Boluyt, Nicole; Tjosvold, Lisa; Lefebvre, Carol; Klassen, Terry P.; Offringa, Martin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and precision of existing search strategies for retrieving child health systematic reviews in MEDLINE using PubMed. DESIGN: Filter (diagnostic) accuracy study. We identified existing search strategies for systematic reviews, combined them with a filter that
Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...
Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11
Rao, A R
Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.
Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...
Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe
International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...
.... It combined clinical and academic perspectives to explore the current state of health of our children, the historical roots of the speciality and the relationship between early infant and child...
Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter
. Overweight and obesity have tripled in 20 years and are a health threat as well as constituting negative health behaviour. Social ill health, socioeconomic inequity, and sociocultural changes also influence health but their consequences are not well investigated in children. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high...... child mortality but the same morbidity pattern as in other Western societies was found. Negative health behaviour is frequent in schoolchildren. The influence of rapid cultural changes, and familial and societal factors related to social ill health, together with socioeconomic inequity, are of major...
Weitzman, Michael; Baten, Ahmareen; Rosenthal, David G; Hoshino, Risa; Tohn, Ellen; Jacobs, David E
The connection between housing and health is well established. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the child's home, such as cleanliness, moisture, pests, noise, accessibility, injury risks, and other forms of housing environmental quality, all have the potential to influence multiple aspects of the health and development of children. Basic sanitation, reduced household crowding, other improvements in housing and expanded, and improved housing regulations have led to advances in children's health. For example, lead poisoning prevention policies have profoundly reduced childhood lead exposure in the United States. This and many other successes highlight the health benefits for families, particularly children, by targeting interventions that reduce or eliminate harmful exposures in the home. Additionally, parental mental health problems, food insecurity, domestic violence, and the presence of guns in children's homes all are largely experienced by children in their homes, which are not as yet considered part of the Healthy Homes agenda. There is a large movement and now a regulatory structure being put in place for healthy housing, which is becoming closely wedded with environmental health, public health, and the practice of pediatrics. The importance of homes in children's lives, history of healthy homes, asthma, and exposures to lead, carbon monoxide, secondhand/thirdhand smoke, radon, allergy triggers is discussed, as well as how changes in ambient temperature, increased humidity, poor ventilation, water quality, infectious diseases, housing structure, guns, electronic media, family structure, and domestic violence all affect children's health. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Methods: This is a literature review on ethical issues in maternal and child health nursing, challenges faced by maternal and child health nurses and strategies for decision making. Literatures related to the topic was gathered from pertinent literature, completed research works and published articles retrieved from searches ...
Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.
"Despite children making up around a quarter of the population, the first edition of this book was the first to focus on a public health approach to the health and sickness of children and young people...
A principal purpose of this article has been to examine the gap between research and practice in relation to community factors in child mental health. Two caveats were introduced in preparation for this assessment. First, it was pointed out that the definition of communities has been expanded by considering the organizing properties of social aggregates that are not simply a function of the race, ethnicity, or social class of individuals who compose them. Having these definitions grounded in theory substantially advances the needs of research and the design and goals of community-level interventions. The second caveat relates to the boundaries of the disciplines that cater to the needs of children. During the same era when child psychiatry is largely occupied with placing psychotropic medications at the center of clinical approaches, there is an important effort in child psychology and sociology to cut across their disciplinary confines to form more comprehensive designs that are sensitive to experiences and circumstances that emerge from specific aspects of community context. Research from the PHDCN was used as an example of this new interdisciplinary approach. Several community-based research projects were selected for review based on their clear implications to improve context-sensitive assessment of child mental health and design effective community-based interventions to improve child mental health. The Healthy Start and CATCH programs indicate that involving child professionals at the grassroots of community life requires skill and patience but that the effort is satisfying and potentially effective. Other examples, exemplified by North Carolina's Smart Start initiative and the program of developmental assets from the Search Institute, demonstrate coherent approaches that provide a foundation for long-term capacity building in assessment, local decision making, and the design and evaluation of interventions. Three conclusions are warranted from this
Ruhm, C J
This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.
Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti
Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.
Steenhoff, Andrew P; Crouse, Heather L; Lukolyo, Heather; Larson, Charles P; Howard, Cynthia; Mazhani, Loeto; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Niescierenko, Michelle L; Musoke, Philippa; Marshall, Roseda; Soto, Miguel A; Butteris, Sabrina M; Batra, Maneesh
Child mortality remains a global health challenge and has resulted in demand for expanding the global child health (GCH) workforce over the last 3 decades. Institutional partnerships are the cornerstone of sustainable education, research, clinical service, and advocacy for GCH. When successful, partnerships can become self-sustaining and support development of much-needed training programs in resource-constrained settings. Conversely, poorly conceptualized, constructed, or maintained partnerships may inadvertently contribute to the deterioration of health systems. In this comprehensive, literature-based, expert consensus review we present a definition of partnerships for GCH, review their genesis, evolution, and scope, describe participating organizations, and highlight benefits and challenges associated with GCH partnerships. Additionally, we suggest a framework for applying sound ethical and public health principles for GCH that includes 7 guiding principles and 4 core practices along with a structure for evaluating GCH partnerships. Finally, we highlight current knowledge gaps to stimulate further work in these areas. With awareness of the potential benefits and challenges of GCH partnerships, as well as shared dedication to guiding principles and core practices, GCH partnerships hold vast potential to positively impact child health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Batomen Kuimi, Brice Lionel; Oppong-Nkrumah, Oduro; Kaufman, Jay; Nazif-Munoz, Jose Ignacio; Nandi, Arijit
This study aimed to synthesise the available knowledge, identify unexplored areas and discuss general limits of the published evidence. We focused on outcomes commonly hypothesised to be affected by child labour: nutritional status, harmful exposures and injuries. Four electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, ISI Web of Science) were searched in November 2017. All articles published since 1996, without restrictions on language, were considered for inclusion. Out of the 1090 abstracts initially identified by the search, 78 articles were selected for inclusion and reviewed. Most of the studies were conducted in Asia and South America, and only a third of them compared working children to a control group of non-working children. Child labour appears to be associated with poor nutritional status, diseases due to harmful exposures, and a higher prevalence of injuries. Despite evidence for a negative relation between child work and health, the cross-sectional design of most studies limits the causal interpretation of existing findings. More rigorous observational studies are needed to confirm and better quantify these associations.
Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti
Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...
... events and children (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Child Mental Health ... in childhood Traumatic events and children Related Health Topics Bullying Child Behavior Disorders Mental Disorders Mental Health ...
Kolhatkar, Gauri; Berkowitz, Carol
Cultural diversity poses challenges within the health care setting, particularly regarding the question of how health professionals can resolve the tension between respecting cultural norms or child-rearing practices and the importance of determining what constitutes harm and child maltreatment. Cultural competency and respect for cultural diversity does not imply universal tolerance of all practices. The United Nations provides a standard of universal child rights, protecting them from harmful practices. Pediatric providers must respect cross-cultural differences while maintaining legal and ethical standards of safety and wellbeing for children, promoting evidence-based prevention of maltreatment, and advocating for child wellness across all cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roche, Rosa M; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M
Understanding children's health after a sibling's death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children's and their parents' perceptions of children's health and identified relationships of children's age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling's cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. 64 children and 48 parents rated the child's health "now" and "now vs before" the sibling's death in an ICU or ER or at home shortly after withdrawal of life-prolonging technology. Children completed the Child Depression Inventory and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale. Sibling cause of death was collected from hospital records. At 2 and 4 months, 45% to 54% of mothers' and 53% to 84% of fathers' ratings of their child's health "now" were higher than their children's ratings. Child health ratings were lower for: children with greater depression; fathers whose children reported greater anxiety; mothers whose child died of a chronic condition. Children's ratings of their health "now vs before" their sibling's death did not differ significantly from mothers' or fathers' ratings at 2 or 4 months. Black fathers were more likely to rate the child's health better "now vs before" the death; there were no significant differences by child gender and cause of death in child's health "now vs before" the death. Children's responses to a sibling's death may not be visually apparent or become known by asking parents. Parents often perceive their children as healthier than children perceive themselves at 2 and 4 months after sibling death, so talking with children separately is important. Children's perceptions of their health may be influenced by depression, fathers' perceptions by children's anxiety, and mother's perceptions by the cause of sibling death.
Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.
Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.
While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...
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goals and work in one of IDRC's dynamic program or division teams. IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program supports research that seeks to address health ... Interrelationships and root causes of poor health outcomes and dysfunctional ...
Clinics in Mother and Child Health is a bilingual journal and publishes (in ... Health Care Facility in South-South Nigeria: The Need for Middle Level Health Manpower ... Le syndrome des ovaires micropolykystiques chez les femmes infertiles à ...
Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia's only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services.The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM, University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database.The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children's health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index.The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children's health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage.
Atilola, O; Ayinde, O O; Emedoh, C T; Oladimeji, O
As most child health initiatives in Nigeria lack a child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) strategy, CAMH issues have remained obscure to the country's policy-makers. The lack of current and representative epidemiological data on the mental health of Nigerian children continues to be a barrier to advocacy for CAMH policy initiatives. In view of the importance of CAMH to national development, there must be a continued search for ways of bringing the state of CAMH in Nigeria to the attention of policy-makers. To use information from UNICEF's State of the World's Children as proxy data to speculate on the state of child mental health in Nigeria. With a view to discussing its CAMH implications, social and health indicators in the Nigerian child were extracted from UNICEF's 2012 edition. Most of the social and health indicators assessed reflect significant mental health risks. Up to 65% of households live on less than US$1·25 per day, child malnutrition is evident in up to 40% of children, and the primary and secondary school net enrolment ratios are only 63% and 25%, respectively. In addition, the rate of attendance for antenatal care was 45%, and only 39% of deliveries were supervised by skilled birth attendants. Child labour and under-age marriage is very common. A literature review demonstrates that children living in these circumstances are at significant risk of mental health problems. Current data on the state of Nigerian children contain indices that can serve as proxy information for the state of CAMH in the country. Policy-makers need to invest more in pre-emptive child health initiatives as a way of preserving the physical and mental health of children.
Roche, Rosa M.; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M.
Background Understanding children?s health after a sibling?s death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children?s and their parents? perceptions of children?s health and identified relationships of children?s age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling?s cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. Methods 64 children and 48 parents rated the child?s health ?now? and ?now vs before?...
Günlemez, Ayla; Atasay, Begüm; Arsan, Saadet
Vitamin A has a critical role in normal vision cell differantiation proliferation and maintanence of epithelial cell integrity Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent and important deficiencies and is of public health significance in developing countries This article reviews vitamin A deficiency in the world and Turkey and it’s effect on maternal and child health Key words: vitamin A maternal health child health
Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A
Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fakir, Adnan M S
The causal link between a household's economic standing and child health is known to suffer from endogeneity. While past studies have exemplified the causal link to be small, albeit statistically significant, this paper aims to estimate the causal effect to investigate whether the effect of income after controlling for the endogeneity remains small in the long run. By correcting for the bias, and knowing the bias direction, one can also infer about the underlying backward effect. This paper uses an instrument variables two-stage-least-squares estimation on the Young Lives 2009 cross-sectional dataset from Andhra Pradesh, India, to understand the aforementioned relationship. The selected measure of household economic standing differentially affects the estimation. There is significant positive effect of both short-run household expenditure and long-run household wealth on child stunting, with the latter having a larger impact. The backward link running from child health to household income is likely an inverse association in our sample with lower child health inducing higher earnings. While higher average community education improved child health, increased community entertainment expenditure is found to have a negative effect. While policies catered towards improving household wealth will decrease child stunting in the long run, maternal education and the community play an equally reinforcing role in improving child health and are perhaps faster routes to achieving the goal of better child health in the short run.
Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...
Zaman, S; Jalil, F; Karlberg, J
Child care practices and hygiene measures were studied at 6 months of age in a longitudinally followed cohort of 1476 infants born between September 1984 to March 1987 in four socio-economically different areas in and around Lahore, Pakistan. Although, 76-98% of the mothers looked after their infants during health and 96-98% during a diarrhoeal illness, child care practices and hygiene measures differed significantly between the four areas. During a diarrhoeal episode, the mothers from the upper middle class took timely medical help, fed ample food and Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) to the sick infants and provided uncontaminated food to them in clean surroundings. The mothers from the village and the periurban slum took their sick child, mostly after the second day of illness, to a doctor, but preferred home remedies. Fourteen percent of the mothers in the village and 6% in the periurban slum did not seek any medical help at all. One-third of the families, from these two areas, fed food to children 12 hours after cooking; the surroundings of the child were dirty with large numbers of flies present throughout the year, though the food was commonly kept covered with a lid. We constructed a simple measure of the surroundings of the child, rated as dirty, medium or clean; it was found to be associated to both parental illiteracy and child growth, but not with housing standard. The main conclusion is that any attempt to improve child-care practices and the hygienic environment for the child, should focus on maternal literacy and simple health messages.
Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling
Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....
... injuries in children (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Child Safety updates ... safety Preventing head injuries in children Related Health Topics Infant and Newborn Care Internet Safety Motor Vehicle ...
The aim of the research in this thesis was to assess, through cross-sectional school child health surveys, the health and nutrition of primary school children (5-11 years) in Merseyside, England, in relation to their mother’s history of pregnancy smoking. Childhood health outcomes assessed included
Ibrahim, Abdalla; Abdalla, Salma M; Jafer, Mohammed; Abdelgadir, Jihad; de Vries, Nanne
To summarize current evidence on the impacts of child labor on physical and mental health. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect for studies that included participants aged 18 years or less, conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and reported quantitative data. Two independent reviewers conducted data extraction and assessment of study quality. A total of 25 studies were identified, the majority of which were cross-sectional. Child labor was found to be associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, including but not limited to poor growth, malnutrition, higher incidence of infectious and system-specific diseases, behavioral and emotional disorders, and decreased coping efficacy. Quality of included studies was rated as fair to good. Child labor remains a major public health concern in LMICs, being associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes. Current efforts against child labor need to be revisited, at least in LMICs. Further studies following a longitudinal design, and using common methods to assess the health impact of child labor in different country contexts would inform policy making. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Hartmann, T.; Baumgartner, S.
This article is one of the first to empirically explore the relationship between health anxiety and online health information search. Two studies investigate how health anxiety influences the use of the Internet for health information and how health anxious individuals respond to online health
... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... table 6 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Related FastStats Adolescent Health ADHD Asthma Infant Health More data: reports ...
Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Stragalinou, A.; Pez, O.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess-Masfety, V.
Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods:
De Cesaro, Bruna Campos; Gurgel, Léia Gonçalves; Nunes, Gabriela Pisoni Canedo; Reppold, Caroline Tozzi
Systematically review the literature on interventions in children's language in primary health care. One searched the electronic databases (January 1980 to March 2013) MEDLINE (accessed by PubMed), Scopus, Lilacs and Scielo. The search terms used were "child language", "primary health care", "randomized controlled trial" and "intervention studies" (in English, Portuguese and Spanish). There were included any randomized controlled trials that addressed the issues child language and primary health care. The analysis was based on the type of language intervention conducted in primary health care. Seven studies were included and used intervention strategies such as interactive video, guidance for parents and group therapy. Individuals of both genders were included in the seven studies. The age of the children participant in the samples of the articles included in this review ranged from zero to 11 years. These seven studies used approaches that included only parents, parents and children or just children. The mainly intervention in language on primary health care, used in randomized controlled trials, involved the use of interactional video. Several professionals, beyond speech and language therapist, been inserted in the language interventions on primary health care, demonstrating the importance of interdisciplinary work. None of the articles mentioned aspects related to hearing. There was scarcity of randomized controlled trials that address on language and public health, either in Brazil or internationally.
Jan 18, 2018 ... ... improving maternal and child care, even in difficult contexts such as South ... the Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa (IMCHA) initiative ... of Health and National Primary Health Care Development Agency, and ...
Khanna, Rajesh; Karikalan, N; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Agarwal, Anchal; Bhattacharya, Madhulekha; Das, Jayanta K
Quality and essential health information is considered one of the most cost-effective interventions to improve health for a developing country. Healthcare portals have revolutionalized access to health information and knowledge using the Internet and related technologies, but their usage is far from satisfactory in India. This article describes a health portal developed in India aimed at providing one-stop access to efficiently search, organize and share maternal child health information relevant from public health perspective in the country. The portal 'Repository on Maternal Child Health' was developed using an open source content management system and standardized processes were followed for collection, selection, categorization and presentation of resource materials. Its usage is evaluated using key performance indicators obtained from Google Analytics, and quality assessed using a standardized checklist of knowledge management. The results are discussed in relation to improving quality and access to health information. The portal was launched in July 2010 and provides free access to full-text of 900 resource materials categorized under specific topics and themes. During the subsequent 18 months, 52,798 visits were registered from 174 countries across the world, and more than three-fourth visits were from India alone. Nearly 44,000 unique visitors visited the website and spent an average time of 4 minutes 26 seconds. The overall bounce rate was 27.6%. An increase in the number of unique visitors was found to be significantly associated with an increase in the average time on site (p-value 0.01), increase in the web traffic through search engines (p-value 0.00), and decrease in the bounce rate (p-value 0.03). There was a high degree of agreement between the two experts regarding quality assessment carried out under the three domains of knowledge access, knowledge creation and knowledge transfer (Kappa statistic 0.72). Efficient management of health information
Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena
Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...
... PDF Foods For Healthy Teeth - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Office of Oral Health Maryland Department of Health ... PDF Healthy Teeth, Healthy Kids - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Maryland Dental Action Coalition Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ...
Wang, Caroline C; Pies, Cheri A
(1) To introduce photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, for use by MCH program managers to enhance community health assessments and program planning efforts, (2) to enable community people to use the photovoice methodology as a tool to record, reflect, and communicate their family, maternal, and child health assets and concerns, and (3) to educate community leaders about family, maternal, and child health issues from a grassroots perspective. Photovoice is based upon the theoretical literature on education for critical consciousness, feminist theory, and community-based approaches to documentary photography. Picture This Photovoice project took place in Contra Costa, an economically and ethnically diverse county in the San Francisco Bay area. Sixty county residents of ages 13-50 participated in 3 sessions during which they received training from the local health department in the techniques and process of photovoice. Residents were provided with disposable cameras and were encouraged to take photographs reflecting their views on family, maternal, and child health assets and concerns in their community, and then participated in group discussions about their photographs. Community events were held to enable participants to educate MCH staff and community leaders. The photovoice project provided MCH staff with information to supplement existing quantitative perinatal data and contributed to an understanding of key MCH issues that participating community residents would like to see addressed. Participants' concerns centered on the need for safe places for children's recreation and for improvement in the broader community environment within county neighborhoods. Participants' definitions of family, maternal, and child health assets and concerns differed from those that MCH professionals may typically view as MCH issues (low birth weight, maternal mortality, teen pregnancy prevention), which helped MCH program staff to expand priorities and include
Schwartz, Anne L; LeRoy, Lauren
Children and youth are the focus for many foundations and corporate-giving programs working in the health field. Total foundation giving targeted to children and youth more than doubled during the late 1990s; in 2000, health accounted for 25 percent of philanthropic dollars invested in this population. This funding covers a broad range of child health issues but clusters in four key areas-promoting healthy behavior, improving access to care and expanding insurance coverage, strengthening mental health services, and addressing the broader determinants of health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality and essential health information is considered one of the most cost-effective interventions to improve health for a developing country. Healthcare portals have revolutionalized access to health information and knowledge using the Internet and related technologies, but their usage is far from satisfactory in India. This article describes a health portal developed in India aimed at providing one-stop access to efficiently search, organize and share maternal child health information relevant from public health perspective in the country. Methods The portal ‘Repository on Maternal Child Health’ was developed using an open source content management system and standardized processes were followed for collection, selection, categorization and presentation of resource materials. Its usage is evaluated using key performance indicators obtained from Google Analytics, and quality assessed using a standardized checklist of knowledge management. The results are discussed in relation to improving quality and access to health information. Results The portal was launched in July 2010 and provides free access to full-text of 900 resource materials categorized under specific topics and themes. During the subsequent 18 months, 52,798 visits were registered from 174 countries across the world, and more than three-fourth visits were from India alone. Nearly 44,000 unique visitors visited the website and spent an average time of 4 minutes 26 seconds. The overall bounce rate was 27.6%. An increase in the number of unique visitors was found to be significantly associated with an increase in the average time on site (p-value 0.01, increase in the web traffic through search engines (p-value 0.00, and decrease in the bounce rate (p-value 0.03. There was a high degree of agreement between the two experts regarding quality assessment carried out under the three domains of knowledge access, knowledge creation and knowledge transfer (Kappa
Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea
Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.
This research project will contribute to evidence from four country case studies in Syria, South Sudan, Mali, and Colombia or the Democratic Republic of Congo as part of a global project to inform developing operational guidance on interventions related to reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health ...
The SAJCH is a quarterly, peer reviewed, medical child health journal. Other websites related to this journal: http://www.sajch.org.za/index.php/SAJCH/index. Vol 12, No 1 (2018). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Editorial: ...
... robust and inclusive knowledge base for child and adolescent mental health across diverse contexts. To this end the Journal seeks to promote coverage, representation and dissemination of high quality work from around the world that traverses high-, middle- and low- income contexts. Read more about the journal here.
... based on pre-existing conditions. Getting children off to a healthy start at home and at school is vital... Challenge, thousands of child care providers are adopting healthier practices, and 1.7 million Americans... health professionals, faith-based and community organizations, and all levels of government to help...
... healthy communities, we are working to reduce contaminants in our drinking water by updating standards and better protecting our water sources from pollution. We are also building on the successes of the Clean..., child health professionals, faith-based and community organizations, and all levels of government to...
Spencer, N J; Penlington, E
Community child health medical audit is established in most districts surveyed. A minority have integrated audit with hospital paediatric units. Very few districts use an external auditor. Subject audit is preferred to individual performance audit and school health services were the most common services subjected to medical audit. The need for integrated audit and audit forms suitable for use in the community services is discussed.
Full Text Available Worldwide deaths of children younger than 5 years reduced from 12.7 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013. Much of this decline is attributed to an increase in the knowledge, skills, and abilities of child health professionals. In turn this increase in knowledge, skills, and abilities has been brought about by increased child-health-focused education available to child health professionals. Therefore child-health-focused education must be part of the strategy to eliminate the remaining 6.3 million deaths and to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This article describes a child-health-focused program that was established in 1992 and operates in 20 countries: Australia, Bangladesh, Botswana, Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, Hong Kong, India, Kenya, Malawi, Mongolia, Myanmar, Sierra Leone, the Seychelles, the Solomon Islands, Tanzania, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe. The Diploma in Child Health/International Postgraduate Paediatric Certificate (DCH/IPPC course provides a comprehensive overview of evidence-based current best practice in pediatrics. This includes all subspecialty areas from infectious diseases and emergency medicine through to endocrinology, respiratory medicine, neurology, nutrition, and dietetics. Content is developed and presented by international medical experts in response to global child health needs. Content is provided to students via a combination of learning outcomes, webcasts, lecture notes, personalized study, tutorials, case studies, and clinical practice. One hundred eleven webcasts are provided, and these are updated annually. This article includes a brief discussion of the value and focus of medical education programs; a description of the DCH/IPPC course content, approaches to teaching and learning, course structure and the funding model; the most recent evaluation of the DCH/IPPC course; and recommendations for overcoming the challenges for implementing a multinational child-health
Half of the world's maternal, newborn, and child deaths occur in sub-Saharan ... and child health by using primary health care as an entry point ... Canada's top development priorities and commitment to reducing ... MULTI-FUNDER INITIATIVE.
Innova ng for Maternal and Child Health in Africa ... spacing are cri cal to maternal and child health programming. It is ... APHRC is the only African ins tu on ... Maternal death review and outcomes: An assessment in Lagos State, Nigeria.
Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health. ... over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. ... Through policy and aggressive health education, traditional child rearing practices in ...
Rolbiecki, Abigail J; Washington, Karla; Bitsicas, Katina
Bereaved families that collectively make meaning of their grief experiences often function better than those that do not, yet most social work bereavement interventions target individuals rather than family units. In this article, authors describe an innovative social work intervention that employs digital storytelling. This is a narrative technique that combines photography, music, and spoken word to help families bereaved by child death make meaning of their loss and envision a future without their deceased child.
Racine, Andrew D
The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E
We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.
Cesario, Sandra K; Moran, Barbara
The health and productivity of a global society is dependent upon the elimination of gender inequities that prevent girls from achieving their full potential. Although some progress has been made in reducing social, economic, and health disparities between men and women, gender equality continues to be an elusive goal. The Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015) and the Sustainable Development Goals (2015-2030) include intergovernmental aspirations to empower women and stress that change must begin with the girl child. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Freeman, T; Jadva, V; Kramer, W; Golombok, S
This study investigates the new phenomenon of parents of donor offspring searching for and contacting their child's 'donor siblings' (i.e. donor offspring conceived by the same donor) and donor. Online questionnaires were completed by 791 parents (39% lone-mother, 35% lesbian-couple, 21% heterosexual-couple, 5% non-specified) recruited via the Donor Sibling Registry; a US-based international registry that facilitates contact between donor conception families who share the same donor. Data were collected on parents' reasons for searching for their child's donor siblings and/or donor, the outcome of these searches and parents' and their child's experiences of any resulting contact. Parents' principal motivation for searching for their child's donor siblings was curiosity and for their donor, enhancing their child's sense of identity. Some parents had discovered large numbers of donor siblings (maximum = 55). Most parents reported positive experiences of contacting and meeting their child's donor siblings and donor. This study highlights that having access to information about a child's donor origins is important for some parents and has potentially positive consequences. These findings have wider implications because the removal of donor anonymity in the UK and elsewhere means that increasing numbers of donor offspring are likely to seek contact with their donor relations in the future.
L. Rajmil (Luis); M.-J.F. de Sanmamed (María-José Fernandez); I. Choonara (Imti); T. Faresjö (Tomas); A. Hjern (Anders); A. Kozyrskyj (Anita); P.J. Lucas (Patricia); H. Raat (Hein); L. Séguin (Louise); N. Spencer (Nick); D. Taylor-Robinson (David)
textabstractThe aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children,
Alfaham, M; Gray, O P; Davies, D P
Most teaching of child health in Cardiff takes place in block attachments of 8 weeks. There is an introductory seminar of 2 days followed by a 6-week clinical attachment in a district general hospital in Wales, and then a revision period of one week designed to help students formalize and structure their basic knowledge and to clarify aspects of child health which they may have had difficulty in understanding. The revision programme has to take into account: the short time available, the small number of teaching staff, the most relevant basic knowledge and active participation by the student. This paper describes how this week has been improved through the use of student-initiated revision (SIR). The students' appraisal of this revision and in particular SIR is presented.
Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert
The effect of macroeconomic crises on child health is a topic of great policy importance. This article analyzes the impact of a profound crisis in Peru on infant mortality. It finds an increase of about 2.5 percentage points in the infant mortality rate for children born during the crisis of the late 1980s, which implies that about 17,000 more children died than would have in the absence o...
Stein, DJ; Koen, N; Donald, KA; Adnams, CM; Koopowitz, S; Lund, C; Marais, A; Myers, B; Roos, A; Sorsdahl, K; Stern, M; Tomlinson, M; van der Westhuizen, C; Vythilingum, B; Myer, L; Barnett, W; Brittain, K; Zar, HJ
Background Early life psychobiological and psychosocial factors play a key role in influencing child health outcomes. Longitudinal studies may help elucidate the relevant risk and resilience profiles, and the underlying mechanisms that impact on child health, but there is a paucity of birth cohort data from low and middle-income countries (LMIC). We describe the rationale for and present baseline findings from the psychosocial component of the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Methods We review the psychosocial measures used in the DCHS, a multidisciplinary birth cohort study in a peri-urban area in South Africa, and provide initial data on psychological distress, depression, substance use, and exposure to traumatic stressors and intimate partner violence (IPV). These and other measures will be assessed longitudinally in mothers in order to investigate associations with child neurodevelopmental and health outcomes. Results Baseline psychosocial data is presented for mothers (n = 634) and fathers (n = 75) who have completed antenatal assessments to date. The sample of pregnant mothers is characterized by multiple psychosocial risk factors, including a high prevalence of psychological distress and depression, high levels of substance use, and high exposure to traumatic stressors and IPV. Discussion These data are consistent with prior South African studies which have documented a high prevalence of a multitude of risk factors during pregnancy. Further longitudinal assessment of mothers and children may clarify the underlying psychobiological and psychosocial mechanisms which impact on child health, and so inform clinical and public health interventions appropriate to the South African and other LMIC contexts. PMID:25797842
Full Text Available Performing an online health search is a popular activity conducted on the Internet. Research studies from developed countries provide information on source used, type of search performed and devices used to perform the search. However, the same cannot be said about the online health information searching scene in South East Asia. Online health information searching is gaining popularity in South East Asia. Citizens in these countries are turning to the Internet to obtain health information quickly. Current research studies pertaining to online health information searching in South East Asian is limited, particularly relating to search experiences of South East Asian health searchers. Search experience is pertinent asit could deter or encourage the possibility of conducting future health searches. In this research study, a user study was conducted to describe the online search experience of South East Asian health searchers. A face to face interview with 50 participants was conducted. The interview was audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Results indicate participants have positive and negative search experiences. In some cases, post search outcomes influenced the search experience. Results of this research study contribute to the growing domain of knowledge in relation to online health information searching. Results of this study also provide an understanding pertaining to the search experience of South East Asian online health searchers.
Kovsted, Jens Anders; Pörtner, Claus Christian; Tarp, Finn
This paper studies factors that influence child health in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. This environment is characterised by high infant mortality, but not by malnutrition. We show that although maternal education is important in determining child health and mortality this effect diminishes...... or disappears when health knowledge is introduced as an explanatory variable. It emerges that health knowledge has large and positive effects on both child mortality and health when instrumented for to capture endogeneity...
Wathne, K O; Bøhler, E
Over the last decades, better drinking water and hygiene, improved nutrition and vaccines and antibiotics have greatly reduced child mortality and morbidity. Still, 11 million children under the age of five die every year, many of them from diseases that could have been prevented or treated, given existing knowledge and technology. On the basis of a review of recent literature, this paper discusses current strategies to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Sufficient knowledge and technology exist to further improve the health of the worlds' children. Poverty and its consequences--weak implementation and organisation of health services--is a major obstacle. In order to improve health services in developing countries, additional resources are needed. There is also a need for better quality of service. This will require increased efforts in the field of health policy and systems research.
ers, religious leaders, market women and traditional health workers. They were selected across the selected villages) in the study area. The exercise covered areas like: issues of child marriage, factors influencing child marriage, girl child education, sexual rights and choices in the commu- nity, and common maternal health ...
Frøen, J Frederik; Myhre, Sonja L; Frost, Michael J; Chou, Doris; Mehl, Garrett; Say, Lale; Cheng, Socheat; Fjeldheim, Ingvild; Friberg, Ingrid K; French, Steve; Jani, Jagrati V; Kaye, Jane; Lewis, John; Lunde, Ane; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Nyanchoka, Linda; Stone, Hollie; Venkateswaran, Mahima; Wojcieszek, Aleena M; Temmerman, Marleen; Flenady, Vicki J
The Global Roadmap for Health Measurement and Accountability sees integrated systems for health information as key to obtaining seamless, sustainable, and secure information exchanges at all levels of health systems. The Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescent's Health aims to achieve a continuum of quality of care with effective coverage of interventions. The WHO and World Bank recommend that countries focus on intervention coverage to monitor programs and progress for universal health coverage. Electronic health registries - eRegistries - represent integrated systems that secure a triple return on investments: First, effective single data collection for health workers to seamlessly follow individuals along the continuum of care and across disconnected cadres of care providers. Second, real-time public health surveillance and monitoring of intervention coverage, and third, feedback of information to individuals, care providers and the public for transparent accountability. This series on eRegistries presents frameworks and tools to facilitate the development and secure operation of eRegistries for maternal and child health. In this first paper of the eRegistries Series we have used WHO frameworks and taxonomy to map how eRegistries can support commonly used electronic and mobile applications to alleviate health systems constraints in maternal and child health. A web-based survey of public health officials in 64 low- and middle-income countries, and a systematic search of literature from 2005-2015, aimed to assess country capacities by the current status, quality and use of data in reproductive health registries. eRegistries can offer support for the 12 most commonly used electronic and mobile applications for health. Countries are implementing health registries in various forms, the majority in transition from paper-based data collection to electronic systems, but very few have eRegistries that can act as an integrating backbone for health
Predictors on utilization of maternal, newborn and child health services among rural women in Manicaland Zimbabwe. ... Central African Journal of Medicine ... The study targeted women of child bearing age (15-49 years) who were either ...
Maternal and child mortality rates in Mali and Burkina Faso remain ... mother and child through a mobile technology for community health initiative used by site ... by Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, the Canadian Institutes of ...
Mestrovic, Julije; Bralic, Irena; Simetin, Ivana Pavic; Mujkic, Aida; Radonić, Marija; Rodin, Urelija; Trošelj, Mario; Stevanović, Ranko; Benjak, Tomislav; Pristaš, Ivan; Mayer, Dijana; Tomić, Branimir
The Republic of Croatia is a Parliamentary Republic with a population of 4.2 million people that sits on the Adriatic coast within Central Europe. Gross domestic product is approximately 60% of the European Union average, which in turn, limits health service spending. The health system is funded through universal health insurance administered by the Croatian Health Insurance Fund based on the principles of social solidarity and reciprocity. The children of Croatia are guaranteed access to universal primary, hospital, and specialist care provided by a network of health institutions. Pediatricians and school medicine specialists provide comprehensive preventive health care for both preschool and school-aged children. Despite the Croatian War of Independence in the late 20th century, indicators of child health and measures of health service delivery to children and families are steadily improving. However, similar to many European countries, Croatia is experiencing a rise in the "new morbidities" and is responding to these new challenges through a whole society approach to promote healthy lifestyles and insure good quality of life for children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kerbl, Reinhold; Ziniel, Georg; Winkler, Petra; Habl, Claudia; Püspök, Rudolf; Waldhauser, Franz
We describe child health care in Austria, a small country in Central Europe with a population of about 9 million inhabitants of whom approximately 1.7 million are children and adolescents under the age of 20 years. For children and adolescents, few health care indicators are available. Pediatric and adolescent health provision, such as overall health provision, follows a complex system with responsibilities shared by the Ministry of Health, 19 social insurance funds, provinces, and other key players. Several institutions are affiliated with or cooperate with the Ministry of Health to assure quality control. The Austrian public health care system is financed through a combination of income-based social insurance payments and taxes. Pediatric primary health care in Austria involves the services of general pediatricians and general practitioners. Secondary care is mostly provided by the 43 children's hospitals; tertiary care is (particularly) provided in 4 state university hospitals and 1 private university hospital. The training program of residents takes 6 years and is completed by a final examination. Every year, this training program is completed by about 60 residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wolfe, Ingrid; Mandeville, Kate; Harrison, Katherine; Lingam, Raghu
The United Kingdom, like all European countries, is struggling to strengthen health systems and improve conditions for child health and survival. Child mortality in the UK has failed to improve in line with other countries. Securing optimal conditions for child health requires a healthy society, strong health system, and effective health care. We examine inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral policy and governance for child health and survival in England. Literature reviews and universally applicable clinical scenarios were used to examine child health problems and English policy and governance responses for improving child health through integrating care and strengthening health systems, over the past 15 years. We applied the TAPIC framework for analysing policy governance: transparency, accountability, participation, integrity, and capacity. We identified strengths and weaknesses in child health governance in all the five domains. However there remain policy failures that are not fully explained by the TAPIC framework. Other problems with successfully translating policy to improved health that we identified include policy flux; policies insufficiently supported by delivery mechanisms, measurable targets, and sufficient budgets; and policies with unintended or contradictory aspects. We make recommendations for inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral child health governance, policy, and action to improve child health in England with relevant lessons for other countries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Corsello, Giovanni; Ferrara, Pietro; Chiamenti, Gianpietro; Nigri, Luigi; Campanozzi, Angelo; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo
Pediatric care in Italy has been based during the last 40 years on the increased awareness of the importance of meeting the psychosocial and developmental needs of children and of the role of families in promoting the health and well-being of their children. The pediatric health care system in Italy is part of the national health system. It is made up of 3 main levels of intervention: first access/primary care, secondary care/hospital care, and tertiary care based on specialty hospital care. This overview will also include a brief report on neonatal care, pediatric preventive health care, health service accreditation programs, and postgraduate training in pediatrics. The quality of the Italian child health care system is now considered to be in serious danger because of the restriction of investments in public health caused both by the 2008 global and national economic crisis and by a reduction of the pediatric workforce as a result of progressively insufficient replacement of specialists in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clinics in Mother and Child Health - Vol 5, No 1 (2008). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 5, No 1 (2008). Special Edition - Congress Abstracts. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...
Sep 7, 2016 ... IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program supports research that seeks to ... health; and; Interrelationships and root causes of poor health outcomes and ... The successful candidate will contribute to the program's work on ...
Tham, Rachel; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Taylor, Philip E; Katelaris, Constance H; Vicendese, Don; Abramson, Michael J; Erbas, Bircan
Asthma is a significant global public health issue. Severe asthma exacerbations can be triggered by environmental factors and require medical care from health services. Although it is known that fungal exposure may lead to allergic sensitization, little is understood about its impact on asthma exacerbations. This review aims to examine whether outdoor fungi play a significant role in child asthma exacerbations. Systematic search of seven electronic databases and hand searching for peer-reviewed studies published in English, up to 31 August 2013. Inclusion criteria were study population aged asthma, attended a health service; outdoor fungi exposure was reported. Quality and risk of bias assessments were conducted. Due to significant heterogeneity, meta-analysis was not conducted. Of the 1896 articles found, 15 were eligible. Findings were not consistent, possibly due to methodological variations in exposure classifications, statistical methods and inclusion of confounders. Cross-sectional studies found no or weak associations. All but one time series studies indicated an association that varied between fungal species. Increasing evidence indicates that asthmatic children are susceptible to asthma exacerbations when exposed to outdoor fungal spores. There is limited understanding of the contributions of different fungal species. Research is needed to investigate interactions of outdoor fungi with pollen, air pollutants and respiratory viruses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The South African Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (SAACAPAP). The SAACAPAP is a professional body for child and adolescent mental health practitioners in South Africa. It was initiated in 1978, and since then has been an active member of the International Association for Child ...
... whether the child is up-to-date on a schedule of age appropriate preventive and primary health care which... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... 1304.20(a)(2), and 45 CFR 1304.20(b)(1), “entry” means the first day that Early Head Start or Head...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...
McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny
This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…
Skaburskas, K; Shade, J; Manset, D; Revillard, J; Rios, A; Anjum, A; Branson, A; Bloodsworth, P; Hauer, T; McClatchey, R; Rogulin, D
The Health-e-Child (HeC) project ,  is an EC Framework Programme 6 Integrated Project that aims to develop a grid-based integrated healthcare platform for paediatrics. Using this platform biomedical informaticians will integrate heterogeneous data and perform epidemiological studies across Europe. The resulting Grid enabled biomedical information platform will be supported by robust search, optimization and matching techniques for information collected in hospitals across Europe. In particular, paediatricians will be provided with decision support, knowledge discovery and disease modelling applications that will access data in hospitals in the UK, Italy and France, integrated via the Grid. For economy of scale, reusability, extensibility, and maintainability, HeC is being developed on top of an EGEE/gLite  based infrastructure that provides all the common data and computation management services required by the applications. This paper discusses some of the major challenges in bio-medical data integr...
Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth A; Borup, Ina
In the context of the UN's 1990 'Convention on the Right's of the Child' 1990, and the associated definition of health promotion as a community's ability to recognise, define and make decisions on how to create a healthy society, this article describes and analyses how family support networks are conceived and present themselves in perinatal Inuit families. This literature review conducted an initial and secondary search using the keywords and combinations of the keywords: healthy families, health promoting families, resiliency, Arctic, Inuit, Family support, was executed in PubMed, Popline, CSA and CINAHL. The tertiary literature search was then combined with literature gleaned from literature lists, and other relevant articles were selected. Individual members of the family contribute to the health of the family, but the child is often the catalyst for health promotion within the family, not only the siblings to the unborn child, but also the unborn child. Perinatal entities create their own networks that support and develop concepts of family and support systems. Resiliency, kinship and ecocultural process within the family are concomitant to the health of perinatal family and of the children. More research is needed that moves children from being viewed as the receivers of health towards being seen as the promoters of health and an important actor as health promoting agent within the family.
Hallberg, Ann-Christine; Lindbladh, Eva; Petersson, Kerstin; Råstam, Lennart; Håkansson, Anders
Staff in Swedish child health care today feel a gap between policy and practice. By revealing the main lines in the development of child health care, we hoped to achieve a better understanding of the current trends and problems in today's Swedish child health care. A selection of official documents about the development of child health care during the period 1930-2000 was studied with the aid of discourse analysis. Four discourses were identified, which serve as a foundation for a periodization of the development of child health care. In the first period the main task of child health care, alongside checking on the development of the child, was to inform and educate the mothers. During the second period health supervision became the crucial task, to identify risks and discover abnormalities and disabilities. The third period focused on the discussion concerning the identification of health-related and social 'risk groups', and the work of child health care was increasingly geared to supervision of the parents' care of their children. Parents were to be given support so that they could cope with their difficulties by themselves. During the current period child health care is increasingly expected to direct its work towards the child's surroundings and the family as a whole and is now explicitly defined as an institution that should strengthen parents' self-esteem and competence. The level of responsibility for the child's health changed gradually during the different periods, from public responsibility to parental responsibility. The focus of efforts in child health care was changed from being general in the first and second periods to general and selective in period three, and then gradually becoming selective again in period four. While control of the child's physical health was central during the first two periods, psychosocial health came into focus in the last two, along with the importance of supporting the parents to enable them to handle their difficulties
Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L
Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.
Iscoe, Louise; And Others
This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…
Wildeman, Christopher; Goldman, Alyssa W; Turney, Kristin
Mass incarceration has profoundly restructured the life courses of not only marginalized adult men for whom this event is now so prevalent but also their families. We examined research published from 2000 to 2017 on the consequences of parental incarceration for child health in the United States. In addition to focusing on specific health outcomes, we also considered broader indicators of child well-being because there has been little research on the association between parental incarceration and objectively measured child health outcomes. Our findings support 4 conclusions. First, paternal incarceration is negatively associated-possibly causally so-with a range of child health and well-being indicators. Second, although some research has suggested a negative association between maternal incarceration and child health, the evidence on this front is mixed. Third, although the evidence for average effects of paternal incarceration on child health and well-being is strong, research has also suggested that some key factors moderate the association between paternal incarceration and child health and well-being. Finally, because of the unequal concentration of parental incarceration and the negative consequences this event has for children, mass incarceration has increased both intracountry inequality in child health in the United States and intercountry inequality in child health between the United States and other developed democracies. In light of these important findings, investment in data infrastructure-with emphasis on data sets that include reliable measures of parental incarceration and child health and data sets that facilitate causal inferences-is needed to understand the child health effects of parental incarceration.
Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer; Cross, Ruth
The review aimed to assess the effectiveness of conditional cash transfers (CCTs) in improving child health in low- and middle-income countries. Seven electronic databases were searched for papers: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PsychINFO, BIOSIS Previews, Academic Search Complete, and CSA Sociological Abstracts. The included studies comprised of randomised controlled trials and controlled before-and-after studies evaluating the impact of CCTs on child health. Due to the substantial heterogeneity of the studies, a narrative synthesis was conducted on the extracted data. Sixteen studies predominantly from Latin American countries met the inclusion criteria. The outcomes reported by the studies in relation to CCTs' effectiveness in improving child health were reduction in morbidity risk, improvement in nutritional outcomes, health services utilisation, and immunisation coverage. The review suggests that to a large extent, CCTs are effective in improving child health by addressing child health determinants such as access to health care, child and maternal nutrition, morbidity risk, immunisation coverage, and household poverty in developing countries particularly middle-income countries. Of importance to both policy and practice, it appears that CCTs require effective functioning of health care systems to effectively promote child health.
Hoven, Christina W; Doan, Thao; Musa, George J; Jaliashvili, Tea; Duarte, Cristiane S; Ovuga, Emilio; Ismayilov, Fuad; Rohde, Luis A; Dmitrieva, Tatjana; Du, Yasong; Yeghiyan, Maruke; Din, Amira Seif El; Apter, Alan; Mandell, Donald J
To temper untoward mental health outcomes in children and adolescents, the World Psychiatric Association's Presidential Global Child Mental Health Programme, in collaboration with the WHO and the International Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professionals, established a Child Mental Health Awareness Task Force headed by Sam Tyano. Its task was to develop methodologies to increase awareness among policy-makers, community leaders, health professionals, teachers, parents, and children. Based on a prior comprehensive international search for effective techniques for information dissemination, an awareness manual was written for use by health professionals in diverse communities so as to guide the design and implementation of location specific awareness campaigns. We assessed the children, parents and teachers both before and after the campaign to determine changes in knowledge, attitudes and understanding of mental health. The school-based studies were conducted in selected communities in nine countries on five different continents distinguished by their different languages, cultures and their differing levels of economic development: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, China, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Russia, and Uganda. In the six sites that completed all assessments, indicators of positive change in awareness of child mental health were identified, and results demonstrated an increased willingness to discuss emotional problems freely. These data support the utility of collaborating with schools so as to foster better child mental health in such under-resourced communities.
Objective: The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence and describe the nature of behavioral and mental health problems, as well as child abuse, nutritional problems, gross physical illness and injury among child laborers aged 8 to 15 years in Ethiopia. However, only the behavioral and mental health ...
This project brings together and supports the uptake of maternal and child health research evidence into policies and practices in West Africa. A part of the Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program, the project's impact will be felt at the national and regional levels in Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal.
This project brings together and supports the uptake of maternal and child health research evidence into policies and practices in East Africa. A part of the Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program, the project's impact will be felt at the national and regional levels in East Africa, specifically in Ethiopia, Malawi ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2014 reporting. Dataset contains...
Sep 6, 2017 ... These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and mentorship allow award holders ... IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program aims to save and ... quality, accessibility, and effectiveness of health services and care.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2016 reporting. Source: Mathematica...
The Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program aims to assist targeted developing ... The program is part of the Global Health Research Initiative, a collaboration between Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, the ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2015 reporting. Source: Mathematica...
Gulzar, Saleema Aziz; Vertejee, Samina; Pirani, Laila
Child labour is a global practice and has many negative outcomes. According to International Labour Organization, child labour is the important source of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan has estimated the number of Pakistani working children to be around 11-12 millions, out of which, at least, half the children are under the age of ten years. It portrays the society's attitude towards child care. It is therefore, essential to break this vicious cycle and hence, enable the society to produce healthy citizens. This article analyzes the determinants of child labour in the Pakistani context and its implications for child's life, in specific, and for the nation, in general, utilizing the model developed by Clemen-stone & McGuire (1991). Since this practice has complex web of causation, a multidisciplinary approach is required to combat this issue through proposed recommendations.
THABET, ABDEL AZIZ; EL GAMMAL, HOSSAM; VOSTANIS, PANOS
The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953
Petti, T A; Benswanger, E G; Fialkov, M J; Sonis, M
Lack of appropriate training in both public mental health service and rural mental health service is a major factor in the critical shortage of child psychiatrists in rural settings. The authors describe a residency training program in rural public mental health designed to help alleviate that shortage. The program familiarizes fourth-year residents in child psychiatry with the clinical, political, and social aspects of rural public mental health services through didactic and supervisory sessions as well as an eight-month practicum experience involving provision of inservice training and administrative and case-related consultation to staff of mental health agencies. An assessment of the program indicated that participants felt it was beneficial, but the program was only partly successful in increasing the number of child psychiatrists entering practice in rural areas. The authors urge that residency programs in child psychiatry give priority to training child psychiatrists for work in rural settings.
... Search English Español Caring for a Seriously Ill Child KidsHealth / For Parents / Caring for a Seriously Ill ... helping hand. Explaining Long-Term Illness to a Child Honest communication is vital to helping a child ...
A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman
Full Text Available Child and maternal nutritional and health status is a very much concerning issue of Bangladesh. To summarize the specific conditions of Bangladeshi child and maternal health and related issues. This is a descriptive review and overall analysis and description of the literature was done regarding child and maternal health of the general population living in Bangladesh. The evidence reflected that infant, child, and maternal mortality in Bangladesh have declined gradually at least over the past years. It is found that infant mortality 2 times, child mortality 6 times, and under five mortality rates 3 times declined comparatively than the last two decades but it is noted that maternal assassination circumstance has not declined. Knowledge on child and maternal health carries an important role in education. Health knowledge index significantly improve child and maternal health although differentially. It is obvious that poverty is one of the root causes that have led to a high child and maternal mortalities and morbidities faced by the people of Bangladesh. The requirement for socio economic relief for those living in rural Bangladesh remains one of the core issues. Recently, Bangladesh is successfully declining the total number of childhood and nutrition related mortalities despites various complexities, but maternal health status is not improving at the same pace. Nongovernment and government funded organizations and policymakers should come forward for running some effective programs to conquer the situation completely in Bangladesh.
Urke, Helga Bjørnøy
With the global progress in reduction of child mortality, an increasing concern for the health, development and well-being of the surviving child has emerged. It is estimated that 250 million children are not reaching their developmental potential in developing countries, due to among others malnutrition, inadequate care and exposure to violence. In addition, structural and other social aspects of the immediate family and wider community environment of the child exert influence...
Sharit, Joseph; Taha, Jessica; Berkowsky, Ronald W; Profita, Halley; Czaja, Sara J
Although access to Internet health information can be beneficial, solving complex health-related problems online is challenging for many individuals. In this study, we investigated the performance of a sample of 60 adults ages 18 to 85 years in using the Internet to resolve a relatively complex health information problem. The impact of age, Internet experience, and cognitive abilities on measures of search time, amount of search, and search accuracy was examined, and a model of Internet information seeking was developed to guide the characterization of participants' search strategies. Internet experience was found to have no impact on performance measures. Older participants exhibited longer search times and lower amounts of search but similar search accuracy performance as their younger counterparts. Overall, greater search accuracy was related to an increased amount of search but not to increased search duration and was primarily attributable to higher cognitive abilities, such as processing speed, reasoning ability, and executive function. There was a tendency for those who were younger, had greater Internet experience, and had higher cognitive abilities to use a bottom-up (i.e., analytic) search strategy, although use of a top-down (i.e., browsing) strategy was not necessarily unsuccessful. Implications of the findings for future studies and design interventions are discussed.
Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.
The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854
Hudak, Mark L; Helm, Mark E; White, Patience H
After passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, more children and young adults have become insured and have benefited from health care coverage than at any time since the creation of the Medicaid program in 1965. From 2009 to 2015, the uninsurance rate for children younger than 19 years fell from 9.7% to 5.3%, whereas the uninsurance rate for young adults 19 to 25 years of age declined from 31.7% to 14.5%. Nonetheless, much work remains to be done. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) believes that the United States can and should ensure that all children, adolescents, and young adults from birth through the age of 26 years who reside within its borders have affordable access to high-quality and comprehensive health care, regardless of their or their families' incomes. Public and private health insurance should safeguard existing benefits for children and take further steps to cover the full array of essential health care services recommended by the AAP. Each family should be able to afford the premiums, deductibles, and other cost-sharing provisions of the plan. Health plans providing these benefits should ensure, insofar as possible, that families have a choice of professionals and facilities with expertise in the care of children within a reasonable distance of their residence. Traditional and innovative payment methodologies by public and private payers should be structured to guarantee the economic viability of the pediatric medical home and of other pediatric specialty and subspecialty practices to address developing shortages in the pediatric specialty and subspecialty workforce, to promote the use of health information technology, to improve population health and the experience of care, and to encourage the delivery of evidence-based and quality health care in the medical home, as well as in other outpatient, inpatient, and home settings. All current and future health care insurance plans should incorporate the principles for child
Gao, Jinghong; Sun, Yunzong; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping
Background and Objectives Changes in relative humidity, along with other meteorological factors, accompany ongoing climate change and play a significant role in weather-related health outcomes, particularly among children. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the relationship between ambient humidity and child health, and to propose directions for future research. Methods A comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and EBSCO host) and review of reference lists, to supplement relevant studies, were conducted in March 2013. All identified records were selected based on explicit inclusion criteria. We extracted data from the included studies using a pre-designed data extraction form, and then performed a quality assessment. Various heterogeneities precluded a formal quantitative meta-analysis, therefore, evidence was compiled using descriptive summaries. Results Out of a total of 3797 identified records, 37 papers were selected for inclusion in this review. Among the 37 studies, 35% were focused on allergic diseases and 32% on respiratory system diseases. Quality assessment revealed 78% of the studies had reporting quality scores above 70%, and all findings demonstrated that ambient humidity generally plays an important role in the incidence and prevalence of climate-sensitive diseases among children. Conclusions With climate change, there is a significant impact of ambient humidity on child health, especially for climate-sensitive infectious diseases, diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory system diseases, and pediatric allergic diseases. However, some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of the effects are observed. PMID:25503413
This article discusses factors that affect the well-being and health of female children in India: sex ratio, literacy, food intake, morbidity, mortality, early marriage, maternal mortality, nutrition, prenatal care and delivery, family planning responsibilities, and access to health services. India has recognized within its Constitution and other government documents and programs equality for women, but practices lag behind principles. A National Action Plan was formulated for the period 1991-2000 for the girl child. Women themselves must change their attitudes about themselves and their female children. Several pilot programs have demonstrated the potential to empower girls to be outspoken, vocal, and enthusiastic. Girls in India are disadvantaged even before their birth. Patriarchal norms reinforce the view of girls as a bad investment. Women are blamed for not bearing a son, despite the evidence that males carry the deciding gender-specific chromosome. Tamil Nadu districts are known for their female infanticide. The declining sex ratio is attributed to the higher death rate among females younger than 35 years. Females until recently had a lower life expectancy than males. Sex ratios vary between states. The only state with a positive female sex ratio is Kerala. Males outnumber females by almost 10% in most of the northern and eastern states. Illiteracy among women is high in about 100 districts. Female school enrollment is 50% less than male enrollment. Females suffer from higher rates of malnutrition, morbidity, and death. Girls' adolescent growth spurt is delayed until 18 years. Maternal mortality accounts for the largest proportion of deaths among women of reproductive age. The most common reason for abortion is "too many children." Lower socioeconomic status is associated with lower nutrition. Women do not have control over their fertility. Women are limited in their access to reproductive health care.
Jackson, Cath; Cheater, Francine M.; Reid, Innes
Abstract Objective To identify the decision support needs of parents attempting to make an informed health decision on behalf of a child. Context The first step towards implementing patient decision support is to assess patients’ information and decision‐making needs. Search strategy A systematic search of key bibliographic databases for decision support studies was performed in 2005. Reference lists of relevant review articles and key authors were searched. Three relevant journals were hand searched. Inclusion criteria Non‐intervention studies containing data on decision support needs of parents making child health decisions. Data extraction and synthesis Data were extracted on study characteristics, decision focus and decision support needs. Studies were quality assessed using a pre‐defined set of criteria. Data synthesis used the UK Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co‐ordinating Centre approach. Main results One‐hundred and forty nine studies were included across various child health decisions, settings and study designs. Thematic analysis of decision support needs indicated three key issues: (i) information (including suggestions about the content, delivery, source, timing); (ii) talking to others (including concerns about pressure from others); and (iii) feeling a sense of control over the process that could be influenced by emotionally charged decisions, the consultation process, and structural or service barriers. These were consistent across decision type, study design and whether or not the study focused on informed decision making. PMID:18816320
Clowtis, Licia M; Kang, Duck-Hee; Padhye, Nikhil S; Rozmus, Cathy; Barratt, Michelle S
Exposure to high levels of maternal stress and ineffective maternal-child engagement (MC-E) may adversely affect child health-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maternal stress and MC-E on maternal and child biological responses (salivary cortisol and testosterone) and child health outcome in mother-child dyads of preschool children (3-5.9 years) in a low socioeconomic setting. Observational and biobehavioral data were collected from 50 mother-child dyads in a preschool setting. Assessments included maternal stress with the Perceived Stress Scale, child health outcomes with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and MC-E with videotaped mother-child interactions and scored with the Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected from mother and child for biological assays. Maternal stress was negatively correlated with MC-E (r = -.32, p health outcome (r = -.33, p health outcome. Maternal stress and MC-E during mother-child interactions play a significant role in the regulation of child stress physiology and child health outcome. Elevated cortisol and testosterone related to high maternal stress and low MC-E may increase the child's vulnerability to negative health outcomes-if sustained. More biobehavioral research is needed to understand how parent-child interactions affect child development and health outcomes in early childhood.
Ottova, Veronika; Alexander, Denise; Rigby, Michael; Staines, Anthony; Hjern, Anders; Leonardi, Matilde; Blair, Mitch; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Bourek, Ales; Köhler, Lennart; Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Tomé, Gina; Ramiro, Lucia; Santos, Teresa
RICHE was the response to a call under HEALTH-2009-3.3-5, with the title of 'European child health research platform'. The call text asked us to “address the diversity and fragmentation in child health research in Europe in an inclusive multidisciplinary way, identifying existing research programmes in Member States, recent advances and identification of gaps to explore road maps for the future of child health research in Europe”. Project structure A consortium, with a final total of 23 pa...
Ahsan, Mahmud; Seldon, H Lee; Sayeed, Shohel
Ubiquitous personal health records, which can accompany a person everywhere, are a necessary requirement for ubiquitous healthcare. Contextual information related to health events is important for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and for the maintenance of good health, yet it is seldom recorded in a health record. We describe a dual cellphone-and-Web-based personal health record system which can include 'external' contextual information. Much contextual information is available on the Internet and we can use ontologies to help identify relevant sites and information. But a search engine is required to retrieve information from the Web and developing a customized search engine is beyond our scope, so we can use Google Custom Search API Web service to get contextual data. In this paper we describe a framework which combines a health-and-environment 'knowledge base' or ontology with the Google Custom Search API to retrieve relevant contextual information related to entries in a ubiquitous personal health record.
Sunguya, Bruno F; Poudel, Krishna C; Mlunde, Linda B; Urassa, David P; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine
Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers' nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and World Health Organization regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition-counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers' nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers' child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention. In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken toward improving the overall nutritional status of the child population.
Charmian M. Bennett
Full Text Available This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world’s poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expectancies due to issues including poverty, endemic disease, undernutrition, inadequate living conditions and socio-economic disadvantage. Climate change will exacerbate these existing inequities to disproportionately affect disadvantaged children. We discuss heat stress, extreme weather events, vector-borne diseases and undernutrition as exemplars of the complex interactions between climate change and inequities in child health.
Full Text Available This study used a qualitative methodology to analyze the discourse of mothers from Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose infant children had died from what were considered avoidable causes (diarrhea, malnutrition, and pneumonia, seeking to elucidate the factors associated with utilization of health care services. Identification of the illness by the mother was related to perception of specific alterations in the child's state of health. Analysis of the alterations helped identify the principal characteristics ascribed to each alteration and their relationship to the search for treatment. The authors also studied the mother's assessment of treatment received at health care facilities; 43.0% of the cases involved problems related to the structure of health care services or the attending health care professionals. In 46.0% of the cases, mothers associated the child's death with flaws in the health care service. The study group showed a variety of interpretations of illness, often distinct from the corresponding biomedical concepts. The fact that attending health care personnel overlooked or underrated the mother's perception of the illness and the lack of communications between health care personnel and the child's family had an influence on the child's evolution and subsequent death.
Schmeer, Kammi K.; Taylor, Miles
This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children’s social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans et al., 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children’s ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) – and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive crosslagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250
Maternal and child health is a priority for Nigeria, but there are significant challenges and opportunities at state levels that influence efforts to reduce deaths. This project will contribute to government efforts in Delta State to improve delivery and use of maternal and child healthcare services in three marginalized rural ...
AJRH Managing Editor
Parent-child communication about sexual health is considered an effective ... This study used a brief survey to examine mother-child communication ... percent of mothers who reported being comfortable discussing HIV/sexual ... media should be considered as methods to reduce .... Examining attitudes and knowledge.
Dec 6, 2017 ... preventive or promotive tool for monitoring child health as neither ... attitudes and practices of both CGs and HCWs relating to these components; and (iii) identify HCWs' perceptions of the barriers .... In posession of old RtHC (n=54) .... number of CGs (16.4%; 409/1 646) knew that a young child should.
Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese
Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Read, John; Harper, David; Tucker, Ian; Kennedy, Angela
Child abuse and neglect play a causal role in many mental health problems. Knowing whether users of mental health services were abused or neglected as children could be considered essential for developing comprehensive formulations and effective treatment plans. In the present study we report the findings of a systematic review, using independent searches of three databases designed to discover how often mental health staff find out whether their clients were abused or neglected as children. Twenty-one relevant studies were identified. Most people who use mental health services are never asked about child abuse or neglect. The majority of cases of child abuse or neglect are not identified by mental health services. Only 28% of abuse or neglect cases identified by researchers are found in the clients' files: emotional abuse, 44%; physical abuse, 33%; sexual abuse, 30%; emotional neglect, 17%; and physical neglect, 10%. Between 0% and 22% of mental health service users report being asked about child abuse. Men and people diagnosed with psychotic disorders are asked less than other people. Male staff ask less often than female staff. Some improvement over time was found. Policies compelling routine enquiry, training, and trauma-informed services are required. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Protection and Child Health Indicators, 2013 Release, are produced in support of the U.S. Millennium Challenge Corporation as selection criteria...
for sick children, routine childhood vaccination services (EPI), and routine growth monitoring services) as a package. ... Government facilities mostly provide all three basic child health services. Among all .... All data editing programs were.
R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); J. Hess (Jakob); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); P.J. van der Maas (Paul)
textabstractBACKGROUND: Although screening for congenital heart malformations is part of the child health care programme in several countries, there are very few published evaluations of these activities. This report is concerned with the evaluation of this screening at
report and discuss how a mixed qualitative research method was applied for analyzing maternal ... maternal and child health policies, we adopted a mixed qualitative research method ..... types of samples were used in order to capture different.
Building a virtual global research institute to support maternal and child health ... Learning Initiatives for Network Economies in Asia (LIRNEasia) : Building ... to information and communication technology (ICT) initiatives through its global ...
Full Text Available There are various cases and impacts of child labour and it has been a universal problem and remains as one of polemical challenge faced by the world. The problem of child labour not only causes to damage their physical and mental health but also their education right freedom development of childhood etc. Both developing countries and developed countries are faced to the phenomenon of child labour. 28 of Working children have faced injuries or fallen ill at least once in a year due to work in Sri Lanka. The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of child labours on their health. 200 primary data were collected in Peta Sri Lanka using simple random sampling method. Binary Logistic regression was employed to identify the health effects of child labour. According to the study child labors have faced some illnesses or injuries due to employment. Hours of working carrying of heavy loads operate heavy machines and equipment place of work and expose to things were highly correlated with physical harm of child labors. Carrying heavy load operate heavy machines and equipment and working place highly affected to physical harm of child labor. Many of them are employed on the street as street vendors construction sites factory and hotel and restaurant. Injuries and physical harms are highly related to the working place. Therefor the study recommends to empower the families provide the better formal education and vocational training to overcome this issue.
... State Offices Search the Organizations Database Center for Oral Health Systems Integration and Improvement (COHSII) COHSII is a ... needs of the MCH population. Brush Up on Oral Health This monthly newsletter provides Head Start staff with ...
Conway, Patrick H; White, P Jonathan; Clancy, Carolyn
The public sector plays an important role in promoting child health information technology. Public sector support is essential in 5 main aspects of child health information technology, namely, data standards, pediatric functions in health information systems, privacy policies, research and implementation funding, and incentives for technology adoption. Some innovations in health information technology for adult populations can be transferred to or adapted for children, but there also are unique needs in the pediatric population. Development of health information technology that addresses children's needs and effective adoption of that technology are critical for US children to receive care of the highest possible quality in the future.
The use of the road to health card in monitoring child health. ... The Road to Health Chart (RTHC) provides a simple, cheap, practical and convenient method of monitoring child health. The RTHC could assist ... Conclusions: Many parents believe that the RTHC is only required for Well-baby-clinic visits, not for consultations.
Willis, Brian M.; Levy, Barry S.
Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other form...
textabstractThe objective of this thesis is to clarify the effectiveness and the efficiency of screening for congenital heart malformations in Dutch child health centres and the possibilities to optimise this prevention programme. To this end the following main questions will be addressed. 1. Does screening for congenital heart malformations, as actually performed in Dutch child health centres, prevent adverse outcomes of these disorders in the short and long run? What would be the answer to ...
Utami, Dina; Bickmore, Timothy W; Barry, Barbara; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K
Several web-based search engines have been developed to assist individuals to find clinical trials for which they may be interested in volunteering. However, these search engines may be difficult for individuals with low health and computer literacy to navigate. The authors present findings from a usability evaluation of clinical trial search tools with 41 participants across the health and computer literacy spectrum. The study consisted of 3 parts: (a) a usability study of an existing web-based clinical trial search tool; (b) a usability study of a keyword-based clinical trial search tool; and (c) an exploratory study investigating users' information needs when deciding among 2 or more candidate clinical trials. From the first 2 studies, the authors found that users with low health literacy have difficulty forming queries using keywords and have significantly more difficulty using a standard web-based clinical trial search tool compared with users with adequate health literacy. From the third study, the authors identified the search factors most important to individuals searching for clinical trials and how these varied by health literacy level.
research on child care environmental health issues, identify key state and regional healthy child care organizations for partnerships, and see how other states are addressing child care environmental health issues.
Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.
Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319
Khera, Rohan; Jain, Snigdha; Lodha, Rakesh; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian
Gender-based discrimination is reported across the spectrum of paediatric healthcare including emergency, inpatient, outpatient and preventive care and is mostly reported from South Asia and China with sporadic reports from Africa and South America. Biases against young girls have been documented even in immunisation percentage, home food allocation, seeking medical care for childhood ailments and percentage of household healthcare expenditures allocated to them. Such gender discrimination in access to medical care is likely to have an influence on the overall health of female children. Over the last five decades, the under-5 sex ratios are worsening in India with declining number of girls. Deliberate parental neglect of girls' essential and life-saving medical care is also an important contributing factor apart from sex-selective abortions to the declining gender ratios. Corrective measures and focused action are needed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequities in health are a major challenge for health care planners and policymakers globally. In Vietnam, rapid societal development presents a considerable risk for disadvantaged populations to be left behind. The aim of this review is to map the known causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam in order to promote policy action. Methods A review was performed through systematic searches of Pubmed and Proquest and manual searches of “grey literature.” A thematic content analysis guided by the conceptual framework suggested by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health was performed. Results More than thirty different causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health were identified. Some determinants worth highlighting were the influence of informal fees and the many testimonies of discrimination and negative attitudes from health staff towards women in general and ethnic minorities in particular. Research gaps were identified, such as a lack of studies investigating the influence of education on health care utilization, informal costs of care, and how psychosocial factors mediate inequity. Conclusions The evidence of corruption and discrimination as mediators of health inequity in Vietnam calls for attention and indicates a need for more structural interventions such as better governance and anti-discriminatory laws. More research is needed in order to fully understand the pathways of inequities in health in Vietnam and suggest areas for intervention for policy action to reach disadvantaged populations.
Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Thomsen, Sarah
Inequities in health are a major challenge for health care planners and policymakers globally. In Vietnam, rapid societal development presents a considerable risk for disadvantaged populations to be left behind. The aim of this review is to map the known causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam in order to promote policy action. A review was performed through systematic searches of Pubmed and Proquest and manual searches of "grey literature." A thematic content analysis guided by the conceptual framework suggested by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health was performed. More than thirty different causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health were identified. Some determinants worth highlighting were the influence of informal fees and the many testimonies of discrimination and negative attitudes from health staff towards women in general and ethnic minorities in particular. Research gaps were identified, such as a lack of studies investigating the influence of education on health care utilization, informal costs of care, and how psychosocial factors mediate inequity. The evidence of corruption and discrimination as mediators of health inequity in Vietnam calls for attention and indicates a need for more structural interventions such as better governance and anti-discriminatory laws. More research is needed in order to fully understand the pathways of inequities in health in Vietnam and suggest areas for intervention for policy action to reach disadvantaged populations.
Jay, Caroline; Harper, Simon; Dunlop, Ian; Smith, Sam; Sufi, Shoaib; Goble, Carole; Buchan, Iain
Data discovery, particularly the discovery of key variables and their inter-relationships, is key to secondary data analysis, and in-turn, the evolving field of data science. Interface designers have presumed that their users are domain experts, and so they have provided complex interfaces to support these "experts." Such interfaces hark back to a time when searches needed to be accurate first time as there was a high computational cost associated with each search. Our work is part of a governmental research initiative between the medical and social research funding bodies to improve the use of social data in medical research. The cross-disciplinary nature of data science can make no assumptions regarding the domain expertise of a particular scientist, whose interests may intersect multiple domains. Here we consider the common requirement for scientists to seek archived data for secondary analysis. This has more in common with search needs of the "Google generation" than with their single-domain, single-tool forebears. Our study compares a Google-like interface with traditional ways of searching for noncomplex health data in a data archive. Two user interfaces are evaluated for the same set of tasks in extracting data from surveys stored in the UK Data Archive (UKDA). One interface, Web search, is "Google-like," enabling users to browse, search for, and view metadata about study variables, whereas the other, traditional search, has standard multioption user interface. Using a comprehensive set of tasks with 20 volunteers, we found that the Web search interface met data discovery needs and expectations better than the traditional search. A task × interface repeated measures analysis showed a main effect indicating that answers found through the Web search interface were more likely to be correct (F1,19=37.3, Pnatural language search interfaces for variable search supporting in particular: query reformulation; data browsing; faceted search; surrogates; relevance
Francis, Shefin Vellara
Master in International Social Welfare and Health Policy UNICEF reported that only less than fifty percent of children in India receive full immunization. It indicates that majority of children are not protected against vaccine preventable diseases. High infant mortality rate of sixty three deaths for every thousand live birth also points to the neglected child health activities in India. The thesis explores strategies which are needed for improving child immunization in India....
Carr, Nicholas A.; Sages, Ronald A.; Fernatt, Frederick R.; Nabeshima, George G.; Grable, John E.
Prior research has found a relationship between the health habits of individuals and their financial well-being. Little research has been conducted, however, to explore the nature of the health-wealth connection. The purpose of this study was to explore and test the association of physical health behaviors, namely exercise and diet, and health…
Daly, Brian P; Burke, Robert; Hare, Isadora; Mills, Carrie; Owens, Celeste; Moore, Elizabeth; Weist, Mark D
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was signed into law by President George W. Bush in January 2002 and is regarded as the most significant federal education policy initiative in a generation. The primary focus of the No Child Left Behind Act is on promoting educational success for all children; however, the legislation also contains opportunities to advance school-based mental health. Unfortunately, the complexities of the provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act have made it difficult for educators, stakeholders, and mental health professionals to understand the legal and practical interface between No Child Left Behind and the school mental health movement. Therefore, the goals of this article are to (1) raise awareness about the challenges educators and school mental health professionals face as a result of the implementation of No Child Left Behind and (2) provide ideas and recommendations to advance the interface between No Child Left Behind and school mental health, which will support key provisions of the act and the growth of the field.
Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S
Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health.
Skaburskas, K; Estrella, F; Shade, J; Manset, D; Revillard, J; Rios, A; Anjum, A; Branson, A; Bloodsworth, P; Hauer, T; McClatchey, R; Rogulin, D
The Health-e-Child (HeC) project ,  is an EC Framework Programme 6 Integrated Project that aims to develop a grid-based integrated healthcare platform for paediatrics. Using this platform biomedical informaticians will integrate heterogeneous data and perform epidemiological studies across Europe. The resulting Grid enabled biomedical information platform will be supported by robust search, optimization and matching techniques for information collected in hospitals across Europe. In particular, paediatricians will be provided with decision support, knowledge discovery and disease modelling applications that will access data in hospitals in the UK, Italy and France, integrated via the Grid. For economy of scale, reusability, extensibility, and maintainability, HeC is being developed on top of an EGEE/gLite  based infrastructure that provides all the common data and computation management services required by the applications. This paper discusses some of the major challenges in bio-medical data integration and indicates how these will be resolved in the HeC system. HeC is presented as an example of how computer science (and, in particular Grid infrastructures) originating from high energy physics can be adapted for use by biomedical informaticians to deliver tangible real-world benefits
... activity, they teach the habits and values for mental and physical well-being that last a lifetime. However..., increase their physical activity, and develop life-long healthy habits. Child care providers and schools... for the future. As loved ones and educators, mentors and friends, we must do everything in our power...
Malhotra, Chetna; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Subramanian, S V
The objective of this study was to examine the association of maternal autonomy with preventive and curative child health care utilization in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 2005-2006 were used to ascertain association of maternal autonomy (in 3 dimensions: decision making, access to financial resources, freedom of movement) with child's primary immunization status (indicative of preventive health care use) and treatment seeking for child's acute respiratory infection (indicative of curative health care use). Low maternal freedom of movement was associated with higher odds of incomplete primary immunization of the child and for not seeking treatment for the child's acute respiratory infection. Low maternal financial access was associated with increased odds for incomplete primary immunization of the child. The findings show that improvement in autonomy of Indian mothers, especially their freedom of movement, may help improve utilization of health care for their children. © 2012 APJPH.
Schultz, Jennifer; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E
This paper adds to the literature on social capital and health by testing whether an exogenous shock in the health of a family member (a new baby) affects the family’s investment in social capital. It also contributes to a small but growing literature on the effects of children’s health on family resources and provides information about associations between health and social capital in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing stud...
van den Heuvel, Meta; Hopkins, Jessica; Biscaro, Anne; Srikanthan, Cinntha; Feller, Andrea; Bremberg, Sven; Verkuijl, Nienke; Flapper, Boudien; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth Lee; Williams, Robin
The social environment is a fundamental determinant of early child development and, in turn, early child development is a determinant of health, well-being, and learning skills across the life course. Redistributive policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, such as a welfare state and labour market policies, have shown a positive association with selected health indicators. In this study, we investigated the influence of redistributive policies specifically on the social environment of early child development in five countries with different political traditions. The objective of this analysis was to highlight similarities and differences in social and health services between the countries and their associations with other health outcomes that can inform better global early child development policies and improve early child health and development. Four social determinants of early child development were selected to provide a cross-section of key time periods in a child's life from prenatal to kindergarten. They included: 1) prenatal care, 2) maternal leave, 3) child health care, and 4) child care and early childhood education. We searched international databases and reports (e.g. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, World Bank, and UNICEF) to obtain information about early child development policies, services and outcomes. Although a comparative analysis cannot claim causation, our analysis suggests that redistributive policies aimed at reducing social inequalities are associated with a positive influence on the social determinants of early child development. Generous redistributive policies are associated with a higher maternal leave allowance and pay and more preventive child healthcare visits. A decreasing trend in infant mortality, low birth weight rate, and under five mortality rate were observed with an increase in redistributive policies. No clear influence of redistributive policies was observed on breastfeeding and immunization
Sobrino Toro, M; Riaño Galan, I; Bassat, Q; Perez-Lescure Picarzo, J; de Aranzabal Agudo, M; Krauel Vidal, X; Rivera Cuello, M
The international development cooperation in child health arouses special interest in paediatric settings. In the last 10 10 years or so, new evidence has been presented on factors associated with morbidity and mortality in the first years of life in the least developed countries. This greater knowledge on the causes of health problems and possible responses in the form of interventions with impact, leads to the need to disseminate this information among concerned professional pediatricians. Serious efforts are needed to get a deeper insight into matters related to global child health and encourage pediatricians to be aware and participate in these processes. This article aims to provide a social pediatric approach towards international cooperation and child health-related matters. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... as a national information and education resource library to help meet the changing needs of... information from the MCH field that is not readily available from other information sources and to make the... Health Bureau, Title V program to ensure that Georgetown University, Maternal and Child Health Library...
incur substantial costs for accessing services, such as transport and ... 2 Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the ... Africa (SA) offers a post-delivery Child Support Grant (CSG), which could encompass support ... anaemia, raise antenatal care (ANC) and skilled birth attendant.
A baby in San Malen Primary Health Unit in Pujehun, Bo district, Sierra Leone ... Children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa are also 16 times more likely ... Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa teams share early findings.
Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in Tanzania: Implication to policy, systems and services. ... Experts around the world recognize the central role of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services in preventing HIV infection. Evidence suggests that improving access to contraception for women to ...
Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. ... The proportion of health workers with poor, fair, and good knowledge of the national guidelines on PMTCT was 8.5%, 30.4% and 61.1% respectively. Knowledge of the national guidelines was significantly ...
The findings also indicate that although health facility delivery is high in the districts surveyed, only the well-to-do non-literate, urbanite women and the ... rural communities included the need to improve the quality of maternal and child health service through the supply of major logistic deficiencies, the need to provide ...
government became the main funding source for RH services (44.2%), partly reflecting government enhanced commitment to increase resources for maternal and child health, and due to exemption of pregnant women from paying for health care. Nevertheless, this commitment didn't last and the financing burden was borne ...
Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health concern especially in developed countries and where legal measures take unprecedented time. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of different forms of CSA, and the perceived health consequences among secondary school students in ...
To ascertain parents' preferences in sources of health information concerning their children's general health care needs, and caring for their children when they are sick. Exploratory/descriptive design. A telephone survey secured data for the study and qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Part 2 of a larger study in which Part I evaluated parents' satisfaction with a paediatric telephone triage service. One hundred of the 101 parents who were recruited for Part 1 of the study participated in Part 2, an examination of parents' preferences in information sources relating to their child's health. Parents' preferences in child health information sources varied according to the perceived severity of their child's illness. Parents frequently selected more than one item on a list of health information sources provided. In a non-urgent situation when children were sick a total of 170 selections were made by parents, with 'telephone advice line' the source most frequently selected (58, 34%), followed by general practitioner (27, 15.8%). In an emergency situation the most frequently selected information source was again 'telephone advice line' (74, n=129, 57.4%), followed by 'other' (31, n=129, 24.3%) often identified as relating to dialing '000' (Australia's emergency services number). Finally, when parents required information about the general health care needs of their child, 'other' (most frequently identified as books) was selected on 40 (n=185, 21.6%) occasions, followed by child health clinic (35, n= 185, 18.9%). Parents prefer to receive information about the health care needs of their child from another person rather than a printed or audio-visual source.
Apouey, Bénédicte; Geoffard, Pierre-Yves
Recent studies examining the relationship between family income and child health in the UK have produced mixed findings. We re-examine the income gradient in child general health and its evolution with child age in this country, using a very large sample of British children. We find that there is no correlation between income and child general health at ages 0-1, that the gradient emerges around age 2 and is constant from age 2 to age 17. In addition, we show that the gradient remains large and significant when we reduce the endogeneity of income. Furthermore, our results indicate that the gradient in general health reflects a greater prevalence of chronic conditions among low-income children and a greater severity of these conditions. Taken together, these findings suggest that income does matter for child health in the UK and may play a role in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki
Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (Pinformation search patterns
Smith, Sam; Sufi, Shoaib; Goble, Carole; Buchan, Iain
Background Data discovery, particularly the discovery of key variables and their inter-relationships, is key to secondary data analysis, and in-turn, the evolving field of data science. Interface designers have presumed that their users are domain experts, and so they have provided complex interfaces to support these “experts.” Such interfaces hark back to a time when searches needed to be accurate first time as there was a high computational cost associated with each search. Our work is part of a governmental research initiative between the medical and social research funding bodies to improve the use of social data in medical research. Objective The cross-disciplinary nature of data science can make no assumptions regarding the domain expertise of a particular scientist, whose interests may intersect multiple domains. Here we consider the common requirement for scientists to seek archived data for secondary analysis. This has more in common with search needs of the “Google generation” than with their single-domain, single-tool forebears. Our study compares a Google-like interface with traditional ways of searching for noncomplex health data in a data archive. Methods Two user interfaces are evaluated for the same set of tasks in extracting data from surveys stored in the UK Data Archive (UKDA). One interface, Web search, is “Google-like,” enabling users to browse, search for, and view metadata about study variables, whereas the other, traditional search, has standard multioption user interface. Results Using a comprehensive set of tasks with 20 volunteers, we found that the Web search interface met data discovery needs and expectations better than the traditional search. A task × interface repeated measures analysis showed a main effect indicating that answers found through the Web search interface were more likely to be correct (F 1,19=37.3, Peffect of task (F 3,57=6.3, Pinterface (F 1,19=18.0, Peffect of task (F 2,38=4.1, P=.025, Greenhouse
Adams, M S
One of the basic tenets of the Community Mental Health Center movement is that services should be provided in the consumers' community. Various centers across the country have attempted to do this in either a centralized or decentralized fashion. Historically, most health services have been provided centrally, a good example being the traditional general hospital with its centralized medical services. Over the years, some of these services have become decentralized to take the form of local health centers, health maintenance organizations, community clinics, etc, and now various large mental health centers are also being broken down into smaller community units. An example of each type of mental health facility is delineated here.
Verbeek, J.; Salmi, J.; Pasternack, I.; Jauhiainen, M.; Laamanen, I.; Schaafsma, F.; Hulshof, C.; van Dijk, F.
As a result of low numbers and diversity in study type, occupational health intervention studies are not easy to locate in electronic literature databases. To develop a search strategy that facilitates finding occupational health intervention studies in Medline, both for researchers and
Mathews, Rahel; Reis, Chen; Iacopino, Vincent
Despite the existence of laws in India that prohibit the labor of children under age 14, 70 to 115 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are estimated to be part of India's labor force. Child labor in the agriculture sector accounts for 80% of child laborers in India and 70% of working children globally. From May 2001 to July 2001, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) investigated the health experiences of 100 children in hybrid cottonseed production in rural Andhra Pradesh. Eighty-eight percent of the survey participants were girls, ages 7 to 14. PHR found that children worked on average 12 hours a day, were frequently exposed to pesticides, and were not provided with safety equipment, not even shoes or water to wash their hands and clothes. Children reported having frequent headaches and dizziness and skin and eye irritations after pesticide spraying. All 100 children reported that they were unable to go to school during the hybrid cottonseed season due to work demands. Ninety-four children reported to PHR that they would rather be in school. In addition, a majority of child workers interviewed by PHR reported physical and/or verbal abuse by their employers. Moreover, PHR interviews with representatives of multinational and national companies revealed knowledge of child labor practices for up to 10 years. Child labor is a significant health and human rights problem for children in India. The progressive elimination of child labor practices will require the support of a wide cross-section of civil society.
Hinman, Alan R; Atkinson, Delton; Diehn, Tonya Norvell; Eichwald, John; Heberer, Jennifer; Hoyle, Therese; King, Pam; Kossack, Robert E; Williams, Donna C; Zimmerman, Amy
Infants undergo a series of preventive and therapeutic health interventions and activities. Typically, each activity includes collection and submission of data to a dedicated information system. Subsequently, health care providers, families, and health programs must query each information system to determine the child's status in a given area. Efforts are underway to integrate information in these separate information systems. This requires specifying the core functions that integrated information systems must perform.
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Health, Behavior, and Context... Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute For Child Health & Development, 6100 Executive...
Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia
Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34%) of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million) of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million) children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents' lack of knowledge and of immunization. Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34% of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Results: Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents′ lack of knowledge and of immunization. Conclusion: Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure.
Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta
Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…
Victora, Cesar G; Aquino, Estela M L; do Carmo Leal, Maria; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Barros, Fernando C; Szwarcwald, Celia L
In the past three decades, Brazil has undergone rapid changes in major social determinants of health and in the organisation of health services. In this report, we examine how these changes have affected indicators of maternal health, child health, and child nutrition. We use data from vital statistics, population censuses, demographic and health surveys, and published reports. In the past three decades, infant mortality rates have reduced substantially, decreasing by 5·5% a year in the 1980s and 1990s, and by 4·4% a year since 2000 to reach 20 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2008. Neonatal deaths account for 68% of infant deaths. Stunting prevalence among children younger than 5 years decreased from 37% in 1974-75 to 7% in 2006-07. Regional differences in stunting and child mortality also decreased. Access to most maternal-health and child-health interventions increased sharply to almost universal coverage, and regional and socioeconomic inequalities in access to such interventions were notably reduced. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2·5 months in the 1970s to 14 months by 2006-07. Official statistics show stable maternal mortality ratios during the past 10 years, but modelled data indicate a yearly decrease of 4%, a trend which might not have been noticeable in official reports because of improvements in death registration and the increased number of investigations into deaths of women of reproductive age. The reasons behind Brazil's progress include: socioeconomic and demographic changes (economic growth, reduction in income disparities between the poorest and wealthiest populations, urbanisation, improved education of women, and decreased fertility rates), interventions outside the health sector (a conditional cash transfer programme and improvements in water and sanitation), vertical health programmes in the 1980s (promotion of breastfeeding, oral rehydration, and immunisations), creation of a tax-funded national health service in 1988
Despite progress in the past two decades, nearly 800 women die every day due ... their rights and to access the services they require to protect themselves from ... Challenges to providing equitable and accessible health services are further exacerbated in fragile settings. ... Achieve real gender equality for adolescent health.
Sivolap, Y P
Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.
Jane L.G. Dytz
Full Text Available ln this article, maternal mode of living is investigated, examining both socioeconomic conditions and lifestyle factors, in order to identify to what extent health policies are tangibly meeting the needs of low income Brazilian mothers and children. Data are derived from unstructured interviews with 17 mothers with children underage 6, residing in the Federal District, Brazil. Their stories reveal a life marked by economic difficulties and inadequate living conditions, aggravated by early reproductive behavior, confinement to the home and no leisure. Although they have access to primary health care, the quality is inadequate. Increased awareness to the mother's situation is necessary in order to improve the health of young children.
Albrecht, Lauren; Archibald, Mandy; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Scott, Shannon D
Strategies to assist evidence-based decision-making for healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure high quality patient care and outcomes. The goal of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the evidence on knowledge translation interventions aimed at putting explicit research evidence into child health practice. A comprehensive search of thirteen electronic databases was conducted, restricted by date (1985-2011) and language (English). Articles were included if: 1) studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), or controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies; 2) target population was child health professionals; 3) interventions implemented research in child health practice; and 4) outcomes were measured at the professional/process, patient, or economic level. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Study data were aggregated and analyzed using evidence tables. Twenty-one studies (13 RCT, 2 CCT, 6 CBA) were included. The studies employed single (n=9) and multiple interventions (n=12). The methodological quality of the included studies was largely moderate (n=8) or weak (n=11). Of the studies with moderate to strong methodological quality ratings, three demonstrated consistent, positive effect(s) on the primary outcome(s); effective knowledge translation interventions were two single, non-educational interventions and one multiple, educational intervention. This multidisciplinary systematic review in child health setting identified effective knowledge translation strategies assessed by the most rigorous research designs. Given the overall poor quality of the research literature, specific recommendations were made to improve knowledge translation efforts in child health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nowadays, the internet is used as a means to provide the public with official information on many different topics, including health related matters and care providers. In this work we have studied a search log from the official Swedish health web site 1177.se for patterns of search behaviour over time. To improve the analysis, we mapped the queries to UMLS semantic types and MeSH categories. Our analysis shows that, as expected, diseases and health care activities are the ones of most interest, but also a clear increased interest in geographical locations in the setting of health care providers. We also note a change over time in which kinds of diseases are of interest. Finally, we conclude that this type of analysis may be useful in studies of what health related topics matter to the public, but also for design and follow-up of public information campaigns.
B. Akbari Neisiani
Full Text Available Every year, many accidents leading to physical injuries in kindergartens, indicates that a very large percentage of them are related to the safety concerns and lack of hygiene in these places. Families, due to their busy life style and working hours and also children needs of preschool education, are searching to find most suitable kindergartens for their children. Selecting a kindergarten with various suitable training programs, although very important criteria for selection, but is not sufficient. Indicators such as health, safety and environment issues in these places must be crucial factors in this decision making. Child safety and health management system is an integrated system, derived from health, safety and environmental management regulations which helps the kindergartens complies with relevant regulations to reduce the number of accidents occurrence. The present case study has tried, by using failure modes and effects analysis method and child safety and health management system to find the best practicable indicators to assess the relative impact of different failures in order to identify the parts of the process that are most in need of change. In this regards, 10 semi-governmental kindergartens located in Tehran District 6 of Tehran Municipality, which are supervised by municipality of Tehran were selected and evaluated. The results showed that according to the child safety and health management system and failure modes and effects analysis, all these places need massive infrastructural changes according to the preventive action list in order to be considered a safe and hygienic place for the children.
Read, John; Harper, David; Tucker, Ian; Kennedy, Angela
Child abuse and neglect are strongly associated with many subsequent mental health problems. This review summarizes the research on how adult mental health services respond when child abuse or neglect become known. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched for studies with rates of responding in various ways to child abuse and neglect by mental health professionals. Thirteen studies were identified: seven case note reviews, three surveys of staff, and three sets of interviews with service users. Rates of inclusion of abuse or neglect in treatment plans ranged from 12% to 44%. Rates of referral to abuse-related therapy ranged from 8% to 23%. Rates were lower for neglect than for abuse and were also lower for men and people with a diagnosis of psychosis. Two per cent or less of all cases were referred to legal authorities. The studies varied in focus and methodology, but all indicated inadequate clinical practice. The rates of abused or neglected people referred for therapy are actually lower than indicated by this review because most users of adult mental health services are not asked about abuse or neglect in the first place. The barriers to good practice, and the need for trauma-informed services, are discussed. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Tomasdottir, Margret O; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Bjornsdottir, Amalia; Getz, Linn; Steingrimsdottir, Thora; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Sigurdsson, Johann A
To study the self-reported prevalence of experienced violence among a cohort of women about two years after giving birth, their health during pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes and their experience of their child's health. In 2011, a total of 657 women participated in phase III of the Childbirth and Health Cohort Study in Icelandic Primary Health Care, 18 to 24 months after delivery. The women had previously participated in phase I around pregnancy week 16 and phase II 5-6 months after delivery. Data were collected by postal questionnaires. Women's reported history of experienced violence, sociodemographic and obstetric background, self-perceived health, the use of medications and their child's perceived health. In phase III, 16% of women reported experiencing violence. These women felt less support from their current partner (p violence. Their pregnancies were more frequently unplanned (p violence considered their child's general health as worse (p = 0.008). Our study confirms that a history of violence is common among women. A history of violence is associated with various maternal health problems during and after pregnancy, a higher rate of caesarean sections and maternal reports of health problems in their child 18-24 months after birth. KEY POINTS Violence is a major concern worldwide. Understanding the impact of violence on human health and developing effective preventive measures are important elements of any public health agenda. • The reported prevalence of experiencing violence was 16% among women attending antenatal care in the primary health care setting in Iceland. • Women with a history of violence reported worse health in general during pregnancy and delivered more often by caesarean section, compared to women with no such history. • Mothers with a history of violence also evaluated the general health of their child as worse than women with no such history. • The findings of this study support the
Jun 28, 2016 ... and neonatal nurses, face ethical issues possibly because of their ... Aim: To identify the ethical issues related to maternal and child care, the challenges faced by ...... Lucas V.A. The business of women's health care. In: E.T. ...
R.E. Juttmann (Rikard)
textabstractThe objective of this thesis is to clarify the effectiveness and the efficiency of screening for congenital heart malformations in Dutch child health centres and the possibilities to optimise this prevention programme. To this end the following main questions will be addressed. 1. Does
The Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program aims to assist targeted developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa improve maternal, newborn, and ... Le CRDI investit dans des solutions locales aux problèmes auxquels l'Inde est confrontée, comme le stress thermique, la gestion de l'eau et les migrations ...
Bundy, Donald A P; Drake, Lesley J; Burbano, Carmen
An analysis undertaken jointly in 2009 by the UN World Food Programme, The Partnership for Child Development and the World Bank was published as Rethinking School Feeding to provide guidance on how to develop and implement effective school feeding programmes as a productive safety net and as part of the efforts to achieve Education for All. The present paper reflects on how understanding of school feeding has changed since that analysis. Data on school feeding programme outcomes were collected through a literature review. Regression models were used to analyse relationships between school feeding costs (from data that were collected), the per capita costs of primary education and Gross Domestic Product per capita. Data on the transition to national ownership, supply chains and country examples were collected through country case studies. School feeding programmes increase school attendance, cognition and educational achievement, as well as provide a transfer of resources to households with possible benefits to local agricultural production and local market development. Low-income countries exhibit large variations in school feeding costs, with concomitant opportunities for cost containment. Countries are increasingly looking to transition from externally supported projects to national programmes. School feeding is now clearly evident as a major social programme in most countries with a global turnover in excess of $US 100 billion. This argues for a continuing focus on the evidence base with a view to helping countries ensure that their programmes are as cost-effective as possible. Clear policy advice has never been more important.
Pletneva, Natalia; Ruiz de Castaneda, Rafael; Baroz, Frederic; Boyer, Celia
This paper presents the results of a blind comparison of top ten search results retrieved by Google.ch (French) and Khresmoi for everyone, a health specialized search engine. Participants--students of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva had to complete three tasks and select their preferred results. The majority of the participants have largely preferred Google results while Khresmoi results showed potential to compete in specific topics. The coverage of the results seems to be one of the reasons. The second being that participants do not know how to select quality and transparent health web pages. More awareness, tools and education about the matter is required for the students of Medicine to be able to efficiently distinguish trustworthy online health information.
Reid, R S
The UNICEF message to the pediatricians and child health experts attending the Regional Pediatric Congress of the Union of National Pediatric Societies of Turkish Republics is that the way children are conceptualized in the development process has a major impact on poverty. UNICEF argues that human resource development is the safest way out of population pressure, vanishing forests, and despoiled rivers. Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore are examples of countries that "sacrificed, deferred consumer gratification of the elites, and disciplined themselves" in order to provide better care for their children in terms of good nutrition, good health care, and rigorous primary and secondary education for all children. Family planning was available to all parents. The emphasis was on hygiene, immunization, clean water supplies, and sanitation. Lower infant and child mortality created confidence in child survival and parental willingness to have fewer children. The working population is healthier due to the state nutrition programs and a better skilled labor force due to education and training. These countries are no longer underdeveloped because of the priority on children for over a generation and a half. Robert Heilbroner has described this strategy for development as based on social development, human development, and protection of children aged under 5 years. The Alma Ata conference in 1976 was instrumental in focusing on the health of the child by setting a standard of health for all by the year 2000. Many countries are moving in the direction proposed in these agendas. The result has been a 33% reduction in child mortality within 10 years and greater immunization in some developing countries than in Europe and North America. Immunization rates in Ankara, Turkey; Calcutta, India; Lagos, Nigeria; and Mexico City are higher than in Washington, D.C. or New York City. The 1990 World Summit for Children found that the following rules are applicable to
Okafor, Chinyelu B
Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.
Background Social media use is highly prevalent among children, youth, and their caregivers, and its use in healthcare is being explored. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine: 1) for what purposes social media is being used in child health and its effectiveness; and 2) the attributes of social media tools that may explain how they are or are not effective. Methods We searched Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses Database from 2000–2013. We included primary research that evaluated the use of a social media tool, and targeted children, youth, or their families or caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted on all included analytic studies using tools specific to different quantitative designs. Results We identified 25 studies relevant to child health. The majority targeted adolescents (64%), evaluated social media for health promotion (52%), and used discussion forums (68%). Most often, social media was included as a component of a complex intervention (64%). Due to heterogeneity in conditions, tools, and outcomes, results were not pooled across studies. Attributes of social media perceived to be effective included its use as a distraction in younger children, and its ability to facilitate communication between peers among adolescents. While most authors presented positive conclusions about the social media tool being studied (80%), there is little high quality evidence of improved outcomes to support this claim. Conclusions This comprehensive review demonstrates that social media is being used for a variety of conditions and purposes in child health. The findings provide a foundation from which clinicians and researchers can build in the future by identifying tools that have been developed, describing how they have been used, and isolating components that have been
Hamm, Michele P; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Williams, Gillian; Milne, Andrea; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa
Social media use is highly prevalent among children, youth, and their caregivers, and its use in healthcare is being explored. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine: 1) for what purposes social media is being used in child health and its effectiveness; and 2) the attributes of social media tools that may explain how they are or are not effective. We searched Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses Database from 2000-2013. We included primary research that evaluated the use of a social media tool, and targeted children, youth, or their families or caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted on all included analytic studies using tools specific to different quantitative designs. We identified 25 studies relevant to child health. The majority targeted adolescents (64%), evaluated social media for health promotion (52%), and used discussion forums (68%). Most often, social media was included as a component of a complex intervention (64%). Due to heterogeneity in conditions, tools, and outcomes, results were not pooled across studies. Attributes of social media perceived to be effective included its use as a distraction in younger children, and its ability to facilitate communication between peers among adolescents. While most authors presented positive conclusions about the social media tool being studied (80%), there is little high quality evidence of improved outcomes to support this claim. This comprehensive review demonstrates that social media is being used for a variety of conditions and purposes in child health. The findings provide a foundation from which clinicians and researchers can build in the future by identifying tools that have been developed, describing how they have been used, and isolating components that have been effective.
Bornstein, Marc H
In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. Every culture is characterized, and distinguished from other cultures, by deep-rooted and widely acknowledged ideas about how one needs to feel, think, and act as an adequately functioning member of the culture. Insofar as parents subscribe to particular conventions of a culture, they likely follow prevailing "cultural scripts" in childrearing. Broadening our definition, it is therefore the continuing task of parents also to enculturate children by preparing them for the physical, psychosocial, and educational situations that are characteristic of their specific culture. Cross-cultural comparisons show that virtually all aspects of parenting children are informed by culture: culture influences when and how parents care for children, what parents expect of children, and which behaviors parents appreciate, emphasize and reward or discourage and punish. Thus, cultural norms become manifest in the mental health of children through parenting. Furthermore, variations in what is normative in different cultures challenge our assumptions about what is universal and inform our understanding of how parent-child relationships unfold in ways both culturally universal and specific. This essay concerns the contributions of culture to parenting and child mental health. No study of a single society can address this broad issue. It is possible, however, to learn lessons about parenting and child mental health from the study of different societies. Copyright © 2013 World Psychiatric Association.
consumption, exercise and diet during pregnancy on birth outcomes and considers the problem of identifying the causal effect of these endogenous maternal health behaviours. The analysis controls for a wide range of covariates and exploits sibling variation in the Danish National Birth Cohort. The paper...... the ways in which child health is generated, and - for children of higher birth order - earlier children's outcomes will shape parental investments in child health....
Peterson, Lisa A; Hecht, Stephen S
The availability of the Children's Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular, and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life, such as obesity, behavioral problems, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies.
Peterson, Lisa A.; Hecht, Stephen S.
Purpose of the review The availability of the Children’s Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Findings Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life such as obesity, behavioral problems and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. While e-cigarettes appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Summary Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies. PMID:28059903
Spencer, Rachael A; Komro, Kelli A
In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies, and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child well-being. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and well-being.
Liang, Bo; Scammon, Debra L
Background Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers? search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public?s attitudes and behaviors. Objective This study aimed to investigate the extent...
Leon David A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-ethnic differences have been reported for many mental health outcomes in the UK, but no systematic review on child mental health has been published. The aim of this review is to compare the population-based prevalence of child mental disorders between ethnic groups in Britain, and relate these findings to ethnic differences in mental health service use. Methods A systematic search of bibliographic databases for population-based and clinic-based studies of children aged 0–19, including all ethnic groups and the main child mental disorders. We synthesised findings by comparing each minority group to the White British study sample. Results 31 population-based and 18 clinic-based studies met the inclusion criteria. Children in the main minority groups have similar or better mental health than White British children for common disorders, but may have higher rates for some less common conditions. The causes of these differences are unclear. There may be unmet need for services among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Conclusion Inter-ethnic differences exist but are largely unexplained. Future studies should address the challenges of cross-cultural psychiatry and investigate reasons for inter-ethnic differences.
Full Text Available En España, la infancia aparece como un grupo de población con escasas necesidades y problemas de salud, lo que lo hace casi invisible en la investigación y en la planificación de servicios. En general, no se tiene en cuenta que se trata de un período de desarrollo y de alta vulnerabilidad a los riesgos físicos y psicosociales, y de respuesta positiva a los factores protectores. En este artículo se recogen datos y reflexiones sobre algunos problemas que mejoran (mortalidad, cáncer y otros que persisten o empeoran (calidad del ambiente, maltrato, salud mental, obesidad, discapacidades y estilos de vida, y se plantean nuevos desafíos relacionados con la calidad de vida y la equidad de género y clase social. Además se revisan las respuestas que se dan desde los servicios de salud, las políticas medioambientales y de promoción de la salud, y se propone una atención específica a la salud de niños y niñas desde un enfoque de los derechos humanos.Children in Spain are considered as being a population group with few health problems and needs therefore making it almost invisible in research and services' planning. Generally, it is not taken into account that this is a development period with very high vulnerability to physical and psychosocial risks whereas there is a positive response to protective factors. This article covers some data and thoughts on their health problems that are improving (mortality, cancer, those that persist or worsen (environmental quality, abuse, mental health, obesity, disabilities and lifestyles and new challenges relating to quality of life and gender and social class equity. Responses provided by the health services are reviewed, as are environmental policies and health promotion and specific care is proposed for boys' and girls' health from a children's human rights-focused perspective.
Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L
There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note
Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.
Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…
... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Maternal Fetal Medicine Units... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... 64735
Bajenu Gox: A Community Approach to Maternal and Child Health in ... the Bajenu Gox Initiative's contribution to improving maternal and child health across Senegal. ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC), and the ...
Woo, Eugenia Hc; White, Peter; Lai, Christopher Wk
This article provides a general framework for understanding the use of information and communication technology in education and discusses the impact of computer usage on students' health and development. Potential beneficial and harmful effects of computer use by children are discussed. Early epidemiological and laboratory studies have indicated that children are at least of similar risk of developing musculoskeletal and vision problems as adults, and musculoskeletal and visual health problems developed in childhood are likely to persist into adulthood. This article, therefore, aims to provide a reflection on the deficits of existing policy and recommendations for child-specific guidelines in computer use. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Dore, Jean-Francois; Hours, Martine; Lelong, Joel; Letertre, Thierry; Moati, Frederique; Nadi, Mustapha; Ndagijimana, Fabien; Pereira De Vasconcelos, Anne; Yardin, Catherine; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Cesarini, Jean-Pierre; Couturier, Frederic; El Khatib, Aicha; Feltin, Nicolas; Bounouh, Alexandre; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Gaffet, Eric; Muzet, Alain; Lafaye, Murielle; Lepoutre, Philippe; Martinsons, Christophe; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Sicard, Yves; Soyez, Alain; Toppila, Esko; Beugnet, Laurent; Douki, Thierry; Roth-Delgado, Olivia Anses; Fite, Johanna; Merckel, Olivier; Saddoki, Sophia; Debuire, Brigitte
Following a request by the Ministries of Health, Ecology and Consumer Affairs, ANSES conducted an expert assessment on the specific impact of radiofrequency waves on children. The conclusions of this assessment were published in July 2016. In its conclusions, the Agency emphasises that children can be more exposed than adults because of their morphological and anatomical features, in particular their small size, as well as the characteristics of some of their tissues. It is issuing a series of recommendations aimed at adapting the regulatory limit values in order to reduce the exposure of children to electromagnetic fields, which starts from a very early age due to the expansion of the use of new technologies. In this context, ANSES recommends moderate and supervised use of wireless communication technologies by children. Specifically concerning mobile telephones, ANSES reiterates the recommendation it had already formulated, calling for a reduction in exposure of children, by advocating moderate use and favouring the use of hands-free kits. Lastly, the expert appraisal identified several studies highlighting an association between intensive and inadequate use of mobile telephones by young people and mental health problems (risk behaviour, depression, suicidal thoughts, etc.). However, it was not possible to use these studies to explore the causality of the observed associations. ANSES recommends that additional studies assess the health and psychosocial impact (school learning, social and family relationships, etc.) in children associated with the use of mobile communication technologies, especially because of addictive phenomena, circadian rhythm disorders, etc. Pending these results, the Agency recommends that parents encourage their children to adopt reasonable use of mobile telephones, avoiding night-time communications and limiting the frequency and duration of calls
Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos
This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Chen, Huan; Chai, Yanling; Dong, Le; Niu, Wenyi; Zhang, Puhong
Background The application of mobile health (mHealth) technology in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) is increasing worldwide. However, best practice and the most effective mHealth interventions have not been reviewed systematically. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of mHealth interventions for RMNCH around the world were conducted to investigate their characteristics as well as the features and effectiveness of mHealth interventions. Methods ...
Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Van Dyk, Tori
This study examined child anxiety as a potential moderator of the relationship between parenting stress and child physical health. Low-income youth (N = 109, M = 9.51 years old) and their parents completed measures of anxiety, health-related quality of life, and parenting stress in an outpatient clinic. As an objective measure of physical health, medical service utilization was extracted from medical records. Parenting stress was associated significantly with worse health-related quality of life and higher service utilization. Child anxiety moderated the relationship between stress and health. Health psychologists should target both family stress and child anxiety in promoting better health outcomes among low-income families. © The Author(s) 2013.
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-H MR 1. Date: April 23... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Biology... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Topics in Development, Signaling... Review, OD, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; PMTCT. Date: July 17-18, 2012. Time... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD 20892...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-W 90. Date: June 26, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Developmental... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: October... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...
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Schultz, Jennifer; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E
This paper adds to the literature on social capital and health by testing whether an exogenous shock in the health of a family member (a new baby) affects the family's investment in social capital. It also contributes to a small but growing literature on the effects of children's health on family resources and provides information about associations between health and social capital in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study, a longitudinal survey of about 5000 births to mostly unwed parents in 20 U.S. cities during the years 1998-2000. Both parents were interviewed at the time of the birth and then again one and three years later. The infants' medical records from the birth hospitalization were reviewed, and poor infant health was characterized to reflect serious and random health problems that were present at birth. Social interactions, reported at three years, include the parents' participation in church groups, service clubs, political organizations, community groups, and organizations working with children; regular religious attendance; and visiting relatives with the child. Education, employment, wages, and sociodemographic characteristics are included in the analyses. The results suggest that infant health shocks do not affect the parents' social interactions.
Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark
Violence against children is prevalent across all countries and cultures, with the burden of child injury and violence heaviest in low- and middle-income (LAMI) settings. There are several types of program to prevent child abuse, with family-based approaches to prevention being the most comprehensively researched and successful interventions in high-income settings. In LAMI countries, however, there is very little research evidence for the prevention of child abuse. We conducted a systematic search of relevant databases for studies published between 1995 and 2011 and the search revealed only one relevant study. There is thus a need for research into child maltreatment prevention in LAMI settings, taking account of local resources and contexts. In the light of the lack of evidence, we focus on two case studies that document the use of home visiting by community health workers perinatally to improve maternal and child outcomes. We propose four areas for action moving forward, including increased investment in early intervention and prevention programs, development of a research agenda that prioritizes prevention research, integration of implementation research into efforts to scale up interventions, and improving systematically collected information on child maltreatment.
Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen
Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…
Iwayama, Mariko; Kira, Ryutaro; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakai, Yasunari; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Nose, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Toshimichi; Hara, Toshiro
The aim of the present study was to determine whether parental age has any influence on child health. Well-baby check-up data at 1 month and at 12 months of age were used. The trends of parental age in association with growth measurements, incidence of physical and developmental abnormalities, occurrence of low birthweight, and maternal history of spontaneous abortion were analyzed. Associations between increasing paternal age and incidence of psychomotor developmental delay at 12 months, increasing paternal and maternal age and increasing birthweight, and increasing parental age and higher incidence of history of spontaneous abortion were found. The incidence of low-birthweight infants was significantly decreased with increasing paternal age. Not only increasing maternal age but also increasing paternal age have influences on child development and growth in the general population. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.
Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte
Children who have parents with mental health problems are a vulnerable group. Intervening early to support parents with a mental illness can contribute to improve outcomes for children. Rigging the adult mental health system in such a manner that child responsible personnel are designated in wards is a strategy to systematically address the needs of families. It has since 2010 been mandatory for Norwegian hospitals to appoint such personnel in all hospital wards. The current study aimed to investigate the appointment of child responsible personnel in the adult mental health services in a regional hospital with local clinics. Additionally, to describe the characteristics of child responsible staff in terms of gender and educational background, their competence, clinical practice and knowledge about parental mental illness. A final aim was to study whether or not the clinics had established collaboration with other services concerning follow-up for the children of parents with mental illness. Participants in this study are the staff at psychiatric clinics in a large university hospital in Norway. Practitioners were asked to answer a questionnaire prior to the initial process of implementing the new legislation in 2010 (N = 219). After a three-year period of implementing routines to adopt the new law in the clinic, the same survey was sent out to the staff in 2013 (N = 185) to monitor if changes were taking place. To study if the changes were sustained within the clinics, we conducted a two-year follow up in 2015 (N = 108). The results indicated that the systematic work to change clinical practice in the participating hospital had made a difference. Routines to follow up children's patients after the new legislation had to some extent been implemented. The child responsible personnel had more knowledge and awareness about the consequences of parental mental illness for children. The results of this study suggested that the systems change of establishing child
... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Male..., Contraception and Infertility Loan Repayment Program, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: November 19...
Full Text Available
Background: Inequalities in reproductive and child health (RCH exist, in general, in different regions of India. The present study aims to investigate the current status of RCH and examine the factors responsible for it in different parts of India.
Methods: This study utilized data obtained from two Indian studies – (i National Family Health Survey – 3 (NFHS- 2005-06 and (ii District Level Household Survey (DLHS – 2002-04. Reproductive Health Index was computed on the basis of five variables such as total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, birth order, delivery care and female educational attainment.
Results: In terms of reproductive and child health, a wide range of variation exists in India in its different regions. The study reveals that among Indian states, 13 states have an index value less than the national average. On the basis of the reproductive health index, the Indian states can be divided into three categories, namely; progressive states, semi progressive states and backward states.
Conclusions: The interstate differences in healthcare utilization are partly due to variations in the implementation of maternal health care programs as well as differences in availability of and accessibility to healthcare between Indian states.
Morin, Karen; Small, Leigh; Spatz, Diane L; Solomon, Julie; Lessard, Laura; Leng, Sarah Williams
To describe leadership and patient outcomes from an international leadership development program undertaken by a nursing organization (Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing) in partnership with Johnson & Johnson Corporate Contributions to strengthen the leadership base of maternal-child bedside nurses. Pretest/posttest design with no control group program evaluation. Health care facilities, academic institutions, and public health clinics. Mentor/fellow dyads (N = 100) of the Maternal-Child Health Nurse Leadership Academy (MCHNLA). The MCHNLA engaged participants in an 18-month mentored leadership experience within the context of an interdisciplinary team project. Each mentor/fellow dyad was paired with a faculty member during the program. One hundred dyads have participated and conducted projects to improve health care for childbearing women and children up to age 5 years during the past decade. For the two cohorts for which consistent data were obtained, mentors and fellows enhanced leadership knowledge, skills, and behaviors. Review of 2010 to 2011 cohort project reports revealed they had the potential to influence more than 1000 students, 4000 nurses, and 1300 other health care students or professionals during the project period. This leadership development model is replicable in other areas of nursing and other professions. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua
This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000–50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children’s health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses.
Avogo, Winfred Aweyire; Agadjanian, Victor
This study investigates the effects of forced migration on child survival and health in Angola. Using survey data collected in Luanda, Angola, in 2004, just two years after the end of that country's prolonged civil war, we compare three groups: migrants who moved primarily due to war, migrants whose moves were not directly related to war, and non-migrants. First, we examine the differences among the three groups in under-five mortality. Using an event-history approach, we find that hazards of child death in any given year were higher in families that experienced war-related migration in the same year or in the previous year, net of other factors. To assess longer-term effects of forced migration, we examine hazards of death of children who were born in Luanda, i.e., after migrants had reached their destinations. We again observe a disadvantage of forced migrants, but this disadvantage is explained by other characteristics. When looking at the place of delivery, number of antenatal consultations, and age-adequate immunization of children born in Luanda, we again detect a disadvantage of forced migrants relative to non-migrants, but now this disadvantage also extends to migrants who came to Luanda for reasons other than war. Finally, no differences across the three groups in child morbidity and related health care seeking behavior in the two weeks preceding the survey are found. We interpret these results within the context of the literature on short- and long-term effects of forced migration on child health.
This article shares a story of a family with a child who has a spastic quadriplegia cerebral palsy, a form of cerebral palsy (CP) that affects all four limbs and torso with debilitating muscle dysfunction. It describes how the family cares for their child's incontinence. It also shares the experience of the child's mother, Kathy, who attributes…
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies...
Staal, I.I.E.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.; van Stel, H.F.
Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional
Kimla, Katarina; Nathanson, Dania; Woolfenden, Susan; Zwi, Karen
Objective The aims of the present study were to describe the prevalence of vulnerability in a cohort of newborns, identify the factors that increase the risk of vulnerability and examine whether those who are most vulnerable are receiving home visits. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was performed using data collected from questionnaires completed by child and family health nurses and obstetric discharge summaries for each mother-baby dyad. Descriptive frequencies and percentages are used to describe the proportions of children who were vulnerable, offered services and had risk factors for vulnerability. Categorical data were compared using Pearson's Chi-squared analysis. Results In all, 1517 newborns were included in the present study. Of these, 40.5% were identified as vulnerable and 13.9% had two or more risk factors for vulnerability (95% confidence interval (CI) 12-16%). The most common risk factors were biological. Across all newborns, 33.7% were visited at home, and 74.6% of vulnerable newborns were offered a home visit. Children identified as vulnerable were more likely to have a home visit than those who were not (z for 95% CI=1.96; Pvulnerability allowed the offer of home visiting to be directed towards those most likely to benefit. What is known about the topic? Of the Australian child population, 10-20% are vulnerable to adverse health, developmental and wellbeing outcomes. Vulnerable infants are at a greater risk of becoming vulnerable children, adolescents and adults over the life course. Biological and psychosocial risk factors for vulnerability are well described. Families with the greatest need are often the least likely to access or receive support, and have lower utilisation of preventative health services despite evidence that support in the first few years of life can significantly improve long-term outcomes. What does this paper add? This paper provides a detailed description of vulnerabilities in a cohort of newborns and
Guteilus, M F; Kirsch, A D; MacDonald, S; Brooks, M R; McErlean, T
Extensive child health supervision, with emphasis on counseling and anticipatory guidance, was provided for the first three years of life to an experimental series of 47 normal first-born black infants from low-income families living in the environs of Children's Hospital in Washington, D.C. The mothers were unmarried schoolgirls in normal physical and mental health. A control series consisted of 48 similar mother-child dyads from the same area. Data were collected, in part by an outside evaluator, at yearly intervals on both experimental and control series in a form suitable for coding on computer cards. Comparison of differences in behavioral results between the two series showed statistically significant findings in favor of the experimental children, as well as numerous favorable trends during the first six years of life. Positive effects became evident in diet and eating, habits, in some developmental problems of growing up (such as toilet training), and in certain abstract qualities including self-confidence. Significant differences were also noted between the experimental and control mothers for various child rearing practices and personality characteristics. No significant difference or trend favored the control series. We believe that a causal relationship existed between the intervention and at least some of the significant findings.
Prabhu, Anand; Rao, Arun Prasad; Reddy, Venugopal; Ahamed, Syed Shaheed; Muhammad, Shameer; Thayumanavan, Shanmugam
The dental health of preschool children has extensive implications on the oral heath of the individual as he grows into an adult. Parents/guardians of preschool children play a central role in enforcing proper oral hygiene and preventive regime in these children. This study was conducted with the aim of describing the views of parents/guardians about the dental health of pre-school children. Response was obtained on a 21 point questionnaire from randomly visiting parents of the outpatient section of Rajah Muthiah dental college and Hospital, Annamalainagar, India. The findings of the present study point towards poor awareness among the parents/guardians of preschool children, pertaining to their childs' oral health and this could directly translate to poor oral health among the children in this area.
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Changing Parental Relationships and Child Well-Being. Date: March 5, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Corpus Luteal Contribution to...., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Population Sciences Subcommittee. Date...., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute, of Child...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Diet, Obesity.... Kandasamy, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel Slack and Slick Channels. Date: July..., PhD, Scientific Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...
... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Group, Research on Children in Military Families: The Impact of Parental Military Deployment and Reintegration on Child and Family Functioning... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...
Köhler, M; Emmelin, M; Hjern, A; Rosvall, M
This study investigated the impact of being in family foster care on selected health determinants and participation in Child Health Services (CHS). Two groups of 100 children, born between 1992 and 2008, were studied using data from Swedish Child Health Services for the preschool period up to the age of six. The first group had been in family foster care, and the controls, matched for age, sex and geographic location, had not. Descriptive statistics were used to describe differences in health determinants and participation in Child Health Services between the two groups. The foster care group had higher health risks, with lower rates of breastfeeding and higher levels of parental smoking. They were less likely to have received immunisations and attended key nurse or physician visits and speech and vision screening. Missing data for the phenylketonuria test were more common in children in family foster care. Children in family foster care were exposed to more health risks than the control children and had lower participation in the universal child health programme during the preschool period. These results call for secure access to high-quality preventive health care for this particularly vulnerable group of children. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McPherson, Charmaine M; McGibbon, Elizabeth A
Primary health care (PHC) renewal was designed explicitly to attend to the multidimensional factors impacting on health, including the social determinants of health. These determinants are central considerations in the development of integrated, cross-sectoral, and multi-jurisdictional policies such as those that inform models of shared mental health care for children. However, there are complex theoretical challenges in translating these multidimensional issues into policy. One of these is the rarely discussed interrelationships among the social determinants of health and identities such as race, gender, age, sexuality, and social class within the added confluence of geographic contexts. An intersectionality lens is used to examine the complex interrelationships among the factors affecting child mental health and the associated policy challenges surrounding PHC renewal. The authors argue that an understanding of the intersections of social determinants of health, identity, and geography is pivotal in guiding policy-makers as they address child mental health inequities using a PHC renewal agenda.
Lykke Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Ertmann, Ruth
aware of problems in the family. CONCLUSION: The preventive child health examination is an important platform for examination and dialogue concerning a child's health. The physical aspect works well, but there is a need for development of the assessment of the child's mental health and the well....... A total of nine doctors from seven clinics participated. We included 21 cases in our study, each consisting of a consultation and subsequent interviews with the child's parents and with the doctor. RESULTS: The examination of the child's physical health and development is an important feature......INTRODUCTION: In Denmark, around one in six children has significant somatic, psychological or social health problems, often in combination. The preventive child health examinations have a high participation rate; and they produce significant findings, predominantly concerning the child's physical...
van Vuuren, C Leontine; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van der Wal, Marcel F; Verhoeff, Arnoud P
Growing up in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods has been shown to have negative health effects on children. However, the most recent review on which measures are used to investigate the association between neighborhood characteristics and child (0-18 year) health included studies only until 2004. Insight into more recent research is needed for the further development of these measures. To review neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation characteristics used in recent studies investigating the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and child health. Sensitive search in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts databases (2004-2013). Ultimately, 19 studies were included. We found ten neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation constructs, of which income/wealth, employment, and education were most frequently used. The choice for neighborhood characteristics seemed independent of the health outcome and in most cases was not based on a specific theoretical background or earlier work. Studies vary regarding study designs, measures and outcomes. Researchers should clearly specify their choice of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation characteristics; preferably, these should be theory-based and used consistently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N
The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victims<13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. ... GENDER, URBAN/RURAL AND SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... CLINICAL PERSPECTIVES'CROSS-CULTURAL' ISSUES IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT ... HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY IN BRAIN INJURED CHILDREN BOCA ...
Committee on Evaluation of Children's Health, National Research Council
... in the effects of environmental contaminants such as lead. Yet major questions still remain about how to assess the status of children's health, what factors should be monitored, and the appropriate measurement tools that should be...
Yang, Lei; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zheng, Kai; Hanauer, David A.
We analyzed a longitudinal collection of query logs of a full-text search engine designed to facilitate information retrieval in electronic health records (EHR). The collection, 202,905 queries and 35,928 user sessions recorded over a course of 4 years, represents the information-seeking behavior of 533 medical professionals, including frontline practitioners, coding personnel, patient safety officers, and biomedical researchers for patient data stored in EHR systems. In this paper, we present descriptive statistics of the queries, a categorization of information needs manifested through the queries, as well as temporal patterns of the users’ information-seeking behavior. The results suggest that information needs in medical domain are substantially more sophisticated than those that general-purpose web search engines need to accommodate. Therefore, we envision there exists a significant challenge, along with significant opportunities, to provide intelligent query recommendations to facilitate information retrieval in EHR. PMID:22195150
This study sought to understand the relationship between child health outcomes and health spending while investigating lagged effects. The study employed panel data from 45 Sub-Saharan African countries between 1995 and 2011 obtained from the World Bank's World Development Indicators. Fixed and Random effect ...
Zhang, Puhong; Dong, Le; Chen, Huan; Chai, Yanling; Liu, Jianbo
Mobile health services are thriving in the field of maternal and child health in China due to expansions in the field of electronic health and the introduction of the two-child policy. There are numerous maternal and child health apps in computer stores, but the exact number of apps, number of downloads, and features of these apps is not known. This study aimed to explore the use of maternal and child health apps in Android and iOS app stores and to describe the key functional features of the most popular apps, with the purpose of providing insight into further research and development of maternal and child health mobile health products. The researchers conducted a search in the 3 most popular Android app stores (Tencent MyApp, Baidu Mobile Assistant, and 360 Mobile Assistant) and the iTunes App Store in China. All apps regarding family planning (contraception and preparing for pregnancy), pregnancy and perinatal care, neonatal care and health, and development for children under 6 years were included in the initial analysis. Maternal and child health mobile apps with predominant features of product marketing, children's songs, animation, or games were excluded from the study. The 50 most frequently used apps in each of the Android stores as well as the iTunes store (a total of 78 deduplicated apps) were selected and downloaded for an in-depth analysis. A total of 5276 Android apps and 877 iOS apps developed for maternal and child health care were identified. Of the 78 most frequently used apps, 43 (55%) apps focused on one stage of MCH care, mainly targeting child care (25 apps) and before pregnancy care (11 apps), whereas 35 (45%) of the apps covered 2 or more stages, most of which (32 apps) included both pregnancy and child care services. The app features that were commonly adopted by the popular apps were health education, communication, health status self-monitoring, a diary, reminders, and counseling. Within the app feature of "health status self
Serenius, F; Hofvander, Y
The general background to child health in Saudi Arabia is reviewed. Information is provided on the social and demographic characteristics of the population, on common health indicators, on the health care system and its utilization, and on the general pattern of childhood morbidity and mortality. The unprecendented socioeconomic development has transformed the health care system. In 15 years the number of nurses have increased from 3261 to 29896, physicians from 1172 to 14335, primary health care centers from 591 to 1821, and hospital beds from 9036 to 30707. In spite of this progress, the disease pattern seems to resemble that of some developing countries with more limited resources. Parasitic diseases are still widespread, and sample surveys have indicated suboptimal nutrition of rural preschool children. Recent estimates on the infant mortality rate have ranged from 65 to 120 per 1000 live births. The preferred marriage partner is a close relative, and genetic diseases, such as hemoglobin disorders, are common in certain areas. Thus, the prevalence of alpha thalassemia is reported at 50 percent, and the sickle cell trait at 4.4-20 percent in sample surveys from the Eastern Province. The modest educational attainment of the mother, the heavy reliance on foreign manpower in all sectors, including the health sector, and the further development of the primary health care system are key issues today. It is emphasized that demographic and epidemiological information from Saudi Arabia is scarce and frequently uncertain, and that further studies are needed to identify the health needs of Saudi children.
Habibolah Taghizade Moghaddam
Full Text Available Good nutrition is essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance, productivity, health and well-being across the entire life-span: from the earliest stages of fetal development, at birth, and through infancy, childhood, adolescence and on into adulthood. Poor nutrition in the first 1,000 days of children’s lives can have irreversible consequences. For millions of children, it means they are, forever, stunted. Every infant and child has the right to good nutrition according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child; so the World Health Assembly has adopted a new target of reducing the number of stunted children under the age of 5 by 40 percent by 2025. The first 2 years of a child’s life are particularly important, as optimal nutrition during this period lowers morbidity and mortality, reduces the risk of chronic disease, and fosters better development overall. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding are a critical aspect of caring for infants and young children.
Müller, H; Hanbury, A; Al Shorbaji, N
This focus theme deals with the various aspects of health information search that are necessary to cope with the challenges of an increasing amount and complexity of medical information currently produced. This editorial reviews the main challenges of health information search and summarizes the five papers of this focus theme. The five papers of the focus theme cover a large part of the current challenges in health information search such as coding standards, information extraction from complex data, user requirements analysis, multimedia data analysis and the access to big data. Several future challenges are identified such as the combination of visual and textual data for information search and the difficulty to scale when analyzing big data.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special...
da Silva, Simone Albino; Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida
to evaluate the healthcare provided to children under two years old by the Family Health Strategy. evaluative, quantitative, cross-sectional study that used the Primary Care Assessment Tool - Child Version for measuring the access, longitudinality, coordination, integrality, family orientation and community orientation. a total of 586 adults responsible for children under two years old and linked to 33 health units in eleven municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were interviewed. The evaluation was positive for the attributes longitudinality and coordination, and negative for access, integrality, Family orientation and community orientation. there are discrepancies between health needs of children and what is offered by the service; organizational barriers to access; absence of counter-reference; predominance of curative and long-standing and individual preventive practices; verticalization in organization of actions; and lack of good communication between professionals and users.
Human capital theory suggests that education benefits individuals' and their children's health through the educational skills people acquire in school. This perspective may also be relevant at the community level: the greater presence of adults with educational skills in a community may be a reason why living in a more highly educated setting benefits health. I use Demographic and Health Survey data for 30 sub-Saharan African countries to investigate whether the percentage of literate adults-specifically women-in a community is associated with children's likelihood of survival. I characterize 13,785 African communities according to the prevalence of women who are literate. Multilevel discrete-time hazard models ( N = 536,781 children) confirm that living in a community where more women are literate is positively associated with child survival. The study supports the conceptualization of literacy, and potentially other educational skills, as forms of human capital that can spill over to benefit others.
Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Wallace, Aaron; Mirza, Imran Raza; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Nandy, Robin; Durry, Elias; Everard, Marthe
Child Health Days (CHDs) are increasingly used by countries to periodically deliver multiple maternal and child health interventions as time-limited events, particularly to populations not reached by routine health services. In countries with a weak health infrastructure, this strategy could be used to reach many underserved populations with an integrated package of services. In this study, we estimate the incremental costs, impact, cost-effectiveness, and return on investment of 2 rounds of CHDs that were conducted in Somalia in 2009 and 2010. We use program costs and population estimates reported by the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund to estimate the average cost per beneficiary for each of 9 interventions delivered during 2 rounds of CHDs implemented during the periods of December 2008 to May 2009 and August 2009 to April 2010. Because unstable areas were unreachable, we calculated costs for targeted and accessible beneficiaries. We model the impact of the CHDs on child mortality using the Lives Saved Tool, convert these estimates of mortality reduction to life years saved, and derive the cost-effectiveness ratio and the return on investment. The estimated average incremental cost per intervention for each targeted beneficiary was $0.63, with the cost increasing to $0.77 per accessible beneficiary. The CHDs were estimated to save the lives of at least 10,000, or 500,000 life years for both rounds combined. The CHDs were cost-effective at $34.00/life year saved. For every $1 million invested in the strategy, an estimated 615 children's lives, or 29,500 life years, were saved. If the pentavalent vaccine had been delivered during the CHDs instead of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine, an additional 5000 children's lives could have been saved. Despite high operational costs, CHDs are a very cost-effective service delivery strategy for addressing the leading causes of child mortality in a conflict setting like Somalia and compare
Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Rezai Abhari, Farideh; Zarghami, Mehran
While studies have shown the disastrous effects of post-partum depression (PPD) on children's behaviors, there is relatively lack of reliable data in Asian countries. This study examined the relative significance of maternal PPD in children's developmental disabilities at age four. In a longitudinal study design (2009), 1801 pregnant women attending in primary health centers of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran provided self-reports of depression from two to twelve postpartum weeks using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Approximately four years later, the women experiencing PPD and twice as the ones who did not experience this disorder were considered as case (N=204) and control (N=467) groups. The association between maternal depression at different times and childhood developmental disabilities based on Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and other health problems reported by the child were analyzed using two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression models. The presence of PPD only was not a predictor of child's developmental disabilities at age four. Childhood developmental disabilities in communication, gross motor and personal-social domains of ASQ were associated with the current and concurrent maternal depressive symptoms (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.16-5.78; OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.10-8.96; OR=5.66, 95% CI=1.94-16.54 and OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.58; OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.72-13.87; OR=6.17, 95% CI=1.95-19.53 respectively). PPD, the current depressive symptoms, and depression at both occasions were associated with more health problems in children. Childhood developmental disabilities in some domains of ASQ were significantly related to the maternal depression chronicity or recurrence. Also, child's difficulties were more prevalent in association with maternal depression regardless of onset time.
Full Text Available While studies have shown the disastrous effects of post-partum depression (PPD on children's behaviors, there is relatively lack of reliable data in Asian countries. This study examined the relative significance of maternal PPD in children's developmental disabilities at age four. In a longitudinal study design (2009, 1801 pregnant women attending in primary health centers of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran provided self-reports of depression from two to twelve postpartum weeks using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Approximately four years later, the women experiencing PPD and twice as the ones who did not experience this disorder were considered as case (N=204 and control (N=467 groups. The association between maternal depression at different times and childhood developmental disabilities based on Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ and other health problems reported by the child were analyzed using two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression models. The presence of PPD only was not a predictor of child's developmental disabilities at age four. Childhood developmental disabilities in communication, gross motor and personal-social domains of ASQ were associated with the current and concurrent maternal depressive symptoms (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.16-5.78; OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.10-8.96; OR=5.66, 95% CI=1.94-16.54 and OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.58; OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.72-13.87; OR=6.17, 95% CI=1.95-19.53 respectively. PPD, the current depressive symptoms, and depression at both occasions were associated with more health problems in children. Childhood developmental disabilities in some domains of ASQ were significantly related to the maternal depression chronicity or recurrence. Also, child's difficulties were more prevalent in association with maternal depression regardless of onset time.
Sljapić, Ziva; Sljapić-Roganović, Miljana
Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716) are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and colera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care--"Cadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarović (1812-1851) during his studies of medicine in Budapest. In 1927 the city founded a dispensary for the newborn. The Polyclinic for schoolchildren was established as a part of the Health Center in 1934. After World War II, Children's Department was opened in the Health Center, later on it was turned into Mother and Child Center. At the beginning of 1955, a provisional children's ward with 18 beds was established in the former sanatorium, whereas till the end of the year it had 49 beds. In May 1965, it was moved into a new hospital building. After integration of Hospital and the Health Center into a Medical Center in 1967, a department for children was founded and it consisted of the emergency center and a hospital. Parents counseling, dispensary for children and dispensary for schoolchildren were founded in August 1971.
Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel
Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse.
Institute Of Medicine Staff; Board on Children, Youth, and Families; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; National Research Council; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences
... competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by contract number 282-99-0045, task order number 6 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Health and Human Services. Supplementary funding for a report synthesis and dissemination of the report and report synthesis was supported by contrac...
Psaila, Kim; Schmied, Virginia; Fowler, Cathrine; Kruske, Sue
To examine collaboration in the provision of universal health services for children and families in Australia from the perspective of midwives and child health and family health nurses. Collaboration is identified as a key concept contributing to families' smooth transition between maternity and child health services. However, evidence suggests that collaboration between services is often lacking. Few studies have explored how maternity and child health and family health services or professionals collaborate to facilitate a smooth transition. This study reports on data collected in phases 1 and 2 of a three-phase mixed-methods study investigating the feasibility of implementing a national approach to child health and family health services in Australia (Child Health: Researching Universal Services study). In phase 1, consultations (via discussion groups, focus groups and teleconferences) were held with 45 midwives and 60 child health and family health nurses. Themes identified were used to develop phase 2 surveys. In phase 2, 1098 child health and family health nurses and 655 midwives returned surveys. Midwives and child health and family health nurses reported 'some collaboration'. Midwives and child health and family health nurses indicated that collaboration was supported by having agreement on common goals and recognising and valuing the contributions of others. Organisational barriers such as poor communication and information transfer processes obstructed relationships. Good collaboration was reported more frequently when working with other professionals (such as allied health professionals) to support families with complex needs. This study provides information on the nature and extent of collaboration from the perspective of midwives and child health and family health nurses providing universal health services for children and families. Both professional groups emphasised the impact of service disconnection on families. However, their ability to negotiate
This study describes health, functioning, and health care service use by medically complex technology-dependent children according to condition severity (moderately disabled, severely disabled, and vegetative state). Data were collected monthly for 5 months using the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Module 4.0 Parent-Proxy Report. Health care service use measured the number of routine and acute care office visits (including primary and specialty physicians), emergency department visits, hospitalizations, nursing health care services, special therapies, medications, medical technology devices (MTDs), and assistive devices. Child physical health was different across the condition severity groups. The average age of the children was 10.1 years (SD, 6.2); the average number of medications used was 5.5 (SD, 3.7); the average number of MTDs used was 4.2 (SD, 2.9); and the average number of assistive devices used was 4.3 (SD, 2.7). Severely disabled and vegetative children were similar in age (older) and had a similar number of medications, MTDs, and assistive devices (greater) than moderately disabled children. The advanced practice nurse care coordinator role is necessary for the health and functioning of medically complex, technology-dependent children. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cassiano, Rafaela G M; Gaspardo, Claudia M; Linhares, Maria Beatriz M
Preterm birth can impact on child development. As seen previously, children born preterm present more behavioral and/or emotional problems than do full-term counterparts. In addition to gestational age, neonatal clinical status should be examined to better understand the differential impact of premature birth on later developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review empirical studies on the relationship between prematurity, neonatal health status, and behavioral and/or emotional problems in children. A systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS databases for articles published from 2009 to 2014 was performed. The inclusion criteria were empirical studies that evaluated behavioral and/or emotional problems that are related to clinical neonatal variables in children born preterm. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Results showed that the degree of prematurity and birth weight were associated with emotional and/or behavioral problems in children at different ages. Prematurity that was associated with neonatal clinical conditions (e.g., sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hemorrhage) and such treatments as corticoids and steroids increased the risk for these problems. The volume and abnormalities of specific brain structures also were associated with these outcomes. In conclusion, the neonatal health problems associated with prematurity present a negative impact on later child emotional and adapted behavior. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Afifi, Tracie O; McTavish, Jill; Turner, Sarah; MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine
Despite being a primary response to child abuse, it is currently unknown whether contact with child protection services (CPS) does more good than harm. The aim of the current study was to examine whether contact with CPS is associated with improved mental health outcomes among adult respondents who reported experiencing child abuse, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and abuse severity. The data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-2012), which used a multistage stratified cluster design (household-level response rate = 79.8%). Included in this study were individuals aged 18 years and older living in the 10 Canadian provinces (N = 23,395). Child abuse included physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Mental health outcomes included lifetime mental disorders, lifetime and past year suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts, and current psychological well-being and functioning and distress. All models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors and severity of child abuse. For the majority of outcomes, there were no statistically significant differences between adults with a child abuse history who had CPS contact compared to those without CPS contact. However, those with CPS contact were more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts. These findings suggest that CPS contact is not associated with improved mental health outcomes. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Kristine Husøy Onarheim
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015. We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015. Interventions are scaled-up to 1 government target levels, 2 90% coverage and 3 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health.
Liang, Bo; Scammon, Debra L
Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers' search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public's attitudes and behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population's environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population's general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables-the incidence of the flu (Phealth lifestyles (P=.009); and public resources, such as hospital care utilization (P=.008) and public health funds (P=.02)-have significant effects on Web searches for queries related to the flu. After
... Videos for Educators Search English Español If Your Child Has a Heart Defect KidsHealth / For Parents / If ... has any of these symptoms. Caring for Your Child Parenting kids with heart defects includes learning about ...
Xiong, Juyang; Hipgrave, David; Myklebust, Karoline; Guo, Sufang; Scherpbier, Robert W; Tong, Xuetao; Yao, Lan; Moran, Andrew E
China embarked on an ambitious health system reform in 2009, and pledged to achieve universal health insurance coverage by 2020. However, there are gaps in access to healthcare for some children in China. We assessed health insurance status and associated variables among children under five in twelve communities in 2010: two urban community health centers and two rural township health centers in each of three municipalities located in China's distinctly different East, Central and Western regions. Information on demographic and socio-economic variables and children's insurance status was gathered from parents or caregivers of all children enrolled in local health programs, and others recruited from the local communities. Only 62% of 1131 children assessed were insured. This figure did not vary across geographic regions, but urban children were less likely to be insured than rural children. In multivariate analysis, infants were 2.44 times more likely to be uninsured than older children and children having at least one migrant parent were 1.90 times more likely to be uninsured than those living with non-migrant parents. Low maternal education was also associated with being uninsured. Gaps in China's child health insurance coverage might be bridged if newborns are automatically covered from birth, and if insurance is extended to all urban migrant children, regardless of the family's residential registration status and size. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joseph G L Lee
Full Text Available Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.
Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Idrovo, Álvaro J; Arredondo López, Abel Armando
To assess the association of social determinants on the performance of health systems around the world. A transnational ecological study was conducted with an observation level focused on the country. In order to research on the strength of the association between the annual maternal and child mortality in 154 countries and social determinants: corruption, democratization, income inequality and cultural fragmentation, we used a mixed linear regression model for repeated measures with random intercepts and a conglomerate-based geographical analysis, between 2000 and 2010. Health determinants with a significant association on child mortality(corrupt government (Q3 vs Q1 = 83,05; 95%CI: 33,10 to 133). Improving access to water and sanitation systems, decreasing corruption in the health sector must become priorities in health systems. The ethno-linguistic cultural fragmentation and the detriment of democracy turn out to be two factors related to health results.
Ray, Dee C.
This study investigated the impact of Child-Centred Play Therapy (CCPT)/Non-Directive Play Therapy on parent-child relationship stress using archival data from 202 child clients divided into clinical behavioural groups over 3-74 sessions in a mental health training setting. Results demonstrated significant differences between pre and post testing…
There is an increasing number of children with complex care needs, however, there is limited evidence of the experience of families during the process of transitioning to becoming their child\\'s primary care giver. The aim of this study was to explore parents\\' perspectives of the transition to home of a child with complex respiratory health care needs.
Carbone, Sarah; Wigle, Jannah; Akseer, Nadia; Barac, Raluca; Barwick, Melanie; Zlotkin, Stanley
Leading children's hospitals in high-income settings have become heavily engaged in international child health research and educational activities. These programs aim to provide benefit to the institutions, children and families in the overseas locations where they are implemented. Few studies have measured the actual reciprocal value of this work for the home institutions and for individual staff who participate in these overseas activities. Our objective was to estimate the perceived reciprocal value of health professionals' participation in global child health-related work. Benefits were measured in the form of skills, knowledge and attitude strengthening as estimated by an adapted Global Health Competency Model. A survey questionnaire was developed following a comprehensive review of literature and key competency models. It was distributed to all health professionals at the Hospital for Sick Children with prior international work experience (n = 478). One hundred fifty six health professionals completed the survey (34%). A score of 0 represented negligible value gained and a score of 100 indicated significant capacity improvement. The mean respondent improvement score was 57 (95% CI 53-62) suggesting improved overall competency resulting from their international experiences. Mean scores were >50% in 8 of 10 domains. Overall scores suggest that international work brought value to the hospital and over half responded that their international experience would influence their decision to stay on at the hospital. The findings offer tangible examples of how global child health work conducted outside of one's home institution impacts staff and health systems locally.
Kanthawala, Shaheen; Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina
About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet-ranging from government-initiated webpages to personal blog pages. Yet we do not fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of information available on the Internet. The objective of this research was to investigate the strengths and challenges of various types of health information available online and to suggest what information sources best fit various question types. We collected questions posted to and the responses they received from an online diabetes community and classified them according to Rothwell's classification of question types (fact, policy, or value questions). We selected 60 questions (20 each of fact, policy, and value) and the replies the questions received from the community. We then searched for responses to the same questions using a search engine and recorded the Community responses answered more questions than did search results overall. Search results were most effective in answering value questions and least effective in answering policy questions. Community responses answered questions across question types at an equivalent rate, but most answered policy questions and the least answered fact questions. Value questions were most answered by community responses, but some of these answers provided by the community were incorrect. Fact question search results were the most clinically valid. The Internet is a prevalent source of health information for people. The information quality people encounter online can have a large impact on them. We present what kinds of questions people ask
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Initial Review Group, Function, Integration, and...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group Function, Integration, and...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Function, Integration, and...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration and...
Yang, Julie; Kurdyak, Paul; Guttmann, Astrid
When the Government of Ontario launched a comprehensive mental health and addictions strategy, the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) was tasked with developing a scorecard for ongoing monitoring of the child and youth mental health system. Using existing administrative and survey-based healthcare and education data, researchers at ICES developed a scorecard consisting of 25 indicators that described at-risk populations, child and youth mental healthcare and relevant outcomes. This scorecard is the first in Canada to report on performance indicators for the child and youth mental health system and provides a model for monitoring child and youth mental health using routinely collected administrative data.
Parenting interventions are a promising strategy to prevent antisocial behavior in society. Evidence accumulates that parenting interventions can reduce disruptive child behavior, and insight rapidly increases into which families they benefit most. At the same time, however, several high risk
Motunrayo A Oyelohunnu; Yewande O Oshodi; Elizabeth A Campbell; Mercy Eigbike; Kofoworola A Odeyemi
Background: Maternal mental health, in particular depression, has been found to negatively impact mother-child interaction, attachment, stimulation, growth, and many important aspects of development in the young child. These early deficits if sustained and unattended may have negative immediate and long-term consequences on the outcomes in the child. The study aimed to assess psychological distress and postpartum depression in mothers, and their relationship to the mother-child interaction. M...
Wright, Judy M; Cottrell, David J; Mir, Ghazala
To determine the optimal databases to search for studies of faith-sensitive interventions for treating depression. We examined 23 health, social science, religious, and grey literature databases searched for an evidence synthesis. Databases were prioritized by yield of (1) search results, (2) potentially relevant references identified during screening, (3) included references contained in the synthesis, and (4) included references that were available in the database. We assessed the impact of databases beyond MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO by their ability to supply studies identifying new themes and issues. We identified pragmatic workload factors that influence database selection. PsycINFO was the best performing database within all priority lists. ArabPsyNet, CINAHL, Dissertations and Theses, EMBASE, Global Health, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts were essential for our searches to retrieve the included references. Citation tracking activities and the personal library of one of the research teams made significant contributions of unique, relevant references. Religion studies databases (Am Theo Lib Assoc, FRANCIS) did not provide unique, relevant references. Literature searches for reviews and evidence syntheses of religion and health studies should include social science, grey literature, non-Western databases, personal libraries, and citation tracking activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Helgeson, Vicki S; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda
To examine the relation of parent stress to parent mental health and child mental and physical health. We interviewed children with type 1 diabetes (n = 132; mean age 12 years) annually for 5 years and had one parent complete a questionnaire at each assessment. Parents completed measures of general life stress, stress related to caring for a child with diabetes, benefit finding, and mental health. Child outcomes were depressive symptoms, self-care behavior, and glycemic control. Multilevel modeling was used to examine concurrent and longitudinal relations. Greater parent general stress and greater parent diabetes-specific stress were associated with poorer parent mental health. Overall, greater parent general stress was associated with poorer child outcomes, whereas greater parent diabetes-specific stress was associated with better child outcomes. Families with high levels of general life stress should be identified as they are at risk for both poor parent and child health outcomes.
Virgo-Milton, Monica; Boak, Rachel; Hoare, Alexandria; Gold, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Gussy, Mark; Calache, Hanny; O'Callaghan, Elise; de Silva, Andrea M
An important role for parents and caregivers in the prevention of dental caries in children is the early establishment of health-promoting behaviours. This study aimed to examine mothers' views on barriers and facilitators to promoting child and family oral health. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of mothers (n=32) of young children. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Parental knowledge and beliefs, past experiences and child behaviour emerged as major influences on children's oral health. Child temperament and parental time pressures were identified as barriers to good oral health with various strategies reported for dealing with uncooperative children at tooth brushing time. Parental oral health knowledge and beliefs emerged as positive influences on child oral health, however while most mothers were aware of the common causes of dental caries, very few knew of other risk factors such as bedtime feeding. Parents own oral health experiences were also seen to positively influence child oral health, regardless of whether these were positive or negative experiences. Understanding parental oral health beliefs is essential to overcoming barriers, and promoting enablers, for good child oral health. Improving child oral health also requires consideration of child behaviour, family influences, and increasing awareness of lesser-known influencing factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy and childhood cause considerable childhood morbidity and mortality. We aimed to determine whether implementation of the World Health Organization's recommended tobacco control policies (MPOWER were of benefit to perinatal and child health. Methods We searched 19 electronic databases, hand-searched references and citations, and consulted experts to identify (quasi-experimental studies assessing the association between implementation of MPOWER policies and child health. Our primary outcomes of interest were: perinatal mortality, preterm birth, hospital attendance for asthma exacerbations, and hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections (RTIs. Where possible and appropriate, we combined data from different studies in random-effects meta-analyses. Results We identified 41 eligible studies that assessed (combinations of MPOWER policies: smoke-free legislation (n=35, tobacco taxation (n=11, and smoking cessation services (n=3. Following implementation of smoke-free legislation, rates of preterm birth decreased by -3.77% (10 studies, 27,530,183 individuals; 95%CI -6.37 to -1.16, hospital attendance for asthma exacerbations decreased by -9.83% (five studies, 684,826 events; 95%CI -16.62 to -3.04, and hospital attendance for RTIs decreased by -3.45% (two studies, 1,681,020 events; 95%CI -4.64, -2.25 for all RTIs, and by -18.48% (three studies, 887,414 events; 95%CI -32.79 to -4.17 for lower RTIs. Associations appeared to be stronger when comprehensive smoke-free laws were implemented. Among two studies assessing the association between smoke-free legislation and perinatal mortality, one demonstrated significant reductions in stillbirth and neonatal mortality. Meta-analysis of studies on other MPOWER policies was not possible; all four studies on increasing tobacco taxation and one of two on offering disadvantaged pregnant women help to quit smoking that reported on our primary
Recent studies examining the effect of family income on child health have been unable to account for the endogeneity of income. Using data from a British cohort study, we address this gap by exploiting exogenous variation in local labour market characteristics to instrument for family income. We estimate the causal effect of family income on different measures of child health and explore the role of potential transmission mechanisms. We find that income has a very small but significant causal effect on subjective child health and no significant effect on chronic health conditions, apart from respiratory illnesses. Using the panel structure, we show that the timing of income does not matter for young children. Moreover, our results provide further evidence that parental health does not drive a spurious relationship between family income and child health. Our study implies that financial transfers are unlikely to deliver substantial improvements in child health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Subhi, Rami; Duke, Trevor
The content and landscape of global child health is increasingly complex. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of local, national and institutional leadership in reducing child mortality, but this has not been a focus of global health initiatives. Interventions to strengthen health systems should include support for local leadership: building-up institutions of training, empowering national paediatric professional associations, creating opportunities for contribution and leadership at national, provincial and local level, and networks of support for staff working in child health in remote areas. In the poorer high mortality burden countries of the Pacific, to meet the clinical and public health gaps, there is a need for increases in the education of child health nurse practitioners, and development of systems of continuing professional development for paediatric doctors and nurses. Involvement in local research, especially that which contributes directly to critical issues in child health policy or strengthening national data systems builds capacity for leadership. PMID:23198107
Full Text Available The content and landscape of global child health is increasingly complex. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of local, national and institutional leadership in reducing child mortality, but this has not been a focus of global health initiatives. Interventions to strengthen health systems should include support for local leadership: building-up institutions of training, empowering national paediatric professional associations, creating opportunities for contribution and leadership at national, provincial and local level, and networks of support for staff working in child health in remote areas. In the poorer high mortality burden countries of the Pacific, to meet the clinical and public health gaps, there is a need for increases in the education of child health nurse practitioners, and development of systems of continuing professional development for paediatric doctors and nurses. Involvement in local research, especially that which contributes directly to critical issues in child health policy or strengthening national data systems builds capacity for leadership.
Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David
There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Background: A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM, launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective: To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design: A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005–2012 and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to
Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H
Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.
Kemptner, Daniel; Marcus, Jan
This study investigates the effects of maternal education on child's health and health behavior. We draw on a rich German panel data set containing information about three generations. This allows instrumenting maternal education by the number of her siblings while conditioning on grandparental characteristics. The instrumental variables approach has not yet been used in the intergenerational context and works for the sample sizes of common household panels. We find substantial effects on hea...
Scammon, Debra L
Background Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers’ search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public’s attitudes and behaviors. Objective This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population’s environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population’s general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. Methods We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Results Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables—the incidence of the flu (Psearches for queries related to the flu. After controlling for the number of reported disease cases and Internet access rate by state, we estimate the
Albrecht, Lauren; Scott, Shannon D.; Hartling, Lisa
Background An emerging field of knowledge translation (KT) research has begun to focus on health consumers, particularly in child health. KT tools provide health consumers with research knowledge to inform health decision-making and may foster ‘effective consumers’. Thus, the purpose of this scoping review was to describe the state of the field of previously published effectiveness research on child health-related KT tools for parents/caregivers to understand the evidence-base, identify gaps,...
Denno, Donna M; Paul, Shadae L
Ninety-nine percent of the 5.9 million annual child deaths occur in low and middle-income countries. Undernutrition underlies 45% of deaths. Determinants include access to care, maternal education, and absolute and relative poverty. Socio-political-economic factors and policies tremendously influence health and their determinants. Most deaths can be prevented with interventions that are currently available and recommended for widespread implementation. Millennium Development Goal 4 was not achieved. Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 presents an even more ambitious target and opportunity to save millions of lives; and requires attention to scaling up interventions, especially among the poorest and most vulnerable children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) KidsHealth / For ... child outweigh the potential risks. Caring for Your Child After DTaP Immunization Your child may have a ...
Dickson Abanimi Amugsi
Full Text Available This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana.The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months. Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use, household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence.There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82. Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment.The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.
Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Oduro, Abraham
This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana. The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months). Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS) were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use), household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence. There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82). Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment. The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.
Younger, Paula; Boddy, Kate
The researchers involved in this study work at Exeter Health library and at the Complementary Medicine Unit, Peninsula School of Medicine and Dentistry (PCMD). Within this collaborative environment it is possible to access the electronic resources of three institutions. This includes access to AMED and other databases using different interfaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether searching different interfaces to the AMED allied health and complementary medicine database produced the same results when using identical search terms. The following Internet-based AMED interfaces were searched: DIALOG DataStar; EBSCOhost and OVID SP_UI01.00.02. Search results from all three databases were saved in an endnote database to facilitate analysis. A checklist was also compiled comparing interface features. In our initial search, DIALOG returned 29 hits, OVID 14 and Ebsco 8. If we assume that DIALOG returned 100% of potential hits, OVID initially returned only 48% of hits and EBSCOhost only 28%. In our search, a researcher using the Ebsco interface to carry out a simple search on AMED would miss over 70% of possible search hits. Subsequent EBSCOhost searches on different subjects failed to find between 21 and 86% of the hits retrieved using the same keywords via DIALOG DataStar. In two cases, the simple EBSCOhost search failed to find any of the results found via DIALOG DataStar. Depending on the interface, the number of hits retrieved from the same database with the same simple search can vary dramatically. Some simple searches fail to retrieve a substantial percentage of citations. This may result in an uninformed literature review, research funding application or treatment intervention. In addition to ensuring that keywords, spelling and medical subject headings (MeSH) accurately reflect the nature of the search, database users should include wildcards and truncation and adapt their search strategy substantially to retrieve the maximum number of appropriate
Full Text Available This study seeks to understand distance from health facilities as a barrier to maternal and child health service uptake within a rural Liberian population. Better understanding the relationship between distance from health facilities and rural health care utilization is important for post–Ebola health systems reconstruction and for general rural health system planning in sub–Saharan Africa.
Chigozie Jesse Uneke
Full Text Available Background: The introduction of implementation science into maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH research has facilitated better methods to improve uptake of research findings into practices. With increase in implementation research related to MNCH world-wide, stronger scientific evidence are now available and have improved MNCH policies in many countries including Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to review MNCH implementation studies undertaken in Nigeria in order to understand the extent the evidence generated informed better policy. Methods: This study was a systematic review. A MEDLINE Entrez PubMed search was performed in August 2015 and implementation studies that investigated MNCH in Nigeria from 1966 to 2015 in relation to health policy were sought. Search key words included Nigeria, health policy,maternal, newborn, and child health. Only policy relevant studies that were implementation or intervention research which generated evidence to improve MNCH in Nigeria were eligible and were selected. Results: A total of 18 relevant studies that fulfilled the study inclusion criteria were identified out of 471 studies found. These studies generated high quality policy relevance evidence relating to task shifting, breastfeeding practices, maternal nutrition, childhood immunization, kangaroo mother care (KMC, prevention of maternal to child transmission of HIV, etc. These indicated significant improvements in maternal health outcomes in localities and health facilities where the studies were undertaken. Conclusion: There is a dire need for more implementation research related to MNCH in low income settings because the priority for improved MNCH outcome is not so much the development of new technologies but solving implementation issues, such as how to scale up and evaluate interventions within complex health systems.
Comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care in improving maternal, neonatal and child health: 7. shared characteristics of projects with evidence of long-term mortality impact.
Perry, Henry B; Rassekh, Bahie M; Gupta, Sundeep; Freeman, Paul A
There is limited evidence about the long-term effectiveness of integrated community-based primary health care (CBPHC) in improving maternal, neonatal and child health. However, the interventions implemented and the approaches used by projects with such evidence can provide guidance for ending preventable child and maternal deaths by the year 2030. A database of 700 assessments of the effectiveness of CBPHC in improving maternal, neonatal and child health has been assembled, as described elsewhere in this series. A search was undertaken of these assessments of research studies, field project and programs (hereafter referred to as projects) with more than a single intervention that had evidence of mortality impact for a period of at least 10 years. Four projects qualified for this analysis: the Matlab Maternal Child Health and Family Planning (MCH-FP) P in Bangladesh; the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer in Deschapelles, Haiti; the Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) in Jamkhed, India; and the Society for Education, Action and Research in Community Health (SEARCH) in Gadchiroli, India. These four projects have all been operating for more than 30 years, and they all have demonstrated reductions in infant mortality, 1- to 4-year mortality, or under-5 mortality for at least 10 years. They share a number of characteristics. Among the most notable of these are: they provide comprehensive maternal, child health and family planning services, they have strong community-based programs that utilize community health workers who maintain regular contact with all households, they have develop strong collaborations with the communities they serve, and they all have strong referral capabilities and provide first-level hospital care. The shared features of these projects provide guidance for how health systems around the world might improve their effectiveness in improving maternal, neonatal and child health. Strengthening these features will contribute to achieving the goal of
The recent studies and a document publication by the NHF (Neurological Health Foundation) has revealed that the health condition of the Mother of a child with Autism DIRECTLY affects the ability of the autistic child to recover fully from the limiting symptoms of autism and other co-morbid conditions. Today, cutting-edge treatment modalities in autism based on the emerging science of Epigenetics and Applied Intentional Epigenetics are helping the autistic child to thrive free from the limitin...
O’Brien, Doireann; Harvey, Kate; Howse, Jessica; Reardon, Tessa; Creswell, Cathy
Background Mental health problems are common and typically have an early onset. Effective treatments for mental health problems in childhood and adolescence are available, yet only a minority of children who are affected access them. This is of serious concern, considering the far-reaching and long-term negative consequences of such problems. Primary care is usually the first port of call for concerned parents so it is important to understand how primary care practitioners manage child and adolescent mental health problems and the barriers they face. Aim To ascertain primary care practitioners’ perceptions of the barriers that prevent effective management of child and adolescent mental health problems. Design and setting A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature in a primary care setting. Method A database search of peer-reviewed articles using PsycINFO, MEDLINE®, Embase, and Web of Science, from inception (earliest 1806) until October 2014, was conducted. Additional studies were identified through hand searches and forward-citation searches. Studies needed to have at least one search term in four categories: primary care, childhood/adolescence, mental health, and barriers. Results A total of 4151 articles were identified, of which 43 were included (30 quantitative studies and 13 qualitative studies). The majority of the barriers related to identification, management, and/or referral. Considerable barriers included a lack of providers and resources, extensive waiting lists, and financial restrictions. Conclusion The identification of a broad range of significant barriers highlights the need to strengthen the ability to deal with these common difficulties in primary care. There is a particular need for tools and training to aid accurate identification and management, and for more efficient access to specialist services. PMID:27621291
O'Brien, Doireann; Harvey, Kate; Howse, Jessica; Reardon, Tessa; Creswell, Cathy
Mental health problems are common and typically have an early onset. Effective treatments for mental health problems in childhood and adolescence are available, yet only a minority of children who are affected access them. This is of serious concern, considering the far-reaching and long-term negative consequences of such problems. Primary care is usually the first port of call for concerned parents so it is important to understand how primary care practitioners manage child and adolescent mental health problems and the barriers they face. To ascertain primary care practitioners' perceptions of the barriers that prevent effective management of child and adolescent mental health problems. A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature in a primary care setting. A database search of peer-reviewed articles using PsycINFO, MEDLINE(®), Embase, and Web of Science, from inception (earliest 1806) until October 2014, was conducted. Additional studies were identified through hand searches and forward-citation searches. Studies needed to have at least one search term in four categories: primary care, childhood/adolescence, mental health, and barriers. A total of 4151 articles were identified, of which 43 were included (30 quantitative studies and 13 qualitative studies). The majority of the barriers related to identification, management, and/or referral. Considerable barriers included a lack of providers and resources, extensive waiting lists, and financial restrictions. The identification of a broad range of significant barriers highlights the need to strengthen the ability to deal with these common difficulties in primary care. There is a particular need for tools and training to aid accurate identification and management, and for more efficient access to specialist services. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Fekadu, Daniel; Alem, Atalay; Hagglof, Bruno
Background: Child labor refers to a state when a child is involved in exploitative economical activities that are mentally, physically, and socially hazardous. There are no prevalence studies on the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among child laborers. Methods: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted in Addis Ababa using the…
Rich, M; Bar-On, M
Substantial research has associated exposure to entertainment media with increased levels of interpersonal violence, risky sexual behavior, body image distortion, substance abuse, and obesity. The objective of this study was to determine what pediatric residency programs are teaching trainees about media and the influence of media on the physical and mental health of children and adolescents. Survey of residency curricula, consisting of 17 items about children's exposure to media, including television, movies, popular music, computer/video games and the Internet, the effects of this exposure on specific health risks, and associations between program characteristics and media education in the residency curriculum. Participants. Directors of the 209 accredited pediatric residency programs in the United States. Two hundred four programs (97.6%) responded. Fifty-eight programs (28.4%) offered formal education on 1 or more types of media; 60 programs (29.4%) discussed the influences of media when teaching about specific health conditions. Residents in 96 programs (47.1%) were encouraged to discuss media use with patients and parents; 13 programs (6.4%) taught media literacy as an intervention. Among program characteristics, only media training received by program directors was significantly associated with inclusion of media in residency curricula. Despite increasing awareness of media influence on child health, less than one-third of US pediatric residency programs teach about media exposure. Developing a pediatric media curriculum and training pediatric residency directors or designated faculty may be a resource-effective means of improving health for children growing up in a media-saturated environment.
Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.
"Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…
Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.
"Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…
Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron
The objectives of this study were to examine whether a maternal history of maltreatment in childhood has a detrimental impact on young children's mental health and to test theoretically and empirically informed pathways by which maternal history may influence child mental health. Mother-child dyads (N = 187) were evaluated between birth and 64 months of age via home and laboratory observations, medical and child protection record reviews, and maternal interviews to assess maternal history of childhood maltreatment and microsystem and exosystem measures of the caregiving context, including child maltreatment, maternal caregiving quality, stress exposures, and social support. When the children were 7 years of age, mothers and teachers reported on child emotional and behavioral problems. Analyses examined whether the caregiving context variables linked maternal maltreatment history with child emotional and behavioral problems, controlling for child sex (54% male), race/ethnicity (63% White), and family sociodemographic risk at birth. Maltreated mothers experienced greater stress and diminished social support, and their children were more likely to be maltreated across early childhood. By age 7, children of maltreated mothers were at increased risk for clinically significant emotional and behavioral problems. A path analysis model showed mediation of the effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child symptoms, with specific effects significant for child maltreatment. Interventions that reduce child maltreatment risk and stress exposures and increase family social support may prevent deleterious effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child mental health.
Imran, Nazish; Ashraf, Sania; Shoukat, Rabia; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz
To assess the perceptions of mothers regarding child mental health problems, its causes, preferred treatment options, and to determine whom they would consult, if their child had a psychiatric illness. Following informed consent, a questionnaire covering perceptions regarding various aspects of child mental illness was used for data collection from mothers. They were asked to identify the symptoms and behaviours they considered psychopathological in children, which treatments they would prefer, where they would turn for help with a mentally ill child, and their understanding of the causes of child psychiatric disorders in addition to ways to increase awareness of child psychiatric issues in the society. Ninety one mothers participated in the study. They equally perceived emotional, behavioural and cognitive symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, economic difficulties, social adversity and possession by evil spirits. A substantial proportion preferred medication, recitation of Holy Quran and psychotherapy as the preferred treatment options. Overall, mothers preferred consulting health professionals than religious scholars and faith healers. They were keen for steps to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite different cultural perspective, mothers exhibit good understanding of symptoms of child mental health issues and appear open to various services and treatment options. Understanding parental perceptions and expectations from child psychiatric services are crucial in increasing families' engagement in treatment.
Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Zoeckler, Leo; Olsen, Helen Elizabeth; Thomas, Katie; Pinho, Christine; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Dandona, Lalit; Ferrari, Alize; Ghiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Hay, Simon I.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lopez, Alan; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mokdad, Ali H.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Patton, George C.; Salomon, Joshua; Sartorius, Benn; Topor-Madry, Roman; Vollset, Stein Emil; Werdecker, Andrea; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Abate, Kalkidan Hasen; Abbas, Kaja; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alemayohu, Mulubirhan Assefa; Altirkawi, Khalid; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Antonio, Carl A. T.; Arnlov, Johan; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Bacha, Umar; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Barac, Aleksandra; Bärnighausen, Till Winfried; Baye, Estifanos; Bedi, Neeraj; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bernal, Oscar Alberto; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Brazinova, Alexandra; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Carter, Austin; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chitheer, Abdulaal A.; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Crump, John; Dandona, Rakhi; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribew, Amare; deVeber, Gabrielle; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Amanuel Yesuf; Erskine, Holly E.; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas D.; Flor, Luisa Sorio; Foreman, Kyle J.; Franklin, Richard C.; Fraser, Maya S.; Frostad, Joseph J.; Fullman, Nancy; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gidey Yihdego, Mahari; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gizachew, Tessema Assefa; Glaser, Elizabeth; Gold, Audra L.; Goldberg, Ellen; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Jiang, Guohong; Gupta, Rajeev; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Hankey, Graeme J.; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hijar, Martha; Horino, Masako; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hu, Guoqing; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jibat, Tariku; Johnson, Catherine O.; Jonas, Jost; Kasaeian, Amir; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter N.; Khalil, Ibrahim; Khang, Young-Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kissoon, Niranjan; Knibbs, Luke D.; Koyanagi, Ai; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kulikoff, Rachel; Kumar, G. Anil; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lam, Hilton Y.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis Odai; Leung, Janni; Lim, Stephen S.; Lo, Loon-Tzian; Lo, Warren D.; Looker, Katharine J.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Malekzadeh, Reza; Markos Shifti, Desalegn; Mazidi, Mohsen; Meaney, Peter A.; Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam; Memiah, Peter; Mendoza, Walter; Abera Mengistie, Mubarek; Mengistu, Gebremichael Welday; Mensah, George A.; Miller, Ted R.; Mock, Charles; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mueller, Ulrich; Nagata, Chie; Naheed, Aliya; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nsoesie, Elaine; Oh, In-Hwan; Okoro, Anselm; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Ortiz, Alberto; Paudel, Deepak; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ram, Usha; Rankin, Zane; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Sagar, Rajesh; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Kedir Mohammed, Muktar Sano; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shaheen, Amira; Shaikh, Masood Ali; She, June; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Singh, Jasvinder; Silpakit, Naris; Smith, Alison; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Swaminathan, Soumya; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Tadese, Fentaw; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Teeple, Stephanie; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Temam Shifa, Girma; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomas, Bernadette; Thomson, Alan J.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tonelli, Marcello; Tran, Bach Xuan; Troeger, Christopher; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Uthman, Olalekan; Vasankari, Tommi; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert; Gebrehiwot, Solomon Weldemariam; Westerman, Ronny; Williams, Hywel C.; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Woodbrook, Rachel; Yano, Yuichiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Vos, Theo
Importance Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health. Objective To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion. Evidence Review Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss. Findings Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long
Mott, Frank L.; Quinlan, Stephen V.
This report uses data from the 1983 through 1988 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to provide information about prenatal, infant, and child health. Objectives of the report are to present statistics which should be of value to maternal and child health policymakers, and to provide NLSY users with baseline information about…
... Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for... notification of voluntary relinquishment from Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety...
... Deviation From Competition Requirements: Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Bureau's Research Network on... practice over time (e.g., Preterm birth, Diabetes during pregnancy, Obesity, Nausea and vomiting of... disorders during pregnancy, Down syndrome); Studies that assess the maternal-child health workforce (e.g...
... under subsection (b) shall-- (1) Incorporate behavioral, emotional, educational, and contextual..., Analysis and Communication, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 31 Center Drive Room..., Analysis and Communications, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. [FR Doc. 2012-7589...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the... Children's Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH... National Children's Study Advisory Committee. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance...
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... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 RRG-K 52 1, Rehabilitation Research Career Development Programs. Date: April 17, 2012. Time: 4 p.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Hypoxia in Development: Injury and Adaptation Mechanisms. Date: November 22, 2011. Time: 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the... Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... National Children's Study Advisory Committee. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the.... Contact Person: Ralph M Nitkin, PhD, Director, B.S.C.D., Biological Sciences and Career Development, NCMRR, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive...
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El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis
In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…
Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.
Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…
Rasberry, Catherine N.; Slade, Sean; Lohrmann, David K.; Valois, Robert F.
Background: The new Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model, designed to depict links between health and learning, is founded on concepts of coordinated school health (CSH) and a whole child approach to education. Methods: The existing literature, including scientific articles and key publications from national agencies and…
Gleason, Mary Margaret; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Nagle, Geoffrey A.; Boothe, Allison; Keyes, Angela; Rice, Janet
Child care settings may provide an optimal setting for identification of early childhood mental health problems. However, little is known about child care providers' attitudes or knowledge about screening for children's mental health problems. Both attitudes and perceived knowledge could affect the successful implementation of mental health…
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Systematic Review of Neonatal Medicine. Date: May 23, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications...
... National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education (NRC) at the University of Colorado College of ... National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education Email: info@NRCKids.org Please read our disclaimer ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality of children under the age of five remains one of the most important public health challenges in developing countries. In rural settings, the promotion of household and community health practices through community health workers (CHWs is among the key strategies to improve child health. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of CHWs in the promotion of basic child heath services in rural Mali. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken using multi-stage cluster sampling of wards and villages. Data was collected through questionnaires among 401 child-caregivers and registers of 72 CHWs. Results Of 401 households suppose to receive a visit by a CHW, 219 (54.6%; confidence interval 95%; 49.6-59.5 had received at least one visit in the last three months before the survey. The mother is the most important caregiver (97%; high percentage being illiterate. Caregivers treat fever and diarrhoea with the correct regimen in 40% and 11% of cases respectively. Comparative analysis between households with and without CHW visits showed a positive influence of CHWs on family health practices: knowledge on the management of child fever (p = Conclusion Continuous training, transport means, adequate supervision and motivation of CHWs through the introduction of financial incentives and remuneration are among key factors to improve the work of CHWs in rural communities. Poor performance of basic household health practices can be related to irregular supply of drugs and the need of appropriate follow-up by CHWs.
Singh, Kavita; Bloom, Shelah; Brodish, Paul
In this article we examine whether measures of gender equality, household decision making, and attitudes toward gender-based violence are associated with maternal and child health outcomes in Africa. We pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from eight African countries and used multilevel logistic regression on two maternal health outcomes (low body mass index and facility delivery) and two child health outcomes (immunization status and treatment for an acute respiratory infection). We found protective associations between the gender equality measures and the outcomes studied, indicating that gender equality is a potential strategy to improve maternal and child health in Africa.
Loeste de Arruda-Barbosa
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evaluation of the users regarding the family health services and identify the main reasons that led them to seek such services. Methods: A descriptive study with qualitative approach, carried out in 5 Family Health Units with 25 users of theFamily Health Strategy (FHS of the city of Crato-CE, Brazil. The study took place from March to April 2009. Semi-structured interview was applied and recorded. We used thetechnique of thematic content analysis. Results: We found that the users of the FHS have great dissatisfaction, especially on the organization and access to health services, evaluating the family health as inefficient, although bringing care closer to the population, primarily through home visits. It was clear also that there is a search to the service mainly supported by curative vision and the acquisition of medicines. Conclusions: The subjects evaluate the organization and access to healthcare services as unsatisfactory, but value the actions, when there is a bond with the health team. However, there is still demand for health services, based on the search for medicines and medical consultation. Thus, it is necessary to improve services of the Family Health Strategy in Crato, with a view to ensure quality, accessibilityand greater resolution of health services.
Lower-income, less developed countries have few child and adolescent mental health professionals and a low availability of paediatric community mental health care. Child mental health professionals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) must therefore balance comprehensive tertiary care for the minority and provision of child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) within primary health care to serve the majority. This review aimed to identify the obstacles to, and opportunities for, providing CAMHS in LMICs. Articles from PsychInfo and PubMed, published up to November 2011, were retrieved using the search terms "child and adolescent", "mental health services", "child psychiatry", "low- and middle-income countries", "low-income countries" and "developing countries". Articles were then retrieved from PubMed alone, using these search terms plus the individual country names of 154 LMICs. Fifty-four articles were retrieved from PsychInfo and 632 from PubMed. Searching PubMed with 154 LMIC names retrieved seven related articles. Inclusion criteria were (i) articles relating to CAMHS or child psychiatric services; (ii) subjects included in the articles were inhabitants of LMICs or developing countries; (iii) articles reported in English. After removal of duplicates, 22 articles remained. The contents of these articles were categorized and analysed by use of the six domains of the World Health Organization assessment instrument for mental health systems (WHO-AIMS), a tool developed to collect information on available resources within mental health systems. The provision of CAMHS in LMICs clearly needs a specific strategy to maximize the potential of limited resources. Mental health-policy and awareness campaigns are powerful measures to drive CAMHS. Training in CAMH for primary health-care professionals, and integration of CAMHS into existing primary health-care services, is essential in resource-constrained settings. A wide gap in research into CAMHS still
Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dijk, M. van; Walstock, D.; Zwaanswijk, M.
Background: Child and adolescent mental health problems are frequently not identified and properly treated within general practice. Politicians in the Netherlands are promoting more primary healthcare treatment for mental health problems. The current study aims to evaluate an integrated primary
Stellefson, Michael; Hanik, Bruce; Chaney, J Don; Tennant, Bethany
The current "Millennial Generation" of college students majoring in the health professions has unprecedented access to the Internet. Although some research has been initiated among medical professionals to investigate the cognitive basis for health information searches on the Internet, little is known about Internet search practices among health and medical professional students. To systematically identify health professional college student perspectives of personal eHealth search practices. Q methodology was used to examine subjective perspectives regarding personal eHealth search practices among allied health students majoring in a health education degree program. Thirteen (n = 13) undergraduate students were interviewed about their attitudes and experiences conducting eHealth searches. From the interviews, 36 statements were used in a structured ranking task to identify clusters and determine which specific perceptions of eHealth search practices discriminated students into different groups. Scores on an objective measure of eHealth literacy were used to help categorize participant perspectives. Q-technique factor analysis of the rankings identified 3 clusters of respondents with differing views on eHealth searches that generally coincided with participants' objective eHealth literacy scores. The proficient resourceful students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0.56-0.80) described themselves as using multiple resources to obtain eHealth information, as opposed to simply relying on Internet search engines. The intermediate reluctant students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0.75-0.90) reported engaging only Internet search engines to locate eHealth information, citing undeveloped evaluation skills when considering sources of information located on the Internet. Both groups of advanced students reported not knowing how to use Boolean operators to conduct Internet health searches. The basic hubristic students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0
Hanik, Bruce; Chaney, J. Don; Tennant, Bethany
Background The current “Millennial Generation” of college students majoring in the health professions has unprecedented access to the Internet. Although some research has been initiated among medical professionals to investigate the cognitive basis for health information searches on the Internet, little is known about Internet search practices among health and medical professional students. Objective To systematically identify health professional college student perspectives of personal eHealth search practices. Methods Q methodology was used to examine subjective perspectives regarding personal eHealth search practices among allied health students majoring in a health education degree program. Thirteen (n = 13) undergraduate students were interviewed about their attitudes and experiences conducting eHealth searches. From the interviews, 36 statements were used in a structured ranking task to identify clusters and determine which specific perceptions of eHealth search practices discriminated students into different groups. Scores on an objective measure of eHealth literacy were used to help categorize participant perspectives. Results Q-technique factor analysis of the rankings identified 3 clusters of respondents with differing views on eHealth searches that generally coincided with participants’ objective eHealth literacy scores. The proficient resourceful students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0.56-0.80) described themselves as using multiple resources to obtain eHealth information, as opposed to simply relying on Internet search engines. The intermediate reluctant students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0.75-0.90) reported engaging only Internet search engines to locate eHealth information, citing undeveloped evaluation skills when considering sources of information located on the Internet. Both groups of advanced students reported not knowing how to use Boolean operators to conduct Internet health searches. The basic hubristic students
Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa...
Osaki, Keiko; Hattori, Tomoko; Toda, Akemi; Mulati, Erna; Hermawan, Lukas; Pritasari, Kirana; Bardosono, Saptawati; Kosen, Soewarta
Effectiveness of the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (MCHHB), a home-based booklet for pregnancy, delivery and postnatal/child health, was evaluated on care acquisition and home care in rural Java, a low service-coverage area. We conducted a health centre-based randomized trial, with a 2-year follow-up. Intervention included (i) MCHHB provision at antenatal care visits; (ii) records and guides by health personnel on and with the MCHHB; and (iii) sensitization of care by volunteers using the MCHHB. The follow-up rate was 70.2% (183, intervention area; 271, control area). Respondents in the intervention area received consecutive MCH services including two doses of tetanus toxoid injections and antenatal care four times or more during pregnancy, professional assistance during child delivery and vitamin A supplements administration to their children, after adjustment for confounding variables and cluster effects (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.19-3.47). In the intervention area, home care (continued breastfeeding; introducing complementary feeding; proper feeding order; varied foods feeding; self-feeding training; and care for cough), perceived support by husbands, and lower underweight rates and stunting rates among children were observed. MCHHB use promoted continuous care acquisition and care at home from pregnancy to early child-rearing stages in rural Java. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Broadway, Barbara; Kalb, Guyonne; Kühnle, Daniel; Maeder, Miriam
Providing mothers with access to paid parental leave may be an important public policy to improve child and maternal health. Using extensive information from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Children (LSAC), we contribute to the literature by estimating the effect of paid parental leave entitlements on child health up to age seven. Exploiting detailed information on children's health, family background, mothers' pre-birth work histories and mothers' health behaviours during pregnancy with...
Barbara Broadway; Guyonne Kalb
Providing mothers with access to paid parental leave may be an important public policy to improve child and maternal health. Using extensive information from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Children (LSAC), we contribute to the literature by estimating the effect of paid parental leave entitlements on child health up to age seven. Exploiting detailed information on children’s health, family background, mothers’ pre-birth work histories and mothers’ health behaviours during pregnancy with...
Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia
Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.
Paudel, K P; Bajracharya, D C; Karki, K; K C, A
The immunization card is revised with addition of general information about child health and is later called as child health card. This card is a tool used by Health Management Information System in Nepal. It is important for tracking the records of immunization. Aim is to identify the factors determining the availability, utilization and retention of the child health card in Western Nepal. A cross sectional study was conducted among mothers having children education. Retention of the card was found to be 82.2%. 90.3% retention was seen among 0-12 months children age group whereas it was 74 % among12 to 24 months age group. The reasons for less retention were torn by the child/played by child (54.6%) followed by lack of proper place,unaware about importance and poor quality of card.The new child health cards were insufficient, compelling use of both new and old cards which created problem in consistency. Regarding utilization of child health card, it was found to be used for birth registration and for further studies in abroad. The areas of utilization of child health card should be broadened so that the retention of card can be increased. The main reasons for less retention of the card are torn by children and lack of the proper place.
Lee, Yun Jung; Park, Jungkun; Widdows, Richard
E-health information has become an important resource for people seeking health information. Even though many studies have been conducted to examine the quality of e-health information, only a few studies have explored the effects of the information seekers' motivations on the perceived quality of e-health information. There is even less information about repeated searches for e-health information after the users' initial experience of e-health information use. Using an online survey of information seekers, 252 e-health information users' responses were collected. The research examines the relationship among motivation, perceived quality, satisfaction, and intention to repeat-search e-health information. The results identify motivations to search e-health information and confirm the relationship among motivation, perceived quality dimensions, and satisfaction and intention to repeat searches for e-health information.
Jennifer L Brenner
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential for community health workers to improve child health in sub-Saharan Africa is not well understood. Healthy Child Uganda implemented a volunteer community health worker child health promotion model in rural Uganda. An impact evaluation was conducted to assess volunteer community health workers' effect on child morbidity, mortality and to calculate volunteer retention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two volunteer community health workers were selected, trained and promoted child health in each of 116 villages (population ∼61,000 during 2006-2009. Evaluation included a household survey of mothers at baseline and post-intervention in intervention/control areas, retrospective reviews of community health worker birth/child death reports and post-intervention focus group discussions. Retention was calculated from administrative records. Main outcomes were prevalence of recent child illness/underweight status, community health worker reports of child deaths, focus group perception of effect, and community health worker retention. After 18-36 months, 86% of trained volunteers remained active. Post-intervention surveys in intervention households revealed absolute reductions of 10.2% [95%CI (-17.7%, -2.6%] in diarrhea prevalence and 5.8% [95%CI (-11.5%, -0.003%] in fever/malaria; comparative decreases in control households were not statistically significant. Underweight prevalence was reduced by 5.1% [95%CI (-10.7%, 0.4%] in intervention households. Community health worker monthly reports revealed a relative decline of 53% in child deaths (<5 years old, during the first 18 months of intervention. Focus groups credited community health workers with decreasing child deaths, improved care-seeking practices, and new income-generating opportunities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A low-cost child health promotion model using volunteer community health workers demonstrated decreased child morbidity, dramatic mortality trend declines and
Feldman, Maurice; McConnell, David; Aunos, Marjorie
Parents with cognitive impairments (CI) are overrepresented in child custody cases and their children are at risk for adverse outcomes. Ecological-transactional researchers propose that child outcomes are a function of the interaction of multiple distal, intermediate, and proximal risk and resilience factors. This study tested the fit of, and…
Lee, Dohoon; Jackson, Margot
Family socioeconomic status (SES) and child health are so strongly related that scholars have speculated child health to be an important pathway through which a “cycle of poverty” is reproduced across generations. Despite increasing recognition that SES and health work reciprocally and dynamically over the life course to produce inequality, however, existing research has yet to address how these two pathways simultaneously shape children’s development. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and marginal structural models, we ask three questions: 1) how does the reciprocal relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and child health affect estimates of each circumstance on children’s cognitive development?; 2) how do their respective effects vary with age?; and 3) do family SES and child health have differential effects on cognitive development across population subgroups? The results show that the negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health are insensitive to their reciprocal relationships over time. We find divergent effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health on children’s cognitive trajectories, with a widening pattern for family SES effects and a leveling-off pattern for child health effects. Finally, the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage are similar across all racial/ethnic groups, while the effects of child health are largely driven by white children. We discuss theoretical and policy implications of these findings for future research. PMID:28836169
Bassani, Diego G; Arora, Paul; Wazny, Kerri; Gaffey, Michelle F; Lenters, Lindsey; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Financial incentives are widely used strategies to alleviate poverty, foster development, and improve health. Cash transfer programs, microcredit, user fee removal policies and voucher schemes that provide direct or indirect monetary incentives to households have been used for decades in Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and more recently in Southeast Asia. Until now, no systematic review of the impact of financial incentives on coverage and uptake of health interventions targeting children under 5 years of age has been conducted. The objective of this review is to provide estimates on the effect of six types of financial incentive programs: (i) Unconditional cash transfers (CT), (ii) Conditional cash transfers (CCT), (iii) Microcredit (MC), (iv) Conditional Microcredit (CMC), (v) Voucher schemes (VS) and (vi) User fee removal (UFR) on the uptake and coverage of health interventions targeting children under the age of five years. We conducted systematic searches of a series of databases until September 1st, 2012, to identify relevant studies reporting on the impact of financial incentives on coverage of health interventions and behaviors targeting children under 5 years of age. The quality of the studies was assessed using the CHERG criteria. Meta-analyses were undertaken to estimate the effect when multiple studies meeting our inclusion criteria were available. Our searches resulted in 1671 titles identified 25 studies reporting on the impact of financial incentive programs on 5 groups of coverage indicators: breastfeeding practices (breastfeeding incidence, proportion of children receiving colostrum and early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding for six months and duration of breastfeeding); vaccination (coverage of full immunization, partial immunization and specific antigens); health care use (seeking healthcare when child was ill, visits to health facilities for preventive reasons, visits to health facilities for any reason, visits for health
Albrecht, Lauren; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa
An emerging field of knowledge translation (KT) research has begun to focus on health consumers, particularly in child health. KT tools provide health consumers with research knowledge to inform health decision-making and may foster 'effective consumers'. Thus, the purpose of this scoping review was to describe the state of the field of previously published effectiveness research on child health-related KT tools for parents/caregivers to understand the evidence-base, identify gaps, and guide future research efforts. A health research librarian developed and implemented search strategies in 8 databases. One reviewer conducted screening using pre-determined criteria. A second reviewer verified 10% of screening decisions. Data extraction was performed by one reviewer. A descriptive analysis was conducted and included patient-important outcome classification, WIDER Recommendation checklist, and methodological quality assessment. Seven thousand nine hundred fifty two independent titles and abstracts were reviewed, 2267 full-text studies were retrieved and reviewed, and 18 articles were included in the final data set. A variety of KT tools, including single- (n = 10) and multi-component tools (n = 10), were evaluated spanning acute (n = 4), chronic (n = 5) and public/population health (n = 9) child health topics. Study designs included: cross-sectional (n = 4), before-after (n = 1), controlled before-after (n = 2), cohort (n = 1), and RCTs (n = 10). The KT tools were evaluated via single primary outcome category (n = 11) and multiple primary outcome categories (n = 7). Two studies demonstrated significant positive effects on primary outcome categories; the remaining studies demonstrated mixed effects (n = 9) and no effect (n = 3). Overall, methodological quality was poor; studies lacked a priori protocols (n = 18) and sample size calculations (n = 13). Overall, intervention reporting was also poor; KT tools lacked description of
Winkler, Megan R; Berge, Jerica M; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of health-focused (healthy eating, physical activity) and weight-focused (weight, dieting) parent-child conversations, and to understand who is talking and who is listening, by exploring the associations these conversations have with parent and child characteristics. The study population included 546 parents (age 27-36 years) who participated in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults)-IV (2015-2016) and had a child aged 2-17 years. Cross-sectional prevalence ratios were calculated to identify associations between parent and child characteristics and the parent-child conversations. Conversations about healthy eating (82%) and physical activity (75%) were more prevalent than those about the child's weight (30%), and dieting (25%). In adjusted models, parents meeting physical activity recommendations had a higher prevalence of health-focused conversations (healthy eating PR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.20; physical activity PR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.24); whereas, weight-focused conversations were more common among parents who had recently dieted and perceived their child to be overweight. Health-focused and weight-focused conversations were highly common among the oldest children aged 9-17 years (health-focused = 90-93% and weight-focused = 42-53%); though, a substantial prevalence of health- and weight-focused conversations (>50% and ≥10%, respectively) also occurred with the youngest children (2-4 years). Findings suggest that parent-child health- and weight-focused conversations are common and that characteristics, including child's age and parents' physical activity, dieting, and perceptions of child weight, may be useful to consider in public health messaging, interventions, and family education that address parent-child communication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Korol, N.; Dukhota, T.
Epidemiological register of Chernobyl child victims was created in 1986 in Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine. It includes most important, risk groups: evacuated children from Chernobyl's zone; children who were exposed with doses on thyroid gland more than 2 Gy; children who were exposed in utero; children who were born from clean-up workers. The annual clinical observation program includes: physical examination, biochemical and hematological analysis, ultrasound of thyroid gland and abdomen, psychological tests for children, social observation for parents. For coding ICD-9 was used. The observations indicate a deterioration of health status among the children victims of the Chernobyl disaster. The healthy children's number decreased from 31 % in 1987 to 8 % in 1997. The number of the invalids more than 4 times higher in comparison Ukrainian children. The annual prevalence all diseases including incidence, new cases, dramatically increased (from 5890.6 0/00 in 1989 to 9148.3 0/00 in 1997). The annual amount all diseases increased from 27100 0/00 in 1989 to 51971 0/00 in 1997. Most important increasing was in such part as digestive tract (from 5294 0/00 in 1989 to 10782 0/00 in 1997), blood diseases (from 927 0/00 in 1989 to 1471 0/00 in 1997), diseases nervous system (from 2373 0/00 in 1989 to 4152 0/00 in 1997). Relative risk was calculated in comparison with same age Ukrainian children for most important disorders: peptic (6.4), cardiovascular (5.3), nervous system (6.2), immune (5.3). Such diseases as digestion organ diseases, nervous system, skin and cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent among victims with psychological impact. All children victims Chernobyl disaster are at risk for psychosomatic disorders. Psychosomatic health promotion program will minimize significantly population health impact after Chernobyl as for children as for Ukrainian adult people. (authors)
Renzaho, A M N; de Silva-Sanigorski, A
To examine the strength of associations between child oral health and aspects of the home environment (child behaviour, parental psychological distress and family functioning) in a large sample of 1- to 12-year-old Australian children. The current study used data from the 2006 Victorian Child Health and Wellbeing Study. Data were obtained on 4590 primary carers. Measures of the family environment included the level of family functioning, parental psychological distress, child's emotion and behavioural problems and the family structure. The odds of children having good oral health status were lower with increasing parental psychological distress and poor family functioning across all age groups, and lower with increasing child mental health or conduct problems among children aged 4 years or older. Socioeconomic factors were also related to child oral health status, but this was significant only among children aged 4-7 years, with the odds of children having good oral health status 68% higher in households with a yearly income ≥AUD$ 60 000 compared with households with income family functioning and the mental health of parents and children into existing systems reaching vulnerable community members may improve child oral health outcomes and reduce the unequal distribution of oral disease across the social gradient. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wilkins, Alexa; Lobo, Roanna C; Griffin, Denese M; Woods, Heather A
The evaluation of health promotion training for the Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal maternal and child health (MCH) sector. Fifty-one MCH professionals from five regions in WA who attended one of three health promotion short courses in 2012-2013 were invited to complete an online survey or a telephone interview, between 4 to 17 months post-course. Respondents were asked how they had utilised the information and resources from the training and to identify the enabling factors or barriers to integrating health promotion into their work practices subsequently. Overall response rate was 33% (n=17); 94% of respondents reported they had utilised the information and resources from the course and 76% had undertaken health promotion activities since attending the course. Building contacts with other MCH providers and access to planning tools were identified as valuable components of the course. Barriers to translating knowledge into practice included financial constraints and lack of organisational support for health promotion activity. Health promotion training provides participants with the skills and confidence to deliver health promotion strategies in their communities. The training presents an opportunity to build health professionals' capacity to address some determinants of poor health outcomes among pregnant Aboriginal women and their babies. SO WHAT?: Training would be enhanced if accompanied by ongoing support for participants to integrate health promotion into their work practice, organisational development including health promotion training for senior management, establishing stronger referral pathways among partner organisations to support continuity of care and embedding training into MCH workforce curricula.
Hameed, Tahir; Swar, Bobby
This paper extends and validates a model of value-driven online healthcare information search in online shared contexts. Perceived value is an important factor behind users' decisions concerning search, consumption and reuse of products and services. The role of utilitarian, hedonic and epistemic value of information in user satisfaction and intention to repeat online search is well recognized, but little support has been found for social value affecting user satisfaction critical for such de...
Clarke, Alina Nadira; Cilenti, Dorothy
Purpose An assessment of the National Maternal and Child Health Workforce Development Center (the Center) was conducted to describe (1) effects of the Center's training on the use of collaborative leadership practices by MCH leaders, and (2) perceived barriers to collaboration for MCH leaders. The Center provides services to strengthen MCH professionals' skills in three core areas: Change Management/Adaptive Leadership, Evidence-Based Decision Making, and Systems Integration. Description This descriptive qualitative study compares eight interview responses from a sample of the Center's participants and findings from a document review of the training curriculum against an existing framework of collaborative leadership themes. Assessment Systems thinking tools and related training were highly referenced, and the interviewees often related process-based leadership practices with their applied learning health transformation projects. Perceived barriers to sustaining collaborative work included: (1) a tendency for state agencies to have siloed priorities, (2) difficulty achieving a consensus to move a project forward without individual partners disengaging, (3) strained organizational partnerships when the individual representative leaves that partnering organization, and (4) difficulty in sustaining project-based partnerships past the short term. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that investments in leadership development training for MCH professionals, such as the Center, can provide opportunities for participants to utilize collaborative leadership practices.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is a universally accepted tool to understand the social underpinnings of child health that medicine alone cannot address. Injustices plague U.S. society: Child poverty has been increasing since 2000, and the gap between the wealthiest and poorest is growing. Poverty is a toxic stress on child health and well-being. Three articles from the CRC help frame how to address this: nondiscrimination, the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health and access to health care, and the right to a standard of living adequate for complete development.
Gilmore, Brynne; McAuliffe, Eilish
Community Health Workers are widely utilised in low- and middle-income countries and may be an important tool in reducing maternal and child mortality; however, evidence is lacking on their effectiveness for specific types of programmes, specifically programmes of a preventive nature. This review reports findings on a systematic review analysing effectiveness of preventive interventions delivered by Community Health Workers for Maternal and Child Health in low- and middle-income countries. A search strategy was developed according to the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre's (EPPI-Centre) guidelines and systematic searching of the following databases occurred between June 8-11th, 2012: CINAHL, Embase, Ovid Nursing Database, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and POPLINE. Google, Google Scholar and WHO search engines, as well as relevant systematic reviews and reference lists from included articles were also searched. Inclusion criteria were: i) Target beneficiaries should be pregnant or recently pregnant women and/or children under-5 and/or caregivers of children under-5; ii) Interventions were required to be preventive and delivered by Community Health Workers at the household level. No exclusion criteria were stipulated for comparisons/controls or outcomes. Study characteristics of included articles were extracted using a data sheet and a peer tested quality assessment. A narrative synthesis of included studies was compiled with articles being coded descriptively to synthesise results and draw conclusions. A total of 10,281 studies were initially identified and through the screening process a total of 17 articles detailing 19 studies were included in the review. Studies came from ten different countries and consisted of randomized controlled trials, cluster randomized controlled trials, before and after, case control and cross sectional studies. Overall quality of evidence was found to be moderate. Five main preventive intervention
Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P
While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders.
Flax, Valerie L; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ashorn, Ulla
Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally, but little is known about the ability of adults to detect different types of child undernutrition in low-income countries. We used focused ethnographic methods to understand how Malawian parents and grandparents describe the characteristics they use to identify good and poor child growth, their actual or preferred patterns of health seeking for undernourished children, and the perceived importance of child undernutrition symptoms in relation to other childhood illnesses. Malawians value adiposity rather than stature in assessing child growth. Symptoms of malnutrition, including wasting and edema, were considered the least severe childhood illness symptoms. Parents delayed health care seeking when a child was ill. When they sought care, it was for symptoms such as diarrhea or fever, and they did not recognize malnutrition as the underlying cause. These findings can be used to tailor strategies for preventing and treating growth faltering in Malawian children. © The Author(s) 2015.
In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the most prosperous urban region, maternal education is less important for child health than in poor rural areas, and a higher level of education has a greater effect in rural areas. Multilevel analysis shows that a significant part of the observed correlation between maternal education and child health is moderated by regional differences and community characteristics. The finding suggests that Peruvian public policy should emphasize resource redistribution as well as women's education, and that investment in maternal education should be considered within regional contexts to enhance child health in rural areas.
Todd, Charlotte; Christian, Danielle; Davies, Helen; Rance, Jaynie; Stratton, Gareth; Rapport, Frances; Brophy, Sinead
Schools play an important role in promoting the health of children. However, little consideration is often given to the influence that headteachers' and school staff's prior beliefs have on the implementation of public health interventions. This study examined primary school headteachers' and school health co-ordinators' views regarding child health in order to provide greater insights on the school's perspective for those designing future school-based health interventions. A qualitative study was conducted using 19 semi-structured interviews with headteachers, deputy headteachers and school health co-ordinators in the primary school setting. All transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Whilst many participants in this study believed good health was vital for learning, wide variance was evident regarding the perceived health of school pupils and the magnitude of responsibility schools should take in addressing child health behaviours. Although staff in this study acknowledged the importance of their role, many believed the responsibility placed upon schools for health promotion was becoming too much; suggesting health interventions need to better integrate school, parental and societal components. With mental health highlighted as an increasing priority in many schools, incorporating wellbeing outcomes into future school based health interventions is advocated to ensure a more holistic understanding of child health is gained. Understanding the health beliefs of school staff when designing interventions is crucial as there appears to be a greater likelihood of interventions being successfully adopted if staff perceive a health issue as important among their pupils. An increased dependability on schools for addressing health was expressed by headteachers in this study, highlighting a need for better understanding of parental, child and key stakeholder perspectives on responsibility for child health. Without this understanding, there is potential for certain
Berglund, Anna; Lindmark, Gunilla
Maternal health status before pregnancy is a decisive factor for pregnancy outcomes and for risk for maternal and infant complications. Still, maternity care does not start until the pregnancy is established and in most low-income settings not until more than half of the pregnancy has passed, which often is too late to impact outcomes. In Western societies preconception care (PCC) is widely recognized as a way to optimize women's health through biomedical and behavioural changes prior to conception with the aim of improving pregnancy outcomes. But the content of PCC is inconsistent and limited to single interventions or preconception counselling to women with chronic illnesses. It has been suggested that PCC should be extended to preconception health and care (PHC), including interventions prior to pregnancy in order to optimize women's health in general, and thereby subsequent pregnancy outcomes, the well-being of the family, and the health of the future child. With this definition, almost every activity that can improve the health of girls and women can be included in the concept. In the World Health Report of 2005 a longitudinal approach to women's wellness and reproductive health was highlighted, and the World Health Organization has proposed a more comprehensive maternal and child health care, also including psychosocial issues and intimate partner violence. The present article gives an overview of the recent literature and discusses contents and delivery of PCC/PHC in Western as well as low-income countries. The article puts special emphasis on why violence against women is an issue for PHC.
Broad, Kathleen L; Sandhu, Vijay K; Sunderji, Nadiya; Charach, Alice
Adolescence and young adulthood is a vulnerable time during which young people experience many development milestones, as well as an increased incidence of mental illness. During this time, youth also transition between Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS). This transition puts many youth at risk of disengagement from service use; however, our understanding of this transition from the perspective of youth is limited. This systematic review aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding of youth experiences of transition from CAMHS to AMHS, through a qualitative thematic synthesis of the extant literature in this area. Published and unpublished literature was searched using keywords targeting three subject areas: Transition, Age and Mental Health. Studies were included if they qualitatively explored the perceptions and experiences of youth who received mental health services in both CAMHS and AMHS. There were no limitations on diagnosis or age of youth. Studies examining youth with chronic physical health conditions were excluded. Eighteen studies, representing 14 datasets and the experiences of 253 unique service-users were included. Youth experiences of moving from CAMHS and AMHS are influenced by concurrent life transitions and their individual preferences regarding autonomy and independence. Youth identified preparation, flexible transition timing, individualized transition plans, and informational continuity as positive factors during transition. Youth also valued joint working and relational continuity between CAMHS and AMHS. Youth experience a dramatic culture shift between CAMHS and AMHS, which can be mitigated by individualized and flexible approaches to transition. Youth have valuable perspectives to guide the intelligent design of mental health services and their perspectives should be used to inform tools to evaluate and incorporate youth perspectives into transitional service improvement
Andrew J. Lewis
Full Text Available Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.
Lewis, Andrew J; Austin, Emma; Knapp, Rebecca; Vaiano, Tina; Galbally, Megan
Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.
Agadjanian, Victor; Prata, Ndola
This study arises from a general proposition that different levels and types of exposure to war are crucial in shaping health outcomes in a population under war-induced duress. We analyze civil war-related regional and ethnolinguistic differentials in age-adequate immunization (complete vaccination for age) and levels of malnutrition in Angola. Our analysis is based on data from a nationally representative survey conducted in 1996, some 2 years after the end of one of the most destructive periods of hostilities in the history of Angolan civil war. The data show that despite Angola's unique mineral wealth, the nation's levels of child age-adequate immunization is lower and malnutrition rates are higher than in most of sub-Saharan Africa. To examine age-adequate immunization and chronic malnutrition we fit logistic regression models that include the regional degree of war impact and ethnolinguistic group, in addition to rural-urban differences and other conventional sociodemographic characteristics. The tests reveal a significant disadvantage of rural children relative to urban children in both immunization and chronic malnutrition. Net of the rural-urban differences, we also detect a significant disadvantage of children residing in parts of the country that had been most affected by the fighting. The tests also point to a lower level of immunization and higher level of chronic malnutrition among children from the ethnolinguistic group commonly identified with the opposition. These associations tend to be stronger among children who were born and/or grew up during war than among children who were born after peace was re-established.
Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice.
Subhi, Rami; Duke, Trevor
The content and landscape of global child health is increasingly complex. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of local, national and institutional leadership in reducing child mortality, but this has not been a focus of global health initiatives. Interventions to strengthen health systems should include support for local leadership: building-up institutions of training, empowering national paediatric professional associations, creating opportunities for contribution and leadership ...
... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Diabetes Risk Across Women's... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room...
... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... conducted by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, including..., Scientific Director, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH...
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... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Demographic/Behavioral Population... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda...
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... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Adolescent Medicine Trials Network... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d..., National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd. Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD...
Mohammad Hasan Sahebihagh
Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a widespread social phenomenon with serious life-time consequences. Since parents bring their children to healthcare centers for growth screening and vaccinations, Community Health Workers play an important role in identifying and reporting child abuse cases. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitude and performance of Community Health Workers regarding child abuse in Tabriz. Methods: This is a descriptive (cross-sectional study; census method was used for sampling. Study population consists of 265 people, employed at units of family health and vaccination in Tabriz healthcare centers in 2015-2016. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS, version 23 through descriptive (mean and standard deviation and analytical (Two Independent Samples T-test and analysis of variance statistics. Results: Findings indicate that 58.5 percent of Community Health Workers had good knowledge about causes of child abuse and 45 percent had good knowledge of the signs, symptoms and complications of child abuse. Their total knowledge was good (57%. The mean score of awareness (knowledge was significant according to the variable of training participation (P=0.04. The participants had a favorable attitude toward dealing with child abuse (91.3 %; the mean score of attitude was significant according to the educational field (P<0.001 and their performance in dealing with child abuse was moderate and lower (94.3 %. Conclusion: Community Health Workers had good knowledge regarding child abuse, favorable attitude toward dealing with child abuse, and poor performance in dealing with child abuse. This may be due to fear of side issues to deal with child abuse, or lack of clear legal guidelines regarding this.
Freeman, Jaimie L; Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Bennett, Patricia A; Scott, Karen M
To conduct a systematic review of the evidence concerning whether and how adolescents search for online health information and the extent to which they appraise the credibility of information they retrieve. A systematic search of online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC) was performed. Reference lists of included papers were searched manually for additional articles. Included were studies on whether and how adolescents searched for and appraised online health information, where adolescent participants were aged 13-18 years. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the findings. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. In line with the research questions, 2 key concepts were identified within the papers: whether and how adolescents search for online health information, and the extent to which adolescents appraise online health information. Four themes were identified regarding whether and how adolescents search for online health information: use of search engines, difficulties in selecting appropriate search strings, barriers to searching, and absence of searching. Four themes emerged concerning the extent to which adolescents appraise the credibility of online health information: evaluation based on Web site name and reputation, evaluation based on first impression of Web site, evaluation of Web site content, and absence of a sophisticated appraisal strategy. Adolescents are aware of the varying quality of online health information. Strategies used by individuals for searching and appraising online health information differ in their sophistication. It is important to develop resources to enhance search and appraisal skills and to collaborate with adolescents to ensure that such resources are appropriate for them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Staal, Ingrid I E; Hermanns, Jo M A; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F
As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents' concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK is associated with risk factors for child maltreatment. This study reports the predictive value of the SPARK for reports on high impact parenting problems and child abuse and neglect. Cross-sectional study with a 1.5-year follow-up based on 1,850 18-month old children, living in Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands. Data on the SPARK were obtained in the period of June 2007 to March 2008. Outcomes of the SPARK were in October 2009 compared to reports of the Advice and Reporting Centers for Child Abuse and Neglect (ARCAN) and Youth Care Agency (YCA). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using the risk assessment, parents' concerns, the perceived need for support and known risk factors as predictors. The overall risk assessment of the SPARK is the strongest predictor for reports to ARCAN and YCA in the 1.5 years after completing the SPARK (odds ratio of high versus low risk: 16.3 [95% confidence interval: 5.2-50.8]. Controlling for the risk assessment, only the sum of known risk factors and an unemployed father remained as significant predictors. The reported groups differ significantly from the children without a report with regard to family characteristics, but not with regard to child characteristics. A structured assessment of the concerns and care needs of toddlers' parents by a child health care nurse is a valuable predictor of reports on child abuse and neglect and serious parenting problems in toddlers. Systematically exploring and evaluating parental
Lungu, Edgar Arnold; Biesma, Regien; Chirwa, Maureen; Darker, Catherine
In many developing countries including Malawi, health indicators are on average better in urban than in rural areas. This phenomenon has largely prompted Governments to prioritize rural areas in programs to improve access to health services. However, considerable evidence has emerged that some population groups in urban areas may be facing worse health than rural areas and that the urban advantage may be waning in some contexts. We used a descriptive study undertaking a comparative analysis of 13 child health indicators between urban and rural areas using seven data points provided by nationally representative population based surveys-the Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Rate differences between urban and rural values for selected child health indicators were calculated to denote whether urban-rural differentials showed a trend of declining urban advantage in Malawi. The results show that all forms of child mortality have significantly declined between 1992 and 2015/2016 reflecting successes in child health interventions. Rural-urban comparisons, using rate differences, largely indicate a picture of the narrowing gap between urban and rural areas albeit the extent and pattern vary among child health indicators. Of the 13 child health indicators, eight (neonatal mortality, infant mortality, under-five mortality rates, stunting rate, proportion of children treated for diarrhea and fever, proportion of children sleeping under insecticide-treated nets, and children fully immunized at 12 months) show clear patterns of a declining urban advantage particularly up to 2014. However, U-5MR shows reversal to a significant urban advantage in 2015/2016, and slight increases in urban advantage are noted for infant mortality rate, underweight, full childhood immunization, and stunting rate in 2015/2016. Our findings suggest the need to rethink the policy viewpoint of a disadvantaged rural and much better-off urban in child health
Stellefson, Michael; Hanik, Bruce; Chaney, J. Don; Tennant, Bethany
Background The current “Millennial Generation” of college students majoring in the health professions has unprecedented access to the Internet. Although some research has been initiated among medical professionals to investigate the cognitive basis for health information searches on the Internet, little is known about Internet search practices among health and medical professional students. Objective To systematically identify health professional college student perspectives of personal eHeal...
Bos, H.M.W.; Knox, J.R.; van Rijn-van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.K.
Objective: Using the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children's Health data set, we compared spouse/partner relationships and parent-child relationships (family relationships), parenting stress, and children's general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior (child
Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate
Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration.
Mbu Daniel Tambi
This study models the impact of motherâ€™s age at first birth on child health at birth in Cameroon. The objectives are: (1) investigate the implication of motherâ€™s age at first birth on child health at birth; (2) examine the impact of motherâ€™s age groups on birth weight, and (3) suggest economic policies to ameliorate the motherâ€™s age â€“ child health relationship. We make used of the control function approach to determine the relationship between motherâ€™s age at first birth and birth...
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007
This parameter presents overarching principles and practices for child and adolescent mental health care in community systems of care. Community systems of care are defined broadly as comprising the wide array of child-serving agencies, programs, and practitioners (both public and private), in addition to natural community supports such as…
Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Judith A.; Rixon, Kylie
Objective: The aim of this paper is to examine some of the factors that facilitate and hinder interagency collaboration between child protection services and mental health services in cases where there is a parent with a mental illness and there are protection concerns for the child(ren). The paper reports on agency practices, worker attitudes and…
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.
Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…
Borghi, E.; Onis, M. de; Garza, C.; Broeck, J. van den; Frongillo, E.A.; Grummer-Strawn, L.; Buuren, S. van; Pan, H.; Molinari, L.; Martorell, R.; Onyango, A.W.; Martines, J.C.; Pinol, A.; Siyam, A.; Victoria, C.G.; Bhan, M.K.; Araújo, C.L.; Lartey, A.; Owusu, W.B.; Bhandari, N.; Norum, K.R.; Bjoerneboe, G.-E.Aa.; Mohamed, A.J.; Dewey, K.G.; Belbase, K.; Chumlea, C.; Cole, T.; Shrimpton, R.; Albernaz, E.; Tomasi, E.; Cássia Fossati da Silveira, R. de; Nader, G.; Sagoe-Moses, I.; Gomez, V.; Sagoe-Moses, C.; Taneja, S.; Rongsen, T.; Chetia, J.; Sharma, P.; Bahl, R.; Baerug, A.; Tufte, E.; Alasfoor, D.; Prakash, N.S.; Mabry, R.M.; Al Rajab, H.J.; Helmi, S.A.; Nommsen-Rivers, L.A.; Cohen, R.J.; Heinig, M.J.
The World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with a number of research institutions worldwide, is developing new child growth standards. As part of a broad consultative process for selecting the best statistical methods, WHO convened a group of statisticians and child growth experts to
View Point: Economic growth and child health in Sub Saharan Africa. BA O'Hare, N Bar-Zeev, L Chiwaula. Abstract. After independence most African countries witnessed growth in their economies and decreases in child mortality. However both economic growth and the gains in under 5 mortality slowed dramatically in the ...
Baazeem, Mazin; Abenhaim, Haim
Identifying the gaps in public knowledge of women's health related issues has always been difficult. With the increasing number of Internet users in the United States, we sought to use the Internet as a tool to help us identify such gaps and to estimate women's most prevalent health concerns by examining commonly searched health-related keywords in Google search engine. We collected a large pool of possible search keywords from two independent practicing obstetrician/gynecologists and classified them into five main categories (obstetrics, gynecology, infertility, urogynecology/menopause and oncology), and measured the monthly average search volume within the United States for each keyword with all its possible combinations using Google AdWords tool. We found that pregnancy related keywords were less frequently searched in general compared to other categories with an average of 145,400 hits per month for the top twenty keywords. Among the most common pregnancy-related keywords was "pregnancy and sex' while pregnancy-related diseases were uncommonly searched. HPV alone was searched 305,400 times per month. Of the cancers affecting women, breast cancer was the most commonly searched with an average of 247,190 times per month, followed by cervical cancer then ovarian cancer. The commonly searched keywords are often issues that are not discussed in our daily practice as well as in public health messages. The search volume is relatively related to disease prevalence with the exception of ovarian cancer which could signify a public fear.
Bekemeier, Betty; Dunbar, Matthew; Bryan, Matthew; Morris, Michael E
As a part of the Public Health Activities and Service Tracking study and in collaboration with partners in 2 Public Health Practice-Based Research Network states, we examined relationships between local health department (LHD) maternal and child health (MCH) expenditures and local needs. We used a multivariate pooled time-series design to estimate ecologic associations between expenditures in 3 MCH-specific service areas and related measures of need from 2005 to 2010 while controlling for other factors. Retrospective expenditure data from LHDs and for 3 MCH services represented annual investments in (1) Special Supplemental Nutrition for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), (2) family planning, and (3) a composite of Maternal, Infant, Child, and Adolescent (MICA) service. Expenditure data from all LHDs in Florida and Washington were then combined with "need" and control variables. Our sample consisted of the 102 LHDs in Florida and Washington and the county (or multicounty) jurisdictions they serve. Expenditures for WIC and for our composite of MICA services were strongly associated with need among LHDs in the sample states. For WIC, this association was positive, and for MICA services, this association was negative. Family planning expenditures were weakly associated, in a positive direction. Findings demonstrate wide variations across programs and LHDs in relation to need and may underscore differences in how programs are funded. Programs with financial disbursements based on guidelines that factor in local needs may be better able to provide service as local needs grow than programs with less needs-based funding allocations.
Kim, Hyojin; Park, Sun-Young; Bozeman, Ingrid
While the Internet is a popular source of health information, health seekers' inadequate skills to locate and discern quality information pose a potential threat to their healthcare decision-making. We aimed to examine health information search and appraisal behaviours among young, heavy users of the Internet. In study 1, we observed and interviewed 11 college students about their search strategies and evaluation of websites. In study 2, three health experts evaluated two websites selected as the best information sources in study 1. Familiarity with health websites and confidence in search strategies were major factors affecting search and evaluation behaviours. Website quality was mostly judged by aesthetics and peripheral cues of source credibility and message credibility. In contrast to users' favourable website evaluation, the experts judged the websites to be inappropriate and untrustworthy. Our results highlight a critical need to provide young health seekers with resources and training that are specifically geared toward health information search and appraisal. The role of health seekers' knowledge and involvement with the health issue in search effort and success warrants future research. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.
Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Ertmann, Ruth
. CONCLUSION: The preventive child health examination is animportant platform for examination and dialogue concerninga child’s health. The physical aspect works well, butthere is a need for development of the assessment of thechild’s mental health and the well-being of the family. FUNDING: Postdoctoral......INTRODUCTION: In Denmark, around one in six children hassignificant somatic, psychological or social health problems,often in combination. The preventive child health examinationshave a high participation rate; and they produce significantfindings, predominantly concerning the child...... of ninedoctors from seven clinics participated. We included 21 casesin our study, each consisting of a consultation and subsequentinterviews with the child’s parents and with thedoctor. RESULTS: The examination of the child’s physical health anddevelopment is an important feature of the health examination...
Tottrup, C; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Lindeboom, W
OBJECTIVES: To map and analyse geographical (spatial) variations of child mortality trends in mainland Tanzania. METHODS: We used a geographic information system to integrate data on child mortality and associated risk factors. We then applied spatial statistics to quantify the spatial component...... of child mortality trends, and employed multivariate analysis to break mortality down into a spatial and a local component. RESULTS: The results support our hypothesis that child mortality trends have a spatial component that can be attributed to broad-scale environmental and social-economic factors....... However, the multivariate analysis showed that the spatial component only explained one-third of the variation in child mortality trends. The results thus point towards the presence of local (non-spatial) causative factors, including variations in the access to and quality of child health care...
Singh, Kavita; Osei-Akoto, Isaac; Otchere, Frank; Sodzi-Tettey, Sodzi; Barrington, Clare; Huang, Carolyn; Fordham, Corinne; Speizer, Ilene
Ghana is attracting global attention for efforts to provide health insurance to all citizens through the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). With the program's strong emphasis on maternal and child health, an expectation of the program is that members will have increased use of relevant services. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative data from a baseline assessment for the Maternal and Newborn errals Evaluation from the Northern and Central Regions to describe women's experiences with the NHIS and to study associations between insurance and skilled facility delivery, antenatal care and early care-seeking for sick children. The assessment included a quantitative household survey (n = 1267 women), a quantitative community leader survey (n = 62), qualitative birth narratives with mothers (n = 20) and fathers (n = 18), key informant interviews with health care workers (n = 5) and focus groups (n = 3) with community leaders and stakeholders. The key independent variables for the quantitative analyses were health insurance coverage during the past three years (categorized as all three years, 1-2 years or no coverage) and health insurance during the exact time of pregnancy. Quantitative findings indicate that insurance coverage during the past three years and insurance during pregnancy were associated with greater use of facility delivery but not ANC. Respondents with insurance were also significantly more likely to indicate that an illness need not be severe for them to take a sick child for care. The NHIS does appear to enable pregnant women to access services and allow caregivers to seek care early for sick children, but both the quantitative and qualitative assessments also indicated that the poor and least educated were less likely to have insurance than their wealthier and more educated counterparts. Findings from the qualitative interviews uncovered specific challenges women faced regarding registration for the NHIS and other
... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Gene Therapy for Urea Disorders... prior to the meeting due to the timing limitations imposed by the review and funding cycle. (Catalogue...
R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); J. Hess (Jakob); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); P.J. van der Maas (Paul)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The actual yield from current screening for clinically significant congenital heart malformations in Dutch child health care is far from optimal. In this study factors that determine the effectiveness of this screening are identified and
... (b) shall-- (1) incorporate behavioral, emotional, educational, and contextual consequences to enable... Director, Office of Science Policy, Analysis and Communication, National Institute of Child Health and.... Glavin, Deputy Director, Office of Science Policy, Analysis and Communications, National Institute of...
... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Male Germline. Date: October 17..., Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research; 93.209, Contraception and Infertility Loan Repayment Program...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group Function, Integration, and Rehabilitation Sciences Subcommittee; Function, Integration and Rehabilitation Sciences Subcommittee. Date: June...
Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. ... for analysis and activism in response to HIV and AIDS stigmatisation in a rural KwaZulu-Natal school ... Home-based care for parents with AIDS: impact on children's psychological functioning.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. ... The challenge of treating conduct disorder in low-resourced settings: rap music to the rescue · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ... Anxiety: cognitive behaviour therapy with children and young people
Public health nurses in Ireland are generalist practitioners with a wide range of roles that address the needs of clients in the community across their lifespan. Child protection is one of many of the roles of Irish public health nurses. However, with increasing caseloads, birth rates and aging populations, their child protection role is becoming more difficult to define and practise safely. This paper presents a key finding of a qualitative study that explored the views of a group of public health nurses (n = 10) regarding their role with pre-school children. A significant theme following analysis of the interviews were the nurses\\' expressed concerns on their role in child protection. There is a need to define the role practised by public health nurses in child protection and to achieve a standard for this nationally.
Lobel, A.M.; Granic, I.; Stone, L.L.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Video games are a highly heterogeneous form of entertainment. As recent reviews highlight, this heterogeneity makes likely that video games have both positive and negative consequences for child development. This study investigated the associations between gaming frequency and psychosocial health
Lê Cook, Benjamin; Brown, Jonathan D; Loder, Stephen; Wissow, Larry
Significant Latino-white disparities in youth mental health care access and quality exist yet little is known about Latino parents' communication with providers about youth mental health and the role of acculturation in influencing this communication. We estimated regression models to assess the association between time in the US and the number of psychosocial issues discussed with the medical assistant (MA) and doctor, adjusting for child and parent mental health and sociodemographics. Other proxies of acculturation were also investigated including measures of Spanish and English language proficiency and nativity. Parent's length of time in the US was positively associated with their communication of: their child's psychosocial problems with their child's MA, stress in their own life with their child's MA, and their child's school problems with their child's doctor. These differences were especially apparent for parents living in the US for >10 years. Parent-child language discordance, parent and child nativity were also significantly associated with communication of psychosocial problems. Greater provider and MA awareness of variation in resistance to communicating psychosocial issues could improve communication, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of youth mental illness.
Tran, Nhu K; Van Berkel, Sheila R; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Alink, Lenneke R A
There is a paucity of research on correlates of child maltreatment in limited-resource countries with a relatively high tolerance of harsh discipline. This Vietnamese study aimed to investigate associations between different types of child maltreatment and child emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning as well as moderation effects of gender and ethnicity. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1851 randomly selected students aged 12-17 years. Both self-report and more objective measures (weight, height, study ranking, and a memory test) were used. All types of child maltreatment were associated with emotional dysfunctioning. Life time and past year experiences of physical abuse and life time experiences of sexual abuse and neglect were related to poorer perceived physical health. The study did not find associations between any type of child maltreatment and overweight or underweight status. Regarding cognitive functioning, life time experience of sexual abuse and neglect were related to poorer working memory performance. Noticeably, emotional abuse was related to better academic performance, which might be an indication of "tiger parenting" practice in Vietnam, implying academic performance stimulation at the expense of emotional security. No significant moderation effects by gender and ethnicity were found. Even in a culture in which harsh discipline is normative, child maltreatment was related to negative aspects of child wellbeing including emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning. Efficient and low-cost interventions on child maltreatment should be developed and conducted in Vietnam as well as other countries with similar contexts.
Myrick, Jessica Gall
The prospect of a threat to one's health or an opportunity for improved health can spark emotional reactions--the fear of an illness or the hope of a healthier life. People are increasingly turning to the Internet to search for information related to such health issues. However, the dizzying amount of online health information--some of it of…
Gasoline content regulations are designed to curb pollution and improve health, but their impact on health has not been quantified. By exploiting both the timing of regulation and spatial variation in children's exposure to highways, I estimate the effect of gasoline content regulation on pollution and child health. The introduction of cleaner-burning gasoline in California in 1996 reduced asthma admissions by 8% in high exposure areas. Reductions are greatest for areas downwind from highways and heavy traffic areas. Stringent gasoline content regulations can improve child health, and may diminish existing health disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Butler, Ashley M
There is growing emphasis on shared decision making (SDM) to promote family participation in care and improve the quality of child mental health care. Yet, little is known about the relationship of SDM with parental perceptions of child mental health treatment or child mental health functioning. The objectives of this preliminary study were to examine (a) the frequency of perceived SDM with providers among minority parents of children referred to colocated mental health care in a primary care clinic, (b) associations between parent-reported SDM and mental health treatment stigma and child mental health impairment, and (c) differences in SDM among parents of children with various levels of mental health problem severity. Participants were 36 Latino and African American parents of children (ages 2-7 years) who were referred to colocated mental health care for externalizing mental health problems (disruptive, hyperactive, and aggressive behaviors). Parents completed questions assessing their perceptions of SDM with providers, child mental health treatment stigma, child mental health severity, and level of child mental health impairment. Descriptive statistics demonstrated the majority of the sample reported frequent SDM with providers. Correlation coefficients indicated higher SDM was associated with lower stigma regarding mental health treatment and lower parent-perceived child mental health impairment. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference in SDM among parents of children with different parent-reported levels of child mental health severity. Future research should examine the potential of SDM for addressing child mental health treatment stigma and impairment among minority families.
Prosser Lisa A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Morbidity associated with child maltreatment can reduce health-related quality of life. Accurately measuring the reduction in quality of life associated with child maltreatment is essential to the economic evaluation of educational programs and interventions to reduce the incidence of child maltreatment. The objective of this study was to review the literature for existing approaches and instruments for measuring quality-of-life for child maltreatment outcomes. Methods We reviewed the current literature to identify current approaches to valuing child maltreatment outcomes for economic evaluations. We also reviewed available preference-based generic QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D for appropriateness in measuring change in quality of life due to child maltreatment. Results We did not identify any studies that directly evaluated quality-of-life in maltreated children. We identified 4 studies that evaluated quality of life for adult survivors of child maltreatment and 8 studies that measured quality-of-life for pediatric injury not related to child maltreatment. No study reported quality-of-life values for children younger than age 3. Currently available preference-based QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D have been developed primarily for adults with the exception of the Health Utilities Index. These instruments do not include many of the domains identified as being important in capturing changes in quality of life for child maltreatment, such as potential for growth and development or psychological sequelae specific to maltreatment. Conclusion Recommendations for valuing preference-based quality-of-life for child maltreatment will vary by developmental level and type of maltreatment. In the short-term, available multi-attribute utility instruments should be considered in the context of the type of child maltreatment being measured. However
The present study was conducted to find the relation of Mental Health of Adolescents with their Emotional Maturity and Parent Child Relationship. The sample comprised of 200 9th class adolescents (100 boys and 100 girls) from Government Secondary Schools of Moga district The data was obtained by using Emotional Maturity Scale (2011) by Singh and Bhargava, Parent Child Relationship Scale (2011) by Rao and Mental Health Battery (2012) by Singh and Gupta. The results of the study showed positive...
Søndergaard, Grethe; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy
Objective. To examine demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of parents and children in families not participating in preventive child health examinations at the general practitioner in a society with free and easy access to healthcare. Design. Population-covering register linkage study...... free and easy access to the GP, the utilization of preventive child health examinations is lower among the more deprived part of the population....
Fowler, Cathrine; Schmied, Virginia; Psaila, Kim; Kruske, Sue; Rossiter, Chris
Australia has a well-established universal child and family health service predominately staffed by specialist/qualified child and family health nurses. Two common and interrelated concerns are the need for nurses to be ready for practice after completing a nursing education program and the means to ensure ongoing nursing competence. To investigate the readiness of CFH nurses to practise after qualification and their continuing engagement with learning. The study used an interpretive descriptive approach. This paper presents data from four questions from a larger survey of child and family health nurses across Australia. 1098 child and family health nurses responded to the survey. Qualitative survey responses from the four education questions were analysed using inductive thematic content analysis. Five significant themes were identified: hands-on experience (student clinical practice/placement); drawing on prior experience; learning on the job; learning (learning over time); and barriers to learning. This paper provides insights into nurses' readiness for practice at the completion of a postgraduate child and family health nursing qualification and their maintenance of competence and specialist knowledge. It highlights: the need for clinical placement to be retained and enhanced; the significant contribution of more experienced child and family health nurses mentoring newly graduated child and family health nurses; the need for minimum education standards; the importance of reviewing education courses in relation to graduates' readiness for child and family health nursing practice; the importance of supporting ongoing professional development; and the removal of barriers to accessing education opportunities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane
Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR=1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2-1.9), teacher report (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR=1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR=1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR=1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent-child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The result indicated that significant relationship existed between birth order, sex of child, mother's age at birth, index of household wealth, and the length of the preceding birth interval, but not with rural/urban residence, mother's education and type of provider of prenatal care. The result further indicated that a combination of ...
Burke, Delia A; Koot, Hans M; de Wilde, Amber; Begeer, Sander
Early recognition of childhood mental-health problems can help minimise long-term negative outcomes. Recognition of mental-health problems, needed for referral and diagnostic evaluation, is largely dependent on health-care professionals' (HCPs) judgement of symptoms presented by the child. This
Sanders, D; Davies, R
This paper examines the changes in the economic environment which have taken place in Zimbabwe since independence in April 1980, concentrating on those which are relevant to health. It also describes the post-independence restructuring of the health sector itself. Finally, it considers some changes which have taken place in the health status of children. Despite a prolonged drought, economic recession and the imposition of economic stabilisation measures, there is evidence of a sharp improvement in infant and young child mortality. This has resulted almost certainly from an energetic expansion and reorientation of health care provision, and particularly from greatly improved access to immunisation and oral rehydration therapy. The adverse effects of drought and stabilisation measures have been partially offset by aid-supported relief feeding and particular health programmes. However, the economic crisis has resulted in a decline in real incomes for a large number of households since the immediate post-independence boom. This is reflected in high levels of childhood undernutrition which seem to have remained static despite the health care drive. This emerging divergence between death rates and quality of life as reflected by nutrition levels is reflective on the one hand of rapid expansion in effective health care provision, and on the other of little change in socio-economic conditions for the majority of the population.
Panter-Brick, Catherine; Grimon, Marie-Pascale; Eggerman, Mark
In humanitarian settings, family-level drivers of mental health are insufficiently documented; we examined the strength of caregiver-child associations with two-wave, family-level Afghan data. We recruited a gender-balanced sample of 681 caregiver-child dyads (n = 1,362 respondents) using stratified random-sampling in government schools in Kabul (364 dyads) and refugee schools in Peshawar (317 dyads). One year after baseline, we re-interviewed 64% of Kabul and 31% of Peshawar cohorts (n = 331 dyads, 662 respondents), retaining fewer Peshawar families due to refugee repatriation. In multivariable analyses adjusted for baseline, we assessed the extent to which caregiver mental health (Self-Report Questionnaire, SRQ-20) was associated with child symptom scores of post-traumatic stress (Child Revised Impact of Events Scale, CRIES), depression (Depression Self-Rating Scale, DSRS), psychiatric difficulties, impact, and prosocial strength (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ). Caregiver mental health was prospectively associated with all eight measures of child mental health at follow-up, adjusted for baseline. For post-traumatic stress, caregiver mental health had a predictive impact comparable to the child experiencing one or two lifetime trauma events. For depression, caregiver mental health approached the predictive impact of female gender. Thus a one SD change in caregiver SRQ-20 was associated with a 1.04 point change on CRIES and a 0.65 point change in DSRS. For multi-informant SDQ data, caregiver-child associations were strongest for caregiver ratings. For child-rated outcomes, associations were moderated by maternal literacy, a marker of family-level dynamics. Both adults and children identified domestic violence and quality of home life as independent risk and protective factors. In the context of violence and displacement, efforts to improve child mental health require a thoughtful consideration of the mental health cascade across generations and
Mirza, Imran Raza; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Assegid, Kebede; Mulugeta, Abraham
Somalia, one of the most unstable countries in the world, has been without a permanent government for nearly 2 decades. With a health system in total disarray, coverage of basic health interventions remains low and, maternal and child mortality is among the highest in the world. Health partners jointly outlined an integrated package of critical child survival interventions to be delivered through a population-based delivery strategy known as Child Health Days (CHDs), to reduce child mortality. Using this strategy, key child survival interventions are delivered to the community with an objective of reaching children Somalia every 6 months. Through this strategy, immunization services were reached in remote areas, and coverage disparity between the urban and rural areas was reduced from 17% (42% urban and 25% rural) to 10% (50% urban and 60% rural). In addition, infants were reached with a third dose of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine, achieving 51% coverage during 2009 and 66% in 2010. This paper summarizes the challenges of scaling up child interventions in the troubled context of Somalia by reviewing the planning, implementation, and achievements of CHDs as well as reflecting on challenges for the future of child survival in Somalia.
Guan, Yue; Roter, Debra L; Huang, Aichu; Erby, Lori A H; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang
Parents are encouraged to discuss self-care with children affected by G6PD deficiency; however, little is known about the extent or impact of these discussions on the physical and psychosocial health of these children. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of parental-child discussions of G6PD deficiency self-care and their relationship to child health. A quantitative cross-sectional survey of 178 Taiwanese parents of children with G6PD deficiency was conducted. The extent of parental-child self-care discussions was assessed in regards to coverage of nine key topics. Parent's G6PD deficiency status, knowledge of haemolytic anaemia symptoms and reported G6PD deficiency education from providers were examined as correlates of parental discussion. Child health was assessed with the child health questionnaire-parent form (Chinese version) and a 13-item haemolytic anaemia symptom list. Self-care discussions were positively correlated with parental G6PD deficiency status (β=2.08, p=0.03), accurate identification of haemolytic anaemia symptoms (β=0.18, p=0.01), the thoroughness and clarity of patient education (β=0.14, pchild age (β=1.04, pchild health (β=1.18, pchild G6PD deficiency self-care discussions are associated with better child health, and parental involvement in these discussions is facilitated by the thoroughness and clarity of patient education received from providers.
... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...
... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Perinatal HIV-Infected Youth. Date...., Scientific Review Officer Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...
... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel--Assays of Biological Specimens in..., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...
Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Laura S; Tesema, Lello; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Nelson, Bergen B; Coker, Tumaini; Bath, Eraka; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Chung, Paul J
Purpose Although incarceration may have life-long negative health effects, little is known about associations between child incarceration and subsequent adult health outcomes. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyzed data from 14,689 adult participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to compare adult health outcomes among those first incarcerated between 7 and 13 years of age (child incarceration); first incarcerated at>or=14 years of age; and never incarcerated. Findings Compared to the other two groups, those with a history of child incarceration were disproportionately black or Hispanic, male, and from lower socio-economic strata. Additionally, individuals incarcerated as children had worse adult health outcomes, including general health, functional limitations (climbing stairs), depressive symptoms, and suicidality, than those first incarcerated at older ages or never incarcerated. Research limitations/implications Despite the limitations of the secondary database analysis, these findings suggest that incarcerated children are an especially medically vulnerable population. Practical implications Programs and policies that address these medically vulnerable children's health needs through comprehensive health and social services in place of, during, and/or after incarceration are needed. Social implications Meeting these unmet health and social service needs offers an important opportunity to achieve necessary health care and justice reform for children. Originality/value No prior studies have examined the longitudinal relationship between child incarceration and adult health outcomes.
Tonmyr, L; MacMillan, H L; Jamieson, E; Kelly, K
The population health perspective (PHP) is commonly used in addressing a wide range of health issues. This article examines the strengths and limitations of the perspective. The determinants of health that are an integral part of the PHP are used as a framework in considering the range of outcomes associated with exposure to child maltreatment. Directions for further research are outlined.
From 1948 the World Health Organization expected child hygiene to include mental health. This article discusses the way school doctors adapted their activities and concerns accordingly in the mid-twentieth century in an agrarian-industrial area of the Netherlands. In spite of an improvement in pupils' physical health they shifted their attention…
Care of the child with special health care needs is gradually becoming a significant public health issue. To identify what these special health care needs are in our environment, 2 children presenting with clinical features of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy were studied. This crippling neuromuscular disorder has no cure at ...
Stewart, Shannon L.; Leschied, Alan; den Dunnen, Wendy; Zalmanowitz, Sharla; Baiden, Philip
Background: Children involved in the child welfare system (CWS) have a greater need for mental health treatment relative to children in the general population. However, the research on mental health treatment for children in the CWS is sparse with only one known previous review of mental health services with children in the CWS. Objective: This…
Ice, Christa L.; Neal, William A.; Cottrell, Lesley
The epidemic of childhood obesity, and its subsequent impact on negative health outcomes, continues to plague the United States. Better health outcomes have been linked to increased child achievement in school. Due to the strong influence parents have on children's healthful behaviors particularly in younger years, it's imperative to examine the…
Agarwal, Vibhu; Zhang, Liangliang; Zhu, Josh; Fang, Shiyuan; Cheng, Tim; Hong, Chloe; Shah, Nigam H
Background By recent estimates, the steady rise in health care costs has deprived more than 45 million Americans of health care services and has encouraged health care providers to better understand the key drivers of health care utilization from a population health management perspective. Prior studies suggest the feasibility of mining population-level patterns of health care resource utilization from observational analysis of Internet search logs; however, the utility of the endeavor to the...
The traditional role of health librarians as expert searchers is under challenge. The purpose of this review is to establish health librarians' views, practices and educational processes on expert searching. The search strategy was developed in LISTA and then customised for ten other databases: ALISA, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. The search terms were (expert search* OR expert retriev* OR mediated search* OR information retriev*) AND librar*. The searches, completed in December 2010 and repeated in May 2011, were limited to English language publications from 2000 to 2011 (unless seminal works). Expert searching remains a key role for health librarians, especially for those supporting systematic reviews or employed as clinical librarians answering clinical questions. Although clients tend to be satisfied with searches carried out for them, improvements are required to effectively position the profession. Evidence-based guidelines, adherence to transparent standards, review of entry-level education requirements and a commitment to accredited, rigorous, ongoing professional development will ensure best practice. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.
Borrow, Stephanie; Munns, Ailsa; Henderson, Saras
The purpose of this research was to define, the practice domain of community-based child health nursing in light of widespread political, economic and social changes in Western Australia. The project was conducted by a group of nurse researchers with experience in child health nursing from the School of Nursing and Midwifery at Curtin University and the Child and Adolescent Community Health Division at the Department of Health, Western Australia. The overall aim of the project was to map the scope of nursing practice in the community child health setting in Western Australia and to identify the decision making framework that underpins this nursing specialty. Given the widespread social, economic and health service management changes, it was important for nurses involved with, or contemplating a career in, community-based child health to have the role accurately defined. In addition, consumer expectations of the service needed to be explored within the current climate. A descriptive qualitative study was used for this project. A purposive sample of 60 participants was drawn from the pool of child health nurses in the South Metropolitan Community Health Service, North Metropolitan Health Service and Western Australian Country Health Service. Following ethical approval data was collected via participants keeping a 2-week work diary. The data was coded and thematic analysis was applied. Several themes emerged from the analysis which were validated by follow up focus group interviews with participants. This clearly demonstrated common, recurring issues. The results identified that the community-based child health nurses are currently undertaking a more complex and expanded child health service role for an increasingly diverse client population, over their traditional practices which are still maintained. Excessive workloads and lack of human and non human resources also presented challenges. There are increasing requirements for child health nurses to engage in
Journal Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2017) > ... Background: A sustainable health care financing scheme has been difficult to ... These meagre allocations were because the same source that funds patient care services also funds health research, capital ... a sustainable health financing scheme will depend on a health system that ...
Burns, Barbara J; Phillips, Susan D; Wagner, H Ryan; Barth, Richard P; Kolko, David J; Campbell, Yvonne; Landsverk, John
This study assessed the relationship between the need for and use of mental health services among a nationally representative sample of children who were investigated by child welfare agencies after reported maltreatment. Data were collected at study entry into the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and were weighted to provide population estimates. Nearly half (47.9%) of the youths aged 2 to 14 years (N = 3,803) with completed child welfare investigations had clinically significant emotional or behavioral problems. Youths with mental health need (defined by a clinical range score on the Child Behavior Checklist) were much more likely to receive mental health services than lower scoring youth; still, only one fourth of such youths received any specialty mental health care during the previous 12 months. Clinical need was related to receipt of mental health care across all age groups (odds ratio = 2.7-3.5). In addition, for young children (2-5 years), sexual abuse (versus neglect) increased access to mental health services. For latency-age youths, African-American race and living at home significantly reduced the likelihood of care. Adolescents living at home were also less likely to receive services, whereas having a parent with severe mental illness increased (odds ratio = 2.4) the likelihood of service use. Routine screening for mental health need and increasing access to mental health professionals for further evaluation and treatment should be a priority for children early in their contact with the child welfare system.
Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla
Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vaidya, Mugdha; Katoch, Meghna; Datta Gupta, Nabanita
This paper explores whether rural Indian households’ membership in community based organizations (CBOs) affect child human capital formation in terms of health and education. Using the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey (IHDS), both OLS and IV models show that membership in one or more CBOs...... improves child educational performance. When considering specific CBOs, women’s groups (Mahila Mandal) emerge as being best at reducing child malnourishment while youth clubs are beneficial for both child health and education. Religious groups have a negative impact on child health but improve school...... performance. Caste associations have a detrimental effect on both health and education....
Carlos Eduardo Pinzón-Flórez
Full Text Available To assess the association of social determinants on the performance of health systems around the world.A transnational ecological study was conducted with an observation level focused on the country. In order to research on the strength of the association between the annual maternal and child mortality in 154 countries and social determinants: corruption, democratization, income inequality and cultural fragmentation, we used a mixed linear regression model for repeated measures with random intercepts and a conglomerate-based geographical analysis, between 2000 and 2010.Health determinants with a significant association on child mortality(<1year: higher access to water (βa Quartile 4(Q4 vs Quartile 1(Q1 = -6,14; 95%CI: -11,63 to -0,73, sanitation systems, (Q4 vs Q1 = -25,58; 95%CI: -31,91 to -19,25, % measles vaccination coverage (Q4 vs Q1 = -7.35; 95%CI: -10,18 to -4,52, % of births attended by a healthcare professional (Q4 vs Q1 = -7,91; 95%CI: -11,36 to -4,52 and a % of the total health expenditure (Q3 vs Q1 = -2,85; 95%CI: -4,93 to -0,7. Ethnic fragmentation (Q4 vs Q1 = 9,93; 95%CI: -0.03 to 19.89 had a marginal effect. For child mortality<5 years, an association was found for these variables and democratization (not free vs free = 11,23; 95%CI: -0,82 to 23,29, out-of-pocket expenditure (Q1 vs Q4 = 17,71; 95%CI: 5,86 to 29,56. For MMR (Maternal mortality ratio, % of access to water for all the quartiles, % of access to sanitation systems, (Q3 vs Q1 = -171,15; 95%CI: -281,29 to -61, birth attention by a healthcare professional (Q4 vs Q1 = -231,23; 95%CI: -349,32 to -113,15, and having corrupt government (Q3 vs Q1 = 83,05; 95%CI: 33,10 to 133.Improving access to water and sanitation systems, decreasing corruption in the health sector must become priorities in health systems. The ethno-linguistic cultural fragmentation and the detriment of democracy turn out to be two factors related to health results.
Gabarron, Elia; Lau, Annie Y S; Wynn, Rolf
Online health information-seeking behaviors have been reported to be more common at the beginning of the workweek. This behavior pattern has been interpreted as a kind of "healthy new start" or "fresh start" due to regrets or attempts to compensate for unhealthy behavior or poor choices made during the weekend. However, the observations regarding the most common health information-seeking day were based only on the analyses of users' behaviors with websites on health or on online health-related searches. We wanted to confirm if this pattern could be found in searches of Wikipedia on health-related topics and also if this search pattern was unique to health-related topics or if it could represent a more general pattern of online information searching--which could be of relevance even beyond the health sector. The aim was to examine the degree to which the search pattern described previously was specific to health-related information seeking or whether similar patterns could be found in other types of information-seeking behavior. We extracted the number of searches performed on Wikipedia in the Norwegian language for 911 days for the most common sexually transmitted diseases (chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]), other health-related topics (influenza, diabetes, and menopause), and 2 nonhealth-related topics (footballer Lionel Messi and pop singer Justin Bieber). The search dates were classified according to the day of the week and ANOVA tests were used to compare the average number of hits per day of the week. The ANOVA tests showed that the sexually transmitted disease queries had their highest peaks on Tuesdays (PJustin Bieber had the most hits on Tuesdays. Both these tracked search queries also showed significantly lower numbers on Saturdays (P<.001). Our study supports prior studies finding an increase in health information searching at the beginning of the workweek. However, we also
Bradbury, Daisy; Chisholm, Anna; Watson, Paula M; Bundy, Christine; Bradbury, Nicola; Birtwistle, Sarah
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges. However, obesity and its consequences are largely preventable. As parents play an important role in their children's weight-related behaviours, good communication between parents and health care professionals (HCPs) is essential. This systematic review provides a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies exploring the barriers and facilitators experienced by HCPs when discussing child weight with parents. Searches were conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE (OVID), Psych INFO (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), Web of Knowledge and CINAHL. Thirteen full-text qualitative studies published in English language journals since 1985 were included. Included studies collected data from HCPs (e.g., nurses, doctors, dieticians, psychologists, and clinical managers) concerning their experiences of discussing child weight-related issues with parents. An inductive thematic analysis was employed to synthesize findings. Emerging subthemes were categorized using a socio-ecological framework into intra/interpersonal factors, organizational factors, and societal factors. Perceived barriers and facilitators most commonly related to intra/interpersonal level factors, that is, relating to staff factors, parental factors, or professional-parent interactions. HCPs also attributed a number of barriers, but not facilitators, at the organizational and societal levels. The findings of this review may help to inform the development of future weight-related communication interventions. Whilst intra/interpersonal interventions may go some way to improving health care practice, it is crucial that all stakeholders consider the wider organizational and societal context in which these interactions take place. Statement of contribution What is already known on the subject? Childhood obesity is one of the United Kingdom's most serious current public health challenges. Health care professionals are in a prime position to identify
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Shenk, Chad E; Noll, Jennie G; Peugh, James L; Griffin, Amanda M; Bensman, Heather E
To evaluate the impact of contamination, or the presence of child maltreatment in a comparison condition, when estimating the broad, longitudinal effects of child maltreatment on female health at the transition to adulthood. The Female Adolescent Development Study (N = 514; age range: 14-19 years) used a prospective cohort design to examine the effects of substantiated child maltreatment on teenage births, obesity, major depression, and past-month cigarette use. Contamination was controlled via a multimethod strategy that used both adolescent self-report and Child Protective Services records to remove cases of child maltreatment from the comparison condition. Substantiated child maltreatment significantly predicted each outcome, relative risks = 1.47-2.95, 95% confidence intervals: 1.03-7.06, with increases in corresponding effect size magnitudes, only when contamination was controlled using the multimethod strategy. Contamination truncates risk estimates of child maltreatment and controlling it can strengthen overall conclusions about the effects of child maltreatment on female health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Ramokolo, Vundli; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra; Doherty, Tanya
Cash transfer programmes targeting children are considered an effective strategy for addressing child poverty and for improving child health outcomes in developing countries. In South Africa, the Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest cash transfer programme targeting children from poor households. The present paper investigates the association of the duration of CSG receipt with child growth at 2 years in three diverse areas of South Africa. The study analysed data on CSG receipt and anthropometric measurements from children. Predictors of stunting were assessed using a backward regression model. Paarl (peri-urban), Rietvlei (rural) and Umlazi (urban township), South Africa, 2008. Children (n 746), median age 22 months. High rates of stunting were observed in Umlazi (28 %), Rietvlei (20 %) and Paarl (17 %). Duration of CSG receipt had no effect on stunting. HIV exposure (adjusted OR=2·30; 95 % CI 1·31, 4·03) and low birth weight (adjusted=OR 2·01, 95 % CI 1·02, 3·96) were associated with stunting, and maternal education had a protective effect on stunting. Our findings suggest that, despite the presence of the CSG, high rates of stunting among poor children continue unabated in South Africa. We argue that the effect of the CSG on nutritional status may have been eroded by food price inflation and limited progress in the provision of other important interventions and social services.
Song, Tae-Min; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Jin, Dal-Lae
The aim of the study was to develop a metadata and ontology-based health information search engine ensuring semantic interoperability to collect and provide health information using different application programs. Health information metadata ontology was developed using a distributed semantic Web content publishing model based on vocabularies used to index the contents generated by the information producers as well as those used to search the contents by the users. Vocabulary for health information ontology was mapped to the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), and a list of about 1,500 terms was proposed. The metadata schema used in this study was developed by adding an element describing the target audience to the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set. A metadata schema and an ontology ensuring interoperability of health information available on the internet were developed. The metadata and ontology-based health information search engine developed in this study produced a better search result compared to existing search engines. Health information search engine based on metadata and ontology will provide reliable health information to both information producer and information consumers.