Sample records for child language

  1. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Article Omission across Child Languages (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Gavarro, Anna; de Lange, Joke; Caprin, Claudia


    Article omission is known to be a feature of early grammar, although it does not affect all child languages to the same extent. In this article we analyze the production of articles by 12 children, 4 speakers of Catalan, 4 speakers of Italian, and 4 speakers of Dutch. We consider the results in the light of (i) the adult input the children are…

  3. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda


    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  4. Child Language Disability: A Historical Perspective (United States)

    De Montfort Supple, Marie; Soderpalm, Ewa


    This article traces the historical foundations of the identification of language disorders in childhood through an international perspective. It describes the development of the profession of speech-language pathology, initially in Western Europe and later in North America. The roles played by key researchers in the area of child language are…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Language development is the crucial part of the human cognitive nature, understanding language development is important aspect to understand the base and to recall its various components of linguistics. Language development is a process starting early in human life, when a person begins to acquire language by learning it as it is spoken and by mimicry. Scholars share the conviction that key aspects of personality and ability including linguistic and communication ability, are formulated in the earliest stages of life. But they are divided on the role of human intuition on one hand and heredity or environment has in childhood development of knowledge, aptitude and skill. Equally they are divided on how skills emerge and develop. A number of different theories have been advanced that are meant to explain language acquisition. This paper therefore examines the acquisition and theories based on the language development.

  6. Child Sexual Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Sexual Abuse URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Sexual Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Child Agency and Language Policy in Transnational Families


    Fogle, Lyn W.; King, Kendall A.


    Study of family language policy unites research in child language acquisition and language policy to better understand how parents’ language decisions, practices and beliefs influence child outcomes (King, Fogle & Logan-Terry, 2008). Thus far, this work has focused on how family language policy shapes children’s language competencies, formal school success (e.g., Snow, 1990), and the future status of minority languages (e.g., Fishman, 1991), with less attention to children’s active roles in s...

  8. Roots and Rogues in German Child Language (United States)

    Duffield, Nigel


    This article is concerned with the proper characterization of subject omission at a particular stage in German child language. It focuses on post-verbal null subjects in finite clauses, here termed Rogues. It is argued that the statistically significant presence of Rogues, in conjunction with their distinct developmental profile, speaks against a…

  9. The child, language and literature


    Williams, Elin (Elin Elizabeth)


    This thesis aims not only to set Proust's treatment of childhood in the context of his work as a whole, but also to set that work in the context of contemporary writing about childhood. Chapter 1 reveals the existence of a fashion in Proust's time for literature devoted to childhood. This genre has a tendency towards technical innovation, despite repetition of the same subject matter, or 'myths'. One particularly important myth, that of the 'child-artist', is seen to be inf...

  10. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less. (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E


    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less. PMID:24634566

  11. Child Language Data Exchange System Tools for Clinical Analysis. (United States)

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida


    The Child Language Data Exchange System Project has developed methods for analyzing many aspects of child language development, including grammar, lexicon, discourse, gesture, phonology, and fluency. This article will describe the methods available for each of these six fields, and how they can be used for assessment in the clinical setting. PMID:27111267

  12. The Child with Delayed Language: Assessment and Management


    Tervo, Raymond C.; Kinney, Cheryl A.


    Speech and language disorders are the most common developmental problems among preschool children. Early detection and remediation of delayed language development are important in helping the child establish appropriate social behavior and acquire additional information about the world through the use of language.

  13. Deserted Island or a Child's First Language Forgetting. (United States)

    Isurin, Ludmila


    Reports on a longitudinal study that examines first language vocabulary decline in a child whose native language input effectively ceased after her immersion in a second language environment. The subject was a Russian girl adopted by an American family and brought to the United States, completely isolated from any contact with Russian. (Author/VWL)

  14. Language Development in the Pre-School Child. (United States)

    Lenskyj, Helen

    This brief overview of child language acquisition begins with a discussion of the affective and cognitive dimensions of the transition period from babbling to speech. Three theories of language acquisition--reinforcement theory, social learning theory, and "innate mechanism" theory--are reviewed. Several theories of the function of language,…



    Renee Chong


    This article examined the rate of self-initiated communication acquisition, in a second language, of a child with autism. The language treatment objective was to teach functional communication skills in English through the use of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). The findings of this study show that it is possible for a child with autism to acquire functional communication skills in his second language even though he did not possess such communication skills in his first language.

  16. Language competence in forensic interviews for suspected child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa A; Tishelman, Amy C


    Forensic interviews with children for suspected child sexual abuse require meeting children "where they are" in terms of their developmental level, readiness to disclose, culture, and language. The field lacks research indicating how to accommodate children's diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This article focuses on language competence, defined here as the ability of an organization and its personnel (in this case, Child Advocacy Centers and forensic interviewers) to communicate effectively with clients regardless of their preferred language(s). In this qualitative study, 39 U.S. child forensic interviewers and child advocacy center directors discussed their experiences, practices, and opinions regarding interviews with children and families who are not native speakers of English. Topics include the importance of interviewing children in their preferred language, problems in interpreted interviews, bilingual interviews, and current and recommended procedures. Recommendations for practice and further research are included. PMID:27348799

  17. Evaluation of the child with delayed speech or language. (United States)

    Coplan, J


    Because of the relative frequency of speech/language delay, all infants and preschool children should undergo routine language screening as part of health care maintenance. Diagnostic evaluation of the child with speech or language delay should answer the following questions: What is the child's descriptive diagnosis (eg, hearing impaired, mentally retarded, DLD, etc.)? What is the child's etiologic diagnosis (eg, congenital viral infection, single gene disorder, birth asphyxia, etc.)? What is the appropriate intervention strategy (amplification, orally based speech therapy, total communication, "infant stimulation" program, etc.)? What is this child's long-term prognosis, to the extent that this is knowable? All children with speech or language delay should undergo formal audiologic testing, regardless of how well the child seems to hear in an office setting, and regardless of whether other disabilities are present which might independently explain the speech/language delay. Evaluation by a psychologist, a speech/language pathologist, or both should follow, with referral to an appropriate intervention program based upon the results of formal developmental testing. Additional medical evaluation (eg, CAT scan, EEG, karyotype), and genetic counseling must be determined on a case-by-case basis. Long-term follow-up should include an awareness that speech or language delay during the preschool years often signifies long-term developmental difficulties, warranting close follow-up of such children as they advance through the school age years. PMID:4000735

  18. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less


    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E.


    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The cur...

  19. Language Maintenance in a Multilingual Family: Informal Heritage Language Lessons in Parent-Child Interactions (United States)

    Kheirkhah, Mina; Cekaite, Asta


    The present study explores language socialization patterns in a Persian-Kurdish family in Sweden and examines how "one-parent, one-language" family language policies are instantiated and negotiated in parent-child interactions. The data consist of video-recordings and ethnographic observations of family interactions, as well as…

  20. Relationship between Maternal Language Parameters and the Child's Language Competency and Developmental Condition. (United States)

    Hooshyar, Nahid T.

    Maternal language directed to 21 nonhandicapped, 21 Down syndrome, and 19 language impaired preschool children was examined. The three groups (all Caucasian and middle-class) were matched in mean length of utterance (MLU) and in developmental skills as measured on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Mother-child language interaction was…

  1. Language Competence in Movement: A Child's Perspective (United States)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup


    This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus is shifted from viewing the individual's language…

  2. Language Maintenance and the Deaf Child (United States)

    Willoughby, Louisa


    For all families with deaf children, choosing communication methods is a complex and evolving business. This process is particularly complex for migrant background families, who must not only negotiate the role that speaking or signing will play in their communication practices, but also which spoken language(s) will be used--that of the host…

  3. Deficits in Narrative Abilities in Child British Sign Language Users with Specific Language Impairment (United States)

    Herman, Ros; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Morgan, Gary


    This study details the first ever investigation of narrative skills in a group of 17 deaf signing children who have been diagnosed with disorders in their British Sign Language development compared with a control group of 17 deaf child signers matched for age, gender, education, quantity, and quality of language exposure and non-verbal…

  4. Caught in the Middle: Child Language Brokering as a Form of Unrecognised Language Service (United States)

    Antonini, Rachele


    This paper will present the findings of a wide-scale research aimed at studying the phenomenon of Child Language Brokering (henceforth CLB) in Italy. After providing a description of recent immigration patterns and the provision of language services in Italy, and an overview of current research in this field, this study will discuss narrative data…

  5. Towards the Reconfiguration of Language Education for the Nigerian Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface Igbeneghu


    Full Text Available In this article, we examine the extant language policies, with particular regard to the Nigerian Child. We take a profound look at the  National Policy on Education 1977, the UNICEF Annual Report 1995, the National Policy on Education 1998, the National Policy on Education 2004, the National Policy for Integrated Early Childhood Development in Nigeria 2007, the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, the Nigeria Millennium Development Goals Report 2010, etc. We seek to appraise the strengths and weaknesses of these policies in order to determine the extent to which they are beneficial to the Nigerian child in the context of plurilingualism and globalization. This appraisal is done employing a tridimensional framework: hindsight, insight and foresight perspectives. We argue for the reconfiguration of language education aimed at functional plurilingualism for the Nigerian child. Recommendations are made in view of enhancing the prospects of functional plurilingualism for every Nigerian child, who will consequently be competent to contribute meaningfully towards the development of Nigeria in particular and mankind in general.Keywords: Nigerian child, National Policy on Education, language education, Millennium Development Goals, functional plurilingualism

  6. Helping the Child in the Conquest of the Written Language (United States)

    Joosten, A. M.


    A. M. Joosten writes from his deep and long classroom experience of the many activities to use with the movable alphabet for solidifying language skills. He is always sensitive to situations where a child may have come late to the House of Children and therefore might need incentives to engage with the materials. This valuable information is for…

  7. Child Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Nepali (नेपा ... rehausseurs - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Child Safety Checklist हिन्दी (Hindi) ...

  8. Prospective Relations between Maternal Autonomy Support and Child Executive Functioning: Investigating the Mediating Role of Child Language Ability (United States)

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie


    Although emerging evidence suggests that parental behavior is related to the development of child executive functioning (EF), the mechanisms through which parenting affects child EF have yet to be investigated. The goal of this study was to examine the potential mediating role of child language in the prospective relation between maternal autonomy…

  9. Language learning, socioeconomic status, and child-directed speech. (United States)

    Schwab, Jessica F; Lew-Williams, Casey


    Young children's language experiences and language outcomes are highly variable. Research in recent decades has focused on understanding the extent to which family socioeconomic status (SES) relates to parents' language input to their children and, subsequently, children's language learning. Here, we first review research demonstrating differences in the quantity and quality of language that children hear across low-, mid-, and high-SES groups, but also-and perhaps more importantly-research showing that differences in input and learning also exist within SES groups. Second, in order to better understand the defining features of 'high-quality' input, we highlight findings from laboratory studies examining specific characteristics of the sounds, words, sentences, and social contexts of child-directed speech (CDS) that influence children's learning. Finally, after narrowing in on these particular features of CDS, we broaden our discussion by considering family and community factors that may constrain parents' ability to participate in high-quality interactions with their young children. A unification of research on SES and CDS will facilitate a more complete understanding of the specific means by which input shapes learning, as well as generate ideas for crafting policies and programs designed to promote children's language outcomes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:264-275. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27196418

  10. The Language Development of a Deaf Child with a Cochlear Implant (United States)

    Mouvet, Kimberley; Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Taverniers, Miriam; Van Herreweghe, Mieke


    Hearing parents of deaf or partially deaf infants are confronted with the complex question of communication with their child. This question is complicated further by conflicting advice on how to address the child: in spoken language only, in spoken language supported by signs, or in signed language. This paper studies the linguistic environment…

  11. Language development in early childhood in relation to child's gender and parental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja


    Full Text Available Many studies show that parental education and child's gender are the factors that influence child's language development. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to examine the effect of parental education and child's gender on language competence of children aged 3 to 4 years. The sample included 80 randomly chosen children, 39 girls and 41 boys, who were included in one of 13 preschool institutions from different regions of Slovenia. The average age of the children was 3;1 years at the first assessment and 4;1 years at the second assessment, one year later. The characteristics of child'slanguage development were assessed by 3 assessors in 3 different social contexts, in test situation by a trained examiner, in child's home environment by his mother and in the preschool institution by his preschool teacher. Results show a positive effect of mother's educational level on some of the measures of child's language development, e.g. achievements on Language development scale; developmental level of storytelling, mother's estimation of child's language competence, while the father's educational level had no significant effect on any of the obtained measures. Child's gender had only a small effect on his achievements on language expression subscale at the age of 3 and 4 as well as on the preschool teacher's estimations of child's language competence at 4 years of age.

  12. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola


    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  13. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature


    Yalda Kazemi; Helen Stringer; Thomas Klee


    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Ir...

  14. Mother and preschool teacher as assessors of the child's language competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja Peklaj


    Full Text Available Many researchers include child's parents as assessors of his/her language development as the results of many studies suggest their assessments to be valid and reliable measures of child's language competence. In the longitudinal study, presented in this paper, we examined whether child's mother and his/her preschool teacher can provide a valid estimation of child's language development. The sample included 80 Slovenian children from different preschool institutions, aged 3;1 years at first and 4;1 years at second assessment. Children's language competence was assessed individually, directly by the testators using Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test and indirectly by mothers and preschool teachers using the Child's Language Competence Questionnaire for Parents and Preschool Teachers. The achieved results showed that the estimates given by mothers and preschool teachers represent valid measures of child's language competence but not stable in time. The estimations given by mothers and preschool teachers explain a small share in variability of children's achievements on the Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test.

  15. Language Delays and Child Depressive Symptoms: the Role of Early Stimulation in the Home. (United States)

    Herman, Keith C; Cohen, Daniel; Owens, Sarah; Latimore, Tracey; Reinke, Wendy M; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne


    The present study investigated the role of early stimulation in the home and child language delays in the emergence of depressive symptoms. Data were from a longitudinal study of at-risk children in Hawaii (n = 587). Low learning stimulation in the home at age 3 and language delays in first grade both significantly increased risk for child depressive symptoms in third grade. Structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized path models from home learning environment at age 3 to depressive symptoms in third grade controlling for a host of correlated constructs (maternal depression, child temperament, and child internalizing symptoms). Total language skills in the first grade mediated the effect of home learning environment on depressive symptoms. The study and findings fit well with a nurturing environment perspective. Implications for understanding the etiology of child depression and for designing interventions and prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:27178009

  16. Music and Sign Language to Promote Infant and Toddler Communication and Enhance Parent-Child Interaction (United States)

    Colwell, Cynthia; Memmott, Jenny; Meeker-Miller, Anne


    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using music and/or sign language to promote early communication in infants and toddlers (6-20 months) and to enhance parent-child interactions. Three groups used for this study were pairs of participants (care-giver(s) and child) assigned to each group: 1) Music Alone 2) Sign Language…

  17. Child Physical Abuse: The Relevance of Language and Social Interaction Research. (United States)

    Wilson, Steven R.


    Proposes that language and social interaction (LSI) scholars can contribute to interdisciplinary efforts aimed at understanding and responding to child physical abuse. Discusses reasons why LSI scholars might shy away from such study and considers links between face-to-face family interaction and child physical abuse, demonstrating the relevance…

  18. Police officers' use of emotional language during child sexual abuse investigations


    Oxburgh, Gavin; WILLIAMSON, T; Ost, James


    This paper examined the use of emotional language by police officers that interview child victims as well as suspects during sexual offence investigations. It was hypothesised that officers who interviewed child victims prior to questioning suspects would use more emotional utterances during interviews with the suspect than those who had not interviewed the child victims. In addition, it was also hypothesised that the number of emotional utterances used would vary as a function of the gender ...

  19. Enhanced Plasticity in Spoken Language Acquisition for Child Learners: Evidence from Phonetic Training Studies in Child and Adult Learners of English (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria; Ylinen, Sari


    Speech sounds that contain multiple phonetic cues are often difficult for foreign-language learners, especially if certain cues are weighted differently in the foreign and native languages. Greek adult and child speakers of English were studied to determine the effect of native language on second-language (L2) cue weighting and, in particular, to…

  20. Constraints on Parameter Setting: A Grammatical Analysis of Some Acquisition Stages in German Child Language. (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald


    Argues that to improve the parameter model as a theory of language acquisition it has to be constrained in several ways. Results on the acquisition of subject-verb agreement, verb placement, empty subjects, and negation in German child language are presented. (55 references) (JL)

  1. English Language Learners and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (United States)

    Tran, Thu Hoang


    This literature review looks at the impacts of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 on English language learners (ELLs), educators and schools. A brief overview of the current state of English as a second language teaching for adult learners will first be described. Then the importance of the enactment of the NCLB of 2001 is mentioned. Both…

  2. A Procedure for Directing a Sign-Language Theatre Production for a Child Audience. (United States)

    Allen, Darlene Kaye

    This paper sets forth step-by-step procedures which novice sign-language theatre directors can use as a guide for their first sign-language theatre experiences. Since the procedures were developed during the production of a play for a mixed adult and child audience, it is assumed that the general guidelines set forth are applicable to a production…

  3. Assessing the Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Language Delayed Children: A Clinical Investigation (United States)

    Falkus, Gila; Tilley, Ciara; Thomas, Catherine; Hockey, Hannah; Kennedy, Anna; Arnold, Tina; Thorburn, Blair; Jones, Katie; Patel, Bhavika; Pimenta, Claire; Shah, Rena; Tweedie, Fiona; O'Brien, Felicity; Leahy, Ruth; Pring, Tim


    Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) is widely used by speech and language therapists to improve the interactions between children with delayed language development and their parents/carers. Despite favourable reports of the therapy from clinicians, little evidence of its effectiveness is available. We investigated the effects of PCIT as…

  4. Thirty-Five Years of Care of Child Language in Egypt (United States)

    Kotby, M. Nasser; El-Sady, Safaa; Hegazi, Mona


    The team of the Unit of Phoniatrics and Logopedics of the Ain Shams University Clinic in Cairo, Egypt, has worked for three and half decades to spread awareness of child language disorders. This involved publications to inform the public, as well as health care professionals, about the needs of children with delayed language, through description…

  5. The relationship of parenting stress and child temperament to language development among economically disadvantaged preschoolers. (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah


    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to identify factors that promote their development among high-risk groups. This preliminary study explored two potential factors that may be related to language skills in 56 low SES mother-child dyads (children aged 2; 8-4; 10), namely child temperament and parenting stress. Results showed that child temperament and parenting stress were related to children's oral language skills. Child temperament characteristics that would likely aid social interaction were related to narrative ability and children rated high on emotionality had poorer receptive vocabulary skills. Parenting stress was related to children's receptive and expressive vocabulary skills. Results are interpreted in terms of the possible mediating role of parent-child interactions in children's oral language skill development, and future directions for family intervention are discussed. PMID:18838014

  6. Teaching to the Test: How No Child Left Behind Impacts Language Policy, Curriculum, and Instruction for English Language Learners (United States)

    Menken, Kate


    In the wake of the federal No Child Left Behind legislation, standardized tests have become increasingly high-stakes. Yet English language learners (ELLs) typically score far below native English speakers, creating pressure to "teach to the test." This article shares findings from an intensive year long study in 10 New York City high schools,…

  7. Parent-Child Reading in English as a Second Language: Effects on Language and Literacy Development of Chinese Kindergarteners (United States)

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him


    This study investigated the effects of dialogic parent-child reading in English on 51 Hong Kong kindergarteners learning English as a second language. Children were pre-tested on nonverbal IQ, reading interest and receptive vocabulary, word reading and phonological awareness in both Chinese and English. They were then assigned randomly to one of…

  8. Anaphora and Relativization in Child Second Language Acquisition. (United States)

    Flanigan, Beverly Olson


    Examined the development of control over anaphoric reference and relativization by 23 elementary school students learning English as a Second Language (ESL) in a pull-out classroom employing little overt grammar instruction. Results found that second language exposure and proficiency level, rather that age or first language background, had more…

  9. Comprehensible Output: A Lesson from a Child Acquiring a First Language


    Patuan Raja


    The present article is intended to examine what a child acquiring a first language did when he encountered communication block in his interaction with others. More specifically, it examine linguistic output modification attempted by the child when he was not successful in getting his meaning across or in achieving his intended goal. The corpus data, in the form of cards containing naturally occurring utterances together with the context which were collected for one year, starting at age 1;6 a...

  10. Promoting Social Communication in a Child with Specific Language Impairment (United States)

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Lum, John D. K.


    Social difficulties represent a major area of concern in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Social skills interventions targeting communication or language skills of children with SLI have been generally ineffective. The current study tested the efficacy of a social skills intervention consisting of multiple behavioral interventions…

  11. Healthy child, healthy future: speech and language therapy for children


    Public Health Agency


    This resource is designed to reinforce a collaborative approach between speech and language therapists, referrers and parents in the identification and management of children with developmental speech and language and communication needs (including children with feeding and/or swallowing difficulties).

  12. Language Brokering in Latino Families: Direct Observations of Brokering Patterns, Parent-Child Interactions, and Relationship Quality


    Straits, Kee J. E.


    With the growing percentage of immigrant families in the USA, language transition is a common immigrant experience and can occur rapidly from generation to generation within a family. Child language brokering appears to occur within minority language families as one way of negotiating language and cultural differences; however, the phenomenon of children translating or mediating language interactions for parents has previously been hypothesized to contribute to negative outcomes for children,...

  13. African languages, linguistics, child speech and speech pathology – the connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandile Gxilishe


    Full Text Available This article deals with the need for the incorporation of the study of child language in the field of African Linguistics. It gives an overview of some of the studies conducted in the area of acquisition of Xhosa with a view to developing norms for the development of Xhosa amongst monolingual Xhosa-speaking children. This is useful in the diagnosis of speech and language disorders using criterion referenced measures. The developmental data may be used in the development of culturally appropriate standardised assessment measures: which are severely lacking for the indigenous languages of South Africa.

  14. Parent-Child Book Reading: Using Home Literacy Units to Foster Language Development in Children who are DHH


    Fryer, Sydney


    Children who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) often experience delays in language and literacy, making rich language opportunities with parents in the home very important (Lederberg, Schick, & Spencer, 2013). Parent-child book reading promotes language and vocabulary development in children through word-object associations and expanding vocabulary (Farrant & Zubrick, 2012). Additionally, parent-child book reading is enhanced when parents are taught how to use engaging book reading technique...

  15. High-Stakes Math Tests: How "No Child Left Behind" Leaves Newcomer English Language Learners behind (United States)

    Wright, Wayne E.; Li, Xiaoshi


    The "No Child Left Behind Act" establishes federal education policy for the United States, with a heavy focus on accountability through high-stakes testing. Provisions specific to English language learners (ELLs) include the mandate for their inclusion in state math tests, even for newcomer students enrolled for less than one year. Most ELLs take…

  16. Language, Education and the Rights of the Child (United States)

    D'souza, Jean


    In this paper, the author aims to explore the connections between the right to basic education through the medium of the mother tongue and the right to education. She concentrates on child labor in India in general, and in Maharashtra, a state in Western India, in particular. She draws her data mainly from Pune (population 3,000,000), one of the…

  17. Formal and Informal Academic Language Socialization of a Bilingual Child (United States)

    Cho, Hyonsuk


    This ethnographic case study examines a bilingual child's academic socialization in both formal and informal academic communities. The study follows a high-achieving, bilingual student in a public US elementary school, who paradoxically is seen as a slow learner in her Korean-American Sunday school. From the academic socialization and community of…

  18. How Much Input Is Enough? Correlating Comprehension and Child Language Input in an Endangered Language (United States)

    Meakins, Felicity; Wigglesworth, Gillian


    In situations of language endangerment, the ability to understand a language tends to persevere longer than the ability to speak it. As a result, the possibility of language revival remains high even when few speakers remain. Nonetheless, this potential requires that those with high levels of comprehension received sufficient input as children for…

  19. Language Deficits in a Bilingual Child with Cerebral Cysticercosis. (United States)

    McMenamin, Jerry


    Presents a case report of cysticercosis (a parasitic infestation which results in inflammation of the brain, eye, muscles, liver, and lung tissues) and the resulting language pathology in a nine-year-old Mexican American girl who is bilingual in Spanish and English. (SED)

  20. Perspective-Shifts in Event Descriptions in Tamil Child Language (United States)

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne


    Children are able to take multiple perspectives in talking about entities and events. But the nature of children's sensitivities to the complex patterns of perspective-taking in adult language is unknown. We examine perspective-taking in four- and six-year-old Tamil-speaking children describing placement events, as reflected in the use of a…

  1. Home environment as a predictor of child's language: A mediating role of family literacy activities and symbolic play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja-Peklaj


    Full Text Available In our study, we explored the ways in which SES-related factors of family environment affect child's language across toddlerhood and early childhood. We proposed a mediational path model in which we presumed that family literacy activities and parental encouragement of symbolic play acted as mediating variables, mediating the effect of parental education, family possessions and parent-to-child speech on child's language. The sample included 99 families with children, aged from 1 to 6 years. The data were collected in the family home, mostly via direct observation and by using a semi-structured interview with parents. The findings suggest that high-SES parents and parents who used a more complex and supportive speech, more frequently involved their children in different literacy activities. The effect of the parent-to-child speech on child's language proved to be mediated by parental use of mental transformations during symbolic play with a child.

  2. Grammatical Processing of Spoken Language in Child and Adult Language Learners (United States)

    Felser, Claudia; Clahsen, Harald


    This article presents a selective overview of studies that have investigated auditory language processing in children and late second-language (L2) learners using online methods such as event-related potentials (ERPs), eye-movement monitoring, or the cross-modal priming paradigm. Two grammatical phenomena are examined in detail, children's and…

  3. Genome-wide association analyses of child genotype effects and parent-of-origin effects in specific language impairment


    Nudel, R; Simpson, N.; Baird, G; O’Hare, A; Conti-Ramsden, G; Bolton, P.; Hennessy, E.; The SLli consortium,; Ring, S; G. Smith; Francks, C.; Paracchini, S.; Monaco, A.; Fisher, S.; Newbury, D.


    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects linguistic abilities when development is otherwise normal. We report the results of a genome-wide association study of SLI which included parent-of-origin effects and child genotype effects and used 278 families of language-impaired children. The child genotype effects analysis did not identify significant associations. We found genome-wide significant paternal parent-of-origin effects on chromosome 14q12 (P = 3....

  4. Production of Korean Case Particles in a Korean-English Bilingual Child with Specific Language Impairment: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Gorman, Brenda K.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Korean case particles in a Korean-English bilingual child with specific language impairment (SLI). The child's production of four types of Korean case particles were compared to those of three typically developing children during probe and storytelling tasks. The Korean-English bilingual…

  5. The Impact of Bimodal Bilingual Parental Input on the Communication and Language Development of a Young Deaf Child (United States)

    Levesque, Elizabeth; Brown, P. Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian


    This study explores the impact of bimodal bilingual parental input on the communication and language development of a young deaf child. The participants in this case study were a severe-to-profoundly deaf boy and his hearing parents, who were enrolled in a bilingual (English and Australian Sign Language) homebased early intervention programme. The…

  6. Review of studies on child language abroad%国外儿童语言研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    国外儿童语言研究源于儿童心理研究,历经了心理学、语言学双重取向的研究和儿童语言研究的独立学科等过程。期间的研究成果丰富,揭示了儿童语言词汇、语法、语义、语用习得和发展的特点。%Studies on child language abroad originated from child psychological study, going through double - oriented objects of psychological and linguistic study, abundant research achievements involve in the fields and an independent discipline of child language study. The of lexis, grammar, semantics, pragmatics, revealing the specialties and features of child language acquisition and development.

  7. Psychomotor profile of a child with specific language impairment and Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Tânia


    Full Text Available Projecting beyond the ideia of the organic and expressive body and cementing a close relationship between motor skills, cognition and language, the current practices Psychomotricity reach a new conceptual field. In this paper of qualitative nature, it was intended to draw the psychomotor profile of a 8 years old child with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and Dyslexia, by using the Vitor da Fonseca ‘s Observation Psychomotor Battery (OPB and correlate it with the linguistic and cognitive profiles. Through the triangulation of the results obtained in psychomotor, cognitive and language tests, the data in literature was corroborated, which clearly point to the existence of co-morbidity between PEL, Dyslexia and disturbances in the psychomotor’s profile, thereby demonstrating a strong correlation between psychomotricity, cognition and language. Therefore, it’s urgent, and possible, to sensitize the family, the health and education professionals for the need to a multidisciplinary approach in the areas of psychomotricity and language, both at a prophylactic or rehabilitative level.

  8. Comparison of child obesity prevention and control content in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines. (United States)

    Kalin, Sari R; Fung, Teresa T


    Mass media coverage of child obesity is rising, paralleling the child obesity epidemic's growth, and there is evidence that parents seek parenting advice from media sources. Yet little to no research has examined the coverage of child obesity in parenting magazines or Spanish-language media. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative and quantitative content analysis methods to identify, quantify, and compare strategies for child obesity prevention and control presented in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines. Child obesity-related editorial content in 68 mainstream and 20 Spanish-language magazine issues published over 32 months was gathered. Magazine content was coded with a manual developed by refining themes from the sample and from an evidence-based child obesity prevention action plan. Seventy-three articles related to child obesity prevention and control were identified. Most focused on parental behavior change rather than environmental change, and only 3 in 10 articles referred to the social context in which parental behavior change takes place. Child obesity-focused articles were not given high prominence; only one in four articles in the entire sample referred to child obesity as a growing problem or epidemic. Key differences between genres reflect culturally important Latino themes, including family focus and changing health beliefs around child weight status. Given mass media's potential influence on parenting practices and public perceptions, nutrition communication professionals and registered dietitians need to work to reframe media coverage of childhood obesity as an environmental problem that requires broad-based policy solutions. Spanish-speaking media can be an ally in helping Latina women change cultural health beliefs around child weight status. PMID:23260730

  9. Building Languages (United States)

    ... family's native language) is taught as the child's second language through reading, writing, speech, and use of residual ... that parents can use to help their child learn language. There are many types of building blocks, and ...

  10. Preschool Language Disorder (United States)

    ... not get a language disorder from learning a second language. It won't confuse your child to speak ... on child language disorders describes research supporting the benefits of speech-language pathology treatment for children with language disorders. It ...

  11. Questions You May Want to Ask Your Child's Speech-Language Pathologist = Preguntas que usted le podria hacer al patologo del habla y el lenguaje de su hijo (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007


    This accordion style pamphlet, dual sided with English and Spanish text, suggests questions for parents to ask their Speech-Language Pathologist and speech and language therapy services for their children. Sample questions include: How will I participate in my child's therapy sessions? How do you decide how much time my child will spend on speech…

  12. Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems. (United States)

    J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke


    This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills. PMID:25300194

  13. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Parent-Child Mother Goose Program in Relation to Children's Language and Parenting Stress (United States)

    Terrett, Gill; White, Roxanne; Spreckley, Michele


    The purpose of this study was to assess changes in children's language skills and parenting stress following participation in the Parent-Child Mother Goose Program (PCMGP). The intervention group consisted of 29 parents (age range 24 to 43 years, "M" = 33.5, SD = 4.1) and 30 children (18 females and 12 males) with ages ranging from 1 to 46 months…

  14. The home literacy environment: exploring how media and parent-child interactions are associated with children’s language production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Liebeskind; J. Piotrowski; M.A. Lapierre; D.L. Linebarger


    Children who start school with strong language skills initiate a trajectory of academic success, while children with weaker skills are likely to struggle. Research has demonstrated that media and parent-child interactions, both characteristics of the home literacy environment, influence children's l

  15. Effects of Home Environment and Center-Based Child Care Quality on Children's Language, Communication, and Literacy Outcomes (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Pessanha, Manuela; Aguiar, Cecilia


    This study examined the joint effects of home environment and center-based child care quality on children's language, communication, and early literacy development, while also considering prior developmental level. Participants were 95 children (46 boys), assessed as toddlers (mean age = 26.33 months; Time 1) and preschoolers (mean age = 68.71…

  16. No Child Left Behind in Art Education Policy: A Review of Key Recommendations for Arts Language Revisions (United States)

    Grey, Anne C.


    From bipartisan origins and a laudable intent, the No Child Left Behind (Act) of 2001 has profoundly altered the condition of art education. A historical vantage point and review of literature reveals the current status of pending arts language revisions to the NCLB Act, as well as a pressing need to examine the key recommendations and to consider…

  17. An investigation into the effectiveness of using child created video in the learning and retention of the Irish language in an Irish primary school


    Cahill, Cormac


    non-peer-reviewed This thesis looks at the use of child created video as an aid in the learning and retention of the Irish language in an Irish Primary School. It also investigated the effect of using these child created videos on the motivation of children to learn the Irish language. The methodology used in this research utilised a Task Based Language Learning and Teaching model. The study found that the use of child created video was beneficial to children enabling them to deve...

  18. Bilingual Mothers' Language Choice in Child-Directed Speech: Continuity and Change (United States)

    De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H.


    An important aspect of Family Language Policy in bilingual families is parental language choice. Little is known about the continuity in parental language choice and the factors affecting it. This longitudinal study explores maternal language choice over time. Thirty-one bilingual mothers provided reports of what language(s) they spoke with their…

  19. Affordances for Language Awareness in a Middle School Transitional Classroom: Multi-Competent L1/L2 Users Under No Child Left Behind


    Gage-Serio, Ondine Angelique


    This dissertation examines affordances for Language Awareness within a classroom serving English learners in a coastal California middle school under the policy context of No Child Left Behind. As an ecologically inspired account, this study contributes to understanding how students use and learn language in classroom settings. Affordances for Language Awareness represent possibilities available to students for accessing relevant information to make meaning of language within a classroom. Af...

  20. Brief Report: Parental Child-Directed Speech as a Predictor of Receptive Language in Children with Autism Symptomatology


    Perryman, Twyla Y.; Carter, Alice S.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Stone, Wendy L.; Ivanescu, Andrada E.; YODER, PAUL J.


    Facilitative linguistic input directly connected to children’s interest and focus of attention has become a recommended component of interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This longitudinal correlational study used two assessment time points and examined the association between parental undemanding topic-continuing talk related to the child’s attentional focus (i.e., follow-in comments) and later receptive language for 37 parent–child dyads with their young (mea...

  1. Input and uptake at 7 months predicts toddler vocabulary: the role of child-directed speech and infant processing skills in language development. (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S; Rowe, Meredith L; Bernstein Ratner, Nan


    Both the input directed to the child, and the child's ability to process that input, are likely to impact the child's language acquisition. We explore how these factors inter-relate by tracking the relationships among: (a) lexical properties of maternal child-directed speech to prelinguistic (7-month-old) infants (N = 121); (b) these infants' abilities to segment lexical targets from conversational child-directed utterances in an experimental paradigm; and (c) the children's vocabulary outcomes at age 2;0. Both repetitiveness in maternal input and the child's speech segmentation skills at age 0;7 predicted language outcomes at 2;0; moreover, while these factors were somewhat inter-related, they each had independent effects on toddler vocabulary skill, and there was no interaction between the two. PMID:26300377

  2. Effect of socioeconomic status disparity on child language and neural outcome: how early is early? (United States)

    Hurt, Hallam; Betancourt, Laura M


    It is not news that poverty adversely affects child outcome. The literature is replete with reports of deleterious effects on developmental outcome, cognitive function, and school performance in children and youth. Causative factors include poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate parenting, lack of cognitive stimulation, unstable social support, genetics, and toxic environments. Less is known regarding how early in life adverse effects may be detected. This review proposes to elucidate "how early is early" through discussion of seminal articles related to the effect of socioeconomic status on language outcome and a discussion of the emerging literature on effects of socioeconomic status disparity on brain structure in very young children. Given the young ages at which such outcomes are detected, the critical need for early targeted interventions for our youngest is underscored. Further, the fiscal reasonableness of initiating quality interventions supports these initiatives. As early life adversity produces lasting and deleterious effects on developmental outcome and brain structure, increased focus on programs and policies directed to reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities is essential. PMID:26484621

  3. Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers (United States)

    Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa


    Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

  4. The Home Literacy Environment: Exploring How Media and Parent-Child Interactions Are Associated with Children's Language Production (United States)

    Liebeskind, Kara G.; Piotrowski, Jessica T.; Lapierre, Matthew A.; Linebarger, Deborah L.


    Children who start school with strong language skills initiate a trajectory of academic success, while children with weaker skills are likely to struggle. Research has demonstrated that media and parent-child interactions, both characteristics of the home literacy environment, influence children's language skills. Using a national sample of…

  5. The Hanen Program for Early Childhood Educators: Inservice Training for Child Care Providers on How to Facilitate Children's Social, Language, and Literacy Development. (United States)

    Weitzman, Elaine


    The Hanen Program for Early Childhood Educators provides caregivers in child care centers with on-site training in facilitating children's social, language, and literacy development. The program is conducted by a speech-language pathologist and consists of seven group training sessions and six individual videotaping sessions with feedback. A case…

  6. From Form to Dysfunction? Disconnect within Language Planning Policy of No Child Left Behind


    Yabroff, Sarah


    The following textual study aims to review the strengths and weaknesses of current second language policy and legislation within the United States education system, and argue for the benefits of pro bilingual education legislation in regards to the science of second language acquisition. Highlighting the disconnect between language planning and policy and the reality of how language instruction and acquisition actually functions, the following study analyses the current language in education ...

  7. Home Literacy & Child Language Development. The Importance of Children's Literature and Poetry


    Arna Sigríður Ásgeirsdóttir 1987


    The prerequisites of language acquisition and language development remain disputed in the field of language studies. Most children go from uttering their first words in their first years, to fluent readers and writers of their native language, which usually occurs at school entry. However, it is viewed that language skills begin to develop in children's first years, when the home is the main environment in which they thrive. Therefore, the effects of home literacy activities, such as storyboo...

  8. Language ENvironment Analysis Language and Autism Screen and the Child Development Inventory Social Subscale as a possible autism screen for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. (United States)

    Carr, Jason; Xu, Dongxin; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine


    The Language ENvironment Analysis Language and Autism Screen (LLAS) is an automated vocal production analysis that has been shown to be a valid screener for autism in hearing children between the ages of 24 to 48 months of age. Although there is reportedly a higher incidence of autism among children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the diagnosis of autism is usually later than that in children with hearing. None of the traditional screening instruments have been used with children with hearing loss. Data about the utility of LLAS with children who are deaf or hard of hearing will be presented and discussed. Though more data will be needed, an LLAS at-risk flag in conjunction with the Social Quotient from the Child Development Inventory holds significant promise for a screen for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. PMID:25321851

  9. The behavior of secondary consonant clusters in Swiss French child language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene N. Andreassen


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper aims to determine the behavior of secondary clusters in Swiss French child language and, in doing so, provide a first step towards the identification of the order of acquisition of primary and secondary clusters. The data first of all reveal that the variant with schwa is in a global fashion preferred to the variant without schwa, and this regardless of the child’s mastery of primary clusters. The data further reveal that the occasional production of the non-preferred variant without schwa entails modifications of the secondary cluster in conformity with the child’s relative mastery of consonant sequencing. While secondary clusters pattern with primary clusters when it comes to repair strategies such as gliding and realization of an interconsonantal reduced vowel, they diverge from the latter when it comes to cluster reduction: there is a general preference for the preservation of C2, irrespective of the sonority profile of the cluster.

  10. Language Disorders in a Child Psychiatric Center: Demographic Characteristics and Comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, Jørgen; Goldschmidt, Vibeke V.


    expressive language disorders, 47% receptive language disorders, and 26% mixed specific developmental disorders (inclusive language disorder). The prevalence of previously unsuspected language disorders was 27%. 75% of patients with language disorders could furthermore be psychiatrically diagnosed in......In this study demographic variables and comorbidity were registered in a group of children and adolescents with language disorders. Ss were drawn from 1,151 consecutively admitted psychiatric patients (0-17 yrs) in a 5-yr period. 116 patients had language disorders (10%), and 73% were boys. 27% had...... accordance with 8 main categories of ICD-10. Language disorders were most often found to be comorbid with conduct disorders, and the comorbidity was most frequent in the adolescent group. Boys had significantly more conduct disorders than girls, and girls had significantly more emotional disorders than boys...

  11. The Relationship of Parenting Stress and Child Temperament to Language Development among Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah


    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to…

  12. The Computer and the Pre-School Child; The Written Language and Play. (United States)

    Naymark, J.; Plaisant, C.


    Describes a Centre Mondial Informatique et Resources Humaines (CIMRH) investigation of kindergarten children's written language learning and links between play and learning. Computer software was used by students for language learning, and observations centered on student computer use, learning of written language and play, and computer…

  13. Immune and genetic mechanism of hepatitis C virus persistence after mother-to-child transmission (Review of English language publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin


    Full Text Available Chronic viral hepatitis C is one of the major health challenges in the present decade. Every year about 3–4 million of newly infected patients added to reservoir of infection that according to the experts estimates contain more than 170 million of individuals. After introduction of the routine blood products screening for hepatitis C virus, mother-to-child transmission became the major source of hepatitis C infection in childhood. This review represent the modern understanding of the genetic and immune mechanism of hepatitis C virus persistence after mother-to-child transmission, development of innate chronic hepatitis C, current practices and perspectives for its prevention presented in English language sources of scientific information.

  14. Learning and Language: Educarer-Child Interactions in Singapore Infant-Care Settings (United States)

    Lim, Cynthia; Lim, Sirene May-Yin


    While there has been extensive research exploring the quality of caregiver-child interactions in programmes for preschool children, comparatively less international research has explored the nature of caregiver-child interactions in centre-based infant-care programmes. Nine caregivers in six Singapore infant-care settings were observed and…

  15. A New Language for Child Psychotherapy: A Response to Jerald Kay (United States)

    Clark, James J.; Borden, William


    Jerald Kay's article in this issue reviews important research in the areas of adult psychotherapy and neuroscience, and their implications for child psychotherapy. We respond by exploring some of the strengths and limitations of these lines of research and their implications for child psychotherapy development and research. The paper closes with…

  16. Structural and Lexical Case in Child German: Evidence from Language-Impaired and Typically Developing Children (United States)

    Eisenbeiss, Sonja; Bartke, Susanne; Clahsen, Harald


    In this study, we examined the system of case marking in two groups of German speaking children, 5 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 5 typically developing (TD) children matched to the children with SLI on a general measure of language development. The data from both groups demonstrate high accuracy scores for structural case…

  17. A Nonverbal Intervention for the Severely Language Disordered Young Child: An Intensive Approach. (United States)

    Fraser, Diane Lynch

    Designing therapeutic approaches for language-disordered young children calls for the coordination of communication skills across the three developmental pathways: motor, social-emotional, and language-cognitive. The case study presented in this document examines the effectiveness of a dance-movement therapy intervention conducted over a 2-year…

  18. "It's the Way You Talk to Them." The Child's Environment: Early Years Practitioners' Perceptions of Its Influence on Speech and Language Development, Its Assessment and Environment Targeted Interventions (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Lewis, Elizabeth


    Speech and language delay occurs in approximately 6% of the child population, and interventions to support this group of children focus on the child and/or the communicative environment. Evidence about the effectiveness of interventions that focus on the environment as well as the (reported) practices of speech and language therapists (SLTs) and…

  19. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum


    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation of a...... company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  20. Language disorder - children (United States)

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Child speech and language: preschool language disorders. Available at Accessed June 24, 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development ...

  1. Bridging the Gap Between Speech and Language: Using Multimodal Treatment in a Child With Apraxia. (United States)

    Tierney, Cheryl D; Pitterle, Kathleen; Kurtz, Marie; Nakhla, Mark; Todorow, Carlyn


    Childhood apraxia of speech is a neurologic speech sound disorder in which children have difficulty constructing words and sounds due to poor motor planning and coordination of the articulators required for speech sound production. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy strongly suspected to have childhood apraxia of speech at 18 months of age who used multimodal communication to facilitate language development throughout his work with a speech language pathologist. In 18 months of an intensive structured program, he exhibited atypical rapid improvement, progressing from having no intelligible speech to achieving age-appropriate articulation. We suspect that early introduction of sign language by family proved to be a highly effective form of language development, that when coupled with intensive oro-motor and speech sound therapy, resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms. PMID:27492818

  2. When a Bilingual Child Describes Living Things: An Analysis of Conceptual Understandings from a Language Perspective (United States)

    Salleh, Romaizah; Venville, Grady J.; Treagust, David F.


    With increasing numbers of students learning science through a second language in many school contexts, there is a need for research to focus on the impact language has on students’ understanding of science concepts. Like other countries, Brunei has adopted a bilingual system of education that incorporates two languages in imparting its curriculum. For the first three years of school, Brunei children are taught in Malay and then for the remainder of their education, instruction is in English. This research is concerned with the influence that this bilingual education system has on children’s learning of science. The purpose was to document the patterns of Brunei students’ developing understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things and examine the impact in the change in language as the medium of instruction. A cross-sectional case study design was used in one primary school. Data collection included an interview ( n = 75), which consisted of forced-response and semi-structured interview questions, a categorisation task and classroom observation. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results indicate that the transition from Malay to English as the language of instruction from Primary 4 onwards restricted the students’ ability to express their understandings about living things, to discuss related scientific concepts and to interpret and analyse scientific questions. From a social constructivist perspective these language factors will potentially impact on the students’ cognitive development by limiting the expected growth of the students’ understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things.

  3. The effectiveness of semantic aspect of language on reading comprehension in a 4-year-old child with autistic spectrum disorder and hyperlexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atusa Rabiee


    Full Text Available Background: Hyperlexia is a super ability demonstrated by a very specific group of individuals with developmental disorders. This term is used to describe the children with high ability in word recognition, but low reading comprehension skills, despite the problems in language, cognitive and social skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of improving the semantic aspect of language (increase in understanding and expression vocabulary on reading comprehension in an autistic child with hyperlexia.Case: The child studied in this research was an autistic child with hyperlexia. At the beginning of this study he was 3 years and 11 months old. He could read, but his reading comprehension was low. In a period of 12 therapy session, understanding and expression of 160 words was taught to child. During this period, the written form of words was eliminated. After these sessions, the reading comprehension was re-assessed for the words that child could understand and express.Conclusion: Improving semantic aspect of language (understanding and expression of vocabulary increase reading comprehension of written words.

  4. No Child Left with Crayons: The Imperative of Arts-Based Education and Research with Language "Minority" and Other Minoritized Communities (United States)

    Chappell, Sharon Verner; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa


    Since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, public discourse on "failing schools" as measured by high-stakes standardized tests has disproportionately affected students from minoritized communities (such as language, race, class, dis/ability), emphasizing climates of assessment at the expense of broader, more democratic, and…

  5. Repetition and Turn-Allocation in the Non-Native Acquisition of Discourse. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 12. (United States)

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah; Gracey, Cheryl

    A study of non-native children's acquisition of communicative competence examined the child's construction of rules of conversation in the second language. The linguistic devices that children use to link up their utterances with those of another speaker, i.e., cohesion-creating devices that create textual unity, were focused upon. Repetition, one…

  6. Exploring Early Years Educators' Ownership of Language and Communication Knowledge and Skills: A Review of Key Policy and Initial Reflections on "Every Child a Talker" and Its Implementation (United States)

    McLeod, Naomi


    This article examines four significant policy documents that have informed the Department for Children School and Families (DCSF)' s "Every Child a Talker" (ECaT). The analysis focuses on where the ownership of knowledge in relation to communication and language lies as part of policy implementation and training processes. The article then…

  7. Predictors of Maternal Language to Infants during a Picture Book Task in the Home: Family SES, Child Characteristics and the Parenting Environment (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Pancsofar, Nadya; Willoughby, Mike; Odom, Erica; Quade, Alison; Cox, Martha


    This study investigated the contribution of child characteristics and parenting environment to the relationship between family SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language to infants. 1157 children were drawn from a representative sample of 1292 infants born to mothers in rural Appalachian counties and rural counties in southern minority…

  8. Teaching Reading and Writing in Local Language Using the Child-Centred Pedagogy in Uganda (United States)

    Akello, Dora Lucy; Timmerman, Greetje; Namusisi, Speranza


    Uganda introduced the use of mother tongue as medium of instruction in primary schools in 2007. This was meant to promote interaction and participation in the learning process and improve children's proficiency in reading and writing. Drawing elements of interaction and participation from the socio-cultural theory, the child-centred pedagogy was…

  9. Comparing MOSAIC and the variational learning model of the optional infinitive stage in early child language


    Freudenthal, D; Pine, J M; Gobet, F.


    This paper compares MOSAIC and the Variational Learning Model (VLM) in terms of their ability to explain the level of finiteness marking in early child Dutch, English, Spanish, German and French. It is shown that both models are successful in explaining cross-linguistic variation in rates of Optional Infinitive (OI) errors, although both models underestimate the error rate in English. A second set of analyses shows strong lexical effects in the pattern of errors ac...

  10. Predicting Language Outcomes for Children Learning Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Child and Environmental Factors (United States)

    Brady, Nancy C.; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Fleming, Kandace; Matthews, Kris


    Purpose: To investigate a model of language development for nonverbal preschool-age children learning to communicate with augmentative or alternative communication. Method: Ninety-three preschool children with intellectual disabilities were assessed at Time 1, and 82 of these children were assessed 1 year later, at Time 2. The outcome variable was…

  11. Mother-Child Communication Quality during Language Brokering: Validation of Four Measures of Brokering Interaction Goals (United States)

    Guntzviller, Lisa M.


    One hundred dyads of low-income, Spanish-speaking mothers and their bilingual children (age = 12-18; M = 14.12, SD = 1.89) who have language brokered for the mother (i.e., culturally or linguistically mediated between the mother and English speakers) were surveyed. Multiple goals theory posits that mothers and children who do not recognize and…

  12. Sources of Difficulty in the Young Child's Understanding of Metaphorical Language. (United States)

    Vosniadou, Stella; And Others


    Reports three experiments which examined preschool, first-grade, and third-grade children's understanding of metaphorical language. Subjects acted out short stories which ended in metaphorical sentences by using toys. Predictability of the story endings and the complexity of the metaphorical sentences are found to affect metaphor comprehension.…

  13. Promoting Language and Literacy Development through Parent-Child Reading in Hong Kong Preschoolers. (United States)

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine


    Evaluated Hong Kong Chinese kindergarten children's literacy development through dialogic reading, typical reading, and control groups. Found that early literacy-related activities in the home have strong effects on literacy growth and language development in Chinese. Concluded that success of the dialogic reading technique contributes to the goal…

  14. Relations among Home Literacy Environment, Child Characteristics and Print Knowledge for Preschool Children with Language Impairment (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Guo, Ying; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.


    To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine the unique contributions of the HLE on print knowledge of preschool children with language impairment and (b) to identify whether specific child…

  15. Phonological Development in Specific Contexts: Studies of Chinese-Speaking Children. Child Language and Development. (United States)

    Hua, Zhu

    This book examines the phonological development and impairment of Chinese-speaking children. It contains a series of studies of phonological acquisition and development of children in specific contexts (Putonghua or Modern Standard Chinese, the language variety promoted by the Chinese government, and normally developing children, children with…

  16. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and language delay at three years of age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha


    Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population. PMID:27058928

  17. Using conversation analysis to study prosodic problems in a child with language impairment


    Samuelsson, Christina


    Prosody carries a lot of information relevant for our understanding of spoken messages. In addition, prosody plays an important role in signalling attitudes and emotions. Prosodic features also constitute an important resource that participants use to achieve mutual understanding in interaction. The aim of this study was to point to possible recurring patterns in the prosodic structure of language testing activities. A further aim was to discuss similarities between English and Swedish in the...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  19. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Guedeney

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones.One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child's development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants' motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child's psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife.After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents.Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children.

  20. Language Brokering and Adjustment among Chinese and Korean American Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Perceived Maternal Sacrifice, Respect for the Mother, and Mother-Child Open Communication (United States)

    Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chao, Ruth K.


    Asian American adolescents often language broker for their immigrant parents. Using a two-wave sample of Chinese American (n = 237; average age at W1 = 14.65, SD = .68) and Korean American (n = 262; average age at W1 = 14.72, SD = .69) adolescents, this study examined a culturally relevant conditional mechanism through which language brokering may contribute to lower levels of internalizing/externalizing problems. Results suggested that language brokering for the mother was associated with perceived maternal sacrifice, which was in turn associated with respect for the mother, which was eventually associated with lower levels of externalizing problems (but not internalizing problems) in the adolescents. Moreover, the indirect effect was conditional on the level of mother-child open communication. With a lower level of open communication, the indirect effect of language brokering on externalizing problems became stronger. Results indicate that interventions designed to reduce Asian American adolescent language brokers’ externalizing problems may be effective if they target adolescents' perception of parental sacrifice and respect for parents, especially for those adolescents experiencing a low level of parent-child open communication. At the same time, increasing open communication within the family may also ultimately reduce adolescent externalizing problems. PMID:25419443

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the child perceptions questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14) for the peruvian spanish language


    Abanto, Jenny; Albites, Ursula; Bönecker, Marcelo; Saul Martins PAIVA; Castillo, Jorge-Luis; Aguilar-Gálvez, Denisse


    Objectives: Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) instruments, such as the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14), are broadly used in oral health surveys around the world. However, there is a lack of these instruments in Spanish language limiting the comparison of OHRQoL outcomes among countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of the present study was to cross-culturally adapt the CPQ11-14 to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. Materia...

  2. [Deficit of language comprehension in a child with semantic-pragmatic disorder--dissociation between the phonemic and semantic processing abilities]. (United States)

    Haruhara, N; Uno, A; Kaga, M; Matsuda, H; Kaneko, M


    We studied the language comprehension deficit of a 11-year-old child with a semantic-pragmatic disorder. We used an original test battery using abstract nouns common to the tasks of repetition, reading aloud, auditory comprehension and comprehension of written words. Although he could repeat and read aloud words as good as normal controls, he could not choose correct pictures from semantically or phonemically resembling pictures by listening to or reading target words. This test demonstrated the dissociation between his phonemic and semantic processing abilities. An examination of the cerebral blood flow with SPECT suggested that the dysfunction of the left temporal lobe caused the deficit in language comprehension. PMID:10429489

  3. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation) questionnaire into Danish language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Jens Erik; McGirr, Katherine Anne; Korsgaard, Hanne Oertved; Rathleff, Michael S


    the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically recording a four-week period.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire is intended to measure burden of headache in large populations and there......Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into...... Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by "The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache." A total of 25 children...

  4. Language learning and brain reorganization in a 3.5-year-old child with left perinatal stroke revealed using structural and functional connectivity. (United States)

    François, Clément; Ripollés, Pablo; Bosch, Laura; Garcia-Alix, Alfredo; Muchart, Jordi; Sierpowska, Joanna; Fons, Carme; Solé, Jorgina; Rebollo, Monica; Gaitán, Helena; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni


    Brain imaging methods have contributed to shed light on the possible mechanisms of recovery and cortical reorganization after early brain insult. The idea that a functional left hemisphere is crucial for achieving a normalized pattern of language development after left perinatal stroke is still under debate. We report the case of a 3.5-year-old boy born at term with a perinatal ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery, affecting mainly the supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal and insular cortex extending to the precentral and postcentral gyri. Neurocognitive development was assessed at 25 and 42 months of age. Language outcomes were more extensively evaluated at the latter age with measures on receptive vocabulary, phonological whole-word production and linguistic complexity in spontaneous speech. Word learning abilities were assessed using a fast-mapping task to assess immediate and delayed recall of newly mapped words. Functional and structural imaging data as well as a measure of intrinsic connectivity were also acquired. While cognitive, motor and language levels from the Bayley Scales fell within the average range at 25 months, language scores were below at 42 months. Receptive vocabulary fell within normal limits but whole word production was delayed and the child had limited spontaneous speech. Critically, the child showed clear difficulties in both the immediate and delayed recall of the novel words, significantly differing from an age-matched control group. Neuroimaging data revealed spared classical cortical language areas but an affected left dorsal white-matter pathway together with right lateralized functional activations. In the framework of the model for Social Communication and Language Development, these data confirm the important role of the left arcuate fasciculus in understanding and producing morpho-syntactic elements in sentences beyond two word combinations and, most importantly, in learning novel word-referent associations, a

  5. The Role of Oral Language Revisited: A Comment on the NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (2005) (United States)

    Bracken, Stacey Storch


    This article comments on the discussion of S. A. Storch and G. J. Whitehurst's literacy development model in the article by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Early Child Care Research Network (ECCRN). Specifically, this comment focuses on concerns raised by the NICHD ECCRN that Storch and Whitehurst's model does…

  6. Predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years in the EDEN mother–child cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Peyre


    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the factors predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years. Methods. By using longitudinal data concerning 1002 children from the EDEN study, linear regression was used to predict 3-year language performance from 2-year language performance and the risk factors associated with language delays. Logistic regressions were performed to examine two change trajectories: children who fall below the 10th percentile of language skills between 2 and 3 years (declining trajectory, and those who rose above the 10th percentile (resilient trajectory. Results. The final linear model accounted for 43% of the variance in 3-year language scores, with 2-year language scores accounting for 22%. Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, earlier birth term, lower level of parental education and lower frequency of maternal stimulation were associated with the declining trajectory. Breastfeeding was associated with the resilient trajectory. Conclusions. This study provides a better understanding of the natural history of early language delays by identifying biological and social factors that predict changes in language skills between the ages of 2 and 3 years.

  7. Predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years in the EDEN mother–child cohort (United States)

    Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Forhan, Anne; Charles, Marie-Aline; De Agostini, Maria; Heude, Barbara; Ramus, Franck


    Objective. To examine the factors predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years. Methods. By using longitudinal data concerning 1002 children from the EDEN study, linear regression was used to predict 3-year language performance from 2-year language performance and the risk factors associated with language delays. Logistic regressions were performed to examine two change trajectories: children who fall below the 10th percentile of language skills between 2 and 3 years (declining trajectory), and those who rose above the 10th percentile (resilient trajectory). Results. The final linear model accounted for 43% of the variance in 3-year language scores, with 2-year language scores accounting for 22%. Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, earlier birth term, lower level of parental education and lower frequency of maternal stimulation were associated with the declining trajectory. Breastfeeding was associated with the resilient trajectory. Conclusions. This study provides a better understanding of the natural history of early language delays by identifying biological and social factors that predict changes in language skills between the ages of 2 and 3 years. PMID:24749012

  8. Simplified and Expanded Input in a Focused Stimulation Program for a Child with Expressive Language Delay (ELD) (United States)

    Wolfe, Donna L.; Heilmann, John


    There is considerable debate regarding the simplification of adults' language when talking to young children with expressive language delays (ELD). While simplified input, also called telegraphic speech, is used by many parents and clinicians working with young children, its use has been discouraged in much of the clinical literature. In addition…

  9. Teaching Your Child about Asthma (United States)

    ... Asthma Library ▸ Teaching your child about asthma Share | Teaching Your Child About Asthma This article has been ... understand? Keep It Simple for Young Children Use language that is appropriate for your child’s age to ...

  10. if language learning easy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    " Learning a language is as easy as ABC. Even a child can do it. " Most stu-dents who are learning a foreign language would disagree with this statement. For them, learning a foreign language, eg. English,is a very difficult task. They need thousands of hours to study and practice, and even this will not guarantee success for every language learner.

  11. Predicting behavior problems in deaf and hearing children: The influences of language, attention, and parent–child communication


    Barker, David H; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Fink, Nancy E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Tobey, Emily A.; Niparko, John K.


    The development of language and communication may play an important role in the emergence of behavioral problems in young children, but they are rarely included in predictive models of behavioral development. In this study, cross-sectional relationships between language, attention, and behavior problems were examined using parent report, videotaped observations, and performance measures in a sample of 116 severely and profoundly deaf and 69 normally hearing children ages 1.5 to 5 years. Secon...

  12. Noun and Verb Production in Maternal and Child Language: Continuity, Stability, and Prediction across the Second Year of Life (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.


    The present study examined continuity/discontinuity and stability/instability of noun and verb production measures in 30 child-mother dyads observed at 16 and 20 months, and predictive relations with the acquisition of nouns and verbs at 24 months. Children exhibited significant discontinuity and robust stability in the frequency of nouns and…

  13. Parent education project. III: Increasing affection and responsivity in developmentally handicapped mothers: component analysis, generalization, and effects on child language.


    Feldman, M. A.; Case, L; Rincover, A; Towns, F; Betel, J


    We evaluated the effects of a parent training program consisting of verbal instruction, modeling, and feedback on the affection and responsivity of 3 developmentally handicapped mothers towards their children. The results indicated the following: First, the training package increased maternal physical affection, praise, and imitation of child vocalizations. These parenting skills increased to levels found in comparison groups of nonhandicapped mothers. Second, the training package was more ef...

  14. Impaired Language Abilities and Pre-Linguistic Communication Skills in a Child with a Diagnosis of Galactosaemia (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne; Kilcoyne, Sarah; Murdoch, Bruce E.


    Variable language outcomes have been reported in children with the metabolic disorder galactosaemia (GAL), but these outcomes do not appear to be related to the severity of symptoms in the neonatal period, compliance with the non-dairy diet, or IQ. Currently, there is no means by which at-risk children with GAL can be identified early to initiate…

  15. How Is No Child Left Behind Affecting Proficient and Advanced Students on the California STAR Test in English Language Arts (United States)

    Levine, Susan


    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether students who enter high school in ninth grade and score proficient or advanced on their CST in English Language Arts remain proficient or advanced 2 years later in 11th grade. The effects of NCLB will be considered as a contributing factor to the difference in student scores. This study was…

  16. First Language Acquisition and Teaching (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena


    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  17. A Micro-Ethnographic Study of the Communication/Language Development in a Japanese Child with Profound Hearing Loss Before and After Cochlear Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Kretschmer


    Full Text Available This study described the communication and spoken language development of a Japanese girl with profound hearing loss who used a cochlear implant from 19 months of age. The girl, Akiko, was born in Belgium where her family was living at that time. After she was identified as deaf at birth, she and her parents were provided with support services. The family relocated to Japan when Akiko was 1 year 5 months of age. When she was 1 year 6 months of age Akiko underwent cochlear implantation. The cochlear implant device was activated when Akiko was 1 year 7 months of age. The parents routinely made video recordings of Akiko interacting with family members and teachers at home and at school. The video recordings taken by the parents used as the data for this study contained scenes of Akiko from the time she was 3 months of age until she was 4 years 11 months of age. Micro-ethnographic methods were used to analyze the dynamics and development of selected communicative interactions over this age span of fifty-six months. The original pool of video recordings contained 213 scenes.As a result of video viewing and editing, Akiko’s communication development was found to follow expected patterns of development as described by other child language researchers of children with normal hearing. There were seven demarcations that represent Akiko’s communication and spoken language development: 1 perlocutionary, 2 transition of perlocutionary to illocutionary, 3 illocutionary, 4 transition of illocutionary to locutionary, 5 locutionary, 6 dialogue, and 7 narrative.

  18. Language competence in movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup


    This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus...... is shifted from viewing the individual's language competence as a mental linguistic or communicative property, to viewing language as a series of social and spatial practices. Looking at data from the research project Tegn på Sprog (in the following referred to as Signs of Language), which examines...... multilingual children's language and literacy acquisition processes, we direct our focus to a single child's active exploration of what it means to know a language. Through analysis of interviews and researcher generated activities, we see how this child both describes and does language competence as a...

  19. Multilingualism and Specific Language Impairment


    Engel de Abreu, Pascale


    Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...

  20. Speech and Language Problems in Children (United States)

    Children vary in their development of speech and language skills. Health professionals have milestones for what's normal. ... it may be due to a speech or language disorder. Language disorders can mean that the child ...

  1. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation) questionnaire into Danish language. (United States)

    Jorgensen, Jens Erik; McGirr, Kate A; Korsgaard, Hanne Oertved; Rathleff, Michael S


    Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by "The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache." A total of 25 children from 6 to 12 years of age completed the questionnaire with 24 h between test and retest to assess reliability. A total of 169 children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age completed the translated questionnaire to assess time requirements for completing it. Results. Only minor discrepancies were observed in the translation process. Test-retest reliability of the translated questionnaire showed substantial agreement (kappa: 0.65-0.78). The questionnaires were completed within 30 min (age 6-11 years of age) and within 15 min (age 12-17 years of age) respectively. Discussion. No major problems were observed in the forward translations of the questionnaires. The face validation prompted no major changes in the questionnaire. The face-to-face interviews showed that pupils of different ethnic backgrounds than Danish and pupils in the age group of 6-11 had more difficulty in understanding a minority of the questions. The Danish Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire therefore complies with the intentions of the originators, aiming at a maximal completion time of 45 min and in comparison with actual completion time. The test-retest study showed substantial agreement between test and retest in the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically recording a four-week period

  2. The Influence of Dialects on Child Language Acquisition and Enlightenment to Mandarin Education%方言对儿童语言习得的影响及普通话教育策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小红; 张娟


    Observation method,mathematical statistics,document material method are applied in this paper to study the influences of dialects on child language acquisition.It discusses the relationship between dialects and child language acquisition,analyses the influences of dialects on child language acquisition from the perspective of environment of dialects,characteristics of dialects,superficial phonetic ability,deep internal and external code-switching ability and psychological factors.Further research on the relationship between dialects and Mandarin education,together with the countermeasures to overcome the influences of dialects on Mandarin is also conducted in this paper.%文章采用观察法、数理统计法和文献资料法对方言对儿童语言习得的影响做研究,主要论述方言与儿童语言习得的关系。从方言运用环境、方言的特点、语言表层语音能力、深层内外部语言转换能力、心理因素等多个角度分析方言对儿童语言习得的影响,并进一步探讨方言与普通话教育之间的关系,探究克服方言对普通话影响的对策。

  3. 12-15 Months: Your Child's Development (United States)

    ... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... to talk and understand so much more. Choose books about things that interest your child and make ...

  4. First and Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Though there are similarities between child first language acquisition and adult second language acquisition,this paper explores the differences between these two processes from several aspects and gives the suggestions that how we language teachers teach L2 students well in language teaching.

  5. Speech and Language Impairments (United States)

    ... easily be mistaken for other disabilities such as autism or learning disabilities, so it’s very important to ensure that the child receives a thorough evaluation by a certified speech-language pathologist. Back to top What Causes Speech ...

  6. Speech and Language Delay (United States)

    ... child depends on the cause of the speech delay. Your doctor will tell you the cause of your child's problem and explain any treatments that might fix the problem or make it better. A speech and language pathologist might be helpful in making treatment plans. This ...

  7. Use of communication matrix in preschool child with cerebral palsy


    Makovec, Manuela


    Speech or language impairment in child development affects already the pre-schoolers. No matter what the cause for speech or language impairment is, it will definitely also effect on the other areas of the child development. In order to help a child improve in communication, we need precise and authentic evaluation of his/her communication skills. When we integrate a child with speech or language impairment into nursery school, the teacher becomes the person who will encourage and evaluate ch...

  8. Explaining Language Choice in Early Infant Bilingualism. (United States)

    Quay, Suzanne

    This study investigated whether language context affects language choice in a Spanish-English bilingual infant from age 1;3 to 1;10. Most studies of child bilingualism assume that communicative competence occurs at a stage in language development after the onset of syntactic constructions, but this paper hypothesizes that once the child begins to…

  9. The Influence of Maternal Language Responsiveness on the Expressive Speech Production of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Microanalysis of Mother-Child Play Interactions (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.


    Adult responsiveness is related to language development both in young typically developing children and in children with autism spectrum disorders, such that parents who use more responsive language with their children have children who develop better language skills over time. This study used a micro-analytic technique to examine how two facets…

  10. The influence of family environment on children's language development and the role of language in shaping human view of reality


    Andrejc, Mojca


    The thesis highlights external influences on language development. It emphasizes the way family environment influences on children's language development. The higher position in socioeconomic structure reflects in better child's language competence. Educational orientation has a big influence on children's language development and authoritarian education in family environment does not encourage the language competence. The example of speaking in the child's family influences on child's langua...

  11. Early Dual Language Learning (United States)

    Genesee, Fred


    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  12. Experimental Evaluation of a Preschool Language Curriculum: Influence on Children's Expressive Language Skills (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Mashburn, Andrew; Pence, Khara L.; Wiggins, Alice


    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate child impacts following implementation of a comprehensive language curriculum, the Language-Focused Curriculum (LFC; Bunce, 1995), within their preschool classrooms. As part of this larger purpose, this study identified child-level predictors of expressive language outcomes for children…

  13. Ethological Approach to Delayed Language Acquisition (United States)

    Mahoney, Gerald J.


    The ethological approach to language acquisition (which focuses on the nature of the child's interaction with the environment) is described, and implications for the language development of mentally retarded and autistic children are discussed. (CL)

  14. The Role of Language Dominance in Cross-Linguistic Syntactic Influence: A Korean Child's Use of Null Subjects in Attriting English (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Gu


    While Hulk and Muller (2000) predict that the direction of cross-linguistic syntactic influence is unidirectional when the construction involves syntax-pragmatics interface and surface overlap between two languages, they explicitly rule out language dominance as a factor involved. This study questions their latter claim and argues that the syntax…

  15. The End of Crocodile Tears, or Child Literature as Emotional Self-Regulation (United States)

    Kellogg, David


    This article begins by revisiting an old dispute between the children's writer Chukovsky and the child psychologist Vygotsky on whether and how child literature should mediate development. It then considers child language language lessons in South Korea for clues about how such mediation might happen, and finds the development of rote language,…

  16. Child Abuse (United States)

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  17. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes. (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan


    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  18. Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen (United States)

    ... Sample Link BMI Percentile Calculator for Child and Teen English Version Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Accurately At Home BMI Calculator for Child and Teen ( English | Metric ) 1. Birth Date : Month: Day: Year: ...

  19. Can the Language of Rights Get Hold of the Complex Realities of Child Domestic Work?: The Case of Young Domestic Workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast (United States)

    Jacquemin, Melanie


    This review examines refractions of children's rights in development practice from an anthropological point of view and considers the case of young domestic girls working in Abidjan. The author argues that child labour legislation and the children's rights perspective in Abidjan is permeated by patriarchal values that mask the exploitation of work…

  20. Language, Language Teaching and Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Departing from a brief presentation of the various views of language, this article elaborates the influence of views of languageon language teaching and language testing. This will help us have background knowledge on language teaching and language testing.

  1. Multilingual Children Increase Language Differentiation by Indexing Communities of Practice (United States)

    O'Shannessy, Carmel


    An area in need of study in child language acquisition is that of complex multilingual contexts in which there is little language separation by interlocutor or domain. Little is known about how multilingual children use language to construct their identities in each language or in both languages. Identity construction in monolingual contexts has…

  2. Prosody in a communication system developed without a language model


    Applebaum, Lauren; Coppola, Marie; Goldin-Meadow, Susan


    Prosody, he “music” of language, is an important aspect of all natural languages, spoken and signed. We ask here whether prosody is also robust across learning conditions. If a child were not exposed to a conventional language and had to construct his own communication system, would that system contain prosodic structure? We address this question by observing a deaf child who received no sign language input and whose hearing loss prevented him from acquiring spoken language. Despite his lack ...

  3. Expanding the Boundaries of Shared Book Reading: E-Books and Printed Books in Parent-Child Reading as Support for Children's Language (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Heibal, Shani


    Early shared book reading activities are considered to be a promising context for supporting young children's language development. Ninety low socioeconomic status preschoolers and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) e-book reading; (2) printed book reading; (3) regular kindergarten literacy program (control). Mothers…

  4. A Multilevel Model of Child- and Classroom-Level Psychosocial Factors that Support Language and Literacy Resilience of Children in Head Start (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Vitiello, Virginia E.; Greenfield, Daryl B.


    Early exposure to the multiple risk factors associated with poverty is related to an elevated risk for academic difficulty. Therefore, it is important to promote academic resilience as early as possible and to identify factors that support resilience. Given the positive relation between early language skills and later academic outcomes, examining…

  5. Meeting the Objectives of the Curriculum at the First Stage of Basic School by the Child Having Left the Language Immersion Kindergarten (United States)

    Kukk, Airi; Õun, Tiia


    Year after year, the interest in early learning of the state language by non-Estonian children has increased. In Estonia, the course has been directed that non-Estonian learners have to reach functional bilingualism by the time they leave basic school and thus to become competitive in labour and education markets in Estonia. The objective of the…

  6. Language and Recursion (United States)

    Lowenthal, Francis


    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  7. Reciprocal Influences between Maternal Language and Children's Language and Cognitive Development in Low-Income Families (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T.; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S.


    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language.…

  8. Produção de conhecimento sobre narrativas orais: contribuições para as investigações em linguagem infantil Production of knowledge on oral narratives: contributions to research on child language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo indicar um panorama geral sobre a produção de conhecimento no que tange os padrões para o desenvolvimento da narrativa oral, nos últimos quatro anos por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica sistematizada, voltada para a temática de intervenção em linguagem infantil, com o uso de narrativas orais. A revisão foi realizada em uma única etapa, com critérios específicos, utilizando os seguintes descritores: narrativas, narrativa, narrativas de crianças, linguagem e desenvolvimento, linguagem oral, habilidades linguísticas, linguagem falada, linguagem infantil, narração/narração de histórias e linguagem. O período considerado foi de 2007 a 2011. Foram obtidos 900 registros, dentre os quais, nove (1% atenderam aos critérios estabelecidos para análise. A maioria dos estudos relacionou-se com análises psicolinguísticas. Apenas um estudo utilizou método experimental. No período considerado foram produzidos poucos estudos abordando narrativas orais infantis; a sua grande maioria levou em consideração, fundamentalmente, aspectos cognitivos e linguísticos no processo de desenvolvimento da habilidade narrativa; a grande maioria das pesquisas foi realizada com crianças que possuem algum tipo de alteração em seu desenvolvimento linguístico. Considera-se que a produção de conhecimento, em relação ao desenvolvimento de narrativas orais infantis, exige, atualmente, um olhar voltado para as intervenções que utilizem metodologia experimental. Por fim, considera-se que é necessária uma atenção maior em relação ao desenvolvimento típico da habilidade narrativa.The purpose of this study is to indicate an overview about knowledge production regarding the standards for the development of oral narrative in the past four years through a systematic literature review, focused on intervention thematic in child language, with the use of oral narratives. The review was held in a single step, with specific

  9. Produção de conhecimento sobre narrativas orais: contribuições para as investigações em linguagem infantil Production of knowledge on oral narratives: contributions to research on child language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo indicar um panorama geral sobre a produção de conhecimento no que tange os padrões para o desenvolvimento da narrativa oral, nos últimos quatro anos por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica sistematizada, voltada para a temática de intervenção em linguagem infantil, com o uso de narrativas orais. A revisão foi realizada em uma única etapa, com critérios específicos, utilizando os seguintes descritores: narrativas, narrativa, narrativas de crianças, linguagem e desenvolvimento, linguagem oral, habilidades linguísticas, linguagem falada, linguagem infantil, narração/narração de histórias e linguagem. O período considerado foi de 2007 a 2011. Foram obtidos 900 registros, dentre os quais, nove (1% atenderam aos critérios estabelecidos para análise. A maioria dos estudos relacionou-se com análises psicolinguísticas. Apenas um estudo utilizou método experimental. No período considerado foram produzidos poucos estudos abordando narrativas orais infantis; a sua grande maioria levou em consideração, fundamentalmente, aspectos cognitivos e linguísticos no processo de desenvolvimento da habilidade narrativa; a grande maioria das pesquisas foi realizada com crianças que possuem algum tipo de alteração em seu desenvolvimento linguístico. Considera-se que a produção de conhecimento, em relação ao desenvolvimento de narrativas orais infantis, exige, atualmente, um olhar voltado para as intervenções que utilizem metodologia experimental. Por fim, considera-se que é necessária uma atenção maior em relação ao desenvolvimento típico da habilidade narrativa.The purpose of this study is to indicate an overview about knowledge production regarding the standards for the development of oral narrative in the past four years through a systematic literature review, focused on intervention thematic in child language, with the use of oral narratives. The review was held in a single step, with specific

  10. Parent-child interactions: contributions to the development of social competence in preschoolers.


    Phillips-Hing, Christine Dawn


    Sixty families with their eldest child, aged 3 or 4 years, participated in this study of parent-child interactions and the development of social competency. Mother-child and father-child dyads were observed for 10 minutes each, completing either a gross motor or fine motor semi-structured laboratory construction task. Parental directiveness and scaffolding were coded and measures of child temperament, child receptive language, and child social competency in preschool were obtained. As expecte...

  11. A experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem Maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Henrich Crestani


    Full Text Available TEMA: a experiência da maternidade e dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. PROCEDIMENTOS: o objetivo de investigar as possíveis relações entre a constituição da experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. A amostra desta pesquisa foi constituída por 4 crianças, entre 2 e 4 anos, com distúrbio de linguagem, e suas mães. As mães foram submetidas a uma entrevista semi-estruturada acerca da experiência materna e a possibilidade de a mesma ter passado por alterações emocionais tais como a depressão e/ou ansiedade. Coletou-se uma interação mãe-filho, e em um caso avó-neta, através da filmagem da díade em atividade lúdica para analisar o modo como a dialogia e a interação aconteciam na díade. RESULTADOS: demonstraram que as quatro crianças estiveram sujeitas a interações com mães e avó com índices de ansiedade (dois casos e depressão (dois casos. Apenas uma mãe não possuía tais índices e esta possuía dialogia adequada com a filha. CONCLUSÃO: os dados demonstraram relações entre a dialogia mãe-filho e a experiência materna. Houve distinções na dialogia e no brincar relacionados aos estados emocionais das mães e, em um caso, da avó.BACKGROUND: the maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics. PROCEDURES: the aim was to research the possible relations between maternal experience and mother-child dialogics, in language impairment children cases. The sample was made up with four children, between two and four year old with language impairment and their mothers.The mothers answered a semi-structured interview about the maternal experience and possible mothers' emotional signs like anxiety and depression. The pairs engaged in interaction were videotaped in order to interpret the mother's speech, in one case grand-mother, and the interaction process. RESULTS: the results showed that the children were in interactions with mothers and a grandmother

  12. [Managing an autistic child]. (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique


    General practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect atypical developmental trajectories in children, They have to inform parents and to guide them toward specialized centers where further multidisciplinary evaluation will be conducted. It is admitted that early intervention is a factor of better prognosis in autism. To help starting early intervention, general practitioners may first indicate sensorymotor or language and communication evaluations. A specific project will then be defined for each child according to the results of the multidisciplinary evaluation. Each individualized project will be based on different behavioral and developpemental interventions, speech therapy, sensorymotor therapy, and psychotherapy. General practitioners and pediatricians will keep up following the child evolution as part of the child care team with parents and specialized centers. PMID:20402134

  13. Language Impairment in Autistic Children. (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  14. Ear Infections and Language Development. (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  15. 18-24 Months: Your Child's Development (United States)

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 18–24 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 This is a ... home language in the same sentence. Downloads Your Child's Development: 18–24 Months PDF 464 KB Read more ...

  16. 15-18 Months: Your Child's Development (United States)

    ... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... understand my feelings and others’ feelings too. Read books that talk about feelings. Stay calm during tantrums. ...

  17. Language Acquisition by Children with Down Syndrome: A Naturalistic Approach to Assisting Language Acquisition (United States)

    Vilaseca, R.M.; Del Rio, M-J.


    Many child language studies emphasize the value of verbal and social support, of 'scaffolding' processes and mutual adjustments that naturally occur in adult-child interactions in everyday contexts. Based on such theories, this study attempted to improve the language and communication skills in children with special educational needs through…

  18. Outcome Measurement Using Naturalistic Language Samples: A Feasibility Pilot Study Using Language Transcription Software and Speech and Language Therapy Assistants (United States)

    Overton, Sarah; Wren, Yvonne


    The ultimate aim of intervention for children with language impairment is an improvement in their functional language skills. Baseline and outcome measurement of this is often problematic however and practitioners commonly resort to using formal assessments that may not adequately reflect the child's competence. Language sampling,…

  19. Bilingual Siblings: Language Use in Families (United States)

    Barron-Hauwaert, Suzanne


    Taking a different perspective to traditional case studies on one bilingual child, this book discusses the whole family and the realities of life with two or more children and languages. What do we know about the language patterns of children in a growing and evolving bilingual family? Which languages do the siblings prefer to speak to each other?…

  20. Language and Literacy Acquisition through Parental Mediation in American Sign Language (United States)

    Bailes, Cynthia Neese; Erting, Lynne C.; Thumann-Prezioso, Carlene; Erting, Carol J.


    This longitudinal case study examined the language and literacy acquisition of a Deaf child as mediated by her signing Deaf parents during her first three years of life. Results indicate that the parents' interactions with their child were guided by linguistic and cultural knowledge that produced an intuitive use of child-directed signing (CDSi)…

  1. Child Support


    Bradshaw, J. (Jonathan)


    Child support is a private transfer, which for many people is mediated by the government, and which mainly benefits lone parents. Children in lone parent families represented 42 per cent of all poor children in 2003/4. Therefore child support might play an important part in reducing child poverty. Although this was not an aspiration of the 1991 Child Support Act it was certainly the main aspiration of the Child Support, Pensions and Social Security Act 2000. This paper is a review of the pote...

  2. Entre quatro paredes: atendimento fonoaudiológico a crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência Speech-language therapy for abused and neglected child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Satake Noguchi


    Full Text Available Buscou-se levantar o conhecimento e a experiência de fonoaudiólogos da cidade do Rio de Janeiro sobre o problema da violência familiar contra a criança e o adolescente. Foi efetuado um survey via correio, com duplo envio de questionários, a uma amostra de profissionais registrados no Conselho Regional de Fonoaudiologia. Foram enviados 500 questionários sendo obtidas 224 respostas. Os resultados indicam que, dos 71% dos entrevistados que trabalham em consultório ou clínica particular, 25,8% já tiveram clientes infanto-juvenis que sofreram violência familiar. Apesar de somente 12,9% dos fonoaudiólogos trabalharem em centro/posto de saúde, quase a metade desses profissionais já atendeu vítimas de violência familiar (48,3%. Dos fonoaudiólogos que atenderam pelo menos um caso de violência, 88,9% indicaram o Conselho Tutelar para encaminhamento dos casos, mas somente quatro fonoaudiólogos afirmaram ter efetuado a notificação. Os resultados sugerem que, além da falta de informação sobre o tema, a configuração do trabalho deste profissional, em que predomina a atuação em consultórios particulares, dificulta a realização da notificação, já que não contam com um apoio institucional no enfrentamento deste grave problema.The objective of this work was to appraise the knowledge and experience of Rio de Janeiro's speech-language pathologist and audiologist about child abuse and neglect. We sent a survey form by mail to a sample of professionals registered at the Speech-Language Pathologist and Audiologist Local Council. The forms were sent twice to each professional. Five hundred forms were sent and 224 professionals responded, of which 71% worked in private clinics. Among these professionals, 25.8% had had child clients who suffered some type of abuse. Only 12.9% of interviewees worked in public health services and almost half of them (43.8% had cared of clients who suffered abuse and/or neglect. Even though 88.9% of

  3. Late bloomer or language impaired? Screening the speech of a Spanish-English bilingual toddler for early signs of language impairment


    Barquin, Elisa Leslie


    This case study presents corpus data gathered from a Spanish-English bilingual child with expressive language delay. Longitudinal data on the child???s linguistic development was collected from the onset of productive speech at age 1;1 until age 4 over the course of 28 video-taped sessions with the child???s principal caregivers. A literature review focused on the relationship between language delay and persisting disorders???including a discussion of the frequent difficulty in distinguishi...

  4. Automated Analysis of Child Phonetic Production Using Naturalistic Recordings (United States)

    Xu, Dongxin; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Gilkerson, Jill


    Purpose: Conventional resource-intensive methods for child phonetic development studies are often impractical for sampling and analyzing child vocalizations in sufficient quantity. The purpose of this study was to provide new information on early language development by an automated analysis of child phonetic production using naturalistic…

  5. Quality in Child Care Centers. (United States)

    ERS Spectrum, 1998


    A significant correlation exists between quality child care and outcomes. Quality-related outcomes include cooperative play, sociability, creativity, ability to solve social conflicts, self-control, and language and cognitive development. Legislatures and agencies should strengthen standards; require initial and ongoing staff training; recruit,…

  6. Language Policy and Bilingual Education in Arizona and Washington State (United States)

    Johnson, Eric J.; Johnson, David Cassels


    In this paper, we compare the bilingual/language education policies of Arizona and Washington to show that state-level language policy plays a critical role in shaping the appropriation of federal language policy [No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Title III] and how different state-level language policies impact the district level of policy…

  7. A Stronger Reason for the Right to Sign Languages (United States)

    Trovato, Sara


    Is the right to sign language only the right to a minority language? Holding a capability (not a disability) approach, and building on the psycholinguistic literature on sign language acquisition, I make the point that this right is of a stronger nature, since only sign languages can guarantee that each deaf child will properly develop the…

  8. Language Revitalization. (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne


    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  9. Language Segmentation


    Alfter, David


    Language segmentation consists in finding the boundaries where one language ends and another language begins in a text written in more than one language. This is important for all natural language processing tasks. The problem can be solved by training language models on language data. However, in the case of low- or no-resource languages, this is problematic. I therefore investigate whether unsupervised methods perform better than supervised methods when it is difficult or impossible to trai...

  10. Japanese language, standard language, national language




    Abstract The paper examines the relationship between language and nation through the historical process by which the modern Japanese language came to exist and proposes a tentative answer as to what this says about the nature of phenomena such as language and nation themselves. The paper suggests that if language is understood as an actually existing natural and definable object, it must indeed be claimed that the Japanese language is no more than a hundred years old. Keywords: language...

  11. Outcome of Severe Receptive Language Disorder


    J Gordon Millichap


    The clinical and familial characteristics of severe receptive specific language impairment (SLI) were studied in 58 affected children (ratio of boys to girls 2:1) at the Department of Child Life and Health, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

  12. Father-Child Interactions at 24 and 36 Months and Developmental Outcomes at Prekindergarten


    McMurdie, Shareesa L.


    This study looked at father teaching interactions and singing in toddlerhood as predictors of child cognitive and language outcomes at prekindergarten in a low-income, ethnically diverse sample. Results found that, overall, father teaching interactions in toddlerhood predicted child cognitive and language outcomes at prekindergarten and father singing in toddlerhood predicted language outcomes. Fathers provided slightly more teaching interactions at child age 24 months than at 36 months, and ...

  13. The Language Question in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echu, George


    Full Text Available In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca. While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated against by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a second place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones, thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on the critique of language policy in Cameroon with emphasis first on

  14. Child Care and Child Nutrition (United States)

    Karolak, Eric


    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  15. Reciprocal influences between maternal language and children's language and cognitive development in low-income families. (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S


    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language. Child cognitive development was assessed at both ages and child receptive vocabulary was assessed at age 3;0. Maternal language related to children's lexical diversity at each age, and maternal language at age 2;0, was associated with children's receptive vocabulary and cognitive development at age 3;0. Furthermore, children's cognitive development at age 2;0 was associated with maternal language at age 3;0 controlling for maternal language at age 2;0, suggesting bi-directionality in mother-child associations. The quantity and diversity of the language children hear at home has developmental implications for children from low-income households. In addition, children's early cognitive skills further feed into their subsequent language experiences. PMID:23360640

  16. Long-term stability of core language skill in children with contrasting language skills. (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Putnick, Diane L


    This 4-wave longitudinal study evaluated stability of core language skill in 421 European American and African American children, half of whom were identified as low (n = 201) and half of whom were average-to-high (n = 220) in later language skill. Structural equation modeling supported loadings of multivariate age-appropriate multisource measures of child language on single latent variables of core language skill at 15 and 25 months and 5 and 11 years. Significant stability coefficients were obtained between language latent variables for children of low and average-to-high language skill, even accounting for child positive social interaction and nonverbal intelligence, maternal education and language, and family home environment. Prospects for children with different language skills and intervention implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26998572

  17. Adaptação transcultural do instrumento Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC utilizado para identificar a violência contra a criança Portuguese-language cross-cultural adaptation of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC, an instrument used to identify parental violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eduardo Reichenheim


    Full Text Available Este artigo enfoca a primeira fase da avaliação da equivalência transcultural entre o instrumento Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, concebido em inglês e usado para identificar violência contra a criança, e uma versão em português a ser proposta para uso no Brasil. Subsidiada por uma ampla revisão bibliográfica, a avaliação da equivalência conceitual e de itens envolveu discussões com grupo de especialistas sobre a existência e pertinência em nosso meio dos conceitos teóricos subjacentes e dos itens componentes do instrumento original. A avaliação da equivalência semântica constou das seguintes etapas: duas traduções e respectivas retraduções; uma avaliação da equivalência de significado referencial (literal e geral (sentido entre as retraduções e o original; novos encontros com especialistas para a definição de uma versão-síntese e um pré-teste realizado em 774 mulheres. Constatou-se boa equivalência conceitual de itens e semântica entre a versão final em português e o original, bem como uma excelente aceitabilidade do instrumento adaptado. Apesar de encorajadores, os resultados obtidos merecem ser revistos após avaliações psicométricas futuras (equivalência de mensuração e através de crítica contínua por parte dos profissionais interessados.This article concerns the first phase of the assessment of the cross-cultural equivalence between the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC designed in English and used to identify child abuse and neglect, and a Portuguese-language version to be used in Brazil. Evaluating conceptual and item equivalences involved expert groups. Assisted by a broad literature review, discussions focused on the existence and pertinence of the underlying theoretical concepts and the corresponding component items in the Brazilian context. The appraisal of semantic equivalence involved the following steps: two translations and respective back-translations; an evaluation

  18. Patterns in conversations between mothers and children with and without specific language disorder



    Mothers are an important part of children’s language environments, and are assumed to play a role in their children’s language development. This exploratory study investigates the maternal responses in groups of children with and without language impairments, especially related to the intelligibility and errors in the child utterances. Analyses of child-mother sequences indicate that the mothers of children with normal language and children with suspected or diagnosed language disorders show ...

  19. Language Delay and Its Relationship to Separation (United States)

    Jervay-Pendergrass, Debra; Erdelyi, Paula J.; Mendelsohn, Alan L.


    This article explores a form of separation that is neither the result of physical disconnection between child and caregiver nor the product of emotional separation associated with parental psychopathology. Underscoring the central role that language and communication play in the development and maintenance of positive parent-child

  20. Disobedient Child (United States)

    ... of their parents' rules and of their own self-control. Sometimes, however, these conflicts are more than occasional ... a timeout until he calms down and regains self-control. When your child is obedient and respectful, compliment ...

  1. Language, Parents' Involvement, and Social Justice: The Fight for Maintaining Minority Home Language: A Chinese-Language Case Study (United States)

    Wang, Yuxiang


    English-only policies and the expiration of the "Bilingual Education Act," which is now replaced by "No Child Left Behind," make it clear that English is the official language of schools in the United States with the emphasis moved from the goal of maintaining students' home languages while learning English to a focus of ignoring minority…

  2. School-Home Communication in Multiple Languages (United States)

    Avila, Verdi N.


    The No Child Left Behind Act requires school districts to communicate with parents in an "understandable and uniform format ... in a language that parents can understand." But with a student population representing 131 countries and speaking 81 major languages, the Cobb County, Ga., Public School District was finding it difficult to meet that…

  3. Gender, Play, Language, and Creativity in Preschoolers (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Romeo, Lynn


    This study explored the effects of a child's gender and school setting on preschoolers' language abilities (receptive vocabulary), creativity, and social play. The participants were primarily European-American children who spoke English as a primary language (nine children were bilingual), and were from middle income socioeconomic…

  4. Speech and Language Problems in Children (United States)

    ... be due to a speech or language disorder. Language disorders can mean that the child has trouble understanding what others say or difficulty sharing her thoughts. Children who have trouble producing speech sounds correctly or who hesitate or stutter when talking ...

  5. Language Endangerment and Language Revival. (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Peter


    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  6. Language learning - physiological and psychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Tarnoveanu


    Full Text Available There are several stages in the linguistic development of a child; he will not merely reproduce the sentences he hears, but a personal production is often noticed. Children do not acquire the grammar of their native language through theoretical teaching; exposure to the speaking community will lead to the acquisition of the grammatical structures of their language. Little is known about how little children acquire the rules of their native language; yet, we may distinguish between physiological and psychological aspects.

  7. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language is at the center of human life. This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists. On this basis, it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness, while language learning is connected with conscious system. Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  8. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language is at the center of human life.This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists.On this basis,it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness,while language learning is connected with conscious system.Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  9. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.


    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  10. The Nature of Spanish versus English Language Use at Home (United States)

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Goldenberg, Claude


    Home language experiences are important for children's development of language and literacy. However, the home language context is complex, especially for Spanish-speaking children in the United States. A child's use of Spanish or English likely ranges along a continuum, influenced by preferences of particular people involved, such as parents,…

  11. Prevent Child Abuse America (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  12. Child labor


    Udry, Christopher


    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  13. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  15. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals. (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G


    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. PMID:22138311

  16. Language Awareness. (United States)

    Carter, Ronald


    Discusses the concept of language awareness and its use in language teaching, which refers to the development in learners of an enhanced consciousness of and sensitivity to the forms and functions of language. The approach has been developed in the contexts of both second and foreign language learning, as well as in mother tongue education.…

  17. "Mama" and "Papa" in Child Language (United States)

    Ruke-Dravina, Velta


    This case study of two Latvian children attempts to show how the parental terms for"mummy" and "daddy" in Latvian are acquired, paying particular attention to the changing relationship between the input and output forms during the acquisition process. (Author/RM)

  18. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.



    Pallavi Chincholkar


    Human trafficking is the third biggest beneficial industry on the planet. Child trafficking unlike many other issues is found in both developed and developing nations. NGOs evaluate that 12,000 - 50,000 ladies and kids are trafficked into the nation every year from neighboring states for the sex exchange.

  20. Bilingual Intertextuality: The Joint Construction of Bi-Literacy Practices between Parent and Child (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.


    Based on sociocultural theory, this article examines two activities constituted by a parent and child as jointly constructed bi-literacy practices. Bi-literacy practices enable the parent and child to co-construct conceptual meanings and sense across two languages. Concept development in young children "begins" with meaning in one language and…

  1. Assessing Linguistic Competence: Verbal Inflection in Child Tamil (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Usha


    Within child language acquisition research, there has been a fair amount of controversy regarding children's knowledge of the grammatical properties associated with verbal inflection (e.g., tense, agreement, and aspect). Some researchers have proposed that the child's early grammar is fundamentally different from the adult grammar, whereas others…

  2. Predictors of Second Language Acquisition in Latino Children with Specific Language Impairment (United States)

    Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Sweet, Monica


    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent to which the language of intervention, the child's development in Spanish, and the effects of English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure predict differences in the rates of acquisition of English in Latino children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: In this randomized controlled trial,…

  3. Parent-Implemented Natural Language Paradigm to Increase Language and Play in Children with Autism (United States)

    Gillett, Jill N.; LeBlanc, Linda A.


    Three parents of children with autism were taught to implement the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP). Data were collected on parent implementation, multiple measures of child language, and play. The parents were able to learn to implement the NLP procedures quickly and accurately with beneficial results for their children. Increases in the overall…

  4. The Association between Morphological Awareness and Literacy in English Language Learners from Different Language Backgrounds (United States)

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Siegel, Linda S.; Mazabel, Silvia


    Purpose: The main goal of this study was to examine whether the morphological structure of a child's first language determined the strength of association between morphological awareness and reading and spelling skills in English, their second language. Methods: The sample consisted of 888 Grade six students who had English as their first language…



    Nematullah Shomoossi; Ahmad Shomoossi; Lotfollah Karimi


    Concerning issues in first language acquisition, the present paper explores positions in theory making, asyntacticity of early child language, Piaget's idea about children's logical thinking, Vygotsky's and Chomsky's controversy over the origins of language, the relationship between communicative competence and other abilities, the stage where child's utterance is counted to be communicative, reflecting on the relationship between language and thought, the idea of modularity, the role of emer...

  6. Pediatric Health Assessments of Young Children in Child Welfare by Placement Type (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Arnold-Clark, Janet S.; McDaniel, Dawn; Xie, Bin


    Objectives: To describe health-related problems across placement types (unrelated foster, kin foster, in-home with birth parent); to examine the association of placement and demographic/child welfare variables (child gender, age, race/ethnicity; caregiver language; type of maltreatment, and length of time receiving services from child welfare)…

  7. Simultaneous Bilingual Language Acquisition: The Role of Parental Input on Receptive Vocabulary Development (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Boegner-Page, Sarah; Fontolliet, Salome


    Parents often turn to educators and healthcare professionals for advice on how to best support their child's language development. These professionals frequently suggest implementing the "one-parent-one-language" approach to ensure consistent exposure to both languages. The goal of this study was to understand how language exposure influences the…

  8. Not Just "Situaciones de la Vida": Professionalization and Indigenous Language Revitalization in the Andes (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.; Swinehart, Karl F.


    Within discourses of language endangerment, life stages such as child language acquisition, adolescent language shift, and the death of community elders figure prominently, but what of the role of other, intermediate life stages during adulthood and professional life in the course of language obsolescence or revitalization? Drawing from long-term…

  9. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane


    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  10. Child pornography


    Pavlović, Zoran S.; Petković, Nikola; Matijašević Obradović, Jelena


    The abuse of children for pornographic purposes is a serious sociological, criminological and victimological problem of today which, despite all preventive and restrictive activities on an international level, shows a tendency of global expansion. The fact that the Republic of Serbia has only recently actively joined the fight against child pornography on the Internet indicates the need for critical analysis of the existing national, penal, and legal solutions and their harmonization with the...

  11. Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development (United States)

    Francis, Norbert


    When two or more languages are part of a child's world, we are presented with a rich opportunity to learn something about language in general and about how the mind works. In this book, Norbert Francis examines the development of bilingual proficiency and the different kinds of competence that come together in making up its component parts. In…

  12. Enhancing Parent-Child Book Reading in a Disadvantaged Community (United States)

    Elias, Gordon; Hay, Ian; Homel, Ross; Freiberg, Kate


    A parent-child dialogic reading program was implemented across four preschools, involving 62 caregivers/parents in a low socioeconomic status, disadvantaged community where English was not the first language in 54 per cent of the homes. This socioculturally sensitive program aimed to enhance children's language and emergent literacy development,…

  13. Child Development (United States)

    ... in Early Childhood Reassessing the approach of the Learn the Signs. Act Early. campaign. Key findings Improving Children’s Behavioral Health New Tool For Parents Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The early years of a ...

  14. A language-specific comprehension strategy [Letters to Nature


    Cutler, A.; Mehler, J.; D. Norris; Segui, J.


    Infants acquire whatever language is spoken in the environment into which they are born. The mental capability of the newborn child is not biased in any way towards the acquisition of one human language rather than another. Because psychologists who attempt to model the process of language comprehension are interested in the structure of the human mind, rather than in the properties of individual languages, strategies which they incorporate in their models are presumed to be universal, not la...

  15. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  16. Parental tobacco consumption and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine F. Santos


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age.METHOD: One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood.RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND and the child's language development quotient; r = -0.41, p = 0.005, r2 =0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107 = 5.51, p = 0.021, ?p2 = 0.05.CONCLUSION: Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development.

  17. The acquisition of the Latvian language as the Second language at preschool age in theory and practice


    Ingēra Tomme-Jukēvica


    In Latvia there are no substantial studies on bilingual preschool children’s Latvian language as the second language. The article provides an overview of the 20th–21st century linguistic theories in the context of child second language acquisition as well as raises awareness about their influence on and use in the learning of preschoolers whose second language is Latvian, carrying out content analysis of the Minority Preschool Education Program (with instruction in Russian), the Latvian Langu...

  18. Endangered Languages. (United States)

    Hale, Ken; And Others


    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  19. Use of narratives to assess language disorders in an inpatient pediatric psychiatric population. (United States)

    Pearce, Patsy; Johnson, Carolyn; Manly, Patricia; Locke, Jake


    A large proportion of child psychiatry patients have undiagnosed language disorders. Adequately developed language is critical for psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapies. This study investigated (1) whether assessment of oral narratives would identify language impairments in this population undetected by assessment of only core language abilities, and (2) the extent to which measures of cognition, working memory, emotional distress, and social function differentially predict core language and narrative development. Results showed that (1) more than twice as many children were identified with language impairment when both narrative and core language assessment were used, and (2) core language comprehension and complex verbal working memory were the strongest predictors of narrative production, while core language comprehension, a less complex working-memory task, and social skills best predicted narrative comprehension. Emotional distress did not predict either. The results emphasize the importance of evaluating child psychiatry patients' language, using both core language and narrative measures. PMID:23689481

  20. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages


    Leonard, Laurence B.


    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those ...

  1. My Child Is Stealing (United States)

    ... might do so anyway because they lack enough self-control . Preteens and teens know they're not supposed ... About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood Stress Nine Steps to ...

  2. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation (United States)

    ... Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) defines ... person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime to ...

  3. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  4. Asthma - child - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  5. Language Switching and Language Competition (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela


    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  6. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko


    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  7. [Language gene]. (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi


    The human capacity for acquiring speech and language must derive, at least in part, from the genome. Recent advance in the field of molecular genetics finally discovered 'Language Gene'. Disruption of FOXP2 gene, the firstly identified 'language gene' causes severe speech and language disorder. To elucidate the anatomical basis of language processing in the brain, we examined the expression pattern of FOXP2/Foxp2 genes in the monkey and rat brains through development. We found the preferential expression of FOXP2/Foxp2 in the striosomal compartment of the developing striatum. Thus, we suggest the striatum, particularly striosomal system may participate in neural information processing for language and speech. Our suggestion is consistent with the declarative/ procedural model of language proposed by Ullman (1997, 2001), which the procedural memory-dependent mental grammar is rooted in the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex, and the declarative memory-dependent mental lexicon is rooted in the temporal lobe. PMID:17432197

  8. Parent-Child Interaction in Three Conversational Contexts: Variations in Style and Strategy. (United States)

    Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; Dahlin, Michael P.; Powell, Terris A.


    Examined associations between parent language complexity and conversational style and child language use. Contrasted parents' story reading language style with their style for free play with toys and joint remembering of an event. Findings underscore the extent to which children's conversational ability is shaped by the demands of the social and…

  9. Strategies and Resources for Mainstream Teachers of English Language Learners. By Request Series. (United States)

    Reed, Bracken; Railsback, Jennifer

    This booklet presents practical, research-based principles and instructional strategies that mainstream teachers can use to meet the needs of linguistically diverse students who are English Language Learners (ELLs), focusing on the following: "In Context: English Language Learners and No Child Left Behind"; "The Implications of No Child Left…

  10. Early Relations between Mother Talk and Language Development: Masked and Unmasked. (United States)

    Hampson, June; Nelson, Katherine

    A study re-examined the hypothesis that an identifiable register of child-directed speech (motherese) contributes to child language acquisition. The hypothesis was studied from two perspectives: (1) that it has not been documented adequately at earlier ages; and (2) that individual differences in style of language acquisition interact with…

  11. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series (United States)

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  12. Child Mortality, Child Labour, and Economic Development


    Holger Strulik


    The paper presents a model where the interplay between fertility, child labour, and education can explain economic stagnation when parents live in an environment of high child mortality. If in contrast child mortality is low, the solution of the parental decision problem leads to perpetual economic growth. The two long-run states are connected by a path of demographic transition and economic take-off along which the incidence of child labour disappears. The paper also discusses alternative po...

  13. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development


    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal


    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the implications of child care subsidies for child development. In this paper, we provide a systematic assessment of the impact of subsidy receipt on a wide ran...

  14. Child care and our youngest children. (United States)

    Phillips, D; Adams, G


    Studies of child development confirm that experiences with people mold an infant's mind and personality. Caregiving is, therefore, central to development, whether the caregiver is a parent, a grandmother, or a teacher in a child care center. This article uses data from new, national studies of families to examine the state of child care for infants and toddlers. The story it tells is complex, as the authors outline the overlapping impacts that diverse child care settings and home situations have on children. Early exposure to child care can foster children's learning and enhance their lives, or it can leave them at risk for troubled relationships. The outcome that results depends largely on the quality of the child care setting. Responsive caregivers who surround children with language, warmth, and chances to learn are the key to good outcomes. Other quality attributes (like training and staff-to-child ratios) matter because they foster positive caregiving. Diversity and variability are hallmarks of the American child care supply. Both "wonderful and woeful" care can be found in all types of child care but, overall, settings where quality is compromised are distressingly common. Children whose families are not buoyed by good incomes or government supports are the group most often exposed to poor-quality care. Given this balanced but troubling look at the status of child care for infants and toddlers, the authors conclude that there is a mismatch between the rhetoric of parental choice and the realities facing parents of young children in the United States. They call on communities, businesses, foundations, and government to play a larger role in helping parents secure good care for their infants and toddlers. PMID:11712454

  15. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  16. Environmental Influences on Children's Language: A Model and Case Study. (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Kaiser, Ann P.


    This paper provides a conceptual model of the language learning environment of young children, incorporating child engagement with the physical environment, contributions of child and caregiver, and caregiver mediation of physical environment. A case study illustrates the impact of a relatively simple home environmental intervention on a…

  17. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.


    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues that...... instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts.......Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues that...

  18. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent


    The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The under­stood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced...... by an alternative concept that more adequately describes the realities of what adherents of ‘parallel languages' can hope for. The new concept I have dubbed ‘complementary languages' (komplementær­sproglighed). I will explain this concept in the following and contrast it both with ‘parallel languages...

  19. Child categorization. (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Meyer, Meredith


    Categorization is a process that spans all of development, beginning in earliest infancy yet changing as children's knowledge and cognitive skills develop. In this review article, we address three core issues regarding childhood categorization. First, we discuss the extent to which early categories are rooted in perceptual similarity versus knowledge-enriched theories. We argue for a composite perspective in which categories are steeped in commonsense theories from a young age but also are informed by low-level similarity and associative learning cues. Second, we examine the role of language in early categorization. We review evidence to suggest that language is a powerful means of expressing, communicating, shaping, and supporting category knowledge. Finally, we consider categories in context. We discuss sources of variability and flexibility in children's categories, as well as the ways in which children's categories are used within larger knowledge systems (e.g., to form analogies, make inferences, or construct theories). Categorization is a process that is intrinsically tied to nearly all aspects of cognition, and its study provides insight into cognitive development, broadly construed. PMID:23440312

  20. Vibrotactile stimulation: case study with a profoundly deaf child. (United States)

    Geers, A E


    This case study reports results obtained from a young, profoundly deaf child, M, who was fitted with a single-channel vibrotactile device, the Tactaid I, at 29 months of age. Her progress in speech and language development was evaluated over a 14-month period. During this period, M learned to understand 101 words through lipreading and the Tactaid I, and to produce consistent approximations of 90 words. Her scores on language tests with hearing-impaired norms progressed from below average to above average for her age. M's scores on language tests with hearing norms also reflected significant progress, although she did not achieve normal language development. These results indicate that a single-channel vibrotactile aid may facilitate the acquisition of spoken language in a profoundly deaf child who is unable to benefit from a conventional hearing aid. PMID:3958992

  1. Language dynamics


    Baronchelli A.; Loreto V.; Tria F.


    Thirty authors of different disciplines, ranging from cognitive science and linguistics to mathematics and physics, address the topic of language origin and evolution. Language dynamics is investigated through an interdisciplinary effort, involving field and synthetic experiments, modelling and comparison of the theoretical predictions with empirical data. The result consists in new insights that significantly contribute to the ongoing debate on the origin and the evolution of language. In th...

  2. Language processing during natural sleep in a 6-year-old boy as assessed by functional MRI


    Wilke, Marko; Holland, Scott K.; Ball, William S.


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on a 6-year-old child prior to neuro surgical intervention. A stories-listening task was used, revealing a left-lateralized language network. The task was repeated during the same session when the child had fallen asleep and surprisingly yielded strong activation in similar language areas. Our findings suggest that language processing does occur during natural sleep even in young children, potentially allowing for an assessment of language f...

  3. Medico-biological factors of speech and language development in young children (part 1)


    Chernov D.N.


    The article analyzed the main results of medico-biological directions in the study of the factors of children's speech and language. It shows that a variety of pre-, peri-and neonatal developmental factors (teratogenic effects, prematurity, low birth weight, maternal diseases during pregnancy, and chronic diseases of the child) had a negative impact on the child-parent relationship that has a lasting influence on child speech and language development.

  4. Egocentric language in deaf children. (United States)

    Kelman, C A


    Egocentric language is a generalization of Piaget's egocentric speech concept (1926/1969) investigated by Vygotsky (1962). Behaviors of eight children ages 2 to 5 years with profound congenital deafness were analyzed using six classes of egocentric language: motor reaction activity, silent lips articulation, murmur, oral-facial mimics, body expression, and vocalization. No child had received oral or sign language training. All attended videotaped play sessions. Events in which children engaged in "dialogue" with themselves or a toy, while pursuing a specific solution, were observed. Such extralinguistic behavior moves the thinking process toward problem solving like that of hearing children. Consequently, teachers should not interrupt when a deaf child is playing with or signing or vocalizing to a toy, because this behavior may be the manifestation of a reflexive moment and the generator of a decision process fundamental for cognitive development. Vocalization by a deaf child does not indicate willingness to speak; it merely manifests symbolic reasoning. Silent lips articulation and oral-facial mimics have the same effect and can also be interpreted. PMID:11523203

  5. Toilet Training Your Child (United States)

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  6. Child Abuse and Neglect


    Yaşar Tıraşçı; Süleyman Gören


    Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

  7. The Impact of Input Quality on Early Sign Development in Native and Non-Native Language Learners (United States)

    Lu, Jenny; Jones, Anna; Morgan, Gary


    There is debate about how input variation influences child language. Most deaf children are exposed to a sign language from their non-fluent hearing parents and experience a delay in exposure to accessible language. A small number of children receive language input from their deaf parents who are fluent signers. Thus it is possible to document the…

  8. Bilingualism, Language Disorders and Intercultural Families in Contemporary Italy: Family Relations, Transmission of Language and Representations of Otherness. (United States)

    Bruno, Davide; Balottin, Umberto; Berlincioni, Vanna; Moro, Marie Rose


    This study aims to show how language disorders in children affect language transmission and the mixedness experience in intercultural families. To this end, it adopts a qualitative method of study based on the administration of ad hoc interviews to intercultural couples who consulted our Child Neuropsychiatry Service because of language disorders in their children. One of the main consequences, when the child of an intercultural couple presents a language disorder and a diagnostic process has to be initiated, may be interruption of the transmission of the second language, especially if it is the mother's language. The decision to do this, which may be taken on the advice of teachers and health professionals, but also because the parents themselves often attribute their child's language disorder to his bilingual condition, affects not only the relationship between the mother and her child, but also processes in the construction of parenthood and in the structuring of the child's personality and the plurality of his affiliations. A clear understanding of how the dialectic between the categories of "alien" and "familiar" is managed in these contemporary families, which have to reckon with the condition of otherness, is crucial for psychiatrists and psychotherapists working in settings in which cultural difference is an issue to consider. PMID:26037259

  9. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  10. Who Owns Child Abuse?


    Gerald Cradock


    Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

  11. Preparing Early Childhood Teachers for English Language Learners (United States)

    McCrary, Donna E.; Sennette, Jennifer; Brown, David L.


    Children whose native language is one other than English face formidable challenges when they enter English-dominant schools. The task of learning English, progressing in one's native language, and acculturating to the school environment is a complicated one that requires the child to develop many new skills. In the past, children who were English…

  12. A Brief Analysis of the First Language Acquisition Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Learning a first language is something every child does successfully, in a matter of a few years and without the need for formal lessons.From the variety of first language acquisition theories, nativism and the theory of behaviorism are very representative.This paper is trying to explore the two kinds of theory.

  13. Body Language in Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat ÇALIŞKAN


    Full Text Available Drama is an act continuing life-long of a human and is an art of living. Owing to drama a child can gain the apportunity of practising and learning his life in games that he likes most. Today drama is scrutinized in four subtitles as creative, educational, psychodrama and sociodrama. The concepts about drama can be explained as creaticeness, metaksis, interraction, action, activity and empathy.Drama is the explanation of a sense or thought by motion, mimic, gesture and in words. In other words it is the animation of a situation or a subject using body language, reflecting by living, transforming into life.By using the body language consciously and effectively, it has an important function at dramatizing the events, getting students’ attention in education, concretizing abstract expressions, at stres accent and increasing the understandability of messages.Pantomime technic in drama method has a great importance at using the activities and human’s world consciously and animating the expressions and events. Because a teacher’s acting biology is importatnt an educational period.In this study related to drama expression, the importance of creative, educational, psychodrama, sociodrama, body language and pandomime technic in educational period has been tried to explaired.

  14. Speech and language development and disorders in children. (United States)

    Sharp, Helen M; Hillenbrand, Kathryn


    Language disorders are identified when a person has difficulty with expressive language, receptive language, or pragmatic language. Speech disorders are identified when a person's voice, fluency, or articulation call attention to the speaker because his or her speech is sufficiently different from the norm. Speech and language development should be consistent with a child's overall development and can be tracked using typical milestone markers. Differential diagnosis is critical to designing appropriate intervention, which should be tailored to the parents' goals along with the child's clinical and educational needs. Early identification and intervention assist in educational planning and are often associated with better long-term outcomes. Any speech-language therapy plan should be designed with measurable goals and consistent monitoring of progress toward those goals. PMID:18929058

  15. The Significance of First Language Development in Five to Nine Year Old Children for Second and Foreign Language Learning (United States)

    Vanderplank, Robert


    In this article, the language learning experiences and development of a child (the author's daughter) between the ages of five and nine are drawn on to argue that we should re-focus our comparison of first and second language acquisition away from early L1 acquisition to the early schooling/middle childhood period. In addition to the transforming…

  16. Language Learning Actions in Two 1x1 Secondary Schools in Catalonia: The Case of Online Language Resources (United States)

    Calvo, Boris Vázquez; Cassany, Daniel


    This paper identifies and describes current attitudes towards classroom digitization and digital language learning practices under the umbrella of EduCAT 1x1, the One-Laptop-Per-Child (OLPC or 1x1) initiative in place in Catalonia. We thoroughly analyze practices worked out by six language teachers and twelve Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE)…

  17. Reflexões acerca do papel do fonoaudiólogo junto à família de uma criança com Transtorno Global do Desenvolvimento: estudo de caso Considerations about the role of a speech-language pathologist with the family of a child with Pervasive Development Disorder: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cecília Rabinovitsch Gertel


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi refletir e discutir o papel do fonoaudiólogo na condução das estratégias terapêuticas junto à família de uma criança com Transtorno Global do Desenvolvimento. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida por meio de estudo de caso de uma criança com Transtorno Global do Desenvolvimento atendida de julho/2002 a novembro/2004. Os recortes do material clínico retratam o percurso seguido ao longo do eixo da história do paciente enfatizando os momentos significativos que geraram desenvolvimento do processo terapêutico fonoaudiológico no que se refere à comunicação oral e integração social no ambiente familiar. O enfoque das estratégias clínicas foi direcionado para propiciar um ambiente físico e emocional capaz de promover experiências constitutivas que respeitem a singularidade de cada paciente levando em conta a realidade da família e da comunidade onde se encontra inserido aquele núcleo social. Portanto, em nosso entender, a atuação fonoaudiológica pode ser direcionada para a criação de situações que favoreçam o processo [de cada paciente] de inclusão na vida cotidiana, com o respeito que todas as pessoas merecem.The aim of this study was to reflect about and discuss the role of a speech-language pathologist with the family of a child with Pervasive Development Disorder. This case study reported the case of a child with Pervasive Development Disorder that attended speech-language therapy from July/2002 to November/2004. The excerpts of clinical material depict the course of the patient's history, emphasizing the significant moments that generated development of the therapeutical process related to oral communication and social interaction within his familiar setting. Clinical strategies focused a favorable physical and emotional environment, promoting constitutive experiences that respect the singularity of each patient, considering the realities of the family and the community it is part of

  18. Doubling phenomena in first language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.; Evers, A.


    Scope-bearing items for sentential negations and sentential questions appear in Dutch child language as ‘doubling’ constructions. A <+neg> or <+Q> element appears in sentence-initial position and is doubled in sentence-final position. The ‘doubling’ is not part of the adult system nor is it part of

  19. Language in Children with Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy


    Martinez, Chenia; Carneiro, Luciana; Vernier, Luíza; Cesa, Carla; Guardiola, Ana; Vidor, Deisi


    Introduction Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (NHIE) is a common neurologic injury, and it may compromise the child's language and cognition. Understanding the process of language acquisition becomes possible with concise knowledge about children's global development. Objective The aim of this study was to observe if language acquisition and development are impaired in children with NHIE. Methods Seventy children with NHIE from 1 to 24 months old were analyzed in a Pediatric Neurology...

  20. A Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship between Parenting, Parent-Child Shared Reading Practices, and Child Development in Low-Income Families (United States)

    Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.


    This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…

  1. Child Poverty and Changes in Child Poverty


    CHEN, WEN-HAO; Corak, Miles


    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state i...

  2. American Sign Language (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  3. Creating Awareness of a Second Language and Another Culture in Elementary Children. (United States)

    Vabulas, Lani; Yono, Tara; Zach, Rebecca

    This study examined why preschool, kindergarten, and 4th grade students had poor comprehension of a second language. The reasons for this were threefold: learning a second language is not essential to a child's life at these ages; they are not motivated to learn a second language on their own; and it was widely thought that learning a second…

  4. An Irish Cohort Study of Risk and Protective Factors for Infant Language Development at 9?Months (United States)

    McNally, Sinéad; Quigley, Jean


    This nationally representative study of Irish infants explores whether the set of child and environmental factors established as predicting language outcomes aged 3?years would also predict language and communication development as early as age 9?months. Associations between infant and environmental characteristics and infant language outcomes at…

  5. Parents' Assessment of Their Preschool Children's Bilingual Development in the Context of Family Language Policy (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor


    Parents' assessment of children's development in the first and the second language is an essential part of their family language policy (FLP) and an important component of parent-child communication. This paper presents a pilot study focused on Russian-speaking immigrant parents' assessment of their children's language knowledge in Russian as a…

  6. Reading the World through Words: Cultural Themes in Heritage Chinese Language Textbooks (United States)

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan


    This paper explores the social and cultural knowledge embedded in the textbooks for language and literacy education in a Chinese heritage language school, the Zhonguo School, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It examines how Chinese language arts textbooks introduce the child reader to cultural knowledge considered legitimate and valued in China as…

  7. Stability of Core Language Skill from Early Childhood to Adolescence: A Latent Variable Approach (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.


    This four-wave prospective longitudinal study evaluated stability of language in 324 children from early childhood to adolescence. Structural equation modeling supported loadings of multiple age-appropriate multisource measures of child language on single-factor core language skills at 20 months and 4, 10, and 14 years. Large stability…

  8. The Social Basis of Language and Communication in Severely Handicapped Preschoolers. (United States)

    Rogers-Warren, Ann K.; Warren, Steven F.


    The paper proposes that primary social relationships between child and caregiver are critical context for language learning and examines current assumptions about the nature of language and the processes involved in language learning, with particular attention to the effects of severe handicaps on the social processes underlying language…

  9. An Early Intervention Program for Parents of Language Delayed Preschool Children. (United States)

    Reblin, Patricia A.

    A program was implemented to involve 10 parents in helping their preschool children with language delays. Monthly parent support groups were held, and 10 professional speakers lectured to parents on child development topics. Parents were trained by a speech language pathologist to be language facilitators for their children. Parents were also…

  10. Imbalances in Bilingual Development: A Key to Understanding the Faculty of Language (United States)

    Francis, Norbert


    Investigators of first language attrition, early bilingualism and child second language learning have found common ground on a number of important points. The present review of the research will show that the study of unevenness in the early development of two languages reveals more clearly how the critical problems for future research on…

  11. Will They Ever Speak with Authority? Race, Post-Coloniality and the Symbolic Violence of Language (United States)

    Ibrahim, Awad


    Intersecting authority-language-and-symbolic power, this article tells the story of a group of continental Francophone African youth who find themselves in an urban French-language high school in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Through their narrative, one is confronted by the trauma of one's own language being declared an illegitimate child, hence…

  12. Living language

    CERN Document Server

    Shuttleworth, John


    Living Language 3rd edition' has been devised to meet all the new specifications for AS and A level English Language. The best-selling previous edition has been comprehensively revised to ensure full assessment objectives coverage and fulfilment, and delivery of the new four-unit courses from 2008 onwards. 'Living Language 3rd edition' provides linguistic theory, information and ideas which are easily accessed via supported activities and investigations. The text will actively develop students' skills in reading, listening and responding to an extensive range of text genres and data. Building

  13. The Creagest Project: a Digitized and Annotated Corpus for French Sign Language (LSF) and Natural Gestural Languages


    Balvet, Antonio; Courtin, Cyril; Boutet, Dominique; Cuxac, Christian; Fusellier-Souza, Ivani; Garcia, Brigitte; L'huillier, Marie Thérèse; Sallandre, Marie Anne


    International audience In this paper, we discuss the theoretical, sociolinguistic, methodological and technical objectives and issues of the French Creagest Project (2007-2012) in setting up, documenting and annotating a large corpus of adult and child French Sign Language (LSF) and of natural gestural language. The main objective of this ANR-funded research project is to set up a collaborative web-based platform for the study of semiogenesis in LSF (French Sign Language), i.e. the study o...

  14. Child Abuse in India


    Mohammad Reza Iravani


    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  15. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  16. Levers for Language Growth: Characteristics and Predictors of Language Trajectories between 4 and 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina McKean

    Full Text Available Evidence is required as to when and where to focus resources to achieve the greatest gains for children's language development. Key to these decisions is the understanding of individual differences in children's language trajectories and the predictors of those differences. To determine optimal timing we must understand if and when children's relative language abilities become fixed. To determine where to focus effort we must identify mutable factors, that is those with the potential to be changed through interventions, which are associated with significant differences in children's language scores and rate of progress.Uniquely this study examined individual differences in language growth trajectories in a population sample of children between 4 and 7 years using the multilevel model for change. The influence of predictors, grouped with respect to their mutability and their proximity to the child (least-mutable, mutable-distal, mutable-proximal, were estimated.A significant degree of variability in rate of progress between 4 and 7 years was evident, much of which was systematically associated with mutable-proximal factors, that is, those factors with evidence that they are modifiable through interventions with the child or family, such as shared book reading, TV viewing and number of books in the home. Mutable-distal factors, such as family income, family literacy and neighbourhood disadvantage, hypothesised to be modifiable through social policy, were important predictors of language abilities at 4 years.Potential levers for language interventions lie in the child's home learning environment from birth to age 4. However, the role of a family's material and cultural capital must not be ignored, nor should the potential for growth into the school years. Early Years services should acknowledge the effects of multiple, cascading and cumulative risks and seek to promote child language development through the aggregation of marginal gains in the pre

  17. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes (United States)

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison


    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  18. What's in a name? Coming to terms with the child's linguistic environment. (United States)

    Saxton, Matthew


    This article reviews the proliferation of terms that have been coined to denote the language environment of the young child. It is argued that terms are often deployed by researchers without due consideration of their appropriateness for particular empirical studies. It is further suggested that just three of the dozen or more available terms meet the needs of child language researchers in most instances: CHILD-DIRECTED SPEECH, INFANT-DIRECTED SPEECH AND EXPOSURE LANGUAGE. The phenomena denoted by these terms are then considered. The term register is generally borrowed for this purpose from sociolinguistics. However, close inspection of this concept reveals that the notion of register needs to be constrained, in specified ways, in order to be of any real value within the field of child language research. PMID:18588720

  19. Language Policy


    Simmonds, Michael; Kjeldergaard, Nadja; Hagstrøm, Jeppe; Møller, Tina; Nielsen, Matthew


    This study investigates the methods and effects of a monolingual language policy stipulated at the International Bachelor Study Programme in Social Science at Roskilde University. The report is centered around the data collected through recordings of group meetings with two project groups from the aforementioned study, as well as two qualitative interviews with one member of each group. The analytical theoretical framework utilised in the study consists of Bernard Spolsky’s Language Policy th...

  20. Your Child's Habits (United States)

    ... or working on a craft. Reward and praise self-control . For example, allow your little girl to use ... Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can I Stop My Child ...

  1. FPG Child Development Institute (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Excellent June 7, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  2. Child abuse - physical (United States)

    ... this page: // Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  3. Cholesterol and Your Child (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  4. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock


    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  5. Office of Child Care (United States)

    ... 2014 OCC has a variety of resources and tools related to the law. Visit our Reauthorization site to find webinars, program instructions, and other guidance and information. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  6. Child Dental Health (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  7. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal


    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  8. Economics of child labour


    Fatima, Ambreen


    The dissertation aims to explore the supply and demand side determinant of child labour at macro, meso and micro level. At macro level it explores the effect of globalization (defined as openness to trade and inflow of foreign direct investment) and credit market imperfections on child labour. At meso level it explores the effect of labour market conditions on child labour. As the above two levels of analysis are mainly concerned with the demand for child labour, the micro level analysis expl...

  9. Child Poverty in Canada


    Thomas Crossley; Lori Curtis


    A 1989 all-party motion of parliament called for the elimination of child poverty in Canada by the year 2000. Despite a series of policy initiatives, recent reports suggest that the child poverty rate may now be comparable to that in 1989. The apparent persistence of child poverty in Canada might reflect socioeconomic developments, or something about the way that child poverty is measured. Using micro data covering the period 1986 to 2000 we find little support for these explanations.

  10. The acquisition of negation in Early Child Polish


    Sopata, Aldona


    The generative theory of first language acquisition predicts that with the acquisition of one functional category, children should acquire also relevant syntactic properties of the respective language. In the present study the acquisition of negation in early child Polish is investigated and, further, the process is compared with the development of finiteness as a phenomenon being the prior evidence for the implementation of a functional category in children’s grammar. The analysis of Polish ...

  11. Disciplining Your Child (United States)

    ... are ways to ease frustration and avoid unnecessary conflict with your child. Be Aware of What Your Child Can and ... moment, wait to cool down, apologize to your child, and explain how you will handle the situation in the future. Be sure to keep your ...

  12. Spleen removal - child - discharge (United States)

    ... for your child to return to school or daycare. This may be as soon as 2 to 3 weeks after surgery. Your child's activity restrictions will depend on: The type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) Your child's age The reason for ...

  13. Towards Agile Language Engineering


    Sadilek, Daniel A.; Scheidgen, Markus; Wachsmuth, Guido; Weißleder, Stephan


    Language engineering is software engineering concerned with computer languages. Agile language engineering is the result of adapting agile principles to language engineering. An agile language engineering process is geared to ever changing requirements and fosters higher language quality, software quality, and developer productivity. It provides short iteration cycles, intensive user integration, control over frequent changes, and continuous delivery of valuable language tools. In this...

  14. Bridging Languages (United States)

    Kelly, Barbra Calder


    Children with autism may sometimes appear to be living in their own world and show very little interest in others. They may be socially unaware, avoiding eye contact and showing limited attachment to others. But when a child is able to express and communicate thoughts, desires, and needs, they are much more likely to seek out social interactions.…

  15. Curriculum: Foreign language learning


    Lin, AMY


    This article presents an overview of various issues related to curriculum in foreign language learning, and in particular focuses on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Foreign language learning is taken to mean the learning of a language other than the learner’s first language (L1), and this language is not ordinarily used in the learner’s everyday life. Thus, foreign language learning contexts are very different from second language learning contexts, for in second language learni...

  16. Relations between Parent-Child Acculturation Differences and Adjustment within Immigrant Chinese Families (United States)

    Costigan, Catherine L.; Dokis, Daphn P.


    The relations between parent and child acculturation and family and child adjustment were examined among 91 immigrant Chinese families in Canada with early adolescents (average age of 12). Acculturation was assessed in public (e.g., language use) and private (e.g., values) domains separately in Chinese and Canadian cultures. With one exception,…

  17. Preschoolers' Emotion Regulation Strategy Understanding: Relations with Emotion Socialization and Child Self-Regulation (United States)

    Cole, Pamela M.; Dennis, Tracy A.; Smith-Simon, Kristen E.; Cohen, Laura H.


    Preschool-age children's ability to verbally generate strategies for regulating anger and sadness, and to recognize purported effective strategies for these emotions, were examined in relation to child factors (child age, temperament, and language ability) and maternal emotion socialization (supportiveness and structuring in response to child…

  18. Biliteracy and Bilingual Development in a Second-Generation Korean Child: A Case Study (United States)

    Ro, Yeonsun Ellie; Cheatham, Gregory A.


    Through case study methodology, this study examined how a second-generation bilingual child developed his two languages and associated literacies, the role of the parents' and child's goals as well as the family's daily effort to attain those goals, and the influences of environmental, social, and cultural factors. Based on sociocultural…

  19. Critical language awareness and English language teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Critical Language Awareness (CLA) is an approach to language teaching based on a critical sociocultural theory of language and critical discourse analysis. CLA has a great relationship with English language teaching, but there are few articles talking about it. So the author here will present her understanding of the relationship between CLA and English language.

  20. Does child care availability play a role in maternal employment and children's development? Evidence from Italy


    Ylenia Brilli; Daniela Del Boca; Pronzato, Chiara D.


    This paper investigates the e ects of public child care availability in Italy in mothers' working status and children's scholastic achievements. We use a newly available dataset containing individual standardized test scores of pupils attending the second grade of primary school in 2009-10 in conjunction with data on public child care availability. Our estimates indicate a positive and signi cant e ects of child care availability on both mothers' working status and children's Language test sc...

  1. Child Labor - Moral Choice


    Lagasse, Caitlin


    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  2. Altered functional connectivity of the language network in ASD: Role of classical language areas and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Verly


    Full Text Available The development of language, social interaction and communicative skills is remarkably different in the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Atypical brain connectivity has frequently been reported in this patient population. However, the neural correlates underlying their disrupted language development and functioning are still poorly understood. Using resting state fMRI, we investigated the functional connectivity properties of the language network in a group of ASD patients with clear comorbid language impairment (ASD-LI; N = 19 and compared them to the language related connectivity properties of 23 age-matched typically developing children. A verb generation task was used to determine language components commonly active in both groups. Eight joint language components were identified and subsequently used as seeds in a resting state analysis. Interestingly, both the interregional and the seed-based whole brain connectivity analysis showed preserved connectivity between the classical intrahemispheric language centers, Wernicke's and Broca's areas. In contrast however, a marked loss of functional connectivity was found between the right cerebellar region and the supratentorial regulatory language areas. Also, the connectivity between the interhemispheric Broca regions and modulatory control dorsolateral prefrontal region was found to be decreased. This disruption of normal modulatory control and automation function by the cerebellum may underlie the abnormal language function in children with ASD-LI.

  3. Overcoming the challenges of translating mental health instruments into signed languages


    Moore, Kate; Wright, Barry; Collingridge Moore, Danielle; Ogden, Richard; Rogers, Katherine


    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), and has been translated into over sixty spoken languages. British Sign Language (BSL) is a visuo-gestural language, and the first language of between 50-100,000 Deaf people in the UK. Translating diagnostic tools into BSL is important to provide valid assessment of common mental health problems in Deaf signing young people. We report the process of translation from a writt...



    Коряковцева, Н.


    This article looks into foreign language teacher education in plurilingual and pluricultural context; defines the notion and focuses on the characteristics of skills in language pedagogy as part of foreign language teacher professional competence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojka TATAREVA


    Full Text Available The place of the sign language in education of hearing impaired children in Denmark, USA and Sweden.Hearing impaired people ought to have a possibility of access to vital information, so they can move step by step, to live as useful members of society.Sign language is nonverbal communication which appears as a kind of compensation of the language lack, a means of development of that activity an opinion of unlimited human communicative nature.Mimic sign language in the system of education of hearing impaired children in Denmark, USA and Sweden take a primary place. The school with Hearing impaired children are bilingual. In the schools sign language is taken as a training language and it is available to every child.Contemporary views and practice tell us that teaching of hearing impaired children with sign language is more effective and more available.

  6. Language disorder - children (United States)

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... Accessed June 24, 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  7. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik


    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  8. Language Pathology. (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul


    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)

  9. language teachers

    CERN Multimedia


    The Le Rosey Institute at Rolle (autumn and spring) and Gstaad (winter) is looking for part-time language teachers of 
Bulgarian, Farsi, Hindi, Korean and Romanian for the start of the autumn term in September 2007. For further details, please contact : Please send applications with CVs to

  10. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg


    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility of local

  11. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence—A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander


    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs. PMID:27458410

  12. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence-A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners. (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander


    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs. PMID:27458410

  13. Difference in Second Language and Foreign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Nongxin


    @@ Second language (L2), in a broad sense, is a language learned or acquired after the native language.The term has a narrow sense when it contrasts to the term"foreign language"(FL), in which second language"functions as a recognized means of communication among members who speak some other language as their mother tongue", and the foreign language"plays no major role in the community and is primarily learnt only in the classroom."[1]Ignorance of the differences will result in confusion in the practice of language learning, teaching and research work.

  14. Socioeconomic Status and Parent-Child Relationships Predict Metacognitive Questions to Preschoolers (United States)

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Foster, Brandon J.


    The importance of metacognitive language exposure to early educational achievement is widely recognized in the development literature. However, few studies have explored parents' metacognitive language, while accounting for family SES and stress within the parent-child relationship. This is a preliminary descriptive study to explore…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin


    Objective: This article reviews the English-language literature on child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The focus is on the sexual abuse of children in the home/community, as opposed to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Methods: English language, peer-reviewed papers cited in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) are…

  16. Conflict over language rights:


    Toksabay, Burcu


    Language policy is used as a tool for regulating the status of languages and allocating benefits and resources in the society among different language groups. Therefore, language policy has both an instrumental and symbolic value for the ethnic groups and is a source of conflict between language groups and the state in many countries. The positions of language groups towards the language policy are shaped by their perceptions towards language policy, and their relations with the state. Theref...

  17. On Communicative Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ya-rong; Ma Ya-li


    In traditional language classroom, learners are taught mainly about language and its rules.They learn facts about language, rather than how to use it communicatively and how to cooperate with others.To help learners put language into active use, it’s recognized communicative language teaching is needed in language learning and teaching.

  18. Spatial Language Learning (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling


    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  19. On Communicative Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Ya-rong; Ma; Ya-li


    In traditional language classroom,learners are taught mainly about language and its rules.They learn facts about language,rather than how to use it communicatively and how to cooperate with others.To help learners put language into active use,it’s recognized communicative language teaching is needed in language learning and teaching.

  20. The Input To Language Learning: Two Out Of Three Ain't Good Enough Michael Swan%The Input To Language Learning:Two Out Of Three Ain't Good Enough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Swan


    @@ Child language learning depends on: 1. extensive input: the flood of language in the environment. 2. concentrated input: repeated stories, nursery rhymes,the formulaie language of meals or bathtimes, etc. By unconsciously analysing memorised material, children build up their knowledgeof linguistic regularities.

  1. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Responsiveness: Associations with Social Context, Maternal Characteristics, and Child Characteristics in a Multivariate Analysis (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene; Haynes, O. Maurice; Painter, Kathleen M.


    This study examined unique associations of multiple distal context variables (family socioeconomic status [SES], maternal employment, and paternal parenting) and proximal maternal (personality, intelligence, and knowledge; behavior, self-perceptions, and attributions) and child (age, gender, representation, language, and sociability)…

  2. [Child and adolescent psychiatry its problems and foresight]. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kosuke


    Accompanying the fall in birth rate, problems pertaining to the child's mind such as school in attendance, bullying, violence in the school, intrafamilial violence, eating disorders, substance abuse, and child abuse have rocketed and diversified, in addition to affecting increasingly lower age groups. The importance of child and adolescent psychiatry has never been more profound, but our country, without a chair in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the medical school framework, and lacking recognition of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a clinical department has undoubtedly become an underdeveloped country in terms of child and adolescent psychiatric care. The medical schools have been in the process of review and reorganization these past few years. The range of mental science is wide, and despite being a major discipline constituting one of the two arms of medical science together with somatic medicine, it is regarded as a minor existence in our country. This is the time to re-establish mental science, with areas such as child and adolescent psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, social psychiatry, and crime psychiatry placed on an equal footing with general psychiatry. Turning our eyes on the world, the children are being robbed of their mental health as refugees, through child labor, starvation, and civil war. The demand of this age is true symbiosis, surpassing differences in race, religion, language, and culture, which is probably the indispensable element in the quest for a happy future for the children of this age. PMID:12607920

  3. Fostering Language Acquisition in Daycare Settings: What Does the Research Tell Us? Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 49 (United States)

    Beller, Simone


    The ways in which children learn a language--be it their mother tongue or their second language--can have a strong influence on their success in school. Researchers in linguistics and early child development have tried to determine the factors that can help and hinder language acquisition in young children, with some conflicting results. In this…

  4. English Language Education among Young Learners in East Asia: A Review of Current Research (2004-2014) (United States)

    Butler, Yuko Goto


    The teaching of foreign languages to young learners is growing in popularity around the world. Research in this field, particularly of English as a second/foreign language education in East Asia, is a relatively new area of empirical inquiry, and it has the potential to make significant contributions to child second-language acquisition…

  5. Language Varieties and Standard Language. (United States)

    Quirk, Randolph

    It is argued that viewing learners' errors as evidence for the emergence of new varieties of the English language is dangerously mistaken, particularly where it leads to the abandonment of Standard English as a model for learners. It is shown how this view is mistaken by: (1) citing recent British thinking on the relationship of varieties of…

  6. Language Varieties and Standard Language. (United States)

    Quirk, Randolph


    Discusses the Kingsman Report (Department of Education and Science, London) on teaching English in Britain, and considers its relevance for teaching English in other countries. The many kinds of English, the labels given to them, and the centrality of the standard language are briefly reviewed. (JL)

  7. When Do Caregivers Talk? The Influences of Activity and Time of Day on Caregiver Speech and Child Vocalizations in Two Childcare Environments


    Melanie Soderstrom; Kelsey Wittebolle


    The importance of the language environment in influencing language outcomes is well known, but few studies have addressed the contextual factors that influence the amount of speech heard and vocalizations produced by a young child under naturalistic conditions. We analyze effects of type of activity engaged in by the child and time of day on quantitative measures of the language environment. We found effects of both activity and time of day. Structured activities generated the highest levels ...

  8. Measuring child marriage


    Minh Cong Nguyen; Quentin Wodon


    Child or early marriage is recognized as an important development and human rights issue that affects girls especially in many developing countries. The practice has been linked to psychological, health, and education risks. These negative impacts explain why in many countries child marriage has been prohibited by law but often with little effect. While child marriage has been recognized as a major issue, its measurement has remained unsophisticated. Existing studies tend to simply report the...

  9. Child Labor and Globalization


    Elias Dinopoulos; Laixun Zhao


    The paper embeds child labor in a standard two-sector general-equilibrium model of a small open economy facing perfectly competitive markets, efficiency wages, and free-trade. The modern sector produces a homogeneous good using skilled adult labor and capital, and offers effort-based efficiency wages. The agrarian (traditional) sector produces a homogeneous good using unskilled (child and adult) labor and skilled adult labor, and offers nutritional efficiency wages to child workers. Nutrition...

  10. Prevention of Child Maltreatment


    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman


    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  11. Towards understanding child abuse


    Clara Inés Carreño; Alicia Rey


    This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatm...

  12. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe


    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  13. Child labor handbook


    Cigno, Alessandro; Rosati, Furio C.; Tzannatos, Zafiris


    This paper surveys many aspects and issues of child labor, including its causes and effects as well as policies associated with it. Child labor has come to be considered an expression of poverty, both a cause and an effect of underdevelopment. Child labor cannot be viewed in isolation from educational, health, fertility, and technological issues; and is not necessarily an aberration but a rational household response to an adverse economic environment. With this in mind, the following proposit...

  14. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño


    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  15. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter


    AIM: To review the knowledge on child health and child health problems in Greenland. METHOD: The review was based on theses, national statistics, national and international reports, and a search in Pub Med, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and WHOLIB databases from 1985 to 2005. The resulting articles...... importance to the health of children in Greenland. More accurate data on child health are necessary in the future to secure better prioritization. It is suggested to construct a set of reliable indicators of child health in Greenland to monitor the health of children on a national and regional basis....

  16. Is Child Labor Inefficient?


    Jean-Marie Baland; Robinson, James A.


    We build a model of child labor and study its implications for welfare. We assume that there is a trade-off between child labor and the accumulation of human capital. Even if parents are altruistic and child labor is socially inefficient, it may arise in equilibrium because parents fail to fully internalize its negative effects. This occurs when bequests are zero or when capital markets are imperfect. We also study the effects of a simple ban on child labor and derive conditions under which i...

  17. Predicting Language Impairment Status: A Risk Factor Model


    Rudolph, Johanna Maria


    The etiology of specific language impairment (SLI) is multifactorial. Research has shown that genetic, environmental, and developmental factors may influence the course of its development. Because many of these factors are present even before a child is born, it is possible that a child's risk of developing the disorder can be identified long before grammatical deficits are observed. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a screening tool to discriminate between children with SLI ...

  18. How Satisfied Are Parents of Students in Dual Language Education Programs?: "Me Parece Maravillosa La Gran Oportunidad Que Le Estan Dando a Estos Ninos" (United States)

    Parkes, Jay; Ruth, Tenley


    A survey of 724 families of students at eight dual language schools in the southwest United States that focused on parents' satisfaction with their child's academic skills and with program characteristics is reported. Results are explored for parental language, parental education level, program model type, grade level of the child, and years the…

  19. A Mixed Methodological Study of Factors Contributing to Student Persistence and Their Impact on Student Attrition in Foreign Language Immersion Programs (United States)

    Boudreaux, Nicole S.


    In the United States, foreign language immersion programs are K-8 voluntary programs wherein children are instructed in the core subjects in a language other than English. While these programs are quite popular, many parents, having chosen immersion for their child's education, change their minds and transfer their child into a "regular"…

  20. A Critique of What is the Logical Problem of Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xueqin


    The logical problem of foreign language learning has long been a very controversial Topic. Bley-Vroman claims that L2 acquistion is very different from L1acquisition in his paper 'What is the logical problem of foreign language learning'. This paper views differently from his points about the role of native language,negative evidence and domain-specific cognitive facility.He emphasizes the facilitative role of the native language and ignoring the negative role of it.He views that negative evidence plays no role in child language acquisition.The author argues that sometimes children need indirect negative evidence to help their language acquisition.Finally,the author argues that the difference between adult and child language learning is not because ofthat the lack of domain specific acquisition system in adults.The influencing factors are various.

  1. What Causes Specific Language Impairment in Children?


    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.


    Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child's language development is deficient for no obvious reason. For many years, there was a tendency to assume that SLI was caused by factors such as poor parenting, subtle brain damage around the time of birth, or transient hearing loss. Subsequently it became clear that these factors were far less important than genes in determining risk for SLI. A quest to find “the gene for SLI” was undertaken, but it soon became apparent that no sin...

  2. Second Language Acquisition and Language Teaching (United States)

    Tragant, Elsa; Muñoz, Carmen


    After discussing the ties between language teaching and second language acquisition research, the present paper reviews the role that second language acquisition research has played on two recent pedagogical proposals. First, communicative language teaching, advocated in the early eighties, in which focus on the code was excluded, and then the…

  3. Language Testing in "The Modern Language Journal." (United States)

    Spolsky, Bernard


    Discusses coverage of language testing issues in the "Modern Language Journal" over the last 80 years. Suggests that overall the articles devoted to language testing show a valuable concern with the use rather than the form of language tests. (Author/VWL)

  4. Subsegmental language detection in Celtic language text


    Tyers, Francis Morton; Minocha, Akshay


    This paper describes an experiment to perform language identification on a sub-sentence basis. The typical case of language identification is to detect the language of documents or sentences. However, it may be the case that a single sentence or segment contains more than one language. This is especially the case in texts where code switching occurs.

  5. When Literature Language Meets News Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Literature language and News language are two different language type,while,for attracting readers,writers more likely apply Literature language in News reports.This paper presents some comments on this phenomenon and make analysis,using examples to understand and comment on it.

  6. When Literature Language Meets News Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Literature language and News language are two different language type, while, for attracting readers, writers more likely apply Literature language in News reports. This paper presents some comments on this phenomenon and make analysis, using examples to understand and comment on it.

  7. The Effect of Child Care Characteristics on Child Development


    Blau, David M.


    The effect of group size, staff-child ratio, training, and other characteristics of child care on child development is estimated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In contrast to most previous research, the sample is large and nationally representative, the data contain good measures of the home environment, and there are repeated measures of child development. Child care characteristics have little association with child development on average. Associations are found ...

  8. Do market wages influence child labor and child schooling?


    Wahba, Jackline


    Thispaper provides empirical evidence on the joint determinants of child labor, and child schooling, using individual level data from Egypt. The main findings are as follows: 1) A ten percent increase in the illiterate male market wage decreases the probability of child labor by 21.5 percent for boys, and 13.1 percent for girls. 2) Higher local regional income inequality increases the likelihood of child labor. 3) Parents who were child laborers themselves, are more likely to send their child...

  9. Child maintenance and child poverty: A comparative analysis


    Hakovirta, Mia


    This article uses the Luxembourg Income Study datasets from circa 2004 to analyse the contribution child maintenance makes to the reduction of child poverty. The countries compared are Canada, UK, USA, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland representing countries with different child maintenance schemes. Results show that the contribution that child maintenance makes in reducing overall child poverty is minimal but it can reduce child poverty among non-widowed lone mother families if ma...

  10. There's no language like our language, like no language we know. But how did it evolve?

    CERN Multimedia

    Wim de Geest


    Every normal child will rapidly acquire the native language to which it is exposed. It will do so with little teaching or coaching. A chimpanzee will fail to do so. Yet, chimpanzees are closer to humans, in genetic and evolutionary terms, than they are to gorillas. The only obvious and important deficit in the ape’s innate intelligence, as compared with man’s, is a missing faculty for using and understanding language. To determine how humans developed this unique capacity for language is the hardest problem in science. It is this problem the talk will address. The approach will be three pronged. In the first part Wim de Geest will attempt to present a couple of innovative insights made possible by the new Evo-Devo and the modern linguistics perspective. In the second part he shall illustrate what is specific for the human faculty of language in its narrow sense. Human linguistic communication is markedly discrete and recursive, to a degree that is obviously absent in other types ...

  11. Mothers' Mediational Style and the Effects on Language Development in 3 to 5 Year-olds


    Jeffrey, Kathleen


    Mothers and their children aged 3 -5.5 (14 girls and 26 boys) were videotaped in two situations: a) mother reading with the child and b) child constructing a puzzle with the mother. Children's language development was assessed with the CELF, a norm referenced language test. Two scorers rated the videotapes for mediational and interactions and directive interactions. Using Feuerstein's Mediated Learning Experience criteria (MLE) mediational interactions were coded: Regulation of Behavior, Shar...

  12. Endangered Languages--guard the language diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language as an important human activity, is not only a communication tool, but also reflects the society and culture. However, in recent years, many minority languages are disappearing and under disappearing. In this paper, firstly, I study the existing state of languages and the existing crisis of many smal categories of languages:Linguists estimate that the amount is more than 6,000. However, at present, 95 percent of languages are used only by 4 percent of the population and 2 kinds of languages disappear in a month. Secondly, I analyze the reason of the disappearing categories of languages:Linguists estimate that at least half the world’s languages died out in the last 500-year period. A variety of factors, such as social origin, historical origin, and so on, contributed to this trend of language extinction. And at the end, I suggested the significance of language preservation and some means to protect linguistic diversity.

  13. Effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review Instructional Approach on Caregiver Use of Language Support Strategies and Children's Expressive Language Skills (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Y.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Wolfe, Cathy E.; Bryant, Julie D.; Spidalieri, Alexandria M.


    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach on caregivers' use of four enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) language support strategies and on their children's use of expressive language. Method: Four caregiver-child dyads participated in a single-subject, multiple-baseline…

  14. Simultaneous bilingual language acquisition: The role of parental input on receptive vocabulary development. (United States)

    Macleod, Andrea An; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Boegner-Pagé, Sarah; Fontolliet, Salomé


    Parents often turn to educators and healthcare professionals for advice on how to best support their child's language development. These professionals frequently suggest implementing the 'one-parent-one-language' approach to ensure consistent exposure to both languages. The goal of this study was to understand how language exposure influences the receptive vocabulary development of simultaneous bilingual children. To this end, we targeted nine German-French children growing up in bilingual families. Their exposure to each language within and outside the home was measured, as were their receptive vocabulary abilities in German and French. The results indicate that children are receiving imbalanced exposure to each language. This imbalance is leading to a slowed development of the receptive vocabulary in the minority language, while the majority language is keeping pace with monolingual peers. The one-parent-one-language approach does not appear to support the development of both of the child's languages in the context described in the present study. Bilingual families may need to consider other options for supporting the bilingual language development of their children. As professionals, we need to provide parents with advice that is based on available data and that is flexible with regards to the current and future needs of the child and his family. PMID:24563570

  15. Child neglect and psychological abuse (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  16. Do Software Languages Engineers Evaluate their Languages?


    Gabriel, Pedro; Goulão, Miguel; Amaral, Vasco


    Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) can contribute to increment productivity, while reducing the required maintenance and programming expertise. We hypothesize that Software Languages Engineering (SLE) developers consistently skip, or relax, Language Evaluation. Based on the experience of engineering other types of software products, we assume that this may potentially lead to the deployment of inadequate languages. The fact that the languages already deal with concepts from the problem domain, ...

  17. Too Soon?:Three is the Best Age to Start Learning a Second Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>There was an interesting phenomenon that a Chinese young child who immigrated to England,who had no choice,and must start to learn the new language,English as soon as he arrived.His parents felt anxious about it.Nevertheless,several months later,they amazingly noticed that communicating in English was a piece of cake for their child.This child language development far exceeded his parents’expectation.It could take up one or two years for him to reach the level of a native English speaker.This story demonstrates that young children are the best language learners.But what age is the best to start a second language?Preschool children,who are in the language exploration period,tend to be willing to imitate others.This imitation leads

  18. The Economics of Child Trafficking


    Sylvain Dessy; Stéphane Pallage


    In this paper, we highlight the economic effects of the existence of child trafficking. We show that the risk of child trafficking on the labor market acts as a deterrent to supply child labor, unless household survival is at stake. An imperfectly enforceable legislation aiming at fighting child trafficking, by raising the expected gains parents derive from sending their children to work, will cause a rise in the number of child laborers. We show that it can even cause the incidence of child ...

  19. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background as...

  20. Brief Report: Parent Verbal Responsiveness and Language Development in Toddlers on the Autism Spectrum (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; McDuffie, Andrea; Ellis Weismer, Susan


    This study examined the longitudinal associations between parent verbal responsiveness and language 3 years later in 34 toddlers with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Parent-child play samples were coded for child engagement and communication acts and for parent verbal responsiveness. Measures of responsive verbal behaviors were used to…

  1. Child Poverty & Public Policy. (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  2. Your Child's Vision (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Vision KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Vision Print A A A Text Size What's in ... La vista de su hijo Healthy eyes and vision are a critical part of kids' development. Their ...

  3. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Piotrowski; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg


    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by revi

  4. Child Transportation Safety Tips. (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... example, by a friend, neighbor, child care person, teacher, or stranger. When sexual abuse has occurred, a child can develop many distressing ... t tell children to 'always do everything the teacher or baby-sitter tells you to ... of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. ...

  6. Choosing Child Care (United States)

    ... a parent, you want to ensure that your child is safe and happy in a childcare environment that is fun, educational, and nurturing. Here are ... person or program? Do you believe that your child will be happy and have the ... in this environment? If none of the caregivers or childcare centers ...

  7. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour. (United States)

    Miljeteig, Per


    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  8. Child Care at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN, Child Care Initiative


    This is a document summarizing a survey of child care needs of CERN staff and users which was performed in February 2008 by the CERN Child Care Initiative. The document presents the analysis of this data. Conclusions on the minimal facilities size are derived and possible funding source at the European Union are discussed.

  9. Weaning Your Child (United States)

    ... baby and makes it possible to leave your child with a caregiver. It's important to remember that infants over 6 months should have solid foods as well as breast milk. After 1 year, breast milk alone does not provide all the nutrients a growing child needs; solid foods must become a regular part ...

  10. Ileostomy and your child (United States)

    ... Now your child has an opening called a stoma in their belly. Waste will pass through the stoma into a pouch that collects it. You and ... child will need to take care of the stoma and empty the pouch many times a day. ...

  11. Healthy Weight, Healthy Child (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity Healthy Weight, Healthy Child Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... Summer_flyer_508.pdf Read More "Reducing Childhood Obesity" Articles Healthy Weight, Healthy Child / Get Involved How Parents and Kids Can Get ...

  12. Child Wellness and Happiness (United States)

    Rettew, David C.


    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  13. Puppets in early foreign language learning


    Jelnikar, Tjaša


    Examining theoretical aspects and practical examples, the thesis demonstrates the importance of using puppets in the early teaching of English. It leads to the conclusion that the use of puppets is invaluable, as they significantly contribute to creating good atmosphere in the group and the child-friendly environment for learning English. Their use helps children lose the fear of loud pronunciation as the puppets, their friends, present to them “their” English language through game. Practical...

  14. Child Schooling and Child Work in India


    Malathy Duraisamy


    In India, about 62 percent of the children in the age group of 5-14 are currently enrolled in schools, and 4 percent of children are reported to be working. The remaining 34 percent of children in this age group are neither enrolled in school nor reported as participating in work. The twin problems of child schooling and child work in India have not been adequately addressed in the literature. Another important dimension to this problem is the gender disparity in school enrollment. Available ...

  15. The impact of reading on language development in the preschool children


    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek; Urška Fekonja; Simona Kranjc; Petra Lešnik Musek


    The importance of the role played by children's literature in the child's mental, social and linguistic development and in the development of his or her basic academic skills, such as reading andwriting, has been confirmed by numerous studies. A central issue in developmental psychology is what activities related to children's books exert an influence on the child's development and in what ways. Thisinterest in children's books and in child language development places our ...

  16. Pre-service teachers’ awareness of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal TUNCA


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the awareness of pre-service teachers from different departments related to the concept of child abuse. This study aims to determine pre-service teachers’ awareness of child abuse as a qualitative study, conducted in line with phenomenological design. In the study, one of the purposeful sampling methods, maximum diversity sampling method, was employed. The participants of the study are 15 pre-service teachers attending the departments of Psychological Counseling and Guidance, Teacher Education for the Intellectually Disabled, Pre-school Teacher Education, Social Studies, Art Teaching, Computer and Instructional Technologies, German Language Teaching, French Language Teaching, and Teacher Education for the Hearing Impaired, all within the Education Faculty of Anatolian University, Turkey. The data of the study was collected through the focus-group interview technique. The data collected from two different focus-group interviews were analyzed by content analysis technique using the NVivo 8 data analysis program. As a result of the analysis of the data, it was concluded that the pre-service teachers explained the concept of child abuse by most strongly emphasizing emotional abuse and least strongly by emphasizing economic abuse. In light of the pre-service teachers’ opinions, it was also concluded that the culture constructed by society through the meanings attached to genders, society’s view of sexuality, child marriage, proverbs and idioms specific to the local society and superstitions lead to incidences of child abuse. The current study revealed that child abuse can be prevented by providing training to raise the awareness of child abuse primarily for families then children, teachers and other concerned people. It was also found that the majority of pre-service teachers do not have enough information about how to act in the face of an incidence of child abuse.

  17. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus


    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  18. The battered child syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.)

  19. Content and language integrated learning in early childhood


    Žniderič, Tina


    Nowadays teaching and learning foreign languages is rapidly being introduced in early childhood. During this time, intensive cognitive, emotional and social development of the child takes place. Early childhood is therefore a particularly sensitive period with special characteristics and specificities. On one hand this may serve as an advantage in language learning, while on the other it requires their good comprehension and consideration. In the theoretical part of the thesis we therefor...

  20. Lexical and articulatory interactions in children’s language production


    Heisler, Lori; Goffman, Lisa; Younger, Barbara


    Traditional models of adult language processing and production include two levels of representation: lexical and sublexical. The current study examines the influence of the inclusion of a lexical representation (i.e., a visual referent and/or object function) on the stability of articulation as well as on phonetic accuracy and variability in typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI). A word learning paradigm was developed so that we could compare child...



    Ch. S. Sailaja


    Education is the powerful tool which helps to modify the behaviour of the child according to the needs and expectancy of the society. Student’s attitude is an integral part of learning and that it should, therefore become an essential component of second language learning pedagogy. Attitudes toward learning are believed to influence behaviours such as selecting and reading books, speaking in a foreign language etc. Especially in Education, if the students have positive attitude towards ...

  2. Second language writing development in childhood: a case study


    Serrano, Raquel; Howard, Elizabeth R..


    Whereas most research on child second language acquisition has focused on the oral production of children, studies are needed to show their initial writing development in a second language. This paper aims to shed some light on this process, focusing on the English writing development of a native Spanish speaker enrolled in a two-way immersion program in the United States. Data for this presentation come from a longitudinal, national study which involves 484 students in 11 programs across the...

  3. Language, motor skills and behavior problems in preschool years



    Child language development is a complex process. This process cannot be understood without considering its relationship to other developmental domains. Language development in preschool years is associated with development of motor skills and behavior problems, and these associations are the focus of the current thesis. Despite a large number of studies examining the co-occurrence of such developmental delays and problems, few studies have examined the developmental relationship between these...

  4. Sources of Variability in Children’s Language Growth


    Huttenlocher, Janellen; Waterfall, Heidi; Vasilyeva, Marina; Vevea, Jack; Hedges, Larry V.


    The present longitudinal study examines the role of caregiver speech in language development, especially syntactic development, using 47 parent-child pairs of diverse SES background from 14 to 46 months. We assess the diversity (variety) of words and syntactic structures produced by caregivers and children. We use lagged correlations to examine language growth and its relation to caregiver speech. Results show substantial individual differences among children, and indicate that diversity of e...

  5. Caracterização do perfil diagnóstico e fluxo de um ambulatório de Fonoaudiologia hospitalar na área de Linguagem infantil Characterization of the diagnostic profile and flow of a Speech-Language Pathology service in child language within a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Pupin Mandrá


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o perfil diagnóstico e o fluxo de usuários de um serviço de Fonoaudiologia de um hospital escola público. MÉTODOS: A coleta foi realizada em documentos, arquivos de prontuário, selecionados por código no período entre outubro de 2007 e março de 2009. Após o registro, os resultados foram descritos estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio do gênero masculino (67,8%; em 58,95% a faixa etária estava entre 0 e 7 anos; 88,48% da população era procedente de municípios da região norte do estado de São Paulo; 43,2% vinham do serviço neurologia do hospital e 33,6% frequentavam escola. Quanto ao diagnóstico 27,5% eram de atraso de linguagem, 20,06% de distúrbios de linguagem e 15,51% de distúrbios da aprendizagem, com prevalências de 0,31, 0,17 e 0,23 casos em 273, respectivamente. As comorbidades foram: retardo do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor (14,28% e prematuridade (8,69%. Os encaminhamentos eram para Audiologia (24,77% e Odontologia (20,18% e 51,64% dos usuários estavam em lista de espera para terapia no local. CONCLUSÃO: Prevaleceu o diagnóstico de atraso de linguagem em crianças do gênero masculino, com idade entre 0 e 6 anos e 11 meses. Foi identificado um fluxo externo proveniente de município da região e interno (ambulatorial. Parte da demanda foi absorvida pelo serviço, parte aguardava por reabilitação e uma parcela foi contra-referenciada às unidades de origem.PURPOSE: To characterize the diagnostic profile and the users flow of a Speech-Language Pathology service within a public teaching hospital. METHODS: Data were collected from documents and medical records selected by code between October 2007 and March 2009. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics. RESULTS: There was a predominance of male individuals (67.80%; 58.95% of the patients/participants were children within the age range from 0 to 7 years; 88.48% came from cities in the northern region of the state of S

  6. Sociodemographic profile of speech and language delay up to six years of age in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Binu, Raj Sunil, Stephenson Baburaj, Mohandas MK


    Full Text Available Background: Speech and language is the most important skill for the child’s development and scholastic performance. Awareness of the delay is important in the programs for early identification. Purpose: to assess the prevalence of speech and language delay in children from age group 0 to six years of age. Methodology: The speech and language development of children coming in the well baby clinic and daily pediatric clinic of age group from birth to 6 years were evaluated using Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST. The prevalence of speech and language delay in each age group was calculated and also analyzed in the sociodemograhic profile. Results: A total of 102 children were studied in which 13.7% had language delay. 18% had questionable language delay and 15.7% had suspect language delay. Though among language delay mixed type was more, children had more difficulty in doing expressive items. Language delay was also found to be more prevalent in males, single child, first born child and children of working mothers. Parental age, education or socioeconomic status was not found to be related to language delay. Conclusion: The 13.7% prevalence of language delay in the children indicates the need of early identification and for it a simple screening tool like LEST is a must during the routine evaluation of young children in pediatric clinics. Health care givers and parents should ensure that babies grow up in a language rich, nurturing and stimulating environment right from birth onwards.

  7. Language Corner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Dear Readers,It’s December once more, and time for the Language Corner annual "examination. " Questions have been taken from column exercises throughout the year. The test will give you an idea of your progress in Chinese, and also help us to see what changes could be made to improve the column. So give it a try!There will be one super prize, two first prizes, five second prizes, and ten third prizes.We appreciate your participation, and wish you success.-Ed.Please mail your answers to the following address by the end of February 2003:News Center, China Today24 Baiwanzhuang Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, China 100037

  8. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.


    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  9. Towards Strategic Language Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdam, R.; Rijlaarsdam, Gert


    Towards Strategic Language Learning is the result of extensive research in the relationship between mother tongue education and foreign language learning. As language skills that are taught during native language lessons are applied in foreign language performance as well, it is vital that curricula

  10. Implementation of Axiomatic Language


    Wilson, Walter W.


    This report summarizes a PhD research effort to implement a type of logic programming language called "axiomatic language". Axiomatic language is intended as a specification language, so its implementation involves the transformation of specifications to efficient algorithms. The language is described and the implementation task is discussed.

  11. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching (United States)

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana


    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  12. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo


    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

  13. Management of developmental speech and language disorders: Part 1. (United States)

    O'Hare, Anne; Bremner, Lynne


    The identification of developmental problems in a child's acquisition of speech, language and/or communication is a core activity in child surveillance. These are common difficulties with up to 15% of toddlers being 'late talkers' and 7% of children entering school with persisting impairments of their language development. These delays can confer disadvantages in the long term, adversely affecting language, cognition, academic attainment, behaviour and mental health. All children presenting with significant speech and language delay should be investigated with a comprehensive hearing assessment and be considered for speech and language therapy assessment. Socioeconomic adversity correlates with delayed language development. Clinical assessment should confirm that the presentation is definitely not acquired (see part 2) and will also guide whether the difficulty is primary, in which there are often familial patterns, or secondary, from a very wide range of aetiologies. Symptoms may be salient, such as the regression of communication in disorder. Further investigation will be informed from this clinical assessment, for example, genetic investigation for sex aneuploidies in enduring primary difficulties. Management of the speech and language difficulty itself is the realm of the speech and language therapist, who has an ever-increasing evidence-based choice of interventions. This should take place within a multidisciplinary team, particularly for children with more severe conditions who may benefit from individualised parental and educational supports. PMID:26208514

  14. Technology in Language Use, Language Teaching, and Language Learning (United States)

    Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard


    This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…

  15. The impact of language and high-stakes testing policies on elementary school English language learners in Arizona.


    Wayne E. Wright; Daniel Choi


    This article reports the results of a survey of third-grade teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs) in Arizona regarding school language and accountability policies—Proposition 203, which restricts bilingual education and mandates sheltered English Immersion; the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB); and Arizona LEARNS, the state’s high-stakes testing and accountability program. The instrument, consisting of 126 survey questions plus open-ended interview question, was designed...

  16. Sources of Variability in Language Development of Children with Cochlear Implants: Age at Implantation, Parental Language, and Early Features of Children's Language Construction (United States)

    Szagun, Gisela; Schramm, Satyam A.


    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relative influence of age at implantation, parental expansions, and child language internal factors on grammatical progress in children with cochlear implants (CI). Data analyses used two longitudinal corpora of spontaneous speech samples, one with twenty-two and one with twenty-six children,…

  17. Language Planning Theories and Language Planning In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The specialized study of language policies and planning as a part of sociolinguistics is originated in the 1960's. The theories about language planning may give some guidance to the language planning in China. Of course, China's language policy makers should make decisions according to the specific language situation in China. Chinese language is the national language, and there are more than 120 ethnic minority languages. Therefore, language planning in China involves the Chinese language planning and minority languages planning.

  18. Child labor, schooling, and child ability


    Akresh, Richard; Bagby, Emilie; de Walque, Damien; Kazianga, Harounan


    Using data collected in rural Burkina Faso, this paper examines how children's cognitive abilities influence households' decisions to invest in their education. To address the endogeneity of child ability measures, the analysis uses rainfall shocks experienced in utero or early childhood to instrument for ability. Negative shocks in utero lead to 0.24 standard deviations lower ability z-sc...

  19. Language training

    CERN Multimedia


    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse any more.    You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner!   General & Professional French courses The next General & Professional French course will start on 26 January. These collective courses aim to bring participants who have at least level A1 to higher levels (up to C2). Each level consists of a combination of face-to-face sessions (40 hours) with personal work (20 hours) following a specially designed programme. A final progress test takes place at the end of the term. Please note that it is mandatory to take the placement test. Please sign up here. French courses for beginners The aim of this course is to give some basic skills to beginners in order to communicate in simple everyday situations in both social and professional life. These courses can start at any time during the year, as soon as a group of beg...


    CERN Multimedia


    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...


    CERN Multimedia


    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  2. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    PermanenceA "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00 New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF and BULATS). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link: http://English courses http://French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144

  3. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    Permanence A "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier - French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne - English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00   New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF, DALF). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link:  English courses French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144

  4. Experimental Impacts of a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile on Preschool Classroom Quality and Child Outcomes (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine


    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…

  5. Child Abuse in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani


    Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

  6. Child maltreatment in India. (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot


    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  7. Personality and language


    Krahé, Barbara


    Content Introduction Towards a framework for personality and language Personality and language Personal pronouns Adjectives as disposilional markers Cognitive properties of trait terms Everyday language and personality Speech end personality Conclusions and directions References

  8. Natural Language Processing. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.


    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  9. Revisiting Plain Language. (United States)

    Mazur, Beth


    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  10. English language learning flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Vocational school students a sense of the prevalence of language problems, the so-called sense of language learners of language refers to a kind of sensitive information and rich understanding of automation of the aware-hess activities.

  11. Consultation for Teachers and Children's Language and Literacy Development during Pre-Kindergarten (United States)

    Mashburn, Andrew J.; Downer, Jason T.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Justice, Laura M.; Pianta, Robert C.


    MyTeachingPartner (MTP) is a teacher professional development program designed to improve the quality of teacher-child interactions in pre-kindergarten classrooms and children's language and literacy development. The program includes language/literacy activities and two Web-based resources--video exemplars of effective interactions and…

  12. Signs of Resistance: Peer Learning of Sign Languages within "Oral" Schools for the Deaf (United States)

    Anglin-Jaffe, Hannah


    This article explores the role of the Deaf child as peer educator. In schools where sign languages were banned, Deaf children became the educators of their Deaf peers in a number of contexts worldwide. This paper analyses how this peer education of sign language worked in context by drawing on two examples from boarding schools for the deaf in…

  13. Around the World: Supporting Young Children with ASD Who Are Dual Language Learners (United States)

    Fahim, Donia; Nedwick, Kelly


    A dual language learner (DLL) is a young child who is exposed to and is acquiring two or more languages. Multilingualism is common worldwide, and even in countries like the United States, the number of young children who are DLLs is rising rapidly (Goldstein, 2011; Toppelberg, Snow, & Tager-Flusberg, 1999). The purpose of this article is to:…

  14. Teaching English Language Learners in Mainstream Science Classrooms: Teacher Practice and Educational Opportunity (United States)

    Schroeder, Carlotta Dorothy


    Equal educational opportunity for English language learners (ELLs) has been a goal of the public educational system in the United States. Language policy reforms have increased accountability in order for schools to improve student achievement and measure the progress of ELLs. The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) requires assessment and…

  15. Out of the Mouths of Babes: Unlocking the Mysteries of Language and Voice. (United States)

    Thurber, Christopher A.


    Summarizes three studies that have revolutionized child psychology by teaching us that children are biologically programmed to learn language; children's language development is orderly and pragmatic, but grammatically mysterious; and children's linguistic self-expression reveals some disturbing ways in which they have been socialized. Presents…

  16. Attachment Relationships as Predictors of Language Skills for At-Risk Bilingual Preschool Children (United States)

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Li, Yibling


    Parental attachment and close teacher-child relationships offer a protective mechanism to promote language development among bilingual preschool children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Research has shown that language skills are an integral part of resilience for young children. This is the first study to examine parental…

  17. Developing a spoken corpus for South Saami language teaching and learning


    Vinka, Mikael; Waldmann, Christian; Kroik, David; Sullivan, Kirk P H


    In Chapter 5 Mikael Vinka, Christian Waldmann, David Kroik and Kirk Sullivan consider the creation of corpora in the Saami language and how these can be used to support minority language education in pre-school. Using examples both from the CHILDES database and from South Saami they illustrate how corpora may support the development of culturally relevant teaching materials.

  18. Effects of a Professional Development Program on Classroom Practices and Outcomes for Latino Dual Language Learners (United States)

    Buysse, Virginia; Castro, Dina C.; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen


    A randomized, controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the Nuestros Ninos professional development program on classroom practices and child outcomes related to language development and early literacy skills in both English and Spanish. Fifty-five teachers and 193 Latino dual language learners (DLLs) enrolled in the North Carolina…

  19. Assessment of English Language Learners in the Era of New Academic Content Standards (United States)

    Bailey, Alison L.; Carroll, Patricia E.


    The purpose of this chapter is twofold: (1) to provide a detailed review of current language assessment policies and practices with English language learner (ELL) students under the federal requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB; 2001) and relevant research in order to evaluate their technical quality and validity, and (2) to examine…

  20. Speech Language Assessments in Te Reo in a Primary School Maori Immersion Unit (United States)

    Naidoo, Kershni


    This research originated from the need for a speech and language therapy assessment in te reo Maori for a particular child who attended a Maori immersion unit. A Speech and Language Therapy te reo assessment had already been developed but it needed to be revised and normative data collected. Discussions and assessments were carried out in a…

  1. Communication Patterns between Internationally Adopted Children and Their Mothers: Implications for Language Development (United States)

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Dubois, M. E.; Kasparian K.


    This study presents findings on patterns of communication between internationally adopted children and their mothers in order to better understand the nature of these interactions and their influence on language learning. We examined maternal language use and joint attention behaviors of mothers and their children in 21 mother-child pairs: 10…

  2. A Natural Language Architecture


    Sodiya, Adesina Simon


    Natural languages are the latest generation of programming languages, which require processing real human natural expressions. Over the years, several groups or researchers have trying to develop widely accepted natural language languages based on artificial intelligence (AI). But no true natural language has been developed. The goal of this work is to design a natural language preprocessing architecture that identifies and accepts programming instructions or sentences in their natural forms ...

  3. Gender Difference in Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    All languages, the systems of arbitrary symbols, are equally good. Language which is the linguistic behaviour is used for human communication. Therefore, the rules for conversing are determined by certain social requirements. This essay lays empha⁃sis on gender difference in language vocabulary and in using of language so as to reveal the relatedness between language and soci⁃ety and to explore the language development along with social change.

  4. Father-Child Play Behaviors and Child Emotion Regulation


    Hagman, Amanda


    This study uses the father-child activation theory, which identifies the father-child relationship as a source for self-regulation learning. Father-child play behaviors during toddlerhood were examined for their contribution to self-regulation skills, specifically emotion regulation and aggression. This study examined father-child play behaviors of emotion amplification, intrusiveness, positive regard, and child emotion regulation seeking in the National Early Head Start (EHS) Evaluation. Fat...

  5. Child income poverty and child deprivation: an essay on measurement


    Amelia Bastos; Graca Leao Fernandes,; Jose Passos


    This paper is a study on child poverty from two perspectives: child income poverty (derived from family income) and child deprivation (evaluated by non-monetary indicators). On the one hand, empirical evidence supports the thesis that income-based poverty measures and deprivation measures do not overlap. On the other hand, the relationship between poverty and the child's living conditions is not linear. Uses micro-econometric techniques to analyse child income poverty and present deprivation ...

  6. The acquisition of French as a second language new developmental perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Lindqvist, Christina


    It has been argued that the study of child L2 development can inform different maturational accounts of language acquisition. One such specific proposal was put forward by Meisel (2008), arguing for a cut-off point for monolingual or bilingual first language acquisition - (2)L1 - type of development at 3-4 years. The paper analyses the longitudinal development of object clitics in child L2 French (L1 Swedish) and compares the developmental sequence in child L2 learners (n?=?7) with different Ages of onset of Acquisition (AoA) (from 3;0 to 6;5) to the adult L2 sequence that was found in previou

  7. Story interpretation and its influence to child in early school


    Kitanova, Irena


    One of the most beautiful reading-pice for education with ethical and esthetical value for the children in the early child education at the family and in the kindergarten is the story. The story has big importance for education process in early childhood and for the school period of child development. As a meter of fact on that age with specifically language and statement the story offers possibility to see the beauty of art expression, to wake up the esthetical sense and with that procedure ...

  8. Second Language Acquisition and Language Teaching


    Elsa Tragant; Carmen Muñoz


    After discussing the ties between language teaching and second language acquisition research, the present paper reviews the role that second language acquisition research has played on two recent pedagogical proposals. First, communicative language teaching, advocated in the early eighties, in which focus on the code was excluded, and then the more recent research-based proposals of integrating some degree of focus on form in meaning-based curricula. Following Ellis (1998), four macro-options...

  9. The evolution of language and languages


    Hurford, James R.


    Human languages, such as French, Cantonese or American Sign Language, are socio- cultural entities. Knowledge of them (`competence') is acquired by exposure to the ap- propriate environment. Languages are maintained and transmitted by acts of speaking and writing; and this is also the means by which languages evolve. The utterances of one generation are processed by their children to form mental grammars, which in some sense summarize, or generalize over, the children's linguistic experie...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica PRIBANIKJ


    Full Text Available Early diagnosis and intervention are now recognized as undeniable rights of deaf and hard-of-hearing children and their families. The deaf child’s family must have the opportunity to socialize with deaf children and deaf adults. The deaf child’s family must also have access to all the information on the general development of their child, and to special information on hearing impairment, communication options and linguistic development of the deaf child.The critical period hypothesis for language acquisition proposes that the outcome of language acquisition is not uniform over the lifespan but rather is best during early childhood. Individuals who learned sign language from birth performed better on linguistic and memory tasks than individuals who did not start learning sign language until after puberty. The old prejudice that the deaf child must learn the spoken language at a very young age, and that sign language can wait because it can be easily learned by any person at any age, cannot be maintained anymore.The cultural approach to deafness emphasizes three necessary components in the development of a deaf child: 1. stimulating early communication using natural sign language within the family and interacting with the Deaf community; 2. bilingual / bicultural education and 3. ensuring deaf persons’ rights to enjoy the services of high quality interpreters throughout their education from kindergarten to university. This new view of the phenomenology of deafness means that the environment needs to be changed in order to meet the deaf person’s needs, not the contrary.

  11. Communication, language and expression body in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gomes da Silva


    Full Text Available This paper intends to give basis for understanding corporal expression as a language, which would enable the child to produce information/knowledge within the physical education. Based on the concepts of childhood, language and comunication, we understand that the phsysical education must promove the establishment of comunicative relationships, in which corporal expresion apears as a special manifestation. Based on Peirce Semiotics, the corporal expression is conceive as a language in itself, constitude by spontan gests, which ar produced by diversous stimuli. This enable the children to construct interpretating/interpretative relations in this signs fluxe, and, because of it, to produce knowledge.

  12. Early Language Milestones and Specific Language Impairment (United States)

    Rudolph, Johanna M.; Leonard, Laurence B.


    Delayed appearance of early language milestones can be one of the first signs of a developmental disorder. In this study, we investigated how well late acquisition of language milestones predicted an outcome of specific language impairment (SLI). The sample included 150 children (76 SLI), aged 4 to 7 years old. Milestone information was collected…

  13. Language and Language Policy in Singapore. (United States)

    Baxter, William H., III


    Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)

  14. Languages and Language Varieties in Malta (United States)

    Vella, Alexandra


    Maltese, the national language of Malta, is, without doubt, the dominant language of most Maltese in most domains of language use in Malta. It however shares official status with English, which is also in regular use. Most Maltese can, in fact, be said to be bilingual to differing degrees. This article begins by providing some background…

  15. Discussion: Imagining the Languaged Worker's Language (United States)

    Urciuoli, Bonnie


    What people perceive as "a language"--a named entity--is abstracted from practices and notions about those practices. People take for granted that language is somehow a "thing," an objectively distinct and bounded entity. How languages come to be thus imagined indexes the conditions under which they are imagined. The articles…

  16. Language Learner Strategies in Second Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying


    Language learner strategies, which are closely associated with second language teaching, have experienced great devel-opment in the fields of theory-building and instructional practices since the 1970s. By reviewing previous research, pedagogical enlightenments can be drawn to the current English language teaching.

  17. Your Child's Cough (United States)

    ... and when to go to the doctor. "Barky" Cough Barky coughs are usually caused by a swelling ... happens when the child inhales (breathes in). Whooping Cough Whooping cough is another name for pertussis, an ...

  18. Concussion - child - discharge (United States)

    ... avoid activities that need concentration, such as reading, homework, and complex tasks. When you go home from the emergency room, it is okay for your child to sleep: For the first 12 hours, you may want ...

  19. Surviving Your Child's Suicide (United States)

    ... of your child that will never be answered. Depression Lack of energy, sleep problems, inability to concentrate, ... a zip code. Search Connect with us on Facebook Find Support Video Online Support Community Connect, share ...

  20. Child Behavior Disorders (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  1. Child Dental Health (United States)

    ... a dentist or doctor suggests it. Provide healthy foods and limit sweet snacks and drinks Schedule regular dental check-ups Forming good habits at a young age can help your child have healthy teeth ...

  2. Iron and Your Child (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron and ... enough iron in their daily diets. How Much Iron Do Kids Need? Kids require different amounts of ...

  3. CDC Child Growth Charts (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  4. Helping Your Overweight Child (United States)

    ... are high in calories, sugar, and salt like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy refined grains (white ... make smoothies. Buy fewer high-calorie foods like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy. Offer your child ...

  5. The Facially Disfigured Child. (United States)

    Moncada, Georgia A.


    The article reviews diagnosis and treatments for facially disfigured children including craniofacial reconstruction and microsurgical techniques. Noted are associated disease processes that affect the social and intellectual outcomes of the afflicted child. (Author/DB)

  6. Understanding Child Traumatic Stress (United States)

    ... Public Awareness Sustainability Policy Issues Understanding Child Traumatic Stress Page Contents: Responding to Danger When Danger Turns ... malevolence, and human accountability. Back to Top Posttraumatic Stress Responses For reasons that are basic to survival, ...

  7. Your Child's Weight (United States)

    ... ll need an accurate height and weight measurement. Bathroom scales and tape measures aren't always precise. ... child's health, level of physical activity, and eating habits, as well as your family medical history. The ...

  8. Normal Child Behavior (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... is "normal" depends upon the child's level of development, which can vary greatly among children of the ...

  9. Child with NF1 (United States)

    ... can lead some ado- lescents to feelings of depression, anxiety and social isolation. Counseling and assisting the child in finding a social network can help significantly. In addition to promoting local ...

  10. Child Marriage in Bangladesh


    Saalfeldt, Rie


    Child marriage is a major health and security concern that still prevails in Bangladesh. The paper attempts to investigate and tries to understand the societal and cultural context of the problem. By applying Mary Douglas’ Socio-Cultural Viability theory and her parsimonious model onto the issue of child marriage in Bangladesh the four major opposing cultural camps are pointed out (Plan Bangladesh, Bangladesh government, the garment factory owners, and the individual Bangladeshi citizen). The...

  11. Microfinance and child labour


    Blume, Jonas; Breyer, Julika


    Aims to assess the role of microfinance as an instrument in combating child labour. Reviews the economic literature drawing on empirical evidence of the impact of microfinance on poverty, income stability, overall household wellbeing and the demand for child labour taking a comprehensive perspective on microfinance which includes loans for consumption, savings, insurance, financial services for improving the access to education, and awareness raising. Examines the direct experience of microfi...

  12. Child sex rings.


    Wild, N J; Wynne, J M


    Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a "family friend" or obtained a position of authority over children. Secrecy was encouraged and bribery, threats, and peer pressure used to induce participatio...

  13. ''Battered child'' syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synonyms for the 'battered child' syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as 'child abuse', or 'non-accidental injury'. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ)

  14. Music in child care


    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos


    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  15. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  16. Physical Verbalization: A Motor-Language Based Developmental Program. (United States)

    Smith, Norma D.

    Physical Verbalization (PV) is a program designed to encourage language/speech development by combining movement with appropriate verbal patterns. Using the normal developmental stages of listening/watching, imitating, and initiating, the program allows the child to "play" with standard English in a nonthreatening and rhythmic fashion and to be…

  17. Intonation Abilities of Children with Speech and Language Impairments. (United States)

    Wells, Bill; Peppe, Sue


    In this study, a new intonation battery, the Profiling Elements of Prosodic Systems Child Version (PEPS-C) was administered to 18 children with speech and/or language impairments (LI). PEPS-C examines phonetic and functional aspects of intonation in grammar, affect, interaction, and pragmatics. Results support the view that intonation is…

  18. Speech, Language, and Audiology Services in Public Schools (United States)

    Sunderland, L.C.


    The prevalence of communication disorders (speech, language, and hearing) among school-age children continues to increase, making it imperative that the classroom teacher be able to identify children in need of services. This article provides information that will enable all teachers to recognize when a child is exhibiting signs of a communication…

  19. Fetal Testosterone, Socio-Emotional Engagement and Language Development (United States)

    Farrant, Brad M.; Mattes, Eugen; Keelan, Jeff A.; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.


    The present study investigated the relations among fetal testosterone, child socio-emotional engagement and language development in a sample of 467 children (235 boys) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Bioavailable testosterone concentration measured in umbilical cord blood taken at birth was found to be significantly…

  20. Power, Language, and Literacy in "The Great Gilly Hopkins" (United States)

    Cairns, Sue Ann


    To compensate for her feelings of anger and helplessness over her mother's abandonment and subsequent displacements, the foster child Gilly Hopkins seeks power and agency through the primary means at her disposal: through the use of language and fairy tales. She constructs a Cinderella fantasy of an idealized mother who will rescue her. She also…

  1. Language and communication in people who are deafblind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, M.P.J.; Damen, S.


    The development of language and communication in people who are deafblind requires child rearing, interaction, and teaching methods that match each individual's cognitive development, level of functioning, and interest; that can be perceived on a sensory level; that provoke responses that match the

  2. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh


    Virtual machines raise the abstraction level of the execution environment at the cost of restricting the set of supported languages. Moreover, the ability of a language implementation to integrate with other languages hosted on the same virtual machine typically constrains the features of the lan...... the Smalltalk object model, which provides interoperability for embedded versions of the Smalltalk, Java, and BETA programming languages....... language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view of a......Virtual machines raise the abstraction level of the execution environment at the cost of restricting the set of supported languages. Moreover, the ability of a language implementation to integrate with other languages hosted on the same virtual machine typically constrains the features of the...

  3. The Time Has Come for Speech-Language Pathology License Portability!


    Jakubowitz, Melissa


    Melissa Jakubowitz, M.A., CCC-SLP is Vice President of SLP Services at PresenceLearning. A speech-language pathologist with over 20 years of clinical and managerial experience, Ms. Jakubowitz is a Board Recognized Specialist in Child Language. With a diverse clinical background, Ms. Jakubowitz began her career working in the public schools and has also operated a successful, multi-office private practice. She is a past Director of the Scottish Rite Institute for Childhood Language Disorders i...

  4. Home language environment of Polish children in Iceland and their achievement in Icelandic grammar school


    Anna Wozniczka


    Nobody doubts the importance of the mother tongue in raising bilingual children, but the possible influences of growing up in two or more languages on the child’s development are the subject of rich discussion. How does the quality of mother language input, including reading and other child-parent language interactions, affect the child’s development and achievement in school? Examining this question is particularly interesting in Iceland, a country which in recent decades changed from a ...

  5. Adult second language acquisition: a selective overview with a focus on the learner linguistic system


    Slabakova, Roumyana


    This review article selects and elaborates on the important issues of adult second language acquisition research in the second decade of the twenty-first century. The fundamental question of whether adult second language acquisition and child first language acquisition are similar or different is addressed throughout the article. The issues of a critical period for acquisition, the importance of the linguistic input, and processing are discussed. Generative as well as usage-based perspectives...

  6. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti


    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  7. Language-Based Learning Disabilities (United States)

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Language-Based Learning Disabilities (Reading, Spelling, and Writing) What ... a language-based learning disability ? What is a language-based learning disability? Language-based learning disabilities are ...

  8. Action Imitation at 1.5 Years Is Better than Pointing Gesture in Predicting Late Development of Language Production at 3 Years of Age (United States)

    Zambrana, Imac M.; Ystrom, Eivind; Schjolberg, Synnve; Pons, Francisco


    This study examined whether poor pointing gestures and imitative actions at 18 months of age uniquely predicted late language production at 36 months, beyond the role of poor language at 18 months of age. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were utilized. Maternal reports of the children's nonverbal skills and language were…

  9. Developing Relationships between Language and Behaviour in Preschool Children from the Early Language in Victoria Study: Implications for Intervention (United States)

    Bretherton, Lesley; Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Cini, Eileen; Eadie, Patricia; Reilly, Sheena


    Following a biopsychosocial model, the study investigated the role of child factors (gender, IQ), maternal factors (psychological distress, maternal education and vocabulary, maternal distress) and environmental factors (SES) in the relationship between language impairment and behaviour problems in preschool children. Participants were drawn from…

  10. Communication outcomes following cochlear implantation in a child with cystic cochleovestibular anomaly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Banumathy; Naresh K. Panda


    Cochlear implantation is one of the best amongst the various management options available for children and adults with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. Inner ear and internal auditory canal (IAC) malformations accounts to approximately 25%of congenital sensorineural hearing loss in children. The primary goal of this report was to evaluate the communication outcomes after cochlear implantation in a child with cystic cochleovestibular anomaly (CCVA). The child was evaluated through various standardized outcome measures at regular intervals to track the progress in terms of auditory and spoken language skills. The scores on Categories of Auditory Perception (CAP), Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS), Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR), Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS), and listening and spoken language skills showed a significant leap in 12 months duration post implantation. The report thus highlights and correlates the significant progress in auditory and spoken language skills of the child with congenital malformations to appropriate auditory rehabilitation and intensive parental training.

  11. Language Boxes: Bending the Host Language with Modular Language Changes.


    Renggli, Lukas; Denker, Marcus; Nierstrasz, Oscar


    As domain-specific modeling begins to attract widespread acceptance, pressure is increasing for the development of new domain-specific languages. Unfortunately these DSLs typically conflict with the grammar of the host language, making it difficult to compose hybrid code except at the level of strings; few mechanisms (if any) exist to control the scope of usage of multiple DSLs; and, most seriously, existing host language tools are typically unaware of the DSL extensions, thus hampering the d...

  12. Classroom assessment of the use of compact language drills: a technique borrowed from foreign language teaching. (United States)

    White, A H; Tripoli, L J


    Many deaf children have great difficulty learning how to use irregular English verbs. This research study seeks to exemplify how a single-case, ABA design can be used by classroom teachers in making a determination about the usefulness of classroom teaching strategies, and in the case of this study, to explore the use of compact language drills (CLDs) as a technique for helping a deaf child improve his ability to use 4 irregular verbs. The CLDs were conducted 5-10 minutes each day for five weeks at the close of school. The drills engaged the child in immediate recall of simple sentences loaded with semantic/syntactic clues which signalled the need for a past, present or future irregular verb within the target sentence. The results suggest that CLDs, when used systematically, can significantly improve a child's ability to use irregular verbs correctly, both immediately following treatment, and across time. PMID:9002319

  13. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter


    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the w

  14. Language and Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 1 Introduction If one asks about the relation between thought and language, people expect the issue to concern such matters as whether we think in language, whether creatures without language can "think", and the way language shapes our concepts. In my opinion, there is a much deeper question, which concerns the nature of linguistic communication.

  15. Language, Perception, Culture & Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Man-li


    The paper explores the prospect of introducing language, perception, culture and communication. Starting with some definitions of language, perception, culture and communication, the paper argues for the internal connection among them. It pro⁃vides better understanding of these factors in foreign language learning and encourages learners to achieve the better learning re⁃sult to communicate effectively through language, culture etc.

  16. Endangered Language Families (United States)

    Whalen, D. H.; Simons, Gary F.


    Linguists have increased their documentation efforts in response to the sharp decline in the number of languages. Greater awareness and new sources of funding have led to an upsurge in language documentation. While individual languages make unique contributions to the world's linguistic heritage, language families, by virtue of their shared…

  17. Endangered Languages Data Summary. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akira Y., Comp.


    This preliminary report presents the results of a 1995 Linguistic Society of America survey on endangered languages. The Endangered Languages Survey was prepared in consultation with other linguistic organizations such as the German Linguistic Group, Endangered Languages Clearing House, and the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of…

  18. The Mixed language Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin.......A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin....

  19. Feminist Language Planning (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.


    Feminist language planning is an active engagement with the ways in which language represents and reproduces gender. It is not specifically concerned with the ways in which language presents women, although this is a major focus, but rather how language positions both males and females and how it enters into the social practices that gender people…

  20. Judgments in Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Charles Alderson


    Language testing is an area linguistics that combines the professional judgment and the nature of the of applied exercise of about language, learning, achievement of language learning with empirical data about students' performances and, by inference, their abilities. This paper addresses the relationship between judgments and empirical data in language testing by reporting on three studies.