WorldWideScience

Sample records for child injury prevention

  1. World Report on Child Injury Prevention: Opportunity for scaling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unintentional injuries accounted for almost 90% of these child injury deaths. Beyond these fatalities, there are several thousand children who have survived with varying degrees of disability. While many prevention programmes have been shown to be effective, much more awareness and political commitment is needed in ...

  2. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-01-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Child Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living HIV / AIDS Injury, Violence & Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco ... Child Injury Prevention Protect the Ones You Love Color Me Safe Child Injury: What You Need to ...

  4. The Effect of Child Access Prevention Laws on Non-Fatal Gun Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff DeSimone; Sara Markowitz

    2005-01-01

    Many states have passed child access prevention (CAP) laws, which hold the gun owner responsible if a child gains access to a gun that is not securely stored. Previous CAP law research has focused exclusively on gun-related deaths even though most gun injuries are not fatal. We use annual hospital discharge data from 1988-2001 to investigate whether CAP laws decrease non-fatal gun injuries. Results from Poisson regressions that control for various hospital, county and state characteristics, i...

  5. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes may be the result of ... occur in childhood sports, but with any knee injury in a growing child there is a possibility of a fracture related ...

  6. Using participatory action research for injury prevention in child development centers, Suratthani province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naturthai Suwantip

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of using participatory action research (PAR in the prevention of injury to children in 14 child development centers (CDCs under local administrative organizations in one district in Suratthani province, Thailand. In total, 98 stakeholder representatives participated in the study, consisting of 7 managers or representatives of the CDCs, 14 caregivers, 7 local health officials and 70 children's parents. They participated in all stages of the study—problem identification, setting the objectives and goals of the study, planning the study, development of research tools, data collection, risk analysis, risk management, monitoring, evaluation, and revision. The physical environments that were in non-compliance with safety standards were identified after a walk-through survey with the participants using an approved checklist. The number of injuries to children was collected before and after the risk management. The participants' knowledge and awareness of child injury prevention were collected using questionnaires. Optimal solutions for injury prevention were obtained through several focus group discussions between the participants within each CDC and among the CDCs. Active participation of the stakeholders resulted in significantly more knowledge and awareness relating to child injury prevention. The environments of CDCs in compliance with safety standards were significantly increased. The number of injuries to the children decreased. The participatory action model in this research was developed through collaboration between the 14 CDCs. The executives of local administrative organizations and local health officials can take the model used in this study and apply it to injury prevention in other CDCs which have a similar environment across the province. Keywords: child development center, injury prevention, participatory action research

  7. Prevention of child injuries during tornadoes: cases from the 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christine M; Baker, Mark D; Monroe, Kathy W

    2012-12-01

    Tornadoes and violent weather pose a hazard to children, yet little is known about the use of personal protective devices during storms. An outbreak of tornadoes on April 27, 2011, resulted in the deaths of 23 children in Alabama. Records from 60 patients seen in a pediatric emergency department for tornado-related injuries were reviewed to identify the use of injury prevention devices. Three children directly exposed to a violent tornado (Enhanced Fujita Scale 4) were using safety equipment, specifically, a helmet and infant car seats. These 3 children sustained only minor injuries. Personal protective devices may have played a role in preventing child injuries from tornadoes. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature on helmet and infant car seat use as child protective devices during tornadoes.

  8. Prevention of child camel jockey injuries: a success story from the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Hefny, Ashraf F; Branicki, Frank

    2012-11-01

    To study the effects of a law banning children from taking part in camel racing on child camel jockey injuries in Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. Prospective study. University Teaching Hospital. All patients who were admitted to Al-Ain Hospital and were injured while riding camels were prospectively studied between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2009. Two periods, before the law and after its introduction, were compared. Pediatric injuries, their anatomical distribution, and severity of injury. Fifty-four patients were studied, and all were males. There were 13 children and 41 adults. All children were camel jockeys except 1 child who was riding a camel for fun. None of the adult camel riders was a camel jockey. The median (range) age of patients admitted before the law was 12.5 (5-45) years, which was significantly less compared with 27.2 (20-40) years after its introduction (P = 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). All 13 children sustained their injuries before the law was implemented, whereas 12 of 41 adults sustained their injuries before the legislation was in place (P law enforcement (P law enforcement in injury prevention, illustrated by the replacement of children by robot substitutes. This is possibly one of the few examples where child injury has been completely prevented by legislation.

  9. Child death reviews: a gold mine for injury prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuachi-Saunders, C; Forjuoh, S N; West, P; Brooks, C

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how child death review teams can be used to prevent future deaths through retrospective, multiagency case analysis and recommendations for educational programs and policy change. A listing of all deaths to persons ages 21 years and younger in Philadelphia that occurred in 1995 was compiled by the Philadelphia Interdisciplinary Youth Fatality Review Team (PIYFRT), a multiagency, multidisciplinary, community based group created in 1993 with the mission to prevent future deaths through review, analysis, and initiation of corrective actions. Data were collected on demographic variables, as well as the circumstantial variables on injuries such as weapon type, alcohol and drug use, and contact with the criminal justice system, among others. Each case was reviewed thoroughly to determine whether or not the death was preventable. Selected injury related death cases were analyzed further by demographic and circumstantial variables. In 1995, 607 children ages 21 years and younger died in Philadelphia from natural causes (61.6%), unintentional injuries (16.3%), homicide (18.6%), suicide (2.3%), and undetermined causes (1.2%). More than a third (37.2%) of all deaths were considered preventable. Of the injury deaths (n=224), 95% were judged to be preventable. Preventable fire/burn injury deaths (n=29) were associated with lack of a smoke detector, nonsupervision of children, and faulty home appliances. Violent deaths were associated with substance abuse, gang involvement, chronic truancy, academic failure, and access to weapons. Relevant policies for these preventable or intervenable deaths are discussed such as use of non-battery powered smoke detectors.

  10. Validation of virtual reality as a tool to understand and prevent child pedestrian injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna; Severson, Joan

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, virtual reality has emerged as an innovative tool for health-related education and training. Among the many benefits of virtual reality is the opportunity for novice users to engage unsupervised in a safe environment when the real environment might be dangerous. Virtual environments are only useful for health-related research, however, if behavior in the virtual world validly matches behavior in the real world. This study was designed to test the validity of an immersive, interactive virtual pedestrian environment. A sample of 102 children and 74 adults was recruited to complete simulated road-crossings in both the virtual environment and the identical real environment. In both the child and adult samples, construct validity was demonstrated via significant correlations between behavior in the virtual and real worlds. Results also indicate construct validity through developmental differences in behavior; convergent validity by showing correlations between parent-reported child temperament and behavior in the virtual world; internal reliability of various measures of pedestrian safety in the virtual world; and face validity, as measured by users' self-reported perception of realism in the virtual world. We discuss issues of generalizability to other virtual environments, and the implications for application of virtual reality to understanding and preventing pediatric pedestrian injuries.

  11. Exercise-based injury prevention in child and adolescent sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Roland; Donath, Lars; Verhagen, Evert; Junge, Astrid; Schweizer, Thomas; Faude, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    The promotion of sport and physical activity (PA) for children is widely recommended to support a healthy lifestyle, but being engaged in sport bears the risk of sustaining injuries. Injuries, in turn, can lead to a reduction in current and future involvement in PA and, therefore, may negatively affect future health as well as quality of life. Thus, sports injury prevention is of particular importance in youth. The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the effectiveness of exercise-based injury prevention programs in child and adolescent sport in general, and with respect to different characteristics of the target group, injury prevention program, and outcome variables. An Internet-based literature search was conducted in six databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, SPORTDiscus) using the following search terms with Boolean conjunction: (sport injur* OR athletic injur* OR sport accident*) AND (prevent* OR prophylaxis OR avoidance) AND (child* OR adolescent OR youth). Randomized controlled trials and controlled intervention studies in organized sport, published in English in a peer-reviewed journal, analyzing the effects of an exercise-based injury prevention program in athletes younger than 19 years of age. Two reviewers evaluated eligibility and methodological quality. Main outcome extracted was the rate ratio (RR). Statistical analyses were conducted using the inverse-variance random effects model. Twenty-one trials, conducted on a total of 27,561 athletes (median age 16.7 years [range 10.7-17.8]), were included. The overall RR was 0.54 (95% CI 0.45-0.67) [p prevention than boys (p = 0.05). Both prevention programs with a focus on specific injuries (RR 0.48 [95% CI 0.37-0.63]) and those aiming at all injuries (RR 0.62 [95% CI 0.48-0.81]) showed significant reduction effects. Pre-season and in-season interventions were similarly beneficial (p = 0.93). Studies on programs that include jumping/plyometric exercises showed a significant

  12. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-07-07

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada's children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver's licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  13. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rothman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%, cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%, booster seats (28, 49%, ski helmets (24, 42%, and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%. The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  14. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  15. A practical and applied approach to assessing the cross cutting nature of child injury prevention as a basis for policy making at the local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Scholtes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Risk factors for child injury are multi-faceted. Social, environmental and economic factors place responsibility for prevention upon many stakeholders across traditional sectors such as health, justice, environment and education. Multi-sectoral collaboration for injury prevention is thus essential. In addition, co-benefits due to injury prevention initiatives exist. However, multi-sectoral collaboration is often difficult to establish and maintain. We present an applied approach for practitioners and policy makers at the local level to use to explore and address the multi-sectoral nature of child injury. Methods: We combined elements of the Haddon Matrix and the Lens and Telescope model, to develop a new approach for practitioners and policy makers at the local level. Results: The approach offers the opportunity for diverse sectors at the local level to work together to identify their role in child injury prevention. Based on ecological injury prevention and life-course epidemiology it encourages multi-disciplinary team building from the outset. The process has three phases: first, visualising the multi-sectoral responsibilities for child injury prevention in the local area; second,  demonstrating the need for multi-sectoral collaboration and helping plan prevention activities together; and third, visualising potential co-benefits to other sectors and age groups that may arise from child injury prevention initiatives. Conclusion: The approach and process encourages inter-sectoral collaboration for child injury prevention at the local level. It is a useful addition for child injury  prevention at the local level, however testing the practicality of the approach in a real-world setting, and refinement of the process would improve it further.

  16. The role of NGOs in child injury prevention: an organizational assessment of one network of NGOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Tran, Nhan T; Agrawal, Shreya; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are estimated to claim the lives of more than 875,000 children each year; millions more live with long-term consequences and permanent disabilities. The epidemiology of injuries has become clearer in the past decade. NGOs need to work in concert with each other to address the global burden of injuries by sharing information. Several NGOs have heeded this call, and the field has seen the emergence of global organizations aimed at highlighting the burden of injuries and streamlining injury prevention activities worldwide. Safe Kids Worldwide Inc. (SKWW) is a global network in 16 countries whose mission is to address the burden of injuries in children under 15 by harnessing the potential of local NGOs. An organizational assessment was conducted of SKWW which included structured organizational assessment, functional organizational mapping and contextual analysis that allowed for an in-depth examination of the strengths and challenges of SKWW's injury prevention approach. Over one year, primary and secondary data were collected and analyzed from headquarters and individual country offices. SKWW appears to be an effective model and has experienced a strong momentum and growth over the last two decades. Global NGOs that address the burden of injuries should start by defining a clear and universal strategic goal, build on local successes, maximize their strengths, and create avenues for stronger country engagement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A practical and applied approach to assessing the cross cutting nature of child injury prevention as a basis for policy making at the local level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtes, B.; Schröder-Bäck, P.; MacKay, M.; Vincenten, J.; Brand, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Risk factors for child injury are multi-faceted. Social, environmental and economic factors place responsibility for prevention upon many stakeholders across traditional sectors such as health, justice, environment and education. Multi-sectoral collaboration for injury prevention is thus

  18. Child injury in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, E; Towner, J

    2009-01-01

    The importance of child injuries has now been recognised as a significant public health problem internationally. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) have recently published the first world report on child injury prevention. As infectious diseases decline, the relative importance of injury has increased, but the pace of change of global processes means that absolute increases in injury may occur over the next 20-30 years. This paper examines child injury in a changing world by outlining the ways in which the forces of globalisation, urbanisation, motorisation and environmental change could have an impact on injury epidemiology and policy. We consider how those in public health and those in the injury field should respond to the changing world of injury. Child injury prevention needs to be incorporated into planning for the rapidly changing urban environments of low-income countries and strategies devised for the large numbers of people displaced by environmental change.

  19. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study Prevent Shaken Baby Syndrome Suggested Practices for Journalists Reporting on Child Abuse and Neglect [PDF 2. ... input class="button submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related Links Saving Lives & Protecting People ...

  20. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Lesiones de los ojos ...

  1. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and cool downs before and after training and matches, respectively. As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and rehabilitation are essential; especially in the prevention of re-injury. Unfortunately, youth football is often disadvantaged with inadequate or unavailable sports medicine personnel and treatment ...

  2. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  3. Development and Preliminary Testing of a Smartphone-Based Injury-Prevention Application (S-IPA) for Teachers at Child-Care Centers in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kang, So Ra; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kim, Yae Young; Ellis, Kevin Wayne

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a smartphone-based injury-prevention application (S-IPA) for teachers working in child-care centers, and to test the satisfaction level of the users of the application (app). Through a literature review and needs assessment, an app compatible with the Apple iPhone operating system was developed. The app was verified and the mean total satisfaction with 7 features of the app was 7.76 (± 1.13) on a score of 1-10. The result of the S-IPA survey showed a positive response, indicating a high potential for use as a teacher's educational guide, which would provide an effective information delivery system for the prevention of possible injuries at child-care centers.

  4. An investment plan for preventing child injuries using risk priority number of failure mode and effects analysis methodology and a multi-objective, multi-dimensional mixed 0-1 knapsack model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bas, Esra

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a general framework for child injury prevention and a multi-objective, multi-dimensional mixed 0-1 knapsack model were developed to determine the optimal time to introduce preventive measures against child injuries. Furthermore, the model maximises the prevention of injuries with the highest risks for each age period by combining preventive measures and supervision as well as satisfying budget limits and supervision time constraints. The risk factors for each injury, variable, and time period were based on risk priority numbers (RPNs) obtained from failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) methodology, and these risk factors were incorporated into the model as objective function parameters. A numerical experiment based on several different situations was conducted, revealing that the model provided optimal timing of preventive measures for child injuries based on variables considered.

  5. Time to add a new priority target for child injury prevention? The case for an excess burden associated with sport and exercise injury: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Wong Shee, Anna; Clapperton, Angela

    2014-07-02

    To determine the population-level burden of sports injuries compared with that for road traffic injury for children aged sports injury and road traffic injury cases for children aged sports injury and road traffic injury cases in children aged sports-related cases and ICD-10-AM cause and location codes to identify road traffic injuries; and injury presentations to 38 Victorian public hospital emergency departments, using a combination of activity, cause and location codes. Trends in injury frequency and rate were analysed by log-linear Poisson regression and the population-level injury burden was assessed in terms of years lived with disability (YLD), hospital bed-days and direct hospital costs. Over the 7-year period, the annual frequency of non-fatal hospital-treated sports injury increased significantly by 29% (from N=7405 to N=9923; pSports injury accounted for a larger population health burden than did road traffic injury on all measures: 3-fold the number of YLDs (7324.8 vs 2453.9); 1.9-fold the number of bed-days (26 233 vs 13 886) and 2.6-fold the direct hospital costs ($A5.9 millions vs $A2.2 millions). The significant 7-year increase in the frequency of hospital-treated sports injury and the substantially higher injury population-health burden (direct hospital costs, bed-day usage and YLD impacts) for sports injury compared with road traffic injury for children aged sports injury prevention in this age group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  7. Prevent Children's Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Lyle J.

    1983-01-01

    Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)

  8. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  9. Child injury surveillance capabilities in NSW: informing policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Injury is one of the most common reasons why a child is hospitalised. Information gained from injury surveillance activities provides an estimate of the injury burden, describes injury event circumstances, can be used to monitor injury trends over time, and is used to design and evaluate injury prevention activities. This perspective article provides an overview of child injury surveillance capabilities within New South Wales (NSW, Australia, following a stocktake of population-based injury-related data collections using the Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems. Information about childhood injury in NSW is obtained from multiple administrative data collections that were not specifically designed to conduct injury surveillance. Obtaining good information for child injury surveillance in NSW will involve better coordination of information from agencies that record information about childhood injury. Regular reporting about childhood injury to provide a comprehensive profile of injuries of children and young people in the state should be considered, along with the provision and/or linkage of child injury information from multiple data collections. This could support the development of a suite of injury performance indicators to monitor childhood injury reduction strategies across NSW.

  10. Unintentional injuries in child care centers in the United States: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikawa, Andrew N; Newton, Manya F; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Stevens, Martha W

    2015-03-01

    The study systematically reviewed all types of unintentional injury and injury prevention research studies occurring within child care centers in the United States. A total of 2 reviewers searched 11 electronic databases to identify 53 articles meeting inclusion criteria. No studies used trauma registries or randomized control trials. Data were not pooled for further analysis because studies lacked standardized definitions for injury, rates, severity, exposure, and demographics. The following child care center injury rates were reported: (0.25-5.31 injuries per 100,000 child-hours); (11.3-18 injuries per 100 children per year); (6-49 injuries per 1000 child-years); (2.5-8.29 injuries per child-year); (2.6-3.3 injuries per child); (3.3-6.3 injuries per 100 observations); (635-835 medically attended injuries per year per 100,000 children and 271-364 child care center playground injuries per year per 100,000 children); and (3.8 injuries per child per 2000 exposure hours). Child care center injury rates were comparable to injury rates published for schools, playground, and summer camp. Most injuries were minor, while most severe injuries (fractures and concussions) were falls from playground structures. Future studies need to use standardized injury definitions and injury severity scales, focus efforts on preventing severe playground injuries in child care centers, and report child care parameters for inclusion in national injury databases. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  12. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Federal and national organizations and State contacts that work to prevent child abuse. Promoting child & family well-being Information on ... awareness & creating supportive communities Tools for sharing a child abuse ... research on what works, information on the role of related professionals, and ...

  13. Child and youth traffic-related injuries: use of a trauma registry to identify priorities for prevention in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivna, Michal; Barss, Peter; Stanculescu, Cristina; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2013-01-01

    Traffic-related injuries are the main cause of death during childhood and youth in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), use of safety restraints by citizens is uncommon, rollovers are frequent, and current legislation does not protect rear-seat occupants. Because little was known about the circumstances of hospitalizations for traffic injuries to guide prevention, a trauma registry was used to assess causes and determinants for traffic-related injuries during childhood and youth (children and youth with traffic injuries were admitted for more than 24 h at surgical wards of the main trauma hospital in the Al-Ain region during a 36-month period (2003-2006). Injuries were analyzed by age, nationality, road user and vehicle types, severity, anatomical region, and the presence of head injury using Injury Severity Scores (ISS) and the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Traffic injuries represented 40 percent (n = 193) of injuries to 0- to 19-year-olds, followed by falls (39 percent). Among 15- to 19-year-olds, who accounted for 46 percent of child and youth victims, the incidence was 150/100,000 person years, compared to an incidence of 15 to 51 for younger age groups. Overall, 53 percent were vehicle occupants, 23 percent were pedestrians, 14 percent were bicyclists, 6 percent were motorcyclists, with 4 percent other. The ratio of male-to-female victims was 6.7:1; for drivers it was 33:0; and for pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists it was between 10:1 and 12:1; injured females were mainly rear-seat passengers and the male: female ratio was 1.4:1. Seventy-one percent of pedestrians were ≤9 years old. Although the ratio of UAE children to foreign children was estimated at 0.7:1 in the community, 58 percent of the injured were UAE citizens. The ratio of injured UAE: non-UAE citizens was 1.4:1 overall but 5.6:1 for drivers and 4.5:1 for motorcyclists. Forty-one percent of citizens were injured in 4-wheel drive sport utility vehicles compared to 13 percent of non

  14. Socioeconomic status and the incidence of child injuries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Jing, Ruiwei; Zeng, Guang; Linnan, Huan Wan; Zhu, Xu; Linnan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Injuries are the major cause of morbidity among children and one of the leading causes of death for children ages 1-17 years in developing countries. Of particular importance is whether child injuries are equally distributed across all socioeconomic groups and the implications of this question for child injury prevention, but there is a lack of research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and risk of child injuries in developing countries, including China. This study used a provincially-representative, population-based sample of 98,385 Chinese children under age 18 to investigate the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and child injuries. Despite the lack of a SES gradient in the overall incidence of nonhospitalized injuries, evidence of SES disparity was found for the overall incidence of H/PD injuries (injuries resulting in hospitalization or permanent disability) and fatal injuries. The odds of getting injured in the poorest wealth quintile were about 1.3 and 3.5 times greater than the odds found in the richest wealth quintile for H/PD and fatal injuries respectively. Further analyses showed that the associations between SES and injuries varied by type and severity of injury, and across different life stages. The findings have important implications for identifying at-risk populations and the optimal times for interventions to reduce different types and severity levels of child injuries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Prevention strategies in child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Philip V

    2010-10-01

    Child maltreatment remains a prevalent problem for which notable best practices such as home visitation can be effective; however, most eligible families do not receive these beneficial services. Additionally, there are other promising prevention interventions to effectively address child maltreatment. This review focuses on the recent advances and strategies for child maltreatment prevention. Although home visiting does not have a single clearly defined methodology of providing service to children and families, the general supportive framework to improve maternal, child, and family factors makes this intervention the most widely studied and accepted prevention strategy. However, there has been limited effectiveness for most models. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) has provided consistently positive results by targeting families with many risk factors by using highly trained professionals when implementing a research-based intervention. A promising public health approach to parent training (Triple P) may reduce maltreatment and out-of-home placement. Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), while a treatment model, is becoming an increasingly important approach to child maltreatment prevention. There may be an opportunity to reduce child maltreatment by enhancing care in the pediatric medical home setting. Effective child maltreatment prevention efforts exist; however, not all programs provide the same effectiveness, or target the same maltreatment issues. Pediatricians are in a key position to offer support to families in their own practice, as well as to direct families to the appropriate resources available.

  16. Prevention of Child Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Gaia, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the determinants of child abandonment in the city of Bra ov. The research is based on a new dataset collected on the field on mothers and pregnant women at risk of abandoning their child.

  17. Preventing head injuries in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to keep their children from getting head injuries. Car Safety Your child should wear a seatbelt at ... local sporting goods store, sports facility, or bike shop will be able to help make certain the ...

  18. Exercise-based injury prevention in child and adolescent sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossler, R.; Donath, L.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Junge, A.; Schweizer, T.; Faude, O.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The promotion of sport and physical activity (PA) for children is widely recommended to support a healthy lifestyle, but being engaged in sport bears the risk of sustaining injuries. Injuries, in turn, can lead to a reduction in current and future involvement in PA and, therefore, may

  19. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Sports and Concussions Burner (Stinger) Concussions: Alex's Story Compulsive Exercise Repetitive Stress Injuries View more Partner Message About Us Contact ...

  20. New perspective on injury prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel

    Scientific literature underpinning prevention of injuries in sport continues to grow. Preventive measures proven effective in experimental research is however, challenged by implementation issues and understanding contextual factors. A designed-based research approach treat the problem of context...... and involves a relationship between researchers and implementers. Perceiving research as a continuum, design-based research could complement experimental research. The adaption by athletes, coaches and physical therapists of designed preventive interventions is a prerequisite of successful injury prevention....

  1. Injury Prevention in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Sugimoto, Dai; Howell, David R

    2017-03-01

    Children and adolescents are now participating in competitive sports at younger ages and with increasing intensity. As a result, increasing numbers of young athletes are presenting to pediatricians for care of sports-related injuries and advice about prevention. Understanding and identifying modifiable risk factors for injury in the young athletic population is a critical first step in injury prevention. Risk factors vary by sport, age, and sex. This article reviews the most common risk factors for injury and the evidence to support proposed strategies for prevention. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(3):e99-e105.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    involving the lateral ankle . • Ankle sprains represent 21 to 53% and 17 to 29% of all basketball and soccer injuries respectively. • Ankle sprains...Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention Francis G. O’Connor, MD, MPH Patricia A. Deuster, PhD, MPH Department of Military and Emergency...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  3. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.

  4. Prevention of unintentional injuries in early childhood: Using an E-health4Uth home safety intervention to promote parents’ child safety behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. van Scholing-van Beelen (Mirjam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEvery day around the world the lives of more than two thousand families are torn apart by the loss of a child due to an unintentional injury [1]. Such tragedy can change lives irrevocably. It is a major public health problem that requires urgent attention. “Unintentional injury” is

  5. Injury prevention for children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Thornton, Lisa S

    2002-11-01

    Little injury data exists for children who have disabilities. There is an urgent need to address injury prevention and to improve safety standards for this group. Understanding the epidemiology of injuries will allow clinicians to accurately advise patients and their families on individual risks and counsel them in steps to take to reduce those risks. Safety information must be tailored to consider each child's functional impairments. All children who have disabilities are at risk for maltreatment. Open discussion of this problem is warranted given the immensity of the problem. Identifying parental concerns and supporting parents in the use of respite resources are appropriate. For children who have problems in mobility, falls are the number one concern. Collaboration with reliable vendors and therapists that adhere to standards for safe seating is essential for reducing the risk of wheelchair tips and falls. In addition, therapists should be directed to provide mobility training for activities from safe transfers to street crossing in a community setting. Parents should be counseled to approach their child's injury risk based on the child's cognitive and behavioral level rather than their chronological level. Knowledge of the child's developmental quotient or intelligence quotient will also allow the clinician to accurately formulate an injury prevention plan. Many children will always need supervision for tasks that put them in situations of injury risk (i.e., swimming, street crossing, bathing). Sensorineural deficits such as blindness or deafness create significant alterations in negotiating the environment and an increased risk of injury. Awareness of the special needs for fire risk reduction and street safety are critical in this population. The collection of injury data is critical to define the scope of the problem and to influence changes in policy and the development of technical standards. Educational efforts focused on safety should include

  6. Preventing playground injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselli, Pamela; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-06-01

    With concerns increasing around childhood obesity and inactivity, playgrounds offer a chance for children to be active. But playgrounds also have risks, with injuries from falls being the most common. Research has shown that playground injuries can be reduced by lowering the heights of play equipment and using soft, deep surfaces to cushion falls. The Canadian Standards Association has published voluntary standards for playgrounds to address these risks for several years. Parents can further reduce injury risks by following simple playground strategies. This statement outlines the burden of playground injuries. It also provides parents and health care providers with opportunities to reduce injury incidence and severity through education and advocacy, and to implement evidence-informed safety standards and safer play strategies in local playgrounds. This document replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2002.

  7. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  8. Prevention of childhood injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence, homicide or suicide) or unintentional (especially through road traffic crashes, drowning, burns, poisoning or falls), has become a major health and social ... Since 1983, trauma has officially been called 'the number 1 killer of children' globally.[3] In. SA, children continue to be threatened by injuries of various kinds,.

  9. Work-related injuries with child labor in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Atoofi, Maryam

    2014-02-01

    Accurate present-day child labor information is difficult to obtain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of child labor patients according to worker status and identify the proportion of work-related injuries that could be prevented by protection devices. This study was performed in one of the largest pediatric trauma center in the central part of Iran. In a prospective case series study, injured children with age less than 15 years who were consecutively admitted to the trauma center for management of their trauma were evaluated. In each patient data such as age, sex, worker status, anatomic site of injury, and costs were collected. In this study, a total of 127 children were evaluated. Most of the injuries (80.3%) occurred in urban areas. In most of the injured patients, the main reason of working was to help pay own family debts or supplement family income. Industrial workroom was the most common place for injury (58.2%). Falling from height or in horizontal surface was the most common mechanism of injury (44%). None of the patients had preventable device at the time of injury. Cuts (49.6%) were the most commonly reported injuries. The lengths of hospitalization were 1.23 + 0.88 days. There was no death reported in our cases. The mean of cost of hospitalization was US $29.9 ± 20.36. Our study showed that child labor injury in the central part of Iran mainly occurred in nonagricultural sector due to falling. These injuries are nonfatal and might be prevented by protective equipment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C.; Anderson, Barton E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: ...

  11. Prevention of ionizing radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masashi

    1976-01-01

    In the first age (1895 - 1940), radiation injuries of skin (75% of death caused by RI injury) and chronic radiation injury of heamatopoietic organs (almost remains) appeared in radiologist and people engaged in RI treatment for medical use, and Ra poisoning appeared in workers who treated aluminous paint. As prevention of radiation injuries in this age, measurement of radiation dose, shelter effect and finding of injuries were studied, and internal radiation allowed level was determined. From 1942 to 1960, acute RI injuries due to exposure of large amount of RI by an accident and secondary leukemia appeared to workers of atomic-bomb industries and researcher of atomic energy. U and Pu poisoning accompanied with development of nuclear fuel industry appeared. This expanded industrial hygiene of this age together with epidemiological data of atomic-bomb exposed people. From 1960 onward, it is an age of industry for peaceful use of atomic energy, and manifestation of various kinds of delayed injuries, especially malignant tumor due to RI exposure, is recognized. Labourer has many opportunity to encounter dangerously with pollution and injuries by RI, and regional examination of RI enterprise and countermeasure to decrease exposure dose were mentioned as future theme from a viewpoint of exposure dose of nation. (Kanao, N.)

  12. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell JA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey A Russell Division of Athletic Training, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA Abstract: Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1 screening; (2 physical training; (3 nutrition and rest; (4 specialized dance health care; and (5 becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. Keywords: dance, injuries, injury prevention, fitness, wellness, health

  13. Preventing Playground Injuries and Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Joe L.

    1994-01-01

    The typical American playground is antiquated, hazardous, and inappropriate for the developmental needs of children. The paper explains how design, installation, maintenance, and supervision are critical in preventing playground injuries and resulting litigation, noting the importance of regular training for everyone who supervises children on the…

  14. Child Injury: What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-16

    This podcast is based on the April 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Many childhood deaths and injuries are preventable, including those caused by crashes, suffocation, poisoning, drowning, fires, and falls. The podcast discusses ways to help prevent these deaths and injuries.  Created: 4/16/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  15. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.

  16. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  17. Pediatric unintentional injury: behavioral risk factors and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna

    2007-06-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children and adolescents between the ages of 1 and 18 in the United States, accounting for more deaths than the next 20 causes of mortality combined. It is estimated that pediatric injury accounts for more than $50 billion in annual losses from medical care costs, future wages, and quality of life. Despite these numbers, much remains to be learned about the behavioral risks for pediatric unintentional injury. This article reviews behavioral risk factors for pediatric unintentional injury risk, with a particular focus on four broad areas. First, we discuss the effects of demographic risk factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Second, we present information about child-specific risk factors, including temperament, personality, psychopathology, and cognitive development. Third, we discuss the influence of parents and other primary caregivers on childhood injury risk, with a particular focus on the effects of supervision and parenting quality and style. Finally, we discuss the role of peers on child injury risk. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the material reviewed has been translated into injury prevention techniques, with a focus on how pediatricians might use knowledge about etiological risk to prioritize safety counseling topics. We also present thoughts on four priorities for future research: injury risk in diverse nations and cultures; developmental effects of injury; the influence of multiple risk factors together on injury risk; and translation of knowledge about risk for injury into intervention and prevention techniques.

  18. accidental injuries in children (physical child abuse)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-06

    Dec 6, 2016 ... (physical child abuse).2 Although it may be overlooked because it is not ... amount of force involved in wound causation. This may probably be used ... Number. More often single isolated injuries but may be few often multiple but may be single. Stage of healing. Often have similar stage of healing. Bruises at ...

  19. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sports_Injuries/sports_injuries_ff.asp. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for ... cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/overuse-injury.aspx. ...

  20. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  1. Preventing child maltreatment: An evidence-based update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem associated with a broad range of negative outcomes in children and adolescents that can extend into adulthood. This review summarizes information about programs aimed at the prevention of child maltreatment evaluated by controlled trials, with a focus on home visitation programs. It does not include programs aimed at prevention of child sexual abuse, the subject of a separate review in this series. We discuss those programs that include one or more measures of child maltreatment and related outcomes (reports of abuse and neglect, injuries, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. Most programs targeting at-risk families have not shown evidence of effectiveness in preventing abuse or neglect. An important exception is the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP, a program provided by nurses to first-time socially disadvantaged mothers beginning prenatally that has undergone rigorous evaluation in three randomized controlled trials. It has shown consistent effects in reducing reports of maltreatment and associated outcomes as well as additional benefits in maternal and child health in high-risk families. A second exception is the promising Early Start program provided by nurses and social workers to at-risk families beginning postnatally. One randomized controlled trial of the program has shown reduced rates of parental reports of severe abuse and hospital attendance for injuries and poisonings, based on records. The characteristics of the NFP and Early Start programs are discussed with special emphasis on ways in which they differ from other home visitation programs.

  2. Common injuries in volleyball. Mechanisms of injury, prevention and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, W W; Kacmar, L

    1997-07-01

    Volleyball has become an extremely popular participation sport worldwide. Fortunately, the incidence of serious injury is relatively low. The sport-specific activity most commonly associated with injury is blocking. Ankle sprains are the most common acute injury. Recurrent sprains may be less likely to occur if an ankle orthosis is worn. Patellar tendinitis represents the most common overuse injury, although shoulder tendinitis secondary to the overhead activities of spiking and serving is also commonly seen. An unusual shoulder injury involving the distal branch of the suprascapular nerve which innervates the infraspinatus muscle has been increasingly described in volleyball players in recent years. Hand injuries, usually occurring while blocking, are the next most common group of injuries. Fortunately, severe knee ligament injuries are rare in volleyball. However, anterior crutiate ligament injury is more likely to occur in female players. Many of these injuries may be preventable with close attention to technique in sport-specific skills and some fairly simple preventive interventions.

  3. Youth Sport Injury Prevention is KEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimon, Jane M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how providing a well-designed injury prevention program that includes attention to growth and development, training and conditioning, protective equipment, and emergency care can minimize youth sport injuries. (SM)

  4. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlle...

  5. Prevalence of child injuries in Mbale region, Eastern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The rate of unintentional child injuries in sub-Saharan Africa is at 53.1 per 100,000, The highest for low income regions, data on these injuries and associated factors among children in Uganda is very scanty. Most child injuries are related to the way of life in rural communities typically burns from charcoal ...

  6. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  7. [Ankle braces prevent ligament injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jon

    2002-09-05

    The Cochrane collaboration has performed a meta-analysis of all studies found on the prevention of ankle ligament injuries, frequent in sports like soccer, European handball and basketball. Interventions include the use of modified footwear and associated supports, training programmes and health education. Five randomized trials totalling 3,954 participants were included. With the exception of ankle disc training, all prophylactic interventions entailed the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis, air-cast or high top shoes. The studies showed a significant reduction in the number of ankle sprains in individuals allocated to external ankle support. This reduction was greater for those with a previous history of ankle sprains.

  8. Child cyclist injuries: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, C J; Pollard, C W

    1986-02-03

    A prospective study of pedalcycle accident morbidity and mortality was carried out from February to mid-November 1983 because of the high frequency of child cyclist injuries that were occurring on the relatively flat Redcliffe Peninsula. These injuries were apparently associated with the large number of young children who use a bicycle as their main mode of transport to and from school. The schools were surveyed for the extent of bicycle use and cyclists were surveyed for the amount of protective clothing that was worn while involved in cycling. It was found that a disturbingly large number of young children made regular bicycle trips on public roads with the minimal use of safety helmets or any other form of protective clothing. Nearly 40% of on-road accidents involved children of less than 12 years of age, and over 10% of these involved children of six years of age or less. No child in our series of on-road accidents was, at the time of injury, wearing a safety helmet or any other form of protective clothing. No bicycle accidents occurred on the exclusive cycle track of approximately 1 km in length on the Peninsula.

  9. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijsterveldt, A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  10. Prevention of Hamstring Injuries in Collegiate Sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yusaku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sato, Yamato

    2017-01-01

    Background: No studies have been reported on how strength, agility, and flexibility training reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in sprinters. Therefore, a program for preventing hamstring injury in these athletes has not been established. Purpose: To document the incidence of hamstring injuries during times when different prevention strategies were employed to see whether a particular prevention program reduced their occurrence. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The study subjects were a total of 613 collegiate male sprinters trained by the same coach over 24 seasons. Tow training was used throughout the research period as a normal sprint training method. The hamstring injury prevention program evolved over time. From 1988 to 1991 (period 1), prevention focused on strength training alone; from 1992 to 1999 (period 2), a combination of strength and agility training was used; and from 2000 to 2011 (period 3), the program incorporated strength, agility, and flexibility training. The incidence of hamstring injuries was compared for each of the 3 prevention strategies. Results: The incidence of hamstring injuries per athlete-seasons was 137.9 for period 1, 60.6 for period 2, and 6.7 for period 3. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of hamstring injury according to the different prevention programs (χ2(2) = 31.78, P hamstring injuries for period 1 was significantly greater than the expected value (P hamstring injuries in sprinters decreased as agility and flexibility were added to strength training. PMID:28210652

  11. Prevention of sports injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, John M; Lou, Julia E; Ganley, Theodore J

    2002-12-01

    As children around the world become involved in increasingly competitive and more organized sports activities, the frequency and severity of both acute and overuse injuries continues to rise. Over the past year, several important studies have contributed to our knowledge in the prevention of sports injuries in children. Safety guidelines and protective equipment are crucial to minimizing pediatric recreational injuries. Protective headgear, mouth guards, and wrist and shin guards have all been shown to be effective in preventing injuries. Nutrition and nutritional supplements (eg, creatine) for the pediatric athlete have also received greater attention recently. Combined with appropriate physical activity programs, nutrition is essential in battling the increasing epidemic of childhood obesity. Increased attention has also been directed toward specific injuries and injury rates in the female athlete. Specific training for the female pediatric athlete may have a preventive effect in halting the rising injury rates.

  12. Domain 2: Sport Safety and Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurchiek, Larry; Mokha, Monique Butcher

    2004-01-01

    Most coaches recognize the importance of creating a safe environment and preventing injuries of their athletes. Domain 2 is dedicated to this important aspect of coaching, and outlines specific areas within safety and injury prevention that coaches should address. Domain 2 sets the standards for facility, equipment, and environmental safety…

  13. Prevention of farm injuries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries.......This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries....

  14. Injury prevention in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Branas, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    Injuries are rapidly escalating by-products of growth and urbanization in developing nations and have become the number one global health threat to children, young adults, and developing nations. Injuries are also highly preventable with scientifically evaluated, cost-effective solutions. Yet these same injuries are highly underappreciated as a global health threat and receive inadequate attention and funding. Because injuries so heavily affect individuals in their most productive years, thei...

  15. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  16. Parental Factors Associated with Child Post-traumatic Stress Following Injury: A Consideration of Intervention Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Wise

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms are relatively common following pediatric traumatic injury and are related to poor long-term child outcomes. However, due to concerns regarding the efficacy of early child preventive interventions, and difficulty intervening with injured and medicated children soon after the event, it is not feasible to provide early psychological interventions to children exposed to traumatic injury. Parental PTSD symptoms and reactions to the child’s traumatic injury impact child outcomes and provide potential targets for early intervention to reduce child symptom development without involving the child. The authors conducted a review of the literature using Psycinfo and Pubmed research databases (publication years = 1990–2017 and identified 65 published studies relevant to the topic of the review. The present review considers parent factors [parenting styles, parental post-traumatic pathology (PTS, adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, and communication regarding the traumatic injury] and their impact on child PTS. We focus specifically on factors amenable to intervention. We further review moderators of these relationships (e.g., child age and gender, parent gender and conclude that it is unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment will be successful. Rather, it is necessary to consider the age and gender of parent child dyads in designing and providing targeted interventions to families following the traumatic injury of a child.

  17. Child coping, parent coping assistance, and post-traumatic stress following paediatric physical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, M L; Donlon, K A; Winston, F K; Kassam-Adams, N

    2013-03-01

    Following a physical injury, many children exhibit long-term psychological reactions such as post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Children's coping strategies, and the ways that others help them cope with injury (i.e. coping assistance), are understudied, potentially malleable variables that could be targeted in preventive interventions. The objectives of the current research were to describe child coping behaviour and parent coping assistance following a child's injury, and to investigate the relationships among coping, coping assistance and child PTSS. Participants included 82 children with injuries and one parent of each child. Children completed measures of coping and coping assistance 2 weeks after their injury (T1). Children also completed measures of coping and PTSS at a 3-month follow-up (T2). Parents reported on the coping assistance they provided to their child at T1. Children reported using an average of six coping strategies (out of 10) with wishful thinking, social support, distraction, and cognitive restructuring endorsed most frequently. Child-reported social withdrawal and resignation 2 weeks after his or her injury (T1) were related to subsequent PTSS (T2). Social withdrawal at T2 was related to concurrent child PTSS (T2). Children were more likely to seek social support when their parents reported helping their child cope. No relationships were identified between active coping behaviours or parent coping assistance and PTSS outcomes. Findings suggest that children's coping strategies (particularly social withdrawal and resignation) play a possibly important, complex role in the development of traumatic stress symptoms. When parents help their child cope, children are more likely to seek out social support, suggesting that they will be more able to ask their parents for help as needed. Future research should identify effective strategies to prevent PTSS including how parents can best support their child following paediatric injury. © 2011

  18. 76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our... responsibilities. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to preventing child abuse... our Nation. Although a strong family unit is the best deterrent to child abuse, effectively...

  19. Can community based interventions prevent child maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, M.W.; Stams, Geert-Jan; de Winter, M.

    Despite the many efforts taken to prevent child maltreatment, this continues to be a significant worldwide problem. Interventions predominantly focus on ‘at risk’ populations and individual characteristics of the victim or abuser, but is that enough? The present review was designed to examine the

  20. Future Directions in Preventing Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the abuse and neglect of children requires: professionals and citizens who care to make a difference; development of multidisciplinary units, teams, or organizations to deal with specific parts of the problem; a clear statement of child protection policy; programs that work; commitment to research and program evaluation; and a…

  1. Occupational Injury Prevention Research in NIOSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Hsiao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provided a brief summary of the current strategic goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health occupational injury research program. Three primary drivers (injury database, stakeholder input, and staff capacity were used to define NIOSH research focuses to maximize relevance and impact of the NIOSH injury-prevention-research program. Injury data, strategic goals, program activities, and research impacts were presented with a focus on prevention of four leading causes of workplace injury and death in the US: motor vehicle incidents, falls, workplace violence, and machine and industrial vehicle incidents. This paper showcased selected priority goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH injury prevention program. The NIOSH contribution to the overall decrease in fatalities and injuries is reinforced by decreases in specific goal areas. There were also many intermediate outcomes that are on a direct path to preventing injuries, such as new safety regulations and standards, safer technology and products, and improved worker safety training. The outcomes serve as an excellent foundation to stimulate further research and worldwide partnership to address global workplace injury problems.

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Silvers, Holly J; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2010-03-01

    The relatively high risk of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture among female athletes has been a major impetus for investigation into the etiology of this injury. A number of risk factors have been identified, both internal and external to the athlete, including neuromuscular, anatomical, hormonal, shoe-surface interaction, and environmental, such as weather. The anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors, often gender related, are the focus of most ACL injury prevention programs. Although studies have shown that biomechanic- centered prevention programs can reduce the risk of ACL injury, many questions remain unanswered. More research is needed to increase our understanding of the risk factors for ACL injury; how injury prevention programs work and can the clinical application of such programs be optimized.

  3. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  4. Core stability training for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C; Anderson, Barton E

    2013-11-01

    Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. PUBMED WAS SEARCHED FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC, BIOMECHANIC, AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF CORE STABILITY FOR INJURY PREVENTION (KEYWORDS: "core OR trunk" AND "training OR prevention OR exercise OR rehabilitation" AND "risk OR prevalence") published between January 1980 and October 2012. Articles with relevance to core stability risk factors, assessment, and training were reviewed. Relevant sources from articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Stabilizer, mobilizer, and load transfer core muscles assist in understanding injury risk, assessing core muscle function, and developing injury prevention programs. Moderate evidence of alterations in core muscle recruitment and injury risk exists. Assessment tools to identify deficits in volitional muscle contraction, isometric muscle endurance, stabilization, and movement patterns are available. Exercise programs to improve core stability should focus on muscle activation, neuromuscular control, static stabilization, and dynamic stability. Core stabilization relies on instantaneous integration among passive, active, and neural control subsystems. Core muscles are often categorized functionally on the basis of stabilizing or mobilizing roles. Neuromuscular control is critical in coordinating this complex system for dynamic stabilization. Comprehensive assessment and training require a multifaceted approach to address core muscle strength, endurance, and recruitment requirements for functional demands associated with daily activities, exercise, and sport.

  5. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0038 TITLE: Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Albert I. King CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...CONTRACT NUMBER Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2-0038 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Albert King, John...TR-7340). Army research lab Aberdeen proving ground MD weapons and materials research directorate. (2015) 11. Reneer, D.V., Hisel, R.D., Hoffman

  6. emergency management of injuries sustained during child sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    threatening injury to the young child.4 A systematic approach to the care of these individuals is essential in order to achieve a ... Children with severe injuries after sexual assault are usually referred to tertiary referral centres or specialists for their ... or any wound is not advisable as the injury can be exacerbated and evi-.

  7. [Prevention of injuries associated with horseback riding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, Chantal A; de Kooter, Tabitha A; Kramer, William L M

    2015-01-01

    Each year 9,900 equestrians present at Accident and Emergency Departments, 40% of them 10-19 year old females. The most common horse-riding injuries are to the head, brain, neck and face, torso and extremities. Because of the relatively larger head, children more often fall on their head. Wearing a helmet gives considerable protection. Despite the common use of a helmet by horseback riders, serious head injury still occurs regularly. Further research into improvement of the protective function of the helmet is indicated. The current safety vest (body protector) does not significantly reduce the risk of torso injury. Improvement of its protective function is necessary. Injury to the lower extremities is caused when they become trapped in the stirrup in a fall from or with the horse. Safety stirrups and sturdy footwear are possible preventive measures. Investment in the quality and promotion of preventive measures could reduce the frequency and severity of equestrian injuries.

  8. Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Preventive HIV Vaccine? HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials HIV Prevention The Basics of HIV Prevention Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Post- ... Related Content Protecting Baby from HIV (infographic) AIDSource | HIV Prevention: Mother-to-Child Transmission MedlinePlus | HIV/AIDS and ...

  9. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015. All rights reserved.

  10. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B. [Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-03-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  11. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B.

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  12. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than one person is jumping at a time. Sports-Related Emotional Stress The pressure to win can cause significant emotional stress for a child. Sadly, many coaches and parents consider winning the most important aspect of sports. Young athletes should be judged on effort, sportsmanship ...

  13. Preventing eye injuries in quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wormald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye injuries often occur in the workplace in low and middle-income countries, particularly in the construction, agricultural, mining, and manufacturing industries. Even if there are safety regulations in these industries, their enforcement is often unsatisfactory, and owners are not required to provide safety equipment.

  14. Injury prevention in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Branas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are rapidly escalating by-products of growth and urbanization in developing nations and have become the number one global health threat to children, young adults, and developing nations. Injuries are also highly preventable with scientifically evaluated, cost-effective solutions. Yet these same injuries are highly underappreciated as a global health threat and receive inadequate attention and funding. Because injuries so heavily affect individuals in their most productive years, their continued growth is sure to hamper or wipe away economic gains in many developing nations and further health inequities between developed and developing nations. Injury prevention in developing countries thus represents an enormous opportunity since attention and funding has been limited even in the face of evidence-based, cost-effective solutions. This opportunity should be pursued in developing nations by choosing prevention programs that address key injury threats and, at the same time, affect long-term, sustainable, and measurable injury reductions. Such programs should have strong local buy-in, a history of evaluation (preferably in developing nations, high returns-on-investment, make use of existing infrastructures when possible, and include an implementation plan that is to be carried out by the developing nation itself.

  15. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kozinc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased ground reaction forces, excessive foot pronation, hip internal rotation and hip adduction during stance phase being mentioned most often. However, evidence on interventions for lowering injury risk is limited, especially regarding exercise-based interventions. Biofeedback training for lowering ground reaction forces is one of the few methods proven to be effective. It seems that the best way to approach running injury prevention is through individualized treatment. Each athlete should be assessed separately and scanned for risk factors, which should be then addressed with specific exercises. This review provides an overview of most common running-related injuries, with a particular focus on risk factors, and emphasizes the problems encountered in preventing running-related injuries.

  16. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Results: Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P basketball athletes. Conclusion: In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. PMID:26502412

  17. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury; Kindesmisshandlung. Nicht akzidentelle Kopfverletzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg [Universitaetsklinik Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-12-15

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  18. Prevention of groin injuries in sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C

    2015-01-01

    in sports. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed in May 2014 yielding 1747 potentially relevant references. Two independent assessors evaluated randomised controlled trials for inclusion, extracted data and performed quality assessments using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Quantitative analyses were...... a significant reduction in the number of groin injuries after completing a groin injury prevention programme (relative risk (RR) 0.81; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.09). Subgroup analysis based on type of sports, gender and type of prevention programme showed similar non-significant estimates with RR ranging from 0.48 to 0.......81. CONCLUSION: Meta-analysis revealed a potential clinically meaningful groin injury reduction of 19%, even though no statistical significant reduction in sport-related groin injuries could be documented. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration ID CRD42014009614....

  19. Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offiah, Amaka; van Rijn, Rick R.; Perez-Rossello, Jeanette Mercedes; Kleinman, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse

  20. Recognition and Prevention of Rugby Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasin, J D; Martin, D F; Curl, W W

    1989-06-01

    In brief: Rugby is a popular, strenuous contact sport that demands almost continuous action by the players. Players, coaches, and physicians must be aware of the potential for and types of injuries that occur during matches and of ways to avoid, or at least reduce, this number and severity. Minor and moderate injuries are more frequent than severe injuries, but all must be regarded seriously. Concussions, although relatively rare, can have serious consequences, and cervical spine injuries can be catastrophic. Player fitness and conditioning and a pregame warm-up are all essential for preventing injuries. Equally important are coaching, adherence to the rules of the game, and avoidance of dangerous play. If these measures are practiced consistently, rugby will be safer.

  1. Prevent Injury After a Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing Violence Pressure Washer Safety Trench Foot or Immersion Foot Emergency Wound Care Wound Management for Healthcare ... as hard hat, safety glasses, hearing protection, heavy work gloves, and cut-resistant legwear. Avoid contact with ...

  2. Walking and child pedestrian injury: a systematic review of built environment correlates of safe walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; To, Teresa; Howard, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The child active transportation literature has focused on walking, with little attention to risk associated with increased traffic exposure. This paper reviews the literature related to built environment correlates of walking and pedestrian injury in children together, to broaden the current conceptualization of walkability to include injury prevention. Two independent searches were conducted focused on walking in children and child pedestrian injury within nine electronic databases until March, 2012. Studies were included which: 1) were quantitative 2) set in motorized countries 3) were either urban or suburban 4) investigated specific built environment risk factors 5) had outcomes of either walking in children and/or child pedestrian roadway collisions (ages 0-12). Built environment features were categorized according to those related to density, land use diversity or roadway design. Results were cross-tabulated to identify how built environment features associate with walking and injury. Fifty walking and 35 child pedestrian injury studies were identified. Only traffic calming and presence of playgrounds/recreation areas were consistently associated with more walking and less pedestrian injury. Several built environment features were associated with more walking, but with increased injury. Many features had inconsistent results or had not been investigated for either outcome. The findings emphasise the importance of incorporating safety into the conversation about creating more walkable cities.

  3. Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury

    OpenAIRE

    C. Schwebel, David; Swart, Dehran

    2009-01-01

    Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world) is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk t...

  4. 77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As... promise for too many young Americans. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our... abuse every year. A strong and well-informed family unit is the surest defense against child abuse, and...

  5. 75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our..., productive adults. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our unwavering commitment to protecting children and responding to child abuse, promoting healthy families, and building a brighter future...

  6. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  7. Relation of child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics to childhood injury in an urban Aboriginal cohort in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Katherine; Burgess, Leonie; Falster, Kathleen; Banks, Emily; Möller, Holger; Ivers, Rebecca; Cowell, Chris; Isaac, Vivian; Kalucy, Deanna; Fernando, Peter; Woodall, Cheryl; Clapham, Kathleen

    2018-04-01

    Despite being disproportionately affected by injury, little is known about factors associated with injury in Aboriginal children. We investigated factors associated with injury among urban Aboriginal children attending four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales, Australia. We examined characteristics of caregiver-reported child injury, and calculated prevalence ratios of 'ever-injury' by child, family, and environmental factors. Among children in the cohort, 29% (n=373/1,303) had ever broken a bone, been knocked out, required stitches or been hospitalised for a burn or poisoning; 40-78% of first injuries occurred at home and 60-91% were treated in hospital. Reported ever-injury was significantly lower (prevalence ratio ≤0.80) among children who were female, younger, whose caregiver had low psychological distress and had not been imprisoned, whose family experienced few major life events, and who hadn't experienced alcohol misuse in the household or theft in the community, compared to other cohort members. In this urban Aboriginal child cohort, injury was common and associated with measures of family and community vulnerability. Implications for public health: Prevention efforts targeting upstream injury determinants and Aboriginal children living in vulnerable families may reduce child injury. Existing broad-based intervention programs for vulnerable families may present opportunities to deliver targeted injury prevention. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    child transmission of HIV. This study assessed health workers' knowledge of the national guidelines on preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria Methodology: The study design was a descriptive ...

  9. Preventive strategies in child and adolescent psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood and adolescence are periods of growth and development that are critical to the formation of adult personality and psychopathology. Moreover, childhood psychopathology may differ significantly in presentation and risk factors from those seen among adults and may require different preventive strategies. Service-related characteristics such as the shortage of trained child and adolescent mental health professionals also demand that the focus should shift from resource-intensive treatment interventions, toward preventive measures that can be delivered at lower cost in terms of workforce, money, and time; and can lead to improved outcomes for a wide variety of conditions. Preventive strategies that have been implemented in this population have mostly included both preventive measures (aiming at reducing the prevalence of risk factors and promotive components (aimed at increasing resilience and positive mental health characteristics, usually in combination. Interventions have been shown to be most effective when they are targeted at underlying latent structures that predict risk; they are also more effective when delivered over a prolonged period. Interventions must also be formulated such that they are developmentally appropriate, and with clearly stated outcome parameters for evaluation. A few example interventions that have made use of these strategies are discussed in the course of this article.

  10. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  11. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention. (2012). Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable . Retrieved August 23, 2012, from ... Disclaimer FOIA Privacy Policy Accessibility NIH...Turning Discovery ...

  12. Child deaths from injury in the special wards of Tokyo, Japan (2006-2010): a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the formal review of child deaths in Japan. In this study we examined the causes and scene information regarding child deaths from injury in Tokyo, the capital of Japan, as preparation for implementation of a full-scale review of child deaths. Documents on deaths from injury (excluding homicides) investigated by the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office during the period from 2006 through 2010 were reviewed. Deaths of children younger than 18 years (N = 217) were selected as the study sample. We examined the cause of and information on the death and were particularly interested in whether a case had preventable factors. Overall, 67% of the cases were deaths from unintentional injury. The main cause of death among children younger than 1 year was asphyxia, and the proportions of deaths from traffic accidents were higher in older age groups. Thirty percent of deaths from injury were due to suicide, and all cases of suicide were among children older than 10 years. Although analysis of preventable factors was difficult in some cases, owing to limited information on the death scene, 87% of deaths from unintentional injury, excluding those involving traffic accidents, had preventable factors. Most unintentional child deaths from injury appear to be preventable. Development of a system to collect detailed information on the scene at the time of death will help decrease child deaths in Japan.

  13. Child Deaths From Injury in the Special Wards of Tokyo, Japan (2006–2010): A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been increasing interest in the formal review of child deaths in Japan. In this study we examined the causes and scene information regarding child deaths from injury in Tokyo, the capital of Japan, as preparation for implementation of a full-scale review of child deaths. Methods Documents on deaths from injury (excluding homicides) investigated by the Tokyo Medical Examiner’s Office during the period from 2006 through 2010 were reviewed. Deaths of children younger than 18 years (N = 217) were selected as the study sample. We examined the cause of and information on the death and were particularly interested in whether a case had preventable factors. Results Overall, 67% of the cases were deaths from unintentional injury. The main cause of death among children younger than 1 year was asphyxia, and the proportions of deaths from traffic accidents were higher in older age groups. Thirty percent of deaths from injury were due to suicide, and all cases of suicide were among children older than 10 years. Although analysis of preventable factors was difficult in some cases, owing to limited information on the death scene, 87% of deaths from unintentional injury, excluding those involving traffic accidents, had preventable factors. Conclusions Most unintentional child deaths from injury appear to be preventable. Development of a system to collect detailed information on the scene at the time of death will help decrease child deaths in Japan. PMID:24705644

  14. Basketball Coaches’ Utilization of Ankle Injury Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; Pennuto, Anthony; Brooks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ankle injuries are the most common high school basketball injury. Little is known regarding the utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies in high school settings. Objective: To determine high school basketball coaches’ utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies, including prophylactic ankle bracing (PAB) or an ankle injury prevention exercise program (AIEPP). Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods: The survey was distributed to all high school basketball coac...

  15. Disparities in Under-Five Child Injury Mortality between Developing and Developed Countries: 1990–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%. Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries.

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English (US) ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  17. ECSS Position Statement 2009: Prevention of acute sports injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, K.; Andersen, T.E.; Krosshaug, T.; van Mechelen, W.; Myklebust, G.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Bahr, R.

    2010-01-01

    To maximize the health benefits of sports and exercise and to minimize the direct and indirect costs associated with injuries, developing and adopting injury prevention strategies is an important goal. The aim of this ECSS consensus paper on injury prevention is to review current evidence on injury

  18. Child Injury: What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-16

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Many childhood deaths and injuries are preventable, including those caused by crashes, suffocation, poisoning, drowning, fires, and falls. The PSA discusses ways to help prevent these deaths and injuries.  Created: 4/16/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  19. What shall we do about: Preventing child abuse and neglect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Like doctors and other healthcare professionals worldwide, many of us see children with injuries caused by physical violence and girls who have been raped. Sometimes we know that a child is malnourished, sick or traumatised because of abuse or neglect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of child abuse ...

  20. A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety ... theoretical and research investigations of the benchmark injury prevention and containment interventions

  1. Child development and pediatric sport and recreational injuries by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Brezausek, Carl M

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, 8.6 million children were treated for unintentional injuries in American emergency departments. Child engagement in sports and recreation offers many health benefits but also exposure to injury risks. In this analysis, we consider possible developmental risk factors in a review of age, sex, and incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries. To assess (1) how the incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries changed through each year of child and adolescent development, ages 1 to 18 years, and (2) sex differences. Design : Descriptive epidemiology study. Emergency department visits across the United States, as reported in the 2001-2008 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Data represent population-wide emergency department visits in the United States. Main Outcome Measure(s) : Pediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries requiring treatment in hospital emergency departments. Almost 37 pediatric sport or recreational injuries are treated hourly in the United States. The incidence of sport- and recreation-related injuries peaks at widely different ages. Team-sport injuries tend to peak in the middle teen years, playground injuries peak in the early elementary ages and then drop off slowly, and bicycling injuries peak in the preteen years but are a common cause of injury throughout childhood and adolescence. Bowling injuries peaked at the earliest age (4 years), and injuries linked to camping and personal watercraft peaked at the oldest age (18 years). The 5 most common causes of sport and recreational injuries across development, in order, were basketball, football, bicycling, playgrounds, and soccer. Sex disparities were common in the incidence of pediatric sport and recreational injuries. Both biological and sociocultural factors likely influence the developmental aspects of pediatric sport and recreational injury risk. Biologically, changes in perception, cognition, and motor control might influence injury risk. Socioculturally

  2. Lifetime injury prevention: the sport profile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick

    2012-03-01

    Participation in sporting activities carries an injury risk. Conversely, the increased awareness that physical inactivity is a major risk factor for disease has led government agencies and the medical community to encourage increased levels of physical activity. Many people will achieve this through participation in sport. Injury inevitably leads to a reduction in participation on a temporary or permanent basis, but the injury experience may also influence the lifelong physical activity behaviour. Few studies adequately examine the possible long-term consequences of sport participation after the competitive period has been completed, but by understanding the patterns of injuries in different sports one test can develop strategies to prevent and better manage the conditions that occur and promote lifelong physical activity. There is a need to develop models of understanding of injury risk at different life phases and levels of participation in a specific sport. The risk assessment of sport participation has to be relevant to a particular sport, the level of participation, skill, age and potential future health consequences. This article describes a sport-specific model which will improve guidance for coaches and healthcare professionals. It poses questions for sports physicians, healthcare providers, educators and for governing bodies of sports to address in a systematic fashion. Additionally the governing body, as an employer, will need to meet the requirements for risk assessment for professional sport and its ethical responsibility to the athlete.

  3. Selected isokinetic tests in knee injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Pilis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuing from isokinetic measurements, the conventional Hcon/Qcon ratio of muscle balance is used as an index for comparing proper relations between the values of strength of knee flexors and extensor muscle. Its abnormal values might indicate pathology of the musculotendinous complex. The aim of the study was to present the possibility of using this ratio as one of the objective identifiers enabling the assessment of knee injury risk in sports. All participants (n=48 were divided into 3 groups: group A (n=16, healthy competitors, group B (n=16, athletes with minor injuries, group C (n=16, competitors with serious injuries, depending on the degree of knee injury. All subjects performed an isokinetic test for knee extensors and flexors at angular velocities of 60°/s and 120°/s. Average peak torque (APT value of knee flexors and extensors, and the value of Hcon/Qcon ratio was analyzed. Both values were calculated in relation to body mass (Nm/kg. Bilateral comparison of isokinetic test parameters confirmed the decrease of quadriceps muscle strength values for the injured extremity in groups B and C. Statistically significant difference was noted for Hcon/Qcon ratio between group A and C, as well as B and C. Hence, the value of conventional Hcon/Qcon ratio can be used for the prevention of sports related injuries.

  4. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  5. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  6. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  7. Child mortality: preventing future child deaths and optimizing family support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff-Gijzen, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide 6.1 million live-born children under the age of five died from natural and external causes in 2014. According to the Convention on the Rights of the Child appropriate measures should be taken by State Parties to ensure the survival and development of the child to a maximum extent and to

  8. Severe head injury in children - a preventable but forgotten epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hazardous or compromised environment.' As such, injury must be regarded as a disease, with identifiable causative factors. Severe head injury in a child is a sociological disaster that crosses all ... biochemical monitoring, measurement of arterial oxygen and ... three or more organ systems, musculoskeletal injuries occurred ...

  9. An Ounce of Prevention: Child Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Barbara, Ed.

    One of a series of three intended for day care center staff, this training manual on child protection consists of descriptions of four workshops. In workshops one and two, respectively, the detection and reporting of general child abuse/neglect and child sexual abuse are explained. In workshop three, information is provided on the sexual…

  10. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE IN ZIMBABWE: PREVENTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacob Mugumbate

    The phenomenon of child sexual abuse (CSA) remains topical in. Zimbabwe. Statistics, literature and debate reflect not only increased scientific interest in child sexual abuse and its potential effects but also growing public concern about this form of child maltreatment. The sexual abuse of children crosses cultural and.

  11. Caregiver reports of serious injuries in children who remain at home after a child protective services investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Leslie, Laurel K; Hurlburt, Michael S; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-02-01

    The study objectives were to examine serious injuries requiring medical attention among children who remain at home after a child welfare/child protective services (CPS) maltreatment investigation in the US and to determine whether child/caregiver characteristics and ongoing CPS involvement are related to injuries requiring medical attention. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, we analyzed data on the subsample of children who remained at home (N = 3,440). A multivariate logistic regression model included child characteristics, chronic illness and disability in the child, level of CPS involvement, subsequent foster care placement, caregiver characteristics, and caregiver/family psychological variables. Injuries requiring medical attention were identified in 10.6% of the in-home population over a 15-month period, with no differences in rates by age. Children with a chronic medical condition (OR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.20-3.58) and children with depressed caregivers (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.45-3.58) were more likely to have an injury that required medical care. Older caregivers (>54 years) were less likely (OR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.69) to have a child with an injury requiring care. Injuries were not related to further involvement with CPS after the initial maltreatment investigation. Children with chronic medical conditions who remained in their biological homes or whose caregivers were depressed were likely to experience an injury requiring medical attention. Older caregivers were less likely to report a child injury. Extending existing health policies for foster children to children who remain at home following referral to CPS may encourage more comprehensive injury prevention for this population.

  12. Father-Child Interactions and Children's Risk of Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    StGeorge, Jennifer; Fletcher, Richard; Freeman, Emily; Paquette, Daniel; Dumont, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is an important cause of infant and child hospitalisation and parents play a key role in reducing children's risk-taking behaviour. Studies show that maternal and paternal parenting and supervision of children differ, but there is little research showing how fathers' parenting may influence children's tendency to engage in…

  13. Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offiah, Amaka [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Perez-Rossello, Jeanette Mercedes; Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

  14. Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offiah, Amaka; Rijn, Rick R. van; Perez-Rossello, Jeanette Mercedes; Kleinman, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

  15. Interventions to prevent injuries in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; Basnet, Prativa; Hoonakker, Peter Lt; Lehtola, Marika M; Lappalainen, Jorma; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Haslam, Roger; Verbeek, Jos H

    2018-02-05

    Construction workers are frequently exposed to various types of injury-inducing hazards. There are a number of injury prevention interventions, yet their effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing injuries in construction workers. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's specialised register, CENTRAL (issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO up to April 2017. The searches were not restricted by language or publication status. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant papers and reviews. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after (CBA) studies and interrupted time-series (ITS) of all types of interventions for preventing fatal and non-fatal injuries among workers at construction sites. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed their risk of bias. For ITS studies, we re-analysed the studies and used an initial effect, measured as the change in injury rate in the year after the intervention, as well as a sustained effect, measured as the change in time trend before and after the intervention. Seventeen studies (14 ITS and 3 CBA studies) met the inclusion criteria in this updated version of the review. The ITS studies evaluated the effects of: introducing or changing regulations that laid down safety and health requirements for the construction sites (nine studies), a safety campaign (two studies), a drug-free workplace programme (one study), a training programme (one study), and safety inspections (one study) on fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries. One CBA study evaluated the introduction of occupational health services such as risk assessment and health surveillance, one evaluated a training programme and one evaluated the effect of a subsidy for upgrading to safer scaffoldings. The overall risk of bias of most of the included studies was high, as it was uncertain for the ITS studies whether the intervention was independent from other changes and thus could be

  16. Prevention of Sport-related Facial Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda M; Patton, Declan A; Eliason, Paul H; Emery, Carolyn A

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence that eye protection, mouth guards, helmets, and face guards are effective in reducing the risk of facial injury; however, such safety practices are not adopted universally by all athletes playing high-risk sports. Underlying beliefs about risk perception, comfort, ineffectiveness, utility, and a lack of awareness or enforcement have been identified as reasons people may not adopt preventive measures. There are several high-risk sports that have not mandated or do not enforce use of protective equipment. Valid evidence can assist with addressing the resistance caused by prevailing beliefs and could be essential in influencing rule changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interventions for preventing ankle ligament injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoll, H H; Rowe, B H; Quinn, K M; de Bie, R

    2001-01-01

    Some sports, for example basketball and soccer, have a very high incidence of ankle injuries, mainly sprains. Consequently, ankle sprains are one of the most commonly treated injuries in acute care. To assess the effects of interventions used for the prevention of ankle ligament injuries or sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group's specialised register, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the National Research Register and bibliographies of study reports. We also contacted colleagues and some trialists. The most recent search was conducted in July 2000. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of interventions for the prevention of ankle sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age were included provided that ankle sprains were recorded. Interventions included use of modified footwear, external ankle supports, co-ordination training and health education. These could be applied as a supplement to treatment provided that prevention of re-injury was the primary objective. At least two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Wherever possible, results of outcome measures were pooled and sub-grouped by history of previous sprain. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are reported for individual and pooled data. In this review update, a further nine new trials were included. Overall, 14 randomised trials with data for 8279 participants were included. Twelve trials involved active, predominantly young, adults participating in organised, generally high-risk, activities. The other two trials involved injured patients who had been active in sports before their injury. The prophylactic interventions under test included the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis (three trials), air-cast brace (one trial) or high top shoes (one trial); ankle disk training; taping; muscle

  18. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane

    2014-10-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR=1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2-1.9), teacher report (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR=1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR=1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR=1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent-child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Practice variation amongst preventive child healthcare professionals in the prevention of child maltreatment in the Netherlands: Qualitative and quantitative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon J.A. Visscher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides both qualitative and quantitative data on practice variation amongst preventive child healthcare professionals in the prevention of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. Qualitative data consist of topics identified during interviews with 11 experts (with quotes, resulting in an online survey. The quantitative data are survey responses from 1104 doctors and nurses working in 29 preventive child healthcare organizations. Additionally, the interview topic list, the qualitative data analysis methodology, the survey (in English and Dutch and anonymized raw survey data (http://hdl.handle.net/10411/5LJOGH are provided as well. This data-in-brief article accompanies the paper “Variation in prevention of child maltreatment by Dutch child healthcare professionals” by Simeon Visscher and Henk van Stel [1].

  20. The prevention of injuries in contact flag football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, Jan; Witvrouw, Erik

    2014-01-01

    American flag football is a non-tackle, contact sport with many moderate to severe contact-type injuries reported. A previous prospective injury surveillance study by the authors revealed a high incidence of injuries to the fingers, face, knee, shoulder and ankle. The objectives of the study were to conduct a pilot-prospective injury prevention study in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries as compared to a historical cohort, as well as to provide recommendations for a future prospective injury prevention study. A prospective injury prevention study was conducted involving 724 amateur male (mean age: 20.0 ± 3.1 years) and 114 female (mean age: 21.2 ± 7.2 years) players. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. An injury surveillance questionnaire was administered to record all time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of injured players, the number of finger/hand injuries, the incidence rate and the incidence proportion between the two cohorts (p injuries can be significantly reduced in flag football. Prevention strategies for a longer, prospective, randomised-controlled injury prevention study should include the strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, appropriate head gear, the use of comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards, and changing the blocking rules of the game.

  1. Injuries to Athletes with Physical Disabilities: Prevention Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    1986-01-01

    While athletes with disabilities may not be injured any more often than other athletes, the types of injuries they sustain are specific to their disabilities and chosen sports. Characteristic injuries are described, and preventive measures are suggested. (Author/MT)

  2. Change in child mortality patterns after injuries in Sweden: a nationwide 14-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, D; Steinvall, I; Sjöberg, F

    2017-06-01

    Sweden has one of the world's lowest child injury mortality rates, but injuries are still the leading cause of death among children. Child injury mortality in the country has been declining, but this decline seems to decrease recently. Our objective was therefore to further examine changes in the mortality of children's death from injury over time and to assess the contribution of various effects on mortality. The underlying hypothesis for this investigation is that the incidence of lethal injuries in children, still is decreasing and that this may be sex specific. We studied all deaths from injury in Sweden under-18-year-olds during the 14 years 1999-2012. We identified those aged under 18 whose underlying cause of death was recorded as International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis from V01 to X39 in the Swedish cause of death, where all dead citizens are registered. From the 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2012, 1213 children under the age of 18 died of injuries in Sweden. The incidence declined during this period (r = -0.606, p = 0.02) to 3.3 deaths/100,000 children-years (95 % CI 2.6-4.2). Death from unintentional injury was more common than that after intentional injury (p injuries during the study period (r = -0.757, p = 0.03). The most common causes of death were injury to the brain (n = 337, 41 %), followed by drowning (n = 109, 13 %). The number of deaths after intentional injury increased (r = 0.585, p = 0.03) and at the end of the period was 1.5 deaths/100,000 children-years. The most common causes of death after intentional injuries were asphyxia (n = 177, 45 %), followed by injury to the brain (n = 76, 19 %). Mortality patterns in injured children in Sweden have changed from being dominated by unintentional injuries to a more equal distribution between unintentional and intentional injuries as well as between sexes and the overall rate has declined further. These findings are important as they might

  3. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    reassurance, strong human relationships to stand in for those that were shattered . 0 0 S• i n | | |9 CAUSES OF CHILD ABUSE IN FAMILIES The purpose of...was especially messy at meal time, mashing cereal in her hair and ears; 31 "an infant who pulls on a necklace and breaks it; " an infant who continually

  4. WITHDRAWN: Interventions for preventing ankle ligament injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoll, Helen Hg; Rowe, Brian H; Quinn, Kathryn M; de Bie, Rob

    2011-05-11

    Some sports, for example basketball and soccer, have a very high incidence of ankle injuries, mainly sprains. Consequently, ankle sprains are one of the most commonly treated injuries in acute care. To assess the effects of interventions used for the prevention of ankle ligament injuries or sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauam Group's specialised register, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the National Research Register and bibliographies of study reports. We also contacted colleagues and some trialists. The most recent search was conducted in July 2000. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of interventions for the prevention of ankle sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age were included provided that ankle sprains were recorded. Interventions included use of modified footwear, external ankle supports, co-ordination training and health education. These could be applied as a supplement to treatment provided that prevention of re-injury was the primary objective. At least two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Wherever possible, results of outcome measures were pooled and sub-grouped by history of previous sprain. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are reported for individual and pooled data. In this review update, a further nine new trials were included. Overall, 14 randomised trials with data for 8279 participants were included. Twelve trials involved active, predominantly young, adults participating in organised, generally high-risk, activities. The other two trials involved injured patients who had been active in sports before their injury. The prophylactic interventions under test included the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis (three trials), air-cast brace (one trial) or high top shoes (one trial); ankle disk training; taping; muscle

  5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Training in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Noyes, Frank R.; Barber Westin, Sue D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Objective: To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. Data sources: In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995?August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Study sel...

  6. S-14: Soccer Injury Prevention Program; How Parents Can Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soccer is classified as a high to moderate-intensity contact sport. It is therefore of importance that the incidence of soccer injuries be reduced through preventive interventions. The purpose of this review is to conclude the importance of a prevention program and explore the role parents have towards minimizing soccer related injuries among children and adolescence football players.METHOD: 42 hand searches, 5 books, and 25 electronic articles were reviewed and relevant results were collected for the purpose of this paper. Selected studies were categorized as follows: soccer injury statistics, injury prevention program, and parents and prevention.RESULTS: 5-16 year of age is a critical age range for soccer related injuries. Some studies have confirmed soccer injuries can be reduced by preventive interventions, and mentioned the importance of prevention program and the role of parents in the program. A few studies reported the efficacy for a positive parent-child relationship and injury prevalence, while other reported the negative influence parental demand on injury rates among children. Moreover, suggestions were made of consideration to parents prior to allowing children to participate in soccer.CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of sports injuries is team work, and parent's role can be as vital as other members of the prevention team. In a successful preventive program, there are steps that parents can take to help kids stay safe on the soccer field or wherever they play or participate in sports activities. Educational materials should be provided to parents by soccer camp organizers before children involve in soccer programs.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of prevention of mother to child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is exploring the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among child bearing women aged between 15- 45 years old in Laroo division in Gulu municipality. The goal of the study was to determine the level of attitude as well ...

  8. Drinks to Prevent Dehydration in a Vomiting Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Drinks to Prevent Dehydration in a Vomiting Child Page Content Article Body ... children, the main risk is water loss, or dehydration , especially if fever causes them to sweat more ...

  9. Child Prostitucion in the Czech Republic and the Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Mašitová, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on child prostitution and its prevention. Firstly, the reader is informed about the basic knowledge of the phenomenon of child prostitution and the phenomenon which the prostitution is a part of, namely commercial sexual children abuse. The thesis describes possible causes and consequences and big part of it is dedicated to the prevention where also the legal aspects of prostitution are described. The objective of the thesis is to find out how are the children, ninth grade ...

  10. Ecological approaches to the prevention of unintentional injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Allegrante

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Injury as a cause of significant morbidity and mortality has remained fairly stable in countries with developed economies. Although injury prevention often is conceptualised as a biomedical construct, such a reductionist perspective overlooks the importance of the psychological, environmental, and sociocultural conditions as contributing factors to injury and its consequences. This paper describes the potential of the ecological model for understanding the antecedent causes of unintentional injuries and guiding injury prevention approaches. We review the origins and conceptualise the elements of the ecological model and conclude with some examples of applications of ecological approaches to the prevention of unintentional injury and promotion of community safety.

    Methods: A review of the English-language literature on the conceptualization of ecological models in public health and injury prevention, including the application of the ecological model in the prevention of falls and road traffic injuries and in the community safety promotion movement.

    Results: Three dimensions are important in social-ecological systems that comprise key determinants of injuries: 1 the individual and his or her behaviour, 2 the physical environment, and 3 the social environment. Social and environmental determinants have profound impact on population health and in the causation of injuries.

    Conclusions: Social and environmental determinants of injury should be studied with the same energy, urgency, and intellectual rigor as physical determinants. Application of the ecological model in injury prevention shows the most promise in falls injury prevention, road traffic injury prevention, and community safety promotion.

  11. An Ounce of Prevention: Child Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Barbara, Ed.

    This training manual on child management consists of eight workshops for day care center staff. Workshops focus on (1) communications skills useful in working with children; (2) the nature of discipline; (3) positive approaches to guiding children's behavior; (4) natural and logical consequences; (5) ways of dealing with problem behavior; (6) the…

  12. Likely stakeholders in the prevention of mother to child transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine potential partners for pregnant women in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and to determine pregnant women\\'s perceptions towards selected potential HIV prevention efforts. Design: Cross sectional, questionnaire-administered study. Setting: Ante-natal clinics of eleven public ...

  13. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, ...

  14. International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention (ISVIP) hosted the International Conference on “Children and Injuries” in Cape Town, South Africa from 31 August to 3 September 2008. ISVIP's mission is to establish global commitment to violence and injury prevention through advocacy and public policy action, ...

  15. The effectiveness of exercise interventions to prevent sports injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Bertelsen, Ditte Marie; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems.......Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems....

  16. Complications of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Injuries: Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnerdnakta, Sirichai; Huetteman, Helen E; Chung, Kevin C

    2018-05-01

    Proximal interphalangeal joint injuries are one of the most common injuries of the hand. The severity of injury can vary from a minor sprain to a complex intra-articular fracture. Because of the complex anatomy of the joint, complications may occur even after an appropriate treatment. This article provides a comprehensive review on existing techniques to manage complications and imparts practical points to help prevent further complications after proximal interphalangeal joint injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-01-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse. PMID:16799111

  18. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-07-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse.

  19. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airbourne Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    a predictor of ankle injuries in high school basketball players. Clin J Sport Med, 2000. 10(4): p. 239-244. 5. McKeon PO and Hertel J: Spatiotemporal...Wang HK, Chen CH, Shiang TY, Jan MH, and Lin KH: Risk-factor analysis of high school basketball -player ankle injuries : a prospective controlled cohort...musculoskeletal injury prevention research as a necessary focus. Unintentional musculoskeletal and overuse injuries during tactical operations training

  20. Injuries and preventive actions in elite Swedish volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, S R; Augustsson, J; Thomeé, R; Svantesson, U

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of injury and the extent of preventive actions in elite Swedish volleyball players. Injuries to players in the elite male and female Swedish division, during the 2002-2003 season, were registered by using a questionnaire. Of the 158 volleyball players (70% response rate), a total of 82 players (52%) reported 121 injuries, during a total exposure time of 24 632 h, representing an overall incidence of 0.77 injuries per player. The majority of the injuries were located in the ankle (23%), followed by the knee (18%) and the back (15%). Most injuries (62%) were classified as being of minor severity. Most injuries occurred during training (47%), and 41% of the injuries had a gradual onset. Fifty-four percent of the injuries that could be related to a specific court situation occurred during blocking, and 30% during spiking. Most players (96%) participated in injury prevention training of some kind, generally performed without supervision (58%). Although most players took part in some kind of preventive action, one out of two players incurred an injury during the season, which indicates that the risk of suffering an injury in elite volleyball is relatively high.

  1. S-13: Interventions for Prevention and Rehabilitation of Hamstring Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The hamstring muscles have very important role in the stabilization of body posture, movement of the lower extremities and trunk movements in relation to the thigh. Hamstring injuries are common among athletes, especially in sports like soccer with sprinting demands, kicking, and sudden accelerations. Hamstring strains are frustrating for the injured athletes because the symptoms are persistent, healing is slow, and the rate of re-injury is high. This indicates a need to develop prevention strategies for hamstring injuries. The aims of this review are introducing hamstring strains, associated risk factors, and providing rehabilitative ecommendations for injured athletes to prevent re-injury. METHOD: Information was gathered from an online literatures search using the key words hamstring injuries, soccer injuries, injury prevention, hamstring rehabilitation, and stretching exercises. Screening of references and hand searches of relevant journals were also employed. All relevant studies in English were reviewed and abstracted.RESULTS: It has been shown that hamstring strains account for 12-16% of all injuries in athletes with a re-injury rate reported as high as 22-34%. The hamstrings have a tendency to shorten. Tight hamstrings with limited range of motion and flexibility may lead to postural deficiency and deformities. It also makes the hamstring susceptible to re-injury. Risk factors such as age, strength imbalance, previous injury and flexibility should be considered. CONCLUSION: Prevention intervention may minimize the risk factors of hamstring injuries. Training modalities should emphasize on eccentric strength training, and prevention of fatigue. There is wide disagreement about the impact of stretching exercise on prevention/rehabilitation of hamstring injuries.

  2. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  3. Prevention of Neurologic Injuries in Equestrian Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William H.; Bixby-Hammett, Doris M.

    1988-01-01

    Risk of neurological injuries accompanies horseback riding, especially for children and adolescents. This article describes the mechanisms of craniospinal injuries and suggests measures to lessen risks. Measures include: identifying individuals who should not ride, developing criteria for resumption of riding after injury, developing protective…

  4. Preventing occupational injury among police officers: does motivation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D K C; Webb, D; Ryan, R M; Tang, T C W; Yang, S X; Ntoumanis, N; Hagger, M S

    2017-08-01

    Injury prevention is an important issue for police officers, but the effectiveness of prevention initiatives is dependent on officers' motivation toward, and adherence to, recommended health and safety guidelines. To understand effects of police officers' motivation to prevent occupational injury on beliefs about safety and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. Full-time police officers completed a survey comprising validated psychometric scales to assess autonomous, controlled and amotivated forms of motivation (Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire), behavioural adherence (Self-reported Treatment Adherence Scale) and beliefs (Safety Attitude Questionnaire) with respect to injury prevention behaviours. There were 207 participants; response rate was 87%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that autonomous motivation was positively related to behavioural adherence, commitment to safety and prioritizing injury prevention. Controlled motivation was a positive predictor of safety communication barriers. Amotivation was positively associated with fatalism regarding injury prevention, safety violation and worry. These findings are consistent with the tenets of self-determination theory in that autonomous motivation was a positive predictor of adaptive safety beliefs and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Injuries are not accidents: towards a culture of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us.

  6. [The topical problems of forensic medical expertise of the child injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A V; Kozlova, T P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the current state of forensic medical expertise of the child injury. The relevant medical documents were used to estimate the quality of forensic medical examinations (surveys) of selected cases of child injuries and the related organizational, strategic, and methodological errors. The most challenging problems facing forensic medical expertise of the child injury are identified and the ways to address them are proposed.

  7. Overuse injuries, overtraining, and burnout in child and adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Joel S

    2007-06-01

    Overuse is one of the most common etiologic factors that lead to injuries in the pediatric and adolescent athlete. As more children are becoming involved in organized and recreational athletics, the incidence of overuse injuries is increasing. Many children are participating in sports year-round and sometimes on multiple teams simultaneously. This overtraining can lead to burnout, which may have a detrimental effect on the child participating in sports as a lifelong healthy activity. One contributing factor to overtraining may be parental pressure to compete and succeed. The purpose of this clinical report is to assist pediatricians in identifying and counseling at-risk children and their families. This report supports the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement on intensive training and sport specialization.

  8. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention reduces injury incidence in Physical Education Teacher Education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D

    2016-01-01

    Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes.

  9. 78 FR 64505 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with... reviews progress toward injury prevention goals and provides evidence in injury prevention- related... matters, including the: (1) Review of extramural research concepts for funding opportunity announcements...

  10. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Results of an Obesity Prevention Initiative in Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Camejo, Stephanie; Sanders, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue affecting even our youngest children. Given that a significant amount of young children are enrolled in child care, the goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child care facility-based obesity prevention program. Over 1,000 facilities participated in the study. The intervention…

  11. Countrywide campaign to prevent soccer injuries in Swiss amateur players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Lamprecht, Markus; Stamm, Hanspeter; Hasler, Hansruedi; Bizzini, Mario; Tschopp, Markus; Reuter, Harald; Wyss, Heinz; Chilvers, Chris; Dvorak, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    In Switzerland, the national accident insurance company registered a total of 42 262 soccer injuries, resulting in costs of approximately 145 million Swiss francs (~US$130 million) in 2003. Research on injury prevention has shown that exercise-based programs can reduce the incidence of soccer injuries. This study was conducted to assess the implementation and effects of a countrywide campaign to reduce the incidence of soccer injuries in Swiss amateur players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All coaches of the Schweizerischer Fussballverband (SFV) received information material and were instructed to implement the injury prevention program "The 11" in their training of amateur players. After the instruction, the coaches were asked to rate the quality and the feasibility of "The 11." Before the start of the intervention and 4 years later, a representative sample of about 1000 Swiss soccer coaches were interviewed about the frequency and characteristics of injuries in their teams. Teams that did or did not practice "The 11" were compared with respect to the incidence of soccer injuries. A total of 5549 coaches for amateur players were instructed to perform "The 11" in the training with their teams. The ratings of the teaching session and the prevention program were overall very positive. In 2008, 80% of all SFV coaches knew the prevention campaign "The 11" and 57% performed the program or most parts of it. Teams performing "The 11" had an 11.5% lower incidence of match injuries and a 25.3% lower incidence of training injuries than other teams; noncontact injuries in particular were prevented by the program. "The 11" was successfully implemented in a countrywide campaign and proved effective in reducing soccer injuries in amateur players. An effect of the prevention program was also observed in the population-based insurance data and health-care costs.

  12. Sports Related Injuries: Incidence, Management and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Stanger, Michael A.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...

  13. Vaccines to prevent pneumonia and improve child survival

    OpenAIRE

    Madhi, Shabir A; Levine, Orin S; Hajjeh, Rana; Mansoor, Osman D; Cherian, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    For more than 30 years, vaccines have played an important part in pneumonia prevention. Recent advances have created opportunities for further improving child survival through prevention of childhood pneumonia by vaccination. Maximizing routine immunization with pertussis and measles vaccines, coupled with provision of a second opportunity for measles immunization, has rapidly reduced childhood deaths in low-income countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Sports injuries in high school athletes: a review of injury-risk and injury-prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Tim

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this review is to identify the available research regarding the risk factors and prevention of injuries in high school athletes (ages 14 to 18 years). Relevant manuscripts were identified by searching six electronic databases with a combination of key words and medical subject headings (high school, adolescent, athletic injury, sports injury, risk factors, prevention, and prospective). Original research that reported prospective data on high school athletes (ages 14 to 18), reported injury and exposure data, and used data collected throughout the entire sport season or school year. Twenty-nine studies that identified injury risk factors or injury prevention strategies were reviewed and summarized. Data extracted from the studies included a) sport(s) or injuries studied, b) year of publication, c) lead author, d) description of the subjects, e) sample-size calculation, f) variables studied (baseline demographic or performance variables), g) whether multivariate analyses were used, h) data reported (injury rates, risk ratios, and 95% CI), and i) results. Studies that introduced an intervention were characterized by the same data as well as the type of intervention employed and randomization procedures used. The quality of each injury-risk and injury-prevention study was assessed, and the results were summarized. The risk factors for injury in several specific sports such as soccer, American football, and basketball have been documented. Other sports are less well represented in the current literature. The risk factors for injuries to the ankle, head, and knee have been identified, to a limited degree. Upper-extremity injury risk factors are less well known. There is a need for high-quality prospective studies to further identify injury risk factors and injury-prevention strategies for high school athletes.

  15. Lifetime injury prevention: The sport profile model*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-04

    Jan 4, 2012 ... A behaviorist perspective. Adv Psychosom Med 2011;30:8–21. 7. Podlog L, Dimmock J, Miller J. A review of return to sport concerns following injury rehabilitation: practitioner strategies for enhancing recovery outcomes. Phys Ther Sport. 2011;12:36-42. 8. Bianco T, Malo S, Orlick T. Sport injury and illness: ...

  16. Chloroquine prevents acute kidney injury induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Creatinine, Chloroquine, Inflammatory reactions, Kidney injury, Lipopolysaccharide. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is ... a reduction in oxygen uptake and myocardial contractility such as pathogen ..... evolution and outcome of acute kidney injury in critically ill adult patients. Br J Anaesth; 2015; 114: ...

  17. Knowledge and coverage of Prevention of Mother to Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To explore the level of knowledge on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in both men 15-54 years and women 15-49 years of age. Methods: A community-based survey was conducted in October-November 2005 in 45 sub zones of Eritrea. Data were collected using the Lot Quality Assurance ...

  18. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Even though significant progress has been made in the roll-out and quality of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in South Africa, the quality of patient data recording remains a challenge. Objectives: To assess PMTCT data completeness and accuracy at primary healthcare ...

  19. conference report prevention of mother-to-child transmission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-02

    Aug 2, 2004 ... prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of. HIV1 were presented at an evening satellite session. ... They complement other guidelines on treatment issued by the WHO and the 3 by 5 Initiative. ..... Further work on infant feeding and programmatic experiences added to the knowledge base.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES The prevention of mother-to-child HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. The prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and infant feeding practices. K Hilderbrand, E Goemaere, D Coetzee. Since the first cases of HIV transmission through breast- feeding were documented, a fierce debate has raged on appropriate guidelines for infant feeding in resource- ...

  1. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... Original Research http://www.hsag.co.za doi:10.4102/hsag.v19i1.774. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV data completeness and accuracy ... Methods: This is a retrospective record review study which involved collecting PMTCT .... service delivery in the public health sector of South Africa.

  2. Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the monk

    received training on the national guidelines on preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The proportion of health workers with poor, fair, .... collection techniques. The purpose of the training was to ensure uniformity in techniques of data ..... HIV/AIDS Division- Federal. Ministry of Health, 2011:1-3. Available. a t : h t t p ...

  3. how acceptable are the prevention of mother to child transmission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection include the high rate of maternal HIV infection, high birth rates, lack of access to currently available and feasible interventions, and the widespread practice of prolonged breastfeeding.1 The transmission risk for a child born to an HIV infected mother in an. African setting without intervention for prevention of mother ...

  4. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: With increasing feminization of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic especially in Africa, more seropositive women are getting pregnant. There is therefore an increasing need for prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and increased need for awareness by our women. Objective: ...

  5. Preventing child marriages: first international day of the girl child “my life, my right, end child marriage”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On 17 November 2011, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution (A/RES/66/170) designating 11 October as the first International Day of the Girl Child choosing ending child marriages as the theme of the day. Child marriage is a fundamental human rights violation and impacts all aspects of a girl’s life. These marriages deny a girl of her childhood, disrupts her education, limits her opportunities, increases her risk of violence and abuse, and jeopardizes her health. The article presents data about the prevalence and effects, contributing factors and recommends action for prevention. PMID:23163964

  6. Preventing child marriages: first international day of the girl child "my life, my right, end child marriage".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Christiansen, Charlotte Sigurdson; Mbizvo, Michael

    2012-11-20

    On 17 November 2011, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution (A/RES/66/170) designating 11 October as the first International Day of the Girl Child choosing ending child marriages as the theme of the day. Child marriage is a fundamental human rights violation and impacts all aspects of a girl's life. These marriages deny a girl of her childhood, disrupts her education, limits her opportunities, increases her risk of violence and abuse, and jeopardizes her health. The article presents data about the prevalence and effects, contributing factors and recommends action for prevention.

  7. Preventing child marriages: first international day of the girl child “my life, my right, end child marriage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svanemyr Joar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On 17 November 2011, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution (A/RES/66/170 designating 11 October as the first International Day of the Girl Child choosing ending child marriages as the theme of the day. Child marriage is a fundamental human rights violation and impacts all aspects of a girl’s life. These marriages deny a girl of her childhood, disrupts her education, limits her opportunities, increases her risk of violence and abuse, and jeopardizes her health. The article presents data about the prevalence and effects, contributing factors and recommends action for prevention.

  8. Child road traffic injury mortality in Victoria, Australia (0-14 years), the need for targeted action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S S M; Symons, R C A; Ozanne-Smith, J

    2018-03-01

    Extensive efforts to reduce unintentional injury were enacted in the last three decades of the 20th century. Examination of road traffic injury mortality indicates the extent of fatal, unintentional child injuries (0-14 years) future interventions must address. (1) describe in-depth child road traffic injury (RTI) deaths 2001-2012 in Victoria, Australia (2) identify the potential preventability of the RTI causes by currently available countermeasures and scope for enhanced implementation and novel solutions. Fatal Victorian child injury data were extracted from the National Coronial Information System (NCIS) for the 12 year period January 2001-December 2012. All on-road data was analysed. Data for passenger and pedestrian deaths was examined in depth. Associated factors were determined using univariate and pairwise analysis of factors. Published WHO key prevention strategies, and the recent literature were reviewed, focusing on the identified fatalities among children 0-14 years. For 172 RTI deaths, head injury was the leading medical cause of death (68%). Significantly, the most vulnerable age group for both passengers and pedestrians was 0-4 years. Rural children were over-represented with children aged 0-4 years at greatest risk. Common factors for occupants were loss of control and veering to the incorrect side. For pedestrians the major factors related to rural residence and supervision. This study confirms that RTIs are complex and follow chains of events. Numerous promising interventions were identified. Wider implementation of these advanced engineering, education and enforcement strategies may further improve mortality rates in Victoria. Feasible solutions for aspects of the child pedestrian problem remain elusive. This study describes the RTI problem in greater depth than previous studies and reveals that some existing measures are not fully implemented. The need for targeted action in: 0-4 year olds; head injury; and rural regions of Victoria is

  9. Injuries, risk factors and prevention initiatives in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Anne; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Sports injuries in young athletes are a public health issue which deserves special attention. Effective prevention can be achieved with training programmes originating from the field of physical therapy and medicine. A systematic literature search on injury prevention in youth sport was performed in the MEDLINE database. For prevention programmes to reduce sports injuries, critical factors must be considered, such as training content, duration and frequency, as well as athlete compliance. Home-based programmes could be inferior to supervised training, but are efficient if compliance is high. So far prevention programmes have focused on team sports and their efficiency in individual sports remains to be proven. Active prevention programmes focusing specifically on the upper extremity are scarce. Initiatives enhancing the awareness of trainers, athletes and therapists about risk factors and systematic prevention measures should be encouraged.

  10. Alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers for preventing injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cashman, Clodagh M.; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Greiner, Birgit A.; Beirne, Paul V.; Verbeek, Jos H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workforce alcohol and drug testing is commonplace but its effect in reducing occupational injuries remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers (operating a motorised vehicle) in preventing injury or work-related effects such as

  11. Statistical Applications and Quantitative Design for Injury Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    editor of the International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, conducted a five-day workshop on “Statistical applications and quantitative design for injury prevention research” from 18–21 August 2008 at the MRC in Cape Town, South Africa. The target audience for this workshop was researchers (with some ...

  12. Factors influencing the implementation of soccer injury prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest and participation in soccer continue to grow in every part of the world. The increase in the number of people participating in soccer in Rwanda is also prominent. However, with the increase in the number of people participating in soccer there is an increase in the risk of injuries, thus making prevention of injury more ...

  13. Injury Prevention in Physical Education: Scenarios and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrie, Michael D.; Shewmake, Cole; Calleja, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide physical educators with practical strategies that can assist in preventing injuries in the classroom. The dynamic nature of physical education and the numerous tasks physical educators must complete daily can be challenging. Embedded in these challenges is the constant risk of student injury. Fortunately,…

  14. Multistation proprioceptive exercise program prevents ankle injuries in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eils, Eric; Schröter, Ralph; Schröder, Marc; Gerss, Joachim; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a multistation proprioceptive exercise program for the prevention of ankle injuries in basketball players using a prospective randomized controlled trial in combination with biomechanical tests of neuromuscular performance. A total of 232 players participated in the study and were randomly assigned to a training or control group following the CONSORT statement. The training group performed a multistation proprioceptive exercise program, and the control group continued with their normal workout routines. During one competitive basketball season, the number of ankle injuries was counted and related to the number of sports participation sessions using logistic regression. Additional biomechanical pre–post tests (angle reproduction and postural sway) were performed in both groups to investigate the effects on neuromuscular performance. In the control group, 21 injuries occurred, whereas in the training group, 7 injuries occurred. The risk for sustaining an ankle injury was significantly reduced in the training group by approximately 65%. [corrected] The corresponding number needed to treat was 7. Additional biomechanical tests revealed significant improvements in joint position sense and single-limb stance in the training group. The multistation proprioceptive exercise program effectively prevented ankle injuries in basketball players. Analysis of number needed to treat clearly showed the relatively low prevention effort that is necessary to avoid an ankle injury. Additional biomechanical tests confirmed the neuromuscular effect and confirmed a relationship between injury prevention and altered neuromuscular performance. With this knowledge, proprioceptive training may be optimized to specifically address the demands in various athletic activities.

  15. A public health approach to preventing child abuse in low- and middle-income countries: a call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Violence against children is prevalent across all countries and cultures, with the burden of child injury and violence heaviest in low- and middle-income (LAMI) settings. There are several types of program to prevent child abuse, with family-based approaches to prevention being the most comprehensively researched and successful interventions in high-income settings. In LAMI countries, however, there is very little research evidence for the prevention of child abuse. We conducted a systematic search of relevant databases for studies published between 1995 and 2011 and the search revealed only one relevant study. There is thus a need for research into child maltreatment prevention in LAMI settings, taking account of local resources and contexts. In the light of the lack of evidence, we focus on two case studies that document the use of home visiting by community health workers perinatally to improve maternal and child outcomes. We propose four areas for action moving forward, including increased investment in early intervention and prevention programs, development of a research agenda that prioritizes prevention research, integration of implementation research into efforts to scale up interventions, and improving systematically collected information on child maltreatment.

  16. [Study on child head-injuries through data derived from the National Injury Surveillance System of China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuirong; Duan, Leilei; Er, Yuliang; Ye, Pengpeng; Wang, Yuan; Deng, Xiao; Gao, Xin; Jin, Ye; Wang, Linhong

    2016-04-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics of head injuries in children. Data was derived from the Chinese National Injury Surveillance System (NISS) in 2014. Method on descriptive analysis was applied to depict general information, injuries events and clinical characteristics of head injuries among children under 18 years of age. A total number of 47 690 cases with child head injuries in 2014 were collected, including 32 542 males and 15 148 females. 43.47% of them were under 1-4 years of age. In October, 06:00 PM appeared the peak time for the injuries to happen. The three leading causes responsible for child head injuries were falls (69.57%), hit by blunt force (14.23%) or road traffic (11.01%). Main locations responsible for the head injuries to happen were:at home (44.98%), at public places (19.65%) or on roads/streets (15.81%). Recreation activates (77.88%), driving (7.32%), sports (5.72%) were the three major activities causing the injuries to take place. Majority of the cases happened unintentionally (95.35%), with bruise (71.69%) or mild injuries (85.27%) and went back home after treatment (90.25%). In 2014, child head injuries were seen more in males than in females and mostly occured at home. The leading causes for head injuries would include falls, hit by blunt stuff or road traffic .

  17. Preventing Heat Injuries by Predicting Individualized Human Core Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    hardware/software warning system of an impending rise in TC and generate alerts to potentially prevent heat injuries. PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES BY...real-time warning system. 4.0 CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, we developed an alert algorithm to provide reliable ahead-of-time warning of an impending... warning system that can be deployed in ambulatory settings. Currently, we are in the process of integrating this model with the alert algorithm in a

  18. Child sexual abuse prevention policy: an analysis of Erin's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn D

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse affects thousands of children in the United States and is vastly underreported. Tertiary prevention policies, primarily in the form of sex offender registries and community notification programs, have received the most attention and funding. Few policies have focused on school-based prevention. One recently passed law in Illinois mandates all K-5 public schools to implement sexual abuse prevention programs. The law was championed by a young social worker, Erin Merryn. Through the multiple streams framework, this article examines the unique set of political circumstances, united with Merryn's advocacy, which created the opportunity for the law to pass.

  19. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Al-Hajj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology—group analytics (GA. GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders’ observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ‘common ground’ among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders’ verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ‘common ground’ among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  20. GPS and Injury Prevention in Professional Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Fabian E; Duncan, Craig S; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Franzsen, William N; Greene, David A

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between GPS variables measured in training and gameplay and injury occurrences in professional soccer. Nineteen professional soccer players competing in the Australian Hyundai A-League were monitored for 1 entire season using 5 Hz Global Positioning System (GPS) units (SPI-Pro GPSports) in training sessions and preseason games. The measurements obtained were total distance, high-intensity running distance, very-high-intensity running distance, new body load, and meters per minute. Noncontact soft tissue injuries were documented throughout the season. Players' seasons were averaged over 1- and 4-week blocks according to when injuries occurred. These blocks were compared with each other and with players' seasonal averages. Players performed significantly higher meters per minute in the weeks preceding an injury compared with their seasonal averages (+9.6 and +7.4% for 1- and 4-week blocks, respectively) (p sports scientists to consider when planning and monitoring training.

  1. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Basketball coaches' utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A; Hetzel, Scott; Pennuto, Anthony; Brooks, Alison

    2013-09-01

    Ankle injuries are the most common high school basketball injury. Little is known regarding the utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies in high school settings. To determine high school basketball coaches' utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies, including prophylactic ankle bracing (PAB) or an ankle injury prevention exercise program (AIEPP). Cross-sectional survey. The survey was distributed to all high school basketball coaches in Wisconsin. Fisher exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine if the injury prevention strategies utilized differed according to school size, sex of the team, years of coaching experience, and the coach's education level. Four hundred eighty (55%) coaches from 299 (74%) high schools completed the survey. Thirty-seven percent of the coaches encouraged or required their players to use PAB. School enrollment of the coaches' teams did not affect their stance on the use of PAB (P = 0.30), neither did the sex of the team (P = 0.16), years coaching (P = 0.09), nor the coach's education (P = 0.49). Fifty percent (n = 242) of the coaches indicated they do not utilize an AIEPP, with no difference based on school enrollment (P = 0.47), team sex (P = 0.41), years coaching (P = 0.78), or the education level (P = 0.44). Barriers to utilization of AIEPP included a lack of time, awareness, and expertise. Coaches preferred an AIEPP that was specific to basketball, combined injury prevention and performance enhancement components, was performed 2 to 3 days per week, and lasted 5 to 15 minutes. Less than half of the coaches encouraged use of PAB, and half did not utilize an AIEPP. Coaches had specific preferences for the type of AIEPP they would implement. Sports medicine providers should promote ankle injury prevention strategies but need to address why prevention strategies may not be utilized in high school basketball settings.

  3. Preventing unintentional injury in children and adolescents--the importance of local injury data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, C

    2012-02-01

    We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.

  4. Prevention, Evaluation, and Rehabilitation of Cycling-Related Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit.

  5. Preventing sports injuries: opportunities for intervention in youth athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Nancy L; Marshall, Stephen W; Miller, Mark D

    2002-03-01

    Participation in youth sports has steadily grown over the past 30 years and continues to rise. During the 1998-1999 school year over 360,000 collegiate athletes and almost 6.5 million high school athletes participated in sports. This expansion has been accompanied by an increased awareness of the injury problem associated with participation in youth sports. Estimates are that one-third of high school athletes will sustain an injury during a sports season serious enough to result in time lost from participation. While there may always be some risk associated with sports participation, health professionals can actively encourage injury prevention. In this paper, we describe the benefits of sport participation, the injury problem associated with sports, injury prevention frameworks, and conclude by discussing the changing role of the team physician in youth sports.

  6. What kinds of injuries do OSHA inspections prevent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Amelia; Burns, Rachel; Gray, Wayne; Ruder, Teague; Mendeloff, John

    2010-08-01

    OSHA's enforcement program is one of the major public efforts to protect American workers. We examine both the scope of injury prevention that inspections can contribute and the types of standards that contribute the most. We linked Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry files for lost-time injuries and employment to calculate injury rates for 1998-2005 for all single-establishment manufacturing firms. We linked these to OSHA inspection records. Inspections with penalties did affect injury types unrelated to standards as well as those related. We also found again that citations for violations of the standard requiring personal protective equipment had the largest impact on preventing injuries. Programs requiring protective equipment use deserve added attention from consultants and inspectors. In addition, some inspections spur managers to undertake safety measures that go beyond compliance with standards. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Ting

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Results: Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12–0.22. The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Conclusions: Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  8. History of maltreatment among unintentional injury deaths: analyses of Texas child fatality review data, 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sharyn E; Mirchandani, Gita; Rodriguez, Susan; Hellsten, John

    2011-02-01

    This report examines unintentional injury deaths among children with and without a history of child maltreatment. Data are from reviews of 1192 unintentional injury deaths occurring among children in Texas during 2005-2007. The study examined differences in child demographic characteristics, injury mechanism, and supervisor status at time of death between children with and without maltreatment history by using descriptive statistics and χ² tests. Separate analyses compared characteristics of asphyxia, drowning, and poisoning deaths. In 10% of the unintentional injury deaths that were reviewed, the child had a history of maltreatment. The prevalence of a history of maltreatment was highest among black decedents and lowest among white decedents. Prevalence of a history of maltreatment was highest among infant decedents and lowest among youth decedents, ages 10-14 years. Among deaths where there was no maltreatment history, 54% were due to motor vehicle related incidents, whereas 51% of deaths among children with maltreatment history were caused by drowning, asphyxia, and poisoning. Supervisors of child decedents with a history of maltreatment were significantly more likely to have been alcohol impaired (6.9% vs 1.6%; pdeath. Differences between child decedents with and without maltreatment history were observed in infant sleep surface in suffocation deaths, location and barrier type in drowning deaths, and substance type in poisoning deaths. These data show that the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding unintentional injury deaths among children with a history of maltreatment differ from those without a history of maltreatment. This underscores the need for appropriate interventions to prevent unintentional and intentional injuries in families with a history of maltreatment.

  9. Prevention, Recognition, and Management of Urologic Injuries During Gynecologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Howard T; Adelman, Marisa R

    2016-06-01

    The urethra, bladder, and ureters are particularly susceptible to injury during gynecologic surgery. When preventive measures fail, prompt recognition and management of injury can avoid long-term sequelae such as fistula formation and loss of renal function. Intraoperative identification should be the primary goal when an injury occurs, although this is not always possible. Postoperative injury recognition requires a high level of suspicion and vigilance. In addition to history and physical examination, appropriate radiologic studies can be useful in localizing injury and planning management strategies. Some injuries may require Foley catheter drainage or ureteral stenting alone, whereas others will require operative intervention with ureteral resection and reanastomosis or reimplantation. Prompt restoration of urinary drainage or diversion will avoid further renal compromise.

  10. Guidance for compassionate restraint of small children to prevent injuries with epinephrine autoinjectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martha V

    2018-03-29

    Without securing a child properly, injuries can happen with the use of pediatric epinephrine autoinjectors (EAI), and lacerations and embedded needles have been reported. Health care providers should ensure that instruction is provided to parents on how to hold a child during an injection with an EAI. To demonstrate the compassionate restraint of small children during an allergic emergency to ensure the safe use of an EAI. A patient was used to illustrate a compassionate restraint technique during a mock injection with an EAI. One possible technique was illustrated here to reinforce the need for complete, yet compassionate restraint of small children during the use of an EAI. The exact position intended to be used by parents or caregivers will need to be practiced with their children to ensure a safe injection in the event of an allergic emergency. Reinforcement of proper EAI use and visual guidance that illustrate compassionate restraint can potentially prevent EAI-related injuries.

  11. Summary of Injury Prevention Activities Supporting the Army Soldier Medical Readiness Campaign, 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-30

    collaborate with Army partners on injury prevention /human performance optimization projects, and enhance communication of evidence- based lessons learned to...6.2 APHC Injury Prevention contributions to SMRC IP 10.0: Improve Soldier Injury Prevention /Human Performance ...Soldier Medical Readiness Campaign Plan (SMR-CP), objectives to inform evidence- based injury prevention /human performance optimization programs and

  12. Pterostilbene Prevents Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced for 60 min. After the complete I/R injury the jejunal segment was removed and the animals were sacrificed by exsanguination. The blood collected was centrifuged and serum was stored at -70 ºC. The tissues were rinsed with ice cold saline and blood was completely removed. The tissues were homogenized using ...

  13. Football injuries – surveillance, incidence and prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (cardiovascular conditioning, plyometric work, sport-specific drills, strength training and flexibility exercises to improve speed and agility) on the occurrence of football injuries in 42 out of 300 female high school players were investigated during 1 year of competitive football.28 Significantly fewer players in the intervention ...

  14. Music and Medicine: Preventing Performance Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carol Anne

    2001-01-01

    Describes medical conditions that musicians may contract. Addresses what experts believe may help avoid some conditions and what to do if injury is possible. Provides a bibliography of resources on performing arts medicine, including books and periodicals, and a list of associations for performing arts medicine. (CMK)

  15. Prevention of ingestion injuries in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fish bones[4]), and accidental medication ingestion. At Red Cross War. Memorial Children's Hospital ..... burns), but dysphagia/ drooling and abdominal pain with a history of. pH >11 ingestion mandate evaluation for mucosal injury with technetium-. 99-radiolabelled sucralfate scinitigraphy and/or endoscopic grading of.

  16. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over the last three decades. Therefore, research on hamstring injury prevention is necessary to reduce hamstring injury rates. Exercise programs to reduce soccer injuries are easy to implement during r...

  17. Immunotherapies to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Hicar, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Although pharmacological interventions have been successful in reducing prevention of maternal to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, there is concern that complete elimination through this mode of transmission will require other measures. Immunotherapies in infants or pregnant mothers may be able to eradicate this form of transmission. A recent vaccine trial in adults showed encouraging results, but as in most HIV safety and efficacy vaccine trials, the question of MTCT was not addressed. Con...

  18. Injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNoe, Bronwen M; Chalmers, David J

    2011-11-01

    To adapt and pilot test a method for undertaking routine surveillance of injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer. Surveillance system using a cohort design. Simple random samples were drawn from the player registration databases of two soccer federations. All players aged 13 years or over who intended to play in a school or club competition during the 2006 winter season were eligible. The cohort consisted of 687 male and 193 female players. The players were contacted each week and asked about their adherence to nationally recommended injury prevention measures. No more than 20% of players completed any form of pre-season screening. Almost all players warmed-up for player-matches (97%) and player-training sessions (93%). Eighty-one percent of players undertook some form of physical conditioning on at least one occasion in the off-season. Very few players (13%) reported receiving instruction on tackling technique pre-season. Shin-guards were worn in 99% of matches. For 61% of match injury events, the injured player continued to play after the injury occurred and in 65% of these cases, the player reported that in hindsight they should not have returned to play. The results provide a baseline measure of injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer players. Future research, employing comparable surveillance methods, could be used to monitor progress on adherence to the injury prevention measures canvassed in this study. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8355 of April 1, 2009 Proc. 8355 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009By the President of the... they are our future. National Child Abuse Prevention Month provides the opportunity to underscore our commitment to preventing and responding appropriately to child abuse. This month, we emphasize the importance...

  20. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  1. [INTERVENTIONS FOR PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF CHILD AND YOUTH OBESITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Morente, Ma Angeles; Sánchez Ocón, Ma Teresa; Mingorance Ruiz, Ma Visitación; Pérez Robles, Angustias; Munoz de la Fuente, José Manuel; Sánchez De Arias, Celia

    2015-02-01

    To determine the current epidemiological situation, prevention and management of child and youth obesity based on the best scientific evidence available. Literature search in PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, ENFISPO, Lilacs and SciELO, selecting articles about child and youth obesity, its prevention and treatment. Child and youth obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease that it has been increasing, tending to stay in adolescence and adulthood with greater intensity than more early starts. The data vary from country to country, although most articles are governed by body mass index (BMI). Pediatric overweight is defined by a BMI percentiles located between 91-98 and obesity by a percentile equal or greater than 99. Its prevalence varies according to time, geography, age, gender and race. The prevalence rates of obesity in Spain are one of the highest around the world. The overweight prevalence is lower slightly and there is no difference in gender. Its implications include the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus II. Unanimously, the combination of interventions on life and dietary habits and physical activity is important for the management of obesity and overweight. Currently, the obesity management requires a generalized approach, with changes in lifestyle, diet and physical activity. The best solution for reducing this epidemic lies in prevention rather than treatment.

  2. Adult functioning of mothers with traumatic brain injury at high risk of child abuse: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet-Ruissen, Cora; McKinlay, Audrey; Taylor, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    There is little information regarding the impact that traumatic brain injury (TBI) has on the functioning of mothers at risk of child abuse. This study evaluated adult functioning (e.g. child abuse, substance use, criminal convictions, and mental health problems) of mothers, at high risk for child abuse, who also had a history of TBI compared with those without TBI. It was hypothesised that mothers with a history of TBI would engage in higher rates of dysfunctional behaviour compared to those with no history of TBI. Participants were 206 women engaged in a child abuse prevention programme for mothers who are highly socially disadvantaged, and at high risk for child abuse. Using historical data collected as part of the referral, and self report intake process, this study compared child abuse, mental health problems (depression, anxiety, substance use) and rates of criminal offending for mothers with a history of TBI versus those with no history of TBI. Mothers with TBI were no more likely than those without TBI to have engaged in child abuse. However, mothers with a history of TBI were significantly more likely to have one or more mental health problems, engage in substance use and have a history of criminal offending. Parents with TBI who have been identified as high risk for engaging in child abuse have increased risk for mental health problems and criminal offending. These issues need to be considered when designing parenting programmes in order for intervention strategies to be effective.

  3. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  4. An Injury Prevention Strategy for Teen Restaurant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Julie A.; de Castro, A. B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  5. Early detection of children at risk for antisocial behaviour using data from routine preventive child healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijneveld Sijmen A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth antisocial behaviour is highly prevalent. Young people are usually not willing to disclose such behaviour to professionals and parents. Our aim was to assess whether child health professionals (CHP working in preventive child healthcare could identify pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour through using data that they obtain in routine practice. Methods CHPs examined a national sample of 974 pre-adolescents aged 8-12 years (response 79.1%, and interviewed parents and children during routine well-child assessments. We obtained data on family background and current health of the child from the CHP; on developmental concerns from parents, and on social and emotional well-being, injuries, and substance use from the children. Antisocial behaviour concerned the adolescent-reported 15 item International Self-Reported Delinquency study questionnaire, among which are 5 items on violence against people. Results The prevalence of 2+acts of any antisocial behaviour was 21.8%, and 33.9% for 1+acts of violence (10.5% for 2+. Children who were male, had a young mother, no parent employed, recent injuries, poor performance at school or who were bored by school, and who had parental concerns more often reported 2+antisocial acts and 1+violence against people. Detection algorithms on the basis of these variables were moderately able to classify outcomes, with Areas-Under-the-Curves ranging from 0.66 to 0.71. Conclusions Data from routine well-child assessment can help CHPs to detect pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour, but detection algorithms need to be further improved. This could be done by obtaining additional information on factors that are associated with antisocial behaviour.

  6. Injury prevention risk communication: A mental models approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel Cecelia; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    Individuals' decisions and behaviour can play a critical role in determining both the probability and severity of injury. Behavioural decision research studies peoples' decision-making processes in terms comparable to scientific models of optimal choices, providing a basis for focusing...... interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the ‘mental models’ that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people...... and uses examples to discuss how the approach can be used to develop scientifically validated context-sensitive injury risk communications....

  7. Injuries and injury prevention among senior military officers at the Army War College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; McCollam, Rebecca; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Hoedebecke, Edward; Arnold, Stephanie; Craig, Steven; Barko, William

    2002-07-01

    Injuries and activities associated with injuries were extracted from a retrospective review of the medical records of officers attending the U.S. Army War College during academic years 1999 and 2000 (AY99 and AY00). In AY99, cumulative injury incidence (officers with one or more injuries) was 56%. The next year (AY00), there was command emphasis on injury reduction and education of students on injury prevention strategies. Cumulative injury incidence in AY00 was 44%, significantly lower than in AY99 (p = 0.01, risk ratio [AY99/AY99] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-1.5). Among activities that could be linked to injuries, sports were associated with 41% in AY99 and 45% in AY00. Recommendations for ongoing injury reduction include the following: (1) continued command emphasis and instruction on injury reduction techniques; (2) encouraging the use of semirigid ankle braces to reduce ankle sprains; (3) reducing the number of practice and game sessions in sports activities; (4) encouraging overrunning of second and third base in softball; (5) prohibiting contact with the center line below the net in volleyball; and (6) encouraging medical care providers to record the activity associated with each injury in the medical records.

  8. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of lightning injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    Lightning is the second most common cause of weather-related death in the United States. Lightning is a natural atmospheric discharge that occurs between regions of net positive and net negative electric charges. There are several types of lightning, including streak lightning, sheet lightning, ribbon lightning, bead lightning, and ball lightning. Lightning causes injury through five basic mechanisms: direct strike, flash discharge (splash), contact, ground current (step voltage), and blunt trauma. While persons struck by lightning show evidence of multisystem derangement, the most dramatic effects involve the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Cardiopulmonary arrest is the most common cause of death in lightning victims. Immediate resuscitation of people struck by lightning greatly affects the prognosis. Electrocardiographic changes observed following lightning accidents are probably from primary electric injury or burns of the myocardium without coronary artery occlusion. Lightning induces vasomotor spasm from direct sympathetic stimulation resulting in severe loss of pulses in the extremities. This vasoconstriction may be associated with transient paralysis. Damage to the central nervous system accounts for the second most debilitating group of injuries. Central nervous system injuries from lightning include amnesia and confusion, immediate loss of consciousness, weakness, intracranial injuries, and even brief aphasia. Other organ systems injured by lightning include the eye, ear, gastrointestinal system, skin, and musculoskeletal system. The best treatment of lightning injuries is prevention. The Lightning Safety Guidelines devised by the Lightning Safety Group should be instituted in the United States and other nations to prevent these devastating injuries.

  9. Gender Differences in Commuting Injuries in Spain and Their Impact on Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; González Alcántara, Óscar J; Fontaneda, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    A gender analysis of workers injured while commuting in Spain is presented, distinguishing between injury due to traffic-related accidents and injury due to other causes. Method . A total of 266,646 traffic-related injuries and 168,129 nontraffic-related injuries are studied over the period 2006-2010. Results . In Spain, the accident rate recorded in working hours is much higher among men; nevertheless, it is curious that commuting-related accident rates are higher among women than men, in both traffic-related injuries and nontraffic-related injuries. The study of the frequency distribution confirmed that many more injuries occurred in Spain while commuting to work rather than from work and that women suffered twice as many injuries as men at nine in the morning. Musculoskeletal disorders are the only injuries that registered a higher number of cases among women and falls to the same level are the most relevant cause among women. Conclusions . The analysis of these and more findings established that a great effort should go into the promotion of preventive measures in favour of women workers. These results may encourage companies to modify their accident prevention plans, so as to increase their effectiveness in the struggle against occupational accidents following the five points described in this article.

  10. Epidemiology of Unintentional Child Injuries in the Makwanpur District of Nepal: A Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Puspa Raj; Towner, Elizabeth; Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Dharma; Pilkington, Paul; Mytton, Julie

    2015-11-30

    Secondary sources of information indicate that the proportion of child deaths due to injuries is increasing in Nepal. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of unintentional injuries in children, explore risk factors and estimate the burden faced by families and the community in the Makwanpur district. We conducted a household survey in Makwanpur, covering 3441 households. Injuries that occurred during the 12 months before the survey and required treatment or caused the child to be unable to take part in usual activities for three or more days were included. We identified 193 cases of non-fatal unintentional child injuries from 181 households and estimated an annual rate of non-fatal injuries of 24.6/1000 children; rates for boys were double (32.7/1000) that for girls (16.8/1000). The rates were higher among the children of age groups 1-4 years and 5-9 years. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal child injuries followed by burns in preschool children and road traffic injuries were the most likely cause in adolescence. Mean period of disability following injury was 25 days. The rates and the mechanisms of injury vary by age and gender. Falls and burns are currently the most common mechanisms of injury amongst young children around rural homes.

  11. The challenge of compiling data profiles to stimulate local preventive health action: a European case study from child safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Denise; Rigby, Michael; Gissler, Mika; Köhler, Lennart; MacKay, Morag

    2015-05-01

    Positive recent experience of presenting comparative child safety data at national level has instigated policy action in Europe. It was hoped a Child Safety Index could quantify how safe a community, region or locality is for its children in comparison with similar areas within Europe, as a focus for local targeted action. Validated indicators proposed by previous European projects identified from areas of child injury prevention, such as road safety, burns or poisoning, were selected to give a balanced profile, and populated from available published data. An index using a sub-score for each specific injury topic was proposed. The indicators' presentation, sensitivity and appropriateness were considered, as well as data availability. Satisfactory indicators were not identified for all areas and very few local area data were available. This forced the researchers to conclude that at present, constructing a reliable Child Safety Index for use at the local level is not feasible. There is a worrying lack of data available at the sub-national level to support injury prevention, evaluate interventions, and enable informed local decision making.

  12. Hamstring injuries: prevention and treatment—an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased knowledge of hamstring muscle injuries, the incidence has not diminished. We now know that not all hamstring injuries are the same and that certain types of injuries require prolonged rehabilitation and return to play. The slow stretch type of injury and injuries involving the central tendon both require longer times to return to play. A number of factors have been proposed as being indicators of time taken to return to play, but the evidence for these is conflicting. Recurrence rates remain high and it is now thought that strength deficits may be an important factor. Strengthening exercise should be performed with the hamstrings in a lengthened position. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of hamstring injuries so at this stage we cannot advise their use. Various tests have been proposed as predictors of hamstring injury and the use of the Nordboard is an interesting addition to the testing process. Prevention of these injuries is the ultimate aim and there is increasing evidence that Nordic hamstring exercises are effective in reducing the incidence. PMID:26105015

  13. The Epidemiological Pattern of Injuries among Children under 15 Years of Age in Fasa in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farzaneh mobasheri

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: According to the results, the priority of child injuries includes trauma, falling, and poisoning. Thus, these injuries should be considered in planning for the preventive measures of child injuries.

  14. Effect of an internally versus externally focused acl injury prevention program on injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, J.; Benjaminse, A.; Gokeler, A.; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have shown mixed results, which may be in part due to suboptimal training components. OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of a prevention program with external and internal focus of attention on (potential) biomechanical risk factors

  15. Multiple noncontiguous injuries of the spine in a child: atlantooccipital dislocation and seat-belt injury of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantam, R; Crawford, A H

    1997-03-01

    Multiple noncontiguous injuries of nonadjoining regions of the spine in children are rare. Such injuries can be overlooked as the neurological deficit caused by one injury can be masked by the other. The combination of atlantooccipital dislocation and a seat-belt injury of the spine in children is rare. We describe an unusual case of atlantooccipital dislocation in combination with a seat-belt injury of the lumbar spine in a surviving child. Early halo-vest immobilization was an effective treatment in this patient. Although survival with atlantooccipital injuries is becoming common, severe and persistent neurological deficits can result in high morbidity. A brief description of the pathomechanics, diagnosis and treatment of the atlantooccipital dislocation and lumbar seat-belt injury is given.

  16. National survey on sports injuries in the Netherlands: target populations for sports injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sandor L; Backx, Frank J G; Kemler, Helena J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-03-01

    To define target populations for sports injury prevention programs. A computer-assisted telephone survey on sports injuries and sports participation during 2000-2005 using a 3-month recall period. Data obtained from a representative sample of Dutch citizens. Fifty-eight thousand four hundred five Dutch citizens aged older than 3 years. Age, gender, and type of sports were used to distinguish subgroups with a substantial contribution to sports injuries. The absolute number of sports injuries, the incidence of sports injuries per 10,000 hours, the severity, and costs of sports injuries. Sports participation was associated with 1.5 million injuries per year and 10 injuries per 10,000 hours; of these, 50% had to be treated medically. Two-thirds of all medically treated sports injuries were associated with 9 sports (representing 18 subpopulations, all younger than 55 years): outdoor soccer (males 4-54 years and females 4-17 years), indoor soccer (males 18-34 years), tennis (males/females 35-54 years), volleyball (females 18-54 years), field hockey (males 18-34 years and females 4-17 years), running/jogging (males/females 35-54 years), gymnastics (males/females 4-17 years), skiing/snowboarding (males 4-17 years and females 18-34 years), and equestrian sports (females 18-34 years). These groups showed more than average injury rates and covered two-thirds of all direct and indirect costs (euro 400 million). The survey identified the most important (sports-, age-, and gender-specific) target populations for injury prevention programs in the Netherlands. Sports participants aged older than 55 years were excluded from these target groups because of their limited contribution to the total sports injury problem.

  17. Child pedestrian safety knowledge, behaviour and road injury in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  19. Injuries can be prevented in contact flag football!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, J; Witvrouw, E

    2016-06-01

    This original prospective cohort study was conducted in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries in an intervention cohort as compared to a two-season historical cohort, and to provide recommendations to the International Federation of Football (IFAF) pertaining to prevention measures to make the game safer. A total of 1,260 amateur male (mean age: 20.4 ± 3.9 years) and 244 female (mean age: 18.5 ± 1.7 years) players participated in the study. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. All time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions were recorded by the off-the-field medical personnel and followed up by a more detailed phone injury surveillance questionnaire. There was a 54 % reduction in the total number of injuries and a significant reduction in the incidence rate and incidence proportion between the intervention cohorts as compared to the historical cohort (p injuries in any of the body parts, except for in hand/wrist injuries related to the use of pockets (p injuries (p injuries can be significantly reduced in flag football. Recommendations to the IFAF include strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, the use of soft headgear, comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards and additionally, to change game rules concerning blocking. II.

  20. Examination of Interventions to Prevent Common Lower-Limb Injuries in the New Zealand Defense Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    ankle braces have been reported to reduce ankle injury rates in sports such as soccer" and basketball ...inci- dence of ankle sprains and other lower-limb injuries . Ankle injury incidence among basketball players, however, has been found to be unaffected...mechanisms of these injuries suggested that lateral ankle instability was a common causal factor in many of the injuries . Injury prevention

  1. Mapping pediatric injuries to target prevention, education, and outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Camille L; Acker, Shannon N; Pyle, Laura; Smith, Dwayne S; Bensard, Denis D; Moulton, Steven L

    2017-08-01

    Initiatives exist to prevent pediatric injuries, but targeting these interventions to specific populations is challenging. We hypothesized that mapping pediatric injuries by zip code could be used to identify regions requiring more interventions and resources. We queried the trauma registries of two level I trauma centers for children 0-17years of age injured between 2009 and 2013 with home zip codes in our state. Maps were created to identify outlier zip codes. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified predictors within these zip codes. There were 5380 children who resided in the state and were admitted for traumatic injuries during the study period, with hospital costs totaling more than 200 million dollars. Choropleth mapping of patient addresses identified outlier zip codes in our metro area with higher incidences of specific mechanisms of injury and greater hospital charges. Multivariate analysis identified demographic features associated with higher rates of pediatric injuries and hospital charges, to further target interventions. We identified outlier zip codes in our metro area with higher frequencies of pediatric injuries and higher costs for treatment. These data have helped obtain funding for prevention and education efforts. Techniques such as those presented here are becoming more important as evidence based public health initiatives expand. Type of Study: Cost Effectiveness, II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools.

  4. Back Pain at Work: Preventing Pain and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a desk job can contribute to back pain, especially if you have poor posture or sit all day in a chair with ... can take steps to avoid and prevent back pain and injuries at work. For example: Pay attention to posture. When standing, balance your weight evenly on your ...

  5. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Injury Prevention Initiative for Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We would be most grateful if you brought to the attention of the readers of African Health Sciences, the following information for IPIFA. The Injury Prevention Initiative for Africa (IPIFA) ratified its constitution at the fourth Annual General Meeting in February 2001. At that meeting, members from 8 African countries, and ...

  6. 75 FR 35360 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... implementation of a safety and health program as a way of demonstrating good faith. Similarly, in its first... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Injury and Illness Prevention Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION...

  7. 75 FR 23637 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... safety and health program as a way of demonstrating good faith. Similarly, in its first decision, the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Injury and Illness Prevention Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION...

  8. 77 FR 74695 - Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0059] RIN... Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder meetings. SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to participate in informal stakeholder meetings on preventing backover injuries and fatalities. OSHA plans to use...

  9. Sports injury prevention in your pocket?! Prevention apps assessed against the available scientific evidence: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mechelen, D.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background High costs and personal burden follow sports and physical activity-related injuries (SPRI). The last decades' knowledge on how to prevent SPRIs has grown. Past years' eHealth is emerging and mobile applications (apps) helping to prevent SPRIs are appearing. Aim To review the content of

  10. Sports injuries in young athletes: long-term outcome and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2010-06-01

    Physical activity plays a significant role in the physical and emotional well-being of a child. In the past 15 to 20 years, there has been a dramatic increase in sports participation at a young age, which has offered numerous health benefits, including self-esteem, confidence, team play, fitness, agility, and strength. Children are playing sports at younger ages. This article assesses the long-term outcome of sports injuries in young athletes, with suggestions on how to prevent such injuries. There are no definitive epidemiological data on withdraw from sports activities due to injury in young athletes. Disturbed physeal growth as a result of injury can result in length discrepancy, angular deformity, or altered joint mechanics, and may cause significant long-term disability. Sequelae of Osgood-Schlatter lesion include painful ossicle in the distal patellar tendon. Fragmentation or separation of the apophysis appears to be the result of adaptive changes to the increased stress that occurs in overuse activities. The presence of these changes undeniably demonstrates an osseous reaction, although they are not disabling. Promotion of a physically active lifestyle is encouraged worldwide, particularly with regard to the many health benefits. Reduction of only a moderate proportion of all sports injuries is of significance for the young athletes' health and could have a long-term economic impact on health care costs. It is therefore important to convince medical doctors, physical therapists, athletic trainers and coaches, as well as athletes of the necessity to implement active prevention measures in their therapy and training programs, thus decreasing the injury and re-injury rate and enhancing athletic performance.

  11. [Prevention of school sport injuries--an analysis of ballsports with 2234 injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Rossner, D; Jagodzinski, M; Zeichen, J; Gössling, T; Martin-Schmitt, S; Richter, M; Krettek, C

    2005-06-01

    Ball sport school injuries account for a significant morbidity among children and adolescents. During a school year 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Regarding the non-gender-specific distribution of the ball sport disciplines, basketball leads with 32 % (n = 431), followed by soccer (24 %, n = 316), volleyball (17 %, n = 232), handball (8.3 %, n = 110) and hockey (4.9 %, n = 65). Sprains (27 %) dominate in basketball, followed by ligament distorsions and ruptures (23 %) and fractures (21 %), with frequent finger injuries (61 %) without contact of an opponent, and injuries of the lower extremity (28 %). Soccer leads to contusions (29 %), in 52 % of the lower extremity frequently after collision with an opponent (22 %) or the ball (20 %). In volleyball upper extremity injuries (71 %) dominate with 53 % finger sprains in individual volleyball play. Ball school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity with frequent finger injuries. Proprioceptive deficits may play a role in those finger injuries in basketball, volleyball and handball. During hockey, severe dental and facial injuries were apparent. A prospective proprioceptive training program aiming on fingers and the ankle region may therefore be a preventive measure such as helmets with facial protection in hockey school sport.

  12. Intervention to Prevent Child Custody Loss in Mothers with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary V. Seeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on jurisdiction, time period studied, and specifics of the population, approximately 50 percent of mothers who suffer from schizophrenia lose custody of their children. The aim of this paper is to recommend interventions aimed at preventing unnecessary custody loss. This paper reviews the social work, nursing, psychology, psychiatry, and law literature on mental illness and custody loss, 2000–2011. Recommendations to mothers are to (a ensure family health (b prevent psychotic relapse, (c prepare in advance for crisis, (d document daily parenting activities, (e take advantage of available parenting resources, and f become knowledgeable about legal issues that pertain to mental health and custody. From a policy perspective, child protection and adult mental health agencies need to dissolve administrative barriers and collaborate. Access to appropriate services will help mothers with schizophrenia to care appropriately for their children and allow these children to grow and develop within their family and community.

  13. Child Care Providers' Knowledge About Dental Injury First Aid in Preschool-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Kristine L; Rainchuso, Lori; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess child care providers' level of knowledge of first aid management and attitudes towards dental injuries among preschool-age children within Fairfield County, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a web-based, validated questionnaire adapted from several studies with permission from authors. A panel of 5 dental experts determined the relevance of the questions and overall content (I-CVI range 0.8-1; S-CVI = 0.95). The 28 question survey included demographics, level of knowledge, attitudes about traumatic dental injuries, emergency management, and 2 case study questions on management of luxation and tooth fracture. Survey data was coded and analyzed for associations and trends using STATA® statistics/data analysis software v. 11.2. Results: A total of 100 child care providers completed the online questionnaire. Eighty-four percent self-reported little to no knowledge about dental injury management. Sixty percent of child care providers agreed that they are responsible for managing dental injuries. Approximately two-thirds of child care providers reported not feeling adequately informed about dental injuries, with 77% expressing interest in receiving more information. Conclusions: The majority of child care providers' do not have the knowledge to perform adequate first aid following a dental injury. Professional development on first aid for dental injuries is recommended among this workforce population. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  14. Diagnostic criteria for cutaneous injuries in child abuse: classification, findings, and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokos, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Physical abuse of children has many manifestations. Depending on the type of force involved, specific injury patterns are produced on the body of the child, the morphology and localization of which are forensically relevant in terms of diagnostic classification as child abuse. Typical patterned bruising includes, for example, tramline bruises resulting from blows with oblong, stick-like objects. In addition to rounded or one-sided horseshoe-shaped bite injuries, injuries of different ages, clustered injuries (e.g., three or more individual injuries in the same body region), and thermal injuries are typical results of abuse. Abusive scalds are usually characterized by a symmetrical impression and localization with sharp delineation of the scald wound edges, in contrast to accidental scalding injuries with radiating splash patterns ending in tapered points. The coloration of a hematoma can help indicate the time when the injury occurred. Lack of a coherent and comprehensible explanation for accidental injury constitutes grounds for suspecting abuse. Suspicions should be raised in cases of a delayed visit to a doctor, waiting for an unusually long period before summoning emergency medical help for serious injuries to a child, and when differing versions of a purported accident are provided. Documentation of the findings is highly relevant in later reviews of the diagnosis, for instance, when new relevant facts and investigative results come to light in subsequent criminal proceedings.

  15. Optimization of the anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention paradigm: novel feedback techniques to enhance motor learning and reduce injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel V. Dowling; Gregory D. Myer; Timothy E. Hewett; Anne Benjaminse; James A. Onate; Alli Gokeler; Avery Faigenbaum; Kevin R. Ford; Bert Otten

    2015-01-01

    Primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs effectively reduce ACL injury risk in the short term. Despite these programs, ACL injury incidence is still high, making it imperative to continue to improve cur- rent prevention strategies. A potential limitation of current ACL

  16. Optimization of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Paradigm : Novel Feedback Techniques to Enhance Motor Learning and Reduce Injury Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjaminse, Anne; Gokeler, Alli; Dowling, Ariel V.; Faigenbaum, Avery; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Onate, James A.; Otten, Bert; Myer, Gregory D.

    SYNOPSIS: Primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs effectively reduce ACL injury risk in the short term. Despite these programs, ACL injury incidence-is still high, making it imperative to continue to improve current prevention strategies. A potential limitation of current

  17. THE ACUTE EFFECTS OF THE PREVENT INJURY ENHANCE PERFORMANCE PROGRAMME (PEP) ON ACL INJURY RISK FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, S; McCann, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects the prevent injury enhance performance programme (PEP) had on lower extremity biomechanics in relation to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) risk factors compared to when it was not performed. 8 healthy males were required to perform a number of drop rebound jumps as a task that mimicked the sudden deceleration seen during ACL injuries. The PEP significantly (p

  18. Unintentional Injury Risk in School-Age Children: Examining Interrelations between Parent and Child Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Melissa; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Kane, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on children's risk of injury reveals that parent and child factors are often interrelated. This study examined relations between children's risk taking, parent appraisal of this risk taking, and children's rate of injury in youth 8 and 9 years old. Methods: Responses to questionnaires and laboratory tasks were used to examine…

  19. Clinical characteristics and prevention of ocular penetrating injuries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Hong Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the clinical features of children ocular penetrating trauma, and hope to effectively assist to prevent pediatric ocular traumaMETHODS: The data of 145 cases(145 eyeswith ocular penetrating trauma, hospitalized in Xijing Hospital from January 2012 to December 2016, were collected and retrospectively analyzed. All the data of injury factors and environment, age and gender of patients, lesions, treatment and prognosis were detailed studied.RESULTS: In all the 145 pediatric patients with ocular penetrating trauma, accounted for 8.5% of all the ocular trauma patients, there were 95 cases of male, and 50 of female. Penetrating injuries mainly occurred in age of 3-9. The main injuries of ocular perforating in children were scissors, and sharp objects of wooden and iron. The wound was often located in the cornea or the anterior sclera. Traumatic cataract, vitreous hemorrhage and endophthalmitis were the common complications. The visual acuity was severely damaged, and 90 cases(62.1%of the children recovered better than 0.1 after effective treatment.CONCLUSION: The visual function of pediatric p0atients was seriously threatened after penetrating injuries. However, the damage of vision and the rate of blindness can be reduced effectively after timely and correct diagnosis and treatment. It is the most important that active and effective prevention in keep children away from penetrating injuries.

  20. Female adolescent athletes' attitudes and perspectives on injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jessica C; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Denegar, Craig R; Joseph, Michael F; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Trojian, Thomas H; DiStefano, Lindsay J

    2017-02-01

    To examine what factors influence a high school female athlete's stated willingness to perform a lower extremity injury prevention program (IPP). A secondary aim was to examine if a participant's stated willingness affected her compliance with an IPP. Repeated measures. We surveyed high school female field hockey, soccer and volleyball athletes before and after a season-long IPP warm-up intervention. Participants completed the Injury Prevention Program Attitude Survey (IPPAS), a paper and pencil survey utilizing Likert-style and open-ended questions. It was used to assess the athletes' willingness to perform an IPP if the data proved the player would experience improved performance, fewer injuries and risk factors, what outside factors influence their willingness to perform an IPP, who they would feel comfortable leading their team in an IPP, and what they believe an IPP can improve. Participants responded that they were willing to perform an IPP if data proved that they would have fewer injury risk factors (p≤0.001) and be less likely to suffer an ACL injury (pinjuries. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. When prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission fails: preventing pretreatment drug resistance in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inzaule, Seth C.; Hamers, Raph L.; Calis, Job; Boerma, Ragna; Sigaloff, Kim; Zeh, Clement; Mugyenyi, Peter; Akanmu, Sulaimon; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2018-01-01

    : The scale-up of antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV has significantly reduced new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. However, among infants who become HIV-infected despite prevent mother-to-child transmission, more than 50% have drug-resistant HIV.

  2. HIV prevention is not enough: child survival in the context of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Louise; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Don M; Kankasa, Chipepo; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2009-12-11

    Clinical and epidemiologic research has identified increasingly effective interventions to reduce mother to child HIV transmission in resource-limited settings These scientific breakthroughs have been implemented in some programmes, although much remains to be done to improve coverage and quality of these programmes. But prevention of HIV transmission is not enough. It is necessary also to consider ways to improve maternal health and protect child survival.A win-win approach is to ensure that all pregnant and lactating women with CD4 counts of <350 cells/mm3 have access to antiretroviral therapy. On its own, this approach will substantially improve maternal health and markedly reduce mother to child HIV transmission during pregnancy and delivery and through breastfeeding. This approach can be combined with additional interventions for women with higher CD4 counts, either extended prophylaxis to infants or extended regimens of antiretroviral drugs to women, to reduce transmission even further.Attempts to encourage women to abstain from all breastfeeding or to shorten the optimal duration of breastfeeding have led to increases in mortality among both uninfected and infected children. A better approach is to support breastfeeding while strengthening programmes to provide antiretroviral therapy for pregnant and lactating women who need it and offering antiretroviral drug interventions through the duration of breastfeeding. This will lead to reduced HIV transmission and will protect the health of women without compromising the health and well-being of infants and young children.

  3. Aetiology and prevention of injuries in elite young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Sport participation confers many varied benefits in children and adolescents, such as self-esteem, confidence, team play, fitness, agility and strength. Nevertheless, the age of initiation of intense training is decreasing and programmes which expose children to excessive amounts of exercise increase the risk of injury. We review sports injuries in young athletes and the long-term outcomes. Sports injuries can lead to disturbances in growth such as limb length discrepancy, caused by traumatised physeal growth induced by injury. Osgood-Schlatter lesion may also cause some sequelae such as painful ossicles in the distal patellar tendon. The apophysis can be fragmentised or separated, and this could be an adaptive change to the increased stress typical of overuse activities. These changes produce an osseous reaction even though they are not disabling. Participation in physical exercise at a young age should be encouraged, because of the health benefits, but decreasing the incidence and severity of sports injuries in young athletes is an important component of any athletic programme and may generate a long-term economic impact in health care costs. Active prevention measures are the main weapon to decrease the (re-)injury rate and to increase athletic performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Parental distress, parenting practices, and child adaptive outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklewright, Jackie L; King, Tricia Z; O'Toole, Kathleen; Henrich, Chris; Floyd, Frank J

    2012-03-01

    Moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with significant familial distress and child adaptive sequelae. Our aim was to examine the relationship between parental psychological distress, parenting practices (authoritarian, permissive, authoritative), and child adaptive functioning 12-36 months following TBI or orthopedic injury (OI). Injury type was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning, demonstrating a significantly stronger relationship in the TBI relative to OI group. Authoritarian parenting practices were hypothesized to mediate relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning across groups. Groups (TBI n = 21, OI n = 23) did not differ significantly on age at injury, time since injury, sex, race, or SES. Parents completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, Parenting Practices Questionnaire, and Vineland-II. Moderation and mediation hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression and a bootstrapping approach, respectively. Results supported moderation and revealed that higher parental psychological distress was associated with lower child adaptive functioning in the TBI group only. Mediation results indicated that higher parental distress was associated with authoritarian parenting practices and lower adaptive functioning across groups. Results suggest that parenting practices are an important area of focus for studies attempting to elucidate the relationship between parent and child functioning following TBI.

  5. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over

  6. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  7. Teaching of pressure injury prevention and treatment using simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mazzo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the construction of a high-fidelity clinical scenario simulation of "Pressure injury patient nursing care". Method: Report the experience of constructing a high-fidelity clinical scenario simulation based on the literature and on Bloom's taxonomy. Learning objectives, prior study material, fidelity, clinical case, necessary resources, problem solving, face and content validity, debriefing and evaluation were considered. Results: The scenario included cognitive, psychomotor and affective aspects; role-playing and the moulage technique were used, and it was positively evaluated by the students. Conclusion: The construction of planned, structured and validated simulated clinical scenarios brings learners closer to the clinical practice, allowing the development of the skills required for the prevention and treatment of pressure injuries. Implications for practice: Well-designed simulated clinical settings simulate nursing care training with fidelity to patients with pressure injury.

  8. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, I.I.E.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.; van Stel, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional

  9. The Child Anxiety Prevention Study: intervention model and primary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S

    2009-06-01

    The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a broad range of anxiety disorders. Families were randomly assigned to an 8-week cognitive-behavioral intervention, the Coping and Promoting Strength program (CAPS; n = 20) or a wait list control condition (WL; n = 20). Independent evaluators (IEs) conducted diagnostic interviews, and children and parents completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Assessments were conducted pre- and postintervention and 6 and 12 months after the postintervention assessment. On the basis of intent to treat analyses, 30% of the children in the WL group developed an anxiety disorder by the 1-year follow-up compared with 0% in the CAPS group. IE and parent-reported (but not child-reported) levels of anxiety showed significant decreases from the preintervention assessment to the 1-year follow-up assessment in the CAPS but not the WL group. Parental satisfaction with the intervention was high. Findings suggest that a family-based intervention may prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Copyright 2009 APA

  10. Evaluation of a Shoulder Injury Prevention Program in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilroy, Jereme; Hibberd, Elizabeth

    2017-11-15

    Previous literature has theorized that alterations in shoulder physical characteristics are present in wheelchair athletes and contribute to shoulder pain and injury. Limited empirical evidence is present that evaluates the effectiveness of a shoulder injury prevention program focusing on improving these altered characteristics. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-week intervention program at improving characteristics that increases the risk of developing pain or shoulder injury. Pre and post-test. Home-based and controlled laboratory. Seven collegiate wheelchair athletes. Shoulder range of motion (ROM) and scapular muscle strength were assessed, and a 5-minute injury prevention program was taught to participants. Participants completed the intervention 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Following completion of the program, a post-intervention screening was performed. Internal/external rotation ROM, retraction strength, and internal/external rotation strength. Participants experienced a significant improvement in dominant limb shoulder internal rotation ROM (t6=3.56,p=0.012) with an average increase of 11.4° of IR ROM, and a significant improvement in dominant limb shoulder external rotation (ER) ROM (t6=2.79,p=0.032) with an average increase of 8.0° of ER ROM. There were no significant increases in shoulder IR or ER strength and scapular retraction strength (p>0.05). Improvements in ROM have previously been linked to decreases in shoulder pain and injury in other upper-extremity dominant sports by improving scapular kinematics. These results provide evidence that a 6-week strengthening and stretching intervention program may decrease risk factors for shoulder injury in wheelchair athletics.

  11. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, O; Maas, M; Verhagen, E; Zwerver, J; Gouttebarge, V

    2017-07-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures of volleyball injuries. To this end, a highly sensitive search strategy was built based on two groups of keywords (and their synonyms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The results showed that ankle, knee and shoulder injuries are the most common injuries sustained while playing volleyball. Results are presented separately for acute and overuse injuries, as well as for contact and non-contact injuries. Measures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries, anterior knee injuries and ankle injuries were identified in the scientific literature. These preventive measures were found to have a significant effect on decreasing the occurrence of volleyball injuries (for instance on ankle injuries with a reduction from 0.9 to 0.5 injuries per 1000 player hours). Our systematic review showed that musculoskeletal injuries are common among volleyball players, while effective preventive measures remain scarce. Further epidemiological studies should focus on other specific injuries besides knee and ankle injuries, and should also report their prevalence and not only the incidence. Additionally, high-quality studies on the aetiology and prevention of shoulder injuries are lacking and should be a focus of future studies.

  12. Wearable IMU for Shoulder Injury Prevention in Overhead Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. Rawashdeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Body-worn inertial sensors have enabled motion capture outside of the laboratory setting. In this work, an inertial measurement unit was attached to the upper arm to track and discriminate between shoulder motion gestures in order to help prevent shoulder over-use injuries in athletics through real-time preventative feedback. We present a detection and classification approach that can be used to count the number of times certain motion gestures occur. The application presented involves tracking baseball throws and volleyball serves, which are common overhead movements that can lead to shoulder and elbow overuse injuries. Eleven subjects are recruited to collect training, testing, and randomized validation data, which include throws, serves, and seven other exercises that serve as a large null class of similar movements, which is analogous to a realistic usage scenario and requires a robust estimator.

  13. Wearable IMU for Shoulder Injury Prevention in Overhead Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawashdeh, Samir A; Rafeldt, Derek A; Uhl, Timothy L

    2016-11-03

    Body-worn inertial sensors have enabled motion capture outside of the laboratory setting. In this work, an inertial measurement unit was attached to the upper arm to track and discriminate between shoulder motion gestures in order to help prevent shoulder over-use injuries in athletics through real-time preventative feedback. We present a detection and classification approach that can be used to count the number of times certain motion gestures occur. The application presented involves tracking baseball throws and volleyball serves, which are common overhead movements that can lead to shoulder and elbow overuse injuries. Eleven subjects are recruited to collect training, testing, and randomized validation data, which include throws, serves, and seven other exercises that serve as a large null class of similar movements, which is analogous to a realistic usage scenario and requires a robust estimator.

  14. Possibilities of Kinesio Taping to Prevent Injuries of Professional Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezutsky, Vladimir

    2018-01-26

    The literature review comprises information about application of kinesio taping in prevention of professional dancers' injuries. The relevance of the study is determined by frequent dance related and overuse injuries and lack of organized information about this issue. The purpose of the study is to assess the impact of kinesio taping on the musculoskeletal system of dancers basing on the scientific research data of the years 2015-2017. The analysis revealed that kinesio taping can effectively reduce muscle spasms, rebuild muscle strength of the injured extremity, improve static and dynamic balance and ease the pain, due to its ability to improve the proprioception of the joints and regulate muscle tone. These effects reduce muscle imbalance and joint instability, thus increasing treatment efficacy and shortening the physical loads limitation. Kinesio taping significantly reduces the risk of overuse syndromes and dance related injuries during dance trainings and strenuous exercises of people with chronic musculoskeletal diseases. Therefore, the mentioned method has proven its broad utility in primary and secondary prevention of dance-related injuries.

  15. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejnisman B

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benno Ejnisman,1 Gisele Barbosa,1 Carlos V Andreoli,1 A de Castro Pochini,1 Thiago Lobo,2 Rodrigo Zogaib,2 Moises Cohen,1 Mario Bizzini,3 Jiri Dvorak3 1Department of Orthopaedics, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Sports Medicine Department, Santos FC, São Paulo, Brazil; 3FIFA-Medical Assessment and Research Centre, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. Keywords: goalkeeper, shoulder, injury prevention, prevention program

  16. Multicenter assessment of burn team injury prevention knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klas, Karla S; Smith, Sue Jane; Matherly, Annette F; Dillard, B Daniel; Grant, Ernest J; Cusick-Jost, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Engaging burn professionals to utilize "teachable moments" and provide accurate fire safety and burn prevention (FSBP) education is essential in reducing injury incidence. Minimal data is available regarding burn clinicians' evidence-based FSBP knowledge. A committee of prevention professionals developed, pilot-tested, and distributed a 52-question online survey assessing six major categories: demographical information (n = 7); FSBP knowledge (n = 24); home FSBP practices (n = 6); burn center FSBP education (n = 7); self-assessed competence and confidence in providing FSBP education (n = 2); and improving ABA reach (n = 6). Responses with 50% of TG. ANOVA showed self-reported competence and confidence in providing FSBP education were not good predictors of FSBP scores, but staff with competence and confidence in their ability to provide FSBP education. However, this multicenter survey demonstrates the need for professional training on best practices in injury prevention, specifically targeting knowledge gaps on: smoke alarms, fire-safe cigarettes, children's sleepwear, burn/fire epidemiology, fireworks, bathing/scald injuries, and residential sprinklers. Based on these findings, FSBP educational materials will be created.

  17. Education in trauma: An educational alternative that promotes injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Charry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As trauma is a public health problem, different programs have been designed to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational model that measures the adolescents' attitudes towards the rules of road safety, alcohol and road accidents in Colombia. Methods: A pedagogical model evaluating the effect of road safety education and adolescents' attitudes towards and experiences of alcohol and road accidents in Colombia was created. After the education concluded, this educational process is analyzed by its impact on adolescents' behavior. The educational program included 160 adolescents with the mean age being 17.5 years. Results: The test results indicated that before the educational program 80% of adolescents did not use a safety element when driving, while after the educational program the percentage of no helmet use among adolescents decreased from 72.5% to 24.3% (p = 0.0001 and driving a vehicle under the state of drunkenness from 49.3% to 8.1% (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: An educational model aimed at preventing injuries caused by traffic accidents is shown to be effective in generating changes in adolescents' customs of and attitudes towards alcohol and road safety standards in Colombia. Keywords: Models, Educational, Trauma, Injury prevention, Alcohol

  18. Causes and Prevention of Laparoscopic Bile Duct Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Lawrence W.; Stewart, Lygia; Gantert, Walter; Liu, Kingsway; Lee, Crystine M.; Whang, Karen; Hunter, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To apply human performance concepts in an attempt to understand the causes of and prevent laparoscopic bile duct injury. Summary Background Data Powerful conceptual advances have been made in understanding the nature and limits of human performance. Applying these findings in high-risk activities, such as commercial aviation, has allowed the work environment to be restructured to substantially reduce human error. Methods The authors analyzed 252 laparoscopic bile duct injuries according to the principles of the cognitive science of visual perception, judgment, and human error. The injury distribution was class I, 7%; class II, 22%; class III, 61%; and class IV, 10%. The data included operative radiographs, clinical records, and 22 videotapes of original operations. Results The primary cause of error in 97% of cases was a visual perceptual illusion. Faults in technical skill were present in only 3% of injuries. Knowledge and judgment errors were contributory but not primary. Sixty-four injuries (25%) were recognized at the index operation; the surgeon identified the problem early enough to limit the injury in only 15 (6%). In class III injuries the common duct, erroneously believed to be the cystic duct, was deliberately cut. This stemmed from an illusion of object form due to a specific uncommon configuration of the structures and the heuristic nature (unconscious assumptions) of human visual perception. The videotapes showed the persuasiveness of the illusion, and many operative reports described the operation as routine. Class II injuries resulted from a dissection too close to the common hepatic duct. Fundamentally an illusion, it was contributed to in some instances by working too deep in the triangle of Calot. Conclusions These data show that errors leading to laparoscopic bile duct injuries stem principally from misperception, not errors of skill, knowledge, or judgment. The misperception was so compelling that in most cases the surgeon did not

  19. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Regens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  20. PRACTICES FOR PREVENTION NEEDLESTICK AND SHARPS INJURIES AMONG NURSING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tran Thi Quynh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Needlestick and sharp injuries are a serious hazard in any health care setting for health care workers and students during clinical practice. Thus, the efforts to prevent the needlestick and sharps injuries are needed and considered a part of the routine practice. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nursing students in doing the correct practice in prevention needlestick and sharps injuries. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted between 2013 and 2014 in nursing students of Tien Giang Medical College who participated in clinical practice. There were 360 students participated in the study using simple random sampling. Data were collected using the practical assessment checklist and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Data were processed using STATA 12.0, and analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher test. Results: The students who did general practice correctly accounted for 52.50%, and those who did practice incorrectly was 47.5%. The students who used gauze or wool wrap in inhaler were 59.7%, wearing gloves in practice (39.2%, do not disassemble needles from syringes after injection 50%, and removing needles into barrel after injection (65.6%. There was statistically significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct practice with p-value 0.04 (<0.05 Conclusion: The correct practice of nursing students related to the prevention of needlestick and sharps injuries remains low. There was a significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct nursing practice. It is suggested that students must be taught about the risk of infection at the beginning of clinical practice, and constantly reminded throughout the learning process, especially for injection safety awareness, knowledge and techniques about the risk of transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV by sharp objects in the healthcare facility.

  1. Speed enforcement detection devices for preventing road traffic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C; Willis, C; Hendrikz, J K; Bellamy, N

    2006-04-19

    It is estimated that by 2020, road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world ranking of burden of disease, as measured in disability adjusted life years. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of road traffic injuries is of global public health importance. Measures aimed at reducing traffic speed are considered essential to preventing road injuries; the use of speed enforcement detection devices (including speed cameras and radar and laser devices) is one such measure. To assess whether the use of speed enforcement detection devices (SEDs) reduces the incidence of speeding, road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science (and Social Science) Citation Index, TRANSPORT, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EconLit. We searched the websites of road safety and motoring associations, as well as general internet searches. We handsearched selected journals and conference proceedings, and contacted experts in the field. The searches were conducted during May to November 2004. Randomised controlled trials and controlled before-after studies that assessed the impact of speed enforcement detection devices on speeding, road crashes, injuries and deaths were eligible for inclusion. For studies involving co-interventions, SEDs had to be the major intervention focus of the study to be eligible. We independently screened search results, assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Due to variability between and within included studies, a pooled analysis was not appropriate. No randomised controlled trials were identified. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 22 were controlled before-after trials incorporating a distinct control or comparison group(s) and four were interrupted time series designs with a comparison group(s). Fourteen studies reported speed and crash outcomes, seven reported crash outcomes

  2. Child pedestrian injuries in the Cape metropolitan area - final results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over a 12-month period 430 children under 14 years of age presented to Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town having been injured as pedestrians, and 106 children who died from such injuries were registered at the regional state mortuary. Information about the circumstances surrounding injury was ...

  3. Therapeutic strategies to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalle, Cristina; Donnarumma, Elvira; Fiore, Danilo; Briguori, Carlo; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2013-11-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) accounts for approximately 10% of all causes of hospital-acquired renal failure, causes a prolonged in-hospital stay, and represents a powerful predictor of poor early and late outcome. Here, we highlight endpoints used to assess major strategies to prevent CI-AKI. A general consensus exists on the beneficial prophylactic effect of hydration. This seems to act by increasing urine flow rate and, thereby, by limiting the time of contact between the contrast media and the epithelial tubular cells. On the contrary, both observational trials and randomized studies are often controversial in their conclusions on the efficacy of several drugs tested to prevent CI-AKI. Compounds evaluated include diuretics (furosemide), antioxidants (i.e., N-acetylcysteine and statins), and vasodilators (i.e., calcium antagonists, dopamine, and fenoldopam). Due to the negative and/or controversial clinical results, none of these drugs has been currently recommended to prevent CI-AKI. More reliable markers of acute kidney injury and new prophylactic strategies are warranted to prevent the incidence of CI-AKI.

  4. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921

  5. Occult Orbitocranial Penetrating Pencil Injury in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Al-Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transorbital slow-penetrating injury is an uncommon type of head injury that is seen more often in the pediatric age group. This type of injury can be occult, which is often associated with serious complications. We report on a 4-year-old female who presented with orbital swelling after an unwitnessed right orbital injury following a fall on her face at her school. Three days after injury, the presence of a foreign body was discovered on imaging study when she presented with orbital swelling and purulent discharges. She recovered well after surgical and medical management. This paper sheds light on the importance of high suspicion for the presence and early surgical management of a penetrating foreign body.

  6. Effectiveness of occupational injury prevention policies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; García, Ana M; Lopez-Ruiz, Maria; Gil, Josep; Boix, Pere; Martinez, José Miguel; Rodrigo, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of preventive interventions against occupational injuries (preferential action plans [PAPs]) developed by Spanish regional governments starting in 2000. We included 3,252,028 occupational injuries with sick leave due to mechanical causes occurring between 1994 and 2004 in manufacturing and private service companies. Time trends for occupational injury rates were estimated before and after implementation of PAPs in each region, with a control group defined for those regions in which no PAPs were implemented (e.g., Galicia, Madrid, and Cataluña). We determined annual change percentages and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) through a negative binomial regression model. Regions were grouped into three categories according to formal quality of their PAPs. The regions with the best PAPs (Andalucia, Aragon, Valencia, and Murcia) showed annually increasing occupational injury rates (2.3%, 95% CI -2.5, 7.4) before implementation of PAPs. After PAPs were implemented, occupational injury rates decreased significantly to -7.4% (95% CI -10.2, -4.5). Similar results were also found for regions with PAPs of lower quality and even for regions that didn't implement a PAP (control group). These results did not vary substantially in stratified analysis by gender, age, type of contract, or length of sick leave. PAPs are not related to a general decline in occupational injury rates in Spain starting in 2000. Reinforcement of Spanish health and safety regulations and labor inspection activities since 2000, resulting from a social agreement between central government and social agents, remains an alternative hypothesis requiring additional research.

  7. Mechanisms of pediatric electrical injury. New implications for product safety and injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabban, J T; Blair, J A; Rosen, C L; Adler, J N; Sheridan, R L

    1997-07-01

    To determine age-specific mechanisms of electrical injury in children, to examine product safety regulation of the major sources of electrical injury hazard, and to assess the adequacy of current prevention strategies. Case series of 144 pediatric and adolescent electrical injuries in patients seen in the specialized burn center and tertiary care hospital between 1970 and 1995, examination of Consumer Product Safety Commission product recall reports for electrical injury hazards between 1973 and 1995, and review of the National Electric Code. Eighty-six cases of electrical injuries resulted from low-voltage (products identified by the Consumer Product Safety Commission to be electrical injury hazards, 119 were appliance cords, extension cords, or holiday stringed light sets. Several products numbered more than 1.5 million units in US household distribution prior to the investigation by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. Household electrical cords are the major electrocution hazard for children younger than 12 years, yet no federal safety mandates exist. Despite voluntary standards, noncompliant manufacturers can introduce vast numbers of unsafe cords onto the US household market every year. Conversion of existing voluntary safety guidelines into federally legislated standards may be the most effective intervention against pediatric electrocutions.

  8. Pushrim biomechanics and injury prevention in spinal cord injury: recommendations based on CULP-SCI investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boninger, Michael L; Koontz, Alicia M; Sisto, Sue Ann; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Chang, Michael; Price, Robert; Cooper, Rory A

    2005-01-01

    Over 50 percent of manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI) are likely to develop upper-limb pain and injury. The majority of studies related to pain have implicated wheelchair propulsion as a cause. This paper draws from a large multisite trial and a long-standing research program to make specific recommendations related to wheelchair propulsion that may decrease the risk of upper-limb injury. The studies include over 60 subjects over 1 yr after a traumatic SCI below the second thoracic level. Specific aspects of the propulsive stroke that may relate to injury include cadence, magnitude of force, and the pattern of the hand during the nonpropulsive part of the stroke. Lower peak forces, slower cadence, and a circular propulsive stroke in which the hand falls below the pushrim during recovery may help prevent injury. In addition, wheelchair users should use the lightest weight adjustable wheelchair possible. Future work should include interventional trials and larger studies that allow for more complex statistical models that can further detail the relationship between wheelchair propulsion, user characteristics, and upper-limb injuries.

  9. Child/Youth Homelessness: housing affordability, early intervention, and preventive care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Shiga, Fumiya

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the child/youth homelessness including its preventive care.This paper explores the housing support program implemented across Australia in brief at first, and then profile child/youth homelessness and housing policy. Based on that, it discusses early intervention and preventive methods followed by the conclusion.

  10. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  11. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  12. Modification of the "Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect" (PCAN) Curriculum for IDEA Part C Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Janice E.; Shapiro, Cheri J.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic workforce training of organizations that provide services to families of young children with special needs can help strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, but few curriculua are available for this purpose. One professional development curriculum, "Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child…

  13. Preventive effect of garlic juice on renal reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Faezeh; Gol, Ali; Dabiri, Shahriar; Javadi, Abdolreza

    2011-07-01

    Renal reperfusion injury is associated with increased mortality and morbidity due to acute kidney failure. Oxidative stress induced with renal reperfusion affects glomeruli and tubular epithelium through reactive oxygen species; therefore, the use of medicinal plants appears rational for improvement of reperfusion effects. The aim of present study was to examine the preventive effect of garlic juice (Allium sativum) on renal reperfusion injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control, garlic, sham (right nephrectomy), reperfusion, and reperfusion + garlic groups. After right nephrectomy, renal ischemia and reperfusion were induced. At the end of the experiment, all rats were killed and kidney function tests and histopathological examination were performed. Results. Reperfusion increased serum urea and fractional excretion of sodium levels, while it decreased urine potassium levels and creatinine clearance. However, garlic juice significantly decreased serum urea levels in the reperfusion + garlic group compared with the reperfusion group (P < .001). Preteatment with garlic juice also resulted in significant increase in urine potassium (P = .03) compared to reperfusion. Fractional excretion of sodium and creatinine clearance were also improved. On histological examination, rats pretreated with garlic juice had nearly normal morphology. The results of this study showed that garlic juice significantly prevented renal reperfusion-induced functional and histological injuries.

  14. Evaluation of a ski and snowboard injury prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael; Luong, Wilson P; Faress, Ahmed; Leroux, Timothy; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to study the effectiveness of a brochure and video at improving skiing and snowboarding knowledge. Sixty-nine Grade 7 students were randomised to an educational intervention (n = 35) or control (n = 34) group. The intervention group viewed an injury prevention video aimed at improving skiers and snowboarder's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about ski and snowboard safety and received a brochure. The control group participated in a teaching session and had a simple question and answer session about snow sports. Pre- and post-tests were administered and injuries during four trips were documented. Pre-test scores were similar between the two groups. Compared with the control group, there was a significantly greater improvement in post-test scores among the intervention group (WMD: 2.1; 95% CI: 0.19-4.01). There was no significant difference in injury rates (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.04, 3.39). All injuries were minor and did not require medical attention. The intervention aimed at youth skiers and snowboarders appears to be effective at improving knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of skiing and snowboarding safety.

  15. Effect of specific exercise-based football injury prevention programmes on the overall injury rate in football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Krommes, Kasper Kühn; Esteve, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of FIFA injury prevention programmes in football (FIFA 11 and FIFA 11+). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials comparing the FIFA injury prevention programmes with a control (no or sham...... intervention) among football players. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via Ebsco, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 2004 to 14 March 2016. Results 6 cluster-randomised controlled trials had assessed the effect of FIFA injury prevention...... programmes compared with controls on the overall football injury incidence in recreational/subelite football. These studies included 2 specific exercise-based injury prevention programmes: FIFA 11 (2 studies) and FIFA 11+ (4 studies). The primary analysis showed a reduction in the overall injury risk ratio...

  16. An unusual case of penetrating head injury in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Tanweer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating head injuries can be the result of numerous intentional or unintentional events, including missile wounds, stab wounds, and motor vehicle or occupational accidents (nails, screw-drivers. Penetrating head injuries in children constitute only a small part of the total number of traumatic head injuries seen in casualty. We report a case of neuro-trauma who was operated in our institution. Patient, 4 years male presented in casualty on 15/01/09 with a iron rod penetrating into the skull.

  17. 'Do as we say, not as we do:' a cross-sectional survey of injuries in injury prevention professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Allison; Brussoni, Mariana; Schneeberg, Amy; Jones, Sarah J

    2014-06-01

    As the leading cause of death and among the top causes of hospitalisation in Canadians aged 1-44 years, injury is a major public health concern. Little is known about whether knowledge, training and understanding of the underlying causes and mechanisms of injury would help with one's own prevention efforts. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, we hypothesised that injury prevention professionals would experience fewer injuries than the general population. An online cross-sectional survey was distributed to Canadian injury prevention practitioners, researchers and policy makers to collect information on medically attended injuries. Relative risk of injury in the past 12 months was calculated by comparing the survey data with injury incidence reported by a comparable subgroup of adults from the (Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)) from 2009 to 2010. We had 408 injury prevention professionals complete the survey: 344 (84.5%) women and 63 (15.5%) men. In the previous 12 months, 86 individuals reported experiencing at least one medically attended injury (21,235 people per 100,000 people); with sports being the most common mechanism (41, 33.6%). Fully 84.8% individuals from our sample believed that working in the field had made them more careful. After accounting for age distribution, education level and employment status, injury prevention professionals were 1.69 (95% CI 1.41 to 2.03) times more likely to be injured in the past year. Despite their convictions of increasing their own safety behaviour and that of others, injury prevention professionals' knowledge and training did not help them prevent their own injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Traumatic Stress, Depression, and Recovery: Child and Parent Responses After Emergency Medical Care for Unintentional Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Bakker, Anne; Marsac, Meghan L; Fein, Joel A; Winston, Flaura Koplin

    2015-11-01

    To assess psychological symptoms in injured children (aged 8-17 years) and their parents after emergency department (ED) care to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms, co-occurrence of symptoms within families, and the relationship of these symptoms to parent-reported overall recovery. Children and parents (n = 263 child-parent dyads) were enrolled during ED treatment for unintentional injury. Approximately 5 months later, children and parents (n = 178 dyads) completed standardized measures of posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms and parents reported on child overall recovery. Follow-up assessments found significant posttraumatic stress symptoms in 15% of children and 5% of parents, significant depression symptoms in 13% of children and 16% of parents, and problematic overall recovery in 17% of children. For both children and parents, posttraumatic stress and depression symptom severity were strongly associated. Child and parent symptoms were only modestly associated with each other, and there were few families in which both child and parent had significant posttraumatic stress or depression. Parent symptoms, but not child symptoms, were inversely associated with children's overall recovery. For about 1 in 6 children and parents, unintentional injury treated in the ED can be associated with negative psychological sequelae and suboptimal recovery. Within families, child and parent responses may differ; their relative association with overall recovery deserves additional research. To promote emotional recovery, ED clinicians should be aware of the potential psychological impact of unintentional injury, provide timely evidence-based anticipatory guidance, and communicate these concerns to primary care clinicians.

  19. Preventing Child and Adolescent Firearm Injuries. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie

    In an effort to reduce the current epidemic of gun violence among children and adolescents in the United States, this fact sheet presents various approaches to reducing access to and interest in carrying firearms. Suggested approaches to reducing access include: (1) urging parents to turn in their guns to police; (2) repealing anti-gun control…

  20. Bucillamine, a thiol antioxidant, prevents transplantation-associated reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amersi, Farin; Nelson, Sally K.; Shen, Xiu Da; Kato, Hirohisa; Melinek, Judy; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.; Horwitz, Lawrence D.; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2002-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious potential threat to outcomes in organ transplantation and other clinical arenas in which there is temporary interruption of blood flow. I/R is a frequent cause of primary failure in organ transplantation. We hypothesized that the antioxidant bucillamine, a potent sulfhydryl donor, would protect against I/R injury in high-risk organ transplants. Because livers subjected to prolonged ischemia and very fatty livers are highly susceptible to severe I/R injury, we studied the effect of bucillamine in three animal models of liver transplantation: two ex vivo models of isolated perfused livers, either normal or fatty rat livers, and an in vivo model of syngenic orthotopic liver transplants in rats. In all models, livers were deprived of oxygen for 24 h before either ex vivo reperfusion or transplantation. In the ex vivo models, bucillamine treatment significantly improved portal vein blood flow and bile production, preserved normal liver architecture, and significantly reduced liver enzyme release and indices of oxidative stress. Moreover, bucillamine treatment significantly increased levels of reduced glutathione in the liver and lowered levels of oxidized glutathione in both liver and blood. In rats subjected to liver transplants, bucillamine significantly enhanced survival and protected against hepatic injury. Possible mechanisms of this protection include prevention of excessive accumulation of toxic oxygen species, interruption of redox signaling in hepatocytes, and inhibition of macrophage activation. This study demonstrates the potential utility of bucillamine or other cysteine-derived thiol donors for improving outcomes in organ transplantation and other clinical settings involving I/R injury. PMID:12084933

  1. Development of a Theory-Driven Injury Prevention Communication Strategy for U.S. Army Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    theories/models for injury interventions. The injuries most targeted for intervention involved motor vehicle, pedestrian, and bicycle injuries. The... tracked during the data collection period. This project relies on the preferences of the Injury Prevention Survey respondents, which may not be

  2. Formative research to develop theory-based messages for a Western Australian child drowning prevention television campaign: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-05-20

    Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. The Nutrition Club Approach: Community Mobilization to Prevent Child Malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugyen, Anh Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To establish a scalable and sustainable, community led approach to prevent and manage child malnutrition, and increase vulnerable families’ access to food security. Methods: The establishment of the nutrition club is a participatory community mobilization process involving local leaders including the Women’s Union, Farmers Union and Youth Union, local health workers and caregivers of young children. The first step in the process is the formation of district and commune management boards and community development boards. This is followed by a training needs assessment and capacity strengthening of local partners. Nutrition club facilitators are selected by the community and are widely respected and committed to community service. Monthly nutrition club meetings are attended by pregnant women and caregivers of children under five years old. Activities during the nutrition club meeting includes: care and nutrition during pregnancy and the post partum period, complementary feeding, child care practices, development of home gardens and hygiene and sanitation; using interactive facilitation methods such as games, skills practice, role plays and competitions. Follow up home visits are conducted to reinforce positive practices and support vulnerable families. Caregivers who attend the nutrition club have access to community led interest groups such as: chicken raising, livelihoods, agriculture and micro-credit schemes. Nutrition club members pay a small monthly fee that covers cost of refreshments and utilities. Monitoring and supervision is conducted by a team of government district and health center staff. Sustainability of the approach is promoted by mobilizing and utilizing existing resources. An agreement is made between the community development board and World Vision that support for running costs will gradually be reduced and discontinued after four years. The alignment of the nutrition club approach with government policy and priorities

  4. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries; Kindesmisshandlung. Radiologische Diagnostik skelettaler Verletzungsfolgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie

    2012-06-15

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  5. Child Anxiety Prevention Study: Impact on Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pella, Jeffrey E; Drake, Kelly L; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the impact of a selective anxiety prevention program for offspring of clinically anxious parents on three domains of child functioning: (1) social, (2) familial, and (3) emotional/behavioral. Dyads were randomized into either the Coping and Promoting Strength program (CAPS; n = 70) or Information Monitoring (IM; n = 66) comparison group. Multi-informant assessments were conducted at baseline, post intervention, and 6 and 12 months follow-ups. Random effects mixed models under the linear growth modeling (LGM) framework was used to assess the impact of CAPS on growth trajectories. Over time, children in the CAPS group had significantly lower anxiety, anxious/depressed symptoms, and lower total behavior problems (parent report), compared to children in IM group. The intervention did not impact other domains assessed (e.g., social functioning), which may be due to "floor effects" on these measures. Longitudinal follow-up data is needed to provide valuable information about this high risk population.

  6. Prediction and Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Rin Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery (CS-AKI ranges from 33% to 94% and is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The etiology is suggested to be multifactorial and related to almost all aspects of perioperative management. Numerous studies have reported the risk factors and risk scores and novel biomarkers of AKI have been investigated to facilitate the subclinical diagnosis of AKI. Based on the known independent risk factors, many preventive interventions to reduce the risk of CS-AKI have been tested. However, any single preventive intervention did not show a definite and persistent benefit to reduce the incidence of CS-AKI. Goal-directed therapy has been considered to be a preventive strategy with a substantial level of efficacy. Many pharmacologic agents were tested for any benefit to treat or prevent CS-AKI but the results were conflicting and evidences are still lacking. The present review will summarize the current updated evidences about the risk factors and preventive strategies for CS-AKI.

  7. [Child-pedestrian injuries inflicted in the road traffic accidents as a forensic medical problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkova, E N; Efimov, A A

    The road traffic accidents are known to make the greatest contribution to the overall structure of pediatric traumatism with the fatal outcome. The problem of pediatric traumatism remains on top of its relevancy despite numerous administrative, legal, technical, and financial measures taken at the government level in an attempt to reduce the mortality rate associated with the child-pedestrian injuries inflicted in the road traffic accidents. The objective of the present study was to summarize and interpret the results published in the scientific literature concerning child-pedestrian injuries inflicted in the road traffic accidents with special reference to the age of the victims and the type of the injury. The analysis of the publications of the domestic and foreign authors has demonstrated that the available data of interest remain to be systematized and that the forensic medical aspects of the problem in question are poorly represented in these materials. It was shown that forensic medical expertises of child-pedestrian injuries inflicted in the road traffic accidents are frequently carried out without taking into consideration the peculiar anatomical and physiological features of the child's organism. The available data concerning the mechanisms and evaluation of severe injuries inflicted to the children in the road traffic accidents are insufficient for the development of the algorithms for the relevant adequate forensic medical expertise. In the light of these findings, the problem of the child-pedestrian injuries inflicted in the road traffic accidents takes on new significance when considered in the context of pediatric traumatism. There is evidently the growing necessity to formulate the universal database containing systematized objective information for the development of new methods of forensic medical expertise for the elucidation of the mechanisms of road traffic injuries inflicted to the children of different age groups depending on the type of the

  8. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family violence...

  9. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family violence...

  10. Urban and rural differences in child injury deaths in South Africa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injury, a major cause of morbidity and mortality for children worldwide, is concentrated in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the growing rate of childhood injury in LMICs, effective prevention and control remain inadequate owing to the lack of comprehensive epidemiological information on the external causes ...

  11. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for ACL injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gokeler; Anne Benjaminse; N. Cortes; M. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Abstract from the IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, Monaco 2014 Background: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Objective: Assess differences between male and female athletes

  12. 76 FR 7217 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... research and control activities related to injury. Matters to be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss the...

  13. Preseason physical examination for the prevention of sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeag, D B

    1985-01-01

    The importance of the preseason physical examination and preparticipation evaluation of sports candidates is highlighted because it constitutes one of the few occasions in which the physician can actively prevent sports injuries from occurring. As exercise participation continues to increase on a world-wide basis, an understanding of the goals and objectives of such a pre-exercise evaluation are important. The need is not for a standard evaluation form, but for a consistent understanding of adjusting the evaluation to the age of the candidate, the type of sport to be engaged in and the anticipated level of competition. Essentials of any evaluation are musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and psychological examinations. Examinations should have clearly defined objectives, and factors determining the type of evaluation include: prospective athlete; contemplated exercise programme; and motivation. Different types of implementation are individual examinations, locker room technique and the station technique, each with advantages and disadvantages. A pre-exercise evaluation should always occur before any anticipated change in level of school or competition with an interval or intercurrent history and physical examinations occurring at regular intervals. It is important that examinations take place before the commencement of a sports season so previous injuries and problems can be dealt with; timing is vital. Contents of a pre-exercise physical examination should include history, a physical examination, laboratory testing and additional specific screening evaluations. Finally, assessment of the pre-exercise evaluation and injury prediction will aid physicians in preparticipation evaluations.

  14. [Penetrating orbitocranial injury: a review of the literature and a case report of injury by a watercolor brush in a 3-year-old child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzaev, D A; Danilin, V E; Letyagin, G V; Istomina, T K; Chishchina, N V

    We present a rare case of orbitocranial penetrating injury by a watercolor brush in a 3-year-old child. Injuries of this localization can affect important orbital structures (eyeball, blood vessels, nerves, muscles) and cause severe intracranial damages. In some cases, diagnosis of these injuries in children may be difficult due to the lack of marked clinical manifestations. The presented clinical case illustrates the approaches for choosing methods for diagnosis of injury in childhood and subsequent treatment options.

  15. Acute Kidney Injury by Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24–72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639

  16. Guarding the Precious Smile: Incidence and Prevention of Injury in Sports: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or ...

  17. Mechanisms, Prediction, and Prevention of ACL Injuries: Cut Risk With Three Sharpened and Validated Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Quatman, Carmen E.

    2017-01-01

    Economic and societal pressures influence modern medical practice to develop and implement prevention strategies. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury devastates the knee joint leading to short term disability and long term sequelae. Due to the high risk of long term osteoarthritis in all treatment populations following ACL injury, prevention is the only effective intervention for this life-altering disruption in knee health. The “Sequence of Prevention” Model provides a framework to monitor progress towards the ultimate goal of preventing ACL injuries. Utilizing this model, our multidisciplinary collaborative research team has spent the last decade working to delineate injury mechanisms, identify injury risk factors, predict which athletes are at-risk for injury, and develop ACL injury prevention programs. Within this model of injury prevention, modifiable factors (biomechanical and neuromuscular) related to injury mechanisms likely provide the best opportunity for intervention strategies aimed to decrease the risk of ACL injury, particularly in female athletes. Knowledge advancements have led to the development of potential solutions that allow athletes to compete with lowered risk of ACL injury. Design and integration of personalized clinical assessment tools and targeted prevention strategies for athletes at high risk for ACL injury may transform current prevention practices and ultimately significantly reduce ACL injury incidence. This 2016 OREF Clinical Research Award focuses on the authors' work and contributions to the field. The author's acknowledge the many research groups who have contributed to the current state of knowledge in the fields of ACL injury mechanisms, injury risk screening and injury prevention strategies. PMID:27612195

  18. Pediatric traffic injuries : consequences for the child and the parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturms, Leontien Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe the accident details of bicycle-spoke incidents in children, and to examine the functional health status and the health-related quality of life of children after bicycle-spoke injuries.

  19. Child pedestrian injuries in the Cape metropolitan area - final results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acknowledged in the planning of future road safety measures. ... At present, road traffic injuries. (RTls) are the single most important .... their home territory. In areas such as the Cape Peninsula where high-density or informal housing predominates, it is more realistic to accept this behaviour as normal than .to seek ways of ...

  20. Isolated Penile Degloving from Milling Machine Injury in a Child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had been attending to a cassava milling machine in his village, in Ubakala Old ... machine. He was found upon rescue to be in pain, with his phallus entrapped by his clothes. The shorts had been tightly wrung by the pulley/fan belt system of the machine. Initial .... Degloving injury Eur J Trauma 2005;31:593‑6. 2. Mathur RK ...

  1. Detection of child abuse by Dutch preventive child-healthcare doctors and nurses : Has it changed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; de Meer, G.; Wiefferink, C.H.; Crone, M.R.

    Abstract Objective Child maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect) is a major cause of child morbidity and death. It is a principal topic in community child-healthcare services yet little is known about the actual detection of suspected cases. We examined trends in this detection, as well as the

  2. Assessing the representativeness of Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Programme (CHIRPP) sport and recreational injury data in Calgary, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Hagel, Brent; Emery, Carolyn A; Senger, Trudi; Meeuwisse, Willem

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the representativeness of sport and recreational injury data from Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Programme (CHIRPP) in Calgary. Internal representativeness was assessed by comparing CHIRPP and regional health administrative data (ambulatory care classification system-ACCS) at Alberta Children's Hospital (ACH). External representativeness was assessed by comparing CHIRPP with ACCS at all hospitals. Comparisons were performed using descriptive statistics for top injury-producing sports and sports that produced severe injuries. Stratified distributions of injury-producing sports by gender, age group and severity of injury in CHIRPP and ACCS were compared. The proportion of all injuries in Calgary captured by CHIRPP was 64.8% (99%CI: 64.02-65.54%) (16,977/26,206). CHIRPP captured more cases of top injury-producing sports than ACCS at ACH. Rankings of top injury-producing sports in CHIRPP and ACCS at ACH were remarkably consistent (ρ  = 0.92, p sports in CHIRPP and ACCS at all hospitals were almost identical (ρ  = 0.98, p sports by gender, age group and the severity of injury showed strong consistency between CHIRPP and ACCS. It is concluded that CHIRPP in Calgary provides a representative profile of injuries compared to regional health administrative data. This project supports the use of CHIRPP for establishing injury prevention priorities.

  3. Choroidal rupture and optic nerve injury with equipment designated as 'child-safe'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, Robert; Saldana, Manuel

    2012-08-27

    Blunt ocular trauma from a child's plastic foam-covered toy baseball bat caused traumatic optic neuropathy and choroidal rupture in a 9-year-old child. The examination revealed a visual acuity of 6/60, a relative afferent pupillary defect, optic nerve swelling, commotio retinae and retinal haemorrhages. There was no orbital fracture or intraorbital haematoma on CT scanning. Optical coherence tomography showed macular oedema and disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. The child was admitted for intravenous methylprednisolone and discharged on topical steroid treatment. At 1 month follow-up, visual acuity had improved to 6/12. Optic nerve swelling had resolved and the fundus had two crescent-shaped choroidal rupture scars. Choroidal rupture and optic neuropathy can be secondary to indirect trauma, and even when the mechanism of injury is with a piece of equipment designated as suitable for children, serious ocular injury can occur.

  4. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian child...

  5. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child protection...

  6. Combating Child Homicide: Preventive Policing for the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Monique C.; Lord, Wayne D.

    2005-01-01

    High-profile media coverage of crimes against children has heightened public awareness of critical child safety needs and issues. However, numerous research studies in the area of child homicide have illustrated the importance of the power of science to correct false perceptions and misinformation, improving how to best serve and protect our…

  7. Housing, income inequality and child injury mortality in Europe: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoelge, M; Hasselberg, M; Ormandy, D; Laflamme, L

    2014-03-01

    Child poverty rates are compared throughout Europe to monitor how countries are caring for their children. Child poverty reduction measures need to consider the importance of safe living environments for all children. In this study we investigate how European country-level economic disparity and housing conditions relate to one another, and whether they differentially correlate with child injury mortality. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design of 26 European countries of which 20 high-income and 6 upper-middle-income. Compositional characteristics of the home and its surroundings were extracted from the 2006 European Union Income Social Inclusion and Living Conditions Database (n = 203,000). Mortality data of children aged 1-14 years were derived from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. The main outcome measure was age standardized cause-specific injury mortality rates analysed by income inequality and housing and neighbourhood conditions. Nine measures of housing and neighbourhood conditions highly differentiating European households at country level were clustered into three dimensions, labelled respectively housing, neighbourhood and economic household strain. Income inequality significantly and positively correlated with housing strain (r = 0.62, P = 0.001) and household economic strain (r = 0.42, P = 0.009) but not significantly with neighbourhood strain (r = 0.34, P = 0.087). Child injury mortality rates correlated strongly with both country-level income inequality and housing strain, with very small age-specific differences. In the European context housing, neighbourhood and household economic strains worsened with increasing levels of income inequality. Child injury mortality rates are strongly and positively associated with both income inequality and housing strain, suggesting that housing material conditions could play a role in the association between income inequality and child health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Saint or sinner? Teacher perceptions of a child with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, C A

    2005-01-01

    To examine influences on classroom performance and behaviour following traumatic brain injury (TBI). A case-study of one child who suffered a moderate TBI, with frontal brain damage, aged 8, followed up at ages 12 and 13 years. Parents and child were interviewed to establish pre- and post-injury behaviour and functioning. All 19 teachers who taught the child reported on classroom performance, behaviour and educational achievement in each of their subjects. The child completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery including the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III(UK)), Children's Memory Scale (CMS) and Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS). This child demonstrated above-average intelligence and good attention/concentration on the CMS. However, he was unable to focus or maintain attention in most classroom situations. His behaviour was erratic and disruptive in class and at home. At 5-year follow-up, his behaviour had deteriorated in both home and school situations, particularly in less structured environments. Teachers of more structured subjects (maths and science) perceived the child as excitable but performing at average or above-average levels, whereas teachers of less structured subjects (art, drama, music) perceived him to be 'attention-seeking' and very disruptive in class. The influences of environmental factors are discussed.

  9. Psychological injury in victims of child sexual abuse: A meta-analytic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara G. Amado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CSA/ASA on the victim's probability of developingsymptoms of depression and anxiety, to quantify injury in populational terms, to establish theprobability of injury, and to determine the different effects of moderators on the severity of injury, a meta-analysis was performed. Given the abundant literature, only studies indexed in the scientific databaseof reference, the Web of Science, were selected. A total of 78 studies met the inclusion criteria: they measuredCSA/ASA victimization or injury in terms of depression or anxiety symptoms, measured the effectsize or included data for computing them, and provided a description of the sample. The results showedthat CSA/ASA victims suffered significant injury, generally of a medium effect size and generalizable, victimshad 70% more probabilities of suffering from injury, and clinical diagnosis was significantly a moreadequate measure of injury than symptoms. The probability of chronic injury (dysthymia was greaterthan developing more severe injury, i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD. In the category of anxiety disorders,injury was expressed with a higher probability in specific phobia. In terms of the victim's gender,females had significantly higher rates of developing a depressive disorder (DD and/or an anxiety disorder(AD, quantified in a 42% and 24% over the baseline, for a DD and AD respectively. As for the type of abuse,the meta-analysis revealed that abuse involving penetration was linked to severe injury, whereas abusewith no contact was associated to less serious injury. The clinical, social, and legal implications of the resultsare discussed.

  10. Mitigating concerns and maximizing returns: social media strategies for injury prevention non-profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-08-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  11. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and Health Education and Research...

  12. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  13. Once bitten, twice shy? Medically-attended injuries can sensitise parents to children's risk of injuries on playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, B A; Howard, A W; Rothman, L; Sandomierski, M

    2009-02-01

    To compare risk perceptions of parents whose child sustained a medically attended playground injury (cases) with those of parents whose child had not (controls) to address two questions. Does having a child experience a medically attended injury: (1) sensitise parents to children's injury vulnerability and severity; (2) influence parents' appraisal of the injury mechanism (child's behaviour), attributions for injuries or beliefs about strategies for prevention? Each case-control parent dyad was assigned to one of two conditions: (1) being presented with 10 common injury-risk playground behaviours specific to the equipment on which their child had been hurt, and asked to appraise injury vulnerability and severity; or (2) being presented with scenarios about playground injuries that varied in severity but were all based on the same child behaviour, and asked questions about this behaviour, attributions for injury and strategies for prevention. The results support the occurrence of a sensitisation process. Compared with control parents, case parents showed higher ratings of injury severity and children's vulnerability to injury, made fewer attributions for injuries to bad luck, and endorsed a greater diversity of prevention strategies, including parent (closer supervision), child (teaching rules about safe play on playgrounds) and environmental (modifications to playgrounds). A child's medically attended injury can create a "teachable moment" for the parent. Linking injury-prevention programming to this teachable moment may increase the likelihood of evoking changes in parental supervisory behaviour and their setting of rules limiting their child's risk behaviours to reduce the occurrence of childhood injury.

  14. For Kids' Sake: A Child Abuse Prevention and Reporting Kit. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazi, Sherry P., Ed.; Grimes, Linda J., Ed.

    This guidebook was designed to help concerned citizens identify and prevent child abuse. The guidebook provides information about the extent of child abuse in the United States generally and within Oklahoma specifically, and stresses that under Oklahoma state law every adult has the responsibility to report suspected abuse. Programs and services…

  15. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  16. Ending preventable child deaths in South Africa: What role can ward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa (SA) has emerged from the Millennium Development Goal era with a mixture of success and failure. The successful national scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services with increasingly efficacious antiretroviral regimens has reduced the mother-to-child transmission rate dramatically; ...

  17. Implementation and Evaluation of a Parenting Program to Prevent Child Maltreatment in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Inger W.; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Graafsma, Tobi L. G.

    2017-01-01

    The prevention of child maltreatment has become a global health concern because child maltreatment is a violation of children's rights. Across the world, a variety of parenting programs have been developed to address this problem. However, no such parenting program currently exists in Suriname. This

  18. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  19. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child…

  20. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  1. The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk of Developing PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…

  2. Identification and management of psychosocial problems by preventive child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, E.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the degree to which physicians and nurses working in preventive child health care (child health professionals [CHPs]) identify and manage psychosocial problems in children, and to determine its association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic

  3. The integrated modeled theory on understanding and preventing the incidence of child abuse in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbecke, ZP

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an in-progress PhD thesis themed: “Modeling the Differential Incidence of Child Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation in Poor Households in South Africa”. The thesis argues that the gaps and shortcomings in the prevention of child...

  4. Child obesity prevention in primary health care: investigating practice nurse roles, attitudes and current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alison; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Harris, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Overweight and obesity affects approximately 20% of Australian pre-schoolers. The general practice nurse (PN) workforce has increased in recent years; however, little is known of PN capacity and potential to provide routine advice for the prevention of child obesity. This mixed methods pilot study aims to explore the current practices, attitudes, confidence and training needs of Australian PNs surrounding child obesity prevention in the general practice setting. PNs from three Divisions of General Practice in New South Wales were invited to complete a questionnaire investigating PN roles, attitudes and practices in preventive care with a focus on child obesity. A total of 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate 22%). Semi-structured qualitative interviews were also conducted with a subsample of PNs (n = 10). Questionnaire respondent demographics were similar to that of national PN data. PNs described preventive work as enjoyable despite some perceived barriers including lack of confidence. Number of years working in general practice did not appear to strongly influence nurses' perceived barriers. Seventy per cent of PNs were interested in being more involved in conducting child health checks in practice, and 85% expressed an interest in taking part in child obesity prevention training. Findings from this pilot study suggest that PNs are interested in prevention of child obesity despite barriers to practice and low confidence levels. More research is needed to determine the effect of training on PN confidence and behaviours in providing routine healthy life-style messages for the prevention of child obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. What works to prevent child marriage: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Rife, Susan; Malhotra, Anju; Warner, Ann; Glinski, Allison McGonagle

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews 23 child marriage prevention programs carried out in low-income countries and employing a range of programmatic approaches and evaluation strategies. We document the types of child marriage programs that have been implemented, assess how they have been evaluated, describe the main limitations of these evaluations, summarize the evaluation results, and make recommendations to improve future prevention efforts. The evidence suggests that programs offering incentives and attempting to empower girls can be effective in preventing child marriage and can foster change relatively quickly. Methodological limitations of the reviewed studies, however, underscore that more needs to be learned about how the programs prevent child marriage and whether impact is sustained beyond program implementation. © 2012 The Population Council, Inc.

  6. Injuries in judo: a systematic literature review including suggestions for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocecco, Elena; Ruedl, Gerhard; Stankovic, Nemanja; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Del Vecchio, Fabricio Boscolo; Gutiérrez-García, Carlos; Rousseau, Romain; Wolf, Mirjam; Kopp, Martin; Miarka, Bianca; Menz, Verena; Krüsmann, Philipp; Calmet, Michel; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Burtscher, Martin

    2013-12-01

    There is limited knowledge on epidemiological injury data in judo. To systematically review scientific literature on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. The available literature up to June 2013 was searched for prospective as well as retrospective studies on injuries in judo. Data extraction and presentation focused on the incidence rate, injury risk, types, location and causes of injuries. During the Olympic Games in 2008 and 2012, an average injury risk of about 11-12% has been observed. Sprains, strains and contusions, usually of the knee, shoulder and fingers, were the most frequently reported injuries, whereas being thrown was the most common injury mechanism. Severe injuries were quite rare and usually affected the brain and spine, whereas chronic injuries typically affected the finger joints, lower back and ears. The most common types of injuries in young judo athletes were contusions/abrasions, fractures and sprains/strains. Sex-differences data on judo injuries were mostly inconsistent. Some studies suggested a relationship between nutrition, hydration and/or weight cycling and judo injuries. Also, psychological factors may increase the risk of judo injuries. The present review provides the latest knowledge on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. Comprehensive knowledge about the risk of injury during sport activity and related risk factors represents an essential basis to develop effective strategies for injury prevention. Thus, the introduction of an ongoing injury surveillance system in judo is of utmost importance.

  7. Effect of nationwide injury prevention programme on serious spinal injuries in New Zealand rugby union: ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Gianotti, Simon M; Hopkins, Will G; Hume, Patria A

    2007-06-02

    To investigate the effect of RugbySmart, a nationwide educational injury prevention programme, on the frequency of spinal cord injuries. Ecological study. New Zealand rugby union. Population at risk of injury comprised all New Zealand rugby union players. From 2001, all New Zealand rugby coaches and referees have been required to complete RugbySmart, which focuses on educating rugby participants about physical conditioning, injury management, and safe techniques in the contact phases of rugby. Numbers of all spinal injuries due to participation in rugby union resulting in permanent disablement in 1976-2005, grouped into five year periods; observed compared with predicted number of spinal injuries in 2001-5. Eight spinal injuries occurred in 2001-5, whereas the predicted number was 18.9 (relative rate=0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 1.14). Only one spinal injury resulted from scrums over the period; the predicted number was 9.0 (relative rate=0.11, 0.02 to 0.74). Corresponding observed and predicted rates for spinal injuries resulting from other phases of play (tackle, ruck, and maul) were 7 and 9.0 (relative rate=0.83, 0.29 to 2.36). The introduction of the RugbySmart programme coincided with a reduction in the rate of disabling spinal injuries arising from scrums in rugby union. This study exemplifies the benefit of educational initiatives in injury prevention and the need for comprehensive injury surveillance systems for evaluating injury prevention initiatives in sport.

  8. Association between weight and risk of crash-related injuries for children in child restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Elliott, Michael R; Flannagan, Carol A; Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-12-01

    To determine the association between weight and the risk of injury in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) for children 1 through 8 years of age who were using child restraints. This was a cross-sectional study of children 1 to 8 years of age in MVCs, in which cases from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used. Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of ≥2 indicated clinically significant injuries. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System study sample included 650 children 1 to 5 years of age in forward-facing child restraints who weighed 20 to 65 lb and 344 children 3 to 8 years of age in belt-positioning booster seats who weighed 30 to 100 lb. With adjustment for seating position, type of vehicle, direction of impact, crash severity, and vehicle model year, there was no association between absolute weight and clinically significant injuries in either age group (odds ratio: 1.17 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.42] for children 1-5 years of age in forward-facing child restraints and 1.22 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.55] for children 3-8 years of age in belt-positioning booster seats). The risk of clinically significant injuries was not associated with weight across a broad weight range in this sample of children in MVCs who were using child restraint systems. Parents should continue to restrain their children according to current recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

  9. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting...; and Expanding Information about Dementia and Co- occurring Chronic Conditions among Older Adults...

  10. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement, Initial Review The meeting...

  11. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement, Initial Review The meeting...

  12. The role of insurance data in setting priorities for netball injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otago, Leonie; Peake, Jacqui

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate insurance records for a one-year period to determine the injury frequencies and costs associated with different age groups in netball. The insurance records for all netball claims made during 1999 in Victoria were obtained from the insurer and entered into a database. The overall injury rate was 9.49 injuries per 1000 players, with 829 claims for injuries filed with the insurance company. Of all injuries claimed for, 85.3% were to the lower limb, 8.7% to the upper limb, 3.1% to the spine/torso and 2.9% to the head and face. Lower limb injuries accounted for 85.4% of costs, upper limb injuries 10.7% and head/neck/torso injuries 3.9% of total injury costs. Knee injuries accounted for 56.9% of total costs, with ankle and calf/Achilles injuries costing 12.7 and 11.8% of total costs, respectively. Injury prevention strategies should therefore be directed to three main injuries taking into account costs and incidence. These injuries were: ankle sprains, knee ligament sprains and Achilles tendon strains. Specifically, the prevention program for Achilles injuries should be directed to the >25 years age groups.

  13. Shallow-water spinal injuries – devastating but preventable | Vlok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the demographics, clinical features and outcomes of shallow-water diving injuries in an acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) unit. Materials and methods. All patients admitted to the ASCI unit with diving-related injuries were entered into the study. Data regarding demographics, injury profile and subsequent ...

  14. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K

    2005-06-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.

  15. Measurement of movement patterns to enhance ACL injury prevention – A dead end?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Ming Mok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical drop jump has been suggested to be an effective movement screening task for ACL injury risk, but recent studies have questioned the ability of such tasks to accurately identify players with increased risk of injury. In this paper, we discuss the usefulness of movement screening tests from an injury prevention perspective.

  16. Strategies for Playground Injury Prevention: An Overview of a Playground Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heather; Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Preventing injuries to children, especially debilitating and life threatening, requires an awareness of where these types of injuries occur during the school days. This review examines falls from playground equipment, events that have been identified as the leading causes of nonfatal unintentional injuries for children. Thus, the issue of…

  17. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Blessure preventie voor volwassen, mannelijke voetballers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  18. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…

  19. Clinical features of the head injury caused by child abuse in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Jun

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis and managements of the head injury in battered children are greatly complicated by medical history and the mechanisms of injury. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical features of the head injury in battered children. Clinical signs and symptoms, the mechanisms of injury, intracranial pathology, and prognosis of 25 battered children with head injury treated between 1984 and 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. The age of 25 children was between 1 month and 2 years old. The average of the ages was 7 months old. In 68% of 25 patients, the age was 6 months or less. The medical history of head injury was unclear in 16 children. The chief complains were disturbance of consciousness, convulsion, vomiting and hypothermia. Retinal hemorrhages were recognized in 88% of the patients and these were bilateral in 68%. Acute subdural hematomas (19 cases) and chronic subdural hematomas (6 cases) were shown on CTs or MRIs. In four cases, cerebral contusions were complicated as intracranial pathology. In 44% of the patients, the hypoxic-ischemic injury was confirmed on CTs or MRIs. Fractures of limbs and ribs were recognized on skeletal survey in 40% of the patients. 71% of 17 survival cases had moderate or severe psychomotor disabilities at the end of follow-up periods. In children under 2 years of age with subdural hematomas, clinical investigations other than CT and MRI, included ophthalmoscopy by ophthalmologist and skeletal survey, are crucial and mandatory for early diagnosis of the child abuse. (author)

  20. Sports Biostatistician: a critical member of all sports science and medicine teams for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-12-01

    Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Aging and Spinal Cord Injury: External Causes of Injury and Implications for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuying; Tang, Ying; Allen, Victoria; DeVivo, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Despite a consistent trend toward older age at time of spinal cord injury (SCI), little is known about the external causes of SCI in the elderly. To examine environmental circumstances, documented by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes, at time of SCI among older adults. Data on individuals injured in 2005 or later were retrieved from the National SCI Database. Demographics, injury profiles, and external causes of injury were compared between the study group (age >60 years, n = 1,079) and reference group (age 16-45 years, n = 3,579) using chi-square and Student t tests. Among the elderly, falls were the most common etiology of SCI (60%), followed by transport accidents (24%) and complications of medical and surgical care (12%). In the younger group, transport accidents were the most common etiology of SCI (49%), followed by falls (22%) and assault (21%). Falls on the same level (30%), from stairs and steps (22%), and other slipping, tripping, and stumbling (11%) were the most common mechanisms of falls in the elderly group. Among motor vehicle accidents, car occupant injured in a collision with another car was the most common mechanism of injury among the elderly (28%). There is an urgent need for effective fall prevention programs among the elderly to reduce SCI in this expanding population. Details on the mechanisms of falls and other major causes of SCI among the elderly provided in this study should inform the development of future interventions for high-risk persons, activities, and environments.

  2. [The influence of preventive programs on laboral injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rojas, Pablo; Salinas-Tovar, Santiago; Marín-Cotoñieto, Irma Araceli; Méndez-Vargas, María Martha; Quezada-Ortega, Rafael Martin; Martínez-Ramírez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of preventive programs at enterprises affiliated to the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) during 2004. Transversal study in 987 enterprises. labor injuries (LI) of temporal disability, permanent disability and death. simple and relative frequencies, rates and Anova application to differences. 64.4% of the enterprises decrease LI (p < 0.04), with a decrement of 2602 LI (16%); the rate of LI per 100 workers declined from 4.19 to 3.60 (p < 0.08), with a decrease of 43,369 disability days (10.93%), which represents $8,456,955 MXP. States with larger decreases were: Queretaro (80%) p < 0.05; Sinaloa (63%) p < 0.05, and Morelos (61%) p < 0.05. Permanent incapacities diminished at 12.1%, p < 0.09; the rate of permanent disability per 1000 workers diminished from 1.37 to 1.32 and death cases increased from 42 to 49. the expenses on consultancy by IMSS was estimated as $9,341,955 MXP. The savings on temporal and permanent incapacities was $33,691,255 MXP with a cost containment of $19,701,310 MXP. Preventive programs are profitable, because they generate benefits to the workers, the IMSS and the enterprises.

  3. How effective are exercise-based injury prevention programmes for soccer players?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Horst, N. van der; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of soccer (football) injuries is among the highest in sports. Despite this high rate, insufficient evidence is available on the efficacy of preventive training programmes on injury incidence. Objective To systematically study the evidence on preventive exercise-based training

  4. Non-participation in preventive child health examinations at the general practitioner in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To examine demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of parents and children in families not participating in preventive child health examinations at the general practitioner in a society with free and easy access to healthcare. Design. Population-covering register linkage study...... identified through register linkage. Main outcome measures. Crude and mutually adjusted odds ratios for non-participation in scheduled preventive child health examinations at the GP (age 5 weeks, 5 months, 12 months, 4 years, and 5 years) according to child characteristics (sex, number of hospitalizations......, and older siblings) and parental characteristics (age, educational level, attachment to labour market, ethnicity, household income, and number of adults in the household). Results. Children of young and single parents were less likely to receive a preventive child health examination. Increased odds ratios...

  5. Unintentional injury prevention and the role of occupational therapy in the Solomon Islands: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daufanamae, Barbara U; Franklin, Richard C; Eagers, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations. While the role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention is well known in high-income countries, it is unfamiliar in LMICs, especially in the Solomon Islands. This integrative review aimed to explore the incidence of common unintentional injuries, and the burden in the Solomon Islands; and explore the potential role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention in the Solomon Islands, based on current activities in LMICs. Articles were reviewed from six databases (Medline, CINAHL, OTDBase, OT Seeker, Scopus and PsychInfo). Five articles met the inclusion criteria for the first objective and 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for the second objective. These articles were thematically analysed where themes and codes associated with the research objectives were extracted and analysed. Unintentional injuries in the Solomon Islands reported in the literature included ocular trauma, falls from fruit trees and coconut palms, and road traffic crashes. Burden of injury reported was mostly associated with loss of productivity. Occupational therapists undertook rehabilitative, biomechanical, neurodevelopmental and educational roles in LMIC, focusing on tertiary and secondary injury prevention. This integrative review suggests that there is limited information regarding injury in the Solomon Islands. However, evidence is available in LMICs to suggest that occupational therapy services can

  6. Sagittal Plane Knee Biomechanics and Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Are Modified Following ACL Injury Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Padua, Darin A.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) occur because of excessive loading on the knee. ACL injury prevention programs can influence sagittal plane ACL loading factors and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). Objective: To determine the influence of ACL injury prevention programs on sagittal plane knee biomechanics (anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion angle/moments) and VGRF. Data Sources: The PubMed database was searched for studies published between January 1988 an...

  7. Sixth cranial nerve palsy following closed head injury in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, G J

    1997-01-01

    A five year old female had an isolated abducens nerve palsy following closed head injury. There was no associated skull fracture, haematoma, or other cranial nerve injury. The significance, frequency, and differential diagnosis of traumatic sixth cranial nerve injury is discussed, particularly in paediatric patients. Management is symptomatic; occlusion with an eye pad may be used if diplopia is significant. In young children alternate day occlusion of each eye will help prevent amblyopia. Most cases improve within three months and many resolve by six months. Residual palsy at six months is likely to be permanent and surgical treatment may be needed. PMID:9193985

  8. Evaluation of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OS Akinsanya

    for the first six months and then complementary feeding from six months but an alternative option of EFF method was recommended if formula was acceptable, .... mother to child HIV transmission programme through health system redesign: quality improvement, protocol adjustment and resource addition. PLoS ONE.

  9. Prevention of mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... Abstract: Background: Sub- Sa- hara Africa including Nigeria has the second largest global burden of chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after Asia. Mother-to-child transmission. (MTCT) of HBV is the most com- monroute of transmission in high endemic areas .MTCT of hepatitis. B virus ...

  10. What shall we do about: Preventing child abuse and neglect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    The aim of this article is to raise the issue of child abuse and neglect and to start a dialogue on how healthcare ... orphans and disabled children are particularly vulnerable. Consequences. Abuse and neglect can lead to: ▫ Death, disability and disease including. AIDS/HIV. ... Early marriages and early teenage pregnancy,.

  11. Antenatal prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infected and 370,000 children died due to HIV. The vast majority of children ac- quired HIV through vertical transmission from mother to child.1. During 2006 the sero-positive HIV prevalence amongst women attending antenatal clinics in the public health sector within South Africa was 29.1%.2. The province with the lowest ...

  12. Enhancing Prevention Of Mother-To-Child Transmission (Pmtct) Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the enormous resources so far expended in the country's HIV mitigation, Nigeria continues to post poor PMTCT performance. The characteristic poor uptake of maternal, newborn and child health services creates a block to the attainment of desired universal accessibility of pregnant women to needed PMTCT ...

  13. Intrapartum Management for Prevention of Mother-To-Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    However, there was no association between duration of ruptured membranes ≥ 4 hours and increased mother to child transmission among women with high CD4+ cell counts40. Because of this study's questionable applicability to women on ART, artificial rupture of membranes for obstetric indications, such as induction or.

  14. Preventing the Spread of Illness in Child Care or School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure that the facility has clear procedures and staff who have training to give medication. Ask what they do to ... is used by other children Before and after staff members ... child understands good hygiene and the importance of hand washing after using the toilet and ...

  15. Prevention of mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV is the most commonroute of transmission in high endemic areas .MTCT of hepatitis B virus infection continues to occur despite the interventions of hepatitis B vaccinations and immunoglobulins in settings where it is practiced. Infants most at risk are those whose mothers have ...

  16. Japan's emerging challenge for child abuse: system coordination for early prevention of child abuse is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Sugaya, Nagisa

    2014-08-01

    At the end of 2013, a Japanese newspaper reported that 4,173 children were unidentified or missing in Japan. The article concluded that child abuse was a matter of national concern. In examining the strengths and weaknesses of Japan's welfare system in regard to child abuse, it would seem that a weakness exists with regard to its ambiguity on the roles of different officers who contact suspected cases. Although three types of officer (health, welfare, and police officers) can take charge, child abuse cases might be missed because the division of labor varies between the different types of officer. However, a strength exists in the periodical pediatric health check system that is in place in each of Japan's 1,742 municipalities. To efficiently implement early intervention for child abuse, it is necessary to rearrange the division of labor among the three types of officers to clarify who should intervene in suspected cases.

  17. The Influence of "No Child Left Behind" Legislation on Drug Prevention in U.S. Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunsan; Hallfors, Denise Dion; Iritani, Bonita J.; Hartman, Shane

    2009-01-01

    This study examines prevention practices and perceptions in U.S. schools since passage of federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation, using survey data from state education agencies (SEA) and a population-based sample of school districts. Only one third of U.S. public school districts rely on evidence-based prevention curriculum in middle…

  18. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  19. Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

  20. Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

  1. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  2. Parenting a child with a traumatic brain injury: experiences of parents and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Felicity L; Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-01-01

    To qualitatively explore the experiences, challenges and needs of parents of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to inform future intervention research through incorporation of participant knowledge and experience. Parents of children with TBI (n = 10) and experienced health professionals in paediatric rehabilitation (n = 5) took part in focus groups or individual interviews. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and an inductive thematic analysis performed. Participants reported that, beyond the impact of the injury on the child, TBI affects the entire family. Parents need to adjust to and manage their child's difficulties and can also experience significant emotional distress, relationship discord and burden of care, further adding to the challenges of the parenting role. Parents can feel isolated and the importance of empowerment, support and information was emphasized. Coping styles of disengagement and avoidance were often reported, despite acknowledgement that these were not beneficial. Parenting interventions may provide essential support for parents in adjusting to and managing their child's difficulties and the efficacy of existing programmes needs evaluation. Addressing parent emotional adjustment and coping strategies is vital following paediatric TBI, given the impact on parent well-being and the potential negative effects on child outcomes through reduced parenting effectiveness. Group programmes may enable connection and support.

  3. Searching for sustainability within public health policy: insights from an injury prevention perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errington, Gail; Evans, Catrin; Watson, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Sustaining public health programmes in the long-term is key to ensuring full manifestation of their intended benefits. Although an increasing interest in sustainability is apparent within the global literature, empirical studies from within the European setting are few. The factors that influence sustainability are generally conceptualized at three levels: programme level, the immediate context and the wider environment. To-date attention has focused primarily on the former two. Using a community-based child injury prevention programme in England as an exemplar, this paper explores the concept of sustainability within the wider policy environment, and considers the impact of this on local programmes. A content review of global and UK national public health policies (1981-2014) relevant to child safety was undertaken. Interviews were held with senior representatives of global and UK agencies involved in developing child safety policy. Forty-nine policies were reviewed. The term 'sustain', or its derivatives, featured in 36 (73%) of these. Its' use however, related primarily to conservation of resources rather than continued programme operation. Potential mechanisms for supporting programme sustainability featured within some documents; however, the approach to sustainability was inconsistent between policies and over time. Policy stakeholders identified programme sustainability as relevant to their core business, but its' conceptualization varied according to individual interpretation. Programme sustainability is poorly addressed within global and UK-based public health policy. Strengthening a national and international policy focus on sustainability and incorporating sustainability into public health planning frameworks may create a more supportive environment for local programmes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Interventions Aimed at the Prevention of Childhood Injuries in the Indigenous Populations in Canada, Australia and New Zealand in the Last 20 Years: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeson, Alyssa; Gray, Selena

    2017-06-02

    Globally, Indigenous children are found to be at a significantly higher risk of injury compared to non-Indigenous children. It has been suggested that mainstream injury prevention strategies are ineffective within Indigenous communities. The aim of this review is to identify existing interventions aimed at preventing injury in Indigenous children in the hope that it guides future strategies. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no prior systematic reviews exist looking at interventions specifically aimed at preventing injury in Indigenous child populations in the three chosen countries. Electronic databases were systematically searched for relevant childhood interventions aimed at the prevention of injuries in Indigenous populations based in Canada, Australia and New Zealand from 1996 to 2016. A manual search of the reference lists of relevant articles and a manual search of relevant websites were also completed. After 191 records were screened, six interventions were identified meeting the criteria for inclusion. Eligible papers underwent a quality appraisal using adapted assessment checklists and key information was extracted. Findings were then synthesized using a narrative approach. The interventions mainly promoted child safety through activities focusing on education and awareness. Only three of the six studies measured changes in injury hospitalization rates, all but one evaluation reporting a significant decrease. Studies which measured awareness all demonstrated positive changes. Results suggest that interventions delivered in a culturally appropriate manner acted as a main success factor. Barriers identified as hindering intervention success included lack of cohesion within the intervention due to staff turnover and lack of experienced staff with Indigenous knowledge. This review revealed a limited amount of evaluated interventions for the prevention of Indigenous childhood injuries. Conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of existing interventions is

  5. [Sports injuries in German club sports, Aspects of epidemiology and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, T; Luig, P; Schulz, D

    2014-06-01

    Almost one of four Germans is registered in a sports club. Nowadays, sport is acknowledged as an integral component of a healthy lifestyle. Numerous studies provide evidence of the benefits of sports on health. However, about 2 million sports injuries per year diminish the health benefits of sport. (a) Description of the epidemiology of sports injuries in German sports club between 1987 and 2012 and (b) identification of focal areas for the development and implementation of prevention measures. Continuous questionnaire-based injury monitoring of club sports injuries that have been reported to the respective sports insurance. Full survey among selected federal sports associations. Since 1987, a sample of 200,884 sports injuries has been established. About two thirds of the injuries are reported in soccer, handball, basketball, and volleyball, although only one third of all sports club members are registered in these team sports. The number of women's soccer injuries has risen from 7.5 to 15.6 %. Ankle injuries have decreased from 28.7 to 16.9 %. By contrast, the rate of knee injuries has increased from 18.4 to 20.3 %. Days of disability have dropped steadily since the 1990s. Inpatient hospital days have decreased from 10 to 5 days, whereas the share of injuries that needed surgery increased from 30 to 40 %. Team ball sports are still a clear focal area for injury prevention, as participation and injury risk are highest in this group. While the prevention of ankle injuries seems to be headed in the right direction, knee injuries are increasing. As team ball sports become more popular among women, who are more prone to severe knee injuries, prevention programs should be tailored toward the specific situation and needs of the targeted sports participants.

  6. A toothbrush impalement injury of the floor of mouth in autism child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ryo; Uchiyama, Hiroto; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Fukada, Kenji; Ogiuchi, Hideki; Ando, Tomohiro

    2013-12-01

    Penetrating injuries in the oral cavity are common in children. However, penetrating injuries with retained foreign bodies are rare. We report a case of a toothbrush impalement injury of the floor of the mouth in a child with autism. A 5-year-old boy with autism presented with an accidentally impaled toothbrush in the oral cavity. He was taken to the operation room and examined under general anesthesia. The handle of the toothbrush was cut off using rib scissors for mask ventilation, and intra-oral intubation was performed. The toothbrush was located approximately 2.5 cm into the floor of the mouth. The toothbrush was removed uneventfully. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was instituted during hospitalization, and discharge from the hospital occurred 4 days after the operation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that are connected to ACL loading mechanisms and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and to develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.

  8. Effects of a work injury prevention program for housekeeping in the hotel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Merrill; Maguire, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the effectiveness of a work injury prevention program in the housekeeping department of a hotel. Studies have validated the use of different injury prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of work-related injuries. Few studies, however, have reported the efficacy of an on-site work injury prevention program by a physical therapist. In 1995, implementation of a work injury prevention program by a physical therapist to 50 housekeeping supervisors, 60 house persons and 340 guest room attendants at a large hotel began. This program included a detailed work risk analysis of the work environment, development of job descriptions, identification of injury-related problematic work situations, and implementation of a job specific supervisor-training program. Supervisor, house person and guest room attendant training was also conducted at the end of 1995 and the beginning of 1997. Data of injury reports in 1995, 1996, and 1997 were analyzed to determine the results of the program. There was a reduction in total injury claims, total medical expenses, total lost work time and total restricted duty time. These results demonstrate the cost effectiveness of implementing a work injury prevention program for housekeeping guest room attendants in the hotel industry. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  9. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Prevention of Pediatric Overuse Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Decoster, Laura C.; Loud, Keith J.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Parker, J. Terry; Sandrey, Michelle A.; White, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide certified athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with recommendations on best practices for the prevention of overuse sports injuries in pediatric athletes (aged 6–18 years). Background: Participation in sports by the pediatric population has grown tremendously over the years. Although the health benefits of participation in competitive and recreational athletic events are numerous, one adverse consequence is sport-related injury. Overuse or repetitive trauma injuries represent approximately 50% of all pediatric sport-related injuries. It is speculated that more than half of these injuries may be preventable with simple approaches. Recommendations: Recommendations are provided based on current evidence regarding pediatric injury surveillance, identification of risk factors for injury, preparticipation physical examinations, proper supervision and education (coaching and medical), sport alterations, training and conditioning programs, and delayed specialization. PMID:21391806

  10. Evaluation of RugbySmart: a rugby union community injury prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Simon M; Quarrie, Ken L; Hume, Patria A

    2009-05-01

    RugbySmart, a rugby union injury prevention programme, was launched in New Zealand in 2001. It was compulsory for all coaches and referees to complete RugbySmart requirements annually in order to continue coaching or refereeing. After 5 years of implementation the programme partners, Accident Compensation Corporation and New Zealand Rugby Union, evaluated RugbySmart to determine its effectiveness in reducing injuries. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of RugbySmart on reducing injury rates per 100,000 players and resulting injury prevention behaviours. The RugbySmart programme was associated with a decrease in injury claims per 100,000 players in most areas the programme targeted; the programme had negligible impact on non-targeted injury sites. The decrease in injury claims numbers was supported by results from the player behaviour surveys pre- and post-RugbySmart. There was an increase in safe behaviour in the contact situations of tackle, scrum and ruck technique.

  11. Could targeted exercise programmes prevent lower limb injury in community Australian football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nadine; Gabbe, Belinda J; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David G; Donnelly, Cyril J; Nash, Clare; Finch, Caroline F

    2013-08-01

    Australian football is a popular sport in Australia, at both the community and elite levels. It is a high-speed contact sport with a higher incidence of medically treated injuries when compared with most other organized sports. Hamstring injuries, ligament injuries to the knee or ankle, hip/groin injuries and tendinopathies are particularly common and often result in considerable time lost from sport. Consequently, the prevention of lower limb injuries is a priority for both community and elite Australian football organizations. There is considerable literature available on exercise programmes aimed at reducing lower limb injuries in Australian football and other running-related sports. The quality and outcomes of these studies have varied considerably, but indicate that exercise protocols may be an effective means of preventing lower limb injuries. Despite this, there has been limited high-quality and systematic evaluation of these data. The aim of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the evidence about the benefits of lower limb injury prevention exercise protocols aimed at reducing the most common severe lower limb injuries in Australian football. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE and other electronic databases were searched, from January 1990 to December 2010. Papers reporting the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cohort and case-control studies were extracted. Primary outcomes were injury reduction or risk factor identification and/or modification. Secondary outcomes were adherence to any trialled interventions, injury severity and adverse effects such as secondary injuries and muscle soreness. The methodological quality of extracted manuscripts was assessed and results were collated. Forty-seven papers were identified and reviewed of which 18 related to hamstring injury, eight related to knee or ankle ligament injury, five

  12. Efficiency of various preventive methods of perinatal mother and child complications

    OpenAIRE

    Sadretdinova T.L.; Vasilenko L.V.; Zryachkin N.I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: to study efficiency of various methods of prevention of perinatal complications in mother and child. Material and methods. In three risk groups preventive treatment of intrauterine infected fetus (IUIF), gestosis, noncarrying of pregnancy and fetoplacental insufficiency has been carried out. In group I consisted of 71 pregnant women preventive treatment has included medication with application of antioxidants; stimulators of processes of carboxylation in cycle Krebs; endogenic synthe...

  13. Ketogenesis prevents diet-induced fatty liver injury and hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, David G; Ercal, Baris; Huang, Xiaojing; Leid, Jamison M; d'Avignon, D André; Graham, Mark J; Dietzen, Dennis J; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Patti, Gary J; Crawford, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum disorders affect approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. However, the drivers of progressive steatohepatitis remain incompletely defined. Ketogenesis can dispose of much of the fat that enters the liver, and dysfunction in this pathway could promote the development of NAFLD. Here, we evaluated mice lacking mitochondrial 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMGCS2) to determine the role of ketogenesis in preventing diet-induced steatohepatitis. Antisense oligonucleotide-induced loss of HMGCS2 in chow-fed adult mice caused mild hyperglycemia, increased hepatic gluconeogenesis from pyruvate, and augmented production of hundreds of hepatic metabolites, a suite of which indicated activation of the de novo lipogenesis pathway. High-fat diet feeding of mice with insufficient ketogenesis resulted in extensive hepatocyte injury and inflammation, decreased glycemia, deranged hepatic TCA cycle intermediate concentrations, and impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis due to sequestration of free coenzyme A (CoASH). Supplementation of the CoASH precursors pantothenic acid and cysteine normalized TCA intermediates and gluconeogenesis in the livers of ketogenesis-insufficient animals. Together, these findings indicate that ketogenesis is a critical regulator of hepatic acyl-CoA metabolism, glucose metabolism, and TCA cycle function in the absorptive state and suggest that ketogenesis may modulate fatty liver disease.

  14. The health profile of professional soccer players: future opportunities for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Piero; Taioli, Emanuela

    2012-12-01

    Injuries are a major adverse event during a soccer player's career; they require medical and surgical treatment and rehabilitation and thus may interrupt the player's activity, often with severe physical and psychological sequel. Specialists have tried to identify the risk factors for injuries, in an attempt to discover predictors that could be prevented and or eliminated before the injury occurs, but the results are scarce. This article reviews the epidemiology of the frequency and occurrence of injuries in Italian soccer players, reports a list of preventable risk factors that are associated with injuries, and identifies preventable risk factors. We have identified personal factors (age, previous traumatic events, physical and biological characteristics of the player, life style habits such as smoking, alcohol, and diet, changes in physical-athletic aspects of the players, such as increased muscle strength, and use of medications) as possible risk factors for injuries. However, environmental factors such as changes in training techniques, field composition, and shoes structure may also have a major influence. This summary indicates that appropriate preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent injuries in professional soccer players. Professionals who are in close contacts with the players should be informed of the predictors of injuries and should be trained to intervene and plan appropriate preventive measures.

  15. Mass media and disclosures of child abuse in the perspective of secondary prevention: putting ideas into practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, C.J.; Mudde, A.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: From a theoretical and practical point of view, it is worthwhile to utilize the full potential of prevention of child abuse. However, prevention strategies in the field of child abuse were generally limited to prevention by means of interpersonal communications. This paper seeks to

  16. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for Indian...

  17. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements for...

  18. Policy Analysis of Road Traffic Injury Prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. Methods This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified. In the second phase of the study, the identified policies were ranked by prioritization matrices. The two policies with the highest scores were selected. ‘Policy triangle framework’ was used for Policy analyzing. Stakeholders of these policies (42 people) were interviewed. Data were analyzed manually by implementing Content-Analysis methods. Results The policies of “pupil liaisons” and “safety belt” were selected for analysis from thirteen potential identified polices. The results of some studies revealed that safety belts had not been properly used in Iran (less than 80%). There was an eight-year hiatus between the approval of the safety belts policy and implementation of this policy. Eight actors were identified for safety belts policy. Lack of diligence in implementation of the policy, failing to pay adequate attention to education and the culture of driving, and failing to select an organization for the implementation of the policy, were identified as the main weaknesses of this policy. For ‘pupil liaisons’ policy, five actors were identified. Following the implementation of this policy, the number of penalties was reduced (17.9%). Neglecting scientific findings and individual-based nature of the policy were identified as the primary weaknesses of this policy. Conclusions Taking serious measures to properly execute the policy, educating people, selecting an efficient organization that is

  19. Recreative sports in preventing child and youth crime

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Yaman; Sibel Arslan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to be able to make it clear that recreation serves as a buffer in preventing crime; recreational sports having a special place for young people in juvenile delinuency have an important place; and recreational activities that will be practised in the regions committing intense crime reduce the rate of crimes; but most importantly, sports recreation serves as a buffer for children and young people particularly in preventing the individuals from crime even before the...

  20. The Importance of Oral and Facial Injuries in Child Abuse | Naidoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Does the FIFA 11+ Injury Prevention Program Reduce the Incidence of ACL Injury in Male Soccer Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers-Granelli, Holly J; Bizzini, Mario; Arundale, Amelia; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2017-10-01

    The FIFA 11+ injury prevention program has been shown to decrease the risk of soccer injuries in men and women. The program has also been shown to decrease time loss resulting from injury. However, previous studies have not specifically investigated how the program might impact the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in male soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine if the FIFA 11+ injury prevention program can (1) reduce the overall number of ACL injuries in men who play competitive college soccer and whether any potential reduction in rate of ACL injuries differed based on (2) game versus practice setting; (3) player position; (4) level of play (Division I or II); or (5) field type. This study was a prospective cluster randomized controlled trial, which was conducted in 61 Division I and Division II National Collegiate Athletic Association men's soccer teams over the course of one competitive soccer season. The FIFA 11+ is a 15- to 20-minute on-the-field dynamic warm-up program used before training and games and was utilized as the intervention throughout the entire competitive season. Sixty-five teams were randomized: 34 to the control group (850 players) and 31 to the intervention group (675 players). Four intervention teams did not complete the study and did not submit their data, noting insufficient time to complete the program, reducing the number for per-protocol analysis to 61. Compliance to the FIFA 11+ program, athletic exposures, specific injuries, ACL injuries, and time loss resulting from injury were collected and recorded using a secure Internet-based system. At the end of the season, the data in the injury surveillance system were crosshatched with each individual institution's internal database. At that time, the certified athletic trainer signed off on the injury collection data to confirm their accuracy and completeness. A lower proportion of athletes in the intervention group experienced knee injuries (25% [34 of

  2. Child Injury in Israel: Emergency Room Visits to a Children's Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hemmo-Lotem

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to provide data for policy making and prevention program planning in Israel. The study examined all visits to the Department of Emergency Medicine at the Schneider Children's Medical Center in 1996 (41,279 visits in total. Approximately 22.6% of the emergency room patients were admitted following injury. Most (97% were unintentional injury. Approximately 42% of the patients were less than 4 years old and about 20% were 2 years old. In all age groups, the rate of boys was double. Approximately 92% were Jews. Despite this low rate of non-Jewish patients, however, they constituted 20% of later hospitalizations. The main injuries recorded were bruises and wounds from blunt objects, falls, motor vehicle–related accidents, and sport injuries. The most commonly injured body parts were the head and upper and lower limbs. In 82%, medical treatment was reported and 7% were hospitalized. In examining injuries over the year, there were no significant differences between the different months, but there were clusters of injuries around various holidays—bicycle and skateboard accidents at Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Succoth; pedestrian accidents around Lag BaOmer; burns on Purim, Hannukkah, and Passover; and accidental poisoning around Passover. The findings gave an indication of the nature of the injured population groups. These data could be useful for prevention strategy, both on the level of physical injury as well as on the level of the times of the year, when the risk was higher. The data collected very strongly raise the urgent need for establishing a national surveillance system, which would allow tracking injury-related data with respect to young people throughout the country.

  3. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Ingrid I E; Hermanns, Jo M A; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F

    2013-07-01

    As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents' concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK is associated with risk factors for child maltreatment. This study reports the predictive value of the SPARK for reports on high impact parenting problems and child abuse and neglect. Cross-sectional study with a 1.5-year follow-up based on 1,850 18-month old children, living in Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands. Data on the SPARK were obtained in the period of June 2007 to March 2008. Outcomes of the SPARK were in October 2009 compared to reports of the Advice and Reporting Centers for Child Abuse and Neglect (ARCAN) and Youth Care Agency (YCA). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using the risk assessment, parents' concerns, the perceived need for support and known risk factors as predictors. The overall risk assessment of the SPARK is the strongest predictor for reports to ARCAN and YCA in the 1.5 years after completing the SPARK (odds ratio of high versus low risk: 16.3 [95% confidence interval: 5.2-50.8]. Controlling for the risk assessment, only the sum of known risk factors and an unemployed father remained as significant predictors. The reported groups differ significantly from the children without a report with regard to family characteristics, but not with regard to child characteristics. A structured assessment of the concerns and care needs of toddlers' parents by a child health care nurse is a valuable predictor of reports on child abuse and neglect and serious parenting problems in toddlers. Systematically exploring and evaluating parental

  4. Physical activity cut-offs and risk factors for preventing child obesity in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minematsu, Kazuo; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Okazaki, Hiromi; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Tobina, Takuro; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Tsunawake, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    There is no official recommendations for physical activity level or steps for preventing and improving child obesity in Japan. Three hundred and two Japanese children aged 9-12 years were recruited wore 3-D speed sensors. Subjects were divided into two groups using the criteria for child obesity in Japan. Body composition was measured on bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical fitness test was done to evaluate physical strength. Twenty-four hour total steps, energy expenditure, and metabolic equivalents (MET) from Monday to Sunday were consecutively measured. The cut-offs for steps and physical activity level for preventing child obesity were evaluated on receiver operating characteristic curves. Daily life-related risk factors for child obesity were assessed on logistic regression analysis. In both sexes, body volume; bodyweight, body mass index, fat mass, and percentage body fat in the obese group was significantly higher than in the normal group, but age and height were not different (P obese group were inferior to those in the normal group (P child obesity. Additionally, >2 h TV viewing per day is a significant risk factor for child obesity (OR, 3.43; 95%CI: 1.27-9.31). Cut-offs for physical activity and potential risk factors for child obesity have been identified. Recommendations for changes to daily lifestyle for school-aged Japanese children are given. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Safety for Your Child: 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... threat to the life and health of your child? Injuries are the leading cause of death of school-aged children. Yet you can prevent most major injuries! At age 6, your child will become more independent. He or she will ...

  6. Safety for Your Child: 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... threat to the life and health of your child? Injuries are the leading cause of death of school-aged children . Yet you can prevent most major injuries if you and your child take a few simple steps. At age 10, ...

  7. The German Dunkelfeld project: a pilot study to prevent child sexual abuse and the use of child abusive images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Klaus M; Grundmann, Dorit; Kuhle, Laura F; Scherner, Gerold; Konrad, Anna; Amelung, Till

    2015-02-01

    Sexual interest toward prepubescents and pubescents (pedophilia and hebephilia) constitutes a major risk factor for child sexual abuse (CSA) and viewing of child abusive images, i.e., child pornography offenses (CPO). Most child sexual exploitation involving CSA and CPO are undetected and unprosecuted in the "Dunkelfeld" (German: "dark field"). This study assesses a treatment program to enhance behavioral control and reduce associated dynamic risk factors (DRF) in self-motivated pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2011, 319 undetected help-seeking pedophiles and hebephiles expressed interest in taking part in an anonymous and confidential 1-year-treatment program using broad cognitive behavioral methodology in the Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Therapy was assessed using nonrandomized waiting list control design (n=53 treated group [TG]; n=22 untreated control group [CG]). Self-reported pre-/posttreatment DRF changes were assessed and compared with CG. Offending behavior characteristics were also assessed via self-reporting. No pre-/postassessment changes occurred in the control group. Emotional deficits and offense-supportive cognitions decreased in the TG; posttherapy sexual self-regulation increased. Treatment-related changes were distributed unequally across offender groups. None of the offending behavior reported for the TG was identified as such by the legal authorities. However, five of 25 CSA offenders and 29 of 32 CPO offenders reported ongoing behaviors under therapy. Therapy for pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld can alter child sexual offending DRF and reduce-related behaviors. Unidentified, unlawful child sexual exploitative behaviors are more prevalent in this population than in officially reported recidivism. Further research into factors predictive of problematic sexual behaviors in the Dunkelfeld is warranted. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Warrior Model for Human Performance and Injury Prevention: Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Crawford, Kim; Lovalekar, Mita; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer B; Smalley, Brain W; McGrail, Mark A; Rowe, Russell S; Cardin, Sylvain; Lephart, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Physical training for United States military personnel requires a combination of injury prevention and performance optimization to counter unintentional musculoskeletal injuries and maximize warrior capabilities. Determining the most effective activities and tasks to meet these goals requires a systematic, research-based approach that is population specific based on the tasks and demands of the warrior. We have modified the traditional approach to injury prevention to implement a comprehensive injury prevention and performance optimization research program with the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) at Ft. Campbell, KY. This is Part I of two papers that presents the research conducted during the first three steps of the program and includes Injury Surveillance, Task and Demand Analysis, and Predictors of Injury and Optimal Performance. Injury surveillance based on a self-report of injuries was collected on all Soldiers participating in the study. Field-based analyses of the tasks and demands of Soldiers performing typical tasks of 101st Soldiers were performed to develop 101st-specific laboratory testing and to assist with the design of the intervention (Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP)). Laboratory testing of musculoskeletal, biomechanical, physiological, and nutritional characteristics was performed on Soldiers and benchmarked to triathletes to determine predictors of injury and optimal performance and to assist with the design of ETAP. Injury surveillance demonstrated that Soldiers of the 101st are at risk for a wide range of preventable unintentional musculoskeletal injuries during physical training, tactical training, and recreational/sports activities. The field-based analyses provided quantitative data and qualitative information essential to guiding 101st specific laboratory testing and intervention design. Overall the laboratory testing revealed that Soldiers of the 101st would benefit from targeted physical training to meet the specific demands of

  9. Lung injury in acute pancreatitis: mechanisms, prevention, and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    Lung injury is the most pertinent manifestation of extra-abdominal organ dysfunction in pancreatitis. The propensity of this retroperitoneal inflammatory condition to engender a diffuse and life-threatening lung injury is significant. Approximately one third of patients will develop acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which account for 60% of all deaths within the first week. The variability in the clinical course of pancreatitis renders it a vexing entity and makes demonstration of the efficacy of any specific intervention difficult. The distinct pathologic entity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury is reviewed with a focus on etiology and potential therapeutic maneuvers.

  10. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Framing to Increase Support for Evidence-based Tobacco Control, SIP12-060, Panel A, initial review. In... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date 11:00 a.m.-5:30 p...

  11. 78 FR 19489 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...; and Tobacco Use Quitline Registries for Continuously Engaging Participants in Cessation, SIP13-073.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  12. 75 FR 27561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): A Prospective Birth Cohort Study Involving Environmental Uranium... Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Date: 1 p.m.-4 p.m., July 8...

  13. 76 FR 10908 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal Vitamin D Status and Preterm Birth, DP11-002, Initial... and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and...

  14. 75 FR 78999 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal Vitamin D Status and Preterm Birth, DP11-002, Initial... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 11 a...

  15. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Resident Knowledge and Practice in Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary... Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary Prevention of Cancer, SIP12-053, Panel C, initial...

  16. 75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Knowledge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Knowledge Synthesis Center for... to ``Knowledge Synthesis Center for Evaluating Genomic Application in Practice and Prevention, GD 10...

  17. Responsibility for child and adolescent's psychosocial support associated with severe sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Charlotte; Fitzgerald, Ulrika Tranaeus; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The manner in which health professionals and coaches act and decide on treatment and prognosis can influence athletes in a way that not only strengthens them, but it can also reduce their confidence in their own ability. The purpose was to determine who has the responsibility for child and adolescent psychosocial support needed in connection with a severe sports injury as well as investigate whether coaches, physiotherapists and parents are aware of the support that is needed. Qualitative interviews with coaches, parents and physiotherapists with experience of serious sports injuries in young people aged 12 to 16 years old from different sports were analysed using content analysis. The study showed that all actors independently imparted communication as being the major problem and indicated that the role of a coordinator was missing. They imparted cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions in children, which were considered to be more common in younger children as indicated in previous studies. Coaches felt they had lack of education and time; parents described their disappointment in caregivers and personality changes in their children in connection with the injury. Physiotherapists felt that rehabilitation was often served as a substitute for the sport and that they therefore had greater responsibility for the child than they had been educated for. Results should be communicated to participants who are involved in children's and adolescent's sports to increase their knowledge and thus allow them to be able to give our children the best possibility, regardless of whether they return to the sport or not.

  18. Injury prevalence of netball players in South Africa: The need for in jury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pillay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish baseline data for injury prevalence,mechanism of injury, injury severity and management of injuries in netball playersin South Africa. A cross sectional descriptive design was employed to collect databy means of a questionnaire in 2010. Participants consisted of 254 netball playerswho participated in a netball tournament. Permission was obtained from all therelevant organizations and informed consent obtained from the participants. Thegeneral injury rate was 61.8% with an injury rate of 1.9 injuries per player forthe past season. The most commonly injured structures were the ankle 37.5 % andthe knee 28.6% with the most common mechanism of injury being landing, 19% and 29% respectively. Of those whosustained injuries, 86 (44% of the injured athletes’ sustained severe injuries, 31(16% sustained moderate injuriesand 78 (40% sustained mild injuries. 67% of players reported they were able to continue with the game and 33%received medical assistance losing game and training time. The most common form of management accessed wasphysiotherapy, which accounted for 31%. It is evident that the ankle and knee injury rates amongst South Africannetball players are high in comparison to other netball playing nations. Injury surveillance is an integral part ofdeveloping preventative measures. The article lays a platform for developing these strategies against the backdrop ofits findings and comparison with other authors.

  19. Hamstring injury prevention in soccer: Before or after training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, R; Knox, M; Weston, M; Siegler, J C; Brennan, S; Marshall, P W M

    2018-02-01

    We examined the effects of a 12-week program of Nordic hamstring exercises (NHE), administered before or after football training, upon eccentric hamstring strength, muscle activity, and architectural adaptations. Amateur soccer players were randomized into three groups. The control group (CON; n=11) undertook core stability exercises, whereas a periodized NHE program was delivered either before (NHE BEF ; n=10) or after (NHE AFT ; n=14) biweekly training sessions. Outcome measures included peak torque and concomitant normalized peak surface electromyography signals (sEMG) of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles during knee flexor maximal eccentric contractions, performed at 30°·s -1 . Ultrasonography was used to determine BF muscle thickness, muscle fiber pennation angle, and fascicle length. Performing the NHE derived likely moderate peak torque increases in both NHE BEF (+11.9%; 90% confidence interval: 3.6%-20.9%) and NHE AFT (+11.6%; 2.6%-21.5%) vs CON. Maximum sEMG increases were moderately greater in the BF of both NHE training groups vs CON. There were likely moderate increases in BF muscle thickness (+0.17 cm; 0.05-0.29 cm) and likely small pennation angle increases (+1.03°; -0.08° to 2.14°) in NHE AFT vs CON and NHE BEF . BF fascicle length increases were likely greater in NHE BEF (+1.58 cm; 0.48-2.68 cm; small effect) vs CON and NHE AFT . A 12-week eccentric hamstring strengthening program increased strength and sEMG to a similar magnitude irrespective of its scheduling relative to the football training session. However, architectural adaptations to support the strength gains differed according to the timing of the injury prevention program. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Strategies to prevent intraoperative lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siminelakis Stavros N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved.

  1. Culturally relevant model program to prevent and reduce agricultural injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C

    2014-07-01

    Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms.

  2. Psychometric properties of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Children (KOOS-Child) in children with knee disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortqvist, Maria; Iversen, Maura D; Janarv, Per-Mats

    2014-01-01

    was developed. This study aims to evaluate psychometric properties of the final KOOS-Child when used in children with knee disorders. METHODS: 115 children (boys/girls 51/64, 7-16 years) with knee disorders were recruited. All children (n=115) completed the KOOS-Child, the Child-Health Assessment Questionnaire......BACKGROUND: The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire for adults with joint injury or degenerative disease. Recent data indicate a lack of comprehensibility when this is used with children. Thus, a preliminary KOOS-Child...... to evaluate responsiveness and interpretability. RESULTS: After item reduction, the final KOOS-Child consists of 39 items divided into five subscales. No floor or ceiling effects (≤15%) were found. An exploratory factor analysis on subscale level demonstrated that items in all subscales except for Symptoms...

  3. Does the national program of prevention of mother to child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the context of universal access to prevention, treatment, care and support, each country has to ensure that 80% of women and children in need have access to PMTCT interventions. Objective: To assess the PMTCT program achievement in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Methods: Between ...

  4. Improving Child Nutrition in Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia to Prevent ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team will also study the children's meal sources; in other words, whether food is provided in school, carried from home, or purchased at or outside the school. This project offers a unique opportunity to provide evidence to inform program and policy design that will help prevent and control NCDs in Africa.

  5. Preventive risk assessment in forensic child and youth care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, M.

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment is central to the work of forensic mental health professionals, since it serves as a guide for prevention and intervention strategies. For effective risk assessment, knowledge on risk factors and their effects as well as the availability of valid and reliable instruments for risk

  6. 9Th Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference, Melbourne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    drowning/water safety, occupational injuries, transport safety, injury data systems, trauma care, policy and ... Research translation is influenced by contextual, social actor, content and process factors. The opening sessions set the context for the rest of the conference. ... approaches to public health were the highlights.

  7. Prevention of hamstring injuries in sport: A systematic review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hamstring strains are one of the most prevalent and recurrent injuries in sport. The main mechanism of hamstring injuries involves the eccentric muscle loading associated with the terminal swing-phase during sprinting. Risk factors for hamstring strains can be divided into intrinsic risk and extrinsic factors. The main aim of ...

  8. Injury prevention in football: Knowledge and behaviour of players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Exposure to competitive football is increasing among male youth football players in Nigeria. However, medical support to abate the impact of injuries appears inadequate and there is limited literature to show whether youth football players are knowledgeable about, and practise effective measures for injury ...

  9. Adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: examining the role of child abuse, comorbidity, and disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy P; Kim, Judy C; Chango, Joanna M; Spiro, Westley J; Cha, Christine; Gold, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to examine how several well-known correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) might work together to contribute to the occurrence of this behavior. Specifically, we examined models including child abuse, psychiatric comorbidity, and disinhibition, testing how these factors may work together to lead to NSSI in the past month. Participants (n=194; 144 female; age 13-18 years) were recruited from a short-term, acute adolescent residential unit. Within 48 hours of admission to the hospital participants completed structured clinical interviews assessing mental disorders and patterns of NSSI. Following the interviews, participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing childhood abuse and a computerized continuous performance task. Consistent with study hypotheses, results revealed that the association between child abuse and NSSI is partially mediated by comorbidity. Although disinhibition is associated with comorbidity, contrary to our hypothesis, disinhibition does not mediate the relation between child abuse and NSSI. Collectively, these findings provide new information about how comorbidity may increase risk for NSSI, and critically, discuss the potential importance of creating targeted programs to reduce the prevalence of child abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological prevention of parent-child conflict in modern family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Kodzhaspirov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Our research aimed at investigating the influence of personality characteristics of parents on specifics of their relationships with children. We considered different ways of family conflicts correction. The study involved 200 families (about 600 people, with one or two children, aged 11 to 14 years. The subject of the study were family conflicts and their impact on child’s behavior. Our hypotheses based on the following assumptions: 1 personal characteristics of parents determine the style of family relationships and characteristics of educational influences, 2 inadequate educational impact of parents causes family conflict, so prevention and education for parents on family relationships will reduce the negative impact of conflict on the personal development of children. Relevance of the study concerns the need to increase attention to modern family by professional psychologists for psychological prevention of family conflict and for parental education.

  11. Injuries in epilepsy: a review of its prevalence, risk factors, type of injuries and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Rita; Téllez Zenteno, José F.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is intense clinical research into various aspects of the medical risks relating to epilepsy, including total and cause-specific mortality, accidents and injuries in patients with epilepsy and mortality related with seizures. Seizures occurring in precarious situations and resulting in injuries are still an important concern for patients with epilepsy, their employers and their caregivers. Submersion injuries, motor vehicle accidents, burns, and head injuries are among the mo...

  12. Scientific evidence is just the starting point: A generalizable process for developing sports injury prevention interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Donaldson

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.

  13. 76 FR 67192 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal.... Matters To Be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss the recommendations provided by the expert panel on...

  14. Back Facts: A Training Workbook to Prevent Back Injuries in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many people over age 85 as we have today. 5 More old people means more nursing homes. ... are high Prevention of back injuries is smart business. Management can save lots of money. Individual back ...

  15. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, O.; Maas, M.; Verhagen, E.; Zwerver, J.; Gouttebarge, V.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific

  16. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball : A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, O.; Maas, M.; Verhagen, E.; Zwerver, J.; Gouttebarge, V.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific

  17. Pressure injury prevention strategies in acute medical inpatients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Sharon; Chaboyer, Wendy; Gillespie, Brigid

    2016-01-01

    Pressure injuries are a patient safety issue. Despite the suite of prevention strategies, sustained reductions in pressure injury prevalence rates have not been achieved. Generally, nurses are usually responsible for assessing patients' pressure injury risk, and then implementing appropriate prevention strategies. The study aim was to describe five planned and implemented pressure injury prevention strategies (risk assessment, management plan, support surface, repositioning, and education), and determine if a relationship existed between the planning and implementation of support surfaces and regular repositioning. An observational study collecting data using chart audits and semi-structured observations. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. This study was set in four medical units across two Australian metropolitan hospitals. The sample comprised adult medical inpatients with reduced mobility. A subsample of participants assessed at pressure injury risk on admission was drawn from this sample. Participants were aged ≥18 years, had a hospital length of stay of ≥3 days prior to recruitment, provided an informed consent, and had reduced mobility. There was suboptimal planning and implementation of pressure injury prevention strategies for the sample and subsample. There was a significant relationship between planned and implemented support surfaces at both hospitals; however, no relationship existed between the planned and implemented of regular repositioning at either site. The planning and implementation of pressure injury strategies is haphazard. Patients received support surfaces; however, gaps exist in pressure injury risk assessment, management planning, regular repositioning, and patient education.

  18. Social psychological aspects of ACL injury prevention and rehabilitation: An integrated model for behavioral adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derwin King Chung; Lee, Alfred Sing Yeung; Hagger, Martin S; Mok, Kam-Ming; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang

    2017-10-01

    Managing rehabilitation for ACL injury is dependent on uptake of, and compliance with, medical and safety recommendations. In this paper, we propose a multi-theory model that integrates self-determination theory and the theory of planned behavior to identify the motivational determinants ACL injury prevention and management behaviors and the processes involved.

  19. Social psychological aspects of ACL injury prevention and rehabilitation: An integrated model for behavioral adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Derwin King Chung Chan; Alfred Sing Yeung Lee; Martin S. Hagger; Kam-Ming Mok; Patrick Shu-Hang Yung

    2017-01-01

    Managing rehabilitation for ACL injury is dependent on uptake of, and compliance with, medical and safety recommendations. In this paper, we propose a multi-theory model that integrates self-determination theory and the theory of planned behavior to identify the motivational determinants ACL injury prevention and management behaviors and the processes involved.

  20. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players : design of a randomised prospective controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle

  1. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players: design of a randomised prospective controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle

  2. Prevention of sports injuries in the classroom with students in weightlifting, powerlifting and kettlebell lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilyasova M. H.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the article considers the issues of injury and its prevention in physical training and classes in weightlifting, powerlifting and kettlebell lifting. Examples of the need to improve program discipline through the development, which is aimed at the study of methods of injury in the course of employment.

  3. Social psychological aspects of ACL injury prevention and rehabilitation: An integrated model for behavioral adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derwin King Chung Chan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Managing rehabilitation for ACL injury is dependent on uptake of, and compliance with, medical and safety recommendations. In this paper, we propose a multi-theory model that integrates self-determination theory and the theory of planned behavior to identify the motivational determinants ACL injury prevention and management behaviors and the processes involved.

  4. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players: Design of a randomised prospective controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle

  5. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity injury prevention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collard, D.C.M.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Knol, D.L.; van Mechelen, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of a school-based injury prevention program on physical activity injury incidence and severity. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial performed from January 1, 2006, through July 31, 2007. Setting: Forty Dutch primary schools. Participants: Atotal of 2210

  6. 77 FR 58847 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... research and control activities related to injury. Matters To Be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss the... to the BSC. There will be 15 minutes allotted for public comments at the end of the open session...

  7. Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Forsberg, Anna; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Our knowledge of sports-related injuries in para-sport is limited and there are no data on how Paralympic athletes themselves perceive an injury. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities. Eighteen Swedish Paralympic athletes with vision impairment, intellectual impairment, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, dysplasia and neuromuscular disorder, representing 10 different para-sports, were interviewed. The qualitative phenomenographic method was used to interpret the data. The analysis revealed nine categories of perceptions of experiences. The athletes perceived that their impairments were involved in the cause and consequential chains associated with a sports-related injury. Other categories that denoted and described these injuries were: sport overuse, risk behaviour, functional limitations, psychological stressors, the normalised pain, health hazards, individual possibilities to prevent sports-related injuries and unequal prerequisites. This qualitative study revealed that Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries are complex and multifactorial, and in several ways differ from able-bodied athletes. This needs to be considered in the sports health and safety work within the Paralympic Movement as well as in the design of future injury surveillance systems and preventive programmes.

  8. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Hansen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT) derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (un)healthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1) child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2) child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents' major driving forces behind reducing children's consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents' provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.

  9. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth L. Melbye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (unhealthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1 child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2 child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents’ major driving forces behind reducing children’s consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents’ provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.

  10. Advancing prevention research on child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence: emerging strategies and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B

    2004-03-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent methodological issues in these areas and points out emerging research strategies that are forging advances in garnering valid, rigorous, and useful knowledge to prevent interpersonal violence. Research issues and emerging strategies in three key domains of prevention research are considered, including complexities in validly conceptualizing and measuring varying forms of violence as specific targets for preventive intervention, research issues and strategies designed to reliably predict and identify future violence risk to be targeted by preventive intervention, and research issues and emerging strategies in the application of empirical methods to forge specific advances in preventive intervention strategies themselves.

  11. Perceptions of football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Astrid; Wellmann, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player’s perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer) club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%). It included categories with (1) history of lower extremity injuries, (2) perceptions regarding risk factors and (3) regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2%) had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1%) and environmental factors (25.9%). The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25%) and uninjured players (0.0%). Nearly all players (91.5%) perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%). Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes. PMID:28459845

  12. Perceptions of football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Zech

    Full Text Available Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player's perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%. It included categories with (1 history of lower extremity injuries, (2 perceptions regarding risk factors and (3 regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2% had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1% and environmental factors (25.9%. The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25% and uninjured players (0.0%. Nearly all players (91.5% perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%. Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes.

  13. Helmets prevent motorcycle injuries with significant economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Andrew F; Fangman, William; Liao, Junlin; Lilienthal, Michele; Choi, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The number of registered motorcycles in the United States has been steadily increasing, as have the number of motorcycle injuries and fatalities. The Midwest has the lowest incidence of helmet use in the country. Iowa in particular has no helmet law. We conducted a retrospective study of the motorcycle crash victims treated at our level 1 trauma center between 2002 and 2008. Data from 713 motorcycle trauma victims were analyzed for correlations between helmet use and multiple outcome measures. The helmeted cases were similar to the unhelmeted cases in demographic and most crash characteristics. Unhelmeted patients suffered more severe injuries as measured by the Injury Severity Score (P Helmeted cases suffered fewer injuries (P Helmets reduced the risk of injury to the head by at least two thirds (P Helmeted patients were less likely to require mechanical ventilation or intensive care or to have infections. They were discharged an average of 3 days earlier (P helmeted patient. Helmets protect patients from head and neck injuries, which results in less severe injuries and a more benign hospital course. Helmet use results in significant inpatient cost savings plus additional care and social cost savings by reducing the need for further institutional care. We recommend legal and social measures to induce and encourage helmet use.

  14. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Brown, Derek S; Florence, Curtis S; Mercy, James A

    2012-02-01

    To present new estimates of the average lifetime costs per child maltreatment victim and aggregate lifetime costs for all new child maltreatment cases incurred in 2008 using an incidence-based approach. This study used the best available secondary data to develop cost per case estimates. For each cost category, the paper used attributable costs whenever possible. For those categories that attributable cost data were not available, costs were estimated as the product of incremental effect of child maltreatment on a specific outcome multiplied by the estimated cost associated with that outcome. The estimate of the aggregate lifetime cost of child maltreatment in 2008 was obtained by multiplying per-victim lifetime cost estimates by the estimated cases of new child maltreatment in 2008. The estimated average lifetime cost per victim of nonfatal child maltreatment is $210,012 in 2010 dollars, including $32,648 in childhood health care costs; $10,530 in adult medical costs; $144,360 in productivity losses; $7,728 in child welfare costs; $6,747 in criminal justice costs; and $7,999 in special education costs. The estimated average lifetime cost per death is $1,272,900, including $14,100 in medical costs and $1,258,800 in productivity losses. The total lifetime economic burden resulting from new cases of fatal and nonfatal child maltreatment in the United States in 2008 is approximately $124 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the total burden is estimated to be as large as $585 billion. Compared with other health problems, the burden of child maltreatment is substantial, indicating the importance of prevention efforts to address the high prevalence of child maltreatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  16. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    OpenAIRE

    Tressie McMillan-Cottom

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants.Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationshipmanagement. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerablepopulations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. Thisvariability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injuryprevention ...

  17. Preventive Effects of Eccentric Training on Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury in Professional Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, Richard A.; Perez, Luis; McQueeney, Sean; Toby, E. Bruce; Key, Vincent; Nelson, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the second most common injury causing missed days in professional baseball field players. Recent studies have shown the preventive benefit of eccentric conditioning on the hamstring muscle group in injury prevention. Specifically, Nordic-type exercises have been shown to decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in professional athletes. Purpose: This was a prospective study performed in coordination with a single Major League Baseball (MLB) organization (major and minor league teams) that targeted the effects of Nordic exercises on the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in the professional-level baseball player. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: The daily workouts of 283 professional baseball players throughout all levels of a single MLB organization were prospectively recorded. The intervention group participated in the Nordic exercise program and was compared with a randomly selected control group of professional athletes within the organization not participating in the exercise program. The incidence of hamstring injuries in both groups was compared, and the total number of days missed due to injury was compared with the 2 previous seasons. Results: There were 10 hamstring injuries that occurred during the 2012 season among the 283 professional athletes that required removal from play. There were no injuries that occurred in the intervention group (n = 65, 0.00%; P = .0381). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 hamstring injury was 11.3. The average repetitions per week of the injured group were assessed at multiple time points (2, 4, 6, and total weeks) prior to injury. There were significantly fewer repetitions per week performed in the injured group at all time points compared with overall average repetitions per week in the noninjured group (P = .0459, .0127, .0164, and .0299, respectively). After beginning the Nordic exercise program, there were 136 total days

  18. Transcontextual development of motivation in sport injury prevention among elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derwin King Chung; Hagger, Martin S

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated the transcontextual process of motivation in sport injury prevention. We examined whether general causality orientation, perceived autonomy support from coaches (PAS), self-determined motivation (SD-Mtv), and basic need satisfaction in a sport context predicted SD-Mtv, beliefs, and adherence with respect to sport injury prevention. Elite athletes (N = 533) completed self-report measures of the predictors (Week 1) and the dependent variables (Week 2). Variance-based structural equation modeling supported hypotheses: SD-Mtv in a sport context was significantly predicted by PAS and basic need satisfaction and was positively associated with SD-Mtv for sport injury prevention when controlling for general causality orientation. SD-Mtv for sport injury prevention was a significant predictor of adherence to injury-preventive behaviors and beliefs regarding safety in sport. In conclusion, the transcontextual mechanism of motivation may explain the process by which distal motivational factors in sport direct the formation of proximal motivation, beliefs, and behaviors of sport injury prevention.

  19. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Opportunities: Parenting, Programs, and the Reduction of Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Shanley, Dianne C; Hawkins, Russell

    2018-02-01

    To date, child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention has relied largely on child-focused education, teaching children how to identify, avoid, and disclose sexual abuse. The purpose of this article is to explore how prevention opportunities can include parents in new and innovative ways. We propose that parents can play a significant role as protectors of their children via two pathways: (i) directly, through the strong external barriers afforded by parent supervision, monitoring, and involvement; and (ii) indirectly, by promoting their children's self-efficacy, competence, well-being, and self-esteem, which the balance of evidence suggests will help them become less likely targets for abuse and more able to respond appropriately and disclose abuse if it occurs. In this article, we first describe why teaching young children about CSA protective behaviors might not be sufficient for prevention. We then narratively review the existing research on parents and prevention and the parenting and family circumstances that may increase a child's risk of experiencing sexual abuse. Finally, we make a number of recommendations for future approaches to prevention that may better inform and involve parents and other adult protectors in preventing CSA.

  20. Neuromuscular training injury prevention strategies in youth sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Carolyn A; Roy, Thierry-Olivier; Whittaker, Jackie L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; van Mechelen, Willem

    2015-07-01

    Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The objective of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of injury prevention neuromuscular training strategies in youth sport. Three electronic databases were systematically searched up to September 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; analytic prospective design; investigated a neuromuscular training prevention strategy intervention(s) and included outcomes for injury sustained during sport participation. Two authors assessed the quality of evidence using Downs and Black (DB) criteria. Meta-analyses including randomised controlled trials only (RCTs) to ensure study design homogeneity were completed for lower extremity and knee injury outcomes. Of 2504 potentially relevant studies, 25 were included. Meta-analysis revealed a combined preventative effect of neuromuscular training in reducing the risk of lower extremity injury (incidence rate ratio: IRR=0.64 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.84)). Though not statistically significant, the point estimate suggests a protective effect of such programmes in reducing the risk of knee injury (IRR=0.74 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.07)). There is evidence for the effectiveness of neuromuscular training strategies in the reduction of injury in numerous team sports. Lack of uptake and ongoing maintenance of such programmes is an ongoing concern. A focus on implementation is critical to influence knowledge, behaviour change and sustainability of evidence informed injury prevention practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Factors influencing the utilisation of prevention of mother-to-child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to identify factors influencing the utilisation of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) in a resource poor setting in South Africa. A sample of 186 pregnant women (29.6% HIV positive and 70.4% HIV negative) in four clinics in a rural district in the Eastern Cape were interviewed as part ...

  2. Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? KidsHealth / For Parents / Can ...

  3. Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS in Eritrea: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one third of live deliveries can be reduced to <2% through antiretroviral prophylaxis. The study was done to determine the effectiveness of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV/AIDS in Eritrea where skilled care delivery is less than 30%. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the use of ...

  4. The Impact of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programme is aimed at reducing HIV/AIDS in children to its barest minimum. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of PMTCT programme on HIV exposed infants in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja Method: A six month prospective study of ...

  5. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  6. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Victimization: A Meta Analysis of School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.

    1997-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…

  7. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  8. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  9. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  10. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV guidelines: Nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV guidelines: Nurses' views at four primary healthcare facilities in the Limpopo Province. ... Conclusion: In spite of the successes of the PMTCT programme, considerable challenges still prevail; lack of patient education, poor facilities management and staff shortages could ...

  11. Intergenerational Continuity in Child Maltreatment: Mediating Mechanisms and Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Appleyard, Karen; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention, this prospective, longitudinal, community-based study of 499 mothers and their infants examined (a) direct associations between mothers' experiences of childhood maltreatment and their offspring's maltreatment, and (b) mothers' mental health problems, social isolation, and social…

  12. Heart to Heart: An Innovative Approach to Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    This pamphlet discusses the problems of child sexual abuse, and introduces the Heart to Heart program created by the Ounce of Prevention Fund in Illinois. The pamphlet begins with reflections of adolescents who were sexually abused during childhood, and presents statistical information on this issue. It also discusses the various effects of…

  13. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  14. Identification and management of psychosocial problems among toddlers by preventive child health care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, Mariska; Crone, Matty R.; Wiefferink, Carin H.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Background: Objective of this study was to assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and act upon psychosocial problems among young toddlers in the general population and to determine the concordance with parent-reported behavioural and emotional problems.

  15. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker.

  16. The First-aid Advice and Safety Training (FAST) parents programme for the prevention of unintentional injuries in preschool children: a protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Julie A; Towner, Elizabeth Ml; Kendrick, Denise; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Peter S; Powell, Jane; Mulvaney, Caroline; Thomas, James; Deave, Toity; Potter, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of preventable death in children in the UK, and 0-4-year-olds frequently attend emergency departments following injuries in the home. Parenting programmes designed to support parents, promote behaviour change and enhance parent-child relationships have been shown to improve health outcomes in children. It is not known whether group-based parenting programmes have the potential to prevent unintentional injuries in preschool children. A study to develop a group-based parenting programme to prevent unintentional home injuries in preschool children, and assess the feasibility of evaluation through a cluster-randomised controlled trial. The intervention, designed for parents of children who have sustained a medically attended injury, will be developed with two voluntary sector organisations. The feasibility study will assess ability to recruit parents, deliver the programme and follow-up participants. Participants will complete questionnaires at baseline, 3 months and 6 months, and report injuries in their preschool children using a tool designed and validated for this study. Qualitative methods will assess user and deliverer perceptions of the programme. This study will develop the first group-based parenting programme to prevent injuries in preschool children, and design tools for parent-reported injury outcomes. A key challenge will be to recruit parents to participate in a manner that is non-stigmatising, and does not result in feelings of guilt or belief that they are perceived to be a bad parent. The findings will be used to prepare a trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention.

  17. Injury characteristics in children's football and perspectives for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Rössler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Sport and physical activity for children is widely recommended to support a healthy lifestyle. Football is the most popular sport worldwide. Given its popularity, football is an excellent setting to fulfil sufficient physical activity levels. Football can induce considerable beneficial health effects. However, injuries may be an unfortunate consequence of participating in sport. In light of the large number of players football injuries relate to a public health issue. Therefore, the applicati...

  18. Bucillamine, a thiol antioxidant, prevents transplantation-associated reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Amersi, Farin; Nelson, Sally K.; Shen, Xiu Da; Kato, Hirohisa; Melinek, Judy; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.; Horwitz, Lawrence D.; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2002-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious potential threat to outcomes in organ transplantation and other clinical arenas in which there is temporary interruption of blood flow. I/R is a frequent cause of primary failure in organ transplantation. We hypothesized that the antioxidant bucillamine, a potent sulfhydryl donor, would protect against I/R injury in high-risk organ transplants. Because livers subjected to prolonged ischemia and very fatty livers are highly susceptible to severe I...

  19. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  20. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

  1. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse, Links to Later Sexual Exploitation/High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Prevention/Treatment Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide numbe...

  3. Ankle Injury Prevention Programs for Soccer Athletes Are Protective: A Level-I Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Nathan L; Jacobs, John C; Kim, Jaewhan; Amendola, Annunziato; Shea, Kevin G

    2016-09-07

    Soccer has one of the highest rates of ankle injury in sports for both males and females. Several injury prevention programs have been developed to address this concern. The purposes of this study were to conduct a meta-analysis of ankle injury prevention programs for soccer players, assess the heterogeneity among the studies, and evaluate the reported effectiveness of the prevention programs. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) database. Studies were limited to clinical investigations of injury prevention programs specific to the ankle in soccer players. Title, abstract, and full-text review were utilized to identify articles that met the inclusion criteria. The Cochrane Q test and I(2) index were independently used to assess heterogeneity among the studies. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess heterogeneity. The pooled risk difference was calculated by random-effects models with use of the DerSimonian-Laird method. Publication bias was assessed with a funnel plot and Egger weighted regression technique. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria as randomized controlled trials. A total of 4,121 female and male soccer athletes were analyzed for ankle injuries. Significant heterogeneity was found among studies of ankle injury prevention (p = 0.002), with an I(2) index of 65.2%. For studies of ankle injury prevention programs, the risk ratio was 0.60 (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.92) and a significant reduction in the risk of ankle injury was found in the prevention group (p = 0.002). No evidence of publication bias was found among the included studies. This meta-analysis of studies regarding ankle injury prevention programs identified a significant reduction in the risk of ankle injury. Future high-quality research designs with a low risk of bias are necessary to further evaluate the

  4. Resistance Training in Youth: Laying the Foundation for Injury Prevention and Physical Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolski, Christin; Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Paterno, Mark V

    The rising incidence of physical activity- and sports-related injuries has prompted the present-day investigation of resistance training as a potential means of injury prevention and physical literacy development among youth. Relevant studies on the topics of athlete development, physical literacy, resistance training, and injury prevention in children and adolescents were reviewed (PubMed and Sports Discus, 1982-2016). Recommendations from consensus guidelines and position statements applicable to resistance training and injury prevention in youth, in addition to young athlete development, were reviewed. Additionally, hand searches, expert requests, article reference lists, and gray literature were utilized and reviewed for pertinent content. Clinical review. Level 4. Youth throughout the physical activity spectrum are at risk for physical activity- and sports-related injury. Of highest priority are early specializers, physically inactive youth, and young girls, owing to increased injury rates. Resistance training among these at-risk populations has been shown to reduce injury risk by up to 68% and improve sports performance and health measures, in addition to accelerating the development of physical literacy. Recent recommendations, position statements, and national initiatives advocate for the incorporation of resistance training with qualified instruction among these groups. Resistance training in addition to free play and other structured physical activity training can serve as a protective means against injury and a positive catalyst for the development of physical literacy to offset the impact of diminishing physical activity and early sport specialization in today's youth.

  5. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Ann M; Johansson, Fredrik R; Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4) preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD); rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.

  6. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Cools

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1 risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2 established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3 these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4 preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD; rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.

  7. Hamstring Injury Prevention Practices in Elite Sport: Evidence for Eccentric Strength vs. Lumbo-Pelvic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Anthony J; Bourne, Matthew N

    2018-03-01

    Hamstring strain injuries are endemic in running-based sports. Given the economic and performance implications of these injuries, a significant body of research has emerged in recent years in an attempt to identify risk factors and develop or optimise injury prevention strategies. Surveys of injury prevention practices among medical and conditioning staff in elite sport suggest that many sporting clubs invest significant efforts in eccentric hamstring conditioning and lumbo-pelvic or trunk stability programmes. The purpose of this narrative review was to critically evaluate the evidence underpinning these practices. Single-exercise eccentric training interventions have proven effective in the prevention of primary and recurrent hamstring strains, when compliance is adequate. However, despite its almost universal acceptance, the authors are aware of only one, very recent, prospective risk factor study examining the effect of lumbo-pelvic motion during sprinting on hamstring injury risk. Furthermore, the interventions exploring the effect of lumbo-pelvic training on hamstring injury rates have not measured stability in any way. An improved understanding of the evidence underpinning commonly employed hamstring injury prevention practices may enable clinicians and coaches to better prioritise effective strategies in the increasingly complex environment of elite sport.

  8. Deployment Surveillance Summary, U.S. Army Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn/Operation Enduring Freedom, 2011. Injury Prevention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    in preventing injuries from sports /physical training, falls/jumps, and land transport mishaps. (a) Make sure surfaces for sports are level and...attention of strategies that will aid in preventing injuries from leading causes of injury . (a) To prevent sports and physical training injuries ...Huffman G, Sennett B. 2008. Prophylactic Bracing Decreases Ankle Injuries in Collegiate Female Volleyball Players.

  9. Impact of Trauma System Preparedness on the Outcomes of Severe Child and Adolescent Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Raouf

    2015-12-01

    Severe child trauma poses a heavy burden upon the public's health and the nations' economies, in terms of mortality, morbidity, and disability. The burden varies by the maturity level of the adopted trauma system. This work aimed to identify the impact of trauma system maturity upon the outcomes of care of severely injured children. Discharge data for hospitalized trauma children in Florida (mature trauma system) and Indiana (immature trauma system) were retrospectively analyzed. All severely injured children, 1-15 years of age with an injury severity score ≥25 during 1999-2000 were included. Assessment involved the differences in specified treatment procedures, survival rates, hospital length of stay, and the need for post-hospital institutional care. Analysis revealed that Indiana children significantly stay longer in hospital, and that no differences in the rates of patient mortality, discharge home, and selected procedures were found. Trauma system maturity impacts the volume and complexity of interventions, as well as the mortality, morbidity, and disability associated with the severe child and adolescent trauma. The cost of such burden could be directed to improving quality of the state's injury management services.

  10. Beyond the physical injuries: child and parent coping with medical traumatic stress after pediatric trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzucidlo, Susan E; Campbell, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Experiencing a traumatic event and then the required care for the physical injuries can elicit stress symptoms in the injured child and parents. Stress-related symptoms affect a significant number of injured children and can have an impact on emotional and physical health outcomes after injury. Yet the majority of children who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder postinjury go undiagnosed and untreated. Medical traumatic stress symptoms that occur often as adaptive responses initially can persist. Acute stress disorder is diagnosed when the stress symptoms persist less than 1 month postinjury and affect normal functioning. Inclusion of screening for acute stress and the development of models and guidelines are needed to systematically incorporate the care for the emotional trauma as an integral part of pediatric trauma care. Pediatric trauma nurses with knowledge and resources are in a position to minimize potentially traumatic aspects of the care they deliver, recognize traumatic stress symptoms, and help parents to support their child's coping and promote appropriate help seeking.

  11. Prevention of child abuse and neglect and improvements in child development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; DePanfilis, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the implementation of a section in the Danish Social Assistance Act which encourages local authorities to offer families services in order to support children at risk of child maltreatment. The specific purpose of the present paper is to answer the question......: Will the socio-psychological development of children known to social services be improved when abuse and neglect are reduced? A sample of 1,138 children was drawn at random from new social services cases starting in 1998. Subsequently, about 80 per cent were evaluated by local caseworkers on the basis......-nutrition, suicidal tendencies, lack of concentration, or disturbed behaviour, compared to those children who were not exposed to abuse and neglect. If parental behaviour improved, effects on children's well-being were also observed and positive changes in children's socio-psychological development were identified...

  12. Strategies for injury prevention in Brazilian football: Perceptions of physiotherapists and practices of premier league teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Maurício Couto; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2017-11-01

    To describe the physiotherapists perceptions and the current practices for injury prevention in elite football (soccer) clubs in Brazil. Cross-sectional study. Group of Science in Sports & Exercise, Federal University of Healthy Sciences of Porto Alegre (Brazil). 16 of the 20 football clubs involved in the Brazilian premier league 2015. Physiotherapists answered a structured questionnaire. Most physiotherapists (∼88%) were active in design, testing and application of prevention programs. Previous injury, muscle imbalance, fatigue, hydration, fitness, diet, sleep/rest and age were considered "very important" or "important" injury risk factors by all respondents. The methods most commonly used to detect athletes' injury risk were: monitoring of biochemical markers (100% of teams), isokinetic dynamometry (81%), questionnaires (75%), functional movement screen (56%), fleximetry (56%) and horizontal jump tests (50%). All clubs used strength training, functional training, core exercises and balance/proprioception exercises in their injury prevention program; and Nordic hamstring exercise and other eccentric exercises were used by 94% of clubs. "FIFA 11+" prevention program was adapted by 88% of clubs. Physiotherapists perceptions and current practices of injury prevention within Brazilian elite football clubs were similar to those employed in developed countries. There remains a gap between clinical practice and scientific evidence in high performance football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Overcoming the organization-practice barrier in sports injury prevention: A nonhierarchical organizational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, Ö; Jacobsson, J; Timpka, T

    2015-08-01

    The organization of sports at the national level has seldom been included in scientific discussions of sports injury prevention. The aim of this study was to develop a model for organization of sports that supports prevention of overuse injuries. The quality function deployment technique was applied in seminars over a two-season period to develop a national organizational structure for athletics in Sweden that facilitates prevention of overuse injuries. Three central features of the resulting model for organization of sports at the national level are (a) diminishment of the organizational hierarchy: participatory safety policy design is introduced through annual meetings where actors from different sectors of the sporting community discuss training, injury prevention, and sports safety policy; (b) introduction of a safety surveillance system: a ubiquitous system for routine collection of injury and illness data; and (c) an open forum for discussion of safety issues: maintenance of a safety forum for participants from different sectors of the sport. A nonhierarchical model for organization of sports at the national level - facilitated by modern information technology - adapted for the prevention of overuse injuries has been developed. Further research is warranted to evaluate the new organizational model in prospective effectiveness studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: A cluster-randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Port, I.G.L. van de; Krist, M.R.; Schmikli, S.L.; Stubbe, J.H.; Frederiks, J.E.; Backx, F.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. Purpose To investigate the effect of the 'The11' injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Study design Cluster-randomised

  15. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: A cluster-randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Port, I.G.L. van de; Krist, M.R.; Schmikli, S.L.; Stubbe, J.H.; Frederiks, J.E.; Backx, F.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. Purpose To investigate the effect of the 'The11' injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Study design

  16. Effects of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention in physical education teachers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies.

  17. Ethics and Issues of Secondary Prevention Efforts in Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, Kieran F; Merdian, Hannah L; Perkins, Derek E; Kettleborough, Danielle

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses the ethical, practical, and moral issues surrounding secondary prevention efforts of child sexual abuse from a professional and practice-based perspective. Transcripts of a semistructured consultation event with n = 15 international experts on the secondary prevention of child sexual abuse were analysed using thematic qualitative analysis. The research identified four main critical areas linked to secondary prevention efforts, including, the psychology of self-reporting and disclosure; the interaction with and within existing legal, social, and professional frameworks; the scale and type of an appropriate response; and potential hurdles (i.e., within media, public, politics). The article outlines these areas, highlighting participant perspectives on risk-enhancing and mitigating factors for each domain.

  18. Injuries in epilepsy: a review of its prevalence, risk factors, type of injuries and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Tellez-Zenteno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is intense clinical research into various aspects of the medical risks relating to epilepsy, including total and cause-specific mortality, accidents and injuries in patients with epilepsy and mortality related with seizures. Seizures occurring in precarious situations and resulting in injuries are still an important concern for patients with epilepsy, their employers and their caregivers. Submersion injuries, motor vehicle accidents, burns, and head injuries are among the most feared epilepsy-related injuries. These concerns seem valid because the hallmark of epilepsy, episodic impairment of consciousness and motor control, may occur during interictal EEG epileptiform discharges, even in the absence of a clinical seizure. In addition, psychomotor comorbidity and side effects of antiepileptic drugs may contribute to the risk of injuries in patients with epilepsy. Published risk factors for injuries include the number of antiepileptic drugs, history of generalized seizures, and seizure frequency. In general, epidemiological information about incidence of injuries has been conflicting and sparse. In general, studies focusing on populations with more severe forms of epilepsy tend to report substantially higher risks of injuries than those involving less selected populations. On the other hand, studies based on non-selected populations of people with epilepsy have not shown an increased frequency of injuries in people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Some studies have shown that patients with epilepsy are more frequently admitted to the hospital following an injury. Possible explanations include: more cautious attitude of clinicians toward injuries occurring in the setting of seizures; hospitalization required because of seizures and not to the injuries themselves; and hospitalization driven by other issues, such as comorbidities, which are highly prevalent in patients with epilepsy. Potentially the high rate of

  19. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Chul Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  20. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Chul; Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Joo Yeong

    2016-10-29

    Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.42 (0.24-0.73)), however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI): 0.83 (0.34-2.03). In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.