WorldWideScience

Sample records for child language

  1. Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Nutrition URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  4. Child Second Language Acquisition of Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Usha

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent research in universal grammar-based child second language acquisition (SLA) research, arguing that child SLA studies can better explore the role of biological factors in language acquisition and strengthen the links between SLA and linguistic theory. (129 references) (MDM)

  5. The Child's Path to Spoken Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L.

    A major synthesis of the latest research on early language acquisition, this book explores what gives infants the remarkable capacity to progress from babbling to meaningful sentences, and what inclines a child to speak. The book examines the neurological, perceptual, social, and linguistic aspects of language acquisition in young children, from…

  6. Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…

  7. Roots and Rogues in German Child Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the proper characterization of subject omission at a particular stage in German child language. It focuses on post-verbal null subjects in finite clauses, here termed Rogues. It is argued that the statistically significant presence of Rogues, in conjunction with their distinct developmental profile, speaks against a…

  8. Child Agency and Language Policy in Transnational Families

    OpenAIRE

    Fogle, Lyn W.; King, Kendall A.

    2013-01-01

    Study of family language policy unites research in child language acquisition and language policy to better understand how parents’ language decisions, practices and beliefs influence child outcomes (King, Fogle & Logan-Terry, 2008). Thus far, this work has focused on how family language policy shapes children’s language competencies, formal school success (e.g., Snow, 1990), and the future status of minority languages (e.g., Fishman, 1991), with less attention to children’s active roles in s...

  9. The child, language and literature

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Elin (Elin Elizabeth)

    1992-01-01

    This thesis aims not only to set Proust's treatment of childhood in the context of his work as a whole, but also to set that work in the context of contemporary writing about childhood. Chapter 1 reveals the existence of a fashion in Proust's time for literature devoted to childhood. This genre has a tendency towards technical innovation, despite repetition of the same subject matter, or 'myths'. One particularly important myth, that of the 'child-artist', is seen to be inf...

  10. Language Profile of a Child with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, N.; Priya, G. Vishnu; Raksha, H. R.; Ratnavalli, E. R.

    2010-01-01

    We report here a longitudinal study of a 3.8 year old female child diagnosed as having Landau Kleffner Syndrome (LKS). Speech-language analysis was carried out over a two-year period while the child was on medical treatment regime. The result of the language evaluation suggests that this child demonstrated exacerbation and remission in accordance…

  11. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less.

  12. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less. PMID:24634566

  13. Language comprehension in ape and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage-Rumbaugh, E S; Murphy, J; Sevcik, R A; Brakke, K E; Williams, S L; Rumbaugh, D M

    1993-01-01

    Previous investigations of the linguistic capacities of apes have focused on the ape's ability to produce words, and there has been little concern for comprehension. By contrast, it is increasingly recognized that comprehension precedes production in the language development of normal human children, and it may indeed guide production. It has been demonstrated that some species can process speech sounds categorically in a manner similar to that observed in humans. Consequently, it should be possible for such species to comprehend language if they have the cognitive capacity to understand word-referent relations and syntactic structure. Popular theories of human language acquisition suggest that the ability to process syntactic information is unique to humans and reflects a novel biological adaptation not seen in other animals. The current report addresses this issue through systematic experimental comparisons of the language comprehension skills of a 2-year-old child and an 8 year-old bonobo (Pan paniscus) who was raised in a language environment similar to that in which children are raised but specifically modified to be appropriate for an ape. Both subjects (child and bonobo) were exposed to spoken English and lexigrams from infancy, and neither was trained to comprehend speech. A common caretaker participated in the rearing of both subjects. All language acquisition was through observational learning. Without prior training, subjects were asked to respond to the same 660 novel sentences. All responses were videotaped and scored for accuracy of comprehension of the English language. The results indicated that both subjects comprehended novel requests and simple syntactic devices. The bonobo decoded the syntactic device of word recursion with higher accuracy than the child; however, the child tended to do better than the bonobo on the conjunctive, a structure that places a greater burden on short-term memory. Both subjects performed as well on sentences that

  14. Generic Language in Parent-Child Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Goetz, Peggy J; Sarnecka, Barbara W; Flukes, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Generic knowledge concerns kinds of things (e.g., birds fly; a chair is for sitting; gold is a metal). Past research demonstrated that children spontaneously develop generic knowledge by preschool age. The present study examines when and how children learn to use the multiple devices provided by their language to express generic knowledge. We hypothesize that children assume, in the absence of specifying information or context, that nouns refer to generic kinds, as a default. Thus, we predict that (a) Children should talk about kinds from an early age. (b) Children should learn generic forms with only minimal parental scaffolding. (c) Children should recognize a variety of different linguistic forms as generic. Results from longitudinal samples of adult-child conversations support all three hypotheses. We also report individual differences in the use of generics, suggesting that children differ in their tendency to form the abstract generalizations so expressed. PMID:21765807

  15. The Child with Delayed Language: Assessment and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Tervo, Raymond C.; Kinney, Cheryl A.

    1981-01-01

    Speech and language disorders are the most common developmental problems among preschool children. Early detection and remediation of delayed language development are important in helping the child establish appropriate social behavior and acquire additional information about the world through the use of language.

  16. Deserted Island or a Child's First Language Forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isurin, Ludmila

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a longitudinal study that examines first language vocabulary decline in a child whose native language input effectively ceased after her immersion in a second language environment. The subject was a Russian girl adopted by an American family and brought to the United States, completely isolated from any contact with Russian. (Author/VWL)

  17. Language Development in the Pre-School Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenskyj, Helen

    This brief overview of child language acquisition begins with a discussion of the affective and cognitive dimensions of the transition period from babbling to speech. Three theories of language acquisition--reinforcement theory, social learning theory, and "innate mechanism" theory--are reviewed. Several theories of the function of language,…

  18. Language competence in forensic interviews for suspected child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa A; Tishelman, Amy C

    2016-08-01

    Forensic interviews with children for suspected child sexual abuse require meeting children "where they are" in terms of their developmental level, readiness to disclose, culture, and language. The field lacks research indicating how to accommodate children's diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This article focuses on language competence, defined here as the ability of an organization and its personnel (in this case, Child Advocacy Centers and forensic interviewers) to communicate effectively with clients regardless of their preferred language(s). In this qualitative study, 39 U.S. child forensic interviewers and child advocacy center directors discussed their experiences, practices, and opinions regarding interviews with children and families who are not native speakers of English. Topics include the importance of interviewing children in their preferred language, problems in interpreted interviews, bilingual interviews, and current and recommended procedures. Recommendations for practice and further research are included. PMID:27348799

  19. Language of perfectionistic parents predicting child anxiety diagnostic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Geronimi, Elena M C; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has identified parental perfectionism as a risk factor for child anxiety. Yet few studies investigated why parental perfectionism may play such a role. Based on research suggesting parental verbal information and language use are associated with increased child fear beliefs and anxiety, the current study investigated the linguistic style of perfectionistic mothers and its relation to child anxiety. Participants were 71 mother-child dyads. Children were 3-12 years old, 57.7% female, and 30 were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Analyses showed that parental perfectionism was associated with increased second person pronouns, decreased adverbs, negative emotion words, and anger words. Second person pronouns and negative emotion words predicted child anxiety diagnostic status and mediated the relation between maternal perfectionism and child anxiety. These findings suggest that parental perfectionism may be associated with a specific language style that is related to child anxiety. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  20. Formulas in First and Second Language Acquisition. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn May

    The use of formulaic speech is seen as a learning strategy in children's first language (L1) acquisition to a limited extent, and to an even greater extent in their second language (L2) acquisition. While the first utterances of the child learning L1 are mostly one-word constructions, many of them are routine words or phrases that the child learns…

  1. Parents' child-directed communication and child language development: a longitudinal study with Italian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-09-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1 ; 3 and 1 ; 9. The characteristics of the maternal and paternal child-directed language (characteristics of communicative functions and lexicon as reported in psycholinguistic norms for Italian language) were coded during free play. Child language development was assessed during free play and at ages 2 ; 6 and 3 ; 0 using the Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (2 ; 6) and the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) (3 ; 0). Data analysis indicated differences between mothers and fathers in the quantitative characteristics of communicative functions and language, such as the mean length of utterances (MLU), and the number of tokens and types. Mothers also produced the more frequent nouns in the child lexicon. There emerged a relation between the characteristics of parental child-directed language and child language development.

  2. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The cur...

  3. Language Maintenance in a Multilingual Family: Informal Heritage Language Lessons in Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirkhah, Mina; Cekaite, Asta

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores language socialization patterns in a Persian-Kurdish family in Sweden and examines how "one-parent, one-language" family language policies are instantiated and negotiated in parent-child interactions. The data consist of video-recordings and ethnographic observations of family interactions, as well as…

  4. Relationship between Maternal Language Parameters and the Child's Language Competency and Developmental Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, Nahid T.

    Maternal language directed to 21 nonhandicapped, 21 Down syndrome, and 19 language impaired preschool children was examined. The three groups (all Caucasian and middle-class) were matched in mean length of utterance (MLU) and in developmental skills as measured on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Mother-child language interaction was…

  5. Language Competence in Movement: A Child's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus is shifted from viewing the individual's language…

  6. Teacher-child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel YOLERİ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine how children’s temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher–child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational survey method was used in this study. The sample consisted of 195 preschool children. According to the results, a negative significant relationship was found between the teacher-child relationships scores and the reactivity sub-dimension of temperament. Also, there are positive significant relationships between teacher-child relationship scores and language skills. In addition, both the reactivity sub dimension of temperament and language skills demonstrate a predictor effect on the teacher-child relationships. Reactivity was the most important temperament trait factor affecting relationships.

  7. Language Maintenance and the Deaf Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    For all families with deaf children, choosing communication methods is a complex and evolving business. This process is particularly complex for migrant background families, who must not only negotiate the role that speaking or signing will play in their communication practices, but also which spoken language(s) will be used--that of the host…

  8. Deficits in Narrative Abilities in Child British Sign Language Users with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Ros; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Morgan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This study details the first ever investigation of narrative skills in a group of 17 deaf signing children who have been diagnosed with disorders in their British Sign Language development compared with a control group of 17 deaf child signers matched for age, gender, education, quantity, and quality of language exposure and non-verbal…

  9. Caught in the Middle: Child Language Brokering as a Form of Unrecognised Language Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Rachele

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present the findings of a wide-scale research aimed at studying the phenomenon of Child Language Brokering (henceforth CLB) in Italy. After providing a description of recent immigration patterns and the provision of language services in Italy, and an overview of current research in this field, this study will discuss narrative data…

  10. Helping the Child in the Conquest of the Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    A. M. Joosten writes from his deep and long classroom experience of the many activities to use with the movable alphabet for solidifying language skills. He is always sensitive to situations where a child may have come late to the House of Children and therefore might need incentives to engage with the materials. This valuable information is for…

  11. Studies in Child Language and Multilingualism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 345.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Virginia, Ed.; White, Sheila J., Ed.

    This compilation contains the following research reports on child language: (1) "Nouns: Love 'Em or Leave 'Em" by Dianne Horgan; (2) "Logic in Early Child Language" by Roy D. Pea; and (3) "Theories of the Child's Acquisition of Syntax: A Look at Rare Events and at Necessary, Catalytic, and Irrelevant Components of Mother-Child Conversation" by…

  12. Child Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Nepali (नेपा ... rehausseurs - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Child Safety Checklist हिन्दी (Hindi) ...

  13. Prospective Relations between Maternal Autonomy Support and Child Executive Functioning: Investigating the Mediating Role of Child Language Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Although emerging evidence suggests that parental behavior is related to the development of child executive functioning (EF), the mechanisms through which parenting affects child EF have yet to be investigated. The goal of this study was to examine the potential mediating role of child language in the prospective relation between maternal autonomy…

  14. Language learning, socioeconomic status, and child-directed speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jessica F; Lew-Williams, Casey

    2016-07-01

    Young children's language experiences and language outcomes are highly variable. Research in recent decades has focused on understanding the extent to which family socioeconomic status (SES) relates to parents' language input to their children and, subsequently, children's language learning. Here, we first review research demonstrating differences in the quantity and quality of language that children hear across low-, mid-, and high-SES groups, but also-and perhaps more importantly-research showing that differences in input and learning also exist within SES groups. Second, in order to better understand the defining features of 'high-quality' input, we highlight findings from laboratory studies examining specific characteristics of the sounds, words, sentences, and social contexts of child-directed speech (CDS) that influence children's learning. Finally, after narrowing in on these particular features of CDS, we broaden our discussion by considering family and community factors that may constrain parents' ability to participate in high-quality interactions with their young children. A unification of research on SES and CDS will facilitate a more complete understanding of the specific means by which input shapes learning, as well as generate ideas for crafting policies and programs designed to promote children's language outcomes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:264-275. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27196418

  15. The Language Development of a Deaf Child with a Cochlear Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouvet, Kimberley; Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Taverniers, Miriam; Van Herreweghe, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Hearing parents of deaf or partially deaf infants are confronted with the complex question of communication with their child. This question is complicated further by conflicting advice on how to address the child: in spoken language only, in spoken language supported by signs, or in signed language. This paper studies the linguistic environment…

  16. The Company That Words Keep: Comparing the Statistical Structure of Child- versus Adult-Directed Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at…

  17. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  18. Language development in early childhood in relation to child's gender and parental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies show that parental education and child's gender are the factors that influence child's language development. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to examine the effect of parental education and child's gender on language competence of children aged 3 to 4 years. The sample included 80 randomly chosen children, 39 girls and 41 boys, who were included in one of 13 preschool institutions from different regions of Slovenia. The average age of the children was 3;1 years at the first assessment and 4;1 years at the second assessment, one year later. The characteristics of child'slanguage development were assessed by 3 assessors in 3 different social contexts, in test situation by a trained examiner, in child's home environment by his mother and in the preschool institution by his preschool teacher. Results show a positive effect of mother's educational level on some of the measures of child's language development, e.g. achievements on Language development scale; developmental level of storytelling, mother's estimation of child's language competence, while the father's educational level had no significant effect on any of the obtained measures. Child's gender had only a small effect on his achievements on language expression subscale at the age of 3 and 4 as well as on the preschool teacher's estimations of child's language competence at 4 years of age.

  19. An Examination of the Relationship between Parent Language and Child Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosey, Ryan P.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that parents of anxious children behave differently when interacting with their children than do parents of nonanxious children. However, the relationship between parent language use in this context and child anxiety remains unclear. The present study investigates how parent language use relates to child anxiety during…

  20. Mother and preschool teacher as assessors of the child's language competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja Peklaj

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers include child's parents as assessors of his/her language development as the results of many studies suggest their assessments to be valid and reliable measures of child's language competence. In the longitudinal study, presented in this paper, we examined whether child's mother and his/her preschool teacher can provide a valid estimation of child's language development. The sample included 80 Slovenian children from different preschool institutions, aged 3;1 years at first and 4;1 years at second assessment. Children's language competence was assessed individually, directly by the testators using Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test and indirectly by mothers and preschool teachers using the Child's Language Competence Questionnaire for Parents and Preschool Teachers. The achieved results showed that the estimates given by mothers and preschool teachers represent valid measures of child's language competence but not stable in time. The estimations given by mothers and preschool teachers explain a small share in variability of children's achievements on the Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test.

  1. Music and Sign Language to Promote Infant and Toddler Communication and Enhance Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Cynthia; Memmott, Jenny; Meeker-Miller, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using music and/or sign language to promote early communication in infants and toddlers (6-20 months) and to enhance parent-child interactions. Three groups used for this study were pairs of participants (care-giver(s) and child) assigned to each group: 1) Music Alone 2) Sign Language…

  2. Child Physical Abuse: The Relevance of Language and Social Interaction Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes that language and social interaction (LSI) scholars can contribute to interdisciplinary efforts aimed at understanding and responding to child physical abuse. Discusses reasons why LSI scholars might shy away from such study and considers links between face-to-face family interaction and child physical abuse, demonstrating the relevance…

  3. Police officers' use of emotional language during child sexual abuse investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Oxburgh, Gavin; WILLIAMSON, T; Ost, James

    2006-01-01

    This paper examined the use of emotional language by police officers that interview child victims as well as suspects during sexual offence investigations. It was hypothesised that officers who interviewed child victims prior to questioning suspects would use more emotional utterances during interviews with the suspect than those who had not interviewed the child victims. In addition, it was also hypothesised that the number of emotional utterances used would vary as a function of the gender ...

  4. Enhanced Plasticity in Spoken Language Acquisition for Child Learners: Evidence from Phonetic Training Studies in Child and Adult Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria; Ylinen, Sari

    2013-01-01

    Speech sounds that contain multiple phonetic cues are often difficult for foreign-language learners, especially if certain cues are weighted differently in the foreign and native languages. Greek adult and child speakers of English were studied to determine the effect of native language on second-language (L2) cue weighting and, in particular, to…

  5. A Procedure for Directing a Sign-Language Theatre Production for a Child Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Darlene Kaye

    This paper sets forth step-by-step procedures which novice sign-language theatre directors can use as a guide for their first sign-language theatre experiences. Since the procedures were developed during the production of a play for a mixed adult and child audience, it is assumed that the general guidelines set forth are applicable to a production…

  6. Constraints on Parameter Setting: A Grammatical Analysis of Some Acquisition Stages in German Child Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald

    1991-01-01

    Argues that to improve the parameter model as a theory of language acquisition it has to be constrained in several ways. Results on the acquisition of subject-verb agreement, verb placement, empty subjects, and negation in German child language are presented. (55 references) (JL)

  7. Thirty-Five Years of Care of Child Language in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotby, M. Nasser; El-Sady, Safaa; Hegazi, Mona

    2010-01-01

    The team of the Unit of Phoniatrics and Logopedics of the Ain Shams University Clinic in Cairo, Egypt, has worked for three and half decades to spread awareness of child language disorders. This involved publications to inform the public, as well as health care professionals, about the needs of children with delayed language, through description…

  8. The relationship of parenting stress and child temperament to language development among economically disadvantaged preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah

    2008-11-01

    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to identify factors that promote their development among high-risk groups. This preliminary study explored two potential factors that may be related to language skills in 56 low SES mother-child dyads (children aged 2; 8-4; 10), namely child temperament and parenting stress. Results showed that child temperament and parenting stress were related to children's oral language skills. Child temperament characteristics that would likely aid social interaction were related to narrative ability and children rated high on emotionality had poorer receptive vocabulary skills. Parenting stress was related to children's receptive and expressive vocabulary skills. Results are interpreted in terms of the possible mediating role of parent-child interactions in children's oral language skill development, and future directions for family intervention are discussed. PMID:18838014

  9. Anaphora and Relativization in Child Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Beverly Olson

    1995-01-01

    Examined the development of control over anaphoric reference and relativization by 23 elementary school students learning English as a Second Language (ESL) in a pull-out classroom employing little overt grammar instruction. Results found that second language exposure and proficiency level, rather that age or first language background, had more…

  10. Parent-Child Reading in English as a Second Language: Effects on Language and Literacy Development of Chinese Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dialogic parent-child reading in English on 51 Hong Kong kindergarteners learning English as a second language. Children were pre-tested on nonverbal IQ, reading interest and receptive vocabulary, word reading and phonological awareness in both Chinese and English. They were then assigned randomly to one of…

  11. Lexical-semantic immaturities manifesting as grammatical disorders: evidence from a child language sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Zaneta; Kipka, Peter F

    2009-11-01

    Given the growing evidence of the integral role that semantic development plays in normal child syntactic acquisition, it is very likely that lexical-semantic deficits can have ramifications for a child's grammar. This paper illustrates how semantics and syntax interact in a case study of a child, 5;3 years, with apparent grammatical deficits. Using concepts from Principles and Parameters Theory, a language sample analysis revealed that what appeared to be purely grammatical deficits arose via underlying lexical-semantic mechanisms. Language sample analyses to adequately guide intervention planning may thus need to move beyond superficial surface structures and utilize linguistic frameworks capable of addressing the interaction among language-internal components.

  12. Healthy child, healthy future: speech and language therapy for children

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    This resource is designed to reinforce a collaborative approach between speech and language therapists, referrers and parents in the identification and management of children with developmental speech and language and communication needs (including children with feeding and/or swallowing difficulties).

  13. Promoting Social Communication in a Child with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Lum, John D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Social difficulties represent a major area of concern in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Social skills interventions targeting communication or language skills of children with SLI have been generally ineffective. The current study tested the efficacy of a social skills intervention consisting of multiple behavioral interventions…

  14. Language Brokering in Latino Families: Direct Observations of Brokering Patterns, Parent-Child Interactions, and Relationship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Straits, Kee J. E.

    2010-01-01

    With the growing percentage of immigrant families in the USA, language transition is a common immigrant experience and can occur rapidly from generation to generation within a family. Child language brokering appears to occur within minority language families as one way of negotiating language and cultural differences; however, the phenomenon of children translating or mediating language interactions for parents has previously been hypothesized to contribute to negative outcomes for children,...

  15. Formal and Informal Academic Language Socialization of a Bilingual Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyonsuk

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines a bilingual child's academic socialization in both formal and informal academic communities. The study follows a high-achieving, bilingual student in a public US elementary school, who paradoxically is seen as a slow learner in her Korean-American Sunday school. From the academic socialization and community of…

  16. African languages, linguistics, child speech and speech pathology – the connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandile Gxilishe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the need for the incorporation of the study of child language in the field of African Linguistics. It gives an overview of some of the studies conducted in the area of acquisition of Xhosa with a view to developing norms for the development of Xhosa amongst monolingual Xhosa-speaking children. This is useful in the diagnosis of speech and language disorders using criterion referenced measures. The developmental data may be used in the development of culturally appropriate standardised assessment measures: which are severely lacking for the indigenous languages of South Africa.

  17. Early Child Language Mediates the Relation between Home Environment and School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Home environment quality is a well-known predictor of school readiness (SR), although the underlying processes are little known. This study tested two hypotheses: (a) child language mediates the association between home characteristics (socioeconomic status and exposure to reading) and SR, and (b) genetic factors partly explain the association…

  18. The Status of Functional Categories in Child Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from the Acquisition of CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haznedar, Belma

    2003-01-01

    Examines the status of the functional categories in child second language (L2) acquisition of English. Results from longitudinally-collected data are reported, presenting counterevidence for recent hypotheses on early L2 acquisition that assume the following: (1) structure building approach according to which the acquisition of functional…

  19. Complex Syntax Acquisition: A Longitudinal Case Study of a Child with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuele, Melanie C.; Dykes, Julianna C.

    2005-01-01

    Although there is extensive documentation of the morphological limitations of children with specific language impairment (SLI), few studies have reported on complex syntax acquisition in children with SLI. This case study examined the development of complex syntax in a child with SLI between 3 and 7 years. Twelve conversational samples were…

  20. Changes in Speech and Language Development of a Young Child after Decannulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, R.; Plante, E.; Green, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews the speech and language development of a child who, as result of complete subglottic stenosis, was aphonic from birth until 2 years and 11 months of age at which time laryngotracheal reconstruction provided normal respiration. The boy had congenital subglottic stenosis requiring neonatal tracheostomy. The congenital subglottic…

  1. Parent-Child Book Reading: Using Home Literacy Units to Foster Language Development in Children who are DHH

    OpenAIRE

    Fryer, Sydney

    2015-01-01

    Children who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) often experience delays in language and literacy, making rich language opportunities with parents in the home very important (Lederberg, Schick, & Spencer, 2013). Parent-child book reading promotes language and vocabulary development in children through word-object associations and expanding vocabulary (Farrant & Zubrick, 2012). Additionally, parent-child book reading is enhanced when parents are taught how to use engaging book reading technique...

  2. How Much Input Is Enough? Correlating Comprehension and Child Language Input in an Endangered Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakins, Felicity; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    In situations of language endangerment, the ability to understand a language tends to persevere longer than the ability to speak it. As a result, the possibility of language revival remains high even when few speakers remain. Nonetheless, this potential requires that those with high levels of comprehension received sufficient input as children for…

  3. The Development of the Causative Construction in Persian Child Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family, Neiloufar; Allen, Shanley E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of systematic patterns and exceptions in different languages can be readily examined using the causative construction. Persian allows four types of causative structures, including one productive multiword structure (i.e. the light verb construction). In this study, we examine the development of all four structures in Persian child…

  4. Language Deficits in a Bilingual Child with Cerebral Cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Presents a case report of cysticercosis (a parasitic infestation which results in inflammation of the brain, eye, muscles, liver, and lung tissues) and the resulting language pathology in a nine-year-old Mexican American girl who is bilingual in Spanish and English. (SED)

  5. Your Laptop to the Rescue: Using the Child Language Data Exchange System Archive and CLAN Utilities to Improve Child Language Sample Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Nan Bernstein; MacWhinney, Brian

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we review the advantages of language sample analysis (LSA) and explain how clinicians can make the process of LSA faster, easier, more accurate, and more insightful than LSA done "by hand" by using free, available software programs such as Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN). We demonstrate the utility of CLAN analysis in studying the expressive language of a very large cohort of 24-month-old toddlers tracked in a recent longitudinal study; toddlers in particular are the most likely group to receive LSA by clinicians, but existing reference "norms" for this population are based on fairly small cohorts of children. Finally, we demonstrate how a CLAN utility such as KidEval can now extract potential normative data from the very large number of corpora now available for English and other languages at the Child Language Data Exchange System project site. Most of the LSA measures that we studied appear to show developmental profiles suggesting that they may be of specifically higher value for children at certain ages, because they do not show an even developmental trajectory from 2 to 7 years of age. PMID:27111268

  6. Grammatical Processing of Spoken Language in Child and Adult Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felser, Claudia; Clahsen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a selective overview of studies that have investigated auditory language processing in children and late second-language (L2) learners using online methods such as event-related potentials (ERPs), eye-movement monitoring, or the cross-modal priming paradigm. Two grammatical phenomena are examined in detail, children's and…

  7. SIMPLIFICATION IN CHILD LANGUAGE IN BAHASA INDONESIA: A CASE STUDY ON FILIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eka Rini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at giving examples of characteristics of simplification in Bahasa Indonesia and proving that child language has a pattern and that there is a process in learning. Since this is a case study, it might not be enough to say that simplification is universal for all children of any mother tongues, but at least there is a proof that such patterns of simplification also occur in Bahasa Indonesia.

  8. The Impact of Bimodal Bilingual Parental Input on the Communication and Language Development of a Young Deaf Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Elizabeth; Brown, P. Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the impact of bimodal bilingual parental input on the communication and language development of a young deaf child. The participants in this case study were a severe-to-profoundly deaf boy and his hearing parents, who were enrolled in a bilingual (English and Australian Sign Language) homebased early intervention programme. The…

  9. Foreign language learning as a complex dynamic process: A microgenetic case study of a Chinese child's English learning trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; van der Steen, Stephanie; Cox, R.F.A; de Bot, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on one child's (male, 3 years old) learning behaviors in an English as a Foreign Language classroom, and explores the coordination and developmental patterns of his nonverbal (gestures and body language) and verbal (verbal repetition and verbal responses) learning behaviors

  10. Review of studies on child language abroad%国外儿童语言研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁文慧

    2011-01-01

    国外儿童语言研究源于儿童心理研究,历经了心理学、语言学双重取向的研究和儿童语言研究的独立学科等过程。期间的研究成果丰富,揭示了儿童语言词汇、语法、语义、语用习得和发展的特点。%Studies on child language abroad originated from child psychological study, going through double - oriented objects of psychological and linguistic study, abundant research achievements involve in the fields and an independent discipline of child language study. The of lexis, grammar, semantics, pragmatics, revealing the specialties and features of child language acquisition and development.

  11. Input and Uptake at 7 Months Predicts Toddler Vocabulary: The Role of Child-Directed Speech and Infant Processing Skills in Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S.; Rowe, Meredith L.; Ratner, Nan Bernstein

    2016-01-01

    Both the input directed to the child, and the child's ability to process that input, are likely to impact the child's language acquisition. We explore how these factors inter-relate by tracking the relationships among: (a) lexical properties of maternal child-directed speech to prelinguistic (7-month-old) infants (N = 121); (b) these infants'…

  12. Parent and child fluency in a common language: implications for the parent-child relationship and later academic success in Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas; Beaumont, Kelly; Widaman, Keith; Jochem, Rachel; Robins, Richard; Conger, Rand

    2012-12-01

    The current study tested elements of the theoretical model of Portes and Rumbaut (1996), which proposes that parent-child differences in English fluency in immigrant families affect various family processes that, in turn, relate to changes in academic success. The current study of 674 Mexican- origin families provided support for the model in that parent-child fluency in a common language was associated with several dimensions of the parent-child relationship, including communication, role reversal, and conflict. In turn, these family processes predicted child academic performance, school problems, and academic aspirations and expectations. The current findings extend the Portes and Rumbaut (1996) model, however, inasmuch as joint fluency in either English or Spanish was associated with better parent-child relationships. The findings have implications for educational and human service issues involving Mexican Americans and other immigrant groups. PMID:23244454

  13. Psychomotor profile of a child with specific language impairment and Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Tânia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Projecting beyond the ideia of the organic and expressive body and cementing a close relationship between motor skills, cognition and language, the current practices Psychomotricity reach a new conceptual field. In this paper of qualitative nature, it was intended to draw the psychomotor profile of a 8 years old child with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and Dyslexia, by using the Vitor da Fonseca ‘s Observation Psychomotor Battery (OPB and correlate it with the linguistic and cognitive profiles. Through the triangulation of the results obtained in psychomotor, cognitive and language tests, the data in literature was corroborated, which clearly point to the existence of co-morbidity between PEL, Dyslexia and disturbances in the psychomotor’s profile, thereby demonstrating a strong correlation between psychomotricity, cognition and language. Therefore, it’s urgent, and possible, to sensitize the family, the health and education professionals for the need to a multidisciplinary approach in the areas of psychomotricity and language, both at a prophylactic or rehabilitative level.

  14. Comparison of child obesity prevention and control content in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Sari R; Fung, Teresa T

    2013-01-01

    Mass media coverage of child obesity is rising, paralleling the child obesity epidemic's growth, and there is evidence that parents seek parenting advice from media sources. Yet little to no research has examined the coverage of child obesity in parenting magazines or Spanish-language media. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative and quantitative content analysis methods to identify, quantify, and compare strategies for child obesity prevention and control presented in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines. Child obesity-related editorial content in 68 mainstream and 20 Spanish-language magazine issues published over 32 months was gathered. Magazine content was coded with a manual developed by refining themes from the sample and from an evidence-based child obesity prevention action plan. Seventy-three articles related to child obesity prevention and control were identified. Most focused on parental behavior change rather than environmental change, and only 3 in 10 articles referred to the social context in which parental behavior change takes place. Child obesity-focused articles were not given high prominence; only one in four articles in the entire sample referred to child obesity as a growing problem or epidemic. Key differences between genres reflect culturally important Latino themes, including family focus and changing health beliefs around child weight status. Given mass media's potential influence on parenting practices and public perceptions, nutrition communication professionals and registered dietitians need to work to reframe media coverage of childhood obesity as an environmental problem that requires broad-based policy solutions. Spanish-speaking media can be an ally in helping Latina women change cultural health beliefs around child weight status.

  15. Comparison of child obesity prevention and control content in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Sari R; Fung, Teresa T

    2013-01-01

    Mass media coverage of child obesity is rising, paralleling the child obesity epidemic's growth, and there is evidence that parents seek parenting advice from media sources. Yet little to no research has examined the coverage of child obesity in parenting magazines or Spanish-language media. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative and quantitative content analysis methods to identify, quantify, and compare strategies for child obesity prevention and control presented in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines. Child obesity-related editorial content in 68 mainstream and 20 Spanish-language magazine issues published over 32 months was gathered. Magazine content was coded with a manual developed by refining themes from the sample and from an evidence-based child obesity prevention action plan. Seventy-three articles related to child obesity prevention and control were identified. Most focused on parental behavior change rather than environmental change, and only 3 in 10 articles referred to the social context in which parental behavior change takes place. Child obesity-focused articles were not given high prominence; only one in four articles in the entire sample referred to child obesity as a growing problem or epidemic. Key differences between genres reflect culturally important Latino themes, including family focus and changing health beliefs around child weight status. Given mass media's potential influence on parenting practices and public perceptions, nutrition communication professionals and registered dietitians need to work to reframe media coverage of childhood obesity as an environmental problem that requires broad-based policy solutions. Spanish-speaking media can be an ally in helping Latina women change cultural health beliefs around child weight status. PMID:23260730

  16. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family's native language) is taught as the child's second language through reading, writing, speech, and use of residual ... that parents can use to help their child learn language. There are many types of building blocks, and ...

  17. Motion in first language acquisition: Manner and Path in French and English child language*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickmann, Maya; Taranne, Pierre; Bonnet, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTTwo experiments compared how French vs. English adults and children (three to seven years) described motion events. Given typological properties (Talmy, 2000) and previous results (Choi & Bowerman, 1991; Hickmann, 2003; Slobin, 2003), the main prediction was that Manner should be more salient and therefore more frequently combined with Path (MP) in English than in French, particularly with four types of 'target' events, as compared to manner-oriented 'controls': motion up/down (Experiment I, N=200) and across (Experiment II, N=120), arrivals and departures (both experiments). Results showed that MP-responses (a) varied with events and increased with age in both languages, but (b) were more frequent in English at all ages with all events, and (c) were age- and event-specific among French speakers, who also frequently expressed Path or Manner alone. The discussion highlights several factors accounting for responses, with particular attention to the interplay between cognitive factors that drive language acquisition and typological properties that constrain this process from early on.

  18. Preschool Language Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not get a language disorder from learning a second language. It won't confuse your child to speak ... on child language disorders describes research supporting the benefits of speech-language pathology treatment for children with language disorders. It ...

  19. Questions You May Want to Ask Your Child's Speech-Language Pathologist = Preguntas que usted le podria hacer al patologo del habla y el lenguaje de su hijo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This accordion style pamphlet, dual sided with English and Spanish text, suggests questions for parents to ask their Speech-Language Pathologist and speech and language therapy services for their children. Sample questions include: How will I participate in my child's therapy sessions? How do you decide how much time my child will spend on speech…

  20. Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills.

  1. Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills. PMID:25300194

  2. Self-Reported Parenting Behavior and Child Temperament in Families of Toddlers with and without Speech-Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry Carson, Cecyle K.; Carson, David K.; Klee, Thomas; Jackman-Brown, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This study examined self-reported parenting behaviors, and child temperament and behavior, based on parental perceptions of 47 toddlers ages 25 to 31 months. Data were obtained via parental reports and direct assessment. Children were identified as having a speech-language delay (SLD, n = 17) or as typically developing (n = 30) based on…

  3. The home literacy environment: exploring how media and parent-child interactions are associated with children’s language production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Liebeskind; J. Piotrowski; M.A. Lapierre; D.L. Linebarger

    2013-01-01

    Children who start school with strong language skills initiate a trajectory of academic success, while children with weaker skills are likely to struggle. Research has demonstrated that media and parent-child interactions, both characteristics of the home literacy environment, influence children's l

  4. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Parent-Child Mother Goose Program in Relation to Children's Language and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrett, Gill; White, Roxanne; Spreckley, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess changes in children's language skills and parenting stress following participation in the Parent-Child Mother Goose Program (PCMGP). The intervention group consisted of 29 parents (age range 24 to 43 years, "M" = 33.5, SD = 4.1) and 30 children (18 females and 12 males) with ages ranging from 1 to 46 months…

  5. Effects of Home Environment and Center-Based Child Care Quality on Children's Language, Communication, and Literacy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Pessanha, Manuela; Aguiar, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the joint effects of home environment and center-based child care quality on children's language, communication, and early literacy development, while also considering prior developmental level. Participants were 95 children (46 boys), assessed as toddlers (mean age = 26.33 months; Time 1) and preschoolers (mean age = 68.71…

  6. Three-term contingency patterns in mother-child verbal interactions during first-language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerk, E L

    1990-11-01

    Selections from a large longitudinal data set of verbal interactions between a mother and her child are presented. Two sets of three-term contingency sequences that seemed to reflect maternal rewards and corrections were noted. Both the antecedents as well as the immediate consequences of maternal interventions are presented to explore training and learning processes. The observed frequencies of three-step sequences are compared to those expected based upon Markov-chain logic to substantiate the patterning of the interactions. Behavioral conceptualizations of the learning process are supported by these analyses, although their sufficiency is questioned. It is suggested that maternal rewards and corrections should be integrated with perceptual, cognitive, and social learning conceptualizations in a skill-learning approach to explain the complexity of language transmission and acquisition processes.

  7. An investigation into the effectiveness of using child created video in the learning and retention of the Irish language in an Irish primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Cormac

    2012-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed This thesis looks at the use of child created video as an aid in the learning and retention of the Irish language in an Irish Primary School. It also investigated the effect of using these child created videos on the motivation of children to learn the Irish language. The methodology used in this research utilised a Task Based Language Learning and Teaching model. The study found that the use of child created video was beneficial to children enabling them to deve...

  8. Bilingual Mothers' Language Choice in Child-Directed Speech: Continuity and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of Family Language Policy in bilingual families is parental language choice. Little is known about the continuity in parental language choice and the factors affecting it. This longitudinal study explores maternal language choice over time. Thirty-one bilingual mothers provided reports of what language(s) they spoke with their…

  9. ROLE OF EXPERIENCE OF SUBJECTIVE INTERRELATIONS OF THE CHILD WITH THE PARENT AND THE TEACHER IN FORMATION OF THE LANGUAGE COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Nikolayevich Chernov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studying of role of «the parent – the child» and «the teacher – the child» generalities, developing as the collective subject, in formation of the language competence of the senior preschooler is the research purpose. Research is executed in a paradigm of the subject-activity approach. The Heidelbergtest of the child language development was applied to studying of the language competence. Experimental procedure of diagnostics of language learning and its results with use of the Vygotskian principle of a zone of the proximal development is offered. Procedure allows to form a generality «the teacher – the child» as the collective subject. For studying of a child-parental generality as collective subject the special methodical complex consisting of seven techniques was used.Essential component of structure of child-parental relations is formation of collective subject «parent – child» with the style of parental relation «the indulging hyperpatronage». This generality positively causes development of speech-linguistic competence spheres. The collective subject «the teacher – the child», generated on the basis of realization of a principle of a zone of the proximal development, allows to create psychological-pedagogical conditions for adequate learning diagnostics and, simultaneously, for achievement of high level language competence. Experience of the subject-subject interrelations with the parent is the precondition of formation the subject-subject interrelations with the teacher in a situation of formation of the language competence.Results can be used for the organization and carrying out of correction-preventive work on formation optimum sociocultural situation of child development for formation of the language competence of the senior preschool child.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-30

  10. Affordances for Language Awareness in a Middle School Transitional Classroom: Multi-Competent L1/L2 Users Under No Child Left Behind

    OpenAIRE

    Gage-Serio, Ondine Angelique

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines affordances for Language Awareness within a classroom serving English learners in a coastal California middle school under the policy context of No Child Left Behind. As an ecologically inspired account, this study contributes to understanding how students use and learn language in classroom settings. Affordances for Language Awareness represent possibilities available to students for accessing relevant information to make meaning of language within a classroom. Af...

  11. Effect of socioeconomic status disparity on child language and neural outcome: how early is early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Hallam; Betancourt, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    It is not news that poverty adversely affects child outcome. The literature is replete with reports of deleterious effects on developmental outcome, cognitive function, and school performance in children and youth. Causative factors include poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate parenting, lack of cognitive stimulation, unstable social support, genetics, and toxic environments. Less is known regarding how early in life adverse effects may be detected. This review proposes to elucidate "how early is early" through discussion of seminal articles related to the effect of socioeconomic status on language outcome and a discussion of the emerging literature on effects of socioeconomic status disparity on brain structure in very young children. Given the young ages at which such outcomes are detected, the critical need for early targeted interventions for our youngest is underscored. Further, the fiscal reasonableness of initiating quality interventions supports these initiatives. As early life adversity produces lasting and deleterious effects on developmental outcome and brain structure, increased focus on programs and policies directed to reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities is essential. PMID:26484621

  12. Input and uptake at 7 months predicts toddler vocabulary: the role of child-directed speech and infant processing skills in language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S; Rowe, Meredith L; Bernstein Ratner, Nan

    2016-09-01

    Both the input directed to the child, and the child's ability to process that input, are likely to impact the child's language acquisition. We explore how these factors inter-relate by tracking the relationships among: (a) lexical properties of maternal child-directed speech to prelinguistic (7-month-old) infants (N = 121); (b) these infants' abilities to segment lexical targets from conversational child-directed utterances in an experimental paradigm; and (c) the children's vocabulary outcomes at age 2;0. Both repetitiveness in maternal input and the child's speech segmentation skills at age 0;7 predicted language outcomes at 2;0; moreover, while these factors were somewhat inter-related, they each had independent effects on toddler vocabulary skill, and there was no interaction between the two. PMID:26300377

  13. Como ayudar a su hijo a aprender a leer ingles como segunda lengua. (How Can I Help My Child Learn to Read English as a Second Language.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo L.; Deyoe, Rita Maxine

    Suggestions for ways in which parents can help their children learn to read English are contained in this short booklet written in Spanish. Activities to be performed in the home, such as listening to and talking to the child in any language, reading aloud, reading for oneself, obtaining books for the home, and organizing study time for the child,…

  14. Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

  15. Le Bilinguisme chez l'Enfant et l'Apprentissage d'une Langue Seconde: Bibliographie Analytique (Child Bilingualism and Second Language Learning: A Descriptive Bibliography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afendras, Evangelos A.; Pianarosa, Albertina

    This annotated bibliography on child bilingualism and second language acquisition contains 1,661 references. Preceding the bibliographic entries are a list of the major conceptual fields covered by the bibliography, a subject index and an index of languages, countries and peoples dealt with in the bibliography. The indices refer to the entries in…

  16. The Home Literacy Environment: Exploring How Media and Parent-Child Interactions Are Associated with Children's Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebeskind, Kara G.; Piotrowski, Jessica T.; Lapierre, Matthew A.; Linebarger, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Children who start school with strong language skills initiate a trajectory of academic success, while children with weaker skills are likely to struggle. Research has demonstrated that media and parent-child interactions, both characteristics of the home literacy environment, influence children's language skills. Using a national sample of…

  17. Home Literacy & Child Language Development. The Importance of Children's Literature and Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Arna Sigríður Ásgeirsdóttir 1987

    2011-01-01

    The prerequisites of language acquisition and language development remain disputed in the field of language studies. Most children go from uttering their first words in their first years, to fluent readers and writers of their native language, which usually occurs at school entry. However, it is viewed that language skills begin to develop in children's first years, when the home is the main environment in which they thrive. Therefore, the effects of home literacy activities, such as storyboo...

  18. Pilot trial of huperzine A to treat child language delay%石杉碱-甲治疗小儿语言发育迟缓

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖建湘; 陈黎; 黄铁栓; 李冰

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the efficacy of huperzine A in treating child language delay and its side effects.METHODS:37 children with language delay and other developmental diseases from pediatric neurology out- patient department, who did not undergo any language rehabilitation,were treated with huperzine A 50 μ g bi- daily for more 3 months and then the efficacy and side effects observed.The follow- up was arranged to record the efficacy monthly.RESULTS:37 cases of 40 had undergone the whole course and the total efficiency was 68% (25/37). Language developments of other 12 cases were not improved significantly.Other 3 children were not included in because epilepsy were observed among them.CONCLUSION:This pilot trial result suggests that huperzine A has efficacy on child language delay but should be investigated further.Huperzine A may trigger seizure of language delay patients with epilepsy.

  19. Language ENvironment Analysis Language and Autism Screen and the Child Development Inventory Social Subscale as a possible autism screen for children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jason; Xu, Dongxin; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2014-11-01

    The Language ENvironment Analysis Language and Autism Screen (LLAS) is an automated vocal production analysis that has been shown to be a valid screener for autism in hearing children between the ages of 24 to 48 months of age. Although there is reportedly a higher incidence of autism among children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the diagnosis of autism is usually later than that in children with hearing. None of the traditional screening instruments have been used with children with hearing loss. Data about the utility of LLAS with children who are deaf or hard of hearing will be presented and discussed. Though more data will be needed, an LLAS at-risk flag in conjunction with the Social Quotient from the Child Development Inventory holds significant promise for a screen for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. PMID:25321851

  20. The role of teacher imagination in conceptualising the child as a second language learner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Guz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to initiate and maintain meaningful interaction in a young learner L2 classroom, an adult teacher needs to approach children in ways consistent with their developmental profile and adjust teaching methodology so as to accommodate young learners’ current skills. This requires the ability to predict the child’s possible responses to classroom events by imagining what s/he might think and how s/he might behave when presented with specific instructions. Bearing in mind that the teacher’s perception of the world is purely and completely adult in nature, in order to be effective, educators need to create a mental image or a concept of a young learner by gathering knowledge about his or her developmental characteristics and fully grasping the pedagogical implications of this knowledge. In this paper, we aim to explore the role of imagination in the conceptualisation of a child as a second language learner amongst university level pre-service teachers involved in an early primary EFL education programme. We report on qualitative research based on data obtained in the course of a two semester teacher training course of 35 BA and 30 MA students majoring in English. In the study, we focused on the working image of the child’s developmental characteristics created by the participants and their ability to employ this in their teaching. Our data show a substantial discrepancy between the participants’ theoretical conceptions concerning the business of teaching and the actual actions undertaken during lessons with young learners. Although participants were able to successfully identify the most distinctive developmental characteristics of primary-level learners, they experienced difficulty with integrating them into actual classroom practice.

  1. The Computer and the Pre-School Child; The Written Language and Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naymark, J.; Plaisant, C.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a Centre Mondial Informatique et Resources Humaines (CIMRH) investigation of kindergarten children's written language learning and links between play and learning. Computer software was used by students for language learning, and observations centered on student computer use, learning of written language and play, and computer…

  2. The Relationship of Parenting Stress and Child Temperament to Language Development among Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah

    2008-01-01

    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to…

  3. A New Language for Child Psychotherapy: A Response to Jerald Kay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James J.; Borden, William

    2009-01-01

    Jerald Kay's article in this issue reviews important research in the areas of adult psychotherapy and neuroscience, and their implications for child psychotherapy. We respond by exploring some of the strengths and limitations of these lines of research and their implications for child psychotherapy development and research. The paper closes with…

  4. On the Acquisition of Estonian. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn May

    The speech of a 2-year-old monolingual Estonian child was studied over a period of six months. The child's initial and medial consonants and clusters were examined and charted to highlight her difficulties. Stops and nasals were easier than fricatives and sonorants; by 1 year 7 months the labials were essentially mastered; fricatives were more…

  5. Learning and Language: Educarer-Child Interactions in Singapore Infant-Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cynthia; Lim, Sirene May-Yin

    2013-01-01

    While there has been extensive research exploring the quality of caregiver-child interactions in programmes for preschool children, comparatively less international research has explored the nature of caregiver-child interactions in centre-based infant-care programmes. Nine caregivers in six Singapore infant-care settings were observed and…

  6. Structural and Lexical Case in Child German: Evidence from Language-Impaired and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbeiss, Sonja; Bartke, Susanne; Clahsen, Harald

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the system of case marking in two groups of German speaking children, 5 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 5 typically developing (TD) children matched to the children with SLI on a general measure of language development. The data from both groups demonstrate high accuracy scores for structural case…

  7. "It's the Way You Talk to Them." The Child's Environment: Early Years Practitioners' Perceptions of Its Influence on Speech and Language Development, Its Assessment and Environment Targeted Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Lewis, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Speech and language delay occurs in approximately 6% of the child population, and interventions to support this group of children focus on the child and/or the communicative environment. Evidence about the effectiveness of interventions that focus on the environment as well as the (reported) practices of speech and language therapists (SLTs) and…

  8. Bridging the Gap Between Speech and Language: Using Multimodal Treatment in a Child With Apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Cheryl D; Pitterle, Kathleen; Kurtz, Marie; Nakhla, Mark; Todorow, Carlyn

    2016-09-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech is a neurologic speech sound disorder in which children have difficulty constructing words and sounds due to poor motor planning and coordination of the articulators required for speech sound production. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy strongly suspected to have childhood apraxia of speech at 18 months of age who used multimodal communication to facilitate language development throughout his work with a speech language pathologist. In 18 months of an intensive structured program, he exhibited atypical rapid improvement, progressing from having no intelligible speech to achieving age-appropriate articulation. We suspect that early introduction of sign language by family proved to be a highly effective form of language development, that when coupled with intensive oro-motor and speech sound therapy, resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms.

  9. Bridging the Gap Between Speech and Language: Using Multimodal Treatment in a Child With Apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Cheryl D; Pitterle, Kathleen; Kurtz, Marie; Nakhla, Mark; Todorow, Carlyn

    2016-09-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech is a neurologic speech sound disorder in which children have difficulty constructing words and sounds due to poor motor planning and coordination of the articulators required for speech sound production. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy strongly suspected to have childhood apraxia of speech at 18 months of age who used multimodal communication to facilitate language development throughout his work with a speech language pathologist. In 18 months of an intensive structured program, he exhibited atypical rapid improvement, progressing from having no intelligible speech to achieving age-appropriate articulation. We suspect that early introduction of sign language by family proved to be a highly effective form of language development, that when coupled with intensive oro-motor and speech sound therapy, resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms. PMID:27492818

  10. When a Bilingual Child Describes Living Things: An Analysis of Conceptual Understandings from a Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Romaizah; Venville, Grady J.; Treagust, David F.

    2007-07-01

    With increasing numbers of students learning science through a second language in many school contexts, there is a need for research to focus on the impact language has on students’ understanding of science concepts. Like other countries, Brunei has adopted a bilingual system of education that incorporates two languages in imparting its curriculum. For the first three years of school, Brunei children are taught in Malay and then for the remainder of their education, instruction is in English. This research is concerned with the influence that this bilingual education system has on children’s learning of science. The purpose was to document the patterns of Brunei students’ developing understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things and examine the impact in the change in language as the medium of instruction. A cross-sectional case study design was used in one primary school. Data collection included an interview ( n = 75), which consisted of forced-response and semi-structured interview questions, a categorisation task and classroom observation. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results indicate that the transition from Malay to English as the language of instruction from Primary 4 onwards restricted the students’ ability to express their understandings about living things, to discuss related scientific concepts and to interpret and analyse scientific questions. From a social constructivist perspective these language factors will potentially impact on the students’ cognitive development by limiting the expected growth of the students’ understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things.

  11. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  12. Teaching Reading and Writing in Local Language Using the Child-Centred Pedagogy in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akello, Dora Lucy; Timmerman, Greetje; Namusisi, Speranza

    2016-01-01

    Uganda introduced the use of mother tongue as medium of instruction in primary schools in 2007. This was meant to promote interaction and participation in the learning process and improve children's proficiency in reading and writing. Drawing elements of interaction and participation from the socio-cultural theory, the child-centred pedagogy was…

  13. Predictors of Maternal Language to Infants during a Picture Book Task in the Home: Family SES, Child Characteristics and the Parenting Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Pancsofar, Nadya; Willoughby, Mike; Odom, Erica; Quade, Alison; Cox, Martha

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of child characteristics and parenting environment to the relationship between family SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language to infants. 1157 children were drawn from a representative sample of 1292 infants born to mothers in rural Appalachian counties and rural counties in southern minority…

  14. Exploring Early Years Educators' Ownership of Language and Communication Knowledge and Skills: A Review of Key Policy and Initial Reflections on "Every Child a Talker" and Its Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    This article examines four significant policy documents that have informed the Department for Children School and Families (DCSF)' s "Every Child a Talker" (ECaT). The analysis focuses on where the ownership of knowledge in relation to communication and language lies as part of policy implementation and training processes. The article then…

  15. No Child Left with Crayons: The Imperative of Arts-Based Education and Research with Language "Minority" and Other Minoritized Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Sharon Verner; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa

    2013-01-01

    Since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, public discourse on "failing schools" as measured by high-stakes standardized tests has disproportionately affected students from minoritized communities (such as language, race, class, dis/ability), emphasizing climates of assessment at the expense of broader, more democratic, and…

  16. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child with a Developmental Social Communication Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of…

  17. Repetition and Turn-Allocation in the Non-Native Acquisition of Discourse. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah; Gracey, Cheryl

    A study of non-native children's acquisition of communicative competence examined the child's construction of rules of conversation in the second language. The linguistic devices that children use to link up their utterances with those of another speaker, i.e., cohesion-creating devices that create textual unity, were focused upon. Repetition, one…

  18. The Impact of Verb Form, Sentence Position, Home Language, and Second Language Proficiency on Subject-Verb Agreement in Child Second Language Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Baayen, Harald R.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that children learning a second language (L2) omit agreement inflection because of communication demands. The conclusion of these studies is that L2 children know the morphological and syntactic properties of agreement inflection, but sometimes insert an inflectional default form (i.e., the bare verb) in production. The present…

  19. Comparing MOSAIC and the variational learning model of the optional infinitive stage in early child language

    OpenAIRE

    Freudenthal, D; Pine, J M; Gobet, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares MOSAIC and the Variational Learning Model (VLM) in terms of their ability to explain the level of finiteness marking in early child Dutch, English, Spanish, German and French. It is shown that both models are successful in explaining cross-linguistic variation in rates of Optional Infinitive (OI) errors, although both models underestimate the error rate in English. A second set of analyses shows strong lexical effects in the pattern of errors ac...

  20. Balancing Generalization and Lexical Conservatism: An Artificial Language Study with Child Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Successful language acquisition involves generalization, but learners must balance this against the acquisition of lexical constraints. Such learning has been considered problematic for theories of acquisition: if learners generalize abstract patterns to new words, how do they learn lexically-based exceptions? One approach claims that learners use…

  1. Language Interaction in Nahuatl Discourse: The Influence of Spanish in Child and Adult Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert; Gomez, Pablo Rogelio Navarrete

    2003-01-01

    This study on code-mixing focuses on the influence of Spanish in Nahuatl discourse as revealed in narratives produced by adults and children. Results indicate differences in frequency of content word embedded language (Spanish), lexical items across grade level (for children), grade level attained (for adults), and correlations (for children)…

  2. Mother-Child Communication Quality during Language Brokering: Validation of Four Measures of Brokering Interaction Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntzviller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    One hundred dyads of low-income, Spanish-speaking mothers and their bilingual children (age = 12-18; M = 14.12, SD = 1.89) who have language brokered for the mother (i.e., culturally or linguistically mediated between the mother and English speakers) were surveyed. Multiple goals theory posits that mothers and children who do not recognize and…

  3. Predicting Language Outcomes for Children Learning Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Child and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Nancy C.; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Fleming, Kandace; Matthews, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a model of language development for nonverbal preschool-age children learning to communicate with augmentative or alternative communication. Method: Ninety-three preschool children with intellectual disabilities were assessed at Time 1, and 82 of these children were assessed 1 year later, at Time 2. The outcome variable was…

  4. Relations among Home Literacy Environment, Child Characteristics and Print Knowledge for Preschool Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Guo, Ying; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine the unique contributions of the HLE on print knowledge of preschool children with language impairment and (b) to identify whether specific child…

  5. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and language delay at three years of age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population.

  6. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and language delay at three years of age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population. PMID:27058928

  7. LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  8. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Guedeney

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones.One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child's development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants' motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child's psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife.After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents.Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children.

  9. [Deficit of language comprehension in a child with semantic-pragmatic disorder--dissociation between the phonemic and semantic processing abilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruhara, N; Uno, A; Kaga, M; Matsuda, H; Kaneko, M

    1999-07-01

    We studied the language comprehension deficit of a 11-year-old child with a semantic-pragmatic disorder. We used an original test battery using abstract nouns common to the tasks of repetition, reading aloud, auditory comprehension and comprehension of written words. Although he could repeat and read aloud words as good as normal controls, he could not choose correct pictures from semantically or phonemically resembling pictures by listening to or reading target words. This test demonstrated the dissociation between his phonemic and semantic processing abilities. An examination of the cerebral blood flow with SPECT suggested that the dysfunction of the left temporal lobe caused the deficit in language comprehension. PMID:10429489

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the child perceptions questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14) for the peruvian spanish language

    OpenAIRE

    Abanto, Jenny; Albites, Ursula; Bönecker, Marcelo; Saul Martins PAIVA; Castillo, Jorge-Luis; Aguilar-Gálvez, Denisse

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) instruments, such as the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14), are broadly used in oral health surveys around the world. However, there is a lack of these instruments in Spanish language limiting the comparison of OHRQoL outcomes among countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of the present study was to cross-culturally adapt the CPQ11-14 to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. Materia...

  11. EVALUATIVE LANGUAGE IN SPOKEN AND SIGNED STORIES TOLD BY A DEAF CHILD WITH A COCHLEAR IMPLANT: WORDS, SIGNS OR PARALINGUISTIC EXPRESSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Takkinen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the use and quality of the evaluative language produced by a bilingual child in a story-telling situation is analysed. The subject, an 11-year-old Finnish boy, Jimmy, is bilingual in Finnish sign language (FinSL and spoken Finnish.He was born deaf but got a cochlear implant at the age of five.The data consist of a spoken and a signed version of “The Frog Story”. The analysis shows that evaluative devices and expressions differ in the spoken and signed stories told by the child. In his Finnish story he uses mostly lexical devices – comments on a character and the character’s actions as well as quoted speech occasionally combined with prosodic features. In his FinSL story he uses both lexical and paralinguistic devices in a balanced way.

  12. Early Childhood Educators' Use of Language-Support Practices with 4-Year-Old Children in Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Caroline; Bigras, Nathalie; Cantin, Gilles; Coutu, Sylvain; Blain-Briere, Benedicte; Eryasa, Joell; Charron, Annie; Brunson, Liesette

    2010-01-01

    The importance of encouraging language skills in early childhood has been well documented. Educators who are responsible for children in daycare services have many opportunities to use rich and stimulating educational practices that support language acquisition. The purpose of this study was to assess the language-support practices used by 22…

  13. Mother-Child Book Reading of Latino Families in Family Literacy Programs: Variations by Demographic Characteristics and Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngok

    2009-01-01

    This study examined mother-child book reading of immigrant, low-income Latino families in family literacy programs. A total of 92 Latino children (4 to 5 years old) and their mothers were observed reading a book together. The affective quality of mother-child behaviors and the type of maternal talk occurred during book reading were coded. During…

  14. The Role of Oral Language Revisited: A Comment on the NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Stacey Storch

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the discussion of S. A. Storch and G. J. Whitehurst's literacy development model in the article by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Early Child Care Research Network (ECCRN). Specifically, this comment focuses on concerns raised by the NICHD ECCRN that Storch and Whitehurst's model does…

  15. From Pre-Speech to Speech: On Early Phonology. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn May

    A discussion of word acquisition rates and strategies is based upon a 6-month case study of an Estonian-speaking child who gradually and systematically relaxed phonotactic constraints to allow greater complexity in word production. In addition to the cognitive tools of assimilation and accomodation as described by Piaget, the child used a further…

  16. A Preliminary Study on the Reasons of Child Advantage in Second Language Acquisition%试析二语习得儿童优势的成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光华

    2015-01-01

    本文分析和梳理了二语习得中儿童优势的成因,通过分析儿童在二语习得过程中异于成人的特性,得出关于外语教学的三点启示:1)缺乏二语环境的英语早教往往事倍功半,得不偿失;2)儿童的教学方式应本质上与成人区分开来,如不应该对低龄学习者教授抽象的语言知识;3)大中学生在英语学习中应向儿童学习,尽量减少母语的影响,建立独立的语言系统,提高学习效率.%This study analyzes and summarizeds the reasons for child advantage in second language acquisition.By analyzing the special properties of children in regard with the process of learning foreign language,the study presents three major proposals for foreign language teaching:1) child advantage cannot be fully exploited if children are not immersed in a second language setting.2) children should be treated differently from adults in accordance with their cognitive property,i.e.abstract linguistic knowledge should be forbidden in English instruction for children.3) Adult EFL learners should turn to children in terms of English learning,by minimizing the influence from native tongue and establishing independent linguistic system,they could improve their efficiency of leaning.

  17. Language acquisition is language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  18. Predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years in the EDEN mother–child cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Peyre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the factors predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years. Methods. By using longitudinal data concerning 1002 children from the EDEN study, linear regression was used to predict 3-year language performance from 2-year language performance and the risk factors associated with language delays. Logistic regressions were performed to examine two change trajectories: children who fall below the 10th percentile of language skills between 2 and 3 years (declining trajectory, and those who rose above the 10th percentile (resilient trajectory. Results. The final linear model accounted for 43% of the variance in 3-year language scores, with 2-year language scores accounting for 22%. Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, earlier birth term, lower level of parental education and lower frequency of maternal stimulation were associated with the declining trajectory. Breastfeeding was associated with the resilient trajectory. Conclusions. This study provides a better understanding of the natural history of early language delays by identifying biological and social factors that predict changes in language skills between the ages of 2 and 3 years.

  19. Simplified and Expanded Input in a Focused Stimulation Program for a Child with Expressive Language Delay (ELD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Donna L.; Heilmann, John

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable debate regarding the simplification of adults' language when talking to young children with expressive language delays (ELD). While simplified input, also called telegraphic speech, is used by many parents and clinicians working with young children, its use has been discouraged in much of the clinical literature. In addition…

  20. Predicting behavior problems in deaf and hearing children: The influences of language, attention, and parent–child communication

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, David H; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Fink, Nancy E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Tobey, Emily A.; Niparko, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The development of language and communication may play an important role in the emergence of behavioral problems in young children, but they are rarely included in predictive models of behavioral development. In this study, cross-sectional relationships between language, attention, and behavior problems were examined using parent report, videotaped observations, and performance measures in a sample of 116 severely and profoundly deaf and 69 normally hearing children ages 1.5 to 5 years. Secon...

  1. if language learning easy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦清

    2002-01-01

    " Learning a language is as easy as ABC. Even a child can do it. " Most stu-dents who are learning a foreign language would disagree with this statement. For them, learning a foreign language, eg. English,is a very difficult task. They need thousands of hours to study and practice, and even this will not guarantee success for every language learner.

  2. Noun and Verb Production in Maternal and Child Language: Continuity, Stability, and Prediction across the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined continuity/discontinuity and stability/instability of noun and verb production measures in 30 child-mother dyads observed at 16 and 20 months, and predictive relations with the acquisition of nouns and verbs at 24 months. Children exhibited significant discontinuity and robust stability in the frequency of nouns and…

  3. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Interpreters are available to help in 170 languages. The ... drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness High stress Does not look after the child's hygiene or ...

  4. How Is No Child Left Behind Affecting Proficient and Advanced Students on the California STAR Test in English Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether students who enter high school in ninth grade and score proficient or advanced on their CST in English Language Arts remain proficient or advanced 2 years later in 11th grade. The effects of NCLB will be considered as a contributing factor to the difference in student scores. This study was…

  5. Teaching a Child with Autism and Severe Language Delays to Reject: Direct and Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian A.; Drasgow, Erik; Halle, James W.; Brucker, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    We used functional communication training to teach Bob, a 10-year-old student with autism and severe language delays, to reject items by touching an icon. Our initial assessment revealed that Bob's behaviours serving a rejecting function consisted of pushing away, yelling, bear hugging-grabbing, and leaving. We used prompting, differential…

  6. Analysis of the sounds of the child in the first year of age and a comparison to the language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgänger, Hartmut

    2003-12-01

    This study has the aim to analyze the acoustic characteristic features of cries and babbling in the course of the ontogenetical development of babies from the 3rd to 5th day on up to the age of 1 year and to compare the results to the acoustic characteristics of the adult language. The mean fundamental frequency of crying increased considerably from 441.8 to 502.9 Hz and the mean fundamental frequency of babbling decreased remarkably from 389.3 to 336.9 Hz. These types of melodies represent individual differences in the course of crying. The first intonations were similar to the hunger cry and later they were on par with the pain cry. The melodies of babbling remained unchanged in the first year of age. Scientific examinations proved that crying and babbling are different. The development of the mean fundamental frequency for both, crying and babbling, showed a contrary tendency within the first year of age. The melody of babbling indicated similarities to the language within the first year of age. At the age of 9 months, the fundamental frequency and the melody contained features of the language of females in labour. Crying of a newborn and infant can be regarded in direct connection with the cries of a grown-up person, particularly in situations of emotional agitation or cultic rituals. Babbling, in contrast, shows structural similarities to the language. This justifies the assumption that the human being possesses two separate communication systems that share the same acoustic channel.

  7. Impaired Language Abilities and Pre-Linguistic Communication Skills in a Child with a Diagnosis of Galactosaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne; Kilcoyne, Sarah; Murdoch, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Variable language outcomes have been reported in children with the metabolic disorder galactosaemia (GAL), but these outcomes do not appear to be related to the severity of symptoms in the neonatal period, compliance with the non-dairy diet, or IQ. Currently, there is no means by which at-risk children with GAL can be identified early to initiate…

  8. A Micro-Ethnographic Study of the Communication/Language Development in a Japanese Child with Profound Hearing Loss Before and After Cochlear Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Kretschmer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study described the communication and spoken language development of a Japanese girl with profound hearing loss who used a cochlear implant from 19 months of age. The girl, Akiko, was born in Belgium where her family was living at that time. After she was identified as deaf at birth, she and her parents were provided with support services. The family relocated to Japan when Akiko was 1 year 5 months of age. When she was 1 year 6 months of age Akiko underwent cochlear implantation. The cochlear implant device was activated when Akiko was 1 year 7 months of age. The parents routinely made video recordings of Akiko interacting with family members and teachers at home and at school. The video recordings taken by the parents used as the data for this study contained scenes of Akiko from the time she was 3 months of age until she was 4 years 11 months of age. Micro-ethnographic methods were used to analyze the dynamics and development of selected communicative interactions over this age span of fifty-six months. The original pool of video recordings contained 213 scenes.As a result of video viewing and editing, Akiko’s communication development was found to follow expected patterns of development as described by other child language researchers of children with normal hearing. There were seven demarcations that represent Akiko’s communication and spoken language development: 1 perlocutionary, 2 transition of perlocutionary to illocutionary, 3 illocutionary, 4 transition of illocutionary to locutionary, 5 locutionary, 6 dialogue, and 7 narrative.

  9. Language and the Developing Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Lise

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the centers of language in the brain and the critical period for language acquisition. Explains developmental milestones of language development--receptive language, babbling, short phrases, full sentences--in the context of brain development. Emphasizes parents' role in language development, including talking to the child, dialogic…

  10. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  11. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation) questionnaire into Danish language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Jens Erik; McGirr, Kate A; Korsgaard, Hanne Oertved; Rathleff, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by "The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache." A total of 25 children from 6 to 12 years of age completed the questionnaire with 24 h between test and retest to assess reliability. A total of 169 children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age completed the translated questionnaire to assess time requirements for completing it. Results. Only minor discrepancies were observed in the translation process. Test-retest reliability of the translated questionnaire showed substantial agreement (kappa: 0.65-0.78). The questionnaires were completed within 30 min (age 6-11 years of age) and within 15 min (age 12-17 years of age) respectively. Discussion. No major problems were observed in the forward translations of the questionnaires. The face validation prompted no major changes in the questionnaire. The face-to-face interviews showed that pupils of different ethnic backgrounds than Danish and pupils in the age group of 6-11 had more difficulty in understanding a minority of the questions. The Danish Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire therefore complies with the intentions of the originators, aiming at a maximal completion time of 45 min and in comparison with actual completion time. The test-retest study showed substantial agreement between test and retest in the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically recording a four-week period

  12. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation) questionnaire into Danish language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Jens Erik; McGirr, Kate A; Korsgaard, Hanne Oertved; Rathleff, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by "The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache." A total of 25 children from 6 to 12 years of age completed the questionnaire with 24 h between test and retest to assess reliability. A total of 169 children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age completed the translated questionnaire to assess time requirements for completing it. Results. Only minor discrepancies were observed in the translation process. Test-retest reliability of the translated questionnaire showed substantial agreement (kappa: 0.65-0.78). The questionnaires were completed within 30 min (age 6-11 years of age) and within 15 min (age 12-17 years of age) respectively. Discussion. No major problems were observed in the forward translations of the questionnaires. The face validation prompted no major changes in the questionnaire. The face-to-face interviews showed that pupils of different ethnic backgrounds than Danish and pupils in the age group of 6-11 had more difficulty in understanding a minority of the questions. The Danish Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire therefore complies with the intentions of the originators, aiming at a maximal completion time of 45 min and in comparison with actual completion time. The test-retest study showed substantial agreement between test and retest in the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically recording a four-week period

  13. Multilingualism and Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...

  14. Language Acquisition Is Language Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition…

  15. The Influence of Dialects on Child Language Acquisition and Enlightenment to Mandarin Education%方言对儿童语言习得的影响及普通话教育策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小红; 张娟

    2012-01-01

    Observation method,mathematical statistics,document material method are applied in this paper to study the influences of dialects on child language acquisition.It discusses the relationship between dialects and child language acquisition,analyses the influences of dialects on child language acquisition from the perspective of environment of dialects,characteristics of dialects,superficial phonetic ability,deep internal and external code-switching ability and psychological factors.Further research on the relationship between dialects and Mandarin education,together with the countermeasures to overcome the influences of dialects on Mandarin is also conducted in this paper.%文章采用观察法、数理统计法和文献资料法对方言对儿童语言习得的影响做研究,主要论述方言与儿童语言习得的关系。从方言运用环境、方言的特点、语言表层语音能力、深层内外部语言转换能力、心理因素等多个角度分析方言对儿童语言习得的影响,并进一步探讨方言与普通话教育之间的关系,探究克服方言对普通话影响的对策。

  16. 12-15 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... to talk and understand so much more. Choose books about things that interest your child and make ...

  17. First language acquisition and first language attrition : parallels and divergences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Linguists have always been interested in studying imperfect language systems, such as child language or the grammar of second language learners, because it is only when 'things are not quite right' that we can see how language must be organized in the brain. In more recent years, studies have tried

  18. Language Change and Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorbjörg Hróarsdóttir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present diachronic changes in terms of the conditions of first language acquisition. Grammars, seen as mental organs, may change between two generations. A change is initiated when (a population of learners converge on a grammatical system which differs in at least one parameter value from the system internalized by the speakers of the previous generation. Learnability issues then connect to both language acquisition and language change, and understanding language changes depends on understanding how children acquire their native language. Acquisition is a process in which Universal Grammar (UG interacts with a context-specific set of Primary Linguistic Data (PLD: the linguistic input to the child-learner and uses these PLD as the source for triggers or cues that map the innate (preexperience knowledge to a mature grammar. If a certain phenomenon has survived through many generations, it must have been reflected clearly in the PLD. Then, if we note that it has changed, something in the language performance of the previous generation must have changed, and thereby paved the way for a new interpretation. Innovation leading to linguistic variation in the PLD and gradual changes in PLD play a central role in the explanation here: the immediate cause of a grammar change must lie in some alternation in the PLD. We will look at how the language spoken in a certain community (E-language may gradually become different from the language that originally served as the triggering experience. These changes in the E-language also mean changes in the input available to the child-learners of the next generation and a motivation for a different parameter setting has arisen.

  19. Language competence in movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    multilingual children's language and literacy acquisition processes, we direct our focus to a single child's active exploration of what it means to know a language. Through analysis of interviews and researcher generated activities, we see how this child both describes and does language competence...... as a phenomenon that has several meanings, is social, is dependent on location and is unpredictable. Thus, we demonstrate how focus on the child's perspective of what it means to ‘know language’ can lead to insights into the creative, complex and dynamic processes that are part of children's active meaning making......This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus...

  20. First and Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海燕

    2007-01-01

    Though there are similarities between child first language acquisition and adult second language acquisition,this paper explores the differences between these two processes from several aspects and gives the suggestions that how we language teachers teach L2 students well in language teaching.

  1. Speech and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... easily be mistaken for other disabilities such as autism or learning disabilities, so it’s very important to ensure that the child receives a thorough evaluation by a certified speech-language pathologist. Back to top What Causes Speech ...

  2. Use of communication matrix in preschool child with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Makovec, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Speech or language impairment in child development affects already the pre-schoolers. No matter what the cause for speech or language impairment is, it will definitely also effect on the other areas of the child development. In order to help a child improve in communication, we need precise and authentic evaluation of his/her communication skills. When we integrate a child with speech or language impairment into nursery school, the teacher becomes the person who will encourage and evaluate ch...

  3. The Influence of Maternal Language Responsiveness on the Expressive Speech Production of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Microanalysis of Mother-Child Play Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    Adult responsiveness is related to language development both in young typically developing children and in children with autism spectrum disorders, such that parents who use more responsive language with their children have children who develop better language skills over time. This study used a micro-analytic technique to examine how two facets…

  4. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  5. Família, subjetividade e linguagem: gramáticas da criança "anormal" Family, subjectivity and language: the "abnormal" child grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Cavalcante

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo procura refletir sobre o impacto do nascimento social de uma criança "anormal" na família. Propõe uma grade conceitual, abstraída da antropologia e da filosofia da linguagem, que permita articular sujeito e contexto social. Analisa um rico material empírico, baseado em histórias de vida de famílias com filhos excepcionais, de uma pesquisa desenvolvida no município do Rio de Janeiro. Faz uma descrição densa das etapas iniciais, pelas quais a família passa, quando descobre a anormalidade mental de seu filho, na primeira infância. Este enfoque valoriza a capacidade das famílias de comunicarem sua experiência de enfrentamento da anormalidade, como aprendizado, luta e sabedoria de vida. As conclusões revelam que o momento do diagnóstico é delicadíssimo, pois transforma o ser da criança e inaugura um novo pai e uma nova mãe. As reações à dor serão inevitáveis. Um acolhimento e uma orientação clara são fundamentais. A rotina familiar se altera. Uma ética da responsabilidade e do sacrifício se impõe pelos cuidados ao filho. A família precisa desenvolver um novo estoque de conhecimento. O apoio familiar é crucial, para que a família tenha condições de fazer face ao desespero, à confusão, à desorientação. O combate mais difícil é contra a discriminação social porque traz, como conseqüência, uma dor que fere por dentro e por fora.This paper discuss how the birth of an "abnormal" child causes a social impact in the family's life. In order to articulate the individual and the social levels, it was integrated some conceptual notions from antrophology and philosophy of language. This study is based upon an empirical data of life histories from "abnormal" children's families, which was collected in a research made in Rio de Janeiro. In these analyses, it is done some descriptions of families' reactions when they find out about their children's mental illness. It is also given an emphasis in the families

  6. The influence of family environment on children's language development and the role of language in shaping human view of reality

    OpenAIRE

    Andrejc, Mojca

    2011-01-01

    The thesis highlights external influences on language development. It emphasizes the way family environment influences on children's language development. The higher position in socioeconomic structure reflects in better child's language competence. Educational orientation has a big influence on children's language development and authoritarian education in family environment does not encourage the language competence. The example of speaking in the child's family influences on child's langua...

  7. Early Dual Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesee, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  8. The Enlightenment of Child First Language Acquisition on Professional Oral English in Higher Vocational College%儿童母语习得对高职行业英语口语教学的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海琴

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the definition of language acquisition and language learning, the essay finds that child language acquisi⁃tion has a certain influence on second language learning. Combining with his own life experience and teaching experience, the au⁃thor illustrates the effects on professional oral English in higher vocational college by concrete examples from the aspects of lan⁃guage environment, motivation factors, relaxed atmosphere and acquisition methods, which has reference significance for profes⁃sional oral English teaching in HVC.%该文从语言习得和语言学习的概念入手,得知儿童语言习得对第二语言的学习有一定的影响。笔者结合自己的生活经历和教学经验,从儿童母语习得过程中的语言环境、激励因素、轻松氛围以及习得方式四个方面且通过具体的事例来阐释对高职行业英语口语教学的影响,对于高职行业英语口语的教学有借鉴意义。

  9. Measuring Child Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar

    2012-01-01

    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and has a…

  10. Experimental Evaluation of a Preschool Language Curriculum: Influence on Children's Expressive Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Mashburn, Andrew; Pence, Khara L.; Wiggins, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate child impacts following implementation of a comprehensive language curriculum, the Language-Focused Curriculum (LFC; Bunce, 1995), within their preschool classrooms. As part of this larger purpose, this study identified child-level predictors of expressive language outcomes for children…

  11. The Role of Language Dominance in Cross-Linguistic Syntactic Influence: A Korean Child's Use of Null Subjects in Attriting English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Gu

    2013-01-01

    While Hulk and Muller (2000) predict that the direction of cross-linguistic syntactic influence is unidirectional when the construction involves syntax-pragmatics interface and surface overlap between two languages, they explicitly rule out language dominance as a factor involved. This study questions their latter claim and argues that the syntax…

  12. The End of Crocodile Tears, or Child Literature as Emotional Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, David

    2010-01-01

    This article begins by revisiting an old dispute between the children's writer Chukovsky and the child psychologist Vygotsky on whether and how child literature should mediate development. It then considers child language language lessons in South Korea for clues about how such mediation might happen, and finds the development of rote language,…

  13. Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sample Link BMI Percentile Calculator for Child and Teen English Version Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Accurately At Home BMI Calculator for Child and Teen ( English | Metric ) 1. Birth Date : Month: Day: Year: ...

  14. Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Ketelaars; J. Cuperus; K. Jansonius; L. Verhoeven

    2010-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child shows isolated structural language problems. The diagnosis of pragmatic language impairment (PLI) is given to children who show difficulties with the use of language in context. Unlike children with SLI, these children tend to

  15. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become ...

  16. MODEL NATIVIS LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE (SEBUAH TEORI PEMEROLEHAN BAHASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamluatul Hasanah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of using mother tongue has been possessed by every child. They can master the language without getting specific education. In a short time a child has mastered the language to communicate with others. There are many theories of language acquisition. One of them that still exists is The Native Model of Language Acquisition (LAD. This theory was pioneered by Noam Chomsky. In this language naturally. This ability develops automatically when the language is used is Language Acquisition Device (LAD. LAD constitutes a hypothesis of feature of grammatical rules used progressively by a child in accordance with his psychological development.

  17. Can the Language of Rights Get Hold of the Complex Realities of Child Domestic Work?: The Case of Young Domestic Workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    This review examines refractions of children's rights in development practice from an anthropological point of view and considers the case of young domestic girls working in Abidjan. The author argues that child labour legislation and the children's rights perspective in Abidjan is permeated by patriarchal values that mask the exploitation of work…

  18. Copy Number Variation Screen Identifies a Rare De Novo Deletion at Chromosome 15q13.1-13.3 in a Child with Language Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry A Pettigrew

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of children (up to 7% in the UK present with pronounced language difficulties that cannot be explained by obvious causes like other neurological and medical conditions. A substantial genetic component is predicted to underlie such language problems. Copy number variants (CNVs have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, such as autism and schizophrenia, but it is not fully established to what extent they might contribute to language disorders. We conducted a CNV screen in a longitudinal cohort of young children with language-related difficulties (n = 85, focusing on single events at candidate loci. We detected a de novo deletion on chromosome 15q13.1-13.3. The adjacent 15q11-13.1 locus is disrupted in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, while disruptions across the breakpoints (BP1-BP6 have previously been implicated in different neurodevelopmental phenotypes including autism, intellectual disability (ID, seizures and developmental delay (DD. This is the first report of a deletion at BP3-BP5 being linked to a deficit confined to language impairment, in the absence of ID, expanding the range of phenotypes that implicate the chromosome 15q13 locus.

  19. Language, Language Teaching and Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文华

    2002-01-01

    Departing from a brief presentation of the various views of language, this article elaborates the influence of views of languageon language teaching and language testing. This will help us have background knowledge on language teaching and language testing.

  20. Expanding the Boundaries of Shared Book Reading: E-Books and Printed Books in Parent-Child Reading as Support for Children's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Heibal, Shani

    2013-01-01

    Early shared book reading activities are considered to be a promising context for supporting young children's language development. Ninety low socioeconomic status preschoolers and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) e-book reading; (2) printed book reading; (3) regular kindergarten literacy program (control). Mothers…

  1. An English-Speaking Prekindergarten Teacher for Young Latino Children: Implications of the Teacher-Child Relationship on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This case study was designed to describe how an effective English-speaking prekindergarten teacher develops strategies for communicating with and teaching young English language learners. The teacher's classroom practices to enhance her own relationship with the children promoted opportunities for the Latino children to become full participants in…

  2. Meeting the Objectives of the Curriculum at the First Stage of Basic School by the Child Having Left the Language Immersion Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukk, Airi; Õun, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    Year after year, the interest in early learning of the state language by non-Estonian children has increased. In Estonia, the course has been directed that non-Estonian learners have to reach functional bilingualism by the time they leave basic school and thus to become competitive in labour and education markets in Estonia. The objective of the…

  3. A Multilevel Model of Child- and Classroom-Level Psychosocial Factors that Support Language and Literacy Resilience of Children in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Vitiello, Virginia E.; Greenfield, Daryl B.

    2012-01-01

    Early exposure to the multiple risk factors associated with poverty is related to an elevated risk for academic difficulty. Therefore, it is important to promote academic resilience as early as possible and to identify factors that support resilience. Given the positive relation between early language skills and later academic outcomes, examining…

  4. Multilingual Children Increase Language Differentiation by Indexing Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shannessy, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    An area in need of study in child language acquisition is that of complex multilingual contexts in which there is little language separation by interlocutor or domain. Little is known about how multilingual children use language to construct their identities in each language or in both languages. Identity construction in monolingual contexts has…

  5. Parent-child interactions: contributions to the development of social competence in preschoolers.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips-Hing, Christine Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Sixty families with their eldest child, aged 3 or 4 years, participated in this study of parent-child interactions and the development of social competency. Mother-child and father-child dyads were observed for 10 minutes each, completing either a gross motor or fine motor semi-structured laboratory construction task. Parental directiveness and scaffolding were coded and measures of child temperament, child receptive language, and child social competency in preschool were obtained. As expecte...

  6. Prosody in a communication system developed without a language model

    OpenAIRE

    Applebaum, Lauren; Coppola, Marie; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Prosody, he “music” of language, is an important aspect of all natural languages, spoken and signed. We ask here whether prosody is also robust across learning conditions. If a child were not exposed to a conventional language and had to construct his own communication system, would that system contain prosodic structure? We address this question by observing a deaf child who received no sign language input and whose hearing loss prevented him from acquiring spoken language. Despite his lack ...

  7. Language Differentiation by the Bilingual Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn May

    1985-01-01

    Examines the lexical and syntactic development of a bilingual child and the cognitive developments that coincided with the child's linguistic processes. Concludes that it is the development of self-awareness and sensitivity to standards in the second year which provides the motive for the child to avoid mixed-language utterances. (SED)

  8. Legislation’s Influence on Judiciarization: Examining the Effects of Statutory Structure and Language on Rates of Court Use in Child Welfare Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campbell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which legislation influences decisions of child welfare workers regarding the referral of cases to court. It studies three Canadian jurisdictions: Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta, each of which takes a different legislative approach to the issue of court involvement in child protection. A critical examination of child welfare statutes in these provinces led to the prediction that rates of court use – or ‘judiciarization’ – would be highest in Quebec, followed by Ontario, and then Alberta. These predictions were then compared with data reflecting actual judiciarization rates in these three provinces for the year 2006. This data contradicted our initial predictions, in that Ontario’s rate of court use for child welfare cases was the highest of the three provinces, followed by Alberta, and then Quebec. Our research results thus suggest that legislation alone does not drive judiciarization in the child welfare context. As such, this paper illuminates the need for further study of the way in which child protection workers understand legislation as influencing their professional responsibilities and choices. Moreover, it indicates that further consideration is needed into how the use of judicial versus extra-judicial institutions might affect child welfare outcomes. Cet article examine la mesure dans laquelle la législation influence les décisions des travailleurs et travailleuses du bien-être de l’enfance quant à soumettre des cas aux tribunaux. On étudie trois territoires canadiens : le Québec, l’Ontario et l’Alberta, dont chacun prend une approche législative différente à la question de la participation des tribunaux dans la protection de l’enfance. Un examen critique des lois sur la protection de l’enfance dans ces provinces a amené à prédire que le taux d’utilisation des tribunaux – ou la «judiciarisation» - serait le plus élevé au Québec, suivi de l’Ontario puis de l

  9. A experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem Maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Henrich Crestani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: a experiência da maternidade e dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. PROCEDIMENTOS: o objetivo de investigar as possíveis relações entre a constituição da experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. A amostra desta pesquisa foi constituída por 4 crianças, entre 2 e 4 anos, com distúrbio de linguagem, e suas mães. As mães foram submetidas a uma entrevista semi-estruturada acerca da experiência materna e a possibilidade de a mesma ter passado por alterações emocionais tais como a depressão e/ou ansiedade. Coletou-se uma interação mãe-filho, e em um caso avó-neta, através da filmagem da díade em atividade lúdica para analisar o modo como a dialogia e a interação aconteciam na díade. RESULTADOS: demonstraram que as quatro crianças estiveram sujeitas a interações com mães e avó com índices de ansiedade (dois casos e depressão (dois casos. Apenas uma mãe não possuía tais índices e esta possuía dialogia adequada com a filha. CONCLUSÃO: os dados demonstraram relações entre a dialogia mãe-filho e a experiência materna. Houve distinções na dialogia e no brincar relacionados aos estados emocionais das mães e, em um caso, da avó.BACKGROUND: the maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics. PROCEDURES: the aim was to research the possible relations between maternal experience and mother-child dialogics, in language impairment children cases. The sample was made up with four children, between two and four year old with language impairment and their mothers.The mothers answered a semi-structured interview about the maternal experience and possible mothers' emotional signs like anxiety and depression. The pairs engaged in interaction were videotaped in order to interpret the mother's speech, in one case grand-mother, and the interaction process. RESULTS: the results showed that the children were in interactions with mothers and a grandmother

  10. Optimizing literacy in English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Gray, Shelley

    2007-02-01

    Children in the United States who are English language learners characteristically do not exhibit the same levels of reading achievement as their peers. The article describes the development of English literacy in English language learners and the relationship between a child's second language (L2) and his or her native language (L1) in literacy development. It is organized first to consider the issue of language of instruction and language transfer, specifically the aspects of L1 literacy that appear to transfer to the second language (L2), English. It then discusses general principles for professionals working to optimize English literacy development in different models of literacy instruction for English language learners. We conclude that using the child's L1 provides the children with strong language and literacy skills in both languages.

  11. 18-24 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 18–24 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 This is a ... home language in the same sentence. Downloads Your Child's Development: 18–24 Months PDF 464 KB Read more ...

  12. 15-18 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... understand my feelings and others’ feelings too. Read books that talk about feelings. Stay calm during tantrums. ...

  13. Reciprocal Influences between Maternal Language and Children's Language and Cognitive Development in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T.; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language.…

  14. Child Care Effects in Context: Quality, Stability, and Multiplicity in Nonmaternal Child Care Arrangements during the First 15 Months of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Henry; Weinraub, Marsha

    2006-01-01

    Main and interactive effects of child care quality, stability, and multiplicity on infants' attachment security, language comprehension, language production, and cognitive development at 15 months were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care. Thirty-nine percent of the…

  15. Language and Recursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Francis

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  16. Theories of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, H J; Howell, R W

    1971-03-01

    Prior to the advent of generative grammar, theoretical approaches to language development relied heavily upon the concepts ofdifferential reinforcement andimitation. Current studies of linguistic acquisition are largely dominated by the hypothesis that the child constructs his language on the basis of a primitive grammar which gradually evolves into a more complex grammar. This approach presupposes that the investigator does not impose his own grammatical rules on the utterances of the child; that the sound system of the child and the rules he employs to form sentences are to be described in their own terms, independently of the model provided by the adult linguistic community; and that there is a series of steps or stages through which the child passes on his way toward mastery of the adult grammar in his linguistic environment. This paper attempts to trace the development of human vocalization through prelinguistic stages to the development of what can be clearly recognized as language behavior, and then progresses to transitional phases in which the language of the child begins to approximate that of the adult model. In the view of the authors, the most challenging problems which confront theories of linguistic acquisition arise in seeking to account for structure of sound sequences, in the rules that enable the speaker to go from meaning to sound and which enable the listener to go from sound to meaning. The principal area of concern for the investigator, according to the authors, is the discovery of those rules at various stages of the learning process. The paper concludes with a return to the question of what constitutes an adequate theory of language ontogenesis. It is suggested that such a theory will have to be keyed to theories of cognitive development and will have to include and go beyond a theory which accounts for adult language competence and performance, since these represent only the terminal stage of linguistic ontogenesis.

  17. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  18. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  19. Outcome Measurement Using Naturalistic Language Samples: A Feasibility Pilot Study Using Language Transcription Software and Speech and Language Therapy Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Sarah; Wren, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate aim of intervention for children with language impairment is an improvement in their functional language skills. Baseline and outcome measurement of this is often problematic however and practitioners commonly resort to using formal assessments that may not adequately reflect the child's competence. Language sampling,…

  20. Entre quatro paredes: atendimento fonoaudiológico a crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência Speech-language therapy for abused and neglected child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Satake Noguchi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se levantar o conhecimento e a experiência de fonoaudiólogos da cidade do Rio de Janeiro sobre o problema da violência familiar contra a criança e o adolescente. Foi efetuado um survey via correio, com duplo envio de questionários, a uma amostra de profissionais registrados no Conselho Regional de Fonoaudiologia. Foram enviados 500 questionários sendo obtidas 224 respostas. Os resultados indicam que, dos 71% dos entrevistados que trabalham em consultório ou clínica particular, 25,8% já tiveram clientes infanto-juvenis que sofreram violência familiar. Apesar de somente 12,9% dos fonoaudiólogos trabalharem em centro/posto de saúde, quase a metade desses profissionais já atendeu vítimas de violência familiar (48,3%. Dos fonoaudiólogos que atenderam pelo menos um caso de violência, 88,9% indicaram o Conselho Tutelar para encaminhamento dos casos, mas somente quatro fonoaudiólogos afirmaram ter efetuado a notificação. Os resultados sugerem que, além da falta de informação sobre o tema, a configuração do trabalho deste profissional, em que predomina a atuação em consultórios particulares, dificulta a realização da notificação, já que não contam com um apoio institucional no enfrentamento deste grave problema.The objective of this work was to appraise the knowledge and experience of Rio de Janeiro's speech-language pathologist and audiologist about child abuse and neglect. We sent a survey form by mail to a sample of professionals registered at the Speech-Language Pathologist and Audiologist Local Council. The forms were sent twice to each professional. Five hundred forms were sent and 224 professionals responded, of which 71% worked in private clinics. Among these professionals, 25.8% had had child clients who suffered some type of abuse. Only 12.9% of interviewees worked in public health services and almost half of them (43.8% had cared of clients who suffered abuse and/or neglect. Even though 88.9% of

  1. Bilingual Siblings: Language Use in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron-Hauwaert, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Taking a different perspective to traditional case studies on one bilingual child, this book discusses the whole family and the realities of life with two or more children and languages. What do we know about the language patterns of children in a growing and evolving bilingual family? Which languages do the siblings prefer to speak to each other?…

  2. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  3. A Stronger Reason for the Right to Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Is the right to sign language only the right to a minority language? Holding a capability (not a disability) approach, and building on the psycholinguistic literature on sign language acquisition, I make the point that this right is of a stronger nature, since only sign languages can guarantee that each deaf child will properly develop the…

  4. Moving conceptualizations of language and literacy in SLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    . On the other hand, many second or foreign language learners learn mostly through written language or learn spoken and written language at the same time. Thus the connections between spoken and written (and visual) modalities, i.e. between language and literacy, are complex in research on language acquisition...... and conceptualizations of language and literacy in research on (second) language acquisition. When examining children’s first language acquisition, spoken language has been the primary concern in scholarship: a child acquires oral language first and written language follows later, i.e. language precedes literacy......Moving conceptualizations of language and literacy in SLA In this colloquium, we aim to problematize the concepts of language and literacy in the field that is termed “second language” research and seek ways to critically connect the terms. When considering current day language use for example...

  5. Factors Associated with Expressive and Receptive Language in French-Speaking Toddlers Clinically Diagnosed with Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Audette; Desmarais, Chantal; Meyer, Francois; Bairati, Isabelle; Rouleau, Nancie; Merette, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine child and environmental factors known to be associated to language development and how they relate to results in expressive vocabulary, expressive language, and receptive language in language-delayed toddlers. The cross-sectional data on 96 French-speaking children aged 18-36 months were…

  6. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  7. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  8. First language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodluck, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews current approaches to first language acquisition, arguing in favor of the theory that attributes to the child an innate knowledge of universal grammar. Such knowledge can accommodate the systematic nature of children's non-adult linguistic behaviors. The relationships between performance devices (mechanisms for comprehension and production of speech), non-linguistic aspects of cognition, and child grammars are also discussed. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 47-54 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.95 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Father-Child Interactions at 24 and 36 Months and Developmental Outcomes at Prekindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    McMurdie, Shareesa L.

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at father teaching interactions and singing in toddlerhood as predictors of child cognitive and language outcomes at prekindergarten in a low-income, ethnically diverse sample. Results found that, overall, father teaching interactions in toddlerhood predicted child cognitive and language outcomes at prekindergarten and father singing in toddlerhood predicted language outcomes. Fathers provided slightly more teaching interactions at child age 24 months than at 36 months, and ...

  10. Adaptação transcultural do instrumento Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC utilizado para identificar a violência contra a criança Portuguese-language cross-cultural adaptation of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC, an instrument used to identify parental violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eduardo Reichenheim

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo enfoca a primeira fase da avaliação da equivalência transcultural entre o instrumento Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, concebido em inglês e usado para identificar violência contra a criança, e uma versão em português a ser proposta para uso no Brasil. Subsidiada por uma ampla revisão bibliográfica, a avaliação da equivalência conceitual e de itens envolveu discussões com grupo de especialistas sobre a existência e pertinência em nosso meio dos conceitos teóricos subjacentes e dos itens componentes do instrumento original. A avaliação da equivalência semântica constou das seguintes etapas: duas traduções e respectivas retraduções; uma avaliação da equivalência de significado referencial (literal e geral (sentido entre as retraduções e o original; novos encontros com especialistas para a definição de uma versão-síntese e um pré-teste realizado em 774 mulheres. Constatou-se boa equivalência conceitual de itens e semântica entre a versão final em português e o original, bem como uma excelente aceitabilidade do instrumento adaptado. Apesar de encorajadores, os resultados obtidos merecem ser revistos após avaliações psicométricas futuras (equivalência de mensuração e através de crítica contínua por parte dos profissionais interessados.This article concerns the first phase of the assessment of the cross-cultural equivalence between the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC designed in English and used to identify child abuse and neglect, and a Portuguese-language version to be used in Brazil. Evaluating conceptual and item equivalences involved expert groups. Assisted by a broad literature review, discussions focused on the existence and pertinence of the underlying theoretical concepts and the corresponding component items in the Brazilian context. The appraisal of semantic equivalence involved the following steps: two translations and respective back-translations; an evaluation

  11. Disobedient Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of their parents' rules and of their own self-control. Sometimes, however, these conflicts are more than occasional ... a timeout until he calms down and regains self-control. When your child is obedient and respectful, compliment ...

  12. The Language Question in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echu, George

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca. While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated against by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a second place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones, thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on the critique of language policy in Cameroon with emphasis first on

  13. Reciprocal influences between maternal language and children's language and cognitive development in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S

    2014-03-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language. Child cognitive development was assessed at both ages and child receptive vocabulary was assessed at age 3;0. Maternal language related to children's lexical diversity at each age, and maternal language at age 2;0, was associated with children's receptive vocabulary and cognitive development at age 3;0. Furthermore, children's cognitive development at age 2;0 was associated with maternal language at age 3;0 controlling for maternal language at age 2;0, suggesting bi-directionality in mother-child associations. The quantity and diversity of the language children hear at home has developmental implications for children from low-income households. In addition, children's early cognitive skills further feed into their subsequent language experiences.

  14. Language Delay and Its Relationship to Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervay-Pendergrass, Debra; Erdelyi, Paula J.; Mendelsohn, Alan L.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores a form of separation that is neither the result of physical disconnection between child and caregiver nor the product of emotional separation associated with parental psychopathology. Underscoring the central role that language and communication play in the development and maintenance of positive parent-child

  15. Attachment Security and Language Development in an Italian Sample: The Role of Premature Birth and Maternal Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Alessandro; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Coppola, Gabrielle; Castoro, Germana

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of biological immaturity and attachment security on linguistic development and tested whether maternal language mediated the impact of security on the child's linguistic abilities. Forty mother-child dyads were followed longitudinally, with the child's attachment security assessed at 24 months of age through trained…

  16. Language, Parents' Involvement, and Social Justice: The Fight for Maintaining Minority Home Language: A Chinese-Language Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxiang

    2009-01-01

    English-only policies and the expiration of the "Bilingual Education Act," which is now replaced by "No Child Left Behind," make it clear that English is the official language of schools in the United States with the emphasis moved from the goal of maintaining students' home languages while learning English to a focus of ignoring minority…

  17. Child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  18. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  19. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  20. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  1. School-Home Communication in Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Verdi N.

    2005-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires school districts to communicate with parents in an "understandable and uniform format ... in a language that parents can understand." But with a student population representing 131 countries and speaking 81 major languages, the Cobb County, Ga., Public School District was finding it difficult to meet that…

  2. A Doctor's Words Key to Whether Child Gets HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Doctor's Words Key to Whether Child Gets HPV Vaccine Parents most receptive to messages about the shot's ... language doctors use when recommending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine can influence whether parents will have their children ...

  3. CHILD TRAFFICKING

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Chincholkar

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is the third biggest beneficial industry on the planet. Child trafficking unlike many other issues is found in both developed and developing nations. NGOs evaluate that 12,000 - 50,000 ladies and kids are trafficked into the nation every year from neighboring states for the sex exchange.

  4. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  5. Acquisition of speech rhythm in first language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskaya, Leona; Ordin, Mikhail

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of English rhythm in speech produced by children and adults revealed that speech rhythm becomes increasingly more stress-timed as language acquisition progresses. Children reach the adult-like target by 11 to 12 years. The employed speech elicitation paradigm ensured that the sentences produced by adults and children at different ages were comparable in terms of lexical content, segmental composition, and phonotactic complexity. Detected differences between child and adult rhythm and between rhythm in child speech at various ages cannot be attributed to acquisition of phonotactic language features or vocabulary, and indicate the development of language-specific phonetic timing in the course of acquisition.

  6. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  7. Language learning - physiological and psychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Tarnoveanu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several stages in the linguistic development of a child; he will not merely reproduce the sentences he hears, but a personal production is often noticed. Children do not acquire the grammar of their native language through theoretical teaching; exposure to the speaking community will lead to the acquisition of the grammatical structures of their language. Little is known about how little children acquire the rules of their native language; yet, we may distinguish between physiological and psychological aspects.

  8. "Mama" and "Papa" in Child Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruke-Dravina, Velta

    1976-01-01

    This case study of two Latvian children attempts to show how the parental terms for"mummy" and "daddy" in Latvian are acquired, paying particular attention to the changing relationship between the input and output forms during the acquisition process. (Author/RM)

  9. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life.This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists.On this basis,it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness,while language learning is connected with conscious system.Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  10. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life. This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists. On this basis, it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness, while language learning is connected with conscious system. Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  11. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  12. Increasing the Odds: Applying Emergentist Theory in Language Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Gerard H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This review introduces emergentism, which is a leading theory of language development that states that language ability is the product of interactions between the child's language environment and his or her learning capabilities. The review suggests ways in which emergentism provides a theoretical rationale for interventions that are…

  13. The Nature of Spanish versus English Language Use at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Home language experiences are important for children's development of language and literacy. However, the home language context is complex, especially for Spanish-speaking children in the United States. A child's use of Spanish or English likely ranges along a continuum, influenced by preferences of particular people involved, such as parents,…

  14. Multicompetence in L2 Language Play: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy; Skalicky, Stephen; Salsbury, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Humor and language play have been recognized as important aspects of second language (L2) development. Qualitative studies that have documented the forms and functions of language play for adult and child L2 users have taken place largely in classroom settings. In order to gain a fuller understanding of such creative manipulations by L2 users, it…

  15. Family Pedagogy: Parent-Child Interaction in Shared Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Fleer, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    How parent-child interaction effectively supports children's bilingual heritage language development in a shared book-reading practice is an under-researched area. The in-depth study reported in this paper examined an episode of one child, a four-year-old girl and her father, reading an English story in Chinese. Approximately 70 hours of video…

  16. Bilingual Intertextuality: The Joint Construction of Bi-Literacy Practices between Parent and Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Based on sociocultural theory, this article examines two activities constituted by a parent and child as jointly constructed bi-literacy practices. Bi-literacy practices enable the parent and child to co-construct conceptual meanings and sense across two languages. Concept development in young children "begins" with meaning in one language and…

  17. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals.

  18. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. PMID:22138311

  19. Language Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is twof

  20. Child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Zoran S.; Petković, Nikola; Matijašević Obradović, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of children for pornographic purposes is a serious sociological, criminological and victimological problem of today which, despite all preventive and restrictive activities on an international level, shows a tendency of global expansion. The fact that the Republic of Serbia has only recently actively joined the fight against child pornography on the Internet indicates the need for critical analysis of the existing national, penal, and legal solutions and their harmonization with the...

  1. 34 CFR 303.401 - Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which consent is sought, in the parent's native language or other mode of communication; (2) The parent... proficiency, means the language or mode of communication normally used by the parent of a child eligible...

  2. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Early Childhood Reassessing the approach of the Learn the Signs. Act Early. campaign. Key findings Improving Children’s Behavioral Health New Tool For Parents Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The early years of a ...

  3. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  4. A aquisição de linguagem na criança com Autismo: um estudo de caso El adquisición del lenguaje en el niño con Autismo: un estudo del cuadro The acquisition of language in the child with Autism: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane de Bastos Delfrate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo de aquisição de linguagem da criança com autismo tem sido descrito em termos de défices e analisado de forma individual. Na tentativa de se contrapor a esse olhar patologizante, considerado reducionista, esse trabalho objetivou analisar longitudinalmente a aquisição da linguagem de uma criança com diagnóstico de síndrome autística, a partir de processos dialógicos e de uma abordagem discursiva, durante o período de dois anos e seis meses. O resultado de tal análise evidenciou que a criança sujeito desta pesquisa sempre esteve presente "na língua", e sua ecolalia é a evidência dessa presença. Seus gestos e sua fala, considerados em função de situações interativas estabelecidas com uma fonoaudióloga, permitiram acompanhar o seu processo de aquisição de linguagem, bem como a sua mudança como sujeito da linguagem, a qual é tomada como atividade constitutiva do sujeito e da própria linguagem.El proceso de adquisición del lenguaje con autismo ha sido descrito en términos de deficits y analisados de manera individual. En la tentativa de contraponer esa mirada patologica, que nosotros consideramos reducionista, eso trabajo objetivó analisar longitudinalmente la adquisición del lenguaje de un niño con disgnóstico de síndrome autística, a partir de procesos dialógicos y de un abordaje discursivo, mientras el periodo de dos años y seis meses. El resultado de tal análisis evidenció que el niño, sujeto de esa pesquisa, siempre estuvo presente "en la lengua" y su escolalia es la evidencia de esa presencia. Los gestos y la elocución del niño, considerados en función de situaciones interactivas establecidas con un profesional, permitieron acompañar el proceso de adquisición del lenguaje del niño en cuestión, así como su cambio como sujeto del lenguaje, que es tomada como actividad constitutiva del sujeto y del propio lenguaje.The child's language acquisition process with autism has been described by

  5. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  6. Contributions of Early Language and Maternal Facilitation Variables to Later Language and Reading Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, Rebecca; Deutscher, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of four variables (children's expressive language scores at 30 months of age, mother's facilitation of child language, mother's education, and group assignment) to the prediction of IQ at age 3, verbal IQ at ages 5 and 8, and reading at age 8 for 571 children of low-birthweight. Four separate multiple…

  7. Parent-Implemented Natural Language Paradigm to Increase Language and Play in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Jill N.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Three parents of children with autism were taught to implement the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP). Data were collected on parent implementation, multiple measures of child language, and play. The parents were able to learn to implement the NLP procedures quickly and accurately with beneficial results for their children. Increases in the overall…

  8. Predictors of Second Language Acquisition in Latino Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Sweet, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent to which the language of intervention, the child's development in Spanish, and the effects of English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure predict differences in the rates of acquisition of English in Latino children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: In this randomized controlled trial,…

  9. The Association between Morphological Awareness and Literacy in English Language Learners from Different Language Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Siegel, Linda S.; Mazabel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main goal of this study was to examine whether the morphological structure of a child's first language determined the strength of association between morphological awareness and reading and spelling skills in English, their second language. Methods: The sample consisted of 888 Grade six students who had English as their first language…

  10. Language Attrition and Reactivation in the Context of Bilingual First Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of a child raised in the context of bilingual first-language acquisition in English and Bulgarian, where the latter represents a minority (heritage) language. Using diary data and spontaneous speech recordings, the study identifies a period of loss of production in Bulgarian (1;7-2;3) and a subsequent…

  11. Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    When two or more languages are part of a child's world, we are presented with a rich opportunity to learn something about language in general and about how the mind works. In this book, Norbert Francis examines the development of bilingual proficiency and the different kinds of competence that come together in making up its component parts. In…

  12. A CLOSER LOOK AT THE ISSUES IN FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: NINE MAJOR ISSUES REVISITED

    OpenAIRE

    Nematullah Shomoossi; Ahmad Shomoossi; Lotfollah Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Concerning issues in first language acquisition, the present paper explores positions in theory making, asyntacticity of early child language, Piaget's idea about children's logical thinking, Vygotsky's and Chomsky's controversy over the origins of language, the relationship between communicative competence and other abilities, the stage where child's utterance is counted to be communicative, reflecting on the relationship between language and thought, the idea of modularity, the role of emer...

  13. Not Just "Situaciones de la Vida": Professionalization and Indigenous Language Revitalization in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.; Swinehart, Karl F.

    2012-01-01

    Within discourses of language endangerment, life stages such as child language acquisition, adolescent language shift, and the death of community elders figure prominently, but what of the role of other, intermediate life stages during adulthood and professional life in the course of language obsolescence or revitalization? Drawing from long-term…

  14. Simultaneous Bilingual Language Acquisition: The Role of Parental Input on Receptive Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Boegner-Page, Sarah; Fontolliet, Salome

    2013-01-01

    Parents often turn to educators and healthcare professionals for advice on how to best support their child's language development. These professionals frequently suggest implementing the "one-parent-one-language" approach to ensure consistent exposure to both languages. The goal of this study was to understand how language exposure influences the…

  15. Linguistic Diversity in First Language Acquisition Research: Moving beyond the Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Barbara F.; Forshaw, William; Nordlinger, Rachel; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The field of first language acquisition (FLA) needs to take into account data from the broadest typological array of languages and language-learning environments if it is to identify potential universals in child language development, and how these interact with socio-cultural mechanisms of acquisition. Yet undertaking FLA research in remote…

  16. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  17. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) defines ... person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime to ...

  18. My Child Is Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might do so anyway because they lack enough self-control . Preteens and teens know they're not supposed ... About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood Stress Nine Steps to ...

  19. A language-specific comprehension strategy [Letters to Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, A.; Mehler, J.; D. Norris; Segui, J.

    1983-01-01

    Infants acquire whatever language is spoken in the environment into which they are born. The mental capability of the newborn child is not biased in any way towards the acquisition of one human language rather than another. Because psychologists who attempt to model the process of language comprehension are interested in the structure of the human mind, rather than in the properties of individual languages, strategies which they incorporate in their models are presumed to be universal, not la...

  20. The acquisition of the Latvian language as the Second language at preschool age in theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ingēra Tomme-Jukēvica

    2014-01-01

    In Latvia there are no substantial studies on bilingual preschool children’s Latvian language as the second language. The article provides an overview of the 20th–21st century linguistic theories in the context of child second language acquisition as well as raises awareness about their influence on and use in the learning of preschoolers whose second language is Latvian, carrying out content analysis of the Minority Preschool Education Program (with instruction in Russian), the Latvian Langu...

  1. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  2. Endangered Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  3. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  4. Child care and our youngest children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D; Adams, G

    2001-01-01

    Studies of child development confirm that experiences with people mold an infant's mind and personality. Caregiving is, therefore, central to development, whether the caregiver is a parent, a grandmother, or a teacher in a child care center. This article uses data from new, national studies of families to examine the state of child care for infants and toddlers. The story it tells is complex, as the authors outline the overlapping impacts that diverse child care settings and home situations have on children. Early exposure to child care can foster children's learning and enhance their lives, or it can leave them at risk for troubled relationships. The outcome that results depends largely on the quality of the child care setting. Responsive caregivers who surround children with language, warmth, and chances to learn are the key to good outcomes. Other quality attributes (like training and staff-to-child ratios) matter because they foster positive caregiving. Diversity and variability are hallmarks of the American child care supply. Both "wonderful and woeful" care can be found in all types of child care but, overall, settings where quality is compromised are distressingly common. Children whose families are not buoyed by good incomes or government supports are the group most often exposed to poor-quality care. Given this balanced but troubling look at the status of child care for infants and toddlers, the authors conclude that there is a mismatch between the rhetoric of parental choice and the realities facing parents of young children in the United States. They call on communities, businesses, foundations, and government to play a larger role in helping parents secure good care for their infants and toddlers. PMID:11712454

  5. Child categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Meyer, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Categorization is a process that spans all of development, beginning in earliest infancy yet changing as children's knowledge and cognitive skills develop. In this review article, we address three core issues regarding childhood categorization. First, we discuss the extent to which early categories are rooted in perceptual similarity versus knowledge-enriched theories. We argue for a composite perspective in which categories are steeped in commonsense theories from a young age but also are informed by low-level similarity and associative learning cues. Second, we examine the role of language in early categorization. We review evidence to suggest that language is a powerful means of expressing, communicating, shaping, and supporting category knowledge. Finally, we consider categories in context. We discuss sources of variability and flexibility in children's categories, as well as the ways in which children's categories are used within larger knowledge systems (e.g., to form analogies, make inferences, or construct theories). Categorization is a process that is intrinsically tied to nearly all aspects of cognition, and its study provides insight into cognitive development, broadly construed. PMID:23440312

  6. Second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  7. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  8. Language Switching and Language Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  9. [Language gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2006-11-01

    The human capacity for acquiring speech and language must derive, at least in part, from the genome. Recent advance in the field of molecular genetics finally discovered 'Language Gene'. Disruption of FOXP2 gene, the firstly identified 'language gene' causes severe speech and language disorder. To elucidate the anatomical basis of language processing in the brain, we examined the expression pattern of FOXP2/Foxp2 genes in the monkey and rat brains through development. We found the preferential expression of FOXP2/Foxp2 in the striosomal compartment of the developing striatum. Thus, we suggest the striatum, particularly striosomal system may participate in neural information processing for language and speech. Our suggestion is consistent with the declarative/ procedural model of language proposed by Ullman (1997, 2001), which the procedural memory-dependent mental grammar is rooted in the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex, and the declarative memory-dependent mental lexicon is rooted in the temporal lobe. PMID:17432197

  10. Strategies and Resources for Mainstream Teachers of English Language Learners. By Request Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bracken; Railsback, Jennifer

    This booklet presents practical, research-based principles and instructional strategies that mainstream teachers can use to meet the needs of linguistically diverse students who are English Language Learners (ELLs), focusing on the following: "In Context: English Language Learners and No Child Left Behind"; "The Implications of No Child Left…

  11. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci, S. Erhan; Açık, Yasemin

    2003-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors.

  12. Toilet Training Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  13. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-01-01

    Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

  14. Solving the Puzzle: Dual Language Learners with Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Karen; Brillante, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    It can be difficult for any teacher to support a child whose behavior is disruptive, but a language barrier can certainly complicate the situation. Children who are new to English may not be able to tell teachers what's going on. This makes it even more important for teachers to learn specific strategies to interpret the child's actions and plan…

  15. Environmental Influences on Children's Language: A Model and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Kaiser, Ann P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a conceptual model of the language learning environment of young children, incorporating child engagement with the physical environment, contributions of child and caregiver, and caregiver mediation of physical environment. A case study illustrates the impact of a relatively simple home environmental intervention on a…

  16. Medico-biological factors of speech and language development in young children (part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Chernov D.N.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzed the main results of medico-biological directions in the study of the factors of children's speech and language. It shows that a variety of pre-, peri-and neonatal developmental factors (teratogenic effects, prematurity, low birth weight, maternal diseases during pregnancy, and chronic diseases of the child) had a negative impact on the child-parent relationship that has a lasting influence on child speech and language development.

  17. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2009-01-01

    The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The under­stood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced...... by an alternative concept that more adequately describes the realities of what adherents of ‘parallel languages' can hope for. The new concept I have dubbed ‘complementary languages' (komplementær­sproglighed). I will explain this concept in the following and contrast it both with ‘parallel languages...

  18. Egocentric language in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, C A

    2001-07-01

    Egocentric language is a generalization of Piaget's egocentric speech concept (1926/1969) investigated by Vygotsky (1962). Behaviors of eight children ages 2 to 5 years with profound congenital deafness were analyzed using six classes of egocentric language: motor reaction activity, silent lips articulation, murmur, oral-facial mimics, body expression, and vocalization. No child had received oral or sign language training. All attended videotaped play sessions. Events in which children engaged in "dialogue" with themselves or a toy, while pursuing a specific solution, were observed. Such extralinguistic behavior moves the thinking process toward problem solving like that of hearing children. Consequently, teachers should not interrupt when a deaf child is playing with or signing or vocalizing to a toy, because this behavior may be the manifestation of a reflexive moment and the generator of a decision process fundamental for cognitive development. Vocalization by a deaf child does not indicate willingness to speak; it merely manifests symbolic reasoning. Silent lips articulation and oral-facial mimics have the same effect and can also be interpreted. PMID:11523203

  19. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  20. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  1. Predicting ethnic minority children's vocabulary from socioeconomic status, maternal language and home reading input: different pathways for host and ethnic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Yeniad, Nihal; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Linting, Mariëlle

    2014-09-01

    When bilingual children enter formal reading education, host language proficiency becomes increasingly important. This study investigated the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), maternal language use, reading input, and vocabulary in a sample of 111 six-year-old children of first- and second-generation Turkish immigrant parents in the Netherlands. Mothers reported on their language use with the child, frequency of reading by both parents, and availability of children's books in the ethnic and the host language. Children's Dutch and Turkish vocabulary were tested during a home visit. SES was related to maternal language use and to host language reading input. Reading input mediated the relation between SES and host language vocabulary and between maternal language use and host language vocabulary, whereas only maternal language use was related to ethnic language vocabulary. During transition to formal reading education, one should be aware that children from low-SES families receive less host language reading input.

  2. Bilingualism, Language Disorders and Intercultural Families in Contemporary Italy: Family Relations, Transmission of Language and Representations of Otherness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Davide; Balottin, Umberto; Berlincioni, Vanna; Moro, Marie Rose

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to show how language disorders in children affect language transmission and the mixedness experience in intercultural families. To this end, it adopts a qualitative method of study based on the administration of ad hoc interviews to intercultural couples who consulted our Child Neuropsychiatry Service because of language disorders in their children. One of the main consequences, when the child of an intercultural couple presents a language disorder and a diagnostic process has to be initiated, may be interruption of the transmission of the second language, especially if it is the mother's language. The decision to do this, which may be taken on the advice of teachers and health professionals, but also because the parents themselves often attribute their child's language disorder to his bilingual condition, affects not only the relationship between the mother and her child, but also processes in the construction of parenthood and in the structuring of the child's personality and the plurality of his affiliations. A clear understanding of how the dialectic between the categories of "alien" and "familiar" is managed in these contemporary families, which have to reckon with the condition of otherness, is crucial for psychiatrists and psychotherapists working in settings in which cultural difference is an issue to consider.

  3. Bilingualism, Language Disorders and Intercultural Families in Contemporary Italy: Family Relations, Transmission of Language and Representations of Otherness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Davide; Balottin, Umberto; Berlincioni, Vanna; Moro, Marie Rose

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to show how language disorders in children affect language transmission and the mixedness experience in intercultural families. To this end, it adopts a qualitative method of study based on the administration of ad hoc interviews to intercultural couples who consulted our Child Neuropsychiatry Service because of language disorders in their children. One of the main consequences, when the child of an intercultural couple presents a language disorder and a diagnostic process has to be initiated, may be interruption of the transmission of the second language, especially if it is the mother's language. The decision to do this, which may be taken on the advice of teachers and health professionals, but also because the parents themselves often attribute their child's language disorder to his bilingual condition, affects not only the relationship between the mother and her child, but also processes in the construction of parenthood and in the structuring of the child's personality and the plurality of his affiliations. A clear understanding of how the dialectic between the categories of "alien" and "familiar" is managed in these contemporary families, which have to reckon with the condition of otherness, is crucial for psychiatrists and psychotherapists working in settings in which cultural difference is an issue to consider. PMID:26037259

  4. The Impact of Input Quality on Early Sign Development in Native and Non-Native Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jenny; Jones, Anna; Morgan, Gary

    2016-01-01

    There is debate about how input variation influences child language. Most deaf children are exposed to a sign language from their non-fluent hearing parents and experience a delay in exposure to accessible language. A small number of children receive language input from their deaf parents who are fluent signers. Thus it is possible to document the…

  5. Status of tribal girl child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashora, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes socioeconomic conditions for the girl child among tribals in India. India has the largest tribal population in the world: about 67.7 million in 1991. 1 in every 12 Indian women is a tribal woman. Tribal populations are distributed unevenly across India. 85% of the tribal population live in the central belt extending from Gujarat and Rajasthan to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar states to the east. There are 250 officially recognized tribal groups. Article 46 of the Constitution provides for special care in education and economic matters for scheduled tribes (STs) and for protection from social injustice and exploitation. In practice, STs are denied rights over resources, and their social governing systems are not recognized. Tribal girls do not have the same inheritance rights, except in matrilineal society. The incidence of child labor is very high. Girls are paid less than boys and are forced to stay home from school to care for younger siblings. Tribal girls are denied nutritious food and proper health care. Literacy among tribal women increased from 3.16% in 1961 to 18.19% in 1991. Male literacy increased from 13.04% to 32.5%. Girl children are enrolled in school but are withdrawn early. Lower female enrollment is attributed to lack of parental awareness, lack of institutional support, girls who are the eldest in the family, irrelevant school curricula, and teaching in a language different from the child's spoken language. During 1991-92, there were insufficient numbers of schools for girls. Tribal mothers have high rates of anemia, and girl children receive less than the desired nutritional level. Tribal girls suffer from inadequate food intake, hard work, and diseases. The community is also deficient in adequate food intake. Tribals have learned to live with minimum subsistence. Tribals need to be made aware of politics, economic opportunities, and how to achieve a higher quality of life. PMID:12158010

  6. Child Abuse in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  7. A Brief Analysis of the First Language Acquisition Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司紫含

    2014-01-01

    Learning a first language is something every child does successfully, in a matter of a few years and without the need for formal lessons.From the variety of first language acquisition theories, nativism and the theory of behaviorism are very representative.This paper is trying to explore the two kinds of theory.

  8. Temperamental and Joint Attentional Predictors of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salley, Brenda J.; Dixon, Wallace E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Individual differences in child temperament have been associated with individual differences in language development. Similarly, relationships have been reported between early nonverbal social communication (joint attention) and both temperament and language. The present study examined whether individual differences in joint attention might…

  9. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship between Parenting, Parent-Child Shared Reading Practices, and Child Development in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…

  11. LANGUAGE DILEMMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Linguists and the government hope to preserve the diversity of China’s languages When Xu Shixuan, a linguist from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, returned to a southwestern county bordering Myanmar in 2002 to study the local language after a nine

  12. Body Language in Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat ÇALIŞKAN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Drama is an act continuing life-long of a human and is an art of living. Owing to drama a child can gain the apportunity of practising and learning his life in games that he likes most. Today drama is scrutinized in four subtitles as creative, educational, psychodrama and sociodrama. The concepts about drama can be explained as creaticeness, metaksis, interraction, action, activity and empathy.Drama is the explanation of a sense or thought by motion, mimic, gesture and in words. In other words it is the animation of a situation or a subject using body language, reflecting by living, transforming into life.By using the body language consciously and effectively, it has an important function at dramatizing the events, getting students’ attention in education, concretizing abstract expressions, at stres accent and increasing the understandability of messages.Pantomime technic in drama method has a great importance at using the activities and human’s world consciously and animating the expressions and events. Because a teacher’s acting biology is importatnt an educational period.In this study related to drama expression, the importance of creative, educational, psychodrama, sociodrama, body language and pandomime technic in educational period has been tried to explaired.

  13. Language Learning Actions in Two 1x1 Secondary Schools in Catalonia: The Case of Online Language Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Boris Vázquez; Cassany, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes current attitudes towards classroom digitization and digital language learning practices under the umbrella of EduCAT 1x1, the One-Laptop-Per-Child (OLPC or 1x1) initiative in place in Catalonia. We thoroughly analyze practices worked out by six language teachers and twelve Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE)…

  14. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Education October 4, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  15. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  16. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  17. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or working on a craft. Reward and praise self-control . For example, allow your little girl to use ... Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can I Stop My Child ...

  18. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  19. Lauretta Bender's Contribution to Understanding Language Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Archie A.

    1989-01-01

    Lauretta Bender's experiences as a bright child struggling with specific learning problems and her subsequent work in language disorders are described. Her recognition of the biological nature of a group of learning disorders for which there was no clinical evidence of structural damage to the central nervous system is emphasized. (JDD)

  20. Motherese-- Speak Understandable Language to Your Baby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玲

    2013-01-01

    this paper looks at some of the features of child-directed language and at some of the ways children’s conversation skils develop as they learn to take account of the information needs of their listeners and to make and interpret indirect requests. It talks aboutthebasicdefinition,features,andpurposeofmotherese,andencouragepeopletouse CDStocommunicatewithbabies.

  1. Doubling phenomena in first language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.; Evers, A.

    2006-01-01

    Scope-bearing items for sentential negations and sentential questions appear in Dutch child language as ‘doubling’ constructions. A <+neg> or <+Q> element appears in sentence-initial position and is doubled in sentence-final position. The ‘doubling’ is not part of the adult system nor is it part of

  2. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  3. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  4. What makes a child a 'competent' child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, Amanda; Water, Tineke; Rasmussen, Shayne; Diesfeld, Kate

    2015-12-01

    Competence is a vital component of the informed consent process. The perceived level of a child's competence may influence their degree of participation in health decisions that affect them. It is the responsibility of the health professional to gauge a child's level of competence. Child competence, however, is not a static attribute that is linked to age. Rather, it is dynamic, changing in nature and dependent on a child's previous experiences, personal attributes, network of relationships around them and cultural and environmental context. Consequently, there is no single verified assessment tool to assist in the recognition of competence for New Zealand children. Adding to this complexity are the unclear interpretations of New Zealand health legislation and policy regarding whether or not a child can legally consent or refuse healthcare advice and treatment without the consent of a legal guardian. Under the Care of Children Act 2004 and the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights 1996, the Health and Disability Commissioner states "a child may consent themselves [to health treatment] if and when the child achieves sufficient understanding and maturity to understand fully what is proposed". This paper poses the question: What is 'competency' and how is this decided? For the purpose of this article, 'child' pertains to those under the age of 16 years. PMID:26913912

  5. Economics of child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima, Ambreen

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation aims to explore the supply and demand side determinant of child labour at macro, meso and micro level. At macro level it explores the effect of globalization (defined as openness to trade and inflow of foreign direct investment) and credit market imperfections on child labour. At meso level it explores the effect of labour market conditions on child labour. As the above two levels of analysis are mainly concerned with the demand for child labour, the micro level analysis expl...

  6. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    S. Erhan Deveci; Yasemin Acik

    2003-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000): 396-405

  7. Causes of Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Erhan Deveci

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 396-405

  8. Parental mode of communication is essential for speech and language outcomes in cochlear implanted children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, Lone; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Breinegaard, Nina;

    2010-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a very strong effect of the parental communication mode on the auditory capabilities and speech/language outcome for cochlear implanted children. The children exposed to spoken language had higher odds of scoring high in all tests applied and the findings suggest...... a very clear benefit of spoken language communication with a cochlear implanted child....

  9. An Irish Cohort Study of Risk and Protective Factors for Infant Language Development at 9?Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Sinéad; Quigley, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This nationally representative study of Irish infants explores whether the set of child and environmental factors established as predicting language outcomes aged 3?years would also predict language and communication development as early as age 9?months. Associations between infant and environmental characteristics and infant language outcomes at…

  10. Creating Awareness of a Second Language and Another Culture in Elementary Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabulas, Lani; Yono, Tara; Zach, Rebecca

    This study examined why preschool, kindergarten, and 4th grade students had poor comprehension of a second language. The reasons for this were threefold: learning a second language is not essential to a child's life at these ages; they are not motivated to learn a second language on their own; and it was widely thought that learning a second…

  11. The Language Environment of Toddlers in Center-Based Care versus Home Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ann D.; Fees, Bronwyn S.; Crowe, Linda K.; Murphy, Molly E.; Henriksen, Amanda L.

    2006-01-01

    Children's language development is significantly affected by the quantity and quality of language input, particularly during infancy and toddlerhood. The purpose of this study was to compare the language environment in an accredited child care program with data collected by Hart and Risley (1995). Fourteen toddlers (mean age 24.4 months) were…

  12. Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment (WELPA). Form C 2015. Interpretation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…

  13. Neural Correlates of Foreign-Language Learning in Childhood: A 3-Year Longitudinal ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Shiro; Nakamura, Naoko; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Hoshino, Takahiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    A foreign language (a language not spoken in one's community) is difficult to master completely. Early introduction of foreign-language (FL) education during childhood is becoming a standard in many countries. However, the neural process of child FL learning still remains largely unknown. We longitudinally followed 322 school-age children with…

  14. Reading the World through Words: Cultural Themes in Heritage Chinese Language Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the social and cultural knowledge embedded in the textbooks for language and literacy education in a Chinese heritage language school, the Zhonguo School, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It examines how Chinese language arts textbooks introduce the child reader to cultural knowledge considered legitimate and valued in China as…

  15. The Social Basis of Language and Communication in Severely Handicapped Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers-Warren, Ann K.; Warren, Steven F.

    1984-01-01

    The paper proposes that primary social relationships between child and caregiver are critical context for language learning and examines current assumptions about the nature of language and the processes involved in language learning, with particular attention to the effects of severe handicaps on the social processes underlying language…

  16. Language Learning Through Pretend Play in Young Bilingual-Bicultural Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Villarreal, Beatrice

    Child care programs are ideal places to begin the mastery of both English and a native language. Language growth can be promoted through the use of pretend play. Pretend situations include storytelling, oral drills and poems, riddles and songs. In storytelling activities, it is essential that the adult model language for the children. The children…

  17. Disciplining Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are ways to ease frustration and avoid unnecessary conflict with your child. Be Aware of What Your Child Can and ... moment, wait to cool down, apologize to your child, and explain how you will handle the situation in the future. Be sure to keep your ...

  18. [Autism and child protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coron, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  19. Language choice in bimodal bilingual development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eLillo-Martin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children.Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending – expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously – an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children’s language choices.This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult.Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant

  20. The Creagest Project: a Digitized and Annotated Corpus for French Sign Language (LSF) and Natural Gestural Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Balvet, Antonio; Courtin, Cyril; Boutet, Dominique; Cuxac, Christian; Fusellier-Souza, Ivani; Garcia, Brigitte; L'huillier, Marie Thérèse; Sallandre, Marie Anne

    2010-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we discuss the theoretical, sociolinguistic, methodological and technical objectives and issues of the French Creagest Project (2007-2012) in setting up, documenting and annotating a large corpus of adult and child French Sign Language (LSF) and of natural gestural language. The main objective of this ANR-funded research project is to set up a collaborative web-based platform for the study of semiogenesis in LSF (French Sign Language), i.e. the study o...

  1. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  2. Living language

    CERN Document Server

    Shuttleworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Living Language 3rd edition' has been devised to meet all the new specifications for AS and A level English Language. The best-selling previous edition has been comprehensively revised to ensure full assessment objectives coverage and fulfilment, and delivery of the new four-unit courses from 2008 onwards. 'Living Language 3rd edition' provides linguistic theory, information and ideas which are easily accessed via supported activities and investigations. The text will actively develop students' skills in reading, listening and responding to an extensive range of text genres and data. Building

  3. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  4. Levers for Language Growth: Characteristics and Predictors of Language Trajectories between 4 and 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina McKean

    Full Text Available Evidence is required as to when and where to focus resources to achieve the greatest gains for children's language development. Key to these decisions is the understanding of individual differences in children's language trajectories and the predictors of those differences. To determine optimal timing we must understand if and when children's relative language abilities become fixed. To determine where to focus effort we must identify mutable factors, that is those with the potential to be changed through interventions, which are associated with significant differences in children's language scores and rate of progress.Uniquely this study examined individual differences in language growth trajectories in a population sample of children between 4 and 7 years using the multilevel model for change. The influence of predictors, grouped with respect to their mutability and their proximity to the child (least-mutable, mutable-distal, mutable-proximal, were estimated.A significant degree of variability in rate of progress between 4 and 7 years was evident, much of which was systematically associated with mutable-proximal factors, that is, those factors with evidence that they are modifiable through interventions with the child or family, such as shared book reading, TV viewing and number of books in the home. Mutable-distal factors, such as family income, family literacy and neighbourhood disadvantage, hypothesised to be modifiable through social policy, were important predictors of language abilities at 4 years.Potential levers for language interventions lie in the child's home learning environment from birth to age 4. However, the role of a family's material and cultural capital must not be ignored, nor should the potential for growth into the school years. Early Years services should acknowledge the effects of multiple, cascading and cumulative risks and seek to promote child language development through the aggregation of marginal gains in the pre

  5. The acquisition of negation in Early Child Polish

    OpenAIRE

    Sopata, Aldona

    2010-01-01

    The generative theory of first language acquisition predicts that with the acquisition of one functional category, children should acquire also relevant syntactic properties of the respective language. In the present study the acquisition of negation in early child Polish is investigated and, further, the process is compared with the development of finiteness as a phenomenon being the prior evidence for the implementation of a functional category in children’s grammar. The analysis of Polish ...

  6. An ecological approach to language development: an alternative functionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, C H

    1990-11-01

    I argue for a new functionalist approach to language development, an ecological approach. A realist orientation is used that locates the causes of language development neither in the child nor in the language environment but in the functioning of perceptual systems that detect language-world relationships and use them to guide attention and action. The theory requires no concept of innateness, thus avoiding problems inherent in either the innate ideas or the genes-as-causal-programs explanations of the source of structure in language. An ecological explanation of language is discussed in relation to concepts and language, language as representation, problems in early word learning, metaphor, and syntactic development. Finally, problems incurred in using the idea of innateness are summarized: History prior to the chosen beginning point is ignored, data on organism-environment mutuality are not collected, and the explanation claims no effect of learning, which cannot be tested empirically.

  7. Language Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds, Michael; Kjeldergaard, Nadja; Hagstrøm, Jeppe; Møller, Tina; Nielsen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the methods and effects of a monolingual language policy stipulated at the International Bachelor Study Programme in Social Science at Roskilde University. The report is centered around the data collected through recordings of group meetings with two project groups from the aforementioned study, as well as two qualitative interviews with one member of each group. The analytical theoretical framework utilised in the study consists of Bernard Spolsky’s Language Policy th...

  8. A Critique on Katie's Language in Mockingbird Don't Sing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭巧兰; 闵家顺

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at critiquing Katie's language in the famous film, Mockingbird Don't Sing, which is a 2001 American independent film based on the true story of Genie, a modern-day feral child, discovered in California in 1970. The analyses of Katie's language are based on Katie's language by the stimulation of some people around her after she escaped from her home according to the theories of the interactionist position, Behaviorism, the affective filter hypothesis, Innatism, the stages of lan-guage development and the critical period hypothesis. Katie's abnormal language bitterly proves the importance of critical peri-od for language acquisition and language learning.

  9. From child to child: children as communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J

    1993-01-01

    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  10. Biliteracy and Bilingual Development in a Second-Generation Korean Child: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Yeonsun Ellie; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Through case study methodology, this study examined how a second-generation bilingual child developed his two languages and associated literacies, the role of the parents' and child's goals as well as the family's daily effort to attain those goals, and the influences of environmental, social, and cultural factors. Based on sociocultural…

  11. Preschoolers' Emotion Regulation Strategy Understanding: Relations with Emotion Socialization and Child Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Pamela M.; Dennis, Tracy A.; Smith-Simon, Kristen E.; Cohen, Laura H.

    2009-01-01

    Preschool-age children's ability to verbally generate strategies for regulating anger and sadness, and to recognize purported effective strategies for these emotions, were examined in relation to child factors (child age, temperament, and language ability) and maternal emotion socialization (supportiveness and structuring in response to child…

  12. Relations between Parent-Child Acculturation Differences and Adjustment within Immigrant Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Catherine L.; Dokis, Daphn P.

    2006-01-01

    The relations between parent and child acculturation and family and child adjustment were examined among 91 immigrant Chinese families in Canada with early adolescents (average age of 12). Acculturation was assessed in public (e.g., language use) and private (e.g., values) domains separately in Chinese and Canadian cultures. With one exception,…

  13. Does child care availability play a role in maternal employment and children's development? Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ylenia Brilli; Daniela Del Boca; Pronzato, Chiara D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the e ects of public child care availability in Italy in mothers' working status and children's scholastic achievements. We use a newly available dataset containing individual standardized test scores of pupils attending the second grade of primary school in 2009-10 in conjunction with data on public child care availability. Our estimates indicate a positive and signi cant e ects of child care availability on both mothers' working status and children's Language test sc...

  14. Biolinguistics and the Implication for Teaching Language on Young Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Achmad Badib

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The majority of foreign language teachers tend to believe that there is a significant different approach in terms of a teaching strategy dealing with the first and second language instructions. Can those different approaches be substantiated by our sound justifica­tions based on our proper understanding and essential knowledge of language processes? Generally speaking, our understanding of the nature of language acquisition in terms of biolinguistics is only par­tial. Therefore, this paper attempts to explore the biological aspects of the process of language acquisition by a child and then compare it with the developments of the birth of language. In other words this paper will examine very briefly the micro and macro evolutions of language. Central to this discussion are the neurological develop­ments in the brain, which are responsible for language planning and the speech apparatus responsible for language productions. By ex­amining the two related activities, we can then study how language is actually carried out by human beings, both first and second language acquisitions. After developing a proper understanding of the bio­logical aspects of language, we can thus explore further the best way of language processes. This may constitute a new insight of lan­guage teaching because so far, relying on linguistic theories alone, it is often difficult to obtain the most acceptable information regarding the nature of first and second language teaching.

  15. Bridging Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Barbra Calder

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism may sometimes appear to be living in their own world and show very little interest in others. They may be socially unaware, avoiding eye contact and showing limited attachment to others. But when a child is able to express and communicate thoughts, desires, and needs, they are much more likely to seek out social interactions.…

  16. Towards Agile Language Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Sadilek, Daniel A.; Scheidgen, Markus; Wachsmuth, Guido; Weißleder, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Language engineering is software engineering concerned with computer languages. Agile language engineering is the result of adapting agile principles to language engineering. An agile language engineering process is geared to ever changing requirements and fosters higher language quality, software quality, and developer productivity. It provides short iteration cycles, intensive user integration, control over frequent changes, and continuous delivery of valuable language tools. In this...

  17. Curriculum: Foreign language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, AMY

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various issues related to curriculum in foreign language learning, and in particular focuses on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Foreign language learning is taken to mean the learning of a language other than the learner’s first language (L1), and this language is not ordinarily used in the learner’s everyday life. Thus, foreign language learning contexts are very different from second language learning contexts, for in second language learni...

  18. Growing up with Frisian and Dutch: The role of language input in the early development of Frisian and Dutch among preschool children in Friesland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Dijkstra

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual acquisition largely depends on the input that children receive in each language. The more input in a language, the more proficient a child becomes in that language. The current project studied the role of language input among bilingual Frisian-Dutch preschool children (age 2.5-4 years) in

  19. Critical language awareness and English language teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋灵

    2007-01-01

    Critical Language Awareness (CLA) is an approach to language teaching based on a critical sociocultural theory of language and critical discourse analysis. CLA has a great relationship with English language teaching, but there are few articles talking about it. So the author here will present her understanding of the relationship between CLA and English language.

  20. Bilingual First Language Acquisition: Exploring the Limits of the Language Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesee, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Reviews current research in three domains of bilingual acquisition: pragmatic features of bilingual code mixing, grammatical constraints on child bilingual code mixing, and bilingual syntactic development. Examines implications from these domains for the understanding of the limits of the mental faculty to acquire language. (Author/VWL)

  1. Altered functional connectivity of the language network in ASD: Role of classical language areas and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Verly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of language, social interaction and communicative skills is remarkably different in the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Atypical brain connectivity has frequently been reported in this patient population. However, the neural correlates underlying their disrupted language development and functioning are still poorly understood. Using resting state fMRI, we investigated the functional connectivity properties of the language network in a group of ASD patients with clear comorbid language impairment (ASD-LI; N = 19 and compared them to the language related connectivity properties of 23 age-matched typically developing children. A verb generation task was used to determine language components commonly active in both groups. Eight joint language components were identified and subsequently used as seeds in a resting state analysis. Interestingly, both the interregional and the seed-based whole brain connectivity analysis showed preserved connectivity between the classical intrahemispheric language centers, Wernicke's and Broca's areas. In contrast however, a marked loss of functional connectivity was found between the right cerebellar region and the supratentorial regulatory language areas. Also, the connectivity between the interhemispheric Broca regions and modulatory control dorsolateral prefrontal region was found to be decreased. This disruption of normal modulatory control and automation function by the cerebellum may underlie the abnormal language function in children with ASD-LI.

  2. Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews the English-language literature on child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The focus is on the sexual abuse of children in the home/community, as opposed to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Methods: English language, peer-reviewed papers cited in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) are…

  3. Overcoming the challenges of translating mental health instruments into signed languages

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Kate; Wright, Barry; Collingridge Moore, Danielle; Ogden, Richard; Rogers, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), and has been translated into over sixty spoken languages. British Sign Language (BSL) is a visuo-gestural language, and the first language of between 50-100,000 Deaf people in the UK. Translating diagnostic tools into BSL is important to provide valid assessment of common mental health problems in Deaf signing young people. We report the process of translation from a writt...

  4. [Child and adolescent psychiatry its problems and foresight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kosuke

    2002-01-01

    Accompanying the fall in birth rate, problems pertaining to the child's mind such as school in attendance, bullying, violence in the school, intrafamilial violence, eating disorders, substance abuse, and child abuse have rocketed and diversified, in addition to affecting increasingly lower age groups. The importance of child and adolescent psychiatry has never been more profound, but our country, without a chair in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the medical school framework, and lacking recognition of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a clinical department has undoubtedly become an underdeveloped country in terms of child and adolescent psychiatric care. The medical schools have been in the process of review and reorganization these past few years. The range of mental science is wide, and despite being a major discipline constituting one of the two arms of medical science together with somatic medicine, it is regarded as a minor existence in our country. This is the time to re-establish mental science, with areas such as child and adolescent psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, social psychiatry, and crime psychiatry placed on an equal footing with general psychiatry. Turning our eyes on the world, the children are being robbed of their mental health as refugees, through child labor, starvation, and civil war. The demand of this age is true symbiosis, surpassing differences in race, religion, language, and culture, which is probably the indispensable element in the quest for a happy future for the children of this age. PMID:12607920

  5. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  6. Measuring child marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Cong Nguyen; Quentin Wodon

    2012-01-01

    Child or early marriage is recognized as an important development and human rights issue that affects girls especially in many developing countries. The practice has been linked to psychological, health, and education risks. These negative impacts explain why in many countries child marriage has been prohibited by law but often with little effect. While child marriage has been recognized as a major issue, its measurement has remained unsophisticated. Existing studies tend to simply report the...

  7. Child Labor and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Dinopoulos; Laixun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper embeds child labor in a standard two-sector general-equilibrium model of a small open economy facing perfectly competitive markets, efficiency wages, and free-trade. The modern sector produces a homogeneous good using skilled adult labor and capital, and offers effort-based efficiency wages. The agrarian (traditional) sector produces a homogeneous good using unskilled (child and adult) labor and skilled adult labor, and offers nutritional efficiency wages to child workers. Nutrition...

  8. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  9. Towards understanding child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Inés Carreño; Alicia Rey

    2010-01-01

    This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatm...

  10. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Responsiveness: Associations with Social Context, Maternal Characteristics, and Child Characteristics in a Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene; Haynes, O. Maurice; Painter, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined unique associations of multiple distal context variables (family socioeconomic status [SES], maternal employment, and paternal parenting) and proximal maternal (personality, intelligence, and knowledge; behavior, self-perceptions, and attributions) and child (age, gender, representation, language, and sociability)…

  11. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  12. Issues on raising a bilingual child in Costa Rica: a myth or a reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Quesada Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with main issues concerning bilingualism and bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA. A review of the literature is presented on how children learn languages. In addition, this paper summarizes what bilingualism is and addresses how the One-parent One-language (OPOL and the Minority Language at Home (ML@H methods work. The paper includes sample testimonies of Itzel, a three-year-old child, raised with these methods. It also illustrates samples of her code-switching and code-mixing as part of her evolution in bilingual first language acquisition. Based on this evolution, there is some evidence that a child can become bilingual under foreign language conditions. Finally, the article reflects on the decisive role that dedication, consistency and effort have as crucial components to accomplish BFLA.

  13. LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY: FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Коряковцева, Н.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks into foreign language teacher education in plurilingual and pluricultural context; defines the notion and focuses on the characteristics of skills in language pedagogy as part of foreign language teacher professional competence.

  14. CONTEMPOPARY VIEWS TO SIGN LANGUAGE OF HEARING IMPAIRED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojka TATAREVA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The place of the sign language in education of hearing impaired children in Denmark, USA and Sweden.Hearing impaired people ought to have a possibility of access to vital information, so they can move step by step, to live as useful members of society.Sign language is nonverbal communication which appears as a kind of compensation of the language lack, a means of development of that activity an opinion of unlimited human communicative nature.Mimic sign language in the system of education of hearing impaired children in Denmark, USA and Sweden take a primary place. The school with Hearing impaired children are bilingual. In the schools sign language is taken as a training language and it is available to every child.Contemporary views and practice tell us that teaching of hearing impaired children with sign language is more effective and more available.

  15. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  16. Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)

  17. language teachers

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Le Rosey Institute at Rolle (autumn and spring) and Gstaad (winter) is looking for part-time language teachers of 
Bulgarian, Farsi, Hindi, Korean and Romanian for the start of the autumn term in September 2007. For further details, please contact : www.rosey.ch Please send applications with CVs to job@rosey.ch

  18. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility of local

  19. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence—A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs. PMID:27458410

  20. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence-A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs.

  1. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence-A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs. PMID:27458410

  2. Difference in Second Language and Foreign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Nongxin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Second language (L2), in a broad sense, is a language learned or acquired after the native language.The term has a narrow sense when it contrasts to the term"foreign language"(FL), in which second language"functions as a recognized means of communication among members who speak some other language as their mother tongue", and the foreign language"plays no major role in the community and is primarily learnt only in the classroom."[1]Ignorance of the differences will result in confusion in the practice of language learning, teaching and research work.

  3. A Study on How the Emotional Factors Influence the Child Second Language Acquisition%情感因素对儿童英语二语习得的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乃玲; 董一知

    2012-01-01

    随着英语在我国的逐渐普及,英语初学者已经出现了低龄化、少儿化的特点。儿童与成人在第二语言习得方面有共同之处,但是由于年龄、性格、学习动机以及自我概念的不同与成人又有差异。通过分析三例儿童学习英语的情况,探索情感因素对儿童英语学习的影响,并提出相应的几点建议。%With the popularity of English in China,the age of English learners tends to be younger.Although there are many similar aspects between children and adults in second language acquisition,there are some differences due to many factors such as age,personality,motivation of learning and self concept.In this essay,through the analysis of three children,the writer wants to find the answer of how the emotional factors influence the English learning of children,and propose some suggestions.

  4. When Do Caregivers Talk? The Influences of Activity and Time of Day on Caregiver Speech and Child Vocalizations in Two Childcare Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Soderstrom; Kelsey Wittebolle

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the language environment in influencing language outcomes is well known, but few studies have addressed the contextual factors that influence the amount of speech heard and vocalizations produced by a young child under naturalistic conditions. We analyze effects of type of activity engaged in by the child and time of day on quantitative measures of the language environment. We found effects of both activity and time of day. Structured activities generated the highest levels ...

  5. Loss of a child - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  6. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  7. The Input To Language Learning: Two Out Of Three Ain't Good Enough Michael Swan%The Input To Language Learning:Two Out Of Three Ain't Good Enough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Swan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Child language learning depends on: 1. extensive input: the flood of language in the environment. 2. concentrated input: repeated stories, nursery rhymes,the formulaie language of meals or bathtimes, etc. By unconsciously analysing memorised material, children build up their knowledgeof linguistic regularities.

  8. On Communicative Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ya-rong; Ma Ya-li

    2014-01-01

    In traditional language classroom, learners are taught mainly about language and its rules.They learn facts about language, rather than how to use it communicatively and how to cooperate with others.To help learners put language into active use, it’s recognized communicative language teaching is needed in language learning and teaching.

  9. On Communicative Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Ya-rong; Ma; Ya-li

    2014-01-01

    In traditional language classroom,learners are taught mainly about language and its rules.They learn facts about language,rather than how to use it communicatively and how to cooperate with others.To help learners put language into active use,it’s recognized communicative language teaching is needed in language learning and teaching.

  10. Language and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  11. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  12. English Language Education among Young Learners in East Asia: A Review of Current Research (2004-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages to young learners is growing in popularity around the world. Research in this field, particularly of English as a second/foreign language education in East Asia, is a relatively new area of empirical inquiry, and it has the potential to make significant contributions to child second-language acquisition…

  13. Your Child's Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Vision KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Vision Print A A A Text Size What's in ... La vista de su hijo Healthy eyes and vision are a critical part of kids' development. Their ...

  14. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Piotrowski; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by revi

  15. Child Wellness and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  16. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... example, by a friend, neighbor, child care person, teacher, or stranger. When sexual abuse has occurred, a child can develop many distressing ... t tell children to 'always do everything the teacher or baby-sitter tells you to ... of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. ...

  17. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  18. Choosing Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a parent, you want to ensure that your child is safe and happy in a childcare environment that is fun, educational, and nurturing. Here are ... person or program? Do you believe that your child will be happy and have the ... in this environment? If none of the caregivers or childcare centers ...

  19. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  20. Weaning Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby and makes it possible to leave your child with a caregiver. It's important to remember that infants over 6 months should have solid foods as well as breast milk. After 1 year, breast milk alone does not provide all the nutrients a growing child needs; solid foods must become a regular part ...

  1. Divorce Child Custody Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlgate, Laurence D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines ethical issues in making policy decisions regarding divorce child custody disputes. Suggests dilemma occurs when legislator must decide between discretionary standard promoting best interest of child and nondiscretionary arbitrary assignment of custody. Advocates normative analysis of various types of dispute-settling processes and…

  2. Child Care at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN, Child Care Initiative

    2008-01-01

    This is a document summarizing a survey of child care needs of CERN staff and users which was performed in February 2008 by the CERN Child Care Initiative. The document presents the analysis of this data. Conclusions on the minimal facilities size are derived and possible funding source at the European Union are discussed.

  3. Ileostomy and your child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now your child has an opening called a stoma in their belly. Waste will pass through the stoma into a pouch that collects it. You and ... child will need to take care of the stoma and empty the pouch many times a day. ...

  4. Headstart for Every Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Annie L.

    An early learning kit provides a booklet of ten articles on educational head starts for children along with an activity packet for classroom use. The articles deal with: the crucial early school years; emotional preparation of the child; broadening a child's background; selecting toys and games; reading readiness; mathematical skills; learning to…

  5. Language Varieties and Standard Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Randolph

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Kingsman Report (Department of Education and Science, London) on teaching English in Britain, and considers its relevance for teaching English in other countries. The many kinds of English, the labels given to them, and the centrality of the standard language are briefly reviewed. (JL)

  6. Selenium status during pregnancy and child psychomotor development—Polish Mother and Child Cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Sobala, Wojciech; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Brodzka, Renata; Calamandrei, Gemma; Chiarotti, Flavia; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Background: The studies on the impact of selenium (Se) levels in different pregnancy periods on child psychomotor functions are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of prenatal Se on child neurodevelopment. Methods: The study population consisted of 410 mother–child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Se levels were measured in each trimester of pregnancy, at delivery, and in cord blood by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of 1 and 2 y using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Results: Plasma Se levels decreased through pregnancy (from 48.3 ± 10.6 µg/l in the first trimester to 38.4 ± 11.8 µg/l at delivery; P < 0.05). A statistically significant positive association between Se levels in the first trimester of pregnancy and motor development (β = 0.2, P = 0.002) at 1 y of age, and language development (β = 0.2, P = 0.03) at 2 y of age was observed. The positive effect of Se levels on cognitive score at 2 y of age was of borderline significance (β = 0.2, P = 0.05). Conclusion: Prenatal selenium status was associated with child psychomotor abilities within the first years of life. Further epidemiological and preclinical studies are needed to confirm the association and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects. PMID:26885758

  7. The battered child syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.)

  8. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  9. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    , of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background......Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  10. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    , of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background......Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  11. Predicting Language Impairment Status: A Risk Factor Model

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Johanna Maria

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of specific language impairment (SLI) is multifactorial. Research has shown that genetic, environmental, and developmental factors may influence the course of its development. Because many of these factors are present even before a child is born, it is possible that a child's risk of developing the disorder can be identified long before grammatical deficits are observed. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a screening tool to discriminate between children with SLI ...

  12. A Mixed Methodological Study of Factors Contributing to Student Persistence and Their Impact on Student Attrition in Foreign Language Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Nicole S.

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, foreign language immersion programs are K-8 voluntary programs wherein children are instructed in the core subjects in a language other than English. While these programs are quite popular, many parents, having chosen immersion for their child's education, change their minds and transfer their child into a "regular"…

  13. How Satisfied Are Parents of Students in Dual Language Education Programs?: "Me Parece Maravillosa La Gran Oportunidad Que Le Estan Dando a Estos Ninos"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jay; Ruth, Tenley

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 724 families of students at eight dual language schools in the southwest United States that focused on parents' satisfaction with their child's academic skills and with program characteristics is reported. Results are explored for parental language, parental education level, program model type, grade level of the child, and years the…

  14. A Critique of What is the Logical Problem of Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xueqin

    2009-01-01

    The logical problem of foreign language learning has long been a very controversial Topic. Bley-Vroman claims that L2 acquistion is very different from L1acquisition in his paper 'What is the logical problem of foreign language learning'. This paper views differently from his points about the role of native language,negative evidence and domain-specific cognitive facility.He emphasizes the facilitative role of the native language and ignoring the negative role of it.He views that negative evidence plays no role in child language acquisition.The author argues that sometimes children need indirect negative evidence to help their language acquisition.Finally,the author argues that the difference between adult and child language learning is not because ofthat the lack of domain specific acquisition system in adults.The influencing factors are various.

  15. What Causes Specific Language Impairment in Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child's language development is deficient for no obvious reason. For many years, there was a tendency to assume that SLI was caused by factors such as poor parenting, subtle brain damage around the time of birth, or transient hearing loss. Subsequently it became clear that these factors were far less important than genes in determining risk for SLI. A quest to find “the gene for SLI” was undertaken, but it soon became apparent that no sin...

  16. Mothers' Mediational Style and the Effects on Language Development in 3 to 5 Year-olds

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Mothers and their children aged 3 -5.5 (14 girls and 26 boys) were videotaped in two situations: a) mother reading with the child and b) child constructing a puzzle with the mother. Children's language development was assessed with the CELF, a norm referenced language test. Two scorers rated the videotapes for mediational and interactions and directive interactions. Using Feuerstein's Mediated Learning Experience criteria (MLE) mediational interactions were coded: Regulation of Behavior, Shar...

  17. Pre-service teachers’ awareness of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal TUNCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the awareness of pre-service teachers from different departments related to the concept of child abuse. This study aims to determine pre-service teachers’ awareness of child abuse as a qualitative study, conducted in line with phenomenological design. In the study, one of the purposeful sampling methods, maximum diversity sampling method, was employed. The participants of the study are 15 pre-service teachers attending the departments of Psychological Counseling and Guidance, Teacher Education for the Intellectually Disabled, Pre-school Teacher Education, Social Studies, Art Teaching, Computer and Instructional Technologies, German Language Teaching, French Language Teaching, and Teacher Education for the Hearing Impaired, all within the Education Faculty of Anatolian University, Turkey. The data of the study was collected through the focus-group interview technique. The data collected from two different focus-group interviews were analyzed by content analysis technique using the NVivo 8 data analysis program. As a result of the analysis of the data, it was concluded that the pre-service teachers explained the concept of child abuse by most strongly emphasizing emotional abuse and least strongly by emphasizing economic abuse. In light of the pre-service teachers’ opinions, it was also concluded that the culture constructed by society through the meanings attached to genders, society’s view of sexuality, child marriage, proverbs and idioms specific to the local society and superstitions lead to incidences of child abuse. The current study revealed that child abuse can be prevented by providing training to raise the awareness of child abuse primarily for families then children, teachers and other concerned people. It was also found that the majority of pre-service teachers do not have enough information about how to act in the face of an incidence of child abuse.

  18. There's no language like our language, like no language we know. But how did it evolve?

    CERN Multimedia

    Wim de Geest

    2011-01-01

    Every normal child will rapidly acquire the native language to which it is exposed. It will do so with little teaching or coaching. A chimpanzee will fail to do so. Yet, chimpanzees are closer to humans, in genetic and evolutionary terms, than they are to gorillas. The only obvious and important deficit in the ape’s innate intelligence, as compared with man’s, is a missing faculty for using and understanding language. To determine how humans developed this unique capacity for language is the hardest problem in science. It is this problem the talk will address. The approach will be three pronged. In the first part Wim de Geest will attempt to present a couple of innovative insights made possible by the new Evo-Devo and the modern linguistics perspective. In the second part he shall illustrate what is specific for the human faculty of language in its narrow sense. Human linguistic communication is markedly discrete and recursive, to a degree that is obviously absent in other types ...

  19. When Literature Language Meets News Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢胡卓越

    2014-01-01

    Literature language and News language are two different language type, while, for attracting readers, writers more likely apply Literature language in News reports. This paper presents some comments on this phenomenon and make analysis, using examples to understand and comment on it.

  20. When Literature Language Meets News Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢胡卓越

    2014-01-01

    Literature language and News language are two different language type,while,for attracting readers,writers more likely apply Literature language in News reports.This paper presents some comments on this phenomenon and make analysis,using examples to understand and comment on it.

  1. Second Language Acquisition and Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragant, Elsa; Muñoz, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    After discussing the ties between language teaching and second language acquisition research, the present paper reviews the role that second language acquisition research has played on two recent pedagogical proposals. First, communicative language teaching, advocated in the early eighties, in which focus on the code was excluded, and then the…

  2. Language Testing in "The Modern Language Journal."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolsky, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses coverage of language testing issues in the "Modern Language Journal" over the last 80 years. Suggests that overall the articles devoted to language testing show a valuable concern with the use rather than the form of language tests. (Author/VWL)

  3. Mathematics for Language, Language for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…

  4. Effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review Instructional Approach on Caregiver Use of Language Support Strategies and Children's Expressive Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Y.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Wolfe, Cathy E.; Bryant, Julie D.; Spidalieri, Alexandria M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach on caregivers' use of four enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) language support strategies and on their children's use of expressive language. Method: Four caregiver-child dyads participated in a single-subject, multiple-baseline…

  5. Child labor, schooling, and child ability

    OpenAIRE

    Akresh, Richard; Bagby, Emilie; de Walque, Damien; Kazianga, Harounan

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected in rural Burkina Faso, this paper examines how children's cognitive abilities influence households' decisions to invest in their education. To address the endogeneity of child ability measures, the analysis uses rainfall shocks experienced in utero or early childhood to instrument for ability. Negative shocks in utero lead to 0.24 standard deviations lower ability z-sc...

  6. Simultaneous bilingual language acquisition: The role of parental input on receptive vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Andrea An; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Boegner-Pagé, Sarah; Fontolliet, Salomé

    2013-02-01

    Parents often turn to educators and healthcare professionals for advice on how to best support their child's language development. These professionals frequently suggest implementing the 'one-parent-one-language' approach to ensure consistent exposure to both languages. The goal of this study was to understand how language exposure influences the receptive vocabulary development of simultaneous bilingual children. To this end, we targeted nine German-French children growing up in bilingual families. Their exposure to each language within and outside the home was measured, as were their receptive vocabulary abilities in German and French. The results indicate that children are receiving imbalanced exposure to each language. This imbalance is leading to a slowed development of the receptive vocabulary in the minority language, while the majority language is keeping pace with monolingual peers. The one-parent-one-language approach does not appear to support the development of both of the child's languages in the context described in the present study. Bilingual families may need to consider other options for supporting the bilingual language development of their children. As professionals, we need to provide parents with advice that is based on available data and that is flexible with regards to the current and future needs of the child and his family.

  7. Endangered Languages--guard the language diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙妍明

    2013-01-01

    Language as an important human activity, is not only a communication tool, but also reflects the society and culture. However, in recent years, many minority languages are disappearing and under disappearing. In this paper, firstly, I study the existing state of languages and the existing crisis of many smal categories of languages:Linguists estimate that the amount is more than 6,000. However, at present, 95 percent of languages are used only by 4 percent of the population and 2 kinds of languages disappear in a month. Secondly, I analyze the reason of the disappearing categories of languages:Linguists estimate that at least half the world’s languages died out in the last 500-year period. A variety of factors, such as social origin, historical origin, and so on, contributed to this trend of language extinction. And at the end, I suggested the significance of language preservation and some means to protect linguistic diversity.

  8. Parental Support for Language Development During Joint Book Reading for Young Children With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesJardin, Jean L; Doll, Emily R; Stika, Carren J; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Johnson, Karen J; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G; Henning, Shirley C

    2014-05-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; n = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; n = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions, and parent and child behaviors were coded for specific JBR behaviors using a scale developed for this study. Children's oral language skills were assessed using the Preschool Language Scale-4 (PLS-4). Parents of children with HL scored higher on two of the four subscales of JBR: Literacy Strategies and Teacher Techniques. Parents of children with NH utilized higher level FLTs with their children who had higher language skills. Higher level FLTs were positively related to children's oral language abilities. Implications are discussed for professionals who work with families of very young children with HL.

  9. Too Soon?:Three is the Best Age to Start Learning a Second Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨迪

    2015-01-01

    <正>There was an interesting phenomenon that a Chinese young child who immigrated to England,who had no choice,and must start to learn the new language,English as soon as he arrived.His parents felt anxious about it.Nevertheless,several months later,they amazingly noticed that communicating in English was a piece of cake for their child.This child language development far exceeded his parents’expectation.It could take up one or two years for him to reach the level of a native English speaker.This story demonstrates that young children are the best language learners.But what age is the best to start a second language?Preschool children,who are in the language exploration period,tend to be willing to imitate others.This imitation leads

  10. Caracterização do perfil diagnóstico e fluxo de um ambulatório de Fonoaudiologia hospitalar na área de Linguagem infantil Characterization of the diagnostic profile and flow of a Speech-Language Pathology service in child language within a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Pupin Mandrá

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o perfil diagnóstico e o fluxo de usuários de um serviço de Fonoaudiologia de um hospital escola público. MÉTODOS: A coleta foi realizada em documentos, arquivos de prontuário, selecionados por código no período entre outubro de 2007 e março de 2009. Após o registro, os resultados foram descritos estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio do gênero masculino (67,8%; em 58,95% a faixa etária estava entre 0 e 7 anos; 88,48% da população era procedente de municípios da região norte do estado de São Paulo; 43,2% vinham do serviço neurologia do hospital e 33,6% frequentavam escola. Quanto ao diagnóstico 27,5% eram de atraso de linguagem, 20,06% de distúrbios de linguagem e 15,51% de distúrbios da aprendizagem, com prevalências de 0,31, 0,17 e 0,23 casos em 273, respectivamente. As comorbidades foram: retardo do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor (14,28% e prematuridade (8,69%. Os encaminhamentos eram para Audiologia (24,77% e Odontologia (20,18% e 51,64% dos usuários estavam em lista de espera para terapia no local. CONCLUSÃO: Prevaleceu o diagnóstico de atraso de linguagem em crianças do gênero masculino, com idade entre 0 e 6 anos e 11 meses. Foi identificado um fluxo externo proveniente de município da região e interno (ambulatorial. Parte da demanda foi absorvida pelo serviço, parte aguardava por reabilitação e uma parcela foi contra-referenciada às unidades de origem.PURPOSE: To characterize the diagnostic profile and the users flow of a Speech-Language Pathology service within a public teaching hospital. METHODS: Data were collected from documents and medical records selected by code between October 2007 and March 2009. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics. RESULTS: There was a predominance of male individuals (67.80%; 58.95% of the patients/participants were children within the age range from 0 to 7 years; 88.48% came from cities in the northern region of the state of S

  11. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  12. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediates the effect of child maltreatment on behavioral and physiological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Hibel, Leah C; Cummings, E Mark; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G

    2015-11-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that the way in which parents discuss everyday emotional experiences with their young children (i.e., elaborative reminiscing) has significant implications for child cognitive and socioemotional functioning, and that maltreating parents have a particularly difficult time in engaging in this type of dialogue. This dyadic interactional exchange, therefore, has the potential to be an important process variable linking child maltreatment to developmental outcomes at multiple levels of analysis. The current investigation evaluated the role of maternal elaborative reminiscing in associations between maltreatment and child cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. Participants included 43 maltreated and 49 nonmaltreated children (aged 3-6) and their mothers. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about four past emotional events, and children participated in assessments of receptive language and emotion knowledge. Child salivary cortisol was also collected from children three times a day (waking, midday, and bedtime) on 2 consecutive days to assess daily levels and diurnal decline. Results indicated that maltreating mothers engaged in significantly less elaborative reminiscing than did nonmaltreating mothers. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediated associations between child maltreatment and child receptive language and child emotion knowledge. In addition, there was support for an indirect pathway between child maltreatment and child cortisol diurnal decline through maternal elaborative reminiscing. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:26535941

  13. Parental Support for Language Development during Joint Book Reading for Young Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…

  14. Partners in Language: A Guide for Parents. (Companeros En El Idioma: Guia para Los Padres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Speech and Hearing Association, Washington, DC.

    This is a bilingual book about language development of the young child. It is written for parents, with the objective of providing them with skills to help their children learn to talk. Emphasis is on maintaining communication between parent and child from infancy in a non-pressured, accepting, and positive environment. Developmental (normative)…

  15. Brief Report: Parent Verbal Responsiveness and Language Development in Toddlers on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; McDuffie, Andrea; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal associations between parent verbal responsiveness and language 3 years later in 34 toddlers with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Parent-child play samples were coded for child engagement and communication acts and for parent verbal responsiveness. Measures of responsive verbal behaviors were used to…

  16. The impact of reading on language development in the preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek; Urška Fekonja; Simona Kranjc; Petra Lešnik Musek

    2002-01-01

    The importance of the role played by children's literature in the child's mental, social and linguistic development and in the development of his or her basic academic skills, such as reading andwriting, has been confirmed by numerous studies. A central issue in developmental psychology is what activities related to children's books exert an influence on the child's development and in what ways. Thisinterest in children's books and in child language development places our ...

  17. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders. PMID:18822999

  18. Summary of Consultations on Child Care Reform = Sommaire des consultations sur la reforme des services de garde d'enfants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services, Toronto.

    This document contains the English and French language versions of a report summarizing the results of a public consultation process on the subject of child care reform in Ontario, Canada. The process began with province-wide distribution of a public document called "Setting the Stage" which outlined a child care reform agenda as a focus for…

  19. Father-Child Play Behaviors and Child Emotion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the father-child activation theory, which identifies the father-child relationship as a source for self-regulation learning. Father-child play behaviors during toddlerhood were examined for their contribution to self-regulation skills, specifically emotion regulation and aggression. This study examined father-child play behaviors of emotion amplification, intrusiveness, positive regard, and child emotion regulation seeking in the National Early Head Start (EHS) Evaluation. Fat...

  20. A STUDY OF ANXIETY OF ENGINEERING STUDENTS TOWARDS ENGLISH LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. S. Sailaja

    2016-01-01

    Education is the powerful tool which helps to modify the behaviour of the child according to the needs and expectancy of the society. Student’s attitude is an integral part of learning and that it should, therefore become an essential component of second language learning pedagogy. Attitudes toward learning are believed to influence behaviours such as selecting and reading books, speaking in a foreign language etc. Especially in Education, if the students have positive attitude towards ...

  1. Content and language integrated learning in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Žniderič, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays teaching and learning foreign languages is rapidly being introduced in early childhood. During this time, intensive cognitive, emotional and social development of the child takes place. Early childhood is therefore a particularly sensitive period with special characteristics and specificities. On one hand this may serve as an advantage in language learning, while on the other it requires their good comprehension and consideration. In the theoretical part of the thesis we therefor...

  2. Sources of Variability in Children’s Language Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Huttenlocher, Janellen; Waterfall, Heidi; Vasilyeva, Marina; Vevea, Jack; Hedges, Larry V.

    2010-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examines the role of caregiver speech in language development, especially syntactic development, using 47 parent-child pairs of diverse SES background from 14 to 46 months. We assess the diversity (variety) of words and syntactic structures produced by caregivers and children. We use lagged correlations to examine language growth and its relation to caregiver speech. Results show substantial individual differences among children, and indicate that diversity of e...

  3. Language, motor skills and behavior problems in preschool years

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Child language development is a complex process. This process cannot be understood without considering its relationship to other developmental domains. Language development in preschool years is associated with development of motor skills and behavior problems, and these associations are the focus of the current thesis. Despite a large number of studies examining the co-occurrence of such developmental delays and problems, few studies have examined the developmental relationship between these...

  4. Sociodemographic profile of speech and language delay up to six years of age in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Binu, Raj Sunil, Stephenson Baburaj, Mohandas MK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Speech and language is the most important skill for the child’s development and scholastic performance. Awareness of the delay is important in the programs for early identification. Purpose: to assess the prevalence of speech and language delay in children from age group 0 to six years of age. Methodology: The speech and language development of children coming in the well baby clinic and daily pediatric clinic of age group from birth to 6 years were evaluated using Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST. The prevalence of speech and language delay in each age group was calculated and also analyzed in the sociodemograhic profile. Results: A total of 102 children were studied in which 13.7% had language delay. 18% had questionable language delay and 15.7% had suspect language delay. Though among language delay mixed type was more, children had more difficulty in doing expressive items. Language delay was also found to be more prevalent in males, single child, first born child and children of working mothers. Parental age, education or socioeconomic status was not found to be related to language delay. Conclusion: The 13.7% prevalence of language delay in the children indicates the need of early identification and for it a simple screening tool like LEST is a must during the routine evaluation of young children in pediatric clinics. Health care givers and parents should ensure that babies grow up in a language rich, nurturing and stimulating environment right from birth onwards.

  5. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  6. Language Corner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dear Readers,It’s December once more, and time for the Language Corner annual "examination. " Questions have been taken from column exercises throughout the year. The test will give you an idea of your progress in Chinese, and also help us to see what changes could be made to improve the column. So give it a try!There will be one super prize, two first prizes, five second prizes, and ten third prizes.We appreciate your participation, and wish you success.-Ed.Please mail your answers to the following address by the end of February 2003:News Center, China Today24 Baiwanzhuang Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, China 100037

  7. Sources of Variability in Language Development of Children with Cochlear Implants: Age at Implantation, Parental Language, and Early Features of Children's Language Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szagun, Gisela; Schramm, Satyam A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relative influence of age at implantation, parental expansions, and child language internal factors on grammatical progress in children with cochlear implants (CI). Data analyses used two longitudinal corpora of spontaneous speech samples, one with twenty-two and one with twenty-six children,…

  8. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

  9. The impact of language and high-stakes testing policies on elementary school English language learners in Arizona.

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne E. Wright; Daniel Choi

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of third-grade teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs) in Arizona regarding school language and accountability policies—Proposition 203, which restricts bilingual education and mandates sheltered English Immersion; the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB); and Arizona LEARNS, the state’s high-stakes testing and accountability program. The instrument, consisting of 126 survey questions plus open-ended interview question, was designed...

  10. Your Child's Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and when to go to the doctor. "Barky" Cough Barky coughs are usually caused by a swelling ... happens when the child inhales (breathes in). Whooping Cough Whooping cough is another name for pertussis, an ...

  11. Surviving Your Child's Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your child that will never be answered. Depression Lack of energy, sleep problems, inability to concentrate, ... a zip code. Search Connect with us on Facebook Find Support Video Online Support Community Connect, share ...

  12. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  13. Understanding Child Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Awareness Sustainability Policy Issues Understanding Child Traumatic Stress Page Contents: Responding to Danger When Danger Turns ... malevolence, and human accountability. Back to Top Posttraumatic Stress Responses For reasons that are basic to survival, ...

  14. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  15. Normal Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... is "normal" depends upon the child's level of development, which can vary greatly among children of the ...

  16. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron and ... enough iron in their daily diets. How Much Iron Do Kids Need? Kids require different amounts of ...

  17. Child with NF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead some ado- lescents to feelings of depression, anxiety and social isolation. Counseling and assisting the child in finding a social network can help significantly. In addition to promoting local ...

  18. Your Child's Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ll need an accurate height and weight measurement. Bathroom scales and tape measures aren't always precise. ... child's health, level of physical activity, and eating habits, as well as your family medical history. The ...

  19. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  20. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn more about the Child Care Rule > OCC Publishes Approved FY 2016-2018 CCDF Plans The Plan ... Instructions Information Memoranda Policy Interpretation Questions Technical Bulletins Administration for Children & Families U.S. Department of Health & Human ...

  1. Helping Your Overweight Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are high in calories, sugar, and salt like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy refined grains (white ... make smoothies. Buy fewer high-calorie foods like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy. Offer your child ...

  2. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  3. Foreign Language Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees; Weltens, Bert

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent research on language maintenance and language loss, focusing on the loss of a second language in a first language environment, the linguistic aspects of loss, and relearning a "lost" language. An annotated bibliography discusses nine important works in the field. (43 references) (MDM)

  4. Towards Strategic Language Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdam, R.; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    1995-01-01

    Towards Strategic Language Learning is the result of extensive research in the relationship between mother tongue education and foreign language learning. As language skills that are taught during native language lessons are applied in foreign language performance as well, it is vital that curricula

  5. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  6. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  7. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  8. Microfinance and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Jonas; Breyer, Julika

    2011-01-01

    Aims to assess the role of microfinance as an instrument in combating child labour. Reviews the economic literature drawing on empirical evidence of the impact of microfinance on poverty, income stability, overall household wellbeing and the demand for child labour taking a comprehensive perspective on microfinance which includes loans for consumption, savings, insurance, financial services for improving the access to education, and awareness raising. Examines the direct experience of microfi...

  9. ''Battered child'' syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synonyms for the 'battered child' syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as 'child abuse', or 'non-accidental injury'. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ)

  10. Music in child care

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2007-01-01

    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  11. Child sex rings.

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, N J; Wynne, J M

    1986-01-01

    Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a "family friend" or obtained a position of authority over children. Secrecy was encouraged and bribery, threats, and peer pressure used to induce participatio...

  12. Technology in Language Use, Language Teaching, and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…

  13. Story interpretation and its influence to child in early school

    OpenAIRE

    Kitanova, Irena

    2015-01-01

    One of the most beautiful reading-pice for education with ethical and esthetical value for the children in the early child education at the family and in the kindergarten is the story. The story has big importance for education process in early childhood and for the school period of child development. As a meter of fact on that age with specifically language and statement the story offers possibility to see the beauty of art expression, to wake up the esthetical sense and with that procedure ...

  14. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  15. Language Planning Theories and Language Planning In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许楠

    2006-01-01

    The specialized study of language policies and planning as a part of sociolinguistics is originated in the 1960's. The theories about language planning may give some guidance to the language planning in China. Of course, China's language policy makers should make decisions according to the specific language situation in China. Chinese language is the national language, and there are more than 120 ethnic minority languages. Therefore, language planning in China involves the Chinese language planning and minority languages planning.

  16. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse any more.    You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner!   General & Professional French courses The next General & Professional French course will start on 26 January. These collective courses aim to bring participants who have at least level A1 to higher levels (up to C2). Each level consists of a combination of face-to-face sessions (40 hours) with personal work (20 hours) following a specially designed programme. A final progress test takes place at the end of the term. Please note that it is mandatory to take the placement test. Please sign up here. French courses for beginners The aim of this course is to give some basic skills to beginners in order to communicate in simple everyday situations in both social and professional life. These courses can start at any time during the year, as soon as a group of beg...

  17. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  18. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  19. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    Permanence A "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier - French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne - English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00   New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF, DALF). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link:  English courses French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  20. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    PermanenceA "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00 New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF and BULATS). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link: http://English courses http://French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  1. Attachment Relationships as Predictors of Language Skills for At-Risk Bilingual Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Li, Yibling

    2011-01-01

    Parental attachment and close teacher-child relationships offer a protective mechanism to promote language development among bilingual preschool children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Research has shown that language skills are an integral part of resilience for young children. This is the first study to examine parental…

  2. Out of the Mouths of Babes: Unlocking the Mysteries of Language and Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes three studies that have revolutionized child psychology by teaching us that children are biologically programmed to learn language; children's language development is orderly and pragmatic, but grammatically mysterious; and children's linguistic self-expression reveals some disturbing ways in which they have been socialized. Presents…

  3. Signs of Resistance: Peer Learning of Sign Languages within "Oral" Schools for the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin-Jaffe, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the role of the Deaf child as peer educator. In schools where sign languages were banned, Deaf children became the educators of their Deaf peers in a number of contexts worldwide. This paper analyses how this peer education of sign language worked in context by drawing on two examples from boarding schools for the deaf in…

  4. Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nae-Dong

    2000-01-01

    This study surveyed 68 Taiwanese preservice English elementary teachers regarding their beliefs about language learning and teaching. The survey examined their beliefs in five areas: child development, teaching English to children, teaching strategies and techniques, the nature of language learning, and self-efficacy and expectations. Data…

  5. In Search of the Right Questions: Language Background Profiling at Ontario Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    This article examines some of the challenges that the notion of a (monolingual) native speaker faces in a global context of increasing awareness that bilingualism and multilingualism are the norm rather than the exception. It also discusses the distinction between two child language acquisition environments, bilingual first language acquisition…

  6. The acquisition of French as a second language new developmental perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Lindqvist, Christina

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that the study of child L2 development can inform different maturational accounts of language acquisition. One such specific proposal was put forward by Meisel (2008), arguing for a cut-off point for monolingual or bilingual first language acquisition - (2)L1 - type of development at 3-4 years. The paper analyses the longitudinal development of object clitics in child L2 French (L1 Swedish) and compares the developmental sequence in child L2 learners (n?=?7) with different Ages of onset of Acquisition (AoA) (from 3;0 to 6;5) to the adult L2 sequence that was found in previou

  7. English language learning flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴若卿

    2009-01-01

    @@ Vocational school students a sense of the prevalence of language problems, the so-called sense of language learners of language refers to a kind of sensitive information and rich understanding of automation of the aware-hess activities.

  8. Revisiting Plain Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  9. Language disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... phrases that include both a noun and a verb At 36 months, does not have at least ...

  10. Theories of early language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, K

    1997-07-01

    What features of brain processing and neural development support linguistic development in young children? To what extent is the profile and timing of linguistic development in young children determined by a pre-ordained genetic programme? Does the environment play a crucial role in determining the patterns of change observed in children growing up? Recent experimental, neuroimaging and computational studies of developmental change in children promise to contribute to a deeper understanding of how the brain becomes wired up for language. In this review, the muttidisciplinary perspectives of cognitive neuroscience, experimental psycholinguistics and neural network modelling are brought to bear on four distinct areas in the study of language acquisition: early speech perception, word recognition, word learning and the acquisition of grammatical inflections. It is suggested that each area demonstrates how linguistic development can be driven by the interaction of general learning mechanisms, highly sensitive to particular statistical regularities in the input, with a richly structured environment which provides the necessary ingredients for the emergence of linguistic representations that support mature language processing. Similar epigenetic principles, guiding the emergence of linguistic structure, apply to all these domains, offering insights into phenomena ranging from the precocity of young infant's sensitivity to speech contrasts to the complexities of the problem facing the young child learning the arabic plural.

  11. A Natural Language Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Sodiya, Adesina Simon

    2007-01-01

    Natural languages are the latest generation of programming languages, which require processing real human natural expressions. Over the years, several groups or researchers have trying to develop widely accepted natural language languages based on artificial intelligence (AI). But no true natural language has been developed. The goal of this work is to design a natural language preprocessing architecture that identifies and accepts programming instructions or sentences in their natural forms ...

  12. Gender Difference in Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒婧

    2014-01-01

    All languages, the systems of arbitrary symbols, are equally good. Language which is the linguistic behaviour is used for human communication. Therefore, the rules for conversing are determined by certain social requirements. This essay lays empha⁃sis on gender difference in language vocabulary and in using of language so as to reveal the relatedness between language and soci⁃ety and to explore the language development along with social change.

  13. Endogenous sources of variation in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chung-Hye; Musolino, Julien; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    A fundamental question in the study of human language acquisition centers around apportioning explanatory force between the experience of the learner and the core knowledge that allows learners to represent that experience. We provide a previously unidentified kind of data identifying children's contribution to language acquisition. We identify one aspect of grammar that varies unpredictably across a population of speakers of what is ostensibly a single language. We further demonstrate that the grammatical knowledge of parents and their children is independent. The combination of unpredictable variation and parent-child independence suggests that the relevant structural feature is supplied by each learner independent of experience with the language. This structural feature is abstract because it controls variation in more than one construction. The particular case we examine is the position of the verb in the clause structure of Korean. Because Korean is a head-final language, evidence for the syntactic position of the verb is both rare and indirect. We show that (i) Korean speakers exhibit substantial variability regarding this aspect of the grammar, (ii) this variability is attested between speakers but not within a speaker, (iii) this variability controls interpretation in two surface constructions, and (iv) it is independent in parents and children. According to our findings, when the exposure language is compatible with multiple grammars, learners acquire a single systematic grammar. Our observation that children and their parents vary independently suggests that the choice of grammar is driven in part by a process operating internal to individual learners.

  14. THE BENEFIT OF EARLY EXPOSURE TO SIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica PRIBANIKJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis and intervention are now recognized as undeniable rights of deaf and hard-of-hearing children and their families. The deaf child’s family must have the opportunity to socialize with deaf children and deaf adults. The deaf child’s family must also have access to all the information on the general development of their child, and to special information on hearing impairment, communication options and linguistic development of the deaf child.The critical period hypothesis for language acquisition proposes that the outcome of language acquisition is not uniform over the lifespan but rather is best during early childhood. Individuals who learned sign language from birth performed better on linguistic and memory tasks than individuals who did not start learning sign language until after puberty. The old prejudice that the deaf child must learn the spoken language at a very young age, and that sign language can wait because it can be easily learned by any person at any age, cannot be maintained anymore.The cultural approach to deafness emphasizes three necessary components in the development of a deaf child: 1. stimulating early communication using natural sign language within the family and interacting with the Deaf community; 2. bilingual / bicultural education and 3. ensuring deaf persons’ rights to enjoy the services of high quality interpreters throughout their education from kindergarten to university. This new view of the phenomenology of deafness means that the environment needs to be changed in order to meet the deaf person’s needs, not the contrary.

  15. Parental mode of communication is essential for speech and language outcomes in cochlear implanted children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, Lone; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Breinegaard, Nina;

    2010-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a very strong effect of the parental communication mode on the auditory capabilities and speech/language outcome for cochlear implanted children. The children exposed to spoken language had higher odds of scoring high in all tests applied and the findings suggest a ...... a very clear benefit of spoken language communication with a cochlear implanted child.......The present study demonstrates a very strong effect of the parental communication mode on the auditory capabilities and speech/language outcome for cochlear implanted children. The children exposed to spoken language had higher odds of scoring high in all tests applied and the findings suggest...

  16. The evolution of language and languages

    OpenAIRE

    Hurford, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Human languages, such as French, Cantonese or American Sign Language, are socio- cultural entities. Knowledge of them (`competence') is acquired by exposure to the ap- propriate environment. Languages are maintained and transmitted by acts of speaking and writing; and this is also the means by which languages evolve. The utterances of one generation are processed by their children to form mental grammars, which in some sense summarize, or generalize over, the children's linguistic experie...

  17. Communication, language and expression body in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gomes da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to give basis for understanding corporal expression as a language, which would enable the child to produce information/knowledge within the physical education. Based on the concepts of childhood, language and comunication, we understand that the phsysical education must promove the establishment of comunicative relationships, in which corporal expresion apears as a special manifestation. Based on Peirce Semiotics, the corporal expression is conceive as a language in itself, constitude by spontan gests, which ar produced by diversous stimuli. This enable the children to construct interpretating/interpretative relations in this signs fluxe, and, because of it, to produce knowledge.

  18. Developing a Child Friendly Text-to-Speech System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the implementation details of a child friendly, good quality, English text-to-speech (TTS system that is phoneme-based, concatenative, easy to set up and use with little memory. Direct waveform concatenation and linear prediction coding (LPC are used. Most existing TTS systems are unit-selection based, which use standard speech databases available in neutral adult voices. Here reduced memory is achieved by the concatenation of phonemes and by replacing phonetic wave files with their LPC coefficients. Linguistic analysis was used to reduce the algorithmic complexity instead of signal processing techniques. Sufficient degree of customization and generalization catering to the needs of the child user had been included through the provision for vocabulary and voice selection to suit the requisites of the child. Prosody had also been incorporated. This inexpensive TTS system was implemented in MATLAB, with the synthesis presented by means of a graphical user interface (GUI, thus making it child friendly. This can be used not only as an interesting language learning aid for the normal child but it also serves as a speech aid to the vocally disabled child. The quality of the synthesized speech was evaluated using the mean opinion score (MOS.

  19. MEMORY AND LANGUAGE IN TESTIMONIES OF 3- TO 6- YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva A. Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The testimony of pre-school children is, in many cases, the main and only evidence in criminal proceedings. Memory and language are two main components in the statement of the child and they require special analysis, not only because of the important role they play, but also because of the relationship between the two capacities. The vulnerability of memory and its ability to be altered by suggestions, as well as the variability of language development in the 3- to 6-year-old child, are two factors that influence the collection of testimony. These factors, together with the interviewer’s skill in adapting the interview to the child, may obtain reliable information that is free of subjectivity and that will facilitate the investigation of the allegations. This article presents an overview of both capabilities, language and memory, from the perspective of child witness testimony as evidence in criminal proceedings.

  20. Power, Language, and Literacy in "The Great Gilly Hopkins"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    To compensate for her feelings of anger and helplessness over her mother's abandonment and subsequent displacements, the foster child Gilly Hopkins seeks power and agency through the primary means at her disposal: through the use of language and fairy tales. She constructs a Cinderella fantasy of an idealized mother who will rescue her. She also…

  1. Language and communication in people who are deafblind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, M.P.J.; Damen, S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of language and communication in people who are deafblind requires child rearing, interaction, and teaching methods that match each individual's cognitive development, level of functioning, and interest; that can be perceived on a sensory level; that provoke responses that match the

  2. Effects of Language of Implementation on Functional Analysis Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; O'Reilly, Mark; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Mulloy, Austin; Aguilar, Jeannie; Singer, George

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of language of implementation on functional analysis outcomes for a child with a severe intellectual disability from a Spanish-speaking home. Challenging behavior was assessed during 5-min sessions under 4 conditions; attention, play-verbal, play-nonverbal, and demand and across 2 phases; implementation in…

  3. Speech, Language, and Audiology Services in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of communication disorders (speech, language, and hearing) among school-age children continues to increase, making it imperative that the classroom teacher be able to identify children in need of services. This article provides information that will enable all teachers to recognize when a child is exhibiting signs of a communication…

  4. Intonation Abilities of Children with Speech and Language Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Bill; Peppe, Sue

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a new intonation battery, the Profiling Elements of Prosodic Systems Child Version (PEPS-C) was administered to 18 children with speech and/or language impairments (LI). PEPS-C examines phonetic and functional aspects of intonation in grammar, affect, interaction, and pragmatics. Results support the view that intonation is…

  5. Fetal Testosterone, Socio-Emotional Engagement and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Brad M.; Mattes, Eugen; Keelan, Jeff A.; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations among fetal testosterone, child socio-emotional engagement and language development in a sample of 467 children (235 boys) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Bioavailable testosterone concentration measured in umbilical cord blood taken at birth was found to be significantly…

  6. Enhancing Relationships with Parents of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Rocio; Huerta, Mary Esther; Campos, David

    2012-01-01

    Schools provide the context in which the interests of all the stakeholders in a child's education intersect to sustain academic achievement. Strong home, school, and community partnerships are integral to the ability of English language learners (ELLs) to access learning opportunities, and parental involvement is particularly important to their…

  7. Communication outcomes following cochlear implantation in a child with cystic cochleovestibular anomaly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Banumathy; Naresh K. Panda

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is one of the best amongst the various management options available for children and adults with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. Inner ear and internal auditory canal (IAC) malformations accounts to approximately 25%of congenital sensorineural hearing loss in children. The primary goal of this report was to evaluate the communication outcomes after cochlear implantation in a child with cystic cochleovestibular anomaly (CCVA). The child was evaluated through various standardized outcome measures at regular intervals to track the progress in terms of auditory and spoken language skills. The scores on Categories of Auditory Perception (CAP), Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS), Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR), Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS), and listening and spoken language skills showed a significant leap in 12 months duration post implantation. The report thus highlights and correlates the significant progress in auditory and spoken language skills of the child with congenital malformations to appropriate auditory rehabilitation and intensive parental training.

  8. Discussion: Imagining the Languaged Worker's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuoli, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    What people perceive as "a language"--a named entity--is abstracted from practices and notions about those practices. People take for granted that language is somehow a "thing," an objectively distinct and bounded entity. How languages come to be thus imagined indexes the conditions under which they are imagined. The articles…

  9. Language Learner Strategies in Second Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying

    2014-01-01

    Language learner strategies, which are closely associated with second language teaching, have experienced great devel-opment in the fields of theory-building and instructional practices since the 1970s. By reviewing previous research, pedagogical enlightenments can be drawn to the current English language teaching.

  10. Language and Language Policy in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, William H., III

    1985-01-01

    Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)

  11. Languages and Language Varieties in Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Maltese, the national language of Malta, is, without doubt, the dominant language of most Maltese in most domains of language use in Malta. It however shares official status with English, which is also in regular use. Most Maltese can, in fact, be said to be bilingual to differing degrees. This article begins by providing some background…

  12. Language Processes and Second-Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Larry Lloyd

    A review of the literature and research concerning the language processes of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and an analysis of the findings regarding the characteristics of these processes and their relationship to the second-language learner led to the following conclusions: (1) the circumstances under which the first language is…

  13. Home language environment of Polish children in Iceland and their achievement in Icelandic grammar school

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Wozniczka

    2011-01-01

    Nobody doubts the importance of the mother tongue in raising bilingual children, but the possible influences of growing up in two or more languages on the child’s development are the subject of rich discussion. How does the quality of mother language input, including reading and other child-parent language interactions, affect the child’s development and achievement in school? Examining this question is particularly interesting in Iceland, a country which in recent decades changed from a ...

  14. Child life services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Child life programs are an important component of pediatric hospital-based care to address the psychosocial concerns that accompany hospitalization and other health care experiences. Child life specialists focus on the optimal development and well-being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults while promoting coping skills and minimizing the adverse effects of hospitalization, health care, and/or other potentially stressful experiences. Using therapeutic play, expressive modalities, and psychological preparation as primary tools, in collaboration with the entire health care team and family, child life interventions facilitate coping and adjustment at times and under circumstances that might otherwise prove overwhelming for the child. Play and developmentally appropriate communication are used to: (1) promote optimal development; (2) educate children and families about health conditions; (3) prepare children and families for medical events or procedures; (4) plan and rehearse useful coping and pain management strategies; (5) help children work through feelings about past or impending experiences; and (6) establish therapeutic relationships with patients, siblings, and parents to support family involvement in each child's care. PMID:24777212

  15. Vowel space development in a child acquiring English and Spanish from birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruski, Jean; Kim, Sahyang; Nathan, Geoffrey; Casielles, Eugenia; Work, Richard

    2005-04-01

    To date, research on bilingual first language acquisition has tended to focus on the development of higher levels of language, with relatively few analyses of the acoustic characteristics of bilingual infants' and childrens' speech. Since monolingual infants begin to show perceptual divisions of vowel space that resemble adult native speakers divisions by about 6 months of age [Kuhl et al., Science 255, 606-608 (1992)], bilingual childrens' vowel production may provide evidence of their awareness of language differences relatively early during language development. This paper will examine the development of vowel categories in a child whose mother is a native speaker of Castilian Spanish, and whose father is a native speaker of American English. Each parent speaks to the child only in her/his native language. For this study, recordings made at the ages of 2;5 and 2;10 were analyzed and F1-F2 measurements were made of vowels from the stressed syllables of content words. The development of vowel space is compared across ages within each language, and across languages at each age. In addition, the child's productions are compared with the mother's and father's vocalic productions, which provide the predominant input in Spanish and English respectively.

  16. Action Imitation at 1.5 Years Is Better than Pointing Gesture in Predicting Late Development of Language Production at 3 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana, Imac M.; Ystrom, Eivind; Schjolberg, Synnve; Pons, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether poor pointing gestures and imitative actions at 18 months of age uniquely predicted late language production at 36 months, beyond the role of poor language at 18 months of age. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were utilized. Maternal reports of the children's nonverbal skills and language were…

  17. Developing Relationships between Language and Behaviour in Preschool Children from the Early Language in Victoria Study: Implications for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Lesley; Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Cini, Eileen; Eadie, Patricia; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Following a biopsychosocial model, the study investigated the role of child factors (gender, IQ), maternal factors (psychological distress, maternal education and vocabulary, maternal distress) and environmental factors (SES) in the relationship between language impairment and behaviour problems in preschool children. Participants were drawn from…

  18. Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Language-Based Learning Disabilities (Reading, Spelling, and Writing) What ... a language-based learning disability ? What is a language-based learning disability? Language-based learning disabilities are ...

  19. Sexual Abuse in 8-year-old Child: Where Do We Stand Legally?

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Balkrishna Behere; Akshata Nandu Mulmule

    2013-01-01

    We have reporting herein two cases of victims of sexual abuse, both 8 years old girls, both presented with symptoms of irritability, withdrawn behavior, fearfulness, anxiety, and abusive language toward family members. These symptoms appeared following sexual abuse. We are highlighting early identifications of child sex abuse and discussed the legal aspects of child abuse and "protection of children from sexual offences act" 2012. Finally, we have discussed how to prevent such incidences incl...

  20. Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Alison M; Dunstan, Frank; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Mann, Mala; Rolfe, Kim; Datta, Shalini; Thomas, D Phillip; Sibert, Jonathan R; Maguire, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types. Design Systematic review. Data sources All language literature search of Medline, Medline in Process, Embase, Assia, Caredata, Child Data, CINAHL, ISI Proceedings, Sciences Citation, Social Science Citation Index, SIGLE, Scopus, TRIP, and Socia...