing child psychiatric disorders: An ERP-study with the Stop-task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hartmut

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that impaired motor response inhibition may be common to several externalizing child psychiatric disorders, although it has been proposed to be the core-deficit in AD/HD. Since similar overt behaviour may be accompanied by different covert brain activity, the aim of this study was to investigate both brain-electric-activity and performance measures in three groups of children with externalizing child psychiatric disorders and a group of normal controls. Methods A Stop-task was used to measure specific aspects of response inhibition in 10 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD, 8 children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD, 11 children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD and 11 normal controls. All children were between 8 and 14 years old. Event-related potentials and behavioural responses were recorded. An initial go-signal related microstate, a subsequent Stop-signal related N200, and performance measures were analyzed using ANCOVA with age as covariate. Results Groups did not differ in accuracy or reaction time to the Go-stimuli. However, all clinical groups displayed reduced map strength in a microstate related to initial processing of the Go-stimulus compared to normal controls, whereas topography did not differ. Concerning motor response inhibition, the AD/HD-only and the ODD/CD-only groups displayed slower Stop-signal reaction times (SSRT and Stop-failure reaction time compared to normal controls. In children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD, Stop-failure reaction-time was longer than in controls, but their SSRT was not slowed. Moreover, SSRT in AD/HD+ODD/CD was faster than in AD/HD-only or ODD/CD-only. The AD/HD-only and ODD/CD-only groups displayed reduced Stop-N200 mean amplitude over right-frontal electrodes. This effect reached only a trend for comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD. Conclusion Following similar attenuations in initial processing of the Go

  19. Evaluation of the Color Me Healthy Program in Influencing Nutrition and Physical Activity in Mississippi Preschool Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huye, Holly F.; Bankston, Sarah; Speed, Donna; Molaison, Elaine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the level of implementation and perceived value in creating knowledge and behavior change from the Color Me Healthy (CMH) training program in child care centers, family day carehomes, or Head Start facilities throughout Mississippi. Methods: A two-phase survey was used to initially…

  20. Understanding child stunting in India: a comprehensive analysis of socio-economic, nutritional and environmental determinants using additive quantile regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Fenske

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. OBJECTIVE: We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. DESIGN: Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0-24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. RESULTS: At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role.

  1. Treatment response in child anxiety is differentially related to the form of maternal anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, P J; Gallop, C.; Willetts, L.; Creswell, C

    2008-01-01

    An examination was made of the extent to which maternal anxiety predicted response to treatment of children presenting with an anxiety disorder. In a sample of 55 children referred to a local NHS CAMH service for treatment of an anxiety disorder, systematic mental state interview assessment was made of both mothers and children, and both completed self-report questionnaires to assess aspects of anxiety, both immediately before the children received treatment and following treatment. Children ...

  2. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    OpenAIRE

    Hullmann Stephanie E; Fedele David A; Wolfe-Christensen Cortney; Mullins Larry L; Wisniewski Amy B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59) of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Resul...

  3. The occurrence and nature of early signs of schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders among former child and adolescent psychiatric patients followed into adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation was designed to characterize psychotic disorders among patients originally treated as in- and outpatients by child and adolescent psychiatric services and subsequently followed-up into mid-adulthood. The age at the first onset on symptoms, possible changes in diagnoses, early signs noted prior to or upon admission to child and adolescent psychiatric care and possible differences between patients with early- and later-onset disorder were of particular interest. Methods The study population consisted of patients (285 in- and 1115 outpatients born between 1957 and 1976 and admitted to and treated by child and adolescent psychiatric care units in Jämtland County, Sweden, between 1975 and 1990. The status of their mental health was monitored until 2003 using official registries and hospital records. Diagnoses based on the ICD-8 and -9 systems, which were used in Sweden from 1968–1997, converted to diagnoses according to ICD-10, which has been in use since 1997. The Comprehensive Assessment of at Risk Mental States was employed to assess the information concerning psychopathology provided by the hospital records. Results By the end of the follow-up period 62 former child and adolescent psychiatric patients (36 females and 26 males, 4.4% of the entire study group, had received an ICD-10 diagnosis of "F20–29: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" (48 and/or "F30–39: Psychotic mood disorders" (14. One-third (21 of these individuals were given their initial diagnosis of psychosis in connection with child and adolescent psychiatric care. Two of these 21 were not treated later for this disorder in general (adult psychiatric care whereas the remaining 19 individuals were diagnosed for the same type of disorder as adults. The other 41 patients were diagnosed as psychotic only in connection with general (adult psychiatric care. The mean age at the time of first onset of symptoms was 21.4 years (SD 6

  4. Validation of the UCLA Child Post traumatic stress disorder-reaction index in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen Judith A; Semrau Katherine; Thea Donald; Imasiku Mwiya; Chomba Elwyn; Bass Judith; Murray Laura K; Lam Carrie; Bolton Paul

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool -...

  5. Preschool Language Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not get a language disorder from learning a second language. It won't confuse your child to speak ... on child language disorders describes research supporting the benefits of speech-language pathology treatment for children with language disorders. It ...

  6. The effect of adding ready-to-use supplementary food to a general food distribution on child nutritional status and morbidity: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Huybregts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, operational organizations active in child nutrition in developing countries have suggested that blanket feeding strategies be adopted to enable the prevention of child wasting. A new range of nutritional supplements is now available, with claims that they can prevent wasting in populations at risk of periodic food shortages. Evidence is lacking as to the effectiveness of such preventive interventions. This study examined the effect of a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF on the prevention of wasting in 6- to 36-mo-old children within the framework of a general food distribution program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled pragmatic intervention study in a sample of 1,038 children aged 6 to 36 mo in the city of Abeche, Chad. Both arms were included in a general food distribution program providing staple foods. The intervention group was given a daily 46 g of RUSF for 4 mo. Anthropometric measurements and morbidity were recorded monthly. Adding RUSF to a package of monthly household food rations for households containing a child assigned to the intervention group did not result in a reduction in cumulative incidence of wasting (incidence risk ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.11; p = 0.25. However, the intervention group had a modestly higher gain in height-for-age (+0.03 Z-score/mo; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.04; p<0.001. In addition, children in the intervention group had a significantly higher hemoglobin concentration at the end of the study than children in the control group (+3.8 g/l; 95% CI: 0.6, 7.0; p = 0.02, thereby reducing the odds of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.82; p = 0.004. Adding RUSF also resulted in a significantly lower risk of self-reported diarrhea (-29.3%; 95% CI: 20.5, 37.2; p<0.001 and fever episodes (-22.5%; 95% CI: 14.0, 30.2; p<0.001. Limitations of this study include that the projected sample size was not fully attained and that significantly fewer

  7. Longitudinal change in the use of services in autism spectrum disorder: understanding the role of child characteristics, family demographics, and parent cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Michael; Reyes, Nuri; Hotez, Emily; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify child characteristics, family demographics, and parent cognitions that may affect access to early intervention, special education, and related services. The sample included 70 families of young children with autism spectrum disorders. All parents were enrolled in a short education program, providing them with basic information and resources on advocating for a young child with autism spectrum disorders (Parent Advocacy Coaching). Longitudinal change in children's intervention program in the community was evaluated over a period of about 27 months, starting 12 months prior to enrollment in Parent Advocacy Coaching. Results revealed large individual differences in the intensity of children's individual and school-based services. Despite this variability, only two child characteristics (age, gender) emerged as independent predictors. In contrast, the intensity of children's intervention programs was independently predicted by a broad range of demographic characteristics, including parental education, child ethnicity and race, and family composition. Finally, even after child characteristics and family demographics were statistically controlled, results revealed associations between specific parental cognitions (parenting efficacy, understanding of child development) and the subsequent rate of change in the intensity of children's intervention programs. Implications for improving educational programs that aim to enhance parent advocacy are discussed.

  8. Experiences of emergency department care from the perspective of families in which a child has autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Muskat, Barbara; Craig, William R; Newton, Amanda S; Kilmer, Christopher; Greenblatt, Andrea; Roberts, Wendy; Cohen-Silver, Justine

    2016-07-01

    Care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the emergency department (ED) is increasingly recognized as difficult. Communication, sensory and behavioral challenges in a high intensity environment pose risks for negative experiences and outcomes. Through semi-structured interviews, parents (n = 31) and their children (n = 4) with ASD shared their perspectives on ED care. Participants identified issues that negatively affected care experiences, including care processes, communication issues, insufficient staff knowledge about ASD, and inadequate partnership with parents. Elements contributing to an improved ED experience were also cited, including staff knowledge about ASD, child- and family-centered care, and clarity of communication. Findings inform an emerging model of ED care. Recommendations for capacity building and practice development are offered. PMID:27315287

  9. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context. PMID:26906641

  10. A Growth Curve Analysis of the Course of Dysthymic Disorder: The Effects of Chronic Stress and Moderation by Adverse Parent-Child Relationships and Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Davila, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    Using mixed effects models, the authors examined the effects of chronic stress, adverse parent-child relationships, and family history on the 7.5-year course of dysthymic disorder. Participants included 97 outpatients with early-onset dysthymia who were assessed with semistructured interviews at baseline and 3 additional times at 30-month…

  11. Annual Research Review: Categories versus Dimensions in the Classification and Conceptualisation of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders--Implications of Recent Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, David; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether child and adolescent mental disorders are best classified using dimensional or categorical approaches is a contentious one that has equally profound implications for clinical practice and scientific enquiry. Here, we explore this issue in the context of the forth coming publication of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 approaches to…

  12. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child with a Developmental Social Communication Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of…

  13. Coping with Child Sexual Abuse among College Students and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Role of Continuity of Abuse and Relationship with the Perpetrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton-Cortes, David; Canton, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) on the use of coping strategies and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores in young adults, as well as the role of avoidance and approach coping strategies in those PTSD scores in CSA victims. The role of coping strategies was studied by considering…

  14. The risk of schizophrenia and child psychiatric disorders in offspring of mothers with lung cancer and other types of cancer: A Danish nationwide register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2013-01-01

    Maternal immune responses and brain-reactive antibodies have been proposed as possible causal mechanisms for schizophrenia and some child psychiatric disorders. According to this hypothesis maternal antibodies may cross the placenta and interact with the developing CNS of the fetus causing future...

  15. Longitudinal Change in the Use of Services in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Understanding the Role of Child Characteristics, Family Demographics, and Parent Cognitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Michael; Reyes, Nuri; Hotez, Emily; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify child characteristics, family demographics, and parent cognitions that may affect access to early intervention, special education, and related services. The sample included 70 families of young children with autism spectrum disorders. All parents were enrolled in a short education program, providing them with…

  16. Nutritional neuroscience: Part I: an emerging paradigm in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie Maxine

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders are exceedingly complicated as is the treatment. In order to increase positive outcomes an understanding of all facets; bio, psycho/social/spiritual, economic, and interdisciplinary aspects are essential to successful treatment. There are an increasing number of integrative addictions treatment centers across the United States, and disciplines that care for this population who are committed to a holistic, integrative approach to addictions treatment. Whole-person interventions, the foundational underpinnings of complementary and integrative therapies that attend to mind, body, and spirit simultaneously, in combination with traditional health care, will serve to provide the most effective treatment and patient outcomes. PMID:23580105

  17. [Treatment-refractory OCD from the viewpoint of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: impact of comorbid child and adolescent psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    More than a half of patients with OCD are classified as early-onset. Early-onset OCD has been indicated to be associated with a greater OCD global severity and more frequently comorbid with tic disorders and other obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum disorders, compared with late-onset OCD. Early-onset OCD patients with severe impairment caused by both OC symptoms and comorbid OC spectrum disorders may be identified as being refractory. Tic disorders and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are child and adolescent psychiatric disorders included in OC spectrum disorders. OCD comorbid with chronic tic disorders including Tourette syndrome (TS) is specified as tic-related OCD. Tic-related OCD is characterized by the high prevalence of early-onset and sensory phenomena including "just right" feeling. Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) such as head banging and body punching often occur in patients with TS. The patients' concern about SIB is likely to trigger them, suggesting that an impulse-control problem is a feature of TS. More than a half of patients with TS have OC symptoms. When OC symptoms in patients with TS were assessed with a dimensional approach, symmetry dimension symptoms were found most frequently over the lifetime. On the other hand, the severity of aggression dimension symptoms was the most stable during the course among all dimensions. Aggression dimension symptoms also exhibited a close relationship with impairment of global functioning and sensory phenomena. This tendency may be characteristic of tic-related OCD. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between OC symptoms and restricted, repetitive behaviors which are core symptoms of ASD. Recently, ego-dystonia and insight are considered non-essential to diagnose OCD, whereas high-functioning and/or atypical ASD is recognized as being more prevalent than previously estimated. In this situation, attention to comorbidity of OCD and ASD is increasing, and the prevalence of OCD in children and adolescents with

  18. Parental romantic expectations and parent-child sexuality communication in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Laura G; Himle, Michael B; Strassberg, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, parental romantic expectations, and parental provision of sexuality and relationship education in an online sample of 190 parents of youth 12-18 years of age with a parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Regression analyses were conducted separately for youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported average or above IQ and youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported below average IQ. For youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported average or above IQ, autism spectrum disorder severity predicted parental romantic expectations, but not parental provision of sexuality and relationship education. For youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported below average IQ, parental romantic expectations mediated the relationship between autism spectrum disorder severity and parent provision of sexuality and relationship education. This supports the importance of carefully considering intellectual functioning in autism spectrum disorder sexuality research and suggests that acknowledging and addressing parent expectations may be important for parent-focused sexuality and relationship education interventions. PMID:26408632

  19. The High Prevalence of Anemia in Cambodian Children and Women Cannot Be Satisfactorily Explained by Nutritional Deficiencies or Hemoglobin Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Dahl, Miriam; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Kuong, Khov; Sophonneary, Prak; Sinuon, Muth; Greuffeille, Valerie; Hong, Rathavuth; Berger, Jacques; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia is highly prevalent in Cambodian women and children, but data on causes of anemia are scarce. We performed a national micronutrient survey in children and women that was linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey 2014 (CDHS-2014) to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency, hemoglobin disorders and intestinal parasite infection. Methods: One-sixth of households from the CDHS-2014 were selected for a follow-up visit for the micronutrient survey. Households were visited from two weeks to two months after the CDHS-2014 visit. Data on micronutrient status were available for 1512 subjects (792 children and 720 women). Results: Anemia was found in 43% of the women and 53% of the children. Hemoglobin disorders affected >50% of the population, with Hemoglobin-E the most prevalent disorder. Deficiencies of iron (ferritin < 15 g/L), vitamin A (retinol-binding-protein (RBP) < 0.70 mol/L) or vitamin B12 (<150 pmol/L) were not prevalent in the women (<5% for all), whereas 17.8% of the women had low concentrations of folic acid (<10 nmol/L). In the children, the prevalence of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency was <10%. Zinc deficiency, hookworm infection and hemoglobinopathy were significantly associated with anemia in children, whereas in the women none of the factors was significantly associated with anemia. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was more prevalent in children <2 years, but in older children and women, the prevalence of IDA was <5%. The most prevalent, preventable causes of anemia were hookworm infection and zinc and folic acid deficiency. Over 40% of the anemia was not caused by nutritional factors. Conclusion: The very high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian women and children cannot be explained solely by micronutrient deficiencies and hemoglobin disorders. Micronutrient interventions to improve anemia prevalence are likely to have limited impact in the Cambodian setting. The focus of current interventions to

  20. Commentary: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders--differentiating decision-making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression and anxiety. A commentary on Sonuga-Barke et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2016-03-01

    Sonuga-Barke, Cortese, Fairchild, and Stringaris offer us new insights not only on the neuropsychological processes and neurobiological mechanisms involved in the decision-making process but also how some of the most relevant child mental disorders might impact this process through a very comprehensive review of the pertinent literature. Although it is difficult to select specific points for discussing in a so dense review, I would like to highlight some aspects for 'whetting readers appetite' and seduce them to be in contact with the fascinating neurobiology behind an essential aspect of our lives.

  1. Hematological Disorders following Gastric Bypass Surgery: Emerging Concepts of the Interplay between Nutritional Deficiency and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyi Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and the associated metabolic syndrome are among the most common and detrimental metabolic diseases of the modern era, affecting over 50% of the adult population in the United States. Surgeries designed to promote weight loss, known as bariatric surgery, typically involve a gastric bypass procedure and have shown high success rates for treating morbid obesity. However, following gastric bypass surgery, many patients develop chronic anemia, most commonly due to iron deficiency. Deficiencies of vitamins B1, B12, folate, A, K, D, and E and copper have also been reported after surgery. Copper deficiency can cause hematological abnormalities with or without neurological complications. Despite oral supplementation and normal serum concentrations of iron, copper, folate, and vitamin B12, some patients present with persistent anemia after surgery. The evaluation of hematologic disorders after gastric bypass surgery must take into account issues unique to the postsurgery setting that influence the development of anemia and other cytopenias. In this paper, the clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis of the hematological disorders associated with gastric bypass surgery are reviewed, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are discussed.

  2. Nutritional aspects in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders and motor dysfunction in the gut. Working team report of the Swedish Motility Group (SMoG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simrén, M; Abrahamsson, H; Bosaeus, I; Brummer, R J; Dolk, A; Lindberg, G; Nyhlin, H; Ohlsson, B; Sjölund, K; Törnblom, H

    2007-05-01

    In reviews regarding the management of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders and motility disturbances within the gut nutritional aspects and dietary advice is often put forward as being of great importance. However, there are relatively few high-quality, interventional studies in the literature supporting an important role for general dietary advice to improve symptoms in these patients. Nutritional supplementation to patients with malnutrition due to severe dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract is of course less controversial, even though different views on how this should be performed exist. The content of this article is based on presentations given by the authors during the second meeting of the Swedish Motility Group held in Gothenburg in March 2005, and aims to give an overview on the role of dietary advice and nutritional supplementation to patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction of different severity. PMID:17368120

  3. 78 FR 39067 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service, P.O. Box 66874, Saint Louis, MO 63166..., Section Chief, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service... Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA), to the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) and the Richard B. Russell...

  4. Child Care as an Untapped Setting for Obesity Prevention: State Child Care Licensing Regulations Related to Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Media Use for Preschool-Aged Children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kaphingst, Karen M; Story, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Child care is a potential setting for obesity prevention; 8.6 million preschool-aged children participated in child care in 2001. Each US state creates and enforces its own child care licensing regulations. We analyzed obesity-related child care licensing regulations of US states. Methods We downloaded state licensing regulations for children in child care centers (CCCs), small family child care homes (SFHs), and large family or group child care homes (LFGHs) in each state and th...

  5. Are child anxiety and somatization associated with pain in pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy E; Czyzewski, Danita I; Self, Mariella M; Shulman, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated individual and incremental contributions of somatization and trait anxiety to pain report in children with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. Eighty children (7-10 years) with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, the Children's Somatization Inventory, and 2-week pain diaries (assessing pain frequency and maximum pain). Hierarchical regressions indicated that both trait anxiety and somatization were significantly related to maximum pain and pain frequency, with somatization explaining more variance. Trait anxiety did not significantly add to prediction above somatization. Assessment of somatization may assist with treatment planning for children with functional abdominal pain.

  6. [Eating disorders in early adolescence--study from the section on young adolescent nutrition in Jerusalem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, N; Halevy, A

    2000-04-01

    Young adolescents were assessed with regard to cognitive, socio-cultural and behavioral components of eating disturbances. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to 5th-8th grade pupils, 280 girls and 251 boys, to assess eating habits, body image, self-confidence, environmental-cultural influences, risk behaviors and socio-economic state. Girls scored consistently higher on all weight-control behaviors. Discontent with own body, and attitudes and behaviors associated with eating disorders, were reported by under-studied populations such as boys and younger girls. Both frequency and severity of weight-control behaviors were associated with "social age." Highly significant differences between scores of 6th and 7th graders indicate that they may be at a time of increased susceptibility. Measuring the influence of the mass media gave inconsistent results. PMID:10883175

  7. Nutritional intake and dietary patterns in pregnancy: a longitudinal study of women with lifetime eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Naumann, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet L

    2012-12-14

    There is limited knowledge about dietary patterns and nutrient/food intake during pregnancy in women with lifetime eating disorders (ED). The objective of the present study was to determine patterns of food and nutrient intake in women with lifetime ED as part of an existing longitudinal population-based cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Women with singleton pregnancies and no lifetime psychiatric disorders other than ED (n 9723) were compared with women who reported lifetime (ever) ED: (anorexia nervosa (AN, n 151), bulimia nervosa (BN, n 186) or both (AN+BN, n 77)). Women reported usual food consumption using a FFQ at 32 weeks of gestation. Nutrient intakes, frequency of consumption of food groups and overall dietary patterns were examined. Women with lifetime ED were compared with control women using linear regression and logistic regression (as appropriate) after adjustment for relevant covariates, and for multiple comparisons. Women with lifetime ED scored higher on the 'vegetarian' dietary pattern; they had a lower intake of meat, which was compensated by a higher consumption of soya products and pulses compared with the controls. Lifetime AN increased the risk for a high ( ≥ 2500 g/week) caffeine consumption in pregnancy. No deficiencies in mineral and vitamin intake were evident across the groups, although small differences were observed in macronutrient intakes. In conclusion, despite some differences in food group consumption, women with lifetime ED had similar patterns of nutrient intake to healthy controls. Important differences in relation to meat eating and vegetarianism were highlighted, as well as high caffeine consumption. These differences might have an important impact on fetal development. PMID:22784642

  8. Nutritional intake and dietary patterns in pregnancy: a longitudinal study of women with lifetime eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Naumann, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet L

    2012-12-14

    There is limited knowledge about dietary patterns and nutrient/food intake during pregnancy in women with lifetime eating disorders (ED). The objective of the present study was to determine patterns of food and nutrient intake in women with lifetime ED as part of an existing longitudinal population-based cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Women with singleton pregnancies and no lifetime psychiatric disorders other than ED (n 9723) were compared with women who reported lifetime (ever) ED: (anorexia nervosa (AN, n 151), bulimia nervosa (BN, n 186) or both (AN+BN, n 77)). Women reported usual food consumption using a FFQ at 32 weeks of gestation. Nutrient intakes, frequency of consumption of food groups and overall dietary patterns were examined. Women with lifetime ED were compared with control women using linear regression and logistic regression (as appropriate) after adjustment for relevant covariates, and for multiple comparisons. Women with lifetime ED scored higher on the 'vegetarian' dietary pattern; they had a lower intake of meat, which was compensated by a higher consumption of soya products and pulses compared with the controls. Lifetime AN increased the risk for a high ( ≥ 2500 g/week) caffeine consumption in pregnancy. No deficiencies in mineral and vitamin intake were evident across the groups, although small differences were observed in macronutrient intakes. In conclusion, despite some differences in food group consumption, women with lifetime ED had similar patterns of nutrient intake to healthy controls. Important differences in relation to meat eating and vegetarianism were highlighted, as well as high caffeine consumption. These differences might have an important impact on fetal development.

  9. Evaluation of Supplementary Nutrition Activities under Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS at Anganwadi Centres of Different Districts of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K Chudasama

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ICDS program aims at enhancing survival and development of children from the vulnerable sections of the society. The present study was conducted to assess supplementary nutrition (SN activities and its related issues at anganwadi centres. Material and methods: Total 60 anganwadi centres were selected including 46 anganwadi centres (AWCs from rural area and 14 AWCs from urban area during April 2012 to March 2013 from 12 districts of Gujarat. Five AWCs were selected from one district randomly. Detailed information was collected related to beneficiary’s coverage for SN, type of food provided under SN, and various issues related to supplementary nutrition at anganwadi centres.Results: High coverage of receiving SN among enrolled was reported in pregnant mothers (88.3%, lactating mothers (91.7% and adolescents (86.7%. Only 25% AWCs were providing hot cooked food (HCF to 3 to 6 years children. Less than half of the AWCs were providing ready to eat (RTE food to 6 months to 3 years children (48.3%, pregnant (46.7% and lactating (46.7% mothers, and adolescents (45.0%. Total 38.3% AWCs reported shortage of SN supply, more in rural (41.3% compare to urban (28.6%. Various problems were reported by anganwadi workers related to SN like lack of storage facility, non availability of separate kitchen, poor quality of food, irregular supply, inadequate supply, and fuel problem. Conclusion: The regular and adequate supply of SN will improve the provision of hot cooked food, ready to eat food and take home ration to the beneficiaries as per the norms, leading to improvement of overall nutritional status of the community.

  10. Brief Report: Parent-Child Sexuality Communication and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Laura G.; Himle, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    While considerable research has focused on promoting independence and optimizing quality of life for adolescents and young adult with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), sexual development and sexuality education have been largely neglected. Experts recommend that parents be the primary source of sex education for adolescents with ASD, and that sex…

  11. Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

  12. Parental Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress following a Child's Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Laura Baylot; Zanksas, Steve; Meindl, James N.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Cogdal, Pam; Powell, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are well documented in parents of children diagnosed with chronic disabilities and life-threatening illnesses. The occurrence of PTSS in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (autism) has not been directly linked but instead only mentioned without data supporting the claim. This research was a…

  13. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom…

  14. Parenting by Anxious Mothers: Effects of Disorder Subtype, Context and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Lau, Pui Yi; Arteche, Adriane; Creswell, Cathy; Russ, Stephanie; Zoppa, Letizia Della; Muggeo, Michela; Stein, Alan; Cooper, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing research interest in parenting by anxious adults; however, little is known about anxiety-subtype effects, or effects of the context in which parenting is assessed. Methods: Two groups of anxious mothers, social phobia (N = 50), generalised anxiety disorder (N = 38), and nonanxious controls (N = 62) were…

  15. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  16. Markers of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Charumathi Sabanayagam; Srinivas Teppala; Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and diabetes among 6,522 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that the summary SDB score was significantly associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders in the whole population. ...

  17. The Plausibility of Maternal Nutritional Status Being a Contributing Factor to the Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: The Potential Influence of Zinc Status as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Keen, Carl L; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y.; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, W. W.; Chambers, Christina D.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of a...

  18. Maternal eating disorder and infant diet. A latent class analysis based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Leila; Ystrom, Eivind; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Berg, Cecilie Knoph; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of infant diet and feeding practices among children of mothers with eating disorders is essential to promote healthy eating in these children. This study compared the dietary patterns of 6-month-old children of mothers with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype, to the diet of children of mothers with no eating disorders (reference group). The study was based on 53,879 mothers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify discrete latent classes of infant diet based on the mothers' responses to questions about 16 food items. LCA identified five classes, characterized by primarily homemade vegetarian food (4% of infants), homemade traditional food (8%), commercial cereals (35%), commercial jarred baby food (39%), and a mix of all food groups (11%). The association between latent dietary classes and maternal eating disorders were estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Infants of mothers with bulimia nervosa had a lower probability of being in the homemade traditional food class compared to the commercial jarred baby food class, than the referent (O.R. 0.59; 95% CI 0.36-0.99). Infants of mothers with binge eating disorder had a lower probability of being in the homemade vegetarian class compared to the commercial jarred baby food class (O.R. 0.77; 95% CI 0.60-0.99), but only before adjusting for relevant confounders. Anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype were not statistically significantly associated with any of the dietary classes. These results suggest that maternal eating disorders may to some extent influence the child's diet at 6 months; however, the extent to which these differences influence child health and development remains an area for further inquiry. PMID:25453594

  19. Programa Bolsa Família e estado nutricional infantil: desafios estratégicos Bolsa Família Program and child nutritional status: strategic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anemia e desnutrição, principais carências nutricionais na infância, têm como principais determinantes os socioeconômicos. Assim, por se tratar da principal política de combate à pobreza, espera-se que o Programa Bolsa Família (PBF promova impacto no estado nutricional infantil. Objetivou-se analisar as diferenças na situação nutricional de crianças cadastradas no PBF de um município da Zona da Mata Mineira. Foram avaliadas 446 crianças com idade entre 6 e 84 meses, sendo que 262 eram beneficiárias e 184 não-beneficiárias. A avaliação nutricional constituiu-se da análise dos parâmetros peso e estatura, através dos índices peso/idade, peso/estatura, estatura/idade e Índice de Massa Corporal/idade, e dos níveis de hemoglobina, com uso do Hemocue. As prevalências de anemia, déficit estatural e obesidade foram 22,6, 6,3 e 5,2%, respectivamente, sendo que não houve diferença estatística entre os beneficiários e não-beneficiários. Inicialmente, o grupo beneficiário apresentava piores condições socioeconômicas, porém, com o recebimento do benefício, os grupos se igualaram financeiramente. É possível que a similaridade dos dois grupos também quanto ao estado nutricional possa ser atribuída ao recebimento do benefício, tanto devido ao incremento financeiro, quanto ao acompanhamento nutricional exigido como condicionalidade do programa.The main nutritional deficiencies during childhood, namely anemia and malnutrition, are predominantly related to socio-economic factors. Thus, as the Bolsa Família Program (BFP is the main policy to combat poverty, it is expected that it will have an impact on child nutrition. The aim was to analyze the differences in the nutritional situation of children registered with the BFP of a municipality located in Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais state. 446 children aged between 6 and 84 months were evaluated, of which 262 were non-beneficiaries and 184 were beneficiaries. Nutritional

  20. A STUDY OF DERMATOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN RELATION TO PERSONAL HYGIENE AND NUTRITIONAL INDICATORS AMONG GOVT. HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN OF AGE GROUP 11 - 16 YRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Mai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Skin disorders affect 20 - 30% of the general population at any one time. Personal hygiene, nutrition and Socio demographic factors play pivotal roles in determining the pattern of skin disease. Very few studies provide information on the prevalence and det erminants of skin disease among children of school going age group in India There are hardly any studies focusing on children of Hyderabad. Hence, the following study was carried out to determine the prevalence of dermatological disorders among school chil dren of age group 11 - 16 yrs . AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To assess the prevalence of dermatological disorders among Govt. high school children in relation with personal hygiene, nutritional status and socio demographic indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A cross - sectional study was conducted and the study subjects included students of Govt. high school located at Musheerabad, belonging to class VI to IX. A total of 100 students have been studied and the study period was from 19 th Nov to 25 th Nov 2011.the sample size was calculated from prevalence shown in various studies (50% skin disorders, with an allowable error of 20% of P. Data collection included personal hygiene questionnaire, clinical examination, magnifying lens, measuring tape and a weighing machine. Prevalence of common skin diseases was calculated and statistical analysis was done. RESULTS : The proportion of skin disorders is seen to be 77% of the total study. The proportion of skin disorders is higher in females (p<0.05, mid ado lescent age (p<0.05, fathers being heavy workers and working mothers, hostel residence (p<0.05 and infrequent head bath. The proportion of skin disorders is not seen to be influenced by BMI - for - age and bathing frequency. Common dermatological disorders e licited were Pytiriasis simplex capillitii (27%, Acne vulgaris (22%, Pediculosis capitis (18%, Pytiriasis alba (14% and Scabies (11%. CONCLUSION : Skin disease constitutes a public

  1. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or working on a craft. Reward and praise self-control . For example, allow your little girl to use ... Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can I Stop My Child ...

  2. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly 200 million young children in developing countries around the world are stunted due to in great extent to malnutrition during infancy. Even though breast feeding is the best nourishment a mother can provide to her baby, after about six months of age, complementary foods, also called as weaning foods, are needed to meet the infant's nutritional recommendations. On the other hand, complementary feeding sometimes reduces breast milk intake and can introduce a potential source of contamination leading to a number of gastrointestinal infections, which can substantially impair growth. Thus, it is very important to accurately measure the amount of breast milk consumed and also to assess the amount and quality of complementary foods introduced to the infant's diet. An isotopic method for measuring breast milk intake based on deuterium dilution and kinetics has been validated using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Recently, a more economical infrared spectroscopy (IS) method has also been used and validated against IRMS. The objectives of this CRP were i) to develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast milk intake using regionally available equipment, ii) use isotopic methods to evaluate nutrient reserves, namely vitamin A, iron and zinc, and energy expenditure in mothers to determine the relative needs for nutritional supplements of mothers in the region, and iii) to use isotopic techniques to compare the nutrient density of milk with nutrient levels in the mother to learn for which nutrients breast milk is a reliable indicator of maternal nutrient reserves in marginally nourished women

  3. Eating disorders, gene-environment interactions and the epigenome: Roles of stress exposures and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Howard; Thaler, Lea

    2016-08-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are believed to link environmental exposures to gene expression, and in so doing, to provide a physical basis for the activation, by life experiences, of mental-health problems. This paper provides a background to the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms link life stresses (perinatal, childhood and adult) and effects of malnutrition to the eating disorders (EDs). The paper reviews literature bearing upon the putative link between epigenetic factors and ED development, and examines ways in which epigenetic alterations could account for risk of eating disturbances and commonly associated behavioral and emotional problems. Ultimately, we propose that epigenetic processes provide an intriguing (although hypothetical) biological "platform" upon which ED-relevant effects of perinatal insults, life stresses, and consequences of malnutrition may be registered, and argue that an epigenetically informed understanding may explain why EDs are triggered and maintained by excessive caloric restraint, why they coincide so frequently with mood- and impulse-regulation problems, and why they tend to become increasingly entrenched over time. Finally, we comment on the clinical relevance and implications of an epigenetically informed model of ED etiology. PMID:26836275

  4. Anesthetic management of a child with autistic spectrum disorder and homocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD is a developmental disability of the central nervous system with rapid worsening. A subset of patients also has mitochondrial dysfunction leading to increased sensitivity to various anesthetic agents. Rarely, gene mutation in these patients results in homocysteinemia which causes higher incidences of thromboembolism, hypoglycemia, and seizures. Anesthetic management of ASD with homocysteinemia and refractory seizures has not been previously reported.

  5. Parents as a Team: Mother, Father, a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder, and a Spinning Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Douglas W.; McDonald, T. A.; Stickle, Trini

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a single case study involving a visit to a diagnostic clinic for autism spectrum disorder. A young boy finds a toy that he can hold with one hand and spin with another. In order to retrieve the toy and leave it in the clinic, the parents engage in a team effort. We describe this achievement in terms of two styles of practice or…

  6. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Presentation and Management in the Haitian American Child

    OpenAIRE

    Prudent, Nicole; Johnson, Peggy; Carroll, Jennifer; Culpepper, Larry

    2005-01-01

    A case study of a young Haitian American is presented that is illustrative of cultural issues that influence care of those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Medications are the preferred treatment for ADHD and can be combined with psychological intervention. However, many Haitians and Haitian Americans see psychoactive medications as leading to substance abuse or mental illness. Efficacious psychosocial treatments include contingency management, parent training, and behavi...

  7. Child maltreatment, attention networks, and potential precursors to borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2005-01-01

    Potential precursors to borderline personality disorder (BPD) were investigated in a sample of 185 maltreated and 175 nonmaltreated school-aged children attending a summer camp research program. Self-report, peer-report, and counselor-report measures were utilized to assess developmental constructs conceptualized to constitute vulnerability for later emerging BPD. These areas, including personality features, representational models of self, parent, and peers, interpersonal relationship diffic...

  8. The broad autism phenotype predicts child functioning in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Parish-Morris, Julia; Hsin, Olivia; Bush, Jennifer C; Schultz, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a milder expression of the social and communication impairments seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While prior studies characterized the BAP in unaffected family members of probands with ASD, the relationship between parental BAP traits and proband symptomatology remains poorly understood. This study utilizes the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) in parents and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in children to examine this connecti...

  9. Prenatal and newborn immunoglobulin levels from mother-child pairs and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Croen, Lisa A.; Grether, Judith K.; Paul eAshwood; Judy eVan de Water; Yolken, Robert H.; Anderson, Meredith C.; Anthony Ronald Torres; Jonna B Westover; Thayne eSweeten; Hansen, Robin L.; Martin eKharrazi

    2016-01-01

    Background. An etiological role for immune factors operating during early brain development in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has not yet been established. A major obstacle has been the lack of early biologic specimens that can be linked to later diagnosis. In a prior study, we found lower risk of ASD associated with higher levels of maternally-derived total IgG and Toxoplasmosis gondii (Toxo) IgG in newborn blood spot specimens from children later diagnosed with ASD compared ...

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Adverse Childhood Events, and Buccal Cell Telomere Length in Elderly Swiss Former Indentured Child Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küffer, Andreas Lorenz; O’Donovan, Aoife; Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for age-related diseases and early mortality. Accelerated biological aging could contribute to this elevated risk. The aim of the present study was to assess buccal cell telomere length (BTL) – a proposed marker of biological age – in men and women with and without PTSD. The role of childhood trauma was assessed as a potential additional risk factor for shorter telomere length. The sample included 62 former indentured Swiss child laborers (age: M = 76.19, SD = 6.18) and 58 healthy controls (age: M = 71.85, SD = 5.97). Structured clinical interviews were conducted to screen for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess childhood trauma exposure. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure BTL. Covariates include age, sex, years of education, self-evaluated financial situation, depression, and mental and physical functioning. Forty-eight (77.42%) of the former indentured child laborers screened positive for childhood trauma, and 21 (33.87%) had partial or full-blown PTSD. Results did not support our hypotheses that PTSD and childhood trauma would be associated with shorter BTL. In fact, results revealed a trend toward longer BTL in participants with partial or full PTSD [F(2,109) = 3.27, p = 0.04, η2 = 0.06], and longer BTL was marginally associated with higher CTQ scores (age adjusted: β = 0.17 [95% CI: −0.01 to 0.35], t = 1.90, p = 0.06). Furthermore, within-group analyses indicated no significant association between BTL and CTQ scores. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the association between childhood trauma and BTL in older individuals with and without PTSD. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in BTL between participants with and without PTSD in our adjusted analyses, and childhood adversity was not associated with

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Adverse Childhood Events, and Buccal Cell Telomere Length in Elderly Swiss Former Indentured Child Laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küffer, Andreas Lorenz; O'Donovan, Aoife; Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for age-related diseases and early mortality. Accelerated biological aging could contribute to this elevated risk. The aim of the present study was to assess buccal cell telomere length (BTL) - a proposed marker of biological age - in men and women with and without PTSD. The role of childhood trauma was assessed as a potential additional risk factor for shorter telomere length. The sample included 62 former indentured Swiss child laborers (age: M = 76.19, SD = 6.18) and 58 healthy controls (age: M = 71.85, SD = 5.97). Structured clinical interviews were conducted to screen for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess childhood trauma exposure. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure BTL. Covariates include age, sex, years of education, self-evaluated financial situation, depression, and mental and physical functioning. Forty-eight (77.42%) of the former indentured child laborers screened positive for childhood trauma, and 21 (33.87%) had partial or full-blown PTSD. Results did not support our hypotheses that PTSD and childhood trauma would be associated with shorter BTL. In fact, results revealed a trend toward longer BTL in participants with partial or full PTSD [F(2,109) = 3.27, p = 0.04, η(2) = 0.06], and longer BTL was marginally associated with higher CTQ scores (age adjusted: β = 0.17 [95% CI: -0.01 to 0.35], t = 1.90, p = 0.06). Furthermore, within-group analyses indicated no significant association between BTL and CTQ scores. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the association between childhood trauma and BTL in older individuals with and without PTSD. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in BTL between participants with and without PTSD in our adjusted analyses, and childhood adversity was not associated with BTL

  12. [Hypnosis as an effective management of a child with posttraumatic stress disorder after perineal trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubiri, M-A; Peycelon, M; Audry, G; Auber, F

    2014-06-01

    Children and teenagers may face trauma that threatens their life, but also their psychological integrity. These injuries can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is the most common psychopathological consequence after a trauma. Age is not a protective factor and this disorder can be severe and may last over a long-term period. Effective therapies on PTSD are scarce and research on this topic is rare in children. We report a case of a 12-year-old girl affected by PTSD after a carousel accident at the age of 4 years. A therapy based on hypnosis and psychological support was rapidly effective. This psychotherapeutic option was chosen on the basis of common features shared by hypnosis and the posttraumatic symptoms. Clinical manifestations of PTSD disappeared after 4 weeks of therapy and the patient remained symptom-free during a 1-year follow-up. Our report suggests that hypnosis could be an effective therapy for children with PTSD. Prospective studies on a larger number of patients are needed to validate this hypothesis.

  13. Disorders of childhood growth and development: screening and evaluation of the child who misses developmental milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The family physician is one of the few individuals from whom families receive feedback about their children's development; this makes early identification of potential delays an important responsibility. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends formal developmental screening for all children at the 9-, 18-, and 24- and/or 30-month well-child visits as well as developmental surveillance at every office visit through age 5 years. A formal screening measure is recommended, taking into account administration time and cost, characteristics of the patient population (eg, availability of screening tool in numerous languages), and psychometrics (eg, reliability, sensitivity, specificity). In the case of abnormal screening results, family physicians must determine the need for further medical evaluation (eg, by a developmental pediatric subspecialist or a pediatric neurology, genetics, or physiatry subspecialist) and/or further developmental evaluation (eg, by a physical therapy [PT], occupational therapy [OT], speech/language pathology, psychology, or audiology subspecialist). Knowledge of early intervention and early childhood programs is necessary for directing parents to evaluation and treatment sources. In treating patients with developmental delays, family physicians must possess knowledge regarding traditional modalities (eg, speech/language therapy, OT, PT) as well as newer treatments with less research support (eg, gluten-free/casein-free diet, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, neurodevelopmental treatment) that families may consider.

  14. The Early Caregiver-Child Relationship and Attention-Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity in Kindergarten: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobvitz, Deborah; Sroufe, L. Alan

    1987-01-01

    Newborn status, ratings of temperament, and experiential (parenting) antecedents of hyperactivity were evaluated in a longitudinal investigation. Experiential variables included maternal intrusive care, seductive behavior towards child, and overstimulation of child. (PCB)

  15. Distúrbios nutricionais em atletas femininas e suas inter-relações Nutrition disorders in female athletes and their interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Ciavaglia VILARDI

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas indicam que é elevada a prevalência de distúrbios alimentares em atletas femininas jovens envolvidas em esportes que preconizam a magreza e o baixo peso corporal, tais como ginástica olímpica e corridas de longa distância. A fim de compreender a etiologia destes problemas, esta revisão apresenta os principais distúrbios nutricionais encontrados em atletas femininas, incluindo definições, critérios para diagnóstico, fatores de risco, presença de desordens inter-relacionadas - anemia, irregularidades menstruais e desmineralização óssea e suas conseqüências sobre a saúde e rendimento atlético. É fundamental ressaltar a importância da nutrição no desempenho físico. A presença de um baixo peso corporal e um consumo energético severamente restrito é o principal fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de tais distúrbios. Como as atletas e seus treinadores não apresentam adequados conhecimentos sobre nutrição, é necessária uma orientação nutricional individualizada, de forma a evitar o desenvolvimento destas alterações.Researches have indicated that the prevalence of nutrition disorders is high among young female athletes engaged in sports that emphasize the importance of leanness and low body weight, such as olympic gymnastics and distance running. In order to understand the etiology of these problems, this review presents the main nutrition disorders in female athletes, including definitions, diagnostic criteria, risk factors, presence of interrelated disorders (anemia, menstrual irregularities and failure of bone mineralization and their consequences on health and athletic performance. It is fundamental to point out the importance of nutrition on physical performance. The presence of a low body weight and a very restricted energy intake is the principal risk factor for the development of nutritional disturbances. The athletes and their coaches do not have an apropriate knowledge about nutrition, so it is

  16. The impact of parenting on the associations between child aggression subtypes and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Casey A; Fite, Paula J

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated parenting behaviors (i.e., parental monitoring, inconsistent discipline, parental involvement, positive parenting, and corporal punishment) as moderators of the link between proactive and reactive aggression and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a community sample of 89 children ranging from 9 to 12 years of age (M = 10.44, SD = 1.14; 56 % male). Reactive, but not proactive, aggression was uniquely positively associated with ODD symptoms. Additionally, inconsistent discipline moderated the association between proactive, but not reactive, aggression and ODD symptoms, such that proactive aggression was associated with ODD symptoms only when levels of inconsistent discipline were high. Findings appear to suggest that associations between these aggression subtypes and ODD symptoms are influenced by different factors, with inconsistent discipline indicated in the association between proactively aggressive behavior and ODD symptoms. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:24500326

  17. The impact of parenting on the associations between child aggression subtypes and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Casey A; Fite, Paula J

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated parenting behaviors (i.e., parental monitoring, inconsistent discipline, parental involvement, positive parenting, and corporal punishment) as moderators of the link between proactive and reactive aggression and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a community sample of 89 children ranging from 9 to 12 years of age (M = 10.44, SD = 1.14; 56 % male). Reactive, but not proactive, aggression was uniquely positively associated with ODD symptoms. Additionally, inconsistent discipline moderated the association between proactive, but not reactive, aggression and ODD symptoms, such that proactive aggression was associated with ODD symptoms only when levels of inconsistent discipline were high. Findings appear to suggest that associations between these aggression subtypes and ODD symptoms are influenced by different factors, with inconsistent discipline indicated in the association between proactively aggressive behavior and ODD symptoms. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  18. Association of Nutritional Status with Depression and Sleep Disorders in Elderly End Stage Renal Disease Patients - Does Chronic Inflammation Cause it all?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe BİLGİÇ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In our study we aimed to analyze the association between nutritional status and depression and sleep disturbance in elderly dialysis patients. MATERIAL and METHODS: Seventy-three patients receiving dialysis treatment older than 65 years of age were enrolled in this study. Nutritional status was determined by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA. Patients were also evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Demographic and laboratory data were recorded. RESULTS: According to SGA, 48 (65.8% patients were well nourished and 25 (34.2% patients had mild-moderate and severe malnutrition. When the well-nourished and malnourished patients were compared, the well-nourished group had higher albumin (p<.0001 and creatinine (p=.03 levels, higher body mass indices (p<.01, lower CRP levels (p<.0001, better quality of sleep (p<.0001 and lower depression scores (p<.0001 than the malnourished group. When we grouped patients as Group I (not depressive and good sleep quality, Group II (depressive but good sleep quality and Group III (both depressive and poor sleep quality, we found that Group III had the lowest albumin (p < .0001 and highest CRP (p < .0001 values when compared to the other two groups. CONCLUSION: Depression, sleep disorders, and the nutritional status are important factors which interact with each other and elderly dialysis patients with malnutrition should be well assessed for the presence of any inflammatory status and/or psychological-sleep disorders.

  19. Mathematics disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  20. High angular resolution diffusion imaging in a child with autism spectrum disorder and comparison with his unaffected identical twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Eugenia; Pannek, Kerstin; Calderoni, Sara; Gaglianese, Anna; Fiori, Simona; Brovedani, Paola; Scelfo, Danilo; Rose, Stephen; Tosetti, Michela; Cioni, Giovanni; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of brain diffusion MRI has led to the hypothesis that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormally connected brains. We used the model of disease-discordant identical twins to test the hypothesis that higher-order diffusion MRI protocols are able to detect abnormal connectivity in a single subject. We studied the structural connectivity of the brain of a child with ASD, and of that of his unaffected identical twin, using high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) probabilistic tractography. Cortical regions were automatically parcellated from high-resolution structural images, and HARDI-based connection matrices were produced for statistical comparison. Differences in diffusion indexes between subjects were tested by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Tracts were defined as discordant when they showed a between-subject difference of 10 percent or more. Around 11 percent of the discordant intra-hemispheric tracts showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the ASD twin, while only 1 percent showed higher values. This difference was significant. Our findings in a disease-discordant identical twin pair confirm previous literature consistently reporting lower FA values in children with ASD. PMID:26446271

  1. Unremitting Impulsive Aggression in a Child with Childhood Onset Schizophrenia and Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: The Role of Stimulants, Atypical Antipsychotics and Mood Stabilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Taşkıran, Sarper; Coffey, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unremitting Impulsive Aggression in a Child with Childhood Onset Schizophrenia and Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: The Role of Stimulants, Atypical Antipsychotics and Mood Stabilizers Presenter: Sarper Taskiran, MD1 Discussant: Barbara J. Coffey, MD, MS2 Chief Complaint and Presenting Problem C. is a 7 ½-year-old, right-handed, elementary school student in a special education class, who carries a...

  2. Representations of the caregiver–child relationship and of the self, and emotion regulation in the narratives of young children whose mothers have borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Macfie, Jenny; Swan, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) represents a severe distortion in the development of attachment, self, and emotion regulation. Study of children at high risk of developing BPD may inform precursors to BPD. In a low socioeconomic status sample of 30 children aged 4–7 whose mothers have BPD and 30 normative comparisons, representations of the caregiver–child relationship and of the self, and emotion regulation were assessed with a story-stem completion measure. In contrast to comparisons ...

  3. The Association between Parent Early Adult Drug Use Disorder and Later Observed Parenting Practices and Child Behavior Problems: Testing Alternate Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Oesterle, Sabrina; HAWKINS, J. DAVID; Catalano, Richard F.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the association between parent illicit drug use disorder (DUD) in early adulthood and observed parenting practices at ages 27 – 28 and examined the following three, theoretically-derived models explaining this link: a) a disrupted parent adult functioning model, b) a pre-existing parent personality factor model, c) a disrupted adolescent family process model. Associations between study variables and child externalizing problems also were examined. Longitudinal data linking t...

  4. The French Version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (Scared-R): Factor Structure, Convergent and Divergent Validity in a Sample of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Martine Bouvard; Jean-Luc Roulin; Anne Denis

    2013-01-01

    The principal objective of this study is to provide data on the French version of the SCARED-R. This article investigates the factor structure of the French version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R) and its convergent and divergent validity. 704 normal adolescents aged 10 to 19 years completed the questionnaires in their classrooms. A sub-sample of 595 adolescents also completed an anxiety questionnaire (the French version of the Fear Survey Schedu...

  5. A Survey of Parents' Use of Music in the Home With Their Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Building the Capacity of Families

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Anne Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Preschool aged children with disabilities including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) typically receive early childhood intervention services that adopt a family-centred approach to supporting child and family outcomes. Family-centred approaches aim to build the capacity of parents to support their child’s development immediately and into the future, and therefore offer parents a variety of resources. One indication of whether these resources have been relevant and useful to the family is to con...

  6. 应用Child-to-Child方法进行学生营养教育的效果评价%Impact Evaluation on Developing School-based Nutritional Education Through Child-to-Child Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小鸣; 段爱旭; 庾小平; 王嘉; 刘二勇

    2004-01-01

    目的以Child-to-Child方法作为载体进行学校营养教育,评价Child-to-Child(C-T-C)健康教育方法在小学生营养教育中的可行性及效果.方法采用对照实验研究的方法,对实验组学生应用C-T-C教学模式进行3个月的营养教育.实验组学生在参与自身营养促进的同时,通过调查、表演、广播等形式向辐射组学生进行营养知识的宣传和传播.结果实验组与辐射组学生营养知识及格率均明显提高(P<0.01),对营养与健康的态度及食品消费价值观念有明显转变,饮食行为有所改善,同时参与营养教育的行为得分均显著提高(P<0.01).结论应用C-T-C方法进行学校营养教育效果显著,具有投入小、收益大的优势,应加以应用和推广.

  7. Obsessions of child murder: underrecognized manifestations of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Bradley D; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Curry, Susan; Ward, Helen; Stewart, S Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common illness that remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Distressing obsessions of violence are a frequent manifestation of OCD, related to overattribution of meaning to passing thoughts, a sense of overresponsibility, and concurrent confessing rituals to decrease related anxiety. These intrusive thoughts can include infanticidal or filicidal obsessions in new parents. There is little to no evidence to suggest that these thoughts pose a significant risk of harm, which is reflected in related professional treatment guidelines. In this study, we sought to examine the recognition and risk management preferences among psychiatry professionals and trainees regarding a case example description of filicide obsessions as a manifestation of OCD. A questionnaire regarding a case marked by filicide obsessions was emailed to psychiatrists and psychiatry residents. Respondents provided their preferred and differential diagnoses, reporting their perceptions of risk and optimal case management. Of the 43 respondents, only 62 percent considered OCD in the differential diagnosis. Those considering OCD in the differential diagnosis assessed risk of harm as being lower than did those who did not consider it (3.7 versus 6.6; F(1,36) = 12.18; p obsessions. PMID:24618521

  8. Symptoms of major depressive disorder subsequent to child maltreatment: Examining change across multiple levels of analysis to identify transdiagnostic risk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Griffin, Amanda M; O'Donnell, Kieran J

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: neuroendocrine, autonomic, affective, and emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N = 110; age range = 14-19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed 18 months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed. PMID:26535940

  9. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What are the State agency's responsibilities in ensuring that nutrition education is provided? The State...

  10. Effects of pre- and postnatal nutrition interventions on child growth and body composition: the MINIMat trial in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraful Islam Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional insults and conditions during fetal life and infancy influence subsequent growth and body composition of children. Objectives: Effects of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation and exclusive breastfeeding counseling on growth of offspring aged 0–54 months and their body composition at 54 months of age were studied. Methods: In the MINIMat trial (ISRCTN16581394 in Matlab, Bangladesh, pregnant women were randomized to early (around 9 weeks or usual invitation (around 20 weeks to food supplementation and to one of the three daily micronutrient supplements: 30-mg Fe and 400-µg folic acid (Fe30F, 60-mg Fe and 400-µg folic acid (Fe60F, and multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS. The supplements were also randomized to exclusive breastfeeding (EBF counseling or to usual health messages. Results: No differences in background characteristics were observed among the intervention groups. There was also no differential effect of prenatal interventions on birthweight or birthlength. Early food supplementation reduced the level of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months of age among boys (average difference – 6.5% units, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–11.3, p=0.01 but not among girls (average difference – 2.4% units, 95% CI −2.2–7.0, p=0.31. MMS resulted in more stunting compared to standard Fe60F (average difference – 4.8% units, 95% CI 0.8–8.9, p=0.02. Breastfeeding counseling prolonged the duration of EBF (difference – 35 days, 95% CI 30.6–39.5, p<0.001. Neither pregnancy interventions nor breastfeeding counseling influenced the body composition of children at 54 months of age. Conclusion: Early food supplementation during pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting among boys aged 0–54 months, while prenatal MMS increased the proportion of stunting. Food and micronutrient supplementation or EBF intervention did not affect body composition of offspring at 54 months of age. The effects of

  11. Setting global research priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM: Results from a CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Wazny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: to systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM. Methods: an iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked using a “Research Priority Score” (RPS and the “Average Expert Agreement” (AEA was calculated for every question. Our groups of experts were comprised of both individuals working in Ministries of Health or Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs and individuals working in high–income countries (HICs in academia or NGO headquarters. A Spearman's Rho was calculated to determine the correlation between the two groups' research questions' ranks. Results: The overall RPS ranged from 64.58 to 89.31, with a median score of 81.43. AEA scores ranged from 0.54 to 0.86. Research questions involving increasing the uptake of iCCM services, research questions concerning the motivation, retention, training and supervision of Community Health Workers (CHWs and concerning adding additional responsibilities including counselling for infant and young child feeding (IYCF and treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM ranked highly. There was weak to moderate, statistically significant, correlation between scores by representatives of high–income countries and those working in–country or regionally (Spearman's ρ = 0.35034, P < 0.01. Conclusions: Operational research to determine optimal training, supervision and modes of motivation and retention for the CHW is vital for improving iCCM, globally, as is research to motivate caregivers to take advantage of iCCM services. Experts working in–country or regionally in

  12. 78 FR 9529 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... foods provided under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) and the Richard B. Russell National School... sent to Julie Brewer, Chief, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and..., Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service, 3101...

  13. Examining the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorder-71 as an Assessment Tool for Anxiety in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Deutschman, Amber A. C. G.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a questionnaire developed to assess symptoms of anxiety disorders (SCARED-71) were compared between two groups of children: children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders (ASD-group; "n" = 115), and children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; "n" = 122).…

  14. Cellular stress response: a novel target for chemoprevention and nutritional neuroprotection in aging, neurodegenerative disorders and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Vittorio; Cornelius, Carolin; Mancuso, Cesare; Pennisi, Giovanni; Calafato, Stella; Bellia, Francesco; Bates, Timothy E; Giuffrida Stella, Anna Maria; Schapira, Tony; Dinkova Kostova, Albena T; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2008-12-01

    The predominant molecular symptom of aging is the accumulation of altered gene products. Moreover, several conditions including protein, lipid or glucose oxidation disrupt redox homeostasis and lead to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the aging brain. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases or Friedreich ataxia are neurological diseases sharing, as a common denominator, production of abnormal proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which contribute to the pathogenesis of these so called "protein conformational diseases". The central nervous system has evolved the conserved mechanism of unfolded protein response to cope with the accumulation of misfolded proteins. As one of the main intracellular redox systems involved in neuroprotection, the vitagene system is emerging as a neurohormetic potential target for novel cytoprotective interventions. Vitagenes encode for cytoprotective heat shock proteins (Hsp) Hsp70 and heme oxygenase-1, as well as thioredoxin reductase and sirtuins. Nutritional studies show that ageing in animals can be significantly influenced by dietary restriction. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on health and longevity is an increasingly appreciated area of research. Reducing energy intake by controlled caloric restriction or intermittent fasting increases lifespan and protects various tissues against disease. Genetics has revealed that ageing may be controlled by changes in intracellular NAD/NADH ratio regulating sirtuin, a group of proteins linked to aging, metabolism and stress tolerance in several organisms. Recent findings suggest that several phytochemicals exhibit biphasic dose responses on cells with low doses activating signaling pathways that result in increased expression of vitagenes encoding survival proteins, as in the case of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway activated by curcumin and NAD/NADH-sirtuin-1 activated by resveratrol. Consistently, the neuroprotective roles of dietary antioxidants including

  15. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  16. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  17. 绘画治疗在儿童情绪障碍中的疗效分析%Clinical observation of painting in treatment of child emotional disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪竹; 杜姝昱; 任冬梅; 杨勤; 李光明

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical ef ects of painting in treatment of child emotional disorder.Methods:40 children with emotional disorders received the painting therapy for 4 months.The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders(SCARED)were used to assess the ef ects before and after the treatment.Results:After 4 months treat-ment,thescore of SCARED decre asedsignificantly(P<0.05).Conclusion:Painting therapy is efective to improve and stabilize the emotion of child emotional disorder and worthy of clinical use.%目的:分析探讨绘画治疗在儿童情绪障碍中的效果。方法:将40例符合儿童情绪障碍诊断标准的儿童作为研究对象,进行为期4个月的绘画治疗。于治疗前及治疗后使用儿童焦虑性情绪障碍筛查量表(SCARED)对患儿进行评估。结果:治疗4个月后,SCARED评分明显低于治疗前,治疗前后比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:绘画治疗儿童情绪障碍临床有效,绘画治疗能够有效改善和稳定情绪障碍儿童的情绪,值得临床应用。

  18. 76 FR 22603 - Geographic Preference Option for the Procurement of Unprocessed Agricultural Products in Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... FR 20316 to solicit comments on the incorporation of this procurement option in Child Nutrition... Procurement of Unprocessed Agricultural Products in Child Nutrition Programs AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... October 1, 2008, institutions receiving funds through the Child Nutrition Programs may apply an...

  19. 7 CFR 215.13a - Determining eligibility for free milk in child-care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR.... Russell National School Lunch Act or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966. This means that all eligibility... the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 or the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act. (i)...

  20. 7 CFR Appendix to Part 227 - Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING... Pursuant to sections 19(j) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1788), funds available... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education...

  1. Screening for Trauma Exposure, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Mothers Receiving Child Welfare Preventive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Griffing, Sascha; Tullberg, Erika; Roberts, Elizabeth; Ellis, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    The role of parental trauma exposure and related mental health symptoms as risk factors for child maltreatment for parents involved with the child welfare (CW) system has received limited attention. In particular, little is known about the extent to which mothers receiving CW services to prevent maltreatment have experienced trauma and suffered…

  2. 深圳市宝安区肥胖儿童营养知识、态度、行为调查%Bao'an District, Shenzhen, obese child nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘西韶; 陈侃; 刘健宏; 李迎芳; 肖巨庆

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解本地区肥胖儿童营养知识、态度和行为(KAP)现状,在肥胖儿童中普及营养知识、改变不良的饮食习惯,提倡平衡膳食.方法:随机整群抽取宝安区10所学校6~12岁学生790名,采取自行设计的调查问卷对肥胖儿童进行有关营养知识、态度、行为调查.结果:营养测试中,营养教育程度越高的儿童成绩越好,大部份儿童的营养态度端正,行为良好,但部分儿童也存在一些问题如:按照口味而不是按照营养需要选择食物,不常吃水果、常吃零食、雪糕等.结论:课堂教育对提高肥胖儿童的营养知识水平有重大作用;在加强课堂营养教育的同时,应注重综合性的宣传教育,以提高儿童的营养知识水平,建立良好的饮食行为.%Objective obese children. Bao'an District, Shenzhen, nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAP) status for the development of nutrition interventions for obese children to provide evidence. Methods Random cluster sample of 10 schools, Bao'an District, students aged 6 to 12 790, to take self-designed questionnaire about obese children, nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior. Results Nutrition tests, the higher the level of nutrition education the better results for children, most child nutrition with the right attitude, good behavior, but some children, there are some problems such as: according to taste and not in accordance with the nutritional needs of food choices, do not eat fruit, eat snacks, ice cream. Conclusion nutrition education in obese children should be strengthened to improve the nutritional knowledge, changing dietary behavior and improving the health of obese children.

  3. BIOCHEMICAL NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF LIVER CIRRHOSIS PATIENTS WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zanatta PORT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver cirrhosis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present nutritional alterations and metabolic disorders that negatively impact the prognosis. Objective The objective is to identify alterations in the metabolism of macro and micronutrients among liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma and their relation to the Child-Turcote-Pugh score and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Methods Analytical transversal study, with 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 48 liver cirrhosis patients. Laboratorial exams were carried out. The existence of an association between the biochemical parameters and the disease severity as well as the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was assessed. Results The metabolic-nutritional profile of liver cirrhosis patients caused by the hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma showed alterations, specifically the lipid (total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, protein (albumin, creatinine and uric acid, iron (transferrin, iron and ferritin saturation, hematocrit and hemoglobin, zinc and B12 vitamin profiles. There is a relation between nutritional biochemical markers and the Child-Turcote-Pugh, as well as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Conclusions Considering the existence of alterations in the metabolism of nutrients in liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma, and also that conventional nutritional assessment methods present limitations for this population, the biochemical laboratorial exams are valid to complement the diagnosis of the nutritional state in a quick and practical manner.

  4. Are child and adolescent responses to placebo higher in major depression than in anxiety disorders? A systematic review of placebo-controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous report, we hypothesized that responses to placebo were high in child and adolescent depression because of specific psychopathological factors associated with youth major depression. The purpose of this study was to compare the placebo response rates in pharmacological trials for major depressive disorder (MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and other anxiety disorders (AD-non-OCD. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature relevant to the use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents with internalized disorders, restricting our review to double-blind studies including a placebo arm. Placebo response rates were pooled and compared according to diagnosis (MDD vs. OCD vs. AD-non-OCD, age (adolescent vs. child, and date of publication. From 1972 to 2007, we found 23 trials that evaluated the efficacy of psychotropic medication (mainly non-tricyclic antidepressants involving youth with MDD, 7 pertaining to youth with OCD, and 10 pertaining to youth with other anxiety disorders (N = 2533 patients in placebo arms. As hypothesized, the placebo response rate was significantly higher in studies on MDD, than in those examining OCD and AD-non-OCD (49.6% [range: 17-90%] vs. 31% [range: 4-41%] vs. 39.6% [range: 9-53], respectively, ANOVA F = 7.1, p = 0.002. Children showed a higher stable placebo response within all three diagnoses than adolescents, though this difference was not significant. Finally, no significant effects were found with respect to the year of publication. CONCLUSION: MDD in children and adolescents appears to be more responsive to placebo than other internalized conditions, which highlights differential psychopathology.

  5. Psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: risk factors and associations with birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja Koen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal–fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition. Objective: We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and their association with adverse birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a South African birth cohort study. Methods: Pregnant women were recruited from two clinics in a peri-urban community outside Cape Town. Trauma exposure and PTSD were assessed using diagnostic interviews; validated self-report questionnaires measured other psychosocial characteristics. Gestational age at delivery was calculated and birth outcomes were assessed by trained staff. Multiple logistic regression explored risk factors for trauma and PTSD; associations with birth outcomes were investigated using linear regression. Potential confounders included study site, socioeconomic status (SES, and depression. Results: A total of 544 mother–infant dyads were included. Lifetime trauma was reported in approximately two-thirds of mothers, with about a third exposed to past-year intimate partner violence (IPV. The prevalence of current/lifetime PTSD was 19%. In multiple logistic regression, recent life stressors were significantly associated with lifetime trauma, when controlling for SES, study site, and recent IPV. Childhood trauma and recent stressors were significantly associated with PTSD, controlling for SES and study site. While no association was observed between maternal PTSD and birth outcomes, maternal trauma was significantly associated with a 0.3 unit reduction (95% CI: 0.1; 0.5 in infant head-circumference-for-age z-scores (HCAZ scores at birth in crude analysis, which remained significant when adjusted for study site and recent stressors in a multivariate regression model. Conclusions: In this exploratory study

  6. The political process in global health and nutrition governance: the G8's 2010 Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Child, and Newborn Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, John; Kulik, Julia; Bracht, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Why do informal, plurilateral summit institutions such as the Group of Eight (G8) major market democracies succeed in advancing costly public health priorities such as maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH), even when the formal, multilateral United Nations (UN) system fails to meet such goals, when G8 governments afflicted by recession, deficit, and debt seek to cut expenditures, and when the private sector is largely uninvolved, despite the growing popularity of public-private partnerships to meet global health and related nutrition, food, and agriculture needs? Guided by the concert-equality model of G8 governance, this case study of the G8's 2010 Muskoka Initiative on MNCH traces the process through which that initiative was planned within Canada, internationally prepared through negotiations with Canada's G8 partners, produced at Muskoka by the leaders in June, multiplied in its results by the UN summit in September, and reinforced by the new accountability mechanism put in place. It finds that the Muskoka summit succeeded in mobilizing major money and momentum for MNCH. This was due to the initiative and influence of children-focused nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), working with committed individuals and agencies within the host Canadian government, as well as supportive public opinion and the help of those in the UN responsible for realizing its Millennium Development Goals. Also relevant were the democratic like-mindedness of G8 leaders and their African partners, the deference of G8 members to the host's priority, and the need of the G8 to demonstrate its relevance through a division of labor between it and the new Group of Twenty summit. This study shows that G8 summits can succeed in advancing key global health issues without a global shock on the same subject to galvanize agreement and action. It suggests that, when committed, focused NGOs and government officials will lead and the private sector will follow, but that there will be a lag in the

  7. [Deficit of language comprehension in a child with semantic-pragmatic disorder--dissociation between the phonemic and semantic processing abilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruhara, N; Uno, A; Kaga, M; Matsuda, H; Kaneko, M

    1999-07-01

    We studied the language comprehension deficit of a 11-year-old child with a semantic-pragmatic disorder. We used an original test battery using abstract nouns common to the tasks of repetition, reading aloud, auditory comprehension and comprehension of written words. Although he could repeat and read aloud words as good as normal controls, he could not choose correct pictures from semantically or phonemically resembling pictures by listening to or reading target words. This test demonstrated the dissociation between his phonemic and semantic processing abilities. An examination of the cerebral blood flow with SPECT suggested that the dysfunction of the left temporal lobe caused the deficit in language comprehension. PMID:10429489

  8. A Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis of the Construct Validity of Child Anxiety Disorders in a Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, David A.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Piacentini, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic.…

  9. Maternal parenting behavior and child behavior problems in families of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Parents of a child with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined associations between child behavior problems and parenting behavior. Results showed that mothers of children with ASD reported significantly lower scores on Rules and Disciplin...

  10. Body mass index and anxiety/depression as mediators of the effects of child sexual and physical abuse on physical health disorders in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; McCarthy-Jones, Roseline

    2014-12-01

    The relation between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and physical health disorders in adulthood, and what factors may serve as mediators, remains poorly understood. Using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N=3,486), we tested whether CSA was associated with physical health disorders in adult women and if mediated effects via body mass index (BMI), anxiety/depression, alcohol dependence, and smoking were present. Compared to women with no CSA, women who had experienced CSA involving intercourse had more than twice the odds of being obese, more than 3 times the odds of experiencing mental health disorders, more than 4 times the odds of being alcohol dependent, more than 5 times the odds of being drug dependent, and more than 6 times the odds of attempting suicide. Those experiencing both CSA and child physical abuse (CPA) were on average over 11kg heavier than those with neither CSA nor CPA. After controlling for demographics, CPA, and childhood bullying, CSA was associated with the majority of physical health disorders studied (typically 50-100% increases in odds). Evidence was found consistent with mediation by BMI (typically accounting for 5-20% increases in odds) and anxiety/depression (typically accounting for 8-40% increases in odds), in a dose-response manner, for the majority of physical health disorders. Bidirectional relations among these mediators and physical health disorders, and residual confounding, may have led to overestimation of mediation through BMI and anxiety/depression and underestimation of mediation through alcohol/smoking. Relations between both CPA and childhood bullying and physical health disorders in adulthood were also found. Longitudinal studies employing more sensitive measures of potential mediators are now required.

  11. MedlinePlus: Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or steam foods instead of frying them Limit fast food and junk food Offer water or milk instead ... Food and Drug Administration) - PDF Tips to Make Fast Food Friendlier for Kids (American Heart Association) Top Ten ...

  12. The Roles of Peritraumatic Dissociation, Child Physical Abuse, and Child Sexual Abuse in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Adult Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Melanie D.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has indicated that women who experience childhood physical abuse or childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adult victimization. Recently, peritraumatic dissociation (PD) has been suggested as another possible risk factor for PTSD and adult victimization. The purpose of…

  13. Nutritional risk screening in hospitalized patients with respiratory disorders%呼吸内科住院患者营养风险筛查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平骥; 卞婧; 周业平; 夏国光

    2009-01-01

    目的 调查呼吸内科住院患者的营养风险、营养不足发生率及营养支持应用状况.方法 以2008年10月至12月在北京积水潭医院呼吸内科住院的100例患者为研究对象,入院后第2天和住院2周或出院时进行营养风险筛查2002(NRS2002).营养不足判定标准为体重指数<18.5 g/m2、血清白蛋白<35 g/或前白蛋白<20 g/L.结果 住院2周或出院时NRS2002筛查结果显示,所有患者营养风险及营养不足发生率分别为59%及54%;卧床患者的营养风险和营养不足发生率分别为87.8%和82.9%,明显高于非卧床患者的32.2%和30.5%(P<0.001);住院时间大于2周患者的营养风险和营养不足发生率分别为75.0%和66.2%,明显高于小于2周患者的9.4%和21.9%(P<0.001).所有患者的营养支持率为22%,其中肠外营养与肠内营养的比例为1.2:1.结论 NRS2002适用于呼吸内科住院患者的营养风险筛查.卧床和住院时问大于2周可能增加呼吸内科住院患者营养风险和营养不足的发生率.营养支持的应用在呼吸内科患者中仍不够充分和合理.%Objective To explore the nutrition risk,undemutrition rates,and nutrirlon support in the hos-pitalized patients with respiratory disorders.Methods Totally 100 hospitalized patients in department of respirato-ry medicine of our hospital from October to December 2008 were enrolled in this study.The nutrition risks were screened on the next day after admission and then two weeks later using Nutrition Risk Screening(NRS2002).Body mass index(BMI)lower than 18.5 ks/m2,serum albumin(sALB)lower than 35 g/L,or pre-ALB was lower than 20 g/L Wag regarded as undemutrition.Results Among all these 100 patients evaluated by NRS2002,59 patients were judged at the risk of malnutrition and 54 patients developed undemutrition two weekB later The nutrition risk and undernutuition rate among non-ambulatory patients were 87.7%and 82.9%,which were signifi-cantly higher than in ambulatory

  14. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time. PMID:26424720

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time.

  17. The Science of Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential. (Contains 23…

  18. Parenting, family functioning and anxiety-disordered children: Comparisons to controls, changes after family versus child CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Jongerden; S.M. Bögels

    2014-01-01

    We examined (1) whether families of clinic-referred anxiety-disordered children are characterized by anxiety-enhancing parenting and family functioning, compared to control families; (2) whether family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT) for anxiety-disordered children decreases anxiety-enhancing pa

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Child Anxiety Multi-Day Program (CAMP) for Separation Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Lauren C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2013-01-01

    While the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy for childhood anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety disorder (SAD), has been established, tailoring such treatments to particular interests and needs may enhance uptake of evidence-based interventions. The current investigation evaluates the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an…

  20. Predicting Outcomes Following Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Child Anxiety Disorders: The Influence of Genetic, Demographic and Clinical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Tropeano, Maria; Creswell, Cathy; Collier, David A.; Cooper, Peter; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Morris, Talia; Rapee, Ronald M.; Roberts, Susanna; Donald, Jennifer A.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within a therapeutic gene by environment (G × E) framework, we recently demonstrated that variation in the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism; "5HTTLPR" and marker rs6330 in Nerve Growth Factor gene; "NGF" is associated with poorer outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety…

  1. Intra- and Extra-Familial Child Molestation as Pathways Building on Parental and Relational Deficits and Personality Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, Stefan; Buschman, J.; Kunst, M. J. J.; Winkel, F. W.

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the intra- and extra-familial pathways of child molestation. The data presented show preliminary evidence that the difference between the intra- and extra-familial routes can be explained by schizoid and avoidant (intra-familial) and antisocial and passive-aggressive (extra-fa

  2. Aligning over the Child: Parenting Alliance Mediates the Association of Autism Spectrum Disorder Atypicality with Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Chapman, Crystal R.; Herzog, Teresa K.; Maduro, Ralitsa S.

    2013-01-01

    Children's symptoms of autism are robustly linked to diminished parent well-being and relationship distress, however they are less clearly linked to other aspects of family development. We focused on child atypical symptoms (i.e., behavioral stereotypies) and investigated relations to parental stress and the parenting alliance. We verified that…

  3. The Relationship between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…

  4. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Child-Directed Speech of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Baranek, Grace T.; Mandulak, Kerry C.; Dalton, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Young boys with autism were compared to typically developing boys on responses to nonsocial and child-directed speech (CDS) stimuli. Behavioral (looking) and physiological (heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia) measures were collected. Boys with autism looked equally as much as chronological age-matched peers at nonsocial stimuli, but less…

  5. A Video-Based Package to Teach a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Write Her Name

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, D.W.; Anderson, A.; Treccase, F.; Deppeler, J.; Furlonger, B.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to trial a procedure involving point-of-view video modeling, backward chaining and reinforcement to teach a child with ASD to write her name. Video modeling and reinforcement were used to teach letter writing, and backward chaining to produce the complete name. A multip

  6. Prognostic value of Child-Turcotte criteria in medically treated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E; Schlichting, P; Fauerholdt, L;

    1984-01-01

    The Child- Turcotte criteria (CTC) (based on serum bilirubin and albumin, ascites, neurological disorder and nutrition) are established prognostic factors in patients with cirrhosis having portacaval shunt surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of CTC...... compared using the log-rank test. Survival decreased significantly with increasing degree of abnormality (A----B----C) of albumin (p less than 0.001), ascites (p less than 0.001), bilirubin (p = 0.02) and nutritional status (p = 0.03). Survival was insignificantly influenced by neurological status (p = 0...

  7. Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-01-01

    We compared anthropometric values, nutrient intake, the Healthy Eating Index and food variety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 20 on a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet and 85 on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain) using 3-days food diaries. Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic…

  8. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  9. 77 FR 17006 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ..., 1983, and 49 FR 22676, May 31, 1984). Description Section 17(d)(2)(A) of the Child Nutrition Act of... Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC..., 2012, through June 30, 2013. Consistent with section 17(f)(17) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966,...

  10. 76 FR 16599 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ..., 1983, and 49 FR 22676, May 31, 1984). Description Section 17(d)(2)(A) of the Child Nutrition Act of... Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC..., 2011, through June 30, 2012. Consistent with section 17(f)(17) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966,...

  11. 78 FR 61324 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Special Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ...) and all Child Nutrition (CN) State Agencies. Data collection for the Special Nutrition Program....07 0.21 Paper Survey. ] State Agency Child 53 1 53 1 53 Nutrition Directors. TOTAL--YEAR 3 1,956 1 1... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection;...

  12. Efficacy of a sound-based intervention with a child with an autism spectrum disorder and auditory sensory over-responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Bryan M; Thompson, Kelly; St John, Holly

    2014-03-01

    Sound-based interventions (SBIs) are being used by paediatric occupational therapists to help children with autism spectrum disorders and co-morbid sensory processing disorders. A limited yet growing body of evidence is emerging related to the efficacy of SBIs in reducing sensory processing deficits among paediatric clients with co-morbid conditions. The current study employed an ABA single-subject case-controlled design, implementing The Listening Program® with a 7-year-old child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who demonstrated auditory sensory over-responsivity (SOR). The intervention consisted of 10 weeks of psycho-acoustically modified classical music that was delivered using specialized headphones and amplifier and a standard CD player. Repeated measures were conducted during the A(1), B and A(2) phases of the study using the Sensory Processing Measure, a subjective caregiver questionnaire, and the Sensory Over-Responsivity Scales, an examiner-based assessment measure to track changes of the participant's auditory SOR-related behaviours. The results indicated that the participant exhibited a decrease in the number of negative (avoidant, verbal and physical negative) and self-stimulatory behaviours. The decreases in negative and self-stimulatory behaviour may have been due to the therapeutic effect of the repeated exposure to the Sensory Over-Responsivity Scales or The Listening Program SBI. PMID:24532098

  13. The progression of nutritional therapy and nutritional evaluation of child chronic renal insufficiency%儿童慢性肾功能不全的营养评估和营养治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜明霞; 夏正坤

    2012-01-01

    营养治疗是慢性肾功能不全综合治疗的一个组成部分,患病儿童营养状况的好差不仅能影响治疗效果,而且还影响其生长发育.适量的蛋白质,充足的热量以及维生素和矿物质的供给,能延缓疾病的发展和减少并发症的发生.定期做营养评估,可为患病儿童营养治疗方案的调整提供依据.%Nutritional therapy is one part of combined therapy of chronic renal disease. The nutritional status is very important to growth and development of the children patients. The supplementation of appropriate amount of protein, abundant energy, vitamin and minerals can remission the development of disease and decrease the incidence of the complication. The regular nutritional evaluation can offer the basis of the adjustment of nutritional therapeutic schedule.

  14. Child Nutrition and the School Setting. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry, United States Senate. One Hundred Tenth Congress, First Session (March 6, 2007). Senate Hearing 110-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Senate, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Statements were presented by: Honorable Tom Harkin, Chairman, U.S. Senator from Iowa, Chairman, Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry; Honorable Robert B. Casey, Jr., U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania; Honorable Saxby Chambliss, U.S. Senator from Georgia; Honorable Richard G. Lugar; Honorable Ken Salazar, U.S. Senator from Colorado; Kelly…

  15. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  16. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Child-Directed Speech of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Typical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Linda R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Baranek, Grace T.; Mandulak, Kerry C.; Dalton, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Young boys with autism were compared to typically developing boys on responses to nonsocial and child-directed speech (CDS) stimuli. Behavioral (looking) and physiological (heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia) measures were collected. Boys with autism looked equally as much as chronological age-matched peers at nonsocial stimuli, but less at CDS stimuli. Boys with autism and language age-matched peers differed in patterns of looking at live versus videotaped CDS stimuli. Boys with aut...

  17. Medication Use before, during, and after Pregnancy among Women with Eating Disorders: A Study from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lupattelli

    Full Text Available Little is known about medication use among women with eating disorders in relation to pregnancy.To explore patterns of and associations between use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal and analgesic medications and eating disorders in the period before, during and after pregnancy.This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A total of 62,019 women, enrolled at approximately 17 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry and completed three MoBa questionnaires. The questionnaires provided diagnostic information on broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN, binge eating disorder (BED and recurrent self-induced purging in the absence of binge eating (EDNOS-P, along with self-reported use of medication six months before, during, and 0-6 months after pregnancy.The prevalence of eating disorder subtypes before and/or during pregnancy was: 0.09% AN (n = 54, 0.94% BN (n = 585, 0.10% EDNOS-P (n = 61 and 5.00% BED (n = 3104. The highest over-time prevalence of psychotropic use was within the AN (3.7-22.2% and EDNOS-P (3.3-9.8% groups. Compared to controls, BN was directly associated with incident use of psychotropics in pregnancy (adjusted RR: 2.25, 99% CI: 1.17-4.32. Having AN (adjusted RR: 5.11, 99% CI: 1.53-17.01 or EDNOS-P (adjusted RR: 6.77, 99% CI: 1.41-32.53 was directly associated with use of anxiolytics/sedatives postpartum. The estimates of use of analgesics (BED and laxatives (all eating disorders subtypes were high at all time periods investigated.Use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal, and analgesic medications is extensive among women with eating disorders in the period around pregnancy. Female patients with eating disorders should receive evidence-based counseling about the risk of medication exposure versus the risk of untreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and postpartum.

  18. Medication Use before, during, and after Pregnancy among Women with Eating Disorders: A Study from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupattelli, Angela; Spigset, Olav; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Hatle, Marianne; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about medication use among women with eating disorders in relation to pregnancy. Aims To explore patterns of and associations between use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal and analgesic medications and eating disorders in the period before, during and after pregnancy. Method This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A total of 62,019 women, enrolled at approximately 17 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry and completed three MoBa questionnaires. The questionnaires provided diagnostic information on broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and recurrent self-induced purging in the absence of binge eating (EDNOS-P), along with self-reported use of medication six months before, during, and 0–6 months after pregnancy. Results The prevalence of eating disorder subtypes before and/or during pregnancy was: 0.09% AN (n = 54), 0.94% BN (n = 585), 0.10% EDNOS-P (n = 61) and 5.00% BED (n = 3104). The highest over-time prevalence of psychotropic use was within the AN (3.7–22.2%) and EDNOS-P (3.3–9.8%) groups. Compared to controls, BN was directly associated with incident use of psychotropics in pregnancy (adjusted RR: 2.25, 99% CI: 1.17–4.32). Having AN (adjusted RR: 5.11, 99% CI: 1.53–17.01) or EDNOS-P (adjusted RR: 6.77, 99% CI: 1.41–32.53) was directly associated with use of anxiolytics/sedatives postpartum. The estimates of use of analgesics (BED) and laxatives (all eating disorders subtypes) were high at all time periods investigated. Conclusions Use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal, and analgesic medications is extensive among women with eating disorders in the period around pregnancy. Female patients with eating disorders should receive evidence-based counseling about the risk of medication exposure versus the risk of untreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:26200658

  19. Improvement by a Factorial Design 2n of the Nutritional Quality of the Gruels of Yams Intended for Child and Young Children Congoles

    OpenAIRE

    Elenga Michel; Y.S. Itoua Okouango; Mananga Vital; Silou Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at proposing the improvement of nutritional quality and the energy density of the gruels of the flours of yam and marrow thanks to the factorial design. The production of the flour and the formulation of the flour of yam by marrows for the production of the gruels having the recommended nutritional characteristics were optimized by has factorial design. 16 experiments each one, carried out after has judicious choice of 4 variables led to has mathematical model in the form of h...

  20. Nutrition support for neurologically impaired children: a clinical report of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undernutrition, growth failure, overweight, micronutrient deficiencies, and osteopenia are nutritional co-morbidities that affect the neurologically impaired child. Monitoring neurologically impaired children for nutritional co-morbidities is an integral part of their care. Early involvement by a ...